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Sample records for bissau guinea bissau

  1. Changing pattern of malaria in Bissau, Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Amabelia; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of malaria in Guinea-Bissau, in view of the fact that more funds are available now for malaria control in the country. METHODS: From May 2003 to May 2004, surveillance for malaria was conducted among children less than 5 years of age at three health centres...

  2. INFORME CAMPAÑA GUINEA BISSAU 1002

    OpenAIRE

    Sobrino, I. (Ignacio); Malabe da Fonseco, L. (Luis)

    2002-01-01

    Durante los días del 19 al 31 de octubre del 2002 se ha llevado a cabo la campaña con arte de arrastre de fondo GUINEA BISSAU 10-2002. Esta campaña se encuentra enmarcada en el ámbito de la cooperación entre la Secretaría General de Pesca Marítima del Ministerio de Agricultura Pesca y Alimentación y Ministerio de las Pescas de la República de Guinea Bissau. Se realizará a bordo del buque oceanográfico Vizconde de Eza bajo la dirección científica del Instituto Español de Oceanog...

  3. Crossed Looks: Globalisations and Curriculum in Guinea-Bissau

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rui; dos Santos, Júlio Gonçalves; Pacheco, José Augusto

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on education in Guinea-Bissau in the context of globalisations, examining the concept of globalisation and its relation to education and the curriculum. It focuses on the relatively neglected area of national education policies in Guinea-Bissau, comparing differences and common points of interference/influence of multilateral…

  4. First records in Guinea Bissau of Adamawa Turtle Dove Streptopelia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are no confirmed records of the Adamawa Turtle Dove Streptopelia hypopyrrha in north-eastern Guinea Bissau and there is very little information available on the biology of the species. Eight individuals of the Adamawa Turtle Dove were identified from the game bags of sport hunters in north-eastern Guinea Bissau, ...

  5. Child health and mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovsted, Jens Anders; Pörtner, Claus Christian; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies factors that influence child health in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau. This environment is characterised by high infant mortality, but not by malnutrition. We show that although maternal education is important in determining child health and mortality this effect diminish...

  6. The Guinea-Bissau Family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenheit, Ramona; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Svensson, Jenny; Rabna, Paulo; Colombatti, Raffaella; Riccardi, Fabio; Couvin, David; Hill, Véronique; Rastogi, Nalin; Koivula, Tuija; Källenius, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    The Guinea-Bissau family of strains is a unique group of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that, although genotypically closely related, phenotypically demonstrates considerable heterogeneity. We have investigated 414 M. tuberculosis complex strains collected in Guinea-Bissau between 1989 and 2008 in order to further characterize the Guinea-Bissau family of strains. To determine the strain lineages present in the study sample, binary outcomes of spoligotyping were compared with spoligotypes existing in the international database SITVIT2. The major circulating M. tuberculosis clades ranked in the following order: AFRI (n = 195, 47.10%), Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM) (n = 75, 18.12%), ill-defined T clade (n = 53, 12.8%), Haarlem (n = 37, 8.85%), East-African-Indian (EAI) (n = 25, 6.04%), Unknown (n = 12, 2.87%), Beijing (n = 7, 1.68%), X clade (n = 4, 0.96%), Manu (n = 4, 0.97%), CAS (n = 2, 0.48%). Two strains of the LAM clade isolated in 2007 belonged to the Cameroon family (SIT61). All AFRI isolates except one belonged to the Guinea-Bissau family, i.e. they have an AFRI_1 spoligotype pattern, they have a distinct RFLP pattern with low numbers of IS6110 insertions, and they lack the regions of difference RD7, RD8, RD9 and RD10, RD701 and RD702. This profile classifies the Guinea-Bissau family, irrespective of phenotypic biovar, as part of the M. africanum West African 2 lineage, or the AFRI_1 sublineage according to the spoligtyping nomenclature. Guinea-Bissau family strains display a variation of biochemical traits classically used to differentiate M. tuberculosis from M. bovis. Yet, the differential expression of these biochemical traits was not related to any genes so far investigated (narGHJI and pncA). Guinea-Bissau has the highest prevalence of M. africanum recorded in the African continent, and the Guinea-Bissau family shows a high phylogeographical specificity for Western Africa, with Guinea-Bissau being the

  7. The Guinea-Bissau family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Groenheit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Guinea-Bissau family of strains is a unique group of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that, although genotypically closely related, phenotypically demonstrates considerable heterogeneity. We have investigated 414 M. tuberculosis complex strains collected in Guinea-Bissau between 1989 and 2008 in order to further characterize the Guinea-Bissau family of strains. To determine the strain lineages present in the study sample, binary outcomes of spoligotyping were compared with spoligotypes existing in the international database SITVIT2. The major circulating M. tuberculosis clades ranked in the following order: AFRI (n = 195, 47.10%, Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM (n = 75, 18.12%, ill-defined T clade (n = 53, 12.8%, Haarlem (n = 37, 8.85%, East-African-Indian (EAI (n = 25, 6.04%, Unknown (n = 12, 2.87%, Beijing (n = 7, 1.68%, X clade (n = 4, 0.96%, Manu (n = 4, 0.97%, CAS (n = 2, 0.48%. Two strains of the LAM clade isolated in 2007 belonged to the Cameroon family (SIT61. All AFRI isolates except one belonged to the Guinea-Bissau family, i.e. they have an AFRI_1 spoligotype pattern, they have a distinct RFLP pattern with low numbers of IS6110 insertions, and they lack the regions of difference RD7, RD8, RD9 and RD10, RD701 and RD702. This profile classifies the Guinea-Bissau family, irrespective of phenotypic biovar, as part of the M. africanum West African 2 lineage, or the AFRI_1 sublineage according to the spoligtyping nomenclature. Guinea-Bissau family strains display a variation of biochemical traits classically used to differentiate M. tuberculosis from M. bovis. Yet, the differential expression of these biochemical traits was not related to any genes so far investigated (narGHJI and pncA. Guinea-Bissau has the highest prevalence of M. africanum recorded in the African continent, and the Guinea-Bissau family shows a high phylogeographical specificity for Western Africa, with Guinea-Bissau

  8. Child health and mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovsted, Jens Anders; Pörtner, Claus Christian; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies factors that influence child health in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau. This environment is characterised by high infant mortality, but not by malnutrition. We show that although maternal education is important in determining child health and mortality this effect diminishes...... or disappears when health knowledge is introduced as an explanatory variable. It emerges that health knowledge has large and positive effects on both child mortality and health when instrumented for to capture endogeneity...

  9. Urban cholera transmission hotspots and their implications for reactive vaccination: evidence from Bissau city, Guinea bissau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Azman

    Full Text Available Use of cholera vaccines in response to epidemics (reactive vaccination may provide an effective supplement to traditional control measures. In Haiti, reactive vaccination was considered but, until recently, rejected in part due to limited global supply of vaccine. Using Bissau City, Guinea-Bissau as a case study, we explore neighborhood-level transmission dynamics to understand if, with limited vaccine and likely delays, reactive vaccination can significantly change the course of a cholera epidemic.We fit a spatially explicit meta-population model of cholera transmission within Bissau City to data from 7,551 suspected cholera cases from a 2008 epidemic. We estimated the effect reactive vaccination campaigns would have had on the epidemic under different levels of vaccine coverage and campaign start dates. We compared highly focused and diffuse strategies for distributing vaccine throughout the city. We found wide variation in the efficiency of cholera transmission both within and between areas of the city. "Hotspots", where transmission was most efficient, appear to drive the epidemic. In particular one area, Bandim, was a necessary driver of the 2008 epidemic in Bissau City. If vaccine supply were limited but could have been distributed within the first 80 days of the epidemic, targeting vaccination at Bandim would have averted the most cases both within this area and throughout the city. Regardless of the distribution strategy used, timely distribution of vaccine in response to an ongoing cholera epidemic can prevent cases and save lives.Reactive vaccination can be a useful tool for controlling cholera epidemics, especially in urban areas like Bissau City. Particular neighborhoods may be responsible for driving a city's cholera epidemic; timely and targeted reactive vaccination at such neighborhoods may be the most effective way to prevent cholera cases both within that neighborhood and throughout the city.

  10. A general measles vaccination campaign in urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, S.; Thysen, S. M.; Rodrigues, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Measles vaccination campaigns targeting children aged 9–59 months are conducted every three years in Guinea-Bissau. Studies have demonstrated beneficial non-specific effects of measles vaccine. We compared mortality one year after the December 2012 measles vaccination campaign in Bissa...

  11. Challenges facing HIV treatment in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Oliveira, Inés

    2014-01-01

    PROBLEM: The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa has improved the quality of life of millions of people and reduced mortality. However, substantial problems with the infrastructure for ART delivery remain. APPROACH: Clinicians and researchers...... at an HIV clinic in Guinea-Bissau identified problems with the delivery of ART by establishing a clinical database and by collaborating with international researchers. LOCAL SETTING: The Bissau HIV cohort study group was established in 2007 as a collaboration between local HIV physicians and international...... HIV researchers. Patients were recruited from the HIV clinic at the country's main hospital in the capital Bissau. RELEVANT CHANGES: Between 2005 and 2013, 5514 HIV-positive patients were treated at the clinic. Working together, local health-care workers and international researchers identified...

  12. Seasonal variation in child mortality in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bibi Uhre; Byberg, Stine; Aaby, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: In many African countries, child mortality is higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. We investigated the effect of season on child mortality by time periods, sex and age in rural Guinea-Bissau. Methods: Bandim health project follows children under-five in a health...... and demographic surveillance system in rural Guinea-Bissau. We compared the mortality in the rainy season (June to November) between 1990 and 2013 with the mortality in the dry season (December to May) in Cox proportional hazards models providing rainy vs. dry season mortality rate ratios (r/d-mrr). Seasonal...... effects were estimated in strata defined by time periods with different frequency of vaccination campaigns, sex and age (

  13. Tuberculosis burden in an urban population: a cross sectional tuberculosis survey from Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; da Silva, Zacarias J; Ravn, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in low income countries. We conducted a cross sectional survey for pulmonary TB and TB symptoms in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, in an urban cohort with known HIV prevalence. TB surveillance in the area is routinely based...

  14. Rotavirus disease in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa: a review of longitudinal community and hospital studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Thea Kølsen; Aaby, Peter; Mølbak, Kåre

    2010-01-01

    Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of childhood diarrheal disease and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. This article reviews community- and hospital-based surveillance of rotavirus disease in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Here, rotavirus infections exhibit a seasonal pattern, with annual...

  15. Effect of revaccination with BCG in early childhood on mortality: randomised trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, A.E.; Benn, Christine Stabell; Ravn, H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether BCG revaccination at 19 months of age reduces overall child mortality. Design Randomised trial, with follow-up to age 5. Setting A health project in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, which maintains a health and demographic surveillance system in an urban area with 90 000 inha...

  16. Low prevalence of malnourishment among household contacts of patients with tuberculosis in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsche, C. B.; Rudolf, Frauke; Mogensen, Søren Wengel

    2017-01-01

    Setting: An urban demographic surveillance site in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Background: We hypothesised that if previous malnutrition plays a part in acquiring active tuberculosis (TB) disease, households of TB cases would have a higher prevalence of malnutrition than th...

  17. Tuberculosis burden in an urban population: a cross sectional tuberculosis survey from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; da Silva, Zacarias J; Ravn, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in low income countries. We conducted a cross sectional survey for pulmonary TB and TB symptoms in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, in an urban cohort with known HIV prevalence. TB surveillance in the area is routinely...

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Guinea-Bissau traditional remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, O; Duarte, A; Cabrita, J; Pimentel, M; Diniz, A; Gomes, E

    1996-01-01

    The ethanolic extracts of twelve plants selected through ethnomedical survey in Guinea-Bissau were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial properties over ten bacteria and Candida albicans, using agar diffusion and dilution methods. All the tested extracts showed some activity against at least one of the bacteria. Most of the extracts (79%) showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus and only one (Cryptolepis sanguinolenta) against Escherichia coli. Cryptolepis sanguinolenta and Terminalia macroptera root extracts showed some activity against Candida albicans as well as showing an interesting profile of activity against most of the enteropathogen microorganisms. Inhibition zones against Staphylococcus aureus were localised on extract chromatograms by bioautographic techniques.

  19. MHealth to Improve Measles Immunization in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Emil Rossing; Ravn, Henrik; Batista, Celso Soares Pereira

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed a low measles vaccination (MV) rate in the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) that has not increased in accordance with the increasing coverage of other vaccinations. Measles is the deadliest of all childhood rash/fever illnesses and spreads easily......, implying that if the vaccination coverage is declining there is a significant risk of new measles outbreaks [27]. Meanwhile, mobile health (mHealth; the use of mobile phones for health interventions) has generated much enthusiasm, and shown potential in improving health service delivery in other contexts...

  20. Seasonal variation in child mortality in rural Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Bibi Uhre; Byberg, Stine; Aaby, Peter; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent

    2017-07-01

    In many African countries, child mortality is higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. We investigated the effect of season on child mortality by time periods, sex and age in rural Guinea-Bissau. Bandim health project follows children under-five in a health and demographic surveillance system in rural Guinea-Bissau. We compared the mortality in the rainy season (June to November) between 1990 and 2013 with the mortality in the dry season (December to May) in Cox proportional hazards models providing rainy vs. dry season mortality rate ratios (r/d-mrr). Seasonal effects were estimated in strata defined by time periods with different frequency of vaccination campaigns, sex and age (<1 month, 1-11 months, 12-59 months). Verbal autopsies were interpreted using InterVa-4 software. From 1990 to 2013, overall mortality was declined by almost two-thirds among 81 292 children (10 588 deaths). Mortality was 51% (95% ci: 45-58%) higher in the rainy season than in the dry season throughout the study period. The seasonal difference increased significantly with age, the r/d-mrr being 0.94 (0.86-1.03) among neonates, 1.57 (1.46-1.69) in post-neonatal infants and 1.83 (1.72-1.95) in under-five children (P for same effect <0.001). According to the InterVa, malaria deaths were the main reason for the seasonal mortality difference, causing 50% of all deaths in the rainy season, but only if the InterVa included season of death, making the argument self-confirmatory. The mortality declined throughout the study, yet rainy season continued to be associated with 51% higher overall mortality. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Malaria transmission in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau between 1995 and 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As Plasmodium falciparum prevalence decreases in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, so does immunity resulting in larger at risk populations and increased risk of malaria resurgence. In Bissau, malaria prevalence decreased from ∼50% to 3% between 1995 and 2003. The epidemiological...... per 2 people and 97% usage. All-cause mortality decreased from post-war peaks in 1999 until 2012 in all age groups and was not negatively affected by malaria resurgence. CONCLUSION: The cause of decreasing malaria incidence (1995-2007) was probably multifactorial and coincident with the use...

  2. Breastfeeding status as a predictor of mortality among refugee children in an emergency situation in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne; Sodemann, Morten; Nylén, Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    To identify the population risk factors in emergency situations, we studied breastfeeding status as a predictor for child mortality during a war in Guinea-Bissau.......To identify the population risk factors in emergency situations, we studied breastfeeding status as a predictor for child mortality during a war in Guinea-Bissau....

  3. Determinants of vitamin a deficiency in children between 6 months and 2 years of age in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Jørgensen, Mathias Jul

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies Guinea-Bissau as having severe vitamin A deficiency (VAD). To date, no national survey has been conducted. We assessed vitamin A status among children in rural Guinea-Bissau to assess status and identify risk factors for VAD....

  4. Barriers and facilitators to antiretroviral therapy adherence among patients with HIV in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau: A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dlama Nggida; da Silva Té, David; Rodkjaer, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Adherence is a decisive factor in achieving a successful response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection.No previous studies have been conducted regarding HIV treatment adherence in Guinea-Bissau. In this study we assessed barriers and facilitators to patient ART adherence. Semi...... were experienced treatment benefits and complementing social networks. The barriers were treatment-related costs and competing livelihood needs; poor clinic infrastructure; perceived stigma; and traditional practices. Our findings indicate that good ART adherence,especially in resource-limited settings...

  5. Reaching Adolescents and Youth in Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... en milieu urbain en Guinée-Bissau. Enfin, les principaux sujets de discussion concernent le VIH/Sida et les maladies sexuellement transmissibles, mais les autres aspects de la santé sexuelle et reproductive sont souvent omis. Keywords: West Africa, peer educators, youth centers, sexual and reproductive health, gender ...

  6. Job Satisfaction in the Marine and Estuarine Fisheries of Guinea-Bissau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Raul Mendes

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines aspects of job satisfaction among small-scale fishers in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. The willingness of fishers to change metier or occupation is a central aspect of study, and gains relevance from the global degradation of marine environments. The author concludes that small-scale fishers are generally satisfied with the…

  7. Malaria parasitemia and childhood diarrhea in a peri-urban area of Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare

    1999-01-01

    To examine the association between diarrhea in early childhood and malaria parasitemia, we conducted a nested case-control study in Guinea-Bissau of 297 children with diarrhea and a similar number of children without diarrhea matched for age, season, and residential area. There were no associatio...

  8. Determinants of BCG scarification among children in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch, Katarina M; Thysen, Sanne M; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2018-01-01

    : Bandim Health Project (BHP) runs a Health and Demographic Surveillance System site in rural Guinea-Bissau. BHP provides BCG at monthly visits. We studied determinants for not developing a BCG scar using binomial regression models to obtain relative risks (RR). RESULTS: From May 2012 until October 2014...

  9. Status of birds of prey in Guinea-Bissau: first assessment based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cover (based on the normalised difference vegetation index). Apart from Hooded Vultures and White-backed Vultures Gyps africanus, all other raptors in the IUCN Red List were found to be scarce, including other vultures and several medium-to-large eagles. Keywords: birds, Guinea-Bissau, raptors, transects, West Africa ...

  10. Predatory pelagic fishes of the Bijagós Archipelago (Guinea-Bissau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the feeding ecology of the Crevalle jack Caranx hippos, West African Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus tritor and Guinean barracuda Sphyraena afra in the Bijagós Archipelago, Guinea-Bissau. These are the most abundant pelagic predatory teleost fishes in the area, but little is known about their ecology ...

  11. Vaccination coverage and out-of-sequence vaccinations in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornshøj, Linda; Benn, Christine Stabell; Fernandes, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The WHO aims for 90% coverage of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), which in Guinea-Bissau included BCG vaccine at birth, three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months when...

  12. Long-term survival after Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Whittle, H

    1993-01-01

    In an urban area of Guinea-Bissau, 384 children were enrolled in a randomized trial comparing morbidity and mortality rates after receiving high-titer Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine administered from 4 months of age, with a control group receiving inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine at 4...

  13. Collective trauma processing: dissociation as a way of processing postwar traumatic stress in Guinea Bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; Reis, R.

    2013-01-01

    Guidelines on psychosocial interventions in postconflict areas commonly mention that interventions should be based on local needs and be built on culture-specific expertise. This paper is based on a dissociative cult, the Kiyang-yang (KYY), in Guinea Bissau. In a previous article, we used a refined

  14. Challenges facing HIV treatment in Guinea-Bissau: the benefits of international research collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Oliveira, Inés; Medina, Candida; da Silva Té, David; Correia, Faustino Gomes; da Silva, Zacarias José; Erikstrup, Christian; Østergaard, Lars; Laursen, Alex Lund; Wejse, Christian

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa has improved the quality of life of millions of people and reduced mortality. However, substantial problems with the infrastructure for ART delivery remain. Clinicians and researchers at an HIV clinic in Guinea-Bissau identified problems with the delivery of ART by establishing a clinical database and by collaborating with international researchers. The Bissau HIV cohort study group was established in 2007 as a collaboration between local HIV physicians and international HIV researchers. Patients were recruited from the HIV clinic at the country's main hospital in the capital Bissau. Between 2005 and 2013, 5514 HIV-positive patients were treated at the clinic. Working together, local health-care workers and international researchers identified the main problems affecting ART delivery: inadequate drug supply; loss of patients to follow-up; and inadequate laboratory services. Solutions to these problems were devised. The collaborations encouraged local physicians to start their own research projects to find possible solutions to problems at the clinic. The HIV clinic in Bissau faced numerous obstacles in delivering ART at a sufficiently high quality and patients' lives were put in jeopardy. The effectiveness of ART could be enhanced by delivering it as part of an international research collaboration since such collaborations can help identify problems, find solutions and increase the capacity of the health-care system.

  15. Household experience and costs of seeking measles vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Fisker, A B; Rodrigues, A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Children younger than 12 months of age are eligible for childhood vaccines through the public health system in Guinea-Bissau. To limit open vial wastage, a restrictive vial opening policy has been implemented; 10-dose measles vaccine vials are only opened if six or more children aged 9......-11 months are present at the vaccination post. Consequently, mothers who bring their child for measles vaccination can be told to return another day. We aimed to describe the household experience and estimate household costs of seeking measles vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Within a national...... sample of village clusters under demographic surveillance, we interviewed mothers of children aged 9-21 months about their experience with seeking measles vaccination. From information about time and money spent, we calculated household costs of seeking measles vaccination. RESULTS: We interviewed...

  16. Medicinal plants of Guinea-Bissau: Therapeutic applications, ethnic diversity and knowledge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarino, Luís; Havik, Philip J; Romeiras, Maria M

    2016-05-13

    The rich flora of Guinea-Bissau, and the widespread use of medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases, constitutes an important local healthcare resource with significant potential for research and development of phytomedicines. The goal of this study is to prepare a comprehensive documentation of Guinea-Bissau's medicinal plants, including their distribution, local vernacular names and their therapeutic and other applications, based upon local notions of disease and illness. Ethnobotanical data was collected by means of field research in Guinea-Bissau, study of herbarium specimens, and a comprehensive review of published works. Relevant data were included from open interviews conducted with healers and from observations in the field during the last two decades. A total of 218 medicinal plants were documented, belonging to 63 families, of which 195 are native. Over half of these species are found in all regions of the country. The medicinal plants are used to treat 18 major diseases categories; the greatest number of species are used to treat intestinal disorders (67 species). More than thirty ethnic groups were identified within the Guinea-Bissau population; 40% of the medicinal plants have been recorded in the country's principal ethnic languages (i.e. Fula and Balanta). This multi-disciplinary, country-wide study identifies a great diversity of plants used by indigenous communities as medicinal, which constitute an important common reservoir of botanical species and therapeutic knowledge. The regional overlap of many indigenous species, the consensual nature of disease groups based upon local perceptions of health conditions, and the relevance of local vernacular including Guinean Creole are key factors specific to the country which enhance the potential for the circulation and transmission of ethno-botanical and therapeutic knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vaccinia scars associated with improved survival among adults in rural Guinea-Bissau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Lundsby Jensen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In urban Guinea-Bissau, adults with a vaccinia scar had better survival but also a higher prevalence of HIV-2 infection. We therefore investigated the association between vaccinia scar and survival and HIV infection in a rural area of Guinea-Bissau. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In connection with a study of HIV in rural Guinea-Bissau, we assessed vaccinia and BCG scars in 193 HIV-1 or HIV-2 infected and 174 uninfected participants. Mortality was assessed after 2(1/2-3 years of follow-up. The analyses were adjusted for age, sex, village, and HIV status. The prevalence of vaccinia scar was associated with age, village, and HIV-2 status but not with sex and schooling. Compared with individuals without any scar, individuals with a vaccinia scar had better survival (mortality rate ratio (MR = 0.22 (95% CI 0.08-0.61, the MR being 0.19 (95% CI 0.06-0.57 for women and 0.40 (95% CI 0.04-3.74 for men. Estimates were similar for HIV-2 infected and HIV-1 and HIV-2 uninfected individuals. The HIV-2 prevalence was higher among individuals with a vaccinia scar compared to individuals without a vaccinia scar (RR = 1.57 (95% CI 1.02-2.36. CONCLUSION: The present study supports the hypothesis that vaccinia vaccination may have a non-specific beneficial effect on adult survival.

  18. Termination of breastfeeding after 12 months of age due to a new pregnancy and other causes is associated with increased mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M S; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kare

    2003-01-01

    As part of an assessment of breastfeeding and child health in Guinea-Bissau, we investigated the impact of mother's reason for weaning on subsequent child mortality.......As part of an assessment of breastfeeding and child health in Guinea-Bissau, we investigated the impact of mother's reason for weaning on subsequent child mortality....

  19. [Realities and professional expectations of medical students attending Guinea Bissau's medical school in 2007 school year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronteira, Inês; Rodrigues, Amabélia; Pereira, Camilo; Silva, Augusto P; Mercer, Hugo; Dussault, Guilles; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    In Guinea Bissau, the majority of university level professionals are still being trained abroad and most of them do not return to their country. This was a major incentive for creating Guinea Bissau's Medical School. An observational, cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted on the second trimester of 2007 to characterize the socio-demographic, familial and educational profile of medical students, their satisfaction levels, difficulties and expectations concerning the medicine course. A questionnaire was used and a response rate of 63% achieved (81 students). Data was analyzed using SPSS v.17 for descriptive statistics. Students are very committed to their education. They tend to decide to take the medicine course early in their lives and are influenced by their relatives. They choose to be medical doctors because they like it but also for altruistic reasons and the desire to save lives. Although many face financial and material difficulties, they tend to have success in their academic live. They live with their parents, do not have children and some have side jobs to provide for extra income to help with their education. They expect their education to make them good doctors in any part of the world and want to work simultaneously in the public (to serve their country and pay their debt to the State) and in the private sector (to enhance their income). The large majority wants to work in a hospital, in Bissau, and to be a pediatrician or obstetrician. They have unreasonably high expectations concerning their future income as medical doctors.

  20. Prolonged breast feeding, diarrhoeal disease, and survival of children in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Gottschau, A; Aaby, P

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the impact of breast feeding on diarrhoeal disease and survival in children above 1 year of age in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. DESIGN: A community study of an open cohort followed up weekly by interviews over 15 months. Data on feeding practices, anthropometry, and survival.......02). Children aged 12-35 months who were not breast fed had a 3.5 times higher mortality (1.4 to 8.3) than breast fed children. CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial effects of breast feeding are not restricted to infancy. Though children who are partially breast fed after infancy may have a lower state of nutrition than...... were recorded for three years. SETTING: 301 randomly selected houses in a semiurban area in the capital, Bissau. SUBJECTS: 849 children aged less than 3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and duration of diarrhoea, weight for age, and death of a child. RESULTS: The incidence of diarrhoea...

  1. Tuberculosis burden in an urban population: a cross sectional tuberculosis survey from Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; da Silva, Zacarias J; Ravn, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in low income countries. We conducted a cross sectional survey for pulmonary TB and TB symptoms in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, in an urban cohort with known HIV prevalence. TB surveillance in the area is routinely based...... on passive case finding. METHODS: Two cohorts were selected based on a previous HIV survey, but only 52.5% of those enrolled in the adult cohort had participated in the HIV survey. One cohort included all adults living in 384 randomly selected houses; in this cohort 8% (135/1687) were HIV infected. The other...... included individuals 50 years or older from all other houses in the study area; of these 11% (62/571) were HIV infected. Symptom screening was done through household visits using a standardised questionnaire. TB suspects were investigated with sputum smear microscopy and X-ray. RESULTS: In the adult cohort...

  2. Effect of revaccination with BCG in early childhood on mortality: randomised trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, A.E.; Benn, Christine Stabell; Ravn, H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether BCG revaccination at 19 months of age reduces overall child mortality. Design Randomised trial, with follow-up to age 5. Setting A health project in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, which maintains a health and demographic surveillance system in an urban area with 90 000...... ratio 0.36, 0.13 to 0.99) and children who had not received the booster before enrolment (1.78, 1.04 to 3.04). Conclusions There was no overall beneficial effect of being revaccinated with BCG. The effect of BCG revaccination on mortality might depend on other health interventions...... children compared with controls was 2.69 (1.05 to 6.88) in the period after these campaigns. Throughout the trial, the effect of BCG revaccination on mortality was significantly different (P=0.006) in children who had received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) booster vaccination before enrolment (hazard...

  3. Hepatitis C prevalence among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jespersen, Sanne; Medina, Candida

    2014-01-01

    the period April 28 to September 30, 2011. Patient samples were tested for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) with a chemiluminescence test (Architect, Abbott, USA) and INNO-LIA HCV Score (Innogenetics, Belgium). HCV viral load and genotype were analyzed using an in-house real-time PCR method. RESULTS: In total, 576......OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and determine the clinical presentation of risk factors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among HIV-infected patients in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we included individuals who had a routine blood analysis performed during...... patients were included (417 HIV-1, 104 HIV-2, and 55 HIV-1/2). Ten (1.7%) patients were anti-HCV-positive and eight (1.4%) patients had detectable HCV RNA; all were genotype 2. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, age >50 years was associated with anti-HCV reactivity (p

  4. Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus Among Young Twins and Singletons in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Hansen, Lone; da Silva, Leontina I

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVETwins in Africa may be at increased risk of metabolic disorders due to strained conditions in utero, including high exposure to infections. We studied metabolic syndrome (MS) and diabetes mellitus (DM) among young twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSThe study...... was cross-sectional and occurred from October 2009 until August 2011 at the Bandim Health Project, a demographic surveillance site in the capital Bissau. Twins and singleton controls between 5 and 32 years were visited at home. Fasting blood samples for metabolic measurements were collected. Zygosity...... was established genetically for a subset. DM was defined as HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) and MS by the International Diabetes Federation criteria.RESULTSHbA1c was available for 574 twins and 463 singletons. Mean age was 15.3 years versus 15.8 years, respectively. Eighteen percent of twins were monozygotic...

  5. Cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau (2008: the importance of "place".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Luquero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As resources are limited when responding to cholera outbreaks, knowledge about where to orient interventions is crucial. We describe the cholera epidemic affecting Guinea-Bissau in 2008 focusing on the geographical spread in order to guide prevention and control activities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted two studies: 1 a descriptive analysis of the cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau focusing on its geographical spread (country level and within the capital; and 2 a cross-sectional study to measure the prevalence of houses with at least one cholera case in the most affected neighbourhood of the capital (Bairro Bandim to detect clustering of households with cases (cluster analysis. All cholera cases attending the cholera treatment centres in Guinea-Bissau who fulfilled a modified World Health Organization clinical case definition during the epidemic were included in the descriptive study. For the cluster analysis, a sample of houses was selected from a satellite photo (Google Earth™; 140 houses (and the four closest houses were assessed from the 2,202 identified structures. We applied K-functions and Kernel smoothing to detect clustering. We confirmed the clustering using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. A total of 14,222 cases and 225 deaths were reported in the country (AR = 0.94%, CFR = 1.64%. The more affected regions were Biombo, Bijagos and Bissau (the capital. Bairro Bandim was the most affected neighborhood of the capital (AR = 4.0. We found at least one case in 22.7% of the houses (95%CI: 19.5-26.2 in this neighborhood. The cluster analysis identified two areas within Bairro Bandim at highest risk: a market and an intersection where runoff accumulates waste (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis allowed for the identification of the most affected regions in Guinea-Bissau during the 2008 cholera outbreak, and the most affected areas within the capital. This information was essential for making

  6. Diabetes mellitus prevalence in tuberculosis patients and the background population in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsdottir, Thorny Linda; Rudolf, Frauke; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    ); pprevalence of DM was 2.8% (3/107) for TB patients and 2.1% (11/531) for controls (p=0.64). Excluding two controls already receiving anti-diabetic treatment, the prevalence of DM was 2.8% (3/107) vs 1.7% (9/529) (p=0.44). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of DM was low, also among TB patients......BACKGROUND: Data regarding the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) in Africa are scare. We did a DM screening survey among TB patients and non-TB controls in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: The study was conducted at the Bandim Health Project (BHP) in the capital Bissau. From...... was diagnosed as FBG ≥ 7 mmol/l. Our survey was linked to the patient database at the only existing Diabetes Clinic in Bissau. RESULTS: TB patients (n=110) were older than the controls (n=572) (35 vs 31 years; p=0.02), more often male (55% vs 37%; p

  7. Hepatitis C virus infection in Guinea-Bissau: a sexually transmitted genotype 2 with parenteral amplification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Plamondon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is the continent with the highest prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Genotype 2 HCV is thought to have originated from West Africa several hundred years ago. Mechanisms of transmission remain poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To delineate mechanisms for HCV transmission in West Africa, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of individuals aged >or=50 years in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Dried blood spots were obtained for HCV serology and PCR amplification. Prevalence of HCV was 4.4% (47/1066 among women and 5.0% (27/544 among men. In multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for HCV infection were age (baseline: 50-59 y; 60-69 y, adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.67, 95% CI: 0.91-3.06; >or=70 y, AOR: 3.47, 95% CI: 1.89-6.39, belonging to the Papel, Mancanha, Balanta or Mandjako ethnic groups (AOR: 2.45, 95% CI:1.32-4.53, originating from the Biombo, Cacheu or Oio regions north of Bissau (AOR: 4.16, 95% CI: 1.18-14.73 and having bought or sold sexual services (AOR: 3.60, 95% CI: 1.88-6.89. Of 57 isolates that could be genotyped, 56 were genotype 2. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that transmission of HCV genotype 2 in West Africa occurs through sexual intercourse. In specific locations and subpopulations, medical interventions may have amplified transmission parenterally.

  8. Diabetes mellitus prevalence in tuberculosis patients and the background population in Guinea-Bissau: a disease burden study from the capital Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsdottir, Thorny L; Rudolf, Frauke; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Joaquím, Luis Carlos; Stochholm, Kirstine; Gomes, Victor F; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Ostergaard, Lars; Aaby, Peter; Wejse, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Data regarding the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) in Africa are scare. We did a DM screening survey among TB patients and non-TB controls in Guinea-Bissau. The study was conducted at the Bandim Health Project (BHP) in the capital Bissau. From July 2010 to July 2011, newly diagnosed TB cases were identified through a TB notification system. Concurrently, non-TB controls were selected randomly from the BHP's demographic surveillance database and visited at home. Participants were tested using fasting blood glucose (FBG) measurements. DM was diagnosed as FBG ≥ 7 mmol/l. Our survey was linked to the patient database at the only existing Diabetes Clinic in Bissau. TB patients (n=110) were older than the controls (n=572) (35 vs 31 years; p=0.02), more often male (55% vs 37%; pprevalence of DM was 2.8% (3/107) for TB patients and 2.1% (11/531) for controls (p=0.64). Excluding two controls already receiving anti-diabetic treatment, the prevalence of DM was 2.8% (3/107) vs 1.7% (9/529) (p=0.44). The prevalence of DM was low, also among TB patients. No association between DM and TB was found. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. [From Guinea-Bissau to Portugal: Luso-Guineans and immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, F L

    1998-07-01

    "Taking as our point of reference the migratory framework of the society of departure, we first of all anlayse time and volume factors in the patterns of migration from Guinea-Bissau to Portugal, in two distinct segments: immigrants as such and Guineans of Portuguese nationality or ¿Luso-Guineans'. For each of these we have subsequently outlined the paths and strategies of migration, describing their origins and class status before departure as well as how they see and identify themselves in ethnic terms. This analysis brings out the socially selective nature of that migration." (EXCERPT)

  10. Evolution of cocirculating varicella-zoster virus genotypes during a chickenpox outbreak in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Depledge, Daniel P; Gray, Eleanor R; Kundu, Samit

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a double-stranded DNA alphaherpesvirus, is associated with seasonal outbreaks of varicella in nonimmunized populations. Little is known about whether these outbreaks are associated with a single or multiple viral genotypes and whether new mutations rapidly...... accumulate during transmission. Here, we take advantage of a well-characterized population cohort in Guinea-Bissau and produce a unique set of 23 full-length genome sequences, collected over 7 months from eight households. Comparative sequence analysis reveals that four distinct genotypes cocirculated among...

  11. Seven years' experience with Cryptosporidium parvum in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch, M; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S

    2001-01-01

    In community-based studies conducted from 1991 to 1997 in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, stool specimens from children aged less than 5 years with diarrhoea were routinely examined for enteric parasites. Cryptosporidium parvum, found in 7.7% of 4,922 samples, was the second most common parasite, exc...... consistently at the beginning of or just before the rainy seasons, May through July. By contrast, no seasonality was found for the enteric parasites Giardia lamblia or Entamoeba histolytica. We conclude that Cryptosporidium parvum is an important pathogen in children with diarrhoea....

  12. Malaria parasitemia and childhood diarrhea in a peri-urban area of Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare

    1999-01-01

    To examine the association between diarrhea in early childhood and malaria parasitemia, we conducted a nested case-control study in Guinea-Bissau of 297 children with diarrhea and a similar number of children without diarrhea matched for age, season, and residential area. There were no associations...... between diarrhea and parasite rate, parasite density, or clinical malaria. However, anti-malarials were easily available and frequently used, which was reflected by a 0.7% prevalence of children with a parasite density > 100/200 leukocytes. Thus, the findings do not preclude that diarrhea may be a sign...

  13. Cost-effectiveness of providing measles vaccination to all children in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Thysen, Sanne Marie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measles vaccination is associated with major reductions in child mortality and morbidity. In Guinea-Bissau, to limit vaccine wastage, children are only measles-vaccinated if at least six children aged 9-11 months are present at a vaccination session. OBJECTIVE: To estimate...... the incremental cost-effectiveness of providing measles vaccine (MV) to all children regardless of age and number of children present. METHODS: We estimated MV coverage among children living in villages cluster-randomized to MV for all children and among children cluster-randomized to the current restrictive MV...

  14. Mortality among human immunodeficiency virus type 2-positive villagers in rural Guinea-Bissau is correlated with viral genotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grassly, N. C.; Xiang, Z.; Ariyoshi, K.; Aaby, P.; Jensen, H.; Schim van der Loeff, M.; Dias, F.; Whittle, H.; Breuer, J.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of a 6-year study of 131 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 (HIV-2)-infected individuals from a rural population in Guinea-Bissau. Proviral DNA sequences 1.3 kb in length were obtained from each individual and, together with clinical data, including proviral load and

  15. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and other types of dysglycaemia among young twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egegaard Hennild, Ditte; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Joaquím, Luis Carlos

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Twins may be at increased risk of dysglycaemic disorders due to adverse fetal conditions. Data from Africa regarding this association is limited. We studied impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and other types of dysglycemia among twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: The study...

  16. The effect of vitamin A supplementation administered with missing vaccines during national immunization days in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Martins, Cesario; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2009-01-01

    than VAS with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine. We assessed the effect of VAS administered with different vaccines during national immunization days (NIDs). METHODS: In 2003, VAS was distributed during NIDs in Guinea-Bissau. Children 6 months or older were given VAS, and if they were missing...

  17. Effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A given with BCG vaccine on mortality in infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Roth, Adam

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of high dose vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth in an African setting with high infant mortality. DESIGN: Randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting Bandim Health Project's demographic surveillance system in Guinea-Bissau, covering app...

  18. Gastrointestinal symbionts of chimpanzees in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau with respect to habitat fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Rui M; Petrášová, Jana; Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Profousová, Ilona; Petrželková, Klára J; Sousa, Cláudia; Cable, Joanne; Bruford, Michael W; Modrý, David

    2013-10-01

    One of the major factors threatening chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Guinea-Bissau is habitat fragmentation. Such fragmentation may cause changes in symbiont dynamics resulting in increased susceptibility to infection, changes in host specificity and virulence. We monitored gastrointestinal symbiotic fauna of three chimpanzee subpopulations living within Cantanhez National Park (CNP) in Guinea Bissau in the areas with different levels of anthropogenic fragmentation. Using standard coproscopical methods (merthiolate-iodine formalin concentration and Sheather's flotation) we examined 102 fecal samples and identified at least 13 different symbiotic genera (Troglodytella abrassarti, Troglocorys cava, Blastocystis spp., Entamoeba spp., Iodamoeba butschlii, Giardia intestinalis, Chilomastix mesnili, Bertiella sp., Probstmayria gombensis, unidentified strongylids, Strongyloides stercoralis, Strongyloides fuelleborni, and Trichuris sp.). The symbiotic fauna of the CNP chimpanzees is comparable to that reported for other wild chimpanzee populations, although CNP chimpanzees have a higher prevalence of Trichuris sp. Symbiont richness was higher in chimpanzee subpopulations living in fragmented forests compared to the community inhabiting continuous forest area. We reported significantly higher prevalence of G. intestinalis in chimpanzees from fragmented areas, which could be attributed to increased contact with humans and livestock. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Collective trauma processing: dissociation as a way of processing postwar traumatic stress in Guinea Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Joop de; Reis, Ria

    2013-10-01

    Guidelines on psychosocial interventions in postconflict areas commonly mention that interventions should be based on local needs and be built on culture-specific expertise. This paper is based on a dissociative cult, the Kiyang-yang (KYY), in Guinea Bissau. In a previous article, we used a refined definition of the concept of idiom of distress to analyze the dissociative behavior displayed in KYY as a symbolic language addressing politically dangerous truths. This paper uses the concept of "collective trauma processing" to analyze how the idiom offered the local population a pathway to mitigate the consequences of protracted and widespread political violence. The paper first argues that the field of psychotraumatology lacks a comprehensive ecological theory on trauma. Moreover, within clinical psychology and psychiatry, little attention is paid to local cultural healing mechanisms addressing traumatic stress. This paper is an effort to study such mechanisms in their own right. To compare trauma processing mechanisms across the globe, we propose to analyze trauma processing mechanisms with the help of a comprehensive model discerning five ontological dimensions that are considered to be involved in suffering and are addressed in healing approaches. Our paper describes similarities and differences between psychological healing traditions and collective trauma processing within the West African context of Guinea Bissau. We will illustrate how the KYY movement uses the idiom of dissociation as both a collective expression of distress and as a vehicle to process social suffering and traumatic stress as a circular phenomenon.

  20. Prevalence of Salmonella Excretion in Stool: A Community Survey in 2 Sites, Guinea-Bissau and Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Justin; Nichols, Chelsea; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Sow, Amy Gassama; Løfberg, Sandra; Tall, Adama; Pak, Gi Deok; Aaby, Peter; Baker, Stephen; Clemens, John D; Espinoza, Ligia Maria Cruz; Konings, Frank; May, Jürgen; Monteiro, Mario; Niang, Aissatou; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Se Eun; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Wierzba, Thomas F; Marks, Florian; von Kalckreuth, Vera

    2016-03-15

    Chronic and convalescent carriers play an important role in the transmission and endemicity of many communicable diseases. A high incidence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection has been reported in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, yet the prevalence of Salmonella excretion in the general population is unknown. Stool specimens were collected from a random sample of households in 2 populations in West Africa: Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, and Dakar, Senegal. Stool was cultured to detect presence of Salmonella, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on the isolated organisms. Stool was cultured from 1077 and 1359 individuals from Guinea-Bissau and Senegal, respectively. Salmonella Typhi was not isolated from stool samples at either site. Prevalence of NTS in stool samples was 24.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.5-35.1; n = 26/1077) per 1000 population in Guinea-Bissau and 10.3 (95% CI, 6.1-17.2; n = 14/1359) per 1000 population in Senegal. Evidence of NTS excretion in stool in both study populations indicates a possible NTS transmission route in these settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The Effect of Smallpox and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Vaccination on the Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection in Guinea-Bissau and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieckmann, Andreas; Villumsen, Marie; Jensen, Mette Lundsby

    2017-01-01

    -Bissau including 1751 individuals and (2) a case-base study with a background population of 46239 individuals in Denmark. In Guinea-Bissau, HIV-1 transmission was almost exclusively sexually transmitted. In Denmark, we excluded intravenous drug users. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Bacillus......: The studies from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark, 2 very different settings, both suggest that the BCG and smallpox vaccines could be associated with a decreased risk of sexually transmitted HIV-1. It might be informative to pursue this observation and explore possible protective mechanisms as part of the search...

  2. Persistent and acute diarrhoea as the leading causes of child mortality in urban Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Aaby, P; Ingholt, L

    1992-01-01

    An investigation of child mortality in a semi-urban community, Bandim II, in the capital of Guinea Bissau was carried out from April 1987 to March 1990. 153 deaths were recorded among 1426 live-born children who were followed for 2753 child-years. The under-five mortality risk was 215 per 1000...... children (95% confidence interval [CI] 176-264), infant mortality 94 per 1000 (95% CI 73-115), and perinatal mortality 52 per 1000 (95% CI 41-63). By prospective registration of morbidity, post-mortem interviews, and examination of available hospital records, a presumptive cause of death was established...... in 86% of the deaths. Persistent and acute diarrhoea were the most frequent causes of death, accounting for 43 and 31 deaths per 1000 children, respectively. Fever deaths (possibly malaria), neonatal deaths, acute respiratory infections, and measles were other frequent causes. The access to health...

  3. Seven years' experience with Cryptosporidium parvum in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch, M; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S

    2001-01-01

    In community-based studies conducted from 1991 to 1997 in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, stool specimens from children aged less than 5 years with diarrhoea were routinely examined for enteric parasites. Cryptosporidium parvum, found in 7.7% of 4,922 samples, was the second most common parasite......, exceeded only by Giardia lamblia which was found in 14.8% of the samples. The highest prevalence of cryptosporidium was found in children aged 6-11 months, whereas the prevalence of other enteric parasites increased with age. Cryptosporidiosis showed a marked seasonal variation, with peak prevalences found...... consistently at the beginning of or just before the rainy seasons, May through July. By contrast, no seasonality was found for the enteric parasites Giardia lamblia or Entamoeba histolytica. We conclude that Cryptosporidium parvum is an important pathogen in children with diarrhoea....

  4. Reaching adolescents and youth in Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardoux, Solène; N'Bouke, Afiwa

    2013-03-01

    Who are the young people reached by peer education programs and/or by youth centers? The present study intends to better know about the activities of the peer educators who are involved in organizations that promote reproductive health information and services in three West African countries. A special research tool was created to collect data to evaluate the composition and characteristics of the populations that such programs reach; therefore, to evaluate the populations left behind. We found that the typical profile of individuals in contact with peer educators or attending youth centers tended to be males aged 15 and more, schooled or highly educated, never married, and living in urban areas. We also found a relationship between peer educators' and peers' socio-demographic characteristics in rural Burkina Faso and urban Guinea Bissau. Finally, the main topics discussed included HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections, but omitting other aspects of sexual and reproductive health.

  5. Trials of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Whittle, H; Mordhorst, Camilla

    1994-01-01

    In two trials of measles vaccination in Guinea-Bissau, children were randomized to receive either the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) virus at age 4-8 months or, as a control group, a standard dose (5000 p.f.u.) of the Schwarz (SW) virus at 9-12 months. In the first trial a medium dose of EZ virus (40,000 p....... Antibody levels in the EZ group, as measured by either method, were significantly lower than the levels in the SW group. The serological results of the present study suggest that lowering the age at measles vaccination to below 9 months is feasible. However, further studies are needed to determine which...... virus strain, dosage and age at vaccination will prove to be optimal in countries where severe measles is common before the age of 9 months....

  6. BCG coverage and barriers to BCG vaccination in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Sanne Marie; Byberg, Stine; Pedersen, Marie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BCG vaccination is recommended at birth in low-income countries, but vaccination is often delayed. Often 20-dose vials of BCG are not opened unless at least ten children are present for vaccination ("restricted vial-opening policy"). BCG coverage is usually reported as 12-month coverage......, not disclosing the delay in vaccination. Several studies show that BCG at birth lowers neonatal mortality. We assessed BCG coverage at different ages and explored reasons for delay in BCG vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) runs a health and demographic surveillance system...... in selected intervention regions. Factors associated with delayed BCG vaccination were evaluated using logistic regression models. Coverage between intervention and control regions were evaluated in log-binomial regression models providing prevalence ratios. RESULTS: Among 3951 children born in 2010...

  7. Household experience and costs of seeking measles vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byberg, S; Fisker, A B; Rodrigues, A; Balde, I; Enemark, U; Aaby, P; Benn, C S; Griffiths, U K

    2017-01-01

    Children younger than 12 months of age are eligible for childhood vaccines through the public health system in Guinea-Bissau. To limit open vial wastage, a restrictive vial opening policy has been implemented; 10-dose measles vaccine vials are only opened if six or more children aged 9-11 months are present at the vaccination post. Consequently, mothers who bring their child for measles vaccination can be told to return another day. We aimed to describe the household experience and estimate household costs of seeking measles vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau. Within a national sample of village clusters under demographic surveillance, we interviewed mothers of children aged 9-21 months about their experience with seeking measles vaccination. From information about time and money spent, we calculated household costs of seeking measles vaccination. We interviewed mothers of 1308 children of whom 1043 (80%) had sought measles vaccination at least once. Measles vaccination coverage was 70% (910/1308). Coverage decreased with increasing distance to the health centre. On average, mothers who had taken their child for vaccination took their child 1.4 times. Mean costs of achieving 70% coverage were 2.04 USD (SD 3.86) per child taken for vaccination. Half of the mothers spent more than 2 h seeking vaccination and 11% spent money on transportation. We found several indications of missed opportunities for measles vaccination resulting in suboptimal coverage. The household costs comprised 3.3% of the average monthly income and should be taken into account when assessing the costs of delivering vaccinations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Performance of 3 Rapid Tests for Discrimination Between HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Bjarnason Obinah, Magnús Pétur; Jespersen, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    As HIV-2 is intrinsically resistant to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, it is mandatory to discriminate between HIV types before initiating antiretroviral treatment. Guinea-Bissau has the world's highest prevalence of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected individuals. We evaluated ...... (agreement 90.9%) and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0 (agreement 84.5%). Our results underscore the need for evaluation of tests in relevant populations before implementation....

  9. [Journalism and family planning in Guinea-Bissau. Putting the accent on birth spacing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, C

    1989-05-01

    A conference on awareness in the mass media of the problems of family planning was held in March 1989 at Bissau by the Guinean Association for Education and Promotion of Family Health (AGEPSF). Representatives of radio, a daily newspaper, and the national press agency discussed the objectives of AGEPSF and the benefits of family planning with specialists in different sectors of national life. The secretary general of AGEPSF affirmed the interest of the government in creating a health organization to coordinate national policy in family planning and to diffuse information on family planning. The family planning objective of the AGEPSF is not limitation of births but rather spacing to promote maternal and child health. AGEPSF is a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and maintains relations with similar organizations throughout the world. According to the director of the national maternity hospital, family planning is a sensitive topic but it has become accepted in numerous countries as marriage in rural areas and abortions in urban areas are widespread practices in Africa with potentially grave consequences. The general director of the National Institute for Studies and Research placed the theme of family planning in the context of Guinea-Bissau by citing the low level of education, the almost insignificant number of literate women, and the lack of health services in rural areas as the principal causes of increasing infant mortality in the country. African countries should create favorable conditions, elevate the level of living of their populations, and develop concrete health actions to reduce infant and maternal mortality.

  10. Effect of revaccination with BCG in early childhood on mortality: randomised trial in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Adam Edvin; Benn, Christine Stabell; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida Maria; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2010-03-15

    To determine whether BCG revaccination at 19 months of age reduces overall child mortality. Randomised trial, with follow-up to age 5. A health project in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, which maintains a health and demographic surveillance system in an urban area with 90 000 inhabitants. 2871 children aged 19 months to 5 years with low or no reactivity to tuberculin and who were not severely sick on the day of enrollment. BCG vaccination or no vaccination (control). Hazard ratios for mortality. 77 children died during follow-up. Compared with controls, the BCG revaccinated children had a hazard ratio of 1.20 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 1.89). Two hundred and fifty children were admitted to hospital for the first time between enrollment and the end of the study, with an incidence rate ratio for BCG revaccinated children versus controls of 1.04 (0.81 to 1.33). The trial was stopped prematurely because of a cluster of deaths in the BCG arm of the study. This increase in mortality occurred at a time when many children had received missing vaccinations or vitamin A or iron supplementation; the hazard ratio for BCG revaccinated children compared with controls was 2.69 (1.05 to 6.88) in the period after these campaigns. Throughout the trial, the effect of BCG revaccination on mortality was significantly different (P=0.006) in children who had received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) booster vaccination before enrollment (hazard ratio 0.36, 0.13 to 0.99) and children who had not received the booster before enrollment (1.78, 1.04 to 3.04). There was no overall beneficial effect of being revaccinated with BCG. The effect of BCG revaccination on mortality might depend on other health interventions. Trial registration Clinical Trials ICA4-CT-2002-10053-REVAC.

  11. Cashew cultivation in Guinea-Bissau – risks and challenges of the success of a cash crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Catarino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades a boom in cashew (Anacardium occidentalecultivation has taken place in Guinea-Bissau, leading to the replacement of traditional slash-and-burn agriculture by a cash crop. As a result, the country is currently one of the world’s largest producers of raw cashew nuts and the cashew sector has acquired enormous importance in Guinea-Bissau’s economy. Changes induced by the cashew boom at social and environmental levels are yet to be analyzed and understood. The present study provides an account of the process of cashew expansion in Guinea-Bissau, reviews the current situation and discusses its future prospects. The cashew tree was introduced into the country by the Portuguese in the XIXth century, but only effectively expanded in the mid-1980s. It is largely cultivated by small farmers around villages and also plays a role in land ownership, since land tenure practices are linked to the planting of trees. The effects of this cashew boom on habitat fragmentation, fire regimes and biodiversity are still to be assessed. On the other hand, the spread of pests and diseases is becoming a problem. Strong dependence on a single cash crop also renders the country vulnerable to market fluctuations, entailing risks to local producers and the national economy. In the medium term, losses of export earnings can occur, which may impact the living standards and food security of Bissau-Guineans both in urban and rural areas.

  12. Temporal trends (1977-2007 and ethnic inequity in child mortality in rural villages of southern Guinea Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boone Peter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guinea Bissau is one of the poorest countries in the world, with one of the highest under-5 mortality rate. Despite its importance for policy planning, data on child mortality are often not available or of poor quality in low-income countries like Guinea Bissau. Our aim in this study was to use the baseline survey to estimate child mortality in rural villages in southern Guinea Bissau for a 30 years period prior to a planned cluster randomised intervention. We aimed to investigate temporal trends with emphasis on historical events and the effect of ethnicity, polygyny and distance to the health centre on child mortality. Methods A baseline survey was conducted prior to a planned cluster randomised intervention to estimate child mortality in 241 rural villages in southern Guinea Bissau between 1977 and 2007. Crude child mortality rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method from birth history of 7854 women. Cox regression models were used to investigate the effects of birth periods with emphasis on historical events, ethnicity, polygyny and distance to the health centre on child mortality. Results High levels of child mortality were found at all ages under five with a significant reduction in child mortality over the time periods of birth except for 1997-2001. That period comprises the 1998/99 civil war interval, when child mortality was 1.5% higher than in the previous period. Children of Balanta ethnic group had higher hazard of dying under five years of age than children from other groups until 2001. Between 2002 and 2007, Fula children showed the highest mortality. Increasing walking distance to the nearest health centre increased the hazard, though not substantially, and polygyny had a negligible and statistically not significant effect on the hazard. Conclusion Child mortality is strongly associated with ethnicity and it should be considered in health policy planning. Child mortality, though considerably decreased during

  13. Awareness, attitudes and perceptions regarding HIV and PMTCT amongst pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau- a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Noel; Rasmussen, Dlama Nggida; Oliveira, Inês; Gomes, Aureliano; Aaby, Peter; Wejse, Christian; Sodemann, Morten; Reynolds, Lucy; Unger, Holger W

    2017-09-04

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a major cause of maternal and infant mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) strategies have proven effective in decreasing the number of children infected in utero, intrapartum and during the breastfeeding period. This qualitative study explores knowledge and perceptions of HIV amongst pregnant women, healthcare workers' experiences of the national PMTCT services, and barriers to PMTCT, during a period of programme scale-up in urban Guinea-Bissau (2010-11). In-depth interviews were undertaken amongst 27 women and 19 key informants at local antenatal clinics and the national maternity ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Amongst women who had been tested for HIV, awareness and knowledge of HIV and PMTCT remained low. Testing without informed consent was reported in some cases, in particular when the test was performed around the time of delivery. Possible drivers of inadequate counselling included lack of confidentiality, suboptimal healthcare worker training, lack of time, and perceived occupational risk. Demand-side barriers to PMTCT included lack of HIV and PMTCT knowledge, customary and cultural beliefs associated with HIV and ill-health, HIV stigma and discrimination, and fear of partnership dissolution. Socio-cultural and operational challenges, including HIV testing without informed consent, present significant barriers to the scale-up of PMTCT services in Bissau. Strengthening local capacity for effective counselling and testing in the antenatal setting is paramount. Further research into local customary beliefs relating to HIV is warranted.

  14. Y-chromosomal diversity in the population of Guinea-Bissau: a multiethnic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobling Mark A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The geographic and ethnolinguistic differentiation of many African Y-chromosomal lineages provides an opportunity to evaluate human migration episodes and admixture processes, in a pan-continental context. The analysis of the paternal genetic structure of Equatorial West Africans carried out to date leaves their origins and relationships unclear, and raises questions about the existence of major demographic phenomena analogous to the large-scale Bantu expansions. To address this, we have analysed the variation of 31 binary and 11 microsatellite markers on the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome in Guinea-Bissau samples of diverse ethnic affiliations, some not studied before. Results The Guinea-Bissau Y chromosome pool is characterized by low haplogroup diversity (D = 0.470, sd 0.033, with the predominant haplogroup E3a*-M2 shared among the ethnic clusters and reaching a maximum of 82.2% in the Mandenka people. The Felupe-Djola and Papel groups exhibit the highest diversity of lineages and harbor the deep-rooting haplogroups A-M91, E2-M75 and E3*-PN2, typical of Sahel's more central and eastern areas. Their genetic distinction from other groups is statistically significant (P = 0.01 though not attributable to linguistic, geographic or religious criteria. Non sub-Saharan influences were associated with the presence of haplogroup R1b-P25 and particular lineages of E3b1-M78. Conclusion The predominance and high diversity of haplogroup E3a*-M2 suggests a demographic expansion in the equatorial western fringe, possibly supported by a local agricultural center. The paternal pool of the Mandenka and Balanta displays evidence of a particularly marked population growth among the Guineans, possibly reflecting the demographic effects of the agriculturalist lifestyle and their putative relationship to the people that introduced early cultivation practices into West Africa. The paternal background of the Felupe-Djola and Papel

  15. Y-chromosomal diversity in the population of Guinea-Bissau: a multiethnic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Alexandra; Ornelas, Carolina; Jobling, Mark A; Brehm, António; Villems, Richard

    2007-07-27

    The geographic and ethnolinguistic differentiation of many African Y-chromosomal lineages provides an opportunity to evaluate human migration episodes and admixture processes, in a pan-continental context. The analysis of the paternal genetic structure of Equatorial West Africans carried out to date leaves their origins and relationships unclear, and raises questions about the existence of major demographic phenomena analogous to the large-scale Bantu expansions. To address this, we have analysed the variation of 31 binary and 11 microsatellite markers on the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome in Guinea-Bissau samples of diverse ethnic affiliations, some not studied before. The Guinea-Bissau Y chromosome pool is characterized by low haplogroup diversity (D = 0.470, sd 0.033), with the predominant haplogroup E3a*-M2 shared among the ethnic clusters and reaching a maximum of 82.2% in the Mandenka people. The Felupe-Djola and Papel groups exhibit the highest diversity of lineages and harbor the deep-rooting haplogroups A-M91, E2-M75 and E3*-PN2, typical of Sahel's more central and eastern areas. Their genetic distinction from other groups is statistically significant (P = 0.01) though not attributable to linguistic, geographic or religious criteria. Non sub-Saharan influences were associated with the presence of haplogroup R1b-P25 and particular lineages of E3b1-M78. The predominance and high diversity of haplogroup E3a*-M2 suggests a demographic expansion in the equatorial western fringe, possibly supported by a local agricultural center. The paternal pool of the Mandenka and Balanta displays evidence of a particularly marked population growth among the Guineans, possibly reflecting the demographic effects of the agriculturalist lifestyle and their putative relationship to the people that introduced early cultivation practices into West Africa. The paternal background of the Felupe-Djola and Papel ethnic groups suggests a better conserved ancestral pool

  16. Analysis of risk factors for infant mortality in the 1992-3 and 2002-3 birth cohorts in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Østergaard, Marie Louise Drivsholm; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2017-01-01

    : The Bandim Health Project (BHP) continuously surveys children in rural Guinea-Bissau. We investigated the association between maternal and infant factors (especially DTP and measles coverage) and infant mortality. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using Cox regression. We tested for interactions with sex......INTRODUCTION: Though still high, the infant mortality rate in Guinea-Bissau has declined. We aimed to identify risk factors including vaccination coverage, for infant mortality in the rural population of Guinea-Bissau and assess whether these risk factors changed from 1992-3 to 2002-3. METHODS......, age groups (defined by current vaccination schedule) and cohort to assess whether the risk factors were the same for boys and girls, in different age groups in 1992-3 and in 2002-3. RESULTS: The infant mortality rate declined from 148/1000 person years (PYRS) in 1992-3 to 124/1000 PYRS in 2002-3 (HR...

  17. Assessing factors for loss to follow-up of HIV infected patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Pernille Bejer; Engell-Sørensen, Thomas; Jespersen, Sanne

    2017-01-01

    and 12.6 % HIV-1/2) living within the DSS, 292 patients had been lost to follow-up and were, therefore, eligible for active follow-up. Vital status was ascertained in 65.9 % of eligible patients and 42.7 % were alive, while 23.2 % had died. Information on reasons for LTFU existed for 103 patients. Major......Purpose: The objective of this study was to ascertain vital status of patients considered lost to follow-up at an HIV clinic in Guinea-Bissau, and describe reasons for loss to follow-up (LTFU). Methods: This study was a cross-sectional sample of a prospective cohort, carried out between May 15......, 2013, and January 31, 2014. Patients lost to follow-up, who lived within the area of the Bandim Health Project, a demographic surveillance site (DSS), were eligible for inclusion. Active follow-up was attempted by telephone and tracing by a field assistant. Semi-structured interviews were done face...

  18. Childhood mortality after oral polio immunisation campaign in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Sodemann, Morten

    2005-01-01

    for the 6103 children less than 5 years of age in the Bandim Health Project's study area in Guinea-Bissau. Survival was ascertained through regular surveillance from March 1998 until the beginning of the war on June 7, 1998, the end of 1998, or the end of 1999, respectively. The child register was linked...... was not significant for all children under 5 years of age (mortality ratio (MR)=0.46 (0.18-1.15)). However, oral polio vaccination was associated with a beneficial effect for children under 6 months of age at the time of the campaign, the mortality ratio being 0.09 (95% CI 0.01-0.85) in the 3 months before the war.......28-0.69)) and no effect of oral polio vaccine was measurable in this age group. The effect of polio vaccine among children less than 6 months of age could be due to selection bias but might also represent a non-specific beneficial immune stimulation and there is nothing to suggest that OPV might have a negative effect...

  19. Health Beliefs and Perceptions of Trachoma in Communities on the Bijagos Archipelago of Guinea Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Katie; Hutchins, Harry; Baio, Aramata; Cassama, Eunice; Nabicassa, Meno; Bailey, Robin; Last, Anna R

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization aims to eliminate blinding trachoma by 2020 using the SAFE strategy: Surgery for trichiasis, Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness and Environmental improvement. Trachoma is hyperendemic on the remote Bijagos Archipelago of Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Sociocultural factors remain unexplored here, despite their potential impact on disease control, particularly through the "F" and "E" aspects. By examining these, we aim to illuminate this population's unreported health beliefs, hygiene behaviors and disease perceptions. This understanding will help to optimize future public health interventions, and guide the distribution of limited healthcare resources. Two unmatched interview series were conducted 1 year apart on Bubaque Island in the Bijagos Archipelago; one in rural villages using purposive snowball sampling, the other in a semi-urban settlement, using random-cluster sampling. Interviews were conducted and recorded in Kriolu, the local dialect, by a supervised local field assistant before translation into English for conventional content analysis. Trachoma was unheard of in either series, despite ongoing local trachoma research. A heterogeneous range of disease etiology and preventative measures were suggested, but the importance of hygiene was more widely reported by semi-urban interviewees. Although western medicine was well regarded, traditional practices continued, particularly in the rural populations. Differences in knowledge, beliefs and behaviors were apparent between the two series. Despite widespread rudimentary knowledge of disease prevention, targeted education might benefit both communities, particularly basic hygiene education for rural communities. Healthcare access should also be improved for rural populations. The impact of these measures could be assessed by future fieldwork.

  20. Determinants of BCG scarification among children in rural Guinea-Bissau: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funch, Katarina M; Thysen, Sanne M; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario L; Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine S; Fisker, Ane B

    2018-01-02

    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination may have beneficial non-specific effects on child survival, the effects being stronger for children developing a scar. In a prospective cohort study, we examined determinants for not developing a BCG scar within 6 months of vaccination. Bandim Health Project (BHP) runs a Health and Demographic Surveillance System site in rural Guinea-Bissau. BHP provides BCG at monthly visits. We studied determinants for not developing a BCG scar using binomial regression models to obtain relative risks (RR). From May 2012 until October 2014, BHP nurses vaccinated 2415 infants with BCG. We assessed BCG scar between 6 and 12 months of age for 2156 (89%) of these children and 2115 (98%) had developed a scar. In comparison, among 785 children BCG vaccinated elsewhere, 622 (79%) had a scar, the RR of not having a scar being 10.91 (7.52-15.85) compared with children vaccinated by BHP. Among children vaccinated by BHP, those receiving the Russian BCG strain were more likely not to develop a scar (RR = 2.98 (1.52-5.81)) compared with children receiving Danish BCG strain. Children with no post-injection wheal or a wheal BCG scar development while nutritional status and socioeconomic status were not. Scarring rate may therefore be a better indicator of vaccination programme performance than coverage.

  1. Chimpanzee oil-palm use in southern Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joana; Barata, André V; Sousa, Cláudia; Casanova, Catarina C N; Vicente, Luís

    2011-05-01

    Cantanhez National Park in southern Guinea-Bissau is a mosaic of forest, mangrove, savanna, and agricultural fields, with a high prevalence of oil-palm trees (Elaeis guineensis). It hosts many different animal species, including the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus). Very little is known about the ecology of chimpanzees inhabiting this area. The main aims of this study were to evaluate chimpanzee nesting behavior, define trends of habitat use, and estimate chimpanzee density in four separate forests by applying the marked nest counts methodology. From the 287 new nests counted, 92% were built in oil-palm trees with a significantly higher frequency of nests in the forest edge than in forest cores. Differences in nest detection rates were observed in the four monitored forests, with two forests being more important for chimpanzee's nesting demands. The number of nests documented in the forests seemed to be correlated with the frequency of other signs of chimpanzee activity. Although chimpanzees selected nests on the forest edge, they were most frequently observed in forest core areas. Constraints associated with estimating chimpanzee density through oil-palm nest counting are discussed. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Local knowledge and perceptions of chimpanzees in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joana; Vicente, Luís; Gippoliti, Spartaco; Casanova, Catarina; Sousa, Cláudia

    2014-02-01

    Our study concerns local knowledge and perceptions of chimpanzees among farming communities within Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau. We submitted a survey questionnaire to 100 people living in four villages in the Park to enquire about their knowledge of chimpanzee ecology and human-chimpanzee interactions. Local farmers live in close contact with chimpanzees, consider them to be more similar to humans than any other species, and attribute special importance to them primarily due to expectations of tourism revenue. Interviewees' responses, as a function of gender, village, and age, were analyzed statistically using non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis). Age influenced responses significantly, while gender and village had no significant effect. Youngsters emphasized morphological aspects of human-chimpanzee similarities, while adults emphasized chimpanzee behavior and narratives about the shared history of humans and chimpanzees. Tourism, conservation, and crop raiding feature prominently in people's reports about chimpanzees. Local people's engagement with conservation and tourism-related activities is likely to allow them to manage not only the costs but also the benefits of conservation, and can in turn inform the expectations built upon tourism. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Characterisation of rotavirus strains among hospitalised and non-hospitalised children in Guinea-Bissau, 2002 A high frequency of mixed infections with serotype G8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Aaby, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In a previous community-based cohort study in Guinea-Bissau from 1996 to 1998, characterisation of rotavirus strains showed a high frequency of less common genotypes such as G8 and G9 and a high proportion of mixed infections.......In a previous community-based cohort study in Guinea-Bissau from 1996 to 1998, characterisation of rotavirus strains showed a high frequency of less common genotypes such as G8 and G9 and a high proportion of mixed infections....

  4. Costing the scaling-up of human resources for health: lessons from Mozambique and Guinea Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dussault Gilles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In the context of the current human resources for health (HRH crisis, the need for comprehensive Human Resources Development Plans (HRDP is acute, especially in resource-scarce sub-Saharan African countries. However, the financial implications of such plans rarely receive due consideration, despite the availability of much advice and examples in the literature on how to conduct HRDP costing. Global initiatives have also been launched recently to standardise costing methodologies and respective tools. Methods This paper reports on two separate experiences of HRDP costing in Mozambique and Guinea Bissau, with the objective to provide an insight into the practice of costing exercises in information-poor settings, as well as to contribute to the existing debate on HRH costing methodologies. The study adopts a case-study approach to analyse the methodologies developed in the two countries, their contexts, policy processes and actors involved. Results From the analysis of the two cases, it emerged that the costing exercises represented an important driver of the HRDP elaboration, which lent credibility to the process, and provided a financial framework within which HRH policies could be discussed. In both cases, bottom-up and country-specific methods were designed to overcome the countries' lack of cost and financing data, as well as to interpret their financial systems. Such an approach also allowed the costing exercises to feed directly into the national planning and budgeting process. Conclusions The authors conclude that bottom-up and country-specific costing methodologies have the potential to serve adequately the multi-faceted purpose of the exercise. It is recognised that standardised tools and methodologies may help reduce local governments' dependency on foreign expertise to conduct the HRDP costing and facilitate regional and international comparisons. However, adopting pre-defined and insufficiently flexible tools may

  5. Plant products used as mosquito repellents in Guinea Bissau, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pålsson, K; Jaenson, T G

    1999-01-15

    By standardized interviews of people in 23 rural villages, in the Oio region of Guinea Bissau, we collected data on which plant species and plant derived products or methods people use to reduce mosquito biting activity. The following plants were used to reduce numbers of mosquitoes indoors at night: fresh or smouldering Hyptis suaveolens Poit. (Lamiaceae), smoke of the bark of Daniellia oliveri Rolfe (Caesalpiniaceae), smoke of the infructescence of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae), smoke of the seed capsules of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. (Mimosaceae), smoke of the leaves of Azadirachta indica A.Juss. (Meliaceae) and Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae), fresh Ocimum canum Sims (Lamiaceae), and fresh Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Caesalpiniaceae). In two field experiments we estimated the 'repellent activity' of certain of these plants and compared their efficacies with those of two commercially available mosquito repellents, i.e. 'positive' controls. In the first experiment we tested: smouldering H. suaveolens (85.4% repellency); fresh H. suaveolens (73.2%); burning of the bark of D. oliveri (74.7%); and smoke of the leaves of Eucalyptus (72.2%). In the second experiment we tested: smouldering H. suaveolens (83.6% repellency); fresh H. suaveolens (66.5%); burning of the bark of D. oliveri (77.9%); smoke of the leaves of A. indica (76.0%); smoke of the infructescence of E. guineensis (69.0%); fresh O. canum (63.6%); and fresh S. occidentalis; (29.4%). All the products tested, except S. occidentalis were significantly more effective than the negative control.

  6. The quest for safe drinking water: an example from Guinea-Bissau (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordalo, Adriano A; Savva-Bordalo, Joana

    2007-07-01

    While humans require water for life, one-sixth of our species lives without access to safe water. In Africa, the situation is particularly acute because of global warming, the progression of the Sahara desert, civil unrest and poor governance, population growth, migration and poverty. In rural areas, the lack of adequate safe water and sanitary infrastructures leaves millions with doubtful water quality, increasing the harshness of daily life. In this paper, a pilot study was conducted during the wet season on Bolama Island (Guinea-Bissau, West Africa), a UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Reserve. Twenty-eight shallow wells, supplying water to most of the population, were sampled for microbiological, physical and chemical water quality characteristics. A ten-parameter water quality index (WQI) adapted to tropical conditions was applied to compare the different wells. About 79% of the wells showed moderate to heavy fecal contamination. From the surveyed parameters, it was found that chemical contamination was less important, although all samples were acidic, with the pH averaging 5.12+/-0.08. The WQI was 43+/-4% (0%-worst; 100%-best quality), showing that the water from the majority of wells was polluted but should be suitable for domestic use after appropriate treatment. At the onset of the wet season, diarrhea represented 11.5% of all medical cases, 92.5% of which were children aged <15. This paper suggests inexpensive steps to reduce the fecal contamination and control the pH in order to increase the potability of the well water and, concomitantly, to raise the living standards of the population in one of the poorest countries of the world.

  7. Seasonal and sex-specific variations in haematological parameters in 4 to 5.5-month-old infants in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, Ole; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Andersen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    were wider and generally higher than those from a US population of comparable age, but neutrophil levels were notably lower in Guinea-Bissau. Conclusions: The study indicated that eosinophil and platelet counts of infants were subject to seasonal variations. The reference ranges for haematological...... values were comparable to other African populations and corroborated that neutropenia regularly occurs in African infants....

  8. Effect of 50 000 IU vitamin A given with BCG vaccine on mortality in infants in Guinea-Bissau: randomised placebo controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, B.R.; Roth, A.; Nante, E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of high dose vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth in an African setting with high infant mortality. Design Randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting Bandim Health Project's demographic surveillance system in Guinea-Bissau, covering appro...

  9. Serial CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte counts and associated mortality in an HIV-2-infected population in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Poulsen, A G; Aaby, P

    1996-01-01

    In an urban community in Guinea-Bissau, we followed a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) seropositive individuals (N = 47) and seronegative controls (N = 82). T-lymphocyte subset determinations were done in 1988, 1990, and 1992. Serial determinations of CD4 percentages, CD8 per...

  10. Both very low- and very high in vitro cytokine responses were associated with infant death in low-birth-weight children from Guinea bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Jensen, Kristoffer J; Erikstrup, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms behind heterologous immunity and non-specific effects of vaccines on mortality are not well understood. We examined associations between cytokine responses and subsequent mortality in low-birth-weight infants in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: A low-birth-weight trial randomize...

  11. The impact of different doses of vitamin A supplementation on male and female mortality. A randomised trial from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakymenko, Dorthe; Benn, Christine S; Martins, Cesario

    2011-01-01

    if diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) was the most recent vaccination. We aimed to test these observations. METHODS: During national immunisations days in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, combining oral polio vaccination and VAS, we randomised 8626 children between 6 months and 5 years of age to receive...

  12. The effect of canopy closure on chimpanzee nest abundance in Lagoas de Cufada National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joana; Casanova, Catarina; Barata, André V; Sousa, Cláudia

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to gather baseline information about chimpanzee nesting and density in Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park (LCNP), in Guinea-Bissau. Old and narrow trails were followed to estimate chimpanzee density through marked-nest counts and to test the effect of canopy closure (woodland savannah, forest with a sparse canopy, and forest with a dense canopy) on nest distribution. Chimpanzee abundance was estimated at 0.79 nest builders/km(2), the lowest among the areas of Guinea-Bissau with currently studied chimpanzee populations. Our data suggest that sub-humid forest with a dense canopy accounts for significantly higher chimpanzee nest abundance (1.50 nests/km of trail) than sub-humid forest with a sparse canopy (0.49 nests/km of trail) or woodland savannah (0.30 nests/km of trail). Dense-canopy forests play an important role in chimpanzee nesting in the patchy and highly humanized landscape of LCNP. The tree species most frequently used for nesting are Dialium guineense (46%) and Elaeis guineensis (28%). E. guineensis contain nests built higher in the canopy, while D. guineense contain nests built at lower heights. Nests observed during baseline sampling and replications suggest seasonal variations in the tree species used for nest building.

  13. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from drinking well water available in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A; Bordalo, A A

    2014-08-01

    The dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the spread of antibiotic resistance genes are a major public health concern worldwide, being even proposed as emerging contaminants. The aquatic environment is a recognized reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes have been recently detected in drinking water. In this study, the water quality and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of heterotrophic culturable bacteria were characterized seasonally in wells that serve the population of Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) as the sole source of water for drinking and other domestic proposes. The results revealed that well water was unfit for human consumption independently of the season, owing to high acidity and heavy fecal contamination. Moreover, potentially pathogenic bacteria, which showed resistance to the most prescribed antibiotics in Guinea-Bissau, were isolated from well water, posing an additional health risk. Our results suggest that well water not only fosters the transmission of potential pathogenic bacteria, but also represents an important reservoir for the proliferation of antibiotic resistant bacteria, that can aggravate the potential to cause disease in a very vulnerable population that has no other alternative but to consume such water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Malaria prevention reduces in-hospital mortality among severely ill tuberculosis patients: a three-step intervention in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Fina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria and Tuberculosis (TB are important causes of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Malaria prevention reduces mortality among HIV patients, pregnant women and children, but its role in TB patients is not clear. In the TB National Reference Center in Guinea-Bissau, admitted patients are in severe clinical conditions and mortality during the rainy season is high. We performed a three-step malaria prevention program to reduce mortality in TB patients during the rainy season. Methods Since 2005 Permethrin treated bed nets were given to every patient. Since 2006 environmental prevention with permethrin derivates was performed both indoor and outdoor during the rainy season. In 2007 cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was added during the rainy season. Care was without charge; health education on malaria prevention was performed weekly. Primary outcomes were death, discharge, drop-out. Results 427, 346, 549 patients were admitted in 2005, 2006, 2007, respectively. Mortality dropped from 26.46% in 2005 to 18.76% in 2007 (p-value 0.003, due to the significant reduction in rainy season mortality (death/discharge ratio: 0.79, 0.55 and 0.26 in 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively; p-value 0.001 while dry season mortality remained constant (0.39, 0.37 and 0.32; p-value 0.647. Costs of malaria prevention were limited: 2€/person. No drop-outs were observed. Health education attendance was 96-99%. Conclusions Malaria prevention in African tertiary care hospitals seems feasible with limited costs. Vector control, personal protection and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis seem to reduce mortality in severely ill TB patients. Prospective randomized trials are needed to confirm our findings in similar settings. Trial registration number Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN83944306

  15. The influence of HLA-types on disease progression among HIV-2 infected patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ditte; Erikstrup, Christian; Jespersen, Sanne

    2018-01-01

    class I and II alleles that may influence the disease progression of HIV-2 infection. DESIGN: Cohort follow-up study. METHODS: We used high resolution HLA typing of DNA from 437 antiretroviral treatment naïve HIV-2 infected patients from the Bissau HIV Cohort, Guinea-Bissau, to identify HLA alleles......OBJECTIVES: HIV-2 is endemic in West Africa and is characterized by lower transmissibility due to lower viral load, and HIV-2 infected persons usually have a slower progression to AIDS. The mechanisms behind the slower disease progression are unknown. The main objective was to identify specific HLA...... with an influence on HIV-2 disease progression. The effect of HLA-type on viral load and CD4 cell count was assessed initially by ranksum-test and t-test, followed by adjusted logistic regression and multivariable linear regression analysis, respectively. RESULTS: Three alleles (HLA-B58:01, HLA-DPB110:01 and HLA...

  16. Clade A HIV-1 Gag-Specific T Cell Responses Are Frequent but Do Not Correlate with Viral Loads in a Cohort of Treatment-Naive HIV-Infected Individuals Living in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Gómez Román, Victor Raúl; Skov Jensen, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    In a phase I clinical trial in Guinea-Bissau, we have tested an immunotherapeutic 33 HIV-1 vaccine candidate in HIV-1-infected subjects (Gómez Román et al., under review).…......In a phase I clinical trial in Guinea-Bissau, we have tested an immunotherapeutic 33 HIV-1 vaccine candidate in HIV-1-infected subjects (Gómez Román et al., under review).…...

  17. The training and professional expectations of medical students in Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrinho, Paulo; Sidat, Mohsin; Fresta, Mário Jorge; Rodrigues, Amabélia; Fronteira, Inês; da Silva, Florinda; Mercer, Hugo; Cabral, Jorge; Dussault, Gilles

    2011-04-07

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the professional expectations of medical students during the 2007-2008 academic year at the public medical schools of Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique, and to identify their social and geographical origins, their professional expectations and difficulties relating to their education and professional future. Data were collected through a standardised questionnaire applied to all medical students registered during the 2007-2008 academic year. Students decide to study medicine at an early age. Relatives and friends seem to have an especially important influence in encouraging, reinforcing and promoting the desire to be a doctor.The degree of feminization of the student population differs among the different countries.Although most medical students are from outside the capital cities, expectations of getting into medical school are already associated with migration from the periphery to the capital city, even before entering medical education.Academic performance is poor. This seems to be related to difficulties in accessing materials, finances and insufficient high school preparation.Medical students recognize the public sector demand but their expectations are to combine public sector practice with private work, in order to improve their earnings. Salary expectations of students vary between the three countries.Approximately 75% want to train as hospital specialists and to follow a hospital-based career. A significant proportion is unsure about their future area of specialization, which for many students is equated with migration to study abroad. Medical education is an important national investment, but the returns obtained are not as efficient as expected. Investments in high-school preparation, tutoring, and infrastructure are likely to have a significant impact on the success rate of medical schools. Special attention should be given to the socialization of students and the role model status of their

  18. Development of BCG Scar and Subsequent Morbidity and Mortality in Rural Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storgaard, Line; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario; Nielsen, Bibi Uhre; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter; Fisker, Ane Bærent

    2015-09-15

    Previous studies have found that BCG vaccination has nonspecific beneficial effects on child survival, especially among children who developed a BCG scar. These studies have mostly been done in settings with a high scar frequency. In rural Guinea-Bissau, many children do not develop a scar; we tested the hypothesis that among BCG-vaccinated children, a vaccination scar was associated with lower mortality and fewer hospital admissions. During 2009-2011, children Health Project's demographic surveillance system had their scar status assessed at semiannual visits. We compared mortality and hospital admission rates of scar-positive and scar-negative BCG-vaccinated children during 6 months of follow-up in Cox proportional hazards models. Among 15 911 BCG-vaccinated children, only 52% had a scar. There were 106 non-injury-related deaths among scar-positive children and 137 among scar-negative children. The mortality rate ratio (MRR) was 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], .56-.96) overall; 0.48 (95% CI, .26-.90) in infancy, 0.69 (95% CI, .45-1.05) in the second year of life, and 0.89 (95% CI, .61-1.31) in the third-fifth year of life. The association between scar positivity and lower mortality differed significantly by cause of death and was strongest for respiratory infections (MRR, 0.20 [95% CI, .07-.55]). There were 99 hospital admissions among scar-positive children and 125 admissions among scar-negative children, resulting in an incidence rate ratio of 0.74 (95% CI, .60-.92). Among BCG-vaccinated children in a setting with low scar prevalence, having a scar is associated with lower mortality and morbidity. BCG scar prevalence may be an important marker of vaccination program quality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Awareness, attitudes and perceptions regarding HIV and PMTCT amongst pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau- a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Noel; Rasmussen, Dlama Nggida; Oliveira, Inês

    2017-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a major cause of maternal and infant mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) strategies have proven effective in decreasing the number of children infected in utero, intrapartum...... and during the breastfeeding period. This qualitative study explores knowledge and perceptions of HIV amongst pregnant women, healthcare workers' experiences of the national PMTCT services, and barriers to PMTCT, during a period of programme scale-up in urban Guinea-Bissau (2010-11). METHODS: In...... in some cases, in particular when the test was performed around the time of delivery. Possible drivers of inadequate counselling included lack of confidentiality, suboptimal healthcare worker training, lack of time, and perceived occupational risk. Demand-side barriers to PMTCT included lack of HIV...

  20. Continued efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as second line treatment for malaria in children in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (S/P) is widely used for treatment of failures following the first line treatment for malaria in Africa. In Guinea-Bissau, it has been recommended as second line therapy by the National Malaria Programme since 1996. In order to monitor any change of the in vivo...... sensitivity, the efficacy of S/P was studied immediately before the introduction of the drug and 6-9 years later. METHODS: Children participating in clinical in vivo studies were given S/P if having late clinical treatment failure following the treatment with quinine, chloroquine, or amodiaquine....../P as second line treatment for uncomplicated malaria has remained unchanged in spite of a relatively high level of genetic markers associated with Plasmodium falciparum resistance to S/P previously found in the area....

  1. Long-term survival in trial of medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida; Whittle, H

    1994-01-01

    A trial of protective efficacy which compared medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine (10(4.6) p.f.u.) from the age of 4 months with the standard Schwarz (SW) measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months was started in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in 1985. Because trials of high......-titre measles vaccine have found increased mortality among female recipients, we examined whether EZ medium-titre vaccine was associated with any long-term impact on mortality, suppression of T-cells, or growth. The mortality rate ratio over 5 years of follow-up was 1.12 for EZ children compared with children...

  2. High prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites among children and adolescents in Guinea-Bissau, Western Africa: no difference between patients and age-matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leicht von Huth, Sebastian; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Kemp, Michael

    Introduction: Guinea-Bissau, Western Africa, is among the poorest countries in the world. Although previous health interventions have improved childhood mortality and –morbidity dramatically, gastrointestinal parasitic infections remain a major health concern. The prevalence and impact...... of these infections is relatively unknown. In the present field study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites among children and adolescents in the capital of Guinea-Bissau, and correlate these findings to age, symptoms and household size. Methods: Patients (1-15 years old) and matched....... Prevalence was dominated by Giardia lamblia (29.9% in patients, 35.0% in controls), Entamoeba spp. (38.0% in patients, 37.2% in controls) and Ancylostoma duodenale (14.03% in patients, 10.1% in controls). Neither symptoms nor household size correlates with the presence of gastrointestinal parasites. However...

  3. Sex-differential effect on infant mortality of oral polio vaccine administered with BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau. A natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The policy to provide oral polio vaccine (OPV) at birth was introduced in low-income countries to increase coverage. The effect of OPV at birth on overall child mortality was never studied. During a trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not availa......-differential effect on mortality. Poliovirus is almost eradicated and OPV at birth contributes little to herd immunity. A randomised study of the effect of OPV at birth on overall mortality in both sexes is warranted.......BACKGROUND: The policy to provide oral polio vaccine (OPV) at birth was introduced in low-income countries to increase coverage. The effect of OPV at birth on overall child mortality was never studied. During a trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth in Guinea-Bissau, OPV...

  4. The Effect of Smallpox and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Vaccination on the Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection in Guinea-Bissau and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieckmann, Andreas; Villumsen, Marie; Jensen, Mette Lundsby

    2017-01-01

    -analysis (aOR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46-0.96). Data from Guinea-Bissau indicated a stronger effect of multiple smallpox vaccination scars (aOR = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.10-0.75) as follows: women, aOR = 0.18 (95% CI, 0.05-0.64); men, aOR = 0.52 (95% CI, 0.12-2.33); sex-differential effect, P = .29. CONCLUSIONS...

  5. Class 1 Integron-Borne, Multiple-Antibiotic Resistance Encoded by a 150-Kilobase Conjugative Plasmid in Epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 Strains Isolated in Guinea-Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Dalsgaard, Anders; Forslund, Anita; Petersen, Andreas; Brown, Derek J.; Dias, Francisco; Monteiro, Serifo; Mølbak, Kåre; Aaby, Peter; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Sandström, Anita

    2000-01-01

    In the 1996–1997 cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau, surveillance for antimicrobial resistance showed the emergence of a multidrug-resistant strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 during the course of the epidemic. The strain was resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, furazolidone, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole. Concomitant with the emergence of this strain, we observed a resurgence in the number of registered cholera cases as well as an increase in the case fatality ...

  6. Effects of the introduction of new vaccines in Guinea-Bissau on vaccine coverage, vaccine timeliness, and child survival: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Fisker, Ane B; Hornshøj, Linda; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Balde, Ibraima; Fernandes, Manuel; Benn, Christine S; Aaby, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2008, the GAVI Alliance funded the introduction of new vaccines (including pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis [DTP] plus hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens) in Guinea-Bissau. The introduction was accompanied by increased vaccination outreach services and a more restrictive wastage policy, including only vaccinating children younger than 12 months. We assessed coverage of all vaccines in the Expanded Program on Immunizations before and after the new vac...

  7. Contrasting female-male mortality ratios after routine vaccinations with pentavalent vaccine versus measles and yellow fever vaccine. A cohort study from urban Guinea-Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Fisker, Ane B.; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq; Djana, Queba; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario L.; Benn, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In addition to protection against the target diseases, vaccines may have non-specific effects (NSEs). Measles vaccine (MV) has beneficial NSEs, providing protection against non-measles deaths, most so for girls. By contrast, though protecting against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, DTP vaccine is associated with increased female mortality relative to male mortality. In 2008, Guinea-Bissau replaced DTP with the DTP-containing pentavalent vaccine (Penta; DTP-H. influenza type B-H...

  8. Autosomal SNPs study of a population sample from Southern Portugal and from a sample of immigrants from Guinea-Bissau residing in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dario, Paulo; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Ribeiro, Teresa; Porto, Maria João; Dias, Deodália; Corte Real, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been comprehensively investigated in forensic research due to their usefulness in certain circumstances in complementing short tandem repeats (STRs) analysis, or even for use on their own when analysis of STRs fails. However, as with STRs, in order to properly use SNP markers in forensic casuistic we need to understand the population and forensic parameters in question. As a result of Portugal's colonial history during the time of empire, and the subsequent process of decolonization, some African individuals migrated to Portugal, giving rise to large African and African-descendent communities. One of these groups is the community originating from Guinea-Bissau, that in 2014, was enumerated to consist of more than 17,700 individuals with official residency status, more than the third major city of Guinea-Bissau. In order to study the population and forensic parameters mentioned above for the two populations important to our casuistic, a total of 142 unrelated individuals from the South of Portugal and 90 immigrants from Guinea-Bissau (equally non related and all residing in Portugal) were typed with SNaPshot™ assay for all 52 loci included in the SNPforID 52plex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Decline in overall, smear-negative and HIV-positive TB incidence while smear-positive incidence stays stable in Guinea-Bissau 2004-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvik, G; Rudolf, F; Vieira, F

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To calculate Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in Guinea-Bissau over an 8-year period. METHODS: Since 2003, a surveillance system has registered all TB cases in six suburban districts of Bissau. In this population-based prospective follow-up study, 1205 cases of pulmonary TB were...... identified between January 2004 and December 2011. Incidence rates were calculated using census data from the Bandim Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). RESULTS: The overall incidence of pulmonary TB was 279 per 100 000 person-years of observation; the male incidence being 385, and the female...... 191. TB incidence rates increased significantly with age in both sexes, regardless of smear or HIV status. Despite a peak with unknown cause of 352 per 100 000 in 2007, the overall incidence of pulmonary TB declined over the period. The incidence of HIV infected TB cases declined significantly from...

  10. Characterization of incompletely typed rotavirus strains from Guinea-Bissau: identification of G8 and G9 types and a high frequency of mixed infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, TK; Page, NA; Griffin, DD

    2003-01-01

    Among 167 rotavirus specimens collected from young children in a suburban area of Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, from 1996 to 1998, most identifiable strains belonged to the uncommon P[6], G2 type and approximately 50% remained incompletely typed. In the present study, 76 such strains were further......%, respectively, identical to other African G8 and G9 strains. Multiple G and/or P types were identified at a high frequency (59%), including two previously undescribed mixed infections, P[4]P[6], G2G8 and P[4]P[6], G2G9. These mixed infections most likely represent naturally occurring reassortance of rotavirus......] and P[6] primer binding sites were detected. These findings highlight the need for regular evaluation of the multiplex primer PCR method and typing primers. The high frequency of uncommon as well as reassortant rotavirus strains in countries where rotavirus is an important cause of child mortality...

  11. Characterization of incompletely typed rotavirus strains from Guinea-Bissau: identification of G8 and G9 types and a high frequency of mixed infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, TK; Page, NA; Griffin, DD

    2003-01-01

    Among 167 rotavirus specimens collected from young children in a suburban area of Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, from 1996 to 1998, most identifiable strains belonged to the uncommon P[6], G2 type and approximately 50% remained incompletely typed. In the present study, 76 such strains were further......%, respectively, identical to other African G8 and G9 strains. Multiple G and/or P types were identified at a high frequency (59%), including two previously undescribed mixed infections, P[4]P[6], G2G8 and P[4]P[6], G2G9. These mixed infections most likely represent naturally occurring reassortance of rotavirus...... strains. Detection of such strains among the previously incompletely typed strains indicates a potential underestimation of mixed infections, if only a standard multiplex PCR procedure is followed. Furthermore cross-priming of the G3 primer with the G8 primer binding site and silent mutations at the P[4...

  12. Contextual and psychosocial factors predicting Ebola prevention behaviours using the RANAS approach to behaviour change in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma, Anna E; Slekiene, Jurgita; von Medeazza, Gregor; Asplund, Fredrik; Cardoso, Placido; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2017-05-15

    The outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa in December 2013 was the largest Ebola outbreak in history. This study aimed to measure the underlying contextual and psychosocial factors of intentions to perform Ebola prevention behaviours (not touching people who might be suffering from Ebola, reporting suspected cases to the National Ebola Hotline, NEH) in Guinea-Bissau. Geographical location, cross-border market activities, poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions, and burial practices in some communities pose a serious risk in terms of potential EVD outbreak and seriously hamper its prevention in Guinea-Bissau. In July and August 2015, quantitative data from 1369 respondents were gathered by structured face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire was based on the psychosocial factors of the RANAS (risks, attitudes, norms, abilities, and self-regulation) model. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression analyses. The most important predictors for the intention to call the NEH were believing that calling the Hotline would help the infected person, perceiving that important members from the household approve of calling the Hotline, thinking that calling the Hotline is something they should do, and believing that it is important to call the Hotline to report a suspected case. For the intention not to touch someone who might be suffering from Ebola, the most important predictors were health knowledge, the perception of risk with regard to touching a person who might be suffering from Ebola, and the belief that they were able not to touch a possibly infected person. Age in years was the only significant contextual predictor for one of the two behavioural intentions, the intention to call the Hotline. It seems that younger people are more likely to use a service like the NEH than older people. Strengths and gaps were identified in the study population in relation to the intention to perform prevention behaviours. These call for innovative

  13. Contextual and psychosocial factors predicting Ebola prevention behaviours using the RANAS approach to behaviour change in Guinea-Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Gamma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD in West Africa in December 2013 was the largest Ebola outbreak in history. This study aimed to measure the underlying contextual and psychosocial factors of intentions to perform Ebola prevention behaviours (not touching people who might be suffering from Ebola, reporting suspected cases to the National Ebola Hotline, NEH in Guinea-Bissau. Geographical location, cross-border market activities, poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH conditions, and burial practices in some communities pose a serious risk in terms of potential EVD outbreak and seriously hamper its prevention in Guinea-Bissau. Methods In July and August 2015, quantitative data from 1369 respondents were gathered by structured face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire was based on the psychosocial factors of the RANAS (risks, attitudes, norms, abilities, and self-regulation model. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression analyses. Results The most important predictors for the intention to call the NEH were believing that calling the Hotline would help the infected person, perceiving that important members from the household approve of calling the Hotline, thinking that calling the Hotline is something they should do, and believing that it is important to call the Hotline to report a suspected case. For the intention not to touch someone who might be suffering from Ebola, the most important predictors were health knowledge, the perception of risk with regard to touching a person who might be suffering from Ebola, and the belief that they were able not to touch a possibly infected person. Age in years was the only significant contextual predictor for one of the two behavioural intentions, the intention to call the Hotline. It seems that younger people are more likely to use a service like the NEH than older people. Conclusions Strengths and gaps were identified in the study population in relation to the

  14. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito; Garly, May-Lill; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Biai, Sidu; Lisse, Ida M; Whittle, Hilton; Benn, Christine S

    2010-04-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys. Urban area in Guinea-Bissau, with a demographic surveillance system and registration of all pediatric hospitalizations. Guinea-Bissau experienced a large outbreak of measles infection in 2003-2004. We used hospital and community data to examine the impact of other vaccines on the risk of hospitalizations for measles infection. Vaccine efficacy (VE) against hospitalization for children aged 6 to 59 months of age was examined. We assessed whether VE depended on vaccination status for other vaccines and whether the pattern differed for boys and girls. Sex-specific vaccine efficacy against hospitalization for children aged 6 to 59 months of age. The VE depended on sex and the sequence of vaccinations. The VE of MV against hospitalization for measles was better for girls than for boys. Among children who had received MV as the most recent vaccine VE against hospitalization was as high as 96% for girls, but only 81% for boys (P = 0.002). Among children who had received DTP simultaneously with MV or DTP after MV, VE declined for girls (91%) and increased for boys (90%). Compared with having received MV as most recent vaccination, DTP simultaneously with MV or DTP after MV improved the efficacy significantly for boys and the effect was significantly different for boys and girls (P = 0.023). The female-male risk ratio of hospitalization varied significantly, depending on the most recent vaccination (P = 0.014); it was 0.28 (0.11-0.68) for MV alone, but 1.21 (0.82-1.77) for DTP but no MV, and 1.13 (0.58-2.18) for DTP simultaneously with MV or after MV. Among MV-unvaccinated children, BCG-vaccinated girls had a lower risk of measles hospitalization than DTP-vaccinated girls (RR=0.0 (0.0-0.99), exact test).

  15. Diet and feeding ecology of the wintering shorebird assemblage in the Bijagós archipelago, Guinea-Bissau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Pedro M.; Catry, Teresa; Granadeiro, José P.

    2017-10-01

    Detailed data on shorebird feeding ecology is mostly lacking for tropical wintering sites, limiting our understanding of trophic interactions among shorebird species and their prey. Using dropping analysis and video recordings we compared the diet of eight shorebird species wintering in the Bijagós archipelago, Guinea-Bissau, one of the most important but also least known coastal sites for shorebirds in Africa. We also calculated niche width and foraging niche overlap among these eight species. Whimbrel, grey plover and redshank fed mainly on fiddler crabs, confirming previous observations made in the Bijagós. A large proportion of the diet of bar-tailed godwit, curlew sandpiper, sanderling and ringed plover was composed of polychaetes, particularly Nereis and Glycera, and also Marphysa in the case of larger shorebirds. Red knots fed mainly on the bivalve Dosinia isocardia. All species showed narrow trophic niches, but particularly so whimbrel, red knot, grey plover and redshank. Niche overlap among shorebird species was mostly insignificant, with the exception of species that fed mainly on fiddler crab. Low levels of niche overlap suggest that shorebirds are able to partition the available food resources in the Bijagós despite the reported low macrobenthic densities in the area. In fact, observational data for bar-tailed godwit suggests resource partitioning even occurs within species, with dietary differences among sexes.

  16. Effects of the introduction of new vaccines in Guinea-Bissau on vaccine coverage, vaccine timeliness, and child survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Hornshøj, Linda; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2014-01-01

    used data from the Bandim Health Project, which has monitored vaccination status and mortality in randomly selected village clusters in Guinea-Bissau since 1990. We assessed the change in vaccination coverage using cohort data from children born in 2007 and 2009; analysed the proportion of children who...... was 53% (468 of 878) in the 2007 cohort and 53% (467 of 879) in the 2009 cohort (relative risk [RR] 1·00, 95% CI 0·89-1·11). Coverage of DTP-3 and pentavalent-3 increased from 73% (644 of 878) in 2007 to 81% (712 of 879) in 2009 (RR 1·10, 95% CI 1·04 -1·17); by contrast, the coverage of measles...... vaccination declined from 71% (620 of 878) to 66% (577 of 879; RR 0·93, 0·85-1·01). The effect of the changes was significantly different for DTP-3 coverage compared with measles vaccine coverage (p=0·002). After 12 months of age, the adjusted mortality rate ratio was 0·71 (95% CI 0·56-0·90) for children who...

  17. Lack of awareness of treatment failure among HIV-1-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau - a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida; da Silva Té, David; Correira, Faustino Gomes; Laursen, Alex Lund; Erikstrup, Christian; Østergaard, Lars; Wejse, Christian

    2015-01-01

    With more people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), the need to detect treatment failure and switch to second-line ART has also increased. We assessed CD4 cell counts (as a marker of treatment failure), determined the rate of switching to second-line treatment and evaluated mortality related to treatment failure among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau. In this retrospective cohort study, adult patients infected with HIV-1 receiving ≥6 months of ART at an HIV clinic in Bissau were included from June 2005 to July 2014 and followed until January 2015. Treatment failure was defined as 1) a fall in CD4 count to baseline (or below) or 2) CD4 levels persistently below 100 cells/µL after ≥6 months of ART. Cox hazard models, with time since six months of ART as the time-varying coefficient, were used to estimate the hazard ratio for death and loss to follow-up. We assessed 1,591 HIV-1-infected patients for immunological treatment failure. Treatment failure could not be determined in 594 patients (37.3%) because of missing CD4 cell counts. Among the remaining 997 patients, 393 (39.4%) experienced failure. Only 39 patients (9.9%) with failure were switched from first- to second-line ART. The overall switching rate was 3.1 per 100 person-years. Mortality rate was higher in patients with than without treatment failure, with adjusted hazard rate ratios (HRRs) 10.0 (95% CI: 0.9-107.8), 7.6 (95% CI: 1.6-35.5) and 3.1 (95% CI: 1.5-6.3) in the first, second and following years, respectively. During the first year of follow-up, patients experiencing treatment failure had a higher risk of being lost to follow-up than patients not experiencing treatment failure (adjusted HRR 4.4; 95% CI: 1.7-11.8). We found a high rate of treatment failure, an alarmingly high number of patients for whom treatment failure could not be assessed, and a low rate of switching to a second-line therapy. These factors could lead to an increased risk of resistance development and excess

  18. Lack of awareness of treatment failure among HIV-1-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau – a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida; da Silva Té, David; Correira, Faustino Gomes; Laursen, Alex Lund; Erikstrup, Christian; Østergaard, Lars; Wejse, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction With more people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), the need to detect treatment failure and switch to second-line ART has also increased. We assessed CD4 cell counts (as a marker of treatment failure), determined the rate of switching to second-line treatment and evaluated mortality related to treatment failure among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, adult patients infected with HIV-1 receiving ≥6 months of ART at an HIV clinic in Bissau were included from June 2005 to July 2014 and followed until January 2015. Treatment failure was defined as 1) a fall in CD4 count to baseline (or below) or 2) CD4 levels persistently below 100 cells/µL after ≥6 months of ART. Cox hazard models, with time since six months of ART as the time-varying coefficient, were used to estimate the hazard ratio for death and loss to follow-up. Results We assessed 1,591 HIV-1-infected patients for immunological treatment failure. Treatment failure could not be determined in 594 patients (37.3%) because of missing CD4 cell counts. Among the remaining 997 patients, 393 (39.4%) experienced failure. Only 39 patients (9.9%) with failure were switched from first- to second-line ART. The overall switching rate was 3.1 per 100 person-years. Mortality rate was higher in patients with than without treatment failure, with adjusted hazard rate ratios (HRRs) 10.0 (95% CI: 0.9–107.8), 7.6 (95% CI: 1.6–35.5) and 3.1 (95% CI: 1.5–6.3) in the first, second and following years, respectively. During the first year of follow-up, patients experiencing treatment failure had a higher risk of being lost to follow-up than patients not experiencing treatment failure (adjusted HRR 4.4; 95% CI: 1.7–11.8). Conclusions We found a high rate of treatment failure, an alarmingly high number of patients for whom treatment failure could not be assessed, and a low rate of switching to a second-line therapy. These factors could lead to an increased

  19. Clinical presentation and opportunistic infections in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Jespersen, Sanne; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2016-01-01

    HIV-2 is prevalent. In this study, we aimed to characterize the clinical presentations among HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, newly diagnosed HIV patients attending the HIV outpatient clinic at Hospital Nacional Sim~ao Mendes in Guinea......-Bissau were enrolled. Demographical and clinical data were collected and compared between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. Results: A total of 169 patients (76% HIV-1, 17% HIV-2 and 6% HIV 1/2) were included in the study between 21 March 2012 and 14 December 2012. HIV-1 seropositive...

  20. Knowledge and reported practices of men and women on maternal and child health in rural Guinea Bissau: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Vera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Participatory health education interventions and/or community-based primary health care in remote regions can improve child survival. The most recent data from Guinea Bissau shows that the country ranks 5th from bottom globally with an under-five mortality rate of 198 per 1000 live births in 2007. EPICS (Enabling Parents to Increase Child Survival is a cluster randomised trial, which is currently running in rural areas of southern Guinea Bissau. It aims to evaluate whether an intervention package can generate a rapid and cost-effective reduction in under-five child mortality. The purpose of the study described here was to understand levels of knowledge on child health and treatment-seeking and preventative behaviours in southern Guinea Bissau in order to develop an effective health education component for the EPICS trial. The study also aimed to assess the effect of gender and ethnicity on knowledge and behaviour. Methods Women and men were interviewed in their households using a structured questionnaire. Characteristics of the households and of the interviewed women and men were tabulated. The number of correct answers given to the health knowledge and practice questions and their percentage distribution were tabulated by items and by gender. An overall health knowledge score was derived. Results There are low levels of appropriate knowledge on child health, some inappropriate practices and generally low vaccination coverage. Health knowledge scores improve significantly amongst those who have accessed higher education. Differences in health knowledge between women and men become insignificant once age and education are accounted for. Conclusions Health education activities should be an integral part of a package to improve child survival in rural Guinea Bissau. These activities should focus on diarrhoea, malaria, pneumonia, pregnancy, delivery, neonatal care and vaccination coverage, as these are areas where knowledge and

  1. Trends and determinants of mortality in women of reproductive age in rural Guinea-Bissau, West Africa--a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mane, Maram; Fisker, Ane B; Ravn, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    to 49 years living in the Bandim Health Project's rural Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in 5 regions of Guinea-Bissau from 1996 to 2007. Information on in- and out-migration and deaths were collected through the HDSS routine procedures. We assessed the trends in mortality...... and the associated determinants using Cox regression models. RESULTS: We followed 27,185 WRA for 141,693 person-years-at-risk (PYO) among whom 9,093 moved out and 1,006 died. Overall standardized mortality rate was 759 per 100,000 PYO. WRA mortality did not decline, but three periods could be distinguished: a stable...

  2. Territorial and land-use rights perspectives on human-chimpanzee-elephant coexistence in West Africa (Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, nineteenth to twenty-first centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblan, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    The first part of this article compares the distribution of chimpanzee and elephant populations in reaction to human territorial dynamics of West African trade in parts of nineteenth century Guinea, Guinea-Bissau and Senegal. It answers for this specific region the question of whether present-day situations of close chimpanzee-human spatial proximity are stable or only temporary phenomena in long-term processes of environmental change, and shows that conservation policies centred on either of these two "flagship" species carry radically different ecological, political and territorial implications. The second part shifts to local-level perspectives on human-chimpanzee relationships, emphasizing the land rights contentions and misunderstandings created by the implementation of protected areas at Bossou and in the Boké region of Guinea. These case studies help to look at acts of resistance and local interpretations of primate conservation policies as opportunities to reconsider what is being protected, for what purpose, as whose heritage, and to move towards new and more legitimate opportunities for the implementation of conservation policies.

  3. Reduced case fatality among hospitalized children during a war in Guinea-Bissau: a lesson in equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodemann, M; Veirum, J; Biai, S; Nielsen, J; Bale, C; Skytte Jakobsen, M; Gustafson, P; Aaby, P

    2004-07-01

    During a recent armed conflict in Guinea-Bissau, we observed a marked decline in the case fatality among hospitalized children at the only paediatric department in the country. To analyse the causes behind the observed fall in case fatality. All children hospitalized at the only paediatric department in the capital of Guinea-Bissau. The war cohort comprised all children hospitalized during the war, which lasted from June 1998 to May 1999, and the peace cohort comprised all children hospitalized in the year preceding the war. As part of a longitudinal community study, we also registered all children being hospitalized from the Bandim Health Project's study area, including routinely collected information on socio-economic background factors. The war cohort was compared with the peace cohort in terms of determinants for hospital case fatality. Through information in the community register, we examined post-hospital mortality in the 2 wk after discharge as well as socio-economic differences in recruitment during the war. Hospital case fatality was estimated by odds ratios and compared by multiple logistic regression. Community mortality risk was estimated by deaths per person years. The case fatality among children aged 0-14 y fell during the war (age-adjusted OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.50-0.68). There was a uniform reduction in case fatality among children hospitalized less than 7 d, while we observed no decline among children hospitalized longer. There were more children per bed during the war and mean hospitalization time was shorter, and post-discharge mortality also fell (mortality ratio (MR) = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.40-0.83). Adjustment for socio-economic confounders in recruitment during the war period made no difference to the estimated decline in case fatality. The decline in case fatality at the hospital was not explained by a general decline in mortality. Compared with the preceding year, the mortality ratio was 1.34 (1.20-1.51) in the Bandim Health Project's study area

  4. The symbolic efficacy of medicinal plants: practices, knowledge, and religious beliefs amongst the Nalu healers of Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão-Moreira, Amélia

    2016-06-17

    In attempting to understand how the use of medicinal plants is symbolically valued and transformed according to specific cosmologies, we gain valuable insight into the ethnopharmacologial practices, in terms of the major role played by healers, as custodians of local ethnobotanical knowledge, but also as ritual masters. Thus, the goal of this paper is to understand how medicinal plants are used differently depending on a combination between the healers' field of expertise and personal history on the one hand, and the diversified religious and symbolical frameworks on the other. This essay is based on intense ethnographical research carried out amongst the Nalu people of Guinea-Bissau. Methods included participant observation and semi-directed interviews with six locally-renown healers (four men and two women). The progress of their work and the changes operated within the sets of beliefs associated with ethnopharmacological practices were registered by means of repeated field visits. A total of 98 species and 147 uses are accounted for, as well as a description of the plant parts that were used, as well as the methods of preparation and application according to the different healers' specialized practices. At the same time, this research describes those processes based on pre-Islamic and Muslim cosmologies through which medicinal plants are accorded their value, and treatments are granted their symbolic efficiency. Medicinal plants are valued differently in the pre-Islamic medicine and in the medicine practiced by Islamic masters. The increasing relevance of Islam within this context has affected the symbolic framework of ethnopharmacological practices. Nevertheless, the endurance of those processes by which symbolic efficiency is attributed to local treatments based on plants is explained not only by the syncretic nature of African Islam, but also by the fact that patients adopt different therapeutic pathways simultaneously.

  5. Does the effect of vitamin A supplements depend on vaccination status? An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Bale, Carlito; Balde, Ibraima; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Agergaard, Jane; Martins, Cesario; Bibby, Bo M; Benn, Christine S

    2012-01-01

    Objective Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) is estimated to reduce all-cause mortality by 24%. Previous studies indicate that the effect of VAS may vary with vaccination status. The authors evaluated the effect of VAS provided in campaigns on child survival overall and by sex and vaccination status at the time of supplementation. Design Observational cohort study. Setting and participants The study was conducted in the urban study area of the Bandim Health Project in Guinea-Bissau. The authors documented participation or non-participation in two national vitamin A campaigns in December 2007 and July 2008 for children between 6 and 35 months of age. Vaccination status was ascertained by inspection of vaccination cards. All children were followed prospectively. Outcome measures Mortality rates for supplemented and non-supplemented children were compared in Cox models providing mortality rate ratios (MRRs). Results The authors obtained information from 93% of 5567 children in 2007 and 90% of 5799 children in 2008. The VAS coverage was 58% in 2007 and 68% in 2008. Mortality in the supplemented group was 1.5% (44 deaths/2873 person-years) and 1.6% (20 deaths/1260 person-years) in the non-supplemented group (adjusted MRR=0.78 (0.46; 1.34)). The effect was similar in boys and girls. Vaccination cards were seen for 86% in 2007 and 84% in 2008. The effect of VAS in children who had measles vaccine as their last vaccine (2814 children, adjusted MRR=0.34 (0.14; 0.85)) differed from the effect in children who had diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis vaccine as their last vaccine (3680 children, adjusted MRR=1.29 (0.52; 3.22), p=0.04 for interaction). Conclusion The effect of VAS differed by most recent vaccination, being beneficial after measles vaccine but not after diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis vaccine. PMID:22240648

  6. Short term advantages of a public-private partnership for tuberculosis in Guinea bissau: reduction of mortality and increased diagnostic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fina; Sanha, Mamadu Saliu; Riccardi, Fabio; Colombatti, Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is widespread in Africa, but weak health systems in developing countries, often display poor quality of care with delays in case identification, irrational therapy and drug shortage, clinical mismanagement, unnecessary expenditures for patients, reduced adherence and increased mortality. Public-private partnership has demonstrated to increase TB case detection, but less is known about its effects on quality of care, mortality and costs for hospitalized TB patients. Clinical outcomes and costs for TB patients at the TB National Reference Center of Bissau, in Guinea Bissau, West Africa, were determined during the first 5 months of the public-private management and compared to the ones of previous years when the hospitals was under direct Government's management. 215 (2009-2010) and 194 (2012-2013) patients were admitted, respectively. Improvement (pPublic-private partnerships displays significant short term benefits in National TB reference centers, even in post-conflict countries. Further studies could aid in determining the overall long term benefits of this type of cooperation, and the specific characteristic of TB and concomitant hematologic and infectious diseases in TB admitted patients.

  7. HTLV-1 in rural Guinea-Bissau: prevalence, incidence and a continued association with HIV between 1990 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarge-Njie Ramu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTLV-1 is endemic in Guinea-Bissau, and the highest prevalence in the adult population (5.2% was observed in a rural area, Caió, in 1990. HIV-1 and HIV-2 are both prevalent in this area as well. Cross-sectional associations have been reported for HTLV-1 with HIV infection, but the trends in prevalence of HTLV-1 and HIV associations are largely unknown, especially in Sub Saharan Africa. In the current study, data from three cross-sectional community surveys performed in 1990, 1997 and 2007, were used to assess changes in HTLV-1 prevalence, incidence and its associations with HIV-1 and HIV-2 and potential risk factors. Results HTLV-1 prevalence was 5.2% in 1990, 5.9% in 1997 and 4.6% in 2007. Prevalence was higher among women than men in all 3 surveys and increased with age. The Odds Ratio (OR of being infected with HTLV-1 was significantly higher for HIV positive subjects in all surveys after adjustment for potential confounding factors. The risk of HTLV-1 infection was higher in subjects with an HTLV-1 positive mother versus an uninfected mother (OR 4.6, CI 2.6-8.0. The HTLV-1 incidence was stable between 1990-1997 (Incidence Rate (IR 1.8/1,000 pyo and 1997-2007 (IR 1.6/1,000 pyo (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR 0.9, CI 0.4-1.7. The incidence of HTLV-1 among HIV-positive individuals was higher compared to HIV negative individuals (IRR 2.5, CI 1.0-6.2, while the HIV incidence did not differ by HTLV-1 status (IRR 1.2, CI 0.5-2.7. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the largest community based study that has reported on HTLV-1 prevalence and associations with HIV. HTLV-1 is endemic in this rural community in West Africa with a stable incidence and a high prevalence. The prevalence increases with age and is higher in women than men. HTLV-1 infection is associated with HIV infection, and longitudinal data indicate HIV infection may be a risk factor for acquiring HTLV-1, but not vice versa. Mother to child transmission is likely to

  8. Molecular epidemiology of endemic human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 in a rural community in Guinea-Bissau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla van Tienen

    Full Text Available Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1 infection causes lethal adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and severely debilitating HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP in up to 5% of infected adults. HTLV-1 is endemic in parts of Africa and the highest prevalence in West Africa (5% has been reported in Caio, a rural area in the North-West of Guinea-Bissau. It is not known which HTLV-1 variants are present in this community. Sequence data can provide insights in the molecular epidemiology and help to understand the origin and spread of HTLV-1.To gain insight into the molecular diversity of HTLV-1 in West Africa.HTLV-1 infected individuals were identified in community surveys between 1990-2007. The complete Long Terminal Repeat (LTR and p24 coding region of HTLV-1 was sequenced from infected subjects. Socio-demographic data were obtained from community census and from interviews performed by fieldworkers. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to characterize the relationship between the Caio HTLV-1 and HTLV-1 from other parts of the world.LTR and p24 sequences were obtained from 72 individuals (36 LTR, 24 p24 only and 12 both. Consistent with the low evolutionary change of HTLV-1, many of the sequences from unrelated individuals showed 100% nucleotide identity. Most (45 of 46 of the LTR sequences clustered with the Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 subtype 1a, subgroup D (1aD. LTR and p24 sequences from two subjects were divergent and formed a significant cluster with HTLV-1 subtype 1g, and with the most divergent African Simian T-cell Lymphotropic Virus, Tan90.The Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 1aD predominates in this rural West African community. However, HTLV-1 subtype 1g is also present. This subtype has not been described before in West Africa and may be more widespread than previously thought. These data are in line with the hypothesis that multiple monkey-to-man zoonotic events are contributing to HTLV-1 diversity.

  9. Effect of an Early Dose of Measles Vaccine on Morbidity Between 18 Weeks and 9 Months of Age: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Vu An; Biering-Sorensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children in Guinea-Bissau receive measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age, but studies have shown that an additional dose before 9 months of age might have beneficial nonspecific effects. Within a randomized trial designed to examine nonspecific effects of early MV receipt on mortality......). Children were visited weekly from enrollment to age 9 months; the mother reported morbidity, and the field assistants examined the children. Using Cox and binomial regression models, we compared the 2 randomization groups. Results: Among the 1592 children, early measles vaccination was not associated......, we conducted a substudy to investigate the effect of early MV receipt on morbidity. Methods: Children were randomly assigned at a ratio of 2: 1 to receive 2 doses of MVat 18 weeks and age 9 months (intervention group) or 1 dose of MV at age 9 months, in accordance with current practice (control group...

  10. Temporal and seasonal changes of genetic polymorphisms associated with altered drug susceptibility to chloroquine, lumefantrine and quinine in Guinea-Bissau between 2003 and 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovel, Irina Tatiana; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rombo, Lars

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guinea-Bissau, West-Africa introduced artemether-lumefantrine in 2008 but quinine has also been commonly prescribed for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. An efficacious high-dose chloroquine treatment regimen was used previously. Temporal and seasonal changes...... of genetic polymorphisms associated with altered drug susceptibility to chloroquine, lumefantrine and quinine are described. METHODS: Pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 gene copy numbers, N86Y, Y184F and 1034-1246 sequences were determined using PCR-based methods. Blood samples came from virtually all (n=1806) children aged.......001). CONCLUSIONS: Following the discontinuation of an effective chloroquine regimen highly artemether-lumefantrine susceptible P. falciparum (with pfcrt 76T) accumulated possibly due to suboptimal use of quinine and despite a fitness cost linked to 76T....

  11. Different effects of BCG strains - A natural experiment evaluating the impact of the Danish and the Russian BCG strains on morbidity and scar formation in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, H; Byberg, S; Andersen, Morten Bjerregaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine strains may have different non-specific effects. We assessed the effect of two BCG strains (Danish and Russian) on childhood morbidity and BCG scarification in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: During 2011-2013, infants in the Bandim Health Project......'s urban study area received the Danish or Russian BCG in a natural experiment. Health center consultations were registered at point of care and scar status and size at age 4½ months. We assessed the effect of strain on consultation rates between vaccination and age 45days in Cox proportional hazards...... models. Scar prevalence and size were compared using binomial regression and ranksum tests. RESULTS: Among 1206 children, 18% received Danish BCG (n=215) and 82% Russian BCG (n=991). The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for consultations was 0.94 (95% CI 0.60-1.46) for Danish BCG compared with Russian BCG...

  12. Effect of an Early Dose of Measles Vaccine on Morbidity Between 18 Weeks and 9 Months of Age: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Vu An; Biering-Sorensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children in Guinea-Bissau receive measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age, but studies have shown that an additional dose before 9 months of age might have beneficial nonspecific effects. Within a randomized trial designed to examine nonspecific effects of early MV receipt on mortality......). Children were visited weekly from enrollment to age 9 months; the mother reported morbidity, and the field assistants examined the children. Using Cox and binomial regression models, we compared the 2 randomization groups. Results: Among the 1592 children, early measles vaccination was not associated...... with a higher risk of the well-known adverse events of fever, rash, and convulsions within the first 14 days. From 15 days after randomization to age 9 months, early measles vaccination was associated with reductions in maternally reported diarrhea (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI],.82-. 97...

  13. Effect of 50 000 IU vitamin A given with BCG vaccine on mortality in infants in Guinea-Bissau: randomised placebo controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, B.R.; Roth, A.; Nante, E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of high dose vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth in an African setting with high infant mortality. Design Randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting Bandim Health Project's demographic surveillance system in Guinea-Bissau, covering...... approximately 90 000 inhabitants. Participants 4345 infants due to receive BCG. Intervention Infants were randomised to 50 000 IU vitamin A or placebo and followed until age 12 months. Main outcome measure Mortality rate ratios. Results 174 children died during follow-up (mortality=47/ 1000 person......-years). Vitamin A supplementation was not significantly associated with mortality; the mortality rate ratio was 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.44). The effect was 1.00 (0.65 to 1.56) during the first four months and 1.13 (0.75 to 1.68) from 4 to 12 months of age. The mortality rate ratio in boys was 0...

  14. Infant twin mortality and hospitalisations after the perinatal period - a prospective cohort study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, M; Biering-Sørensen, S; Gomes, G M

    2014-01-01

    at the National Hospital Simão Mendes in the capital Bissau. Children were examined clinically at enrolment. Maternal, pregnancy and obstetric information was collected and HIV testing offered at birth. Follow-up occurred at home at 2, 6 and 12 months and through linkage with the paediatric admission register...... at the National Hospital. RESULTS: About 495 twins and 333 singletons were alive on day 7 after birth. In total, 36 twins and 12 singletons died during follow-up, the post-perinatal infant mortality rate being 91/1000 person-years for twins and 42/1000 for singletons (HR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.......09-4.07). In a multivariable analysis among twins only, birth weight

  15. Heterologous Immunological Effects of Early BCG Vaccination in Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Larsen, Nanna; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    -Bissau of early BCG vs the usual postponed BCG, a subgroup was bled 4 weeks after randomization. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured from whole-blood assays stimulated with innate agonists to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, -4...... or -7/8, or purified protein derivative (PPD). RESULTS:  Among 467 infants, BCG significantly increased the in vitro cytokine responses to purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PPD), as expected. BCG was also associated with increased responses to heterologous innate stimulation......, particularly of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. CONCLUSION:  Four weeks after immunization, BCG-vaccinated infants have a significantly increased production of cytokines upon heterologous challenge, particularly T helper cell type 1 polarizing and typically monocyte-derived pro...

  16. Characterization of incompletely typed rotavirus strains from Guinea-Bissau: identification of G8 and G9 types and a high frequency of mixed infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, T.K.; Page, N.A.; Griffin, D.D.; Eugen-Olsen, J.; Pedersen, A.G.; Valentiner-Branth, P.; Moelbak, K.; Sommerfelt, H.; Nielsen, N. Munk

    2003-01-01

    Among 167 rotavirus specimens collected from young children in a suburban area of Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, from 1996 to 1998, most identifiable strains belonged to the uncommon P[6], G2 type and approximately 50% remained incompletely typed. In the present study, 76 such strains were further characterized. Due to interprimer interaction during the standard multiplex PCR approach, modifications of this procedure were implemented. The modified analyses revealed a high frequency of G2, G8, and G9 genotypes, often combined with P[4] and/or P[6]. The Guinean G8 and G9 strains were 97 and 98%, respectively, identical to other African G8 and G9 strains. Multiple G and/or P types were identified at a high frequency (59%), including two previously undescribed mixed infections, P[4]P[6], G2G8 and P[4]P[6], G2G9. These mixed infections most likely represent naturally occurring reassortance of rotavirus strains. Detection of such strains among the previously incompletely typed strains indicates a potential underestimation of mixed infections, if only a standard multiplex PCR procedure is followed. Furthermore cross-priming of the G3 primer with the G8 primer binding site and silent mutations at the P[4] and P[6] primer binding sites were detected. These findings highlight the need for regular evaluation of the multiplex primer PCR method and typing primers. The high frequency of uncommon as well as reassortant rotavirus strains in countries where rotavirus is an important cause of child mortality underscores the need for extensive strain surveillance as a basis to develop appropriate rotavirus vaccine candidates

  17. Contamination of drinking water sources during the rainy season in an urban post-conflict community in Guinea Bissau: implications for sanitation priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombatti, R; Vieira, C S; Bassani, F; Cristofoli, R; Coin, A; Bertinato, L; Riccardi, F

    2009-06-01

    Since the 1998 civil warcholera outbreaks and waterborne infections have been a major cause of morbidity and mortality during the rainy season in Guinea Bidsau. Our survey aims at: (1) describing the distribution, characteristics and use of water sources and sewage facilities in a central area of the capital city of Bissau; (2) determining the microbiological quality of drinking water during the rainy season. After mapping of the Cuntum 3 study area, water sources' and latrines' location, characteristics and use were determined by visual inspection and interviews with householders. Microbiological analyses were peformed from water sources for evaluation of total Coliforms, E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis. Twelve water sources (9 wells, 3 taps) and 15 latrines were identified and used by 444 inhabitants. Water sources and latrines were at less than 5 meters distance apart. Wells were self-built, hand-dug, shallow (4-6 meters), unprotected. Taps were located outdoor. Latrines were self-built, open air, unprotected. None of the houses had a bathroom. Maintenance of wells, taps and latrines is not performed on regular basis and well's handling habits are not safe. Well and tap water showed heavy faecal contamination with more than 1000 CFU/100 ml. The contamination of drinking water in Bissau due to poor construction, maintenance and improperuse ten years after the civil war, demonstrates the need to allocate resources after conflicts in the area of water and sanitation. Both should be included as a priority in post-conflict reconstruction programs in order to reduce cholera outbreaks and diarrhoea related mortality.

  18. Effects of Two Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Containing Different Levels of Dairy Protein on Anthropometric Variables in Rural Pre-School Children in Guinea-Bissau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Payal; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan; Schlossman, Nina; Balan, Ela; Pruzensky, William

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Food insecurity in Guinea-Bissau is widespread and micronutrient deficiencies are anticipated among vulnerable groups. The objective: to test the efficacy of two Micronutrient-Rich Ready to Use Supplementary Foods (MNR-RUSF) in preschool children aged 3-5 years over 3 months. 9 preschools were randomly assigned to one of two intervention arms (92 gram MNR-RUSF sachets containing 500 kcal/sachet and either 15% or 33% of dairy protein, provided 5 days per week) or to a control (C) group that received no MNR-RUSF. Weight, height and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) were measured at baseline and endline. Malnutrition at baseline was high, with 5.6% <2 z scores for weight and 7.1% <2 z scores for height. Both intervention arms showed a significant increase in weight vs. controls (ΔWeight 15% group = 0.77+0.75 kg, 33% group = 0.76+0.78 kg, C = 0.42+0.1.8 kg, p<0.05) but not in height (ΔHeight 15% group = 3.1+2.0 cm, 33% group = 2.8+2.1 cm, C = 2.8+3.8 cm, p = 0.34). Changes in weight and height were not significantly different between the 15% and 33% groups (p = 0.99 and p = 0.38, respectively). There was a significant increase in MUAC in both the intervention arms vs. control, with the 33% intervention arm demonstrating a significantly greater increase than the 15% intervention arm (ΔMUAC 15% group = -.03±0.68 cm, 33% group = 0.14±0.78 cm, C = -0.31±0.67cm, p<0.001). This study is the first to focus on anthropometry in preschool-aged children in Guinea-Bissau and indicates that while both standard and high-dairy containing MNR-RUSF products improve weight in preschool populations with a high prevalence of malnutrition, those containing high levels of dairy protein have additional benefits for improving MUAC. (author)

  19. Effects of the introduction of new vaccines in Guinea-Bissau on vaccine coverage, vaccine timeliness, and child survival: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisker, Ane B; Hornshøj, Linda; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Balde, Ibraima; Fernandes, Manuel; Benn, Christine S; Aaby, Peter

    2014-08-01

    In 2008, the GAVI Alliance funded the introduction of new vaccines (including pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis [DTP] plus hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens) in Guinea-Bissau. The introduction was accompanied by increased vaccination outreach services and a more restrictive wastage policy, including only vaccinating children younger than 12 months. We assessed coverage of all vaccines in the Expanded Program on Immunizations before and after the new vaccines' introduction, and the implications on child survival. This observational cohort study used data from the Bandim Health Project, which has monitored vaccination status and mortality in randomly selected village clusters in Guinea-Bissau since 1990. We assessed the change in vaccination coverage using cohort data from children born in 2007 and 2009; analysed the proportion of children who received measles vaccine after 12 months of age using data from 1999-2006; and compared child mortality after age 12 months in children who had received measles vaccine and those who had not using data from 1999 to 2006. The proportion of children who were fully vaccinated by 12 months of age was 53% (468 of 878) in the 2007 cohort and 53% (467 of 879) in the 2009 cohort (relative risk [RR] 1·00, 95% CI 0·89-1·11). Coverage of DTP-3 and pentavalent-3 increased from 73% (644 of 878) in 2007 to 81% (712 of 879) in 2009 (RR 1·10, 95% CI 1·04 -1·17); by contrast, the coverage of measles vaccination declined from 71% (620 of 878) to 66% (577 of 879; RR 0·93, 0·85-1·01). The effect of the changes was significantly different for DTP-3 coverage compared with measles vaccine coverage (p=0·002). After 12 months of age, the adjusted mortality rate ratio was 0·71 (95% CI 0·56-0·90) for children who had received measles vaccine compared with those who had not (0·59 [0·43-0·80] for girls and 0·87 [0·62-1·23] for boys). The introduction of the new vaccination programme in 2008 was associated with

  20. The EPICS Trial: Enabling Parents to Increase Child Survival through the introduction of community-based health interventions in rural Guinea Bissau

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    Frost Chris

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guinea-Bissau is a small country in West Africa with a population of 1.7 million. The WHO and UNICEF reported an under-five child mortality of 203 per 1000, the 10th highest amongst 192 countries. The aim of the trial is to assess whether an intervention package that includes community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for children's diseases within the community, and improved outreach services can generate a rapid and cost-effective reduction in under-five child mortality in rural regions of Guinea-Bissau. Effective Intervention plans to expand the project to a much larger region if there is good evidence after two and a half years that the project is generating a cost-effective, sustainable reduction in child mortality. Methods/design This trial is a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 146 clusters. The trial will run for 2.5 years. The interventions will be introduced in two stages: seventy-three clusters will receive the interventions at the start of the project, and seventy-three control clusters will receive the interventions 2.5 years after the first clusters have received all interventions if the research shows that the interventions are effective. The impact of the interventions and cost-effectiveness will be measured during the first stage. The package of interventions includes a community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, and intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for common children's diseases within the community. It also includes improved outreach services to encourage provision of antenatal and post natal care and provide ongoing monitoring for village health workers. The primary outcome of the trial will be the proportion of children that die under 5 years of age during the trial

  1. Class 1 Integron-Borne, Multiple-Antibiotic Resistance Encoded by a 150-Kilobase Conjugative Plasmid in Epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 Strains Isolated in Guinea-Bissau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Anders; Forslund, Anita; Petersen, Andreas; Brown, Derek J.; Dias, Francisco; Monteiro, Serifo; Mølbak, Kåre; Aaby, Peter; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Sandström, Anita

    2000-01-01

    In the 1996–1997 cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau, surveillance for antimicrobial resistance showed the emergence of a multidrug-resistant strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 during the course of the epidemic. The strain was resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, furazolidone, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole. Concomitant with the emergence of this strain, we observed a resurgence in the number of registered cholera cases as well as an increase in the case fatality rate from 1.0% before the emergence of the multiple-drug-resistant strain to 5.3% after the emergence of the strain. Our study shows that the strain contained a 150-kb conjugative multiple-antibiotic resistance plasmid with class 1 integron-borne gene cassettes encoding resistance to trimethoprim (dhfrXII) and aminoglycosides [ant(3")-1a]). The finding of transferable resistance to almost all of the antibiotics commonly used to treat cholera is of great public health concern. Studies should be carried out to determine to what extent the strain or its resistance genes have been spread to other areas where cholera is endemic. PMID:11015401

  2. Effect of an Early Dose of Measles Vaccine on Morbidity Between 18 Weeks and 9 Months of Age: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Vu An; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Balé, Carlito; Rasmussen, Stine Møller; Christensen, Lone Damkjær; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Martins, Cesário; Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2017-04-15

    Children in Guinea-Bissau receive measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age, but studies have shown that an additional dose before 9 months of age might have beneficial nonspecific effects. Within a randomized trial designed to examine nonspecific effects of early MV receipt on mortality, we conducted a substudy to investigate the effect of early MV receipt on morbidity. Children were randomly assigned at a ratio of 2:1 to receive 2 doses of MV at 18 weeks and age 9 months (intervention group) or 1 dose of MV at age 9 months, in accordance with current practice (control group). Children were visited weekly from enrollment to age 9 months; the mother reported morbidity, and the field assistants examined the children. Using Cox and binomial regression models, we compared the 2 randomization groups. Among the 1592 children, early measles vaccination was not associated with a higher risk of the well-known adverse events of fever, rash, and convulsions within the first 14 days. From 15 days after randomization to age 9 months, early measles vaccination was associated with reductions in maternally reported diarrhea (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], .82-.97), vomiting (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, .75-.98), and fever (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, .87-1.00). Early MV receipt was associated with reduced general morbidity in the following months, supporting that early MV receipt may improve the general health of children.

  3. Duration of secretory IgM and IgA antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus in a community study in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, L G; Kofoed, P E; Nante, E J

    2000-01-01

    nasopharyngeal suction on days 7, 14, 30, 60 and 120 in the first epidemic and every fortnight for 6 mo after the second epidemic to measure the duration of secretory IgM and IgA responses. Nearly all of the children had an IgM response during the first month after infection. The response ratio was highest...... phase of infection. A secondary response may be more likely in children with low IgM responses in the acute phase (RR = 2.08 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-4.70)). The IgA response was highest on days 28 and 42 after antigen detection, 72% having a detectable IgA response within the first 1.5 mo...... have therefore assessed the duration of secretory IgM and IgA antibody responses and whether assays for these antibodies can be used to improve the diagnosing of RSV-associated infections. During two RSV epidemics in Guinea-Bissau, 32 RSV antigen-positive children with LRI were followed with sequential...

  4. Both very low- and very high in vitro cytokine responses were associated with infant death in low-birth-weight children from Guinea Bissau.

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    Andreas Andersen

    Full Text Available The mechanisms behind heterologous immunity and non-specific effects of vaccines on mortality are not well understood. We examined associations between cytokine responses and subsequent mortality in low-birth-weight infants in Guinea-Bissau.A low-birth-weight trial randomized children to Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG at birth or later according to local policy. Blood samples were obtained from a sub-group at age 6 weeks. Interleukin (IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, interferon (IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were measured in whole-blood cell cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, phytohaemagglutinin (PHA, or purified protein derivative (PPD. The outcome was mortality between bleeding and 1 year of age. Non-linear associations between cytokine responses and mortality were examined.Cytokine measurements were available from 390 children. The mortality rate (MR was high (6.8/100 person-years-observation (PYO. Both low and high cytokine responses to LPS and PHA were associated with high mortality (MR up to 25/100 PYO in the lowest 10% and 9.2/100 PYO in the highest 10%. In BCG-vaccinated children, higher IFN-γ responses to PPD were associated with better survival (MR ratio = 0.43 (0.24-0.77.Data presented a rare opportunity to explore associations between cytokine responses and mortality. Both low and high cytokine responses were associated with high mortality; a balanced response to invading pathogens seems preferable.

  5. Both very low- and very high in vitro cytokine responses were associated with infant death in low-birth-weight children from Guinea Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Andreas; Jensen, Kristoffer J; Erikstrup, Christian; Ravn, Henrik; Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Sartono, Erliyani; Aaby, Peter; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Benn, Christine S

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms behind heterologous immunity and non-specific effects of vaccines on mortality are not well understood. We examined associations between cytokine responses and subsequent mortality in low-birth-weight infants in Guinea-Bissau. A low-birth-weight trial randomized children to Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) at birth or later according to local policy. Blood samples were obtained from a sub-group at age 6 weeks. Interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured in whole-blood cell cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or purified protein derivative (PPD). The outcome was mortality between bleeding and 1 year of age. Non-linear associations between cytokine responses and mortality were examined. Cytokine measurements were available from 390 children. The mortality rate (MR) was high (6.8/100 person-years-observation (PYO)). Both low and high cytokine responses to LPS and PHA were associated with high mortality (MR up to 25/100 PYO in the lowest 10% and 9.2/100 PYO in the highest 10%). In BCG-vaccinated children, higher IFN-γ responses to PPD were associated with better survival (MR ratio = 0.43 (0.24-0.77)). Data presented a rare opportunity to explore associations between cytokine responses and mortality. Both low and high cytokine responses were associated with high mortality; a balanced response to invading pathogens seems preferable.

  6. Effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A given with BCG vaccine on mortality in infants in Guinea-Bissau: randomised placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Roth, Adam; Nante, Ernesto; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Lisse, Ida Maria; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Whittle, Hilton; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter

    2008-06-21

    To investigate the effect of high dose vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth in an African setting with high infant mortality. Randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting Bandim Health Project's demographic surveillance system in Guinea-Bissau, covering approximately 90,000 inhabitants. Participants 4345 infants due to receive BCG. Infants were randomised to 50,000 IU vitamin A or placebo and followed until age 12 months. Mortality rate ratios. 174 children died during follow-up (mortality=47/1000 person-years). Vitamin A supplementation was not significantly associated with mortality; the mortality rate ratio was 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.44). The effect was 1.00 (0.65 to 1.56) during the first four months and 1.13 (0.75 to 1.68) from 4 to 12 months of age. The mortality rate ratio in boys was 0.84 (0.55 to 1.27) compared with 1.39 (0.90 to 2.14) in girls (P for interaction=0.10). An explorative analysis revealed a strong interaction between vitamin A and season of administration. Vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth had no significant benefit in this African setting. Although little doubt exists that vitamin A supplementation reduces mortality in older children, a global recommendation of supplementation for all newborn infants may not contribute to better survival. Clinical trials NCT00168597.

  7. Effects of Two Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Containing Different Levels of Dairy Protein on Nutrition Status in Rural Infants and Young Children in Guinea-Bissau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Payal; Roberts, Susan; Saltzman, Edward; Balan, Ela; Pruzensky, William; Schlossman, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Food insecurity in Guinea-Bissau is widespread and micronutrient deficiencies are anticipated among vulnerable groups. The objective: to test the efficacy of two Micronutrient-Rich Ready to Use Supplementary Foods (MNR-RUSF) in rural village children aged 6 to 24 months. This study was funded by the United States Department of Agriculture as part of a larger pilot project testing different supplements in pregnant and lactating women and infants and children aged 6-59 months. 411 children were randomly assigned to one of two intervention arms (46 g MNR-RUSF sachets containing 250 kcal/sachet and either 15% or 33% of dairy protein, collected 5 days per week from a supplement distribution center in the village) or to a control (C) group that received no MNR-RUSF. Weight, height and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), hemoglobin, and retinol-binding protein were measured at baseline and end-line. Randomization to the 33% supplement group was associated with significantly increased visits to the distribution center to collect supplement, as well as higher ratings for product taste and overall acceptability. The 15% supplement improved hemoglobin levels relative to controls (+0.81±1.43 vs. 0.07±1.47, P<0.05) and the combined 15% and 33% supplements improved hemoglobin levels relative to controls (+0.76±1.44 vs. 0.07±1.47, P<0.05). There was no difference in changes in RBP between control and supplement groups, but both 15% and 33% groups had significantly reduced rates of reported malaria, diarrhea and other illnesses compared to control infants (P<0.001). The supplements did not improve weight or length gains in the population of infants as whole, but did result in significantly greater gain in weight-for-age z score among the infants who had a z-score >-2.0 at baseline. This study is the first to examine the effects of supplements containing different amounts of dairy protein in infants and young children in Guinea-Bissau and indicates that, while

  8. Introducing the concept of a new pre-referral treatment for severely ill febrile children at community level: a sociological approach in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Audrey; Libaud-Moal, Anaëlle; Rodrigues, Amabelia; White, Nicholas J; Olliaro, Piero; Gomes, Melba; Ashley, Elizabeth A; Millet, Pascal

    2014-02-06

    Innovative strategies are needed to tackle childhood mortality in the rural tropics. Artesunate suppositories were developed to bring emergency treatment closer to severely ill children with malaria in rural areas where injectable treatment is not possible for several hours. Adding an antibacterial rectal drug would extend this strategy to treat non-malarial febrile illness as well. The objective of these studies was to assess acceptability of such a new pre-referral strategy by healthcare providers and likely uptake by the population. Two qualitative studies were conducted between May and July 2009. Study 1 investigated the acceptability of introducing a combined antimalarial-antibacterial suppository by interviewing 27 representatives of the three administrative levels (central government, regional, local) of the health sector; Study 2 investigated treatment-seeking behaviour and acceptability of this intervention at community level by interviewing 74 mothers in 2 villages. Up to 92% of health representatives were in favour of introducing a new pre-referral strategy to tackle both malaria and non-malaria related severe illnesses in Guinea-Bissau, provided it was endorsed by international health authorities. The main obstacles to implementation were the very limited human and financial resources. In the two villages surveyed, 44% of the mothers associated severe illness with fever only, or fever plus one additional symptom. Mothers' judgement of severity and ensuing decisions were not specific for serious illness, indicating that initial training to recognize signs of severe disease and treatment availability for non-severe, fever-associated symptoms will be required to prevent overuse of a new intervention designed as a pre-referral treatment for severely ill children. Level C health centres were the first resort in both villages (50% and 87% of respondents respectively). This information is encouraging for the implementation of a pre-referral treatment.

  9. The impact of different doses of vitamin A supplementation on male and female mortality. A randomised trial from Guinea-Bissau

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    Diness Birgitte R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A supplementation (VAS given to children between 6 months and 5 years of age is known to reduce mortality in low-income countries. We have previously observed that girls benefit more from a lower dose of VAS than the one recommended by WHO, the effect being strongest if diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP was the most recent vaccination. We aimed to test these observations. Methods During national immunisations days in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, combining oral polio vaccination and VAS, we randomised 8626 children between 6 months and 5 years of age to receive the dose of VAS recommended by WHO or half this dose. Mortality rate ratios (MRRs were assessed after 6 and 12 month. Results The overall mortality rate among participants was lower than expected. There was no significant difference in mortality at 6 months and 12 months of follow up between the low dose VAS group and the recommended dose VAS group. The MRRs were 1.23 (0.60-2.54 after 6 months and 1.17 (0.73-1.87 after 12 months. This tendency was similar in boys and girls. The low dose was not associated with lower mortality in girls if the most recent vaccine was DTP (MRR = 0.60 (0.14-2.50 after 6 months. Conclusion Our sample size does not permit firm conclusions since mortality was lower than expected. We could not confirm a beneficial effect of a lower dose of VAS on mortality in girls. Trial registration The study was registered under clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT00168636

  10. Sex-differential effect on infant mortality of oral polio vaccine administered with BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau. A natural experiment.

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    Christine Stabell Benn

    Full Text Available The policy to provide oral polio vaccine (OPV at birth was introduced in low-income countries to increase coverage. The effect of OPV at birth on overall child mortality was never studied. During a trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS at birth in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during several periods. We took advantage of this "natural experiment" to test the effect on mortality of receiving OPV at birth.Between 2002 and 2004, the VAS trial randomised normal-birth-weight infants to 50,000 IU VAS or placebo administered with BCG. Provision of OPV at birth was not part of the trial, but we noted whether the infants received OPV or not. OPV was missing during several periods in 2004. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compute mortality rate ratios (MRR of children who had received or not received OPV at birth.A total of 962 (22.1% of the 4345 enrolled children did not receive OPV at birth; 179 children died within the first year of life. Missing OPV at birth was associated with a tendency for decreased mortality (adjusted MRR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.46-1.03, the effect being similar among recipients of VAS and placebo. There was a highly significant interaction between OPV at birth and sex (p = 0.006. Not receiving OPV at birth was associated with a weak tendency for increased mortality in girls (1.14 (0.70-1.89 but significantly decreased mortality in boys (0.35 (0.18-0.71.In our study OPV at birth had a sex-differential effect on mortality. Poliovirus is almost eradicated and OPV at birth contributes little to herd immunity. A randomised study of the effect of OPV at birth on overall mortality in both sexes is warranted.

  11. Different effects of BCG strains - A natural experiment evaluating the impact of the Danish and the Russian BCG strains on morbidity and scar formation in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, H; Byberg, S; Bjerregaard-Andersen, M; Martins, C L; Aaby, P; Benn, C S; Fisker, A B

    2016-08-31

    Different Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine strains may have different non-specific effects. We assessed the effect of two BCG strains (Danish and Russian) on childhood morbidity and BCG scarification in Guinea-Bissau. During 2011-2013, infants in the Bandim Health Project's urban study area received the Danish or Russian BCG in a natural experiment. Health center consultations were registered at point of care and scar status and size at age 4½ months. We assessed the effect of strain on consultation rates between vaccination and age 45days in Cox proportional hazards models. Scar prevalence and size were compared using binomial regression and ranksum tests. Among 1206 children, 18% received Danish BCG (n=215) and 82% Russian BCG (n=991). The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for consultations was 0.94 (95% CI 0.60-1.46) for Danish BCG compared with Russian BCG. Girls vaccinated with Danish BCG tended to have lower consultation rates compared with girls vaccinated with Russian BCG (aHR 0.56 (0.25-1.24)), whereas the effect was opposite for boys (aHR 1.24 (0.74-2.11)), p=0.09. Children vaccinated with Danish BCG were more likely to develop a scar (97%) than children vaccinated with Russian BCG (87%), the relative risk (RR) being 1.11 (1.06-1.16). The effect was stronger in girls, and BCG scar size was larger among infants vaccinated with the Danish strain. BCG strain influences scar prevalence and scar size, and may have sex differential effects on morbidity. BCG strains are currently used interchangeably, but BCG scarring has been linked to subsequent survival. Hence, more research into the health effects of different BCG strains is warranted. Small adjustments of BCG production could potentially lower childhood morbidity and mortality at low cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Contrasting female-male mortality ratios after routine vaccinations with pentavalent vaccine versus measles and yellow fever vaccine. A cohort study from urban Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisker, Ane B; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq; Djana, Queba; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine S

    2016-08-31

    In addition to protection against the target diseases, vaccines may have non-specific effects (NSEs). Measles vaccine (MV) has beneficial NSEs, providing protection against non-measles deaths, most so for girls. By contrast, though protecting against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, DTP vaccine is associated with increased female mortality relative to male mortality. In 2008, Guinea-Bissau replaced DTP with the DTP-containing pentavalent vaccine (Penta; DTP-H. influenza type B-Hepatitis B) at 6, 10 and 14weeks and yellow fever vaccine (YF) was to be given with MV. We investigated possible sex-differential mortality rates following Penta and MV+YF vaccination. Bandim Health Project (BHP) registers vaccines given by the three government health centres in the study area and vital status through demographic surveillance. We assessed the association between sex and mortality by vaccination status in Cox proportional hazards models with age as underlying timescale. Follow-up was censored at a subsequent vaccination contact or after 6months of follow-up. Between September 2008 and April 2011, we registered 23,448 vaccination contacts for children aged 42-365days; 17,313 were for Penta and 3028 for MV (2907 co-administered with YF). During follow-up 112 children died. The female/male mortality rate ratio was 1.73 (1.11-2.70) following Penta and 0.38 (0.12-1.19) after MV (p=0.02 for same effect). Adjusting for maternal education or weight-for-age at the time of vaccination did not change the estimates. Penta appears to have the same negative effects on mortality as those seen for DTP. Assessing post-vaccination mortality for boys and girls is necessary to improve the vaccination programme. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Feeding ecology of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) inhabiting a forest-mangrove-savanna-agricultural matrix at Caiquene-Cadique, Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Joana; Sousa, Cláudia; Hockings, Kimberley J

    2015-06-01

    With rising conversion of "natural" habitat to other land use such as agriculture, nonhuman primates are increasingly exploiting areas influenced by people and their activities. Despite the conservation importance of understanding the ways in which primates modify their behavior to human pressures, data are lacking, even for well-studied species. Using systematically collected data (fecal samples, feeding traces, and direct observations), we examined the diet and feeding strategies of an unhabituated chimpanzee community (Pan troglodytes verus) at Caiquene-Cadique in Guinea-Bissau that inhabit a forest-savanna-mangrove-agricultural mosaic. The chimpanzees experienced marked seasonal variations in the availability of plant foods, but maintained a high proportion of ripe fruit in the diet across months. Certain wild species were identified as important to this community including oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit and flower. Honey was frequently consumed but no other insects or vertebrates were confirmed to be eaten by this community. However, we provide indirect evidence of possible smashing and consumption of giant African snails (Achatina sp.) by chimpanzees at this site. Caiquene-Cadique chimpanzees were confirmed to feed on nine different agricultural crops, which represented 13.6% of all plant species consumed. Consumption of fruit and nonfruit crops was regular, but did not increase during periods of wild fruit scarcity. Crop consumption is an increasing and potentially problematic behavior, which can impact local people's tolerance toward wildlife. To maximize the potential success of any human-wildlife coexistence strategy (e.g., to reduce primate crop feeding), knowledge of primate behavior, as well as multifaceted social dimensions of interactions, is critical. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Distribution of polymorphisms IL4-590 C/T and IL4 RP2 in the human populations of Madeira, Azores, Portugal, Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Anabela G; Câmara, Rita A; Brehm, António D; Oliveira, Susana; Fernandes, Ana T

    2012-01-01

    The IL4 gene is located on chromosome 5q23.3-31.2. Polymorphisms within this cytokine gene, like the derivative allele T of IL4-590, have been reported as being associated to elevated IgE serum levels and asthma. In the present work, the allelic and genotypic frequency of the IL4-590 and IL4 RP2 polymorphisms was carried out in 599 individuals from Madeira, Azores, Portugal mainland, Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau and in a sample of 101 asthmatics from Madeira population. In all populations the polymorphisms were in LD and presented a significant dissimilar allelic and genotypic distribution (pMadeira when compared to Azores. Significant differences regarding both loci were found between Madeira population and the group of asthmatics. Genotype 183183TT frequency is higher for African populations while 253253CC prevails in Caucasian populations. The existence of a Hardy-Weinberg Disequilibrium in Guinea-Bissau population not observed in neutral markers leads to the hypothesis of natural selection occurring in these loci probably associated to a rapid population growth an hypothesis strengthened by neutral STRs D5S818 and CSF1PO gene diversity.

  15. Plasmodium falciparum infection rates for some Anopheles spp. from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4n3

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    Michelle R. Sanford

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Presence of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in a sample of Anopheles gambiae s.s., A. melas and A. pharoensis collected in Guinea-Bissau during October and November 2009. The percentage of P. falciparum infected samples (10.2% overall; confidence interval (CI: 7.45-13.6% was comparable to earlier studies from other sites in Guinea-Bissau (9.6-12.4%. The majority of the specimens collected were identified as A. gambiae which had an individual infection rate of 12.6 % (CI: 8.88-17.6 across collection sites. A small number of specimens of A. coluzzii, A. coluzzii x A. gambiae hybrids, A. melas and A. pharoensis were collected and had infection rates of 4.3% (CI:0.98-12.4, 4.1% (CI:0.35-14.5, 11.1% (CI:1.86-34.1 and 33.3% (CI:9.25-70.4 respectively. Despite being present in low numbers in indoor collections, the exophilic feeding behaviors of A. melas (N=18 and A. pharoensis (N=6 and high infection rates observed in this survey suggest falciparum-malaria transmission potential outside of the protection of bed nets.

  16. Direct Detection by the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay and Characterization of Multi and Poly Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rabna

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the rapid direct detection of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC strains and rifampicin resistance associated mutations in a resource-limited setting such as Guinea-Bissau and its implications in the management of tuberculosis (TB and drug resistant tuberculosis, complementing the scarce information on resistance and genotypic diversity of MTBC strains in this West African country.This cross-sectional prospective study included 100 consecutive TB patients with positive acid-fast smears at two months of anti-tuberculosis treatment or in a re-treatment situation, between May and December 2012. Resistance to rifampicin was detected using the GeneXpert system and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. MTBC isolates obtained with the BACTEC MGIT 960 system were tested for susceptibility to first- and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Overall, the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB was found to be 9 cases. Of these, 67% (6 patients of confirmed MDR-TB cases had no past history of TB treatment and 33% (3 patients were previously treated cases. Extensively drug-resistant TB was not found. Molecular typing of the MDR-TB strains revealed recent transmission patterns of imported MDR strains.The Xpert MTB/RIF assay was reliable for the detection of rifampicin resistant MTBC strains directly from sputum samples of patients undergoing first-line treatment for two months, being more trustworthy than the simple presence of acid-fast bacilli in the smear. Its implementation is technically simple, does not require specialized laboratory infrastructures and is suitable for resource-limited settings when a regular source of electricity and maintenance is available as well as financial and operation sustainability is guaranteed by the health authorities. A high prevalence of MDR-TB among patients at risk of MDR-TB after two months of first-line treatment was found, in support of the WHO

  17. SHORT TERM ADVANTAGES OF A PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP FOR TUBERCULOSIS IN GUINEA BISSAU: REDUCTION OF MORTALITY AND INCREASED DIAGNOSTIC CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fina Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB is widespread in Africa, but weak health systems in developing countries, often display poor quality of care with delays in case identification, irrational therapy and drug shortage, clinical mismanagement, unnecessary expenditures for patients, reduced adherence and increased mortality. Public-private partnership has demonstrated to increase TB case detection, but less is known about its effects on quality of care, mortality and costs for hospitalized TB patients. Methods: Clinical outcomes and costs for TB patients at the TB National Reference Center of Bissau, in Guine Bissau, West Africa were determined during the first 5 months of the public-private management and compared to the ones of previous years when the hospitals was under  direct Government’s management. Results: 215 (2009 and 194 (2013 patients were admitted, respectively. Improvement (p<0.05 was observed in mortality reduction (21% vs 6%, analysis prescription and diagnosis (39% vs 100%, cause of death determination (50% vs 85%, treatment abandonment (15 vs 1. Direct costs for patients during TB diagnostic pathway and inpatient care were significantly reduced, 475 vs 0 USD. Conclusions: Public-private partnerships displays important short term benefits in National TB reference centers, even in post-conflict and low-resource countries. Further studies could aid in determining the overall long term benefits of  this type of cooperation and the specific characteristic of TB and concomitant hematologic and infectious diseases in TB admitted patients.

  18. Leitura Comparativa De Campanha De Alfabetização Cubana Com A De Alfabetização Da Guiné-bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço Ocuni Cá

    2008-01-01

    Neste trabalho pretendo analisar os contextos históricos do processo de alfabetização de Cuba com o da Guiné-Bissau, focalizando as principais diferenças e semelhanças entre os dois países. Palavras-chave Alfabetização-Cuba; Alfabetização-Guiné-Bissau; Escrita; Oralidade Resumen En este trabajo pretendo analizar los contextos históricos del proceso de alfabetización de Cuba con el de la Guinea-Bissau, focalizando las principales diferenzas y semeanzas entre los dois pasises. Palabr...

  19. Diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in ART-naïve patients with HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual infection in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiniche, Ditte; Jespersen, Sanne; Erikstrup, Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is expected to increase in sub-Saharan Africa. Patients with HIV are at particular risk. We investigated the DM burden among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients with HIV in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Patients were consecutively included...... (93.7%) were fasting at the time of inclusion. Median age among the fasting patients was 37 years (IQR 30-46 years) and 562 (62.9%) were women. The prevalence of DM was 5.8% (52/893) while 5.6% (50/893) had IFG. DM was associated with family history of DM (OR 3.92, 95% CI 1.78 to 8.63), being 41...... age and a family history of DM apply also for ART-naïve patients with HIV....

  20. Co-administration of live measles and yellow fever vaccines and inactivated pentavalent vaccines is associated with increased mortality compared with measles and yellow fever vaccines only. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Østergaard, Marie Drivsholm; Bale, Carlito; Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter

    2014-01-23

    Studies from low-income countries indicate that co-administration of inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and live attenuated measles vaccine (MV) is associated with increased mortality compared with receiving MV only. Pentavalent (DTP-H. Influenza type B-Hepatitis B) vaccine is replacing DTP in many low-income countries and yellow fever vaccine (YF) has been introduced to be given together with MV. Pentavalent and YF vaccines were introduced in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. We investigated whether co-administration of pentavalent vaccine with MV and yellow fever vaccine has similar negative effects. In 2007-2011, we conducted a randomised placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A at routine vaccination contacts among children aged 6-23 months in urban and rural Guinea-Bissau. In the present study, we included 2331 children randomised to placebo who received live vaccines only (MV or MV+YF) or a combination of live and inactivated vaccines (MV+DTP or MV+YF+pentavalent). Mortality was compared in Cox proportional hazards models stratified for urban/rural enrolment adjusted for age and unevenly distributed baseline factors. While DTP was still used 685 children received MV only and 358 MV+DTP; following the change in programme, 940 received MV+YF only and 348 MV+YF+pentavalent. During 6 months of follow-up, the adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR) for co-administered live and inactivated vaccines compared with live vaccines only was 3.24 (1.20-8.73). For MV+YF+pentavalent compared with MV+YF only, the adjusted MRR was 7.73 (1.79-33.4). In line with previous studies of DTP, the present results indicate that pentavalent vaccine co-administered with MV and YF is associated with increased mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in ART-naïve patients with HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual infection in Guinea-Bissau: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiniche, Ditte; Jespersen, Sanne; Erikstrup, Christian; Krarup, Henrik; Handberg, Aase; Østergaard, Lars; Haraldsdottir, Thorny; Medina, Candida; Gomes Correira, Faustino; Laursen, Alex Lund; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Wejse, Christian; Hønge, Bo Langhoff

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is expected to increase in sub-Saharan Africa. Patients with HIV are at particular risk. We investigated the DM burden among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients with HIV in Guinea-Bissau. Patients were consecutively included. Demographic and lifestyle data were collected and one fasting blood glucose (FBG) measurement was used to diagnose DM (FBG≥7.0 mmol/L) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (FBG≥6.1 and ART-naïve patients with HIV had been included in the study of whom 893 (93.7%) were fasting at the time of inclusion. Median age among the fasting patients was 37 years (IQR 30-46 years) and 562 (62.9%) were women. The prevalence of DM was 5.8% (52/893) while 5.6% (50/893) had IFG. DM was associated with family history of DM (OR 3.92, 95% CI 1.78 to 8.63), being 41-50 years (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.18 to 7.49) or older than 50 years (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.09 to 9.07) and Fula ethnicity (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.12 to 6.62). DM prevalence was higher among younger patients compared with the background population in Bissau. Traditional risk factors for DM such as advancing age and a family history of DM apply also for ART-naïve patients with HIV. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Evidence of Increase in Mortality After the Introduction of Diphtheria–Tetanus–Pertussis Vaccine to Children Aged 6–35 Months in Guinea-Bissau: A Time for Reflection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Aaby

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWhole-cell diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis (DTP and oral polio vaccine (OPV were introduced to children in Guinea-Bissau in 1981. We previously reported that DTP in the target age group from 3 to 5 months of age was associated with higher overall mortality. DTP and OPV were also given to older children and in this study we tested the effect on mortality in children aged 6–35 months.MethodsIn the 1980s, the suburb Bandim in the capital of Guinea-Bissau was followed with demographic surveillance and tri-monthly weighing sessions for children under 3 years of age. From June 1981, routine vaccinations were offered at the weighing sessions. We calculated mortality hazard ratio (HR for DTP-vaccinated and DTP-unvaccinated children aged 6–35 months using Cox proportional hazard models. Including this study, the introduction of DTP vaccine and child mortality has been studied in three studies; we made a meta-estimate of these studies.ResultsAt the first weighing session after the introduction of vaccines, 6–35-month-old children who received DTP vaccination had better weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ than children who did not receive DTP; one unit increase in WAZ was associated with an odds ratio of 1.32 (95% CI = 1.13–1.55 for receiving DTP vaccination. Though lower mortality compared with not being DTP-vaccinated was, therefore, expected, DTP vaccination was associated with a non-significant trend in the opposite direction, the HR being 2.22 (0.82–6.04 adjusted for WAZ. In a sensitivity analysis, including all children weighed at least once before the vaccination program started, DTP (±OPV as the most recent vaccination compared with live vaccines or no vaccine was associated with a HR of 1.89 (1.00–3.55. In the three studies of the introduction of DTP in rural and urban Guinea-Bissau, DTP-vaccinated children had an HR of 2.14 (1.42–3.23 compared to DTP-unvaccinated children; this effect was separately significant for

  3. The effect of early measles vaccination at 4.5 months of age on growth at 9 and 24 months of age in a randomized trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S M; Biering-Sørensen, S; Byberg, S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Providing an early, additional measles vaccine (MV) at 4.5 months of age has been shown to reduce child mortality in low-income countries. We studied the effects on growth at 9 and 24 months of age. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Guinea-Bissau from 2003......-2007 including 6,648 children. Children were randomized 1:1:1 to receive Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age (group A), no vaccine at 4.5 months and Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 9 months (group B), or no vaccine at 4.5 months and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months (group C) Data.......03;0.20)). The effect of early MV on MUAC remained significant in the dry season and in girls who received placebo rather than NVAS. CONCLUSION: Early MV was associated with a larger MUAC particularly in girls. These results indicate that a two-dose measles vaccination schedule might not only reduce child mortality...

  4. The effect of at-birth vitamin A supplementation on differential leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production: an immunological study nested within a randomised trial in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Mathias J; Fisker, Ane B; Sartono, Erliyani; Andersen, Andreas; Erikstrup, Christian; Lisse, Ida M; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine S

    2013-02-14

    Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth was not associated with improved survival in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in Guinea-Bissau. However, a negative sex-differential effect, which became evident after diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination, was noted; among girls who had received DTP, VAS at birth was associated with two-fold higher mortality than placebo. The objective of the present study was to investigate the immunological effects of VAS at birth within a subgroup of participants in the randomised trial. Guided by the mortality results, we further explored whether VAS had a differential effect according to sex and DTP status. At 6 weeks after randomisation and supplementation, we measured differential leucocyte counts and TNF-α, interferon-γ, IL-10, IL-13 and IL-5 production in a whole-blood culture assay. A total of 471 children were included. VAS compared with placebo at birth was associated with a higher proportion of monocytes (relative risk ratio 1·26, 95 % CI 1·07, 1·49, P=0·04), while spontaneous TNF-α production was lower in the VAS group (geometric mean ratio 0·54, 95 % CI, 0·37, 0·78, P=0·001). Stratified analysis showed that VAS was associated with lower TNF-α and IL-10 production for girls without DTP and boys with DTP, resulting in significant three-way interactions between VAS, sex and DTP vaccination status (P=0·03 and P=0·04, respectively) for spontaneous TNF-α and IL-10 production. The results substantiate the potential role of VAS as an immunomodulatory intervention, which has different effects depending on concomitant health interventions and the sex of the recipient.

  5. Cashew Chain Value in Guiné-Bissau: Challenges and Contributions for Food Security: A Case Study for Guiné-Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Reynolds Pacheco de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Guiné-Bissau is a recent example of political stabilization after a recent period of instability, where the international community can play an important role in cooperation and development, but with innovation and new effective policies. Food security is certainly one of the big issues to be addressed and cashew production and respective chain value one of the main opportunities to improve the quality of life for many families. Guinea-Bissau can be considered one of the most fragile countries in Sub-Sahara Africa, but at the same time with significant economic potential. Poverty alleviation is very much dependent from agricultural activities and agribusiness will be always at the core of the most possible solutions. Within those possible solutions the contribution of the cashew sector is crucial, which has been playing already a key role in the economy and in the family survival equation. More than 80% of the families depend from agricultural activities and most of them are linked to the production of cashew. This crop represents more than 90% of exports, and at the same time is responsible for income alleviation resources at local family base. However Cashew expansion is a very recent phenomena, with about 20 years of success, beyond all political “turmoil.” Today the country is the second biggest in Africa, after Ivory Coast, and the fourth worldwide (also after India and Vietnam. Exports were around 20 thousand tons in 1990 and close to 200 thousand tons in the last year’s production. But the most important factors to be considered in a cash crop business is also a very “unique” structure of production, mostly family based and where the average dimension of production per family is dominantly between 1 to 2 hectares. Very much related to those structural characteristics, which vary by region, is the role of this crop in the food security dimension of the families, which is calculated to represent in average 4,8 months of income

  6. Water bags as a potential vehicle for transmitting disease in a West African capital, Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordalo, Adriano A; Machado, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Street vendors of chilled packaged water have an increasing role in meeting the drinking water demand of people on the move in developing nations. Hygienic conditions can be questionable, and water quality screening scarce or non-existent. In order to ascertain the quality of the packaged water sold by street vendors in Bissau, the capital of the Western African country Guinea-Bissau, water bags were screened in 2011 and during the 2012 cholera outbreak for key physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Water used to fill the hand-filled hand-tied bags originated from communal tap water and melted ice. All samples (n=36) were microbiologically contaminated, although levels showed a pronounced variability (e.g. 7-493 372 cfu 250 ml(-1) for Escherichia coli). In 2012, the fecal contamination levels increased (pbags obtained from the neighborhood where the outbreak started. Findings showed that all packaged water samples were unfit for human consumption and during the 2012 cholera outbreak represented a potential vehicle for the spread of the disease. The design of measures to decrease the risk associated to the consumption of highly contaminated chilled water is clearly required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A instabilidade contínua na Guiné-Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilla Rizzi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Pouco mais de um ano após os assassinatos políticos que chocaram a comunidade internacional, uma nova tentativa de golpe militar ocorreu na Guiné-Bissau, em 1º de abril passado. A contínua instabilidade política guineense vem desde a independência, em 1973.

  8. Educação superior e desenvolvimento na Guiné-Bissau: contribuições, limites e desafios

    OpenAIRE

    Sani, Quecoi; Oliveira, Marlize Rubin

    2015-01-01

    O artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa documental e exploratória que analisou a educação superior no desenvolvimento da Guiné-Bissau – suas contribuições, limites e desafios. Participaram doze instituições da Guiné-Bissau: oito de Educação Superior, dois ministérios e um instituto nacional de pesquisa. Os resultados demonstram quais seriam as principais contribuições da educação superior para a Guiné-Bissau: maior número de cidadãos formados, administração pública eficaz e eficiente, m...

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial Offering Higher- Compared with Lower-Dairy Second Meals Daily in Preschools in Guinea-Bissau Demonstrates an Attendance-Dependent Increase in Weight Gain for Both Meal Types and an Increase in Mid-Upper Arm Circumference for the Higher-Dairy Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Payal; Schlossman, Nina; Balan, Ionela; Pruzensky, William; Balan, Adrian; Brown, Carrie; Gamache, Madeleine G; Schleicher, Molly M; de Sa, Augusto Braima; Saltzman, Edward; Wood, Lauren; Roberts, Susan B

    2016-01-01

    Controversy remains over the most effective approaches to prevent childhood malnutrition. We tested the feasibility and effectiveness of delivering ready-to-use supplementary foods (RUSFs) as a second daily meal in preschool children aged 3-5 y in Guinea-Bissau, and compared RUSFs with different levels of dairy protein. This study was a 3 mo cluster-randomized controlled pilot trial of 2 RUSFs differing in dairy protein in 533 boys and girls from 9 preschools. Children receiving RUSFs were compared with wait-listed controls, and all students received a daily school lunch. The RUSFs were delivered 5 d/wk for 3 mo and contained 478 kcal and 11.5 g protein per 92-g daily serving. Deliveries included a ready-to-use supplementary food with 15% of protein from dairy sources (RUSF-15%) or one with 33% of protein from dairy sources (RUSF-33%). Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol analyses (>50 d of RUSF consumption) were conducted. Changes in the weight-for-age z score (WAZ) and height-for-age z score were primary outcomes. Additional outcomes included changes in mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), hemoglobin, and retinol binding protein. Baseline anthropometry was not different between groups (WAZ, -0.48 ± 1.04) and increased significantly over time (P 50 d had a significantly greater increase in WAZ relative to the increase in controls (+0.40 and +0.32 for RUSF-15% and RUSF-33%, respectively, compared with +0.24 in controls, P meal preschool feeding programs is feasible in low-income countries, and there are measurable benefits relative to 1-meal programs in children attending preschool regularly. In addition, MUAC and hemoglobin measurements indicate that meals with 33% compared with 15% of protein from dairy may help prevent wasting and anemia. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Increased mortality in the year following discharge from a paediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Jens Erik; Sodeman, Morten; Biai, Sidu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies in developing countries have examined posthospital mortality and little is known about the magnitude of posthospital mortality and risk factors for long-term survival. A better understanding of the determinants of posthospital mortality could help improve discharge policie...

  11. Importância Epidemiológica dos Roedores como Reservatórios de Leptospira spp. na Cidade de Bissau (Guiné-Bissau) e áreas limítrofes

    OpenAIRE

    Cá, Baltazar

    2014-01-01

    A leptospirose é uma zoonose de importância mundial, causada por espiroquetídeos do género Leptospira, com implicações na Medicina Veterinária e Humana (One Health) e impacte significativo na Saúde Pública e na Economia Pecuária. Embora de reconhecida importância em zonas tropicais, pouco se sabe sobre a leptospirose em África. Na Guiné-Bissau existem apenas dois estudos de seroprevalência em humanos, datados das décadas de 50 e 80 do século XX, que indicam a existência da d...

  12. Estudo morfométrico de ovos de paranfistomatídeos - República da Guiné-Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo, Maria Virgínia; Rosa, Fernanda; Nunes, C.; Ribeiro, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Apresentação em Painel A infecção por paranfistomatídeos é uma das parasitoses mais frequentes nos bovinos da República da Guiné-Bissau. Embora Tendeiro (1948) tenha referido a existência de Paramphystomum explanatum e de Cotylophoron cotylophorum com base na morfologia externa dos exemplares colhidos, as grandes semelhanças interespecíficas e a variabilidade intraespecífica existentes neste grupo de parasitas, indicam a possível ocorrência de mais espécies. O presente trabalho tem como ob...

  13. Estudo morfométrico de ovos de paranfistomatídeos da Guiné-Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo, Maria Virgínia; Rosa, Fernanda; Nunes, C.; Ribeiro, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    A infecção por paranfistomatídeos é uma das parasitoses mais frequentes nos bovinos da República da Guiné-Bissau. Embora Tendeiro (1948) tenha referido a existência de Paramphystomum explanatum e de Colytophoron cotylophorum com base na morfologia externa dos exemplares colhidos, as grandes semelhanças interespecíficas e a variabilidade intraespecífica existentes neste grupo de parasitas, indicam a possível ocorrência de mais espécies. O presente trabalho tem como objectivo uma análise prelim...

  14. Establishing a Twin Registry in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Gomes, Margarida A; Joaquím, Luis C

    2013-01-01

    represent a powerful tool. Though twin studies have been carried out by the Bandim Health Project for more than 30 years, the renewed registry described here was officially established in 2009 and includes both a cohort of newborn twins and a cohort of young and adult twins. Currently more than 1,500 twins...

  15. Reaching adolescents and youth in Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    des Adolescentes). In urban Mauritania too, the percentage married is high among females of 15-. 24 years. But in the three countries, the groups of females and males aged 10-14, 15-19 and 20-24 years that participate in the activities are unmarried, in-school and living with both parents or with other persons (i.e. partner, ...

  16. A droga entre os jovens: uma análise sobre o consumo na Guiné-Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Có Júnior, Abílio Aleluia Otaíro

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação submetida como requisito parcial para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Sociologia O presente estudo preconizou determinar a perceção dos adolescentes e jovens consumidores de drogas de Bissau e Quinhamel, na Região de Biombo, sobre a toxicodependência no seu seio, bem como a dos seus amigos e familiares. Por outro lado, o estudo pretendeu avaliar a visão dos técnicos de saúde e de outros responsáveis de instituições públicas (Polícia de Ordem Pública e Polícia Judiciária) sobre a ...

  17. Routine vaccinations associated with divergent effects on female and male mortality at the paediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Jens Erik; Sodemann, Morten; Biai, Sidu

    2005-01-01

    was 0.54 (0.28-0.97). Among children having received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and oral polio (OPV) as the last vaccines, girls had higher case fatality than boys, the mortality ratio being 1.63 (1.03-2.59). The female to male ratios were significantly inversed for DTP and OPV versus measles...

  18. Vouloir construire une mosquée en pays Jola - Ajamat (Guinée Bissau, 1990 – 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Julliard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Trois religions cohabitent, non sans conflits épisodiques, à Susana le plus gros bourg rizicole du pays Diola Adiamat au nord ouest de la Guinée Bissau. La «religion de terroir» (idée d'un dieu unique coexistant avec une activité de type polythéiste à des puissances surhumaines reste encore majoritaire sur le plan démographique tandis que le catholicisme enregistre un fort taux de conversions et l'islam progresse par l'installation de commerçants et l'arrivée de réfugiés fuyants le conflit militaire casamançais au Sénégal voisin. Les aires de sacrifice, généralement sans clôtures, maillent entièrement la surface villageoise et agricole. Au sud, elle est barrée par l'enceinte en ciment de la mission et les hauts murs de l'église catholique. En son centre, s'élève depuis 1995 la mosquée sans minaret, en terre et toit de chaume. L'observation ethnographique de cette entreprise architecturale révèle un double clivage d'abord, entre musulmans résidents temporaires et musulmans originaires de Susana, les seuls promoteurs de la mosquée. Ensuite, à l'intérieur de ce groupe : entre les plus âgés qui l'investissent pour assoir leur autorité, et les plus jeunes qui se servent de la nouvelle visibilité de leur religion pour légitimer leur participation au développement économique du village. Mais, les utilisations sociales et religieuses de la mosquée (et de l'église ne se comprennent pas en dehors du rapport prégnant à la « religion de terroir » qui, à l'inverse des lieux enclos de la parole révélée, ouvre ses aires culturelles à la recherche de la loi divine. Dans ce face à face triangulaire, très matériel, se pense quotidiennement à la fois la constitution de la personne, l'appartenance au territoire, l'organisation sociale et leur évolution dans le rapport à la république de Guinée Bissau.

  19. LETRAMENTO(S/ALFABETIZAÇÃO EM CONTEXTOS MULTILÍNGUES DE ANGOLA E GUINÉ-BISSAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracy Alves Martins

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A Pesquisa em Rede sobre relações raciais, diversidade socio-cultural e interculturalidade em países de língua portuguesa analisa, pelo viés da Análise Crítica do Discurso, segundo Van Dijk, obras literárias, segundo Paulino e Cosson, manuais escolares, segundo Dionísio e Costa Val, e documentos oficiais relacionados a políticas linguísticas e culturais, segundo Calvet. Dessa forma, enfatiza diálogos sul/sul, segundo Santos e Meneses, e Munanga e Gomes, e cooperação horizontal entre países de língua portuguesa, partindo de orientações das Leis brasileiras 10.639/2003 e 11.645/2008, que instituem o estudo da História e Cultura dos africanos e indígenas nas escolas brasileiras. Este texto apresenta duas investigações de mestrado que focalizam tensões entre língua oficial e língua(s materna(s, nos processos de Letramento(s, em Angola e Guiné-Bissau, desenvolvidas por pesquisadores desses dois países, na Faculdade de Educação da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, no Brasil, que apontam para possibilidades do ensino bilíngue.

  20. Persisting high hospital and community childhood mortality in an urban setting in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Jens Erik; Biai, Sidu; Jakobsen, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To describe paediatric hospitalization in a West African capital in relation to overall childhood mortality in the community and to evaluate the potential impact of improved management at the hospital. METHODS: Hospital data on child admissions in a 6-year period were linked to information i...... be free of charge, in order to minimize the impact of social inequality. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Oct...

  1. Cryptosporidiosis in infancy and childhood mortality in Guinea Bissau, west Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Højlyng, N; Gottschau, A

    1993-01-01

    : 1315 children aged less than 4 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cryptosporidium infection detected by examination of stools during episode of diarrhoea and death of a child. RESULTS: Cryptosporidium spp were found in 239 (7.4%) out of 3215 episodes of diarrhoea. The parasite was most common in younger...

  2. BCG vaccination scar associated with better childhood survival in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Gustafson, Per; Nhaga, Alexandro

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a non-specific beneficial effect on infant survival and that a BCG scar may be associated with lower child mortality. No study has previously examined the influence of BCG vaccination on cause of death....

  3. Milk enzyme activities and subclinical mastitis among women in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lill Brith Wium; Hartvig, Ditte Luise; Kæstel, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    Background: Subclinical mastititis (SCM) is a condition with raised milk concentration of sodium and milk immune factors. The milk enzymes N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (AcP), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) have attracted attention in dairy...... research as indicators of SCM, udder health, and milk quality. Study Design: To investigate if milk enzyme activities and the inflammatory interleukin 8 (IL-8) level are increased in women with SCM, we measured sodium, potassium, NAGase, LDH, AcP, AP, and IL-8 in breastmilk samples collected at 2 months...... in univariate linear regression (p enzymes and IL-8). Conclusions: A positive association between the Na/K ratio and the breastmilk enzymes NAGase, LDH, AcP, and AP was found. Breastmilk enzymes have not previously been investigated in relation to SCM in women, and further...

  4. Persistent and acute diarrhoea as the leading causes of child mortality in urban Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Aaby, P; Ingholt, L

    1992-01-01

    in 86% of the deaths. Persistent and acute diarrhoea were the most frequent causes of death, accounting for 43 and 31 deaths per 1000 children, respectively. Fever deaths (possibly malaria), neonatal deaths, acute respiratory infections, and measles were other frequent causes. The access to health...... children (95% confidence interval [CI] 176-264), infant mortality 94 per 1000 (95% CI 73-115), and perinatal mortality 52 per 1000 (95% CI 41-63). By prospective registration of morbidity, post-mortem interviews, and examination of available hospital records, a presumptive cause of death was established...... services was relatively easy: 75% of the children who died had attended for treatment at a hospital or a health centre. It is important to find ways of preventing and managing persistent diarrhoea, the major cause of death, and to improve the control of acute diarrhoea by a targeted approach....

  5. Y-chromosomal diversity in the population of Guinea-Bissau: a multiethnic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Alexandra; Ornelas, Carolina; Jobling, Mark A; Brehm, António; Villems, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The geographic and ethnolinguistic differentiation of many African Y-chromosomal lineages provides an opportunity to evaluate human migration episodes and admixture processes, in a pan-continental context. The analysis of the paternal genetic structure of Equatorial West Africans carried out to date leaves their origins and relationships unclear, and raises questions about the existence of major demographic phenomena analogous to the large-scale Bantu expansions. To addres...

  6. Childhood mortality after oral polio immunisation campaign in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Sodemann, Morten

    2005-01-01

    Though previous studies have suggested a non-specific beneficial effect of oral polio vaccine (OPV), there has been no evaluation of the mortality impact of national polio immunization days. On the other hand, studies examining the effect of OPV and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines, wh...

  7. Effect of revaccination with BCG in early childhood on mortality: randomised trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, A.E.; Benn, Christine Stabell; Ravn, H.

    2010-01-01

    -up. Compared with controls, the BCG revaccinated children had a hazard ratio of 1.20 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 1.89). Two hundred and fifty children were admitted to hospital for the first time between enrolment and the end of the study, with an incidence rate ratio for BCG revaccinated children versus...

  8. A prospective study of twinning and perinatal mortality in urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Lund, Najaaraq; Jepsen, Frida Staarup

    2012-01-01

    .24, CI: 2.39-7.51) and caesarean section (RR = 1.78, CI: 1.06-2.99) were significant risk factors for perinatal twin mortality. Male sex (RR = 1.38, CI: 0.97-1.96), unawareness of twin pregnancy (RR = 1.64, CI: 0.97-2.78) and high blood pressure during pregnancy (RR = 1.77, CI: 0.88-3.57) were borderline...

  9. The effect of early measles vaccination on thymic size. A randomized study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lone Damkjær; Eriksen, Helle Brander; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    In low-income countries early measles vaccine (MV) is associated with reduced child mortality which cannot be explained by prevention of measles. A large thymus gland in infancy is also associated with reduced mortality. We hypothesized that early MV is associated with increased thymic size. Within...

  10. Trial of high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, T G; Hansen, H L

    1988-01-01

    In a randomised study of 558 children in an urban African community, the protective effect of the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine given in a dose of 40,000 plaque forming units from the age of 4 months was compared with the effects of a standard dose (6000 tissue culture infectious units......) of Schwarz measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months. During two years of follow-up, all 14 clinical cases of measles occurred in the Schwarz group; 10 of the children contracted measles before vaccination and 4 after measles vaccination. Thus the EZ vaccine provided significant protection against...... measles both before and after the usual age of vaccination. Among the children who were exposed to measles at home, those given EZ vaccine were better protected than either unvaccinated children or those given the Schwarz vaccine....

  11. Reduced All-Cause Child Mortality After General Measles Vaccination Campaign in Rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that measles vaccine (MV) prevents non-measles deaths. MV-campaigns are conducted to eliminate measles infection.The overall mortality effect of MV-campaigns has not been studied. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) surveys children aged 0-4 years in rural...... in the 12 months after the campaign, compared with 203 and 206 deaths in the two previous years, the adjusted mortality rate ratio (aMRR) comparing all children in 2006 with all children in 2004-2005 being 0.80 (95%CI: 0.66-0.96).Censoring deaths due to measles infection the aMRR was 0.83 (0.69-1.00).The...... by prevention of measles deaths. If MV-campaigns reduce non-measles related mortality the policies for measles vaccination should take this into account....

  12. Vaccinia scars associated with better survival for adults. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Gustafson, Per; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin

    2006-01-01

    Live vaccines including BCG and measles may have non-targeted beneficial effects on childhood survival in areas with high mortality. The authors therefore undertook a survey of vaccinia scars to evaluate subsequent mortality.......Live vaccines including BCG and measles may have non-targeted beneficial effects on childhood survival in areas with high mortality. The authors therefore undertook a survey of vaccinia scars to evaluate subsequent mortality....

  13. Gastrointestinal symbionts of chimpanzees in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau with respect to habitat fragmentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sá, R. M.; Petrášová, J.; Pomajbíková, K.; Profousová, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Sousa, C.; Cable, J.; Bruford, M. W.; Modrý, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 10 (2013), s. 1032-1041 ISSN 0275-2565 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cantanhez National Park * fragmentation * Pan troglodytes verus * parasites * symbionts * Trichuris sp Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.136, year: 2013

  14. Memórias da guerra: um diálogo entre poemas de Odete Semedo e o registro fotográfico do conflito armado de 1998-1999, na Guiné-Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina de Almeida Calado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o testemunho poético da guerra da Guiné-Bissau, entre 1998 e 1999, a partir de poemas do livro No fundo do canto, de Odete Semedo, comparando-os com fotografias desse período histórico. Objetiva-se discutir a forma como essas duas linguagens, ao dialogarem entre si, “capturam” esse momento do país. Pretende-se demonstrar que, nos poemas, a voz poética assume-se como mensageira da nação, numa escrita que busca registrar o caos e expressar os horrores da guerra. A discussão é ancorada em estudos de Schøllhammer (2002; 2012, sobre o realismo afetivo; em Barthes (1984, que possibilita pensar como se manifestam, na escrita poética e na linguagem fotográfica, o efeito do "Isso foi" barthesiano; e nas reflexões de Huyssen (2000, sobre a paixão pela memória e como as práticas dessa memória podem trazer à tona “outras memórias”.Memórias da guerra: um diálogo entre poemas de Odete Semedo e o registro fotográfico do conflito armado de 1998-1999, na Guiné-Bissau

  15. Sai fora: youth, disconnectedness and aspiration to mobility in the Bijagó Islands (Guinea-Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Bordonaro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article I portray the marginality, exclusion and social immobility of young people living in the small port of Bubaque in the Bijagó Islands. Reluctant to be involved in the village economy, but excluded from the port’s market economy, aware of the weakness of the national economy, migration to Europe appears to them to be the only viable means of social promotion. Income and education are not the sole motivations of their aspirations to mobility, however. The young men’s fantasies of migration to Europe are based on a developmentalist narrative framework that creates a cartography of centres and peripheries. Physical mobility towards the north is therefore also envisaged as a chance to obtain - or at least to claim - citizenship in ‘modernity’.Neste artigo pretendo descrever a marginalidade, a exclusão e a imobilidade social dos jovens que vivem no pequeno porto de Bubaque, no arquipélago dos Bijagós. Relutantes a serem envolvidos na economia da aldeia, mas excluídos da economia do mercado do porto, conscientes da fragilidade da economia nacional, a migração para a Europa aparece-lhes como a única forma viável de promoção social. Contudo, o dinheiro e a educação não são as únicas motivações para a sua aspiração à mobilidade. As fantasias de migração para Europa dos jovens homens assentam numa narrativa desenvolvimentista que cria uma cartografia de centros e periferias. A mobilidade em direcção ao “norte” é portanto concebida também como uma oportunidade para conseguir - ou pelo menos para reivindicar - o direito de cidadania na “modernidade”.

  16. Advancing Stability and Reconciliation in Guinea-Bissau: Lessons from Africa’s First Narco-State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    organizacoes da Sociedade Civil para o Periodo de Transicao Politica,” Organizações da Sociedade Civil , March 14, 2013, available at <http://www...challenges in ways that promote civil -military cooperation, respect for democratic values, and safeguard human rights. Advancing Stability and...41 Empowering Civil Society and Independent Media

  17. Molecular epidemiology of endemic human t-lymphotropic virus type 1 in a rural community in guinea-bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Tienen (Carla); T.I. de Silva (Thushan); L.C.J. Alcantara (Luiz); C. Onyango (Clayton); S. Jarju (Sheikh); N. Gonçalves (Nato); T. Vincent (Tim); P. Aaby; H. Whittle (Hilton); M. Schim van der Loeff (Maarten); M. Cotten (Matthew)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes lethal adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and severely debilitating HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in up to 5% of infected adults. HTLV-1 is endemic in parts of Africa and the highest

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Endemic Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 in a Rural Community in Guinea-Bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tienen, Carla; de Silva, Thushan I.; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Onyango, Clayton O.; Jarju, Sheikh; Gonçalves, Nato; Vincent, Tim; Aaby, Peter; Whittle, Hilton; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten; Cotten, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Background: Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes lethal adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and severely debilitating HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in up to 5% of infected adults. HTLV-1 is endemic in parts of Africa and the highest prevalence in

  19. From Guinea-Bissau to Colombia. Benkos Biohó, resistance and (is Palenque. A case of the African Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Arenas Valencia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article I mention the case of Benkos Biohó as a symbolic figure of the african, afrodescendant and afrocolombian resistance, conducted by the "palenques" (known as "quilombos" in Brazil, manifestations of resistance that started in Africa and were reproduced later in America during human traffic, colonization and enslavement. Today, this strategies are reinvented and reformulated by the afrodescendants, women and men, that  live in this territories. Regarding the ways and methods,  these were always diverse, from the armed fight to the freedom demands in courts. But they always looked for advances, improvements and progress in an opressor colonial system.

  20. The effect of vitamin A supplementation administered with missing vaccines during national immunization days in Guinea-Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Martins, Cesario; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik; Fisker, Ane B?rent; Christoffersen, Dorthe; Aaby, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background WHO recommends high-dose Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after 6 months of age. It has not been studied whether the effect of VAS on mortality depends on the type of vaccine. We have hypothesized that VAS administered with measles vaccine (MV) is more beneficial than VAS with diphtheria?tetanus?pertussis (DTP) vaccine. We assessed the effect of VAS administered with different vaccines during national immunization days (NIDs). Methods In 2003, VAS was distrib...

  1. Different doses of amodiaquine and chloroquine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Ursing, Johan; Poulsen, Anja

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare different doses of chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (AQ) for the treatment of falciparum malaria in children. Children with Plasmodium falciparum monoinfection were allocated by block randomisation to treatment with CQ 50/kg mg or 25 mg/kg or AQ 15 mg/k...

  2. Paracetamol versus placebo in treatment of non-severe malaria in children in Guinea-Bissau: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Ursing, Johan; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2011-01-01

    The current guidelines for treatment of malaria include paracetamol to children with fever. No convincing evidence for the beneficial effects of this practice exists. Studies show that time to parasite clearance is significantly longer in children treated with paracetamol, which questions...

  3. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito

    2010-01-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys....

  4. Vaccination technique, PPD reaction and BCG scarring in a cohort of children born in Guinea-Bissau 2000-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Sodemann, Morten; Jensen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    =2225) of age. In a subgroup of the children the vaccination technique was monitored by direct observation of post-vaccination wheal and route of administration. Three different types of BCG vaccine supplied by the local Extended Programme on Immunization were used. At 6 months of age the rate of PPD...... reactors (>1mm) after BCG vaccination was 25% and the rate of scarring was 89%. One BCG strain was associated with fewer PPD reactors (OR=0.54 (0.31-0.91)) and BCG scars (OR=0.13 (0.05-0.37)) and larger post-vaccination wheals produced more PPD reactions (OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.02-1.43)) and BCG scars (OR 1......, low birth weight, place of residence, education and civil status of mother. We reason that vaccination technique and BCG strain are important for PPD reaction and scarring in response to BCG vaccination. Considering that these responses are associated with better infant survival, the importance...

  5. A randomized trial of an early measles vaccine at 4½ months of age in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Søndergaard, Mia; Andersen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After measles vaccine (MV), all-cause mortality is reduced more than can be explained by the prevention of measles, especially in females. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the biological mechanisms underlying the observed non-specific and sex-differential effects of MV on mortality. METHODS...

  6. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito

    2010-01-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys.......Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys....

  7. DTP with or after measles vaccination is associated with increased in-hospital mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Biai, Sidu; Veirum, Jens Erik

    2007-01-01

    The sequence of routine immunisations may be important for childhood mortality. Three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) should be given at 6, 10, and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age. The sequence is not always respected. We examined in-hospital mortality...... of children having received DTP with or after measles vaccine....

  8. Neutralizing Antibody Response and Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in HIV-1-Infected Individuals from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggren, Marie; Jensen, Sanne Skov; Heyndrickx, Leo

    2016-01-01

    cytotoxicity (ADCC) against local and nonlocal circulating HIV-1 strains. The neutralizing activity did not demonstrate higher potential against local circulating strains according to geography and subtype determination, but the plasma from Danish individuals demonstrated significantly higher inhibitory...

  9. The effect of neonatal vitamin A supplementation on growth in the first year of life among low-birth-weight infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    , and 12 months after inclusion. RESULTS: Overall there was no effect of neonatal VAS on growth in the first year of life. By 2 months, VAS tended to have a beneficial effect on weight and head circumference when given with BCG but not when given without BCG (interaction: weight-for-age p = 0.07 and head......BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) may amplify the effect of vaccines. We therefore investigated if neonatal VAS given with and without Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine to low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates had an effect on growth in the first year of life. We hypothesised that VAS would...... circumference-for-age: p = 0.06). By 6 months, there was a beneficial effect of VAS on head circumference and weight among children who had not received DTP vaccine 2 months after inclusion (weight: 0.18 (0.00; 0.36) and head circumference 0.27 (0.06; 0.48)), but no beneficial effect among those who had...

  10. Hypothermia of newborns is associated with excess mortality in the first 2 months of life in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Nielsen, Jens; Veirum, Jens

    2008-01-01

    's axillary temperature was measured within 12 h of birth. They were followed from birth to 6 months of life through regular home visits. RESULTS: We identified 2926 live births in the study area and 177 deaths before 6 months of age. Based on mortality risk, we defined a temperature below 34.5 degrees C...... as the cut-off point for HT. Two hundred and thirty-eight (8%) children had HT. Controlled for birth weight, HT was associated with a nearly fivefold increase in mortality during the first 7 days of life [mortality ratio (MR) = 4.81 (2.90-8.00)] and with increased mortality from 8 to 56 days of life [MR = 2.......55 (1.29-5.04)]. CONCLUSION: HT is associated with excess mortality beyond the perinatal period up to at least 2 months of age, especially among low-birth-weight children. Hence, failure to comply with the WHO guidelines for care of newborns in low-income countries may have long-term consequences...

  11. Hepatitis B and Delta Virus Are Prevalent but Often Subclinical Co-Infections among HIV Infected Patients in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jespersen, Sanne; Medina, Candida

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) may lead to accelerated hepatic disease progression with higher rates of liver cirrhosis and liver-related mortality compared with HBV mono-infection. Co or super-infection with hepatitis Delta virus (HDV...... interviewed, had a clinical exam performed and had a blood sample stored. The patients' samples were tested for HBV and HDV serology, and HBV/HDV viral loads were analyzed using in-house real-time PCR methods. RESULTS: In total, 576 patients (417 HIV-1, 104 HIV-2 and 55 HIV-1/2) were included in this study...... not performed for eight patients. HBV DNA was detected in 42 of 86 samples (48.8%) positive for HBsAg and genotyping was performed in 26 patients; 25 of whom had genotype E and one genotype D. Among 9 patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART), one patient had the [L180M, M204V] mutation associated...

  12. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding is not likely to be cost effective in West Africa. A randomized intervention study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne S; Sodemann, Morten; Biai, Sidu

    2008-01-01

    cohort of 1721 infants were randomized to receive health education: promotion of exclusive breastfeeding for the first 4-6 months of life according to WHO recommendations at the time of the study. All children were followed from birth to 6 months of age. RESULTS: Introduction of both water and weaning...

  13. Characterization of incompletely typed rotavirus strains from Guinea-Bissau: identification of G8 and G9 types and a high frequency of mixed infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, T.K.; Page, N.A.; Griffin, D.D.

    2003-01-01

    %, respectively, identical to other African G8 and G9 strains. Multiple G and/or P types were identified at a high frequency (59%), including two previously undescribed mixed infections, P[4]P[6], G2G8 and P[4]P[6], G2G9. These mixed infections most likely represent naturally occurring reassortance of rotavirus......] and P[6] primer binding sites were detected. These findings highlight the need for regular evaluation of the multiplex primer PCR method and typing primers. The high frequency of uncommon as well as reassortant rotavirus strains in countries where rotavirus is an important cause of child mortality...... underscores the need for extensive strain surveillance as a basis to develop appropriate rotavirus vaccine candidates....

  14. Socio-ritual structures and modern migration among the Manjak of Guinea Bissau : Ideological reproduction in a context of peripheral capitalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, W.M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Case study of the position and religious activities of Manjak labour migrants from the administrative divisions of Calequisse and Caió in the Cacheu region, who spend a substantial portion of their lives in urban centers in Senegal and France while maintaining close ritual and therapeutic ties with

  15. Markers of iron status are associated with stage of pregnancy and acute-phase response, but not with parity among pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kæstel, Pernille; Aaby, Peter; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    pregnancy. Using cut-off values for Fe deficiency as established in non-pregnant individuals, 52 % of the women had sTfR levels >2·3 mg/l, while only 25 % had serum ferritin levels 2·3 mg/l decreased to 47 % after adjustment for elevated serum CRP and ACT levels. On the contrary, the proportion of serum...... ferritin cut-offs since increased erythropoiesis is expected in response to increased plasma volume of pregnancy. The present study further underlines the need to adjust...

  16. Interleukin 12B (IL12B) genetic variation and pulmonary tuberculosis: a study of cohorts from The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, United States and Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Gerard A J; Edwards, Digna R Velez; Hill, Philip C

    2011-01-01

    detected throughout the gene. These data suggest that genetic variation in IL12B, a highly relevant candidate gene, is a risk factor for PTB in populations of African ancestry, although further studies will be required to confirm this association and identify the precise mechanism underlying it....

  17. Heterologous Immunological Effects of Early BCG Vaccination in Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Guinea-Bissau: A Randomized-controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, K.J.; Larsen, N.; Biering-Sorensen, S.; Andersen, A.; Eriksen, H.B.; Monteiro, I.; Hougaard, D.; Aaby, P.; Netea, M.G.; Flanagan, K.L.; Benn, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) seems to have beneficial nonspecific effects; early BCG vaccination of low-birth-weight (LBW) newborns reduces neonatal mortality by >40% due to prevention of primarily septicemia and pneumonia. METHODS: Within a randomized trial in LBW infants in

  18. No adverse events after simultaneous administration of 50 000 IU vitamin A and Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination to normal-birth-weight newborns in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nante, J E; Diness, B R; Ravn, H; Roth, A; Aaby, P; Benn, C S

    2008-07-01

    To determine whether the combined intervention of 50 000 IU vitamin A administered together with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination at birth was associated with adverse events, in particular bulging fontanels and adverse reactions to BCG. From an ongoing trial, 2145 infants randomized to 50 000 IU vitamin A or placebo with BCG vaccination were recruited. Adverse events were monitored in two different ways: (A) daily clinical examinations by a medical doctor during the first 3 days post supplementation; (B) weekly interviews by a trained assistant during the first month post supplementation. In part A, 1271 infants were enrolled, in part B 2078. Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) was associated with a relative risk (RR) of bulging fontanels of 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.82-1.65). The rate of health care contacts and various symptoms during the first month were comparable between the groups. VAS was associated with larger peak local reactions to BCG vaccination in boys, but not in girls (P-value for test of interaction between VAS and sex=0.02). 50 000 IU vitamin A with BCG was not associated with adverse events. The observed sex-differential effect of VAS on local reaction to BCG is in line with other observations of sex-differential effects of VAS.

  19. Sex-differential effects of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine for the outcome of paediatric admissions? A hospital based observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Annemette; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2017-01-01

    Background: In spite of protection against the targeted infections, a large volume of observational data indicates that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine may have a negative impact on overall childhood mortality in low-income countries, especially in girls. Methods: In an observational...

  20. Assessment of HIV-1 patient recruitability in the Republic of Guinea-Bissau using African versus North American hematology and biochemistry reference intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Román, Victor Raúl; Jensen, Sanne Skov; Leo-Hansen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Hematology and biochemistry reference intervals have been derived from healthy, HIV-negative populations to guide clinical trials worldwide. However, it is less clear how such values may be applied to clinical trials involving HIV-infected individuals. We show that contradictory interpretations...

  1. The serum level of soluble urokinase receptor is elevated in tuberculosis patients and predicts mortality during treatment: a community study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Gustafson, P; Sidenius, N

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the serum level of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) carries prognostic information in individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. DESIGN: suPAR was measured by ELISA in 262 individuals at the time of enrolment into a cohort based...

  2. Contrasting female-male mortality ratios after routine vaccinations with pentavalent vaccine versus measles and yellow fever vaccine. A cohort study from urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In addition to protection against the target diseases, vaccines may have non-specific effects (NSEs). Measles vaccine (MV) has beneficial NSEs, providing protection against non-measles deaths, most so for girls. By contrast, though protecting against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis...

  3. Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    Guinea is divided into 4 regions and contains 4 major ethnic groups. Presently it is governed by the Military Committee for National Redressment, headed by a 10-man executive bureau, and with government administration at 5 governmental levels. In lieu of a constitution, the government, which took control in April 1984, is based on ordinances, decrees, and decisions issued by the President and various ministers. 1 of the primary objectives of the government is the observance of human rights; it has also declared intentions of liberalizing the economy, promoting private enterprise, and encouraging foreign investment in order to develop the available rich natural resources. Among the vast store of minerals are 1/3 of the world's proven bauxite reserves, much iron ore tonnage, and diamond, gold, and uranium deposits. Also in 1984, the government enacted a new private investment code to stimulate economic activity in the spirit of free enterprise. The new economic reform program initiated by the government will hopefully create the type of environment conducive to productive investments and economic growth. Guinea has an army, a navy, an air force, and a gendarmerie. Presently, they are at peace with their neighbors but the armed services still work to maintain internal security and defend against and deter attacks from other nations. Guinea maintains close ties with the communist nations as well as with the Western powers. The current government in fact has appealed to all friendly governments as well as multinational agencies for aid and technical assistance. Insofar as the US is concerned, it seeks to promote closer relations with Guinea and has encouraged regional economic development and increased private US investment. Further information on travel notes, geography, its people, and its history are included.

  4. Co-administration of live measles and yellow fever vaccines and inactivated pentavalent vaccines is associated with increased mortality compared with measles and yellow fever vaccines only. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik Bylling; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2014-01-01

    Studies from low-income countries indicate that co-administration of inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and live attenuated measles vaccine (MV) is associated with increased mortality compared with receiving MV only. Pentavalent (DTP-H. Influenza type B-Hepatitis B) vaccine...

  5. Artemether-Lumefantrine versus Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Children Aged Less than 15 Years in Guinea-Bissau - An Open-Label Non-Inferiority Randomised Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2016-01-01

    to children aged 6 months-15 years with uncomplicated P. falciparum mono-infection. Intake was observed and AL was given with milk. Children were seen on days 0, 1, 2 and 3 and then weekly days 7-42. Recurring P. falciparum were classified as recrudescence or new infections by genotyping. Between November...... 2012 and July 2015, 312 children were randomised to AL (n = 155) or DP (n = 157). The day 42 PCR adjusted per protocol adequate clinical and parasitological responses were 95% and 100% in the AL and DP groups respectively, Mantel-Haenszel weighted odds ratio (OR) 0.22 (95% CI 0-0.68), p = 0...... an alternative second line antimalarial. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) was chosen as it has been shown to be safe and efficacious and to reduce the incidence of recurrent malaria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a multicentre randomised open-label non-inferiority clinical trial, AL or DP were given over 3 days...

  6. The effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation given with bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine at birth on infant rotavirus infection and diarrhea: a randomized prospective study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Birgitte Rode; Christoffersen, Dorthe; Pedersen, Ulla Britt

    2010-01-01

    Prophylactic vitamin A supplementation (VAS) reduces mortality and may reduce morbidity associated with diarrhea in children >6 months of age. Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute dehydrating diarrhea among children worldwide.......Prophylactic vitamin A supplementation (VAS) reduces mortality and may reduce morbidity associated with diarrhea in children >6 months of age. Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute dehydrating diarrhea among children worldwide....

  7. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    This is Sub Saharan Africa Report. It contains the issues with different topics on Inter African Affairs, Angola, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Kenya, madagascar, Mozambique...

  8. African Journals Online: Mongolia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Faeroe Islands, Falkland Islands (Malvinas), Fiji, Finland, France, France, MEtropolitan, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern Territories, Gabon, Gambia, The, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greece, Greenland, Grenada, Guam, Guatemala, Guernsey, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras ...

  9. Tuberculosis case finding and mortality prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, F; Wagner, A-J; Back, F M

    2017-01-01

    SETTING: A suburban area of Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau; the study was conducted among presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (prePTB) patients seeking medical care for signs and symptoms suggestive of PTB. OBJECTIVE: To determine if a clinical TB score and a biomarker suPAR (soluble urokinase...

  10. Can tuberculosis case finding among health-care seeking adults be improved?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, F; Haraldsdottir, Thorny Linda; Mendes, M S

    2014-01-01

    SETTING: The Bandim Health Project study area in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential usefulness of predictors (elsewhere applied) and clinical scores (TBscore and TBscore II) based on signs and symptoms typical of tuberculosis (TB) in case finding. DESIGN: Observational...

  11. African Journal of AIDS Research - Vol 12, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barriers and facilitators to antiretroviral therapy adherence among patients with HIV in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau: A qualitative study · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Dlama N Rasmussen, David da Silva Té, Lotte Rodkjaer, Inés Oliveira, Candida Medina, Toke Barfod, ...

  12. Cohort Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Oliveira, Inés

    2014-01-01

    The West African country Guinea-Bissau is home to the world’s highest prevalence of HIV-2, and its HIV-1 prevalence is rising. Other chronic viral infections like human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and hepatitis B virus are common as well. The Bissau HIV Cohort was started in 2007 to gain...

  13. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from Sub-Saharan Africa, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sao Tome and Principe, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, contains articles...

  14. Vaccination status and sequence of vaccinations as risk factors for hospitalisation among outpatients in a high mortality country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biai, Sidu; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Most developing countries are implementing the WHO immunisation programme. Although vaccines reach most children, many modifications of the recommended schedule are observed in practice. We investigated the association between vaccination status and risk of hospitalisation in Guinea-Bissau....

  15. Beriberi epidemic within rural Muslin fishing communities in Guiné - Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Metz, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    Beriberi, ou cardiopatia e polineuropatia ligada à deficiência de tiamina, foi, antigamente, um flagelo nas populações. Os mais notáveis surtos de beriberi ocorreram após o advento da moagem de massa de arroz, em várias zonas da Ásia, no final do século XIX. Com a descoberta de vitamina B1, "anti-beriberi", e, subsequentemente, o enriquecimento de alimentos e as campanhas de sensibilização de saúde pública, a doença foi esquecida por muitos profissionais de saúde. Contudo, sabe-se que, hoje e...

  16. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, July 2013 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Afghanistan. Central African Republic. Congo, Brazzaville. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Equatorial Guinea. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Gabon. Guinea-Bissau. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali. Niger. Papua New Guinea.

  17. : tous les projets | Page 472 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: CLIMATE CHANGE, FISHERY INDUSTRY, FISHERY POLICY, FISHERY MANAGEMENT. Région: Cabo Verde, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Senegal, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Changements climatiques. Financement total : CA$ 1,192,453.00. Adaptation des politiques de pêche ...

  18. Atlas international de la vitalite linguistique. Volume 3: L'Afrique Occidentale = International Atlas of Language Vitality. Volume 3: West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Grant D., Ed.; Gendron, Jean-Denis, Ed.

    The third volume in a series of atlases of language vitality covers 13 countries of West Africa (Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo) and 59 major languages. The atlas consists of four main parts. The first offers comparative data, in bar graph and tabular…

  19. : tous les projets | Page 232 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Food security, PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH, RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, RURAL COMMUNITIES, LAND MANAGEMENT, AGRICULTURAL POLICY. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Togo, Burkina Faso. Programme: Fondements pour l' ...

  20. : tous les projets | Page 239 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Food security, PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH, RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, RURAL COMMUNITIES, LAND MANAGEMENT, AGRICULTURAL POLICY. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Togo, Burkina Faso. Programme: Fondements pour l' ...

  1. Senegal : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Projet. Ce projet vise à analyser l'effet du dividende-genre sur la croissance économique en Afrique de l'Ouest. Région: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo. Programme: Employment and Growth.

  2. sénégal : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Food security, PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH, RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, RURAL COMMUNITIES, LAND MANAGEMENT, AGRICULTURAL POLICY. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Togo, Burkina Faso. Programme: Fondements pour l' ...

  3. Senegal : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Food security, PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH, RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, RURAL COMMUNITIES, LAND MANAGEMENT, AGRICULTURAL POLICY. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Togo, Burkina Faso. Programme: Fondements pour l' ...

  4. Burkina Faso : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Date de début : 1 avril 2012. End Date: 31 mars 2015. Sujet: Food security, PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH, RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, RURAL COMMUNITIES, LAND MANAGEMENT, AGRICULTURAL POLICY. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, ...

  5. senegal : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Cabo Verde, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Senegal, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Changements climatiques. Financement total : CA$ 1,192,453.00. Renforcement des stratégies locales de gestion des zones sylvo-pastorales inter villageoises dans le basin arachidier du Sénégal.

  6. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nairobi, Kenya. 28 Adapting Fishing Policy to Climate Change with the Aid of Scientific and Endogenous Knowledge. Cap Verde, Gambia,. Guinea, Guinea Bissau,. Mauritania and Senegal. Environment and Development in the Third World. (ENDA-TM). Dakar, Senegal. 29 Integrating Indigenous Knowledge in Climate Risk ...

  7. 77 FR 34781 - Importation of Tomatoes From the Economic Community of West African States Into the Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ..., Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria..., and other articles to prevent the introduction of harmful agricultural pests and diseases. Services to.... List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs, Nursery stock, Plant diseases...

  8. Caring through crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the way young men in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau, make sense of and engage in the transnational cocaine trade, which has established itself on the Upper Guinea coast. It describes Guinea-Bissau's emergence as a regional centre for the trafficking of cocaine from Latin...... and uncertainties, it is also perceived to offer potential livelihoods and prospects. On the one hand, cocaine is positioned as an ethically dubious commodity; on the other, its revenue and concomitant social effects are seen as morally reasonable and required. The article therefore centres on the ethical...... dimensions of the trade, as seen from the perspective of the youth in question, and argues that it needs to be understood in terms of situational obligations rather than abstract ideals. It approaches ethics from a relational point of view and shows how the moral evaluation and ascription of the cocaine...

  9. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus rapid tests underestimate hepatitis prevalence among HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jespersen, S; Medina, C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the case of coinfection with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatic disease progression is often accelerated, with higher rates of liver cirrhosis and liver-related mortality. We aimed to evaluate the performance of the rapid tests used routinely...... to detect HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Blood samples from HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau were stored after testing for HBsAg and anti-HCV with rapid tests. Samples were subsequently re-tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV in Denmark...

  10. High throughput resistance profiling of Plasmodium falciparum infections based on custom dual indexing and Illumina next generation sequencing-technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nag, Sidsel; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2017-01-01

    designed dual indexing and Miseq sequencing for high throughput SNP-profiling of 457 malaria infections from Guinea-Bissau, at the cost of 10 USD per sample. By amplifying and sequencing 15 genetic fragments, we cover 20 resistance-conferring SNPs occurring in pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr, pfdhps, as well......-conferring SNPs in pfK13 are absent from the studied area of Guinea-Bissau, while the pfmdr1 86 N allele is found at a high prevalence. The mitochondrial barcodes are unanimous and accommodate a West African origin of the parasites. With this method, very reliable high throughput surveillance of antimalarial drug...

  11. Comparison of nasopharyngeal aspirate and nasal swab specimens for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in different settings in a developing country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, L G; Trautner, S; Kofoed, P-E

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) for diagnostic purposes using nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) and nasal swabs (NS) in different clinical settings in a community study in Guinea-Bissau. METHOD: During 1996-98 paired specimens were obtained from 635 children under...

  12. Does oral polio vaccine at birth affect the size of the thymus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Helle Brander; Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that vaccines have an effect on general mortality which goes beyond specific disease protection. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is widely used in low-income countries, but in observational studies in Guinea-Bissau we observed that not receiving OPV at birth...

  13. 78 FR 58861 - Presidential Determination With Respect to Foreign Governments' Efforts Regarding Trafficking in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... respect to Algeria, the Central African Republic, People's Republic of China, Guinea-Bissau, Kuwait, Libya..., family planning, and macroeconomic growth including anti-corruption, and programs that would have a significant adverse effect on vulnerable populations if suspended, would promote the purposes of the Act or is...

  14. An epidemic outbreak of cryptosporidiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Kåre; Højlyng, Niels; Ingholt, Liselotte

    1990-01-01

    In the first year of a prospective community study of childhood diarrhea conducted in a semiurban area in the capital of Guinea Bissau, Cryptosporidium sp. was found in 73 (6.0%) of 1216 episodes of diarrhea. The parasite was the second most prevalent intestinal parasite, and the only one...

  15. The dispersion of red knots Calidris canutus in Africa — is southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -breeding season largely in West Africa (Mauritania and Guinea Bissau), where approximately half a million occurred in the 1980s. It was a rarely seen in southern Africa in the early part of the 20th century, but there were about 12 500 in the ...

  16. Management of childhood diarrhea and use of oral rehydration salts in a suburban West African community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare

    1999-01-01

    In a household survey in Guinea-Bissau, 319 episodes of diarrhea in children were followed by interviews every second day with the aim of investigating perceived morbidity and subsequent actions taken. The majority of the mothers had good knowledge of oral rehydration salts (ORS). However, only 58...

  17. Screening of the kernels of Pentadesma butyracea from various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gwla10

    Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (Clusiaceae) is a ligneous forest species of multipurpose uses. It is widely distributed in Africa from Guinea-Bissau to the West of the Democratic Republic of Congo. This study screened the kernel of P. butyracea on the basis of their physico-chemical properties. Six types of kernels were ...

  18. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cecilia; Garly, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    of age (current policy). Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting The Bandim Health Project, Guinea-Bissau, which maintains a health and demographic surveillance system in an urban area. Participants 6648 children aged 4.5 months of age who had received three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis...

  19. Population dynamics of HIV-2 in rural West Africa: comparison with HIV-1 and ongoing transmission at the heart of the epidemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Silva, Thushan I.; van Tienen, Carla; Onyango, Clayton; Jabang, Abdoulie; Vincent, Tim; Loeff, Maarten F. Schim van der; Coutinho, Roel A.; Jaye, Assan; Rowland-Jones, Sarah; Whittle, Hilton; Cotten, Matthew; Hué, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    To compare the population dynamics of HIV-2 and HIV-1, and to characterize ongoing HIV-2 transmission in rural Guinea-Bissau. Phylogenetic and phylodynamic analyses using HIV-2 gag and env, and HIV-1 env sequences, combined with epidemiological data from a community cohort. Samples were obtained

  20. The past and the present (re)visited: war veterans' representations of the Portuguese colonial war

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo, A.; Pires Valentim, J.; Licata, L.; Doosje, B.; Cabecinhas, R.; Abadia, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Portuguese colonial war, which took place between 1961 and 1974, has marked the life of many individuals who were recruited by the Portuguese Armed Forces to fight in Angola, Mozambique and Guinea-Bissau. In the present study, through a classical content analysis of five semi-structured

  1. Reforma Ortografica, Planejamento e Difusao Linguistica: O Caso da Lingua Portuguesa (Orthographic Reform, Planning, and Linguistic Diffusion: The Case of Portuguese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, John Robert

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that the Luso-Brazilian Accord is a strategy to spread the Portuguese language in Africa, particularly in the former colonies of Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, and Sao Tome e Principe, and to construct and solidify a community of lusophone nations in geopolitical terms in world affairs. Language planning in these countries…

  2. The effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation administered with BCG vaccine at birth may be modified by subsequent DTP vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Unexpectedly, we found no overall beneficial effect on mortality in a randomised trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) or placebo administered with BCG vaccine at birth in Guinea-Bissau. We conducted an explorative analysis to examine whether subsequent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP...

  3. Mapping and characterizing mangrove rice growing environments in West-Africa using remote sensing and secondary data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adefurin, O.; Hamdy, M; Zwart, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Rice is one of the major staple foods consumed in Africa and its demand continues to increase as a result of population growth, urbanization and changing diets. Mangrove rice cultivation is of importance along the West-African Atlantic coast from Senegal and Gambia down to Guinea-Bissau,

  4. The immunological effect of revaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine at 19 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Roth, Adam; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov

    2013-01-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination has important non-specific immune effects. In a randomized trial in Guinea-Bissau, BCG revaccination was associated with significantly increased survival in children who received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)-booster vaccine before enrolment and in c...

  5. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There has been no reference material for T-lymphocyte subsets for normal children in developing countries. We therefore used T-lymphocyte subset determinations among children in three different studies in Guinea-Bissau to construct age-related reference material and to examine possible...

  6. Predictive value of soluble haemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 serum levels for survival in verified tuberculosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T B; Gustafson, P; Kronborg, G

    2005-01-01

    Pre-treatment serum levels of sCD163 were measured in a cohort of 236 suspected tuberculosis (TB) cases from Guinea-Bissau, with a median follow-up period of 3.3 years (range 0-6.4 years). In 113 cases, the diagnosis of TB was verified by positive sputum microscopy and/or culture. Among the verif...

  7. The effect of at-birth vitamin A supplementation on differential leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mathias J; Fisker, Ane B; Sartono, Erliyani

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth was not associated with improved survival in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in Guinea-Bissau. However, a negative sex-differential effect, which became evident after diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination, was noted; among girls who had rec...

  8. Oral Polio Vaccine Influences the Immune Response to BCG Vaccination. A Natural Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartono, E.; Lisse, I.M.; Terveer, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did...

  9. Oral polio vaccine influences the immune response to BCG vaccination. A natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartono, Erliyani; Lisse, Ida M; Terveer, Elisabeth M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did...

  10. A community study of T lymphocyte subsets and malaria parasitaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H

    1994-01-01

    In a community survey of 312 children aged 3-6 years in urban Guinea-Bissau, we examined Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia and T cell subsets. 183 children (59%) had parasites in their blood, 13 had fever > or = 37.5 degrees C, and 9 (3%) had fever and a parasite density > 5000/microL (clinical ...

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aaby P, Martins C, Bale C Lisse I. Assessing measles vaccination coverage by maternal recall in Guinea-Bissau. Lancet 1998; 352: 1229,. 11. Gareaballah ET, Loevinsohn BP. The accuracy of mother's reports about their children's vaccination status. Bull World Health Organ 1989; 67: 669-674. 12. Wilkonson D, Cutts F, ...

  12. All projects related to | Page 293 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: HEALTH SERVICES, HEALTH SYSTEM, OPERATIONS RESEARCH, INFORMATION MANAGEMENT, INFORMATION SYSTEMS. Region: Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Sierra Leone, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 750,000.00. Strengthening ...

  13. : tous les projets | Page 256 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: HEALTH SERVICES, HEALTH SYSTEM, OPERATIONS RESEARCH, INFORMATION MANAGEMENT, INFORMATION SYSTEMS. Région: Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Sierra Leone, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Santé des mères et des enfants. Financement total : CA$ 750,000.00.

  14. 76 FR 62599 - Presidential Determination With Respect to Foreign Governments' Efforts Regarding Trafficking in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... section 110(d)(4) of the Act, with respect to Algeria, the Central African Republic, Guinea-Bissau, Kuwait... governance, education, agriculture and food security, poverty reduction, livelihoods, family planning, and... prevention efforts through education and awareness campaigns highlighting the dangers of trafficking or...

  15. The Introduction of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis and Oral Polio Vaccine Among Young Infants in an Urban African Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Søren Wengel; Andersen, Andreas; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2017-01-01

    Background We examined the introduction of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in the early 1980s. Methods The child population had been followed with 3-monthly nutritional weighing sessions since 1978. From June 1981 DTP and OPV ...

  16. Interaction between neonatal vitamin A supplementation and timing of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Martins, Cesario L; Fisker, Ane B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Guinea-Bissau we conducted three trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) from 2002 to 2008. None of the trials found a beneficial effect on mortality. From 2003 to 2007, an early measles vaccine (MV) trial was ongoing, randomizing children 1:2 to early MV at 4.5 months...

  17. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  18. Developing Cooperative Forces in the Third World. Report of a Rand Conference, March 14-15, 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde , Afghanistan, Grenada (until the American intervention in 1983), and Nicaragua. In addition, the four self-proclaimed...Cuban communist party, the Partido Socialista Popular (PSP). The 4 PSP was highly critical of Castro’s reliance on guerrilla warfare and political

  19. Swords into ploughshares: IDRC supports a new kind of peace ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-19

    Oct 19, 2010 ... The PBC anchors a “peacebuilding architecture” that includes a dedicated trust fund and a supporting secretariat. The commission's substantive work is carried out by committees that deal with issues in specific countries: currently the agenda includes Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, and the Central ...

  20. The Bandim tuberculosis score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Joaquim, Luis Carlos; Vieira, Cesaltina

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out in Guinea-Bissau ’ s capital Bissau among inpatients and outpatients attending for tuberculosis (TB) treatment within the study area of the Bandim Health Project, a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Our aim was to assess the variability between 2...... physicians in performing the Bandim tuberculosis score (TBscore), a clinical severity score for pulmonary TB (PTB), and to compare it to the Karnofsky performance score (KPS). Method : From December 2008 to July 2009 we assessed the TBscore and the KPS of 100 PTB patients at inclusion in the TB cohort and...

  1. Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    Equatorial Guinea is situated on the Gulf of Guinea along the west African coast between Cameroon and Gabon. The people are predominantly of Bantu origin. The country's ties with Spain are significant; in 1959, it became the Spanish Equatorial region ruled by Spain's commissioner general. Recent political developments in Equatorial Guinea include the formation of the Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea in July of 1987 and the formation of a 60-member unicameral Chamber of Representatives of the People in 1983. Concerning the population, 83% of the people are Catholic and the official language is Spanish. Poverty and serious health, education and sanitary problems exist. There is no adequate hospital and few trained physicians, no dentists, and no opticians. Malaria is endemic and immunization for yellow fever is required for entrance into the country. The water is not potable and many visitors to the country bring bottled water. The tropical climate of Equatorial Guinea provides the climate for the country's largest exports and source of economy; cacao, wood and coffee. Although the country, as a whole, has progressed towards developing a participatory political system, there are still problems of governmental corruption in the face of grave health and welfare conditions. In recent years, the country has received assistance from the World Bank and the United States to aid in its development.

  2. Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Attention in this discussion of Equatorial Guinea is directed to the following: the people, history, geography, government, political conditions, the economy, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Equatorial Guinea. The population was estimated at 304,000 in 1983 and the annual growth rate was estimated in the range of 1.7-2.5. The infant mortality rate is 142.9/1000 with a life expectancy of 44.4 years for males and 47.6 years for females. The majority of the Equatoguinean people are of Bantu origin. The largest tribe, the Fang, is indigenous to the mainland, although many now also live on Bioko Island. Portuguese explorers found the island of Bioko in 1471, and the Portuguese retained control until 1778, when the island, adjacent islets, and the commercial rights to the mainland between the Niger and Ogooue Rivers were ceded to Spain. Spain lacked the wealth and the interest to develop an extensive economic infrastructure in Equatorial Guinea during the 1st half of this century, but the Spanish did help Equatorial Guinea achieve 1 of the highest literacy rates in Africa. They also founded a good network of health care facilities. In March 1968, under pressure from Guinean nationalists, Spain announced that it would grant independence to Equatorial Guinea as rapidly as possible. A referendum was held on August 11, 1968, and 63% of the electorate voted in favor of the constitution, which provided for a government with a general assembly and presidentially appointed judges in the Supreme Court. After the coup in August 1979, power was placed in the hands of a Supreme Military Council. A new constitution came into effect after a popular vote in August 1982, abolishing the Supreme Military Council. Under the terms of the constitution, the president was given extensive powers. By the end of 1983, a 60-member Chamber of Representatives of the people had been formed. The government, which is credited with restoring greater personal freedom, is regarded

  3. China’s Foreign Aid and Government-Sponsored Investment Activities: Scale, Content, Destinations, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    available from www.rand.org as a public service of the RAND Corporation. CHILDREN AND FAMILIES EDUCATION AND THE ARTS ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT HEALTH AND...also trailing the United Kingdom [UK] and France) from 2002 to 2009, becoming the third-largest supplier in 2009, when its arms deliveries to all... Benin Ghana rwanda Brazil Iraq Indonesia nepal tajikistan Botswana Guinea Senegal Chile Jordan Laos pakistan turkmenistan Burundi Guinea-Bissau

  4. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart A of... - Parties to the Montreal Protocol, and Nations Complying With, But Not Parties to, the Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Micronesia ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Fiji ✓ ✓ ✓ Finland ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ France ✓ ✓ ✓ Gabon ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Gambia ✓ ✓ Georgia ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Germany ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Ghana ✓ ✓ ✓ Greece ✓ ✓ ✓ Grenada ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Guatemala ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Guinea ✓ ✓ Guinea Bissau... Yes Denmark Yes Yes Estonia Yes No European Community Yes Yes Finland Yes Yes France Yes Yes Germany...

  5. Strategic Implications of Emerging Threats to West African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    the savannas and the southern coast, ranging from 160 km to 240 km in width. Due to its position north of the Equator, the climate of West Africa...countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea , Guinea -Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Saint...because most of this lies less than 300 meters above sea level, although isolated high points exist in a number of countries along the southern

  6. Moscow’s Post-Brezhnev Reassessment of the Third World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    THIRD WORLD Ethiopia, Afghanistan, Nicaragua, Benin, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde , and Madagascar), 33 the bulk having come to power after 1975. This...Communist party (the Partido Socialista Popular, or PSP), while the Soviets retali- ated by cutting back oil deliveries to Cuba in 1968.63 Ultimately...Generation Second Generation Algeria Afghanistan Burma Angola Burundi Benin Ghana Cape Verde Guinea (Conakry) Ethiopia India Grenada (until 1983) Iraq

  7. Identification of conserved subdominant HIV Type 1 CD8(+) T Cell epitopes restricted within common HLA Supertypes for therapeutic HIV Type 1 vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Ingrid; Kløverpris, Henrik; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov

    2012-01-01

    of a universal epitope peptide-based T cell vaccine with relevance for any geographic locations. The two major obstacles when designing such a vaccine are the high diversities of the HIV-1 genome and of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. We selected 15 CD8-restricted epitopes predicted......-specific, HLA-restricted T cell specificities using peptide-MHC class I tetramer labeling of CD8(+) T cells from HIV-1-infected individuals. The selected vaccine epitopes are infrequently targeted in HIV-1-infected individuals from both locations. Moreover, we HLA-typed HIV-1-infected individuals......The high HIV-1 prevalence, up to 4.6% in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, makes it a relevant location for testing of therapeutic vaccines. With the aim of performing a clinical study in Guinea-Bissau, after first testing the vaccine for safety in Denmark, Europe, we here describe the design...

  8. Randomized Trial of 2 Versus 1 Dose of Measles Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Marie; Martins, Cesario L; Byberg, Stine

    2018-01-01

    Background: Two doses of measles vaccine (MV) might reduce the nonmeasles mortality rate more than 1 dose of MV does. The effect of 2 versus 1 dose on morbidity has not been examined. Within a randomized trial of the effect of 2 doses versus 1 dose of MV on mortality in Guinea-Bissau, we investig......Background: Two doses of measles vaccine (MV) might reduce the nonmeasles mortality rate more than 1 dose of MV does. The effect of 2 versus 1 dose on morbidity has not been examined. Within a randomized trial of the effect of 2 doses versus 1 dose of MV on mortality in Guinea-Bissau, we...... measles vaccination policy might reduce hospital admissions more than the current policy of providing the first MV at 9 months of age. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00168558....

  9. Counterinsurgency in West Africa: Non Lethal Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Republic of Guinea Bissau, Bignona, a city in Casamance and Banjul the capital city of the Gambia Republic. When Kukoï Samba Sagnang staged a coup in...Senegalese officials. Fortunately the Senegalese Army saved the Gambian president‘s regime when Kukoï Samba Sagnang performed a coup in 1981. Kukoï... Samba Sagnang threatened to achieve the ―3B axis project.‖ 23 Gambia and Senegal kept a good relationship until 1989 when the Senegambian

  10. The effects of vitamin A supplementation with measles vaccine on leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas; Sartono, Erliyani; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Aaby, Peter; Erikstrup, Christian; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2016-01-01

    As WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after age 6 months, many children receive VAS together with measles vaccine (MV). We aimed to investigate the immunological effect of VAS given with MV. Within a randomised placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect on overall mortality of providing VAS with vaccines in Guinea-Bissau, we conducted an immunological sub-study of VAS v. placebo with MV, analysing leucocyte counts, whole blood in vitro cytokine produ...

  11. Tuberculin reaction, BCG scar, and lower female mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Sodemann, Morten; Jensen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant survival and that the effect may be more pronounced among girls. In a prospective birth cohort, we examine whether a positive tuberculin skin test and BCG scar...... in response to BCG immunization were related to better overall survival in Guinea-Bissau and, if so, whether the effect was sex-specific....

  12. Prolonged Wars: A Post-Nuclear Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Mozambique and A. Cabral in Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde implemented strategies of protracted conflict against the Portuguese colonial forces—hence, they...261 In Portugal’s African colonies, Amilcar Cabral from Cape Verde best articulated the role of the guerrilla struggle in the African context. The...for themselves. A new political party, the Partido Revolucionario de Unificación Democratica, was founded by Col J. M. Lemus, who won the presidency

  13. The Soviet Union and Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-10

    Algerians against the Moroccans in 1963 and with the PAIGC ( Partido Africano da Independencia da Guine e Cabo Verde ) against the Portuguese during the...MFA’s African independence process. Gradually, independence was granted to Guinea-Bissau (September 10, 1974), Mozambique (June 25, 1975), Cape Verde ...leaders met at Lajes in the Azores on June 19, 1974. This consultation led to a conference at Sal in the Cape Verde islands on September 14. Spinola, FNLA

  14. Indicators of State Failure: Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Renewable available per capita§§§§ Forest -- annual percentage change in area§§§§ Pollution -- CO2 Emissions per capita†† Pollution -- CO2 Emissions per...Kiribati 6.86 Nepal 7.59 Iran 7.41 Sierra Leone 6.82 Turkey 7.50 Zimbabwe 7.38 Togo 6.81 Israel 7.42 Liberia 7.34 Guinea-Bissau 6.80 Indonesia 7.32 Myanmar

  15. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates. DESIGN: Randomised, placebo controlled, two by two factorial trial. SETTING: Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. PARTICIPANTS: 1717 low birthweight neonates born at the national hospital...... months of age for infants who received vitamin A supplementation compared with those who received placebo. RESULTS: No interaction was observed between vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccine allocation (P=0.73). Vitamin A supplementation at birth was not significantly associated with mortality......: the MRR of vitamin A supplementation compared with placebo, controlled for randomisation to "early BCG" versus "no early BCG" was 1.08 (95% CI 0.79 to 1.47). Stratification by sex revealed a significant interaction between vitamin A supplementation and sex (P=0.046), the MRR of vitamin A supplementation...

  16. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine Stabell; Andersen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had...... received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Using hospital admission data from the national pediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea......-Bissau, we compared admission rates between enrollment and the 9-month vaccination in Cox models, providing admission hazard rate ratios (HRRs) for measles vaccine versus no measles vaccine. All analyses were conducted stratified by sex and reception of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS). Before...

  17. Turmoil doesn't dampen enthusiasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D'Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia

  18. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-01-01

    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin...

  19. Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    The situation of the island archipelago nation of Papua New Guinea is reviewed in terms of its geography, people, history, government, politics economy and foreign relations. Papua New Guinea consists of the eastern half of the main island of New Guinea (the western portion is Indonesia), and several island groups, all located northeast of Australia. The island has extreme geographical variations, ranging from precipitous mountains to extensive swamps and river valleys, all in a monsoon cimate. As a result, there are hundreds of small groups each with unique cultures and languages; over 650 languages, many unrelated to each other. The population is estimated at 3.5 million, growing at about 2.5% per year. Historically, the region has been occupied by Germany, Britain, Japan, and the U.S. The country came under the international trusteeship system in 1949, and now has a vigorous parliamentary government. The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, but is buttressed by resources such as gold, copper, and other metals, oil, timber, tropical agricultural products, fish. The only indusry is local production, since the minimum wage is too high to compete with Asian labor.

  20. Treatment of Iron Tailings at the Forecariah Guinea Mine - Guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... Kali, A. and Buah, W. K. (2016), “Treatment of Iron Tailings at the Forecariah Guinea Mine - Guinea ... subsidiary of Bellzone Australia, mines and export .... of water. Chemical analysis of the feed, magnetics and non-magnetics samples generated from the test work was performed using XRF. A number of ...

  1. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...... with 30% (v/v) ethanol or saline, respectively. Relative viscosity was used as one measure of physical properties of the emulsion. Higher degrees of sensitization (but not rates) were obtained at the 48 h challenge reading with the oil/propylene glycol and oil/saline + ethanol emulsions compared...

  2. Lamington, Papua New Guinea Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dormant stratovolcano in Papua New Guinea suddenly exploded in 1951. Nuees ardentes (glowing avalanches) shot down the mountain at 100 km per hour, devastated...

  3. Management of childhood diarrhea and use of oral rehydration salts in a suburban West African community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare

    1999-01-01

    In a household survey in Guinea-Bissau, 319 episodes of diarrhea in children were followed by interviews every second day with the aim of investigating perceived morbidity and subsequent actions taken. The majority of the mothers had good knowledge of oral rehydration salts (ORS). However, only 5...... on the quantity of ORS needed, early signs of dehydration, treatment of teething diarrhea, and breast feeding, and address mothers who have no prior knowledge of ORS. Management of diarrhea may be improved by a more liberal distribution of ORS sachets....

  4. The immunological effects of oral polio vaccine provided with BCG vaccine at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Lund, Najaaraq

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccines may have non-specific effects. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau suggested that oral polio vaccine at birth (OPV0) provided with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was associated with down-regulation of the immune response to BCG vaccine 6 weeks later. Based...... BCG alone at birth, and subsequently randomised to have a blood sample taken at 2, 4 or 6 weeks post-randomisation. Excreted levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ) were measured from whole blood in vitro stimulations with a panel of recall vaccine antigens (BCG, PPD, OPV), mitogen...

  5. To Walk the Earth in Safety: The United States’ Commitment to Humanitarian Mine Action and Conventional Weapons Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    San Bernabé, waiting for medical attention. During Halloween, they can play on the streets just like other kids . Chile In FY 2006, the Office of...COunTRy PROfILES 10 AfRICA 12 Angola 13 Benin 14 Burundi 14 Central African Republic 14 Chad 15 The Democratic Republic of the Congo 16 Eritrea 16...Guinea-Bissau 17 Kenya 18 Mauritania 18 Mozambique 19 Namibia 20 Republic of Congo 20 Rwanda 20 Senegal 21 Sudan 22 Togo 23 Uganda 23 ASIA 24

  6. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a West African population of tuberculosis patients and unmatched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Olesen, Rikke; Rabna, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in African populations and in tuberculosis (TB) patients. VDD has been shown to be associated with TB. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the degree of vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) and VDD in TB patients and healthy adult controls...... in a West African population. DESIGN: An unmatched case-control study was performed at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea-Bissau. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentrations were measured in 362 TB patients and in 494 controls. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D(3) Udgivelsesdato: 2007...

  7. Separatism in Casamance: How to End the War? Constitutional Federalism or Autonomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Саиду Диалло

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to analysis of the military conflict in the southern region of Senegal, Casamance. The conflict for autonomy in the region continues for more than thirty years between MFDС separatist group (Movement of democratic forces of Casamance and the government of Senegal. The emergence of this crisis is due to historical, cultural and social specificities of the region. The author shows that the conflict is also largely affected by political instability in neighboring countries: Guinea Bissau and Gambia.

  8. Cultural variation in the clinical presentation of sleep paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Joop T V M

    2005-03-01

    Sleep paralysis is one of the lesser-known and more benign forms of parasomnias. The primary or idiopathic form, also called isolated sleep paralysis, is illustrated by showing how patients from different cultures weave the phenomenology of sleep paralysis into their clinical narratives. Clinical case examples are presented of patients from Guinea Bissau, the Netherlands, Morocco, and Surinam with different types of psychopathology, but all accompanied by sleep paralysis. Depending on the meaning given to and etiological interpretations of the sleep paralysis, which is largely culturally determined, patients react to the event in specific ways.

  9. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a West African population of tuberculosis patients and unmatched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Olesen, Rikke; Rabna, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in African populations and in tuberculosis (TB) patients. VDD has been shown to be associated with TB. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the degree of vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) and VDD in TB patients and healthy adult controls...... in a West African population. DESIGN: An unmatched case-control study was performed at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea-Bissau. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentrations were measured in 362 TB patients and in 494 controls. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D(3)...

  10. Guinea Worm in a Frog

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-09

    Dr. Mark Eberhard, a retired parasitologist and CDC guest researcher, discusses Guinea worm infection in a wild-caught frog.  Created: 3/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/9/2017.

  11. Africa's contribution to putting an end to nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    African States play an important role in worldwide efforts towards nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament. All 53 African States are parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which aims at preventing the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, advancing nuclear disarmament, and facilitating the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Of Africa's 53 States, 51 have signed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and 38 have also ratified it as of September 2010. Mauritius and Somalia are the only two States still to sign the Treaty. The States that have signed but not yet ratified are: Angola, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Sao Tome and Principe, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. Egypt's ratification is of particular importance as it is one of those States whose ratification is required for the Treaty's entry into force.

  12. on Guinea Pig Tracheal Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Keyhanmanesh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: In regard to the high incidence of asthma and the side-effects of the drugs used, finding novel treatments for this disease is necessary. Our previous studies demonstrated the preventive effect of Nigella sativa extract on ovalbumin-induced asthma. In addition, water-soluble substances of N. sativa extract and methanol fraction of this plant were responsible for the relaxant effect of this plant on tracheal chains of guinea pigs. Therefore, for the first time, in the present study, in order to identify main constituents of the methanolic extract, the relaxant effects of five different methanolic fractions (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of N. sativa   on tracheal chains of guinea pigs were examined.     Materials and Methods:     The relaxant effects of four cumulative concentrations of each fraction (0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0 g% in comparison with saline as negative control and four cumulative concentrations of theophylline (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 mM were examined by their relaxant effects on precontracted tracheal chains of guinea pig by 60 mM KCl (group 1 and 10 μM methacholine (group 2.     Results: In group 1, all concentrations of only theophylline showed significant relaxant effects but all concentrations of these methanolic fractions showed significant contractile effects compared with that of saline (P

  13. An uncommon or just an ecologically demanding species? Finding of aggregations of the brittle-star Ophiothrix maculata on the Northwest African slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Belén; Ramos, Ana; Ramil, Fran

    2018-01-01

    Ophiuroidea constitutes the largest class of the phylum Echinodermata. It includes families with suspension-feeder behaviour that can be found in dense aggregations in all oceans worldwide. Ophiothrix maculata was known as a rare suspension-feeder brittle star, with only four records in the Eastern Central Atlantic dating from almost 100 years ago. During the ten multidisciplinary Spanish and Norwegian surveys carried out from 2004 to 2012 off Northwest Africa, between the Gibraltar Strait and the Sierra Leone border from 19 to 1888 m depth, we sampled 1298 stations. We gathered about one million individuals and 124 kg of brittle stars at 501 of the stations. Eight hundred and thirty-two specimens of Ophiothrix maculata were collected at six localities on the continental slope off Mauritania, Western Sahara and Guinea Bissau, at depths between 155 and 594 m. The Guinea Bissau samples represent the southernmost current record for the species. Even though Ophiothrix maculata has been previously recorded only in isolation, we discovered dense concentrations on the Mauritanian slope on the Wolof's Seamount (580 individuals) and off the Western Sahara, in a Lophelia pertusa reef (202 individuals). In this paper, we describe these findings and discuss the association of this species to hard-bottom habitats and high primary production areas, outside of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). We also analyse what other factors may explain the patchy distribution of O. maculata on the Northwest African slope.

  14. Activity studies of sesquiterpene oxides and sulfides from the plant Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) and its repellency on Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashitani, T; Garboui, S S; Schubert, F; Vongsombath, C; Liblikas, I; Pålsson, K; Borg-Karlson, A-K

    2015-12-01

    Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), a plant traditionally used as a mosquito repellent, has been investigated for repellent properties against nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus. Essential oils and volatile compounds of fresh and dried leaves, from plants originating from Laos and Guinea-Bissau, were identified by GC-MS and tested in a tick repellency bioassay. All the essential oils were strongly repellent against the ticks, even though the main volatile constituents differed in their proportions of potentially tick repellent chemicals. (+)/(-)-sabinene were present in high amounts in all preparations, and dominated the emission from dry and fresh leaves together with 1,8-cineol and α-phellandrene. 1,8-Cineol and sabinene were major compounds in the essential oils from H. suaveolens from Laos. Main compounds in H. suaveolens from Guinea-Bissau were (-)-sabinene, limonene and terpinolene. Among the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons identified, α-humulene exhibited strong tick repellency (96.8 %). Structure activity studies of oxidation or sulfidation products of germacrene D, α-humulene and β-caryophyllene, showed increased tick repellent activity: of mint sulfide (59.4 %), humulene-6,7-oxide (94.5 %) and caryophyllene-6,7-oxide (96.9 %). The substitution of oxygen with sulfur slightly lowered the repellency. The effects of the constituents in the oils can then be regarded as a trade off between the subsequently lower volatility of the sesquiterpene derivatives compared to the monoterpenes and may thus increase their potential usefulness as tick repellents.

  15. Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.L.; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the protective efficacy of measles vaccination in infants in a low income country before 9 months of age. Design Randomised clinical trial. Participants 1333 infants aged 4.5 months: 441 in treatment group and 892 in control group. Setting Urban area in Guinea-Bissau. Interve......Objective To examine the protective efficacy of measles vaccination in infants in a low income country before 9 months of age. Design Randomised clinical trial. Participants 1333 infants aged 4.5 months: 441 in treatment group and 892 in control group. Setting Urban area in Guinea......-Bissau. Intervention Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Main outcome measures Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and measles mortality before standard vaccination at 9 months of age. Results 28% of the children tested at 4.......5 months of age had protective levels of maternal antibodies against measles at enrolment. After early vaccination against measles 92% had measles antibodies at 9 months of age. A measles outbreak offered a unique situation for testing the efficacy of early measles vaccination. During the outbreak, 96...

  16. African Journals Online: Papua New Guinea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Papua New Guinea. Home > African Journals Online: Papua New Guinea. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is ...

  17. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  18. Dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, A; Mueller, R S; Werckenthin, C; Straubinger, R K; Hein, J

    2012-05-25

    The frequency of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. To determine the frequency and types of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. First, 2153 samples collected from pet Guinea pigs (n=1132) and rabbits (n=1021) with suspected dermatophytosis and submitted to three different laboratories for fungal culture were analysed. Subsequently, healthy Guinea pigs and rabbits, animals with skin lesions and with noncutaneous diseases were examined prospectively for dermatophytes. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was the most common fungal species isolated (91.6% and 72.3% of positive cultures from Guinea pigs (n=431) and rabbits (n=83), respectively). Animals with positive fungal culture did not show any gender predisposition, but affected animals were younger than those with negative fungal culture (PGuinea pigs and 0/140 healthy rabbits. In addition, fungal cultures of Guinea pigs with skin lesions (n=26) and other diseases (n=25) were positive in 7.7% and 8.0% respectively. Samples collected from 17 rabbits with skin lesions and 32 rabbits with noncutaneous disease were all negative in culture. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophyte in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits, asymptomatic carriers are regularly seen in Guinea pigs, but not in rabbits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Severe allergic reactions to guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Jeffrey L

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic sensitization and reactions to guinea pig (Cavia porcellus have been well documented in laboratory animal handlers, primarily manifesting as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Severe allergic reactions, however, are rare. Methods We report two patients with severe allergic reactions following non-occupational exposure to guinea pigs. The first patient, an 11-year-old female, developed ocular, nasal, skin and laryngeal edema symptoms immediately after handling a guinea pig. The second patient, a 24-year-old female, developed symptoms of isolated laryngeal edema after cleaning a guinea pig cage. Percutaneous skin testing, RAST, ELISA and ELISA inhibition testing with guinea pig extract were performed. Results Both patients had IgE-mediated allergy to guinea pig confirmed by ELISA and either RAST or skin testing. ELISA inhibition studies confirmed the specificity of the IgE reactivity to guinea pig. Conclusion Severe IgE-mediated reactions can occur following non-occupational guinea pig exposure. Physicians should be aware of this possibility.

  20. Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoch-Ligeti, C.; Congdon, C.C.; Deringer, M.K.; Stewart, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder developed in 17 of 68 untreated and in 26 of 83 irradiated guinea pigs of inbred strains 2 and 13. The carcinomas spread widely by direct extension and through lymphatic and blood vessels to lymph nodes, mesenteries, omenta, abdominal wall, liver, lungs, bones, and spleen. Whole-body exposure to gamma or x radiation increased both the number of tumors and metastases in male inbred guinea pigs but not in females. Significantly fewer (9 of 98) noninbred than inbred guinea pigs developed gallbladder carcinomas after irradiation. In 9 untreated noninbred guinea pigs gallbladder carcinomas were not found. Inasmuch as the effect of irradiation was not dose-dependent, an indirect systemic effect of irradiation was postulated. This is the first report on the occurrence of spontaneous gallbladder adenocarcinomas in guinea pigs

  1. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. [New Guinea and Australia: their common pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozais, J P

    1985-01-01

    New Guinea and Australia have been joined together during several hundred millions of years. Inhabited by men 40,000 years ago, these populations (papous and aborigenes) have been separated of the others during several millenaries. The first invaders brought with them plasmodiums, Necator americanus, Wuchereria bancrofti and Dengue virus. Brugia malayi, because lack of primates, took non root in New Guinea; the virus of Murray Valley encephalitis is autochthonous; the high frequency of Burkitt lymphoma in New Guinea is, perhaps, a racial feature.

  3. Sequía, inmigración y políticas locales: el Sahel en la encrucijada del desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nso

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de delimitar los principales factores socio-económicos y políticos que ponen en relación desertificación y flujos migratorios internacionales, en el área Sahel. A través del estudio -no exhaustivo para todos los países de la muestra, por ausencia de datos disponibles- de dichas realidades en Burkina Faso, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Malí, Mauritania, Níger y Senegal, el análisis del elemento local será privilegiado, sin despreciar por ello el valor de las dinámicas regionales. Desde una perspectiva "transnacionalista", se aportarán así las claves para la comprensión global de la problemática saheliana, con el objetivo de sacar a esta región de la encrucijada del subdesarrollo.

  4. THE THIRD MARGIN OF HISTORY. NOTES ON THE TWO FACES OF WAR BY DIANA ANDRINGA AND FLORA GOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Apa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay intends to approach, taking the documentary authored by the Portuguese journalist Diana Andringa and the Guinea producer Flora Gomes as a starting point, the theme of the memories in conflict, and to reflect upon the manners in which the image archives may function in the process of construction of a collective and shared memory. In this sense, the Portuguese documentary in question seems to present a route that passes by the issue of the “war of memories” proposing a common reading of the histories which occurred on the Guinean front during the colonial war; proposing a reading of the facts which stress how, in accordance to what Amílcar Cabral affirmed, the fate of the two sides, in this particular case, Portugal and Guinea- Bissau, were indissolubly connected.

  5. The oil boom in Equatorial Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frynas, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    In less than a decade, Equatorial Guinea has transformed itself from an African backwater into one of the world's fastest growing economies and a sought-after political partner in the Gulf of Guinea. The sole reason for this transformation has been the discovery of oil and gas. This article outlines the rise of Equatorial Guinea as one of Africa's leading oil-producing countries and investigates the political, economic and social effects of becoming a petro-state. The article is based on the author's field research in Equatorial Guinea in the autumn of 2003 and interviews with senior oil company staff, government officials and staff of international organizations as well as secondary sources. This research demonstrates how reliance on oil and gas exports can lead to profound changes in a country's political economy. (author)

  6. Severe allergic reactions to guinea pig

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharisen, Michael C; Levy, Michael B; Shaw, Jeffrey L; Kurup, Viswanath P

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Allergic sensitization and reactions to guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) have been well documented in laboratory animal handlers, primarily manifesting as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Severe allergic reactions, however, are rare. Methods We report two patients with severe allergic reactions following non-occupational exposure to guinea pigs. The first patient, an 11-year-old female, developed ocular, nasal, skin and laryngeal edema symptoms immediately after handling ...

  7. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children: beneficial nonspecific effects in the neonatal period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam; Ravn, Henrik; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida Maria; Stensballe, Lone; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Lausch, Karen Rokkedal; Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Whittle, Hilton; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2011-07-15

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG. In the period 2004-2008 we recruited 2320 LBW children in Bissau. The children were visited at home at 2, 6, and 12 months of age. With a pretrial infant mortality of 250 per 1000, we hypothesized a 25% reduction in infant mortality for LBW children. Infant mortality was only 101 per 1000 during the trial. In the primary analysis, infant mortality was reduced insignificantly by 17% (mortality rate ratio [MRR] = .83 [.63-1.08]). In secondary analyses, early BCG vaccine was safe with an MRR of .49 (.21-1.15) after 3 days and .55 (.34-.89) after 4 weeks. The reduction in neonatal mortality was mainly due to fewer cases of neonatal sepsis, respiratory infection, and fever. The impact of early BCG on infant mortality was marked for children weighing <1.5 kg (MRR = .43 [.21-.85]) who had lower coverage for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccinations. Though early BCG did not reduce infant mortality significantly, it may have a beneficial effect in the neonatal period. This could be important for public health because BCG is often delayed in low-income countries.

  8. Malignant transformation of guinea pig cells after exposure to ultraviolet-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isom, H.C.; Mummaw, J.; Kreider, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Guinea pig cells were malignantly transformed in vitro by ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV). When guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers were infected with uv-irradiated GPCMV, three continuous epithelioid cell lines which grew in soft agarose were established. Two independently derived GPCMV-transformed liver cells and a cell line derived from a soft agarose clone of one of these lines induced invasive tumors when inoculated subcutaneously or intraperitoneally into nude mice. The tumors were sarcomas possibly derived from hepatic stroma or sinusoid. Transformed cell lines were also established after infection of guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or simian virus 40 (SV40). These cell lines also formed colonies in soft agarose and induced sarcomas in nude mice. It is concluded that (i) GPCMV can malignantly transform guinea pig cells; (ii) cloning of GPCMV-transformed cells in soft agarose produced cells that induced tumors with a shorter latency period but with no alteration in growth rate or final tumor size; and (iii) the tumors produced by GPCMV-and HCMV-transformed guinea pig cells were more similar to each other in growth rate than to those induced by SV40-transformed guinea pig cells

  9. Lack of effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issaka-Tinorgah, A.; Magnussen, P.; Bloch, P.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm was tested in a single-blind placebo-controlled trial; 400 adults were randomly allocated to a single dose of ivermectin (150 µg/kg) or placebo. Fifty-four of the 385 participants who were followed for 15 months developed a total of 69 emergent...... guinea-worms. There was no significant differencein the proportion of persons with emergent guinea-worms between the 2 treatment groups; 58% appeared in males. 80% of emergent guinea-worms were located below the knee. Migration of guinea-worms in the tissues was not affected. It is concluded...

  10. Vitamin C deficiency in weanling guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Trueba, Gilberto Perez; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    2007-01-01

    Neonates are particularly susceptible to malnutrition due to their limited reserves of micronutrients and their rapid growth. In the present study, we examined the effect of vitamin C deficiency on markers of oxidative stress in plasma, liver and brain of weanling guinea pigs. Vitamin C deficiency...... increased, while protein oxidation decreased (P¼0003). The results show that the selective preservation of brain ascorbate and induction of DNA repair in vitamin C-deficient weanling guinea pigs is not sufficient to prevent oxidative damage. Vitamin C deficiency may therefore be particularly adverse during...

  11. Cost-effectiveness of maternal GBS immunization in low-income sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Louise B; Kim, Sun-Young; Cosgriff, Ben; Pentakota, Sri Ram; Schrag, Stephanie J; Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Ajoke; Verani, Jennifer R; Sinha, Anushua

    2017-12-14

    A maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) vaccine could prevent neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Its cost-effectiveness in low-income sub-Saharan Africa, a high burden region, is unknown. We used a decision tree model, with Markov nodes to project infants' lifetimes, to compare maternal immunization delivered through routine antenatal care with no immunization. 37 countries were clustered on the basis of economic and health resources and past public health performance. Vaccine efficacy for covered serotypes was ranged from 50% to 90%. The model projected EOGBS (early-onset) and LOGBS (late-onset) cases and deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), healthcare costs (2014 US$), and cost-effectiveness for a representative country in each of the four clusters: Guinea-Bissau, Uganda, Nigeria, and Ghana. Maximum vaccination costs/dose were estimated to meet two cost-effectiveness benchmarks, 0.5 GDP and GDP per capita/DALY, for ranges of disease incidence (reported and adjusted for under-reporting) and vaccine efficacy. At coverage equal to the proportion of pregnant women with≥4 antenatal visits (ANC4) and serotype-specific vaccine efficacy of 70%, maternal GBS immunization would prevent one-third of GBS cases and deaths in Uganda and Nigeria, where ANC4 is 50%, 42-43% in Guinea-Bissau (ANC4=65%), and 55-57% in Ghana (ANC4=87%). At a vaccination cost of $7/dose, maternal immunization would cost $320-$350/DALY averted in Guinea-Bissau, Nigeria, and Ghana, less than half these countries' GDP per capita. In Uganda, which has the lowest case fatality ratios, the cost would be $573/DALY. If the vaccine prevents a small proportion of stillbirths, it would be even more cost-effective. Vaccination cost/dose, disease incidence, and case fatality were key drivers of cost/DALY in sensitivity analyses. Maternal GBS immunization could be a cost-effective intervention in low-income sub-Saharan Africa, with cost-effectiveness ratios similar to other recently introduced vaccines

  12. New Guinea Pig Model of Cryptococcal Meningitis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, William R.; Najvar, Laura K.; Bocanegra, Rosie; Patterson, Thomas F.; Graybill, John R.

    2007-01-01

    We developed a guinea pig model of cryptococcal meningitis to evaluate antifungal agents. Immunosuppressed animals challenged intracranially with Cryptococcus neoformans responded to fluconazole and voriconazole. Disease was monitored by serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and quantitative organ cultures. Our model produces disseminating central nervous system disease and responds to antifungal therapy. PMID:17562797

  13. Piraatlus Guinea lahes ja Nigeerias / Eero Tepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tepp, Eero

    2013-01-01

    Guinea lahes lokkava piraatluse põhjused ja tegurid, mis seda soodustavad: seaduselüngad, looduslikud tingimused, ebapädev korrakaitse, poliitiline olustik, kultuuriline vastuvõetavus, majanduslik tasuvus. Sõjalised ja mittesõjalised meetmetest, mida rakendatakse piraatlusevastases võitluses

  14. On the New-Guinea Mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1907-01-01

    New-Guinea has been called by A. R. Wallace the greatest terra incognita that still remains for the naturalist to explore, and the only region where altogether new and unimagined forms of life may perhaps be found. This he wrote in 1869 and we now living in 1906 can, as a matter of fact, underline

  15. The Compositae of New Guinea VII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Joséphine Th.

    1980-01-01

    This seventh article on the Compositae of New Guinea contains (1) additions to previous articles, and (2) a taxonomic account of tribe 8. Senecioneae, with 7 genera in the area. Of these genera only Crassocephalum, Emilia, and Erechtites are presently fully treated. An index to all genera of

  16. ECG telemetry in conscious guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Sabine; Vormberge, Thomas; Igl, Bernd-Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    During preclinical drug development, monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is an important part of cardiac safety assessment. To detect potential pro-arrhythmic liabilities of a drug candidate and for internal decision-making during early stage drug development an in vivo model in small animals with translatability to human cardiac function is required. Over the last years, modifications/improvements regarding animal housing, ECG electrode placement, and data evaluation have been introduced into an established model for ECG recordings using telemetry in conscious, freely moving guinea pigs. Pharmacological validation using selected reference compounds affecting different mechanisms relevant for cardiac electrophysiology (quinidine, flecainide, atenolol, dl-sotalol, dofetilide, nifedipine, moxifloxacin) was conducted and findings were compared with results obtained in telemetered Beagle dogs. Under standardized conditions, reliable ECG data with low variability allowing largely automated evaluation were obtained from the telemetered guinea pig model. The model is sensitive to compounds blocking cardiac sodium channels, hERG K(+) channels and calcium channels, and appears to be even more sensitive to β-blockers as observed in dogs at rest. QT interval correction according to Bazett and Sarma appears to be appropriate methods in conscious guinea pigs. Overall, the telemetered guinea pig is a suitable model for the conduct of early stage preclinical ECG assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mesothelium of Reissner's membrane in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, Jørgen

    1990-01-01

    The mesothelial cells of Reissner's membrane in guinea pigs were found to be connected by junctional complexes. No cell discontinuities or gaps were observed by scanning or transmission electron microscopy. These results are not in accordance with previous studies. They were achieved by in vivo...

  18. The Phytogeography of New Guinea Solanum (Solanaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Symon, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Solanaceae, of which Solanum is the type species, comprise a southern hemisphere family. A general biogeographical introduction is given, with an account of plate tectonics and a discussion of Wallace’s Line and the geographic history of New Guinea. The widely accepted sections of Solanum are

  19. Picture Communication in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bruce L.

    1980-01-01

    Reports the major findings of a study that investigated the effectiveness of using pictures of different art styles (stick figures, faceless outline drawings, detailed black-and-white, detailed black-and-white with watercolor wash, and black-and-white photographs) with 423 new readers in Papua New Guinea. (JD)

  20. The Papua and New Guinea Herbarium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Womersley, J.S.; Botanist, Forest

    1951-01-01

    A short account of the establishment of the Herbarium of the Department of Forests, Papua and New Guinea appeared on p. 61, no 3, volume I of Flora Malesiana Bulletin. This Herbarium has now been firmly established and is constantly receiving collections of plants from various parts of Papua and New

  1. Guinea vulture sanctuary a first in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-11-20

    Nov 20, 2006 ... and the Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT. – Birds of Prey Working Group) and in collaboration with Guinée Écologie, the member country NGO of the BirdLife. International African Partnership network in Guinea, the priority is to stabilize the populations in these rural refuges, which are not currently protected.

  2. Iinformation accessibility and farmers manageriability of guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the farmers' access to information and their manageriability of the intervention programme in the study area. To achieve the objective, there was need to determine farmers' information accessibility and manageriability of guinea worm intervention package; then determine farmers satisfaction with the ...

  3. Tibial osteosynthesis in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Macedo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A guinea pig was presented with left pelvic limb lameness after unknown trauma. Radiographs revealed complete oblique diaphyseal fracture of the distal third of the left tibia and fibula. The guinea pig was treated surgically with an intramedullary pin. The day after surgery the guinea pig was using the limb comfortably (grade 1/5 lameness. Callus formation was obtained 21 days after surgery without complications.

  4. The cochleogram of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linss, Volker; Linss, Werner; Emmerich, Edeltraut; Richter, Frank

    2007-04-01

    The cochleogram is an important tool to relate properties of the cochlea (e.g. hair cell loss, damaged hair cells) to their position in the cochlear turns, to calculate the average hair cell density, and to measure the length of the whole cochlea. In this work different methods of plotting cochleograms are compared. We suggest that a sector-wise division of the cochlea for counting a cochleogram has advantages over line diagrams that provide a higher spatial resolution but might lead to misinterpretations of the degree of missing hair cells. The scanning electron microscopic analysis of 171 guinea pig cochleas revealed a mean basilar membrane length of 16.4 +/- 1.4 mm (mean +/- standard deviation) with sector lengths of 6.9, 4.2, 3.2, and 1.9 mm, thus adding relevant information to the morphology of the guinea pig cochlea.

  5. Oil and gas in Papua New Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, A.D.; Lattimore, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper documents the current status of oil and gas reserves and production in Papua New Guinea. It then provides an assessment of future prospects for the industry in the context of both the international market for oil and gas and local constraints on the industry's growth. Finally, an estimate of the impact of the industry's development on the economy of PNG is presented. (author)

  6. Combating Piracy in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    stretching from Cape Verde to An- gola (Figure 1), is the main transit hub and facilitator to the region’s rapid economic growth which has averaged...17 citations for illegal fish- ing that resulted in hefty fines in Cameroon alone.15 There is an ongoing effort to consummate an Economic Community...consumed in Europe, North America, and Asia transiting this waterway.2 This economic boom, however, is threatened. In 2012, the Gulf of Guinea

  7. Spontaneous reproductive pathology in female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Parga, Tamara; La Perle, Krista M D; Newman, Shelley J

    2016-11-01

    Reproductive pathology of domestic guinea pigs is underreported to date. To provide a comprehensive review of uterine disease in guinea pigs, we performed a retrospective study of the pathology archives of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine. By histology, 13 of 37 uterine lesions in 23 animals were neoplastic; the other 24 nonneoplastic lesions included cystic endometrial hyperplasia (16 of 24), endometrial hemorrhage (3 of 24), pyometra (2 of 24), polyp (2 of 24), and mucometra (1 of 24). The most common guinea pig uterine neoplasms were uterine leiomyomas (6 of 13), followed by adenomas (3 of 13) and leiomyosarcomas (1 of 13). Other neoplasms included anaplastic tumors of unknown origin (2 of 13) and choriocarcinoma (1 of 13). Both anaplastic tumors and the choriocarcinoma were positive for vimentin. The choriocarcinoma was positive for HSD83B1, indicating a trophoblastic origin and its final diagnosis. All were negative for cytokeratin and smooth muscle. In multiple animals, more than 1 tumor or lesion was reported. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression was nearly 100% in uterine neoplasms. Nearly all animals for which data were available had cystic rete ovarii (18 of 19); the animal with no cystic rete ovarii had paraovarian cysts. In our study, female pet guinea pigs had a tendency to develop cystic endometrial hyperplasia and uterine neoplasia. Factors for the development of these lesions could be cystic rete ovarii, hormone dysregulation, and/or age. Other factors could contribute to the development of uterine lesions. As in other species, early ovariohysterectomy could decrease the prevalence of uterine lesions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Elastase-induced emphysema in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loscutoff, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Pulmonary function changes measured in guinea pigs 4 to 5 wk following intratracheal instillation of crystalline porcine pancreatic elastase resembled comparable changes in humans with moderately severe pulmonary emphysema. Compared with saline-treated controls, elastase-treated animals had increased values for all divisions of lung volume, increased static compliance and prolonged time constants. Since humans with emphysema are especially sensitive to air pollutants, elastase-treated animals may be useful as sensitive animal models in inhalatio toxicology

  9. Early BCG-Denmark and Neonatal Mortality Among Infants Weighing <2500 g: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Aaby, Peter; Lund, Najaaraq

    2017-01-01

    Background. BCG vaccine may reduce overall mortality by increasing resistance to nontuberculosis infections. In 2 randomized trials in Guinea-Bissau of early BCG-Denmark (Statens Serum Institut) given to low-weight (LW) neonates (... ratios (MRRs). We had prespecified an analysis censoring follow-up at oral poliovirus vaccine campaigns. Results. Early administration of BCG-Denmark was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in neonatal mortality rate (MRR, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], .47–1.04) and a 34% reduction (0.......66; .44–1.00) when censoring for oral poliovirus vaccine campaigns. There was no reduction in mortality rate for noninfectious diseases, but a 43% reduction in infectious disease mortality rate (MRR, 0.57; 95% CI, .35–.93). A meta-analysis of 3 BCG trials showed that early BCG-Denmark reduced mortality...

  10. Long term impact of high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine on T lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Knudsen, K

    1994-01-01

    conducted in Guinea-Bissau. To test for possible long term impact on the immune system, an investigation of T cell subsets was conducted among all children still residing in the community at 3 to 5 years of age. No differences were found between recipients of medium titer vaccine and controls. In the second......Several trials of high titer measles vaccine (> 10(4.7) plaque-forming unit) have found female recipients of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) vaccine to have lower survival than female recipients of standard measles vaccine. Two trials with medium and high titer EZ vaccine from the age of 4 months were...... unlikely to explain the reduced survival which has been associated with high titer EZ measles vaccination. In the 2 years after the investigation of T cell subsets, there was no increased mortality for recipients of EZ vaccine. Hence it is unlikely that high titer vaccine has an persistent adverse effect...

  11. Mæslingevaccination og alder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Andersen, Marc; Sodemann, Morten

    1994-01-01

    in 1980-1983 in three areas of Guinea-Bissau. Children were followed to death, migration or the age of five years. Children immunized at 4-8 months of age, of whom many were later re-immunized, had lower mortality between nine months and five years of age compared with children vaccinated at 9-11 months...... of age. The improved survival was unrelated to better protection against measles. There was no sign of socio-cultural differences between children immunized at different ages. Vaccination before 9 months of age is apparently safe and it may reduce childhood mortality compared with the currently......Recent studies have found administration of high-titre measles vaccine before 9 months of age to be associated with reduced survival. Since this suggests that early immunization could be unsafe, we examined the results of immunization campaigns with Schwarz standard measles vaccine carried out...

  12. Reduced in-hospital mortality after improved management of children under 5 years admitted to hospital with malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biai, Sidu; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Gomes, Melba

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test whether strict implementation of a standardised protocol for the management of malaria and provision of a financial incentive for health workers reduced mortality. DESIGN: Randomised controlled intervention trial. SETTING: Paediatric ward at the national hospital in Guinea......)/month for nurses and $160 for doctors) and their compliance with standard case management was closely monitored. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In-hospital mortality and cumulative mortality within 4 weeks of hospital admission. RESULTS: In-hospital mortality was 5% for the intervention group and 10% in the control group......-Bissau. All children admitted to hospital with severe malaria received free drug kits. PARTICIPANTS: 951 children aged 3 months to 5 years admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of malaria randomised to normal or intervention wards. INTERVENTIONS: Before the start of the study, all personnel were trained...

  13. Vitamin A supplementation at birth might prime the response to subsequent vitamin A supplements in girls. Three year follow-up of a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Aaby, Peter; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Within a randomised trial of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (VAS) in Guinea-Bissau, neonatal VAS did not affect overall infant mortality. We conducted a post-hoc analysis to test the hypothesis that neonatal VAS primes the response to subsequent vitamin A. METHODS: All trial...... children were offered VAS after follow-up ended at 1 year of age (FU-VAS). We compared mortality between 1 and 3 years of age according to initial randomization to neonatal VAS or placebo in Cox-regression models; we expected that children randomized to neonatal VAS compared with those randomized...... to placebo would have lower mortality after reception of FU-VAS. RESULTS: Of 4345 infants enrolled in the original trial, 3646 lived in the study area at 1 year of age and 2958 received FU-VAS. Between 1 and 3 years of age, 112 children died. After FU-VAS, neonatal VAS was associated with lower mortality...

  14. DC-SIGN (CD209), pentraxin 3 and vitamin D receptor gene variants associate with pulmonary tuberculosis risk in West Africans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, R; Wejse, C; Velez, D R

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the role of DC-SIGN (CD209), long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in 321 TB cases and 347 healthy controls from Guinea-Bissau. Five additional, functionally relevant SNPs...... in a nonadditive model with disease risk when analyzed in combination with ethnicity (P=0.03 for DC-SIGN and P=0.003 for VDR). In addition, PTX3 haplotype frequencies significantly differed in cases compared to controls and a protective effect was found in association with a specific haplotype (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.......63-0.98). Our findings support previous data showing that VDR SNPs modulate the risk for TB in West Africans and suggest that variation within DC-SIGN and PTX3 also affect the disease outcome. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep...

  15. Household size is critical to varicella-zoster virus transmission in the tropics despite lower viral infectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nichols, Richard A; Averbeck, Karin T; Poulsen, Anja G

    2011-01-01

    The epidemiology and severity of infections can vary dramatically in different geographical regions. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a particularly tractable model for investigating such global differences, since infections can be unambiguously identified. VZV is spread by aerosol to cause...... chickenpox, which, in temperate countries, is a relatively benign childhood infection; yet in tropical countries it tends to occur at later age, a trend associated with markedly increased severity including complications, hospitalization, and overall burden of care. To investigate global differences...... infectivity in tropical Guinea Bissau is reduced four-fold compared with temperate climates (14.8% versus 61-85%), with an intermediate rate between members of the same family who are in more intimate contact (23.5%). All else being equal, these lower infection rates would be expected to lead to a later age...

  16. High mortality despite good care-seeking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare

    1997-01-01

    The care-seeking behaviour of mothers of 125 children deceased aged 1-30 months was investigated by verbal autopsy in an urban area of Guinea-Bissau. A total of 93% of the children were seen at a health centre or hospital during the 2 weeks before death. In a previous survey covering the period...... 1987-90 we found that 78% of the children who died had presented for consultation (8); despite this increase in care seeking, infant mortality had not decreased. Comparison of elapsed time from disease onset to first consultation between children who died and matched surviving controls indicated...... beds resulted in 15 mothers being refused hospitalization for their child. Of hospitalized children, 42% were discharged as improved or recovered during the 30 days preceding death. These results reveal a need for improved hospital admission criteria, improved recognition of the symptoms of serious...

  17. A two-centre randomised trial of an additional early dose of measles vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Nebie, Eric; Schoeps, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Background: Besides protecting against measles, measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects. We tested the effect of an additional early MV on mortality and measles antibody levels. Methods: Children aged 4-7 months in two rural health and demographic surveillance sites in Burkina...... home visits and compared mortality from enrolment to 3 years of age in Cox proportional hazards models, censoring for subsequent non-trial MV. Subgroups of participants had blood sampled at enrolment, before the 9 months MV and in the second year of life to assess measles antibody level. Results: Among......% (90/422) in Guinea-Bissau had protective measles antibody levels. By 9 months of age, no measles-unvaccinated/unexposed child had protective levels, while 92% (306/333) of early MV recipients had. At final follow-up, 98% (186/189) in the early MV group and 97% (196/202) in the control group had...

  18. Introduction of standard measles vaccination in an urban African community in 1979 and overall child survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Søren Wengel; Aaby, Peter; Smedman, Lars

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of the first introduction of measles vaccine (MV) in Guinea-Bissau in 1979. SETTING: Urban community study of the anthropometric status of all children under 6 years of age. PARTICIPANTS: The study cohort included 1451 children in December 1978; 82% took part...... in the anthropometric survey. The cohort was followed for 2 years. INTERVENTION: In December 1979, the children were re-examined anthropometrically. The participating children, aged 6 months to 6 years, were offered MV if they did not have a history of measles infection. There were no routine vaccinations in 1979......-1980. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Age-adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) for measles vaccinated and not vaccinated children; changes in nutritional status. RESULTS: The nutritional status deteriorated significantly from 1978 to 1979. Nonetheless, children who received MV at the December 1979...

  19. Therapeutic vaccination using cationic liposome-adjuvanted HIV type 1 peptides representing HLA-supertype-restricted subdominant T cell epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Román, Victor Raúl Gómez; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Jensen, Sanne Skov

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine concept based on peptides together with the adjuvant CAF01. Peptides represented 15 HLA-supertype-restricted subdominant and conserved CD8 T cell epitopes and three CD4 T-helper cell epitopes. In this phase I clinical trial, safety and immunogenicity...... were assessed in untreated HIV-1-infected individuals in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Twenty-three HIV-1-infected individuals were randomized to receive placebo (n=5) or vaccine (n=18). Safety was appraised by clinical follow-up combined with monitoring of biochemistry, hematology, CD4 T cell counts......, and HIV-1 viral loads. T cell immunogenicity was monitored longitudinally by interferon (IFN)-γ ELISpot. New vaccine-specific T cell responses were induced in 6/14 vaccinees for whom ELISpot data were valid. CD4 T cell counts and viral loads were stable. The study shows that therapeutic immunization...

  20. Potent neutralizing serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human immunodeficiency virus type 2-exposed IgG-seronegative individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lizeng, Q; Nilsson, C; Sourial, S

    2004-01-01

    Links Potent neutralizing serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human immunodeficiency virus type 2-exposed IgG-seronegative individuals.Lizeng Q, Nilsson C, Sourial S, Andersson S, Larsen O, Aaby P, Ehnlund M, Bjorling E. Research Center, South Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. The mechanisms behind...... the resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection are still not fully understood. In the present study, we explored the HIV-2-specific humoral serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) immune response in HIV-2-exposed IgG-seronegative (EGSN) individuals. Serum samples from heterosexual EGSN individuals...... and their known HIV-2-infected partners, as well as controls originating from Guinea-Bissau in Africa, were studied. Antibody reactivity to native and recombinant envelope glycoproteins was investigated, and the capacity of purified serum IgA to neutralize HIV-2(SBL6669) was tested. Our results showed that 16...

  1. Influenza virus activity in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungu, M; Sanders, R

    1991-09-01

    Influenza viruses remain a major cause of respiratory disease in both developed and developing countries. A great deal of information concerning the structure, pathology and modes of transmission of these viruses has been accumulated, but no means of successfully combating them have, as yet, been devised. The most appropriate strategy for limiting the effects of influenza is to monitor the emergence and spread of new strains carefully and warn the public and at-risk groups of impending epidemics. In Papua New Guinea, as in most other developing countries, the major at-risk groups are the very young and the elderly. In the past, influenza epidemics were rare and affected the whole community, but with modern development and increased mobility the transmission dynamics of influenza have changed. The only influenza surveillance centre in Papua New Guinea is at the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research in Goroka, and the surveillance activities of this centre are limited to the immediately surrounding areas. There is a need to establish a national influenza surveillance network, to provide nation-wide monitoring of influenza activity, and to provide a central repository of current information on influenza infections in the country.

  2. Ectoparasites of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata Pallas) and local domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) in southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaeme, A N

    1988-01-01

    The ectoparasites of poultry in a southern guinea savanna zone were investigated by the examination of guinea fowl and local domestic chickens in the range and guinea fowl under intensive management. The prevalent ectoparasites of range guinea fowl and local chickens include seven species of lice Menacanthus stramineus, Menopon gallinae, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae, Lipeurus caponis, Numidilipeurus tropicalis, Damalinia bovis; three mites Bdellonyssus bursa, Megninia cubitalis, Dermanyssus gallinae; two fleas Echidnophaga gallinacea, Ctenocephalides felis and two ticks Argas persicus and Ambylomma variegatum. Under intensive management, infestation by G. gigas, L. caponis and M. gallinae led to clinical signs, feather damage, reduced food intake and death.

  3. Phylogeographical footprint of colonial history in the global dispersal of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 group A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Nuno R; Hodges-Mameletzis, Ioannis; Silva, Joana C; Rodés, Berta; Erasmus, Smit; Paolucci, Stefania; Ruelle, Jean; Pieniazek, Danuta; Taveira, Nuno; Treviño, Ana; Gonçalves, Maria F; Jallow, Sabelle; Xu, Li; Camacho, Ricardo J; Soriano, Vincent; Goubau, Patrick; de Sousa, João D; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Suchard, Marc A; Lemey, Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) emerged in West Africa and has spread further to countries that share socio-historical ties with this region. However, viral origins and dispersal patterns at a global scale remain poorly understood. Here, we adopt a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to investigate the spatial dynamics of HIV-2 group A (HIV-2A) using a collection of 320 partial pol and 248 partial env sequences sampled throughout 19 countries worldwide. We extend phylogenetic diffusion models that simultaneously draw information from multiple loci to estimate location states throughout distinct phylogenies and explicitly attempt to incorporate human migratory fluxes. Our study highlights that Guinea-Bissau, together with Côte d'Ivoire and Senegal, have acted as the main viral sources in the early stages of the epidemic. We show that convenience sampling can obfuscate the estimation of the spatial root of HIV-2A. We explicitly attempt to circumvent this by incorporating rate priors that reflect the ratio of human flow from and to West Africa. We recover four main routes of HIV-2A dispersal that are laid out along colonial ties: Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde to Portugal, Côte d'Ivoire and Senegal to France. Within Europe, we find strong support for epidemiological linkage from Portugal to Luxembourg and to the UK. We demonstrate that probabilistic models can uncover global patterns of HIV-2A dispersal providing sampling bias is taken into account and we provide a scenario for the international spread of this virus.

  4. Clean advice for oily money : Consulting for Equatorial Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lachotzki, F.; Karssing, E.D.

    2011-01-01

    Equatorial Guinea is one of the most extraordinary countries in the world, if also one of the most obscure. Its tremendous yearly revenue from the oil concessions it grants in its Gulf of Guinea territorial waters is little known, but so too is its abysmal record on human rights. The deep-rooted

  5. Five new species of Barringtonia (Lecythidaceae) from Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Jebb, M.; Prance, G.T.

    2011-01-01

    Five new species of Barringtonia from Papua New Guinea are described and discussed: B. lumina, B. monticola, B. pinnifolia, B. serenae and B. tagala. All five species belong to section Barringtonia with closed flower buds. Notes are also provided for the seven monocaulous pachycaul species of Barringtonia in New Guinea.

  6. Outbreak of pseudotuberculosis in commercial guinea fowls (Numida meleagris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports an outbreak of pseudotuberculosis in guinea fowls reared for meat production. The clinical and pathological features as well as the results of the laboratory investigations are described. To the knowledge of the authors this is the first reported case of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection in guinea-fowls.

  7. Ebola Virus Imported from Guinea to Senegal, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, Daye; Fall, Gamou; Diallo, Viviane Cissé; Faye, Ousmane; Fortes, Louise Deguenonvo; Faye, Oumar; Bah, Elhadji Ibrahim; Diallo, Kadia Mbaye; Balique, Fanny; Ndour, Cheikh Tidiane; Seydi, Moussa; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2017-06-01

    In March 2014, the World Health Organization declared an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea. In August 2014, a case caused by virus imported from Guinea occurred in Senegal, most likely resulting from nonsecure funerals and travel. Preparedness and surveillance in Senegal probably prevented secondary cases.

  8. Briti eliit üritas kukutada Ekvatoriaal-Guinea valitsust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Ekvatoriaal-Guineas ja Zimbabwes on vahistatud kümneid inimesi, keda süüdistatakse riigipöördekatses Ekvatoriaal-Guineas. Suurbritannia endise peaministri Margaret Thatcher'i poega Mark Thatcher'it süüdistatakse riigipöördekatse rahastamisele kaasaaitamises

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS IN GUINEA-PIG UTERUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOODS, HN; WILLIM, KD; BODDEKE, HWGM; ENTZEROTH, M

    1993-01-01

    To characterize the muscarinic receptor present in guinea-pig uterus smooth muscle the affinities of a series of 27 muscarinic receptor antagonists for M1 (rat cortex), M2 (rat heart), M3 (rat submandibular gland), m4 (transfected in CHO cells) and muscarinic binding sites in guinea-pig uterus

  10. Hatching And Brooding Of Guinea Fowl ( Numida meleagris galeata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 164 candled fertile guinea fowl eggs were selected from the College farm and were randomly assigned to two treatment group consisting seven local hens and six guinea fowl hens. Effects of these replacement on hatchability, embryonic mortality, mean incubation time and weaned/keet mortality were investigated.

  11. Sustainable Children Investment In Guinea Pig Production And Its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted specifically to identify the level of children investment in guinea pigs production, the major sources of fund for the children, the methods of communication between the children and their source of information; and to determine their level of performance in guinea pig production. Implications for ...

  12. The Guinea Pigs of a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sarasvathie; McKenna, Sioux

    2016-01-01

    Participants in a study on learning the clinical aspects of medicine in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum repeatedly referred to themselves as "Guinea pigs" at the mercy of a curriculum experiment. This article interrogates and problematises the "Guinea pig" identity ascribed to and assumed by the first cohort of…

  13. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemiological evidence of listeriosis in guinea pigs fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium that infects livestock and humans. We report the first outbreak of invasive listeriosis caused by L. monocytogenes in a guinea pig breeding colony. Eighty to 100% mortality rate was recorded in the colony of 80 guinea pigs within four weeks outbreak. On epidemiologic investigation ...

  15. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Infections Associated with Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrea; Levine, Seth J.; Garvin, Joseph P.; Brown, Susan; Turner, Lauren; Fritzinger, Angela; Gertz, Robert E.; Murphy, Julia M.; Vogt, Marshall; Beall, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is a known zoonotic pathogen. In this public health investigation conducted in Virginia, USA, in 2013, we identified a probable family cluster of S. zooepidemicus cases linked epidemiologically and genetically to infected guinea pigs. S. zooepidemicus infections should be considered in patients who have severe clinical illness and report guinea pig exposure. PMID:25531424

  16. Extraction and application of dyestuffs from the leaves of guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work is aimed at assessing the dyeing and colouring potentials of ethanol extracts from the leaves of guinea corn and the skin of onion. It is intended to apply the purified dye extracts on textile, drink and food. The leaves of guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor) and the skin of onion (Allium cepa) were collected, ...

  17. Confinement lowers fertility rate of helmeted guinea fowl ( Numida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An important obstacle in successful domestication of guinea fowl is their low fertility rate.We studied the effects of semi-confinement on the fertility rates of helmeted guinea fowl by comparing egg fertility, hatch rate and keet survival rates in a wild (WL) and a semi-confined (SC) group. We undertook the study in Eastern ...

  18. Quality Attributes Of Two Species Of Indigenous Guinea Fowl Meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the duration of storage of the guinea fowl meats increased percentage of weight loss, cooking loss, pH, and tenderness scores increased (P < 0.05). Prepackaging or salting of guinea fowl meats reduced (P< 0.05) percentages of weight loss, cooking loss and increased (P < 0.05) pH, water holding Capacity and sensory ...

  19. An Analysis Of Guinea Worm Infection On Yam Productivity In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guinea worm infection has been reported to be one of the external diseconomies factors that limit agricultural productivity of the rural farm households. The study examined the determinants of farmers' vulnerability to guineaworm infection and the effect of guinea worm infection on yam yield in the study area. A stratified ...

  20. Unilateral flank ovariohysterectomy in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanska, D; Rozanski, P; Orzelski, M; Chlebicka, N; Putowska, K

    2016-11-01

    To describe a simple, minimally invasive method of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank approach in guinea pigs, for use in routine desexing of healthy female guinea pigs or treatment of ovarian cysts. The subjects of this retrospective study were 41 client-owned guinea pigs submitted for routine desexing or treatment of ovarian cysts. They included 16 healthy female guinea pigs aged 8-12 months (Group 1), and 15 females aged from 9 months to 3 years (Group 2), and 10 females aged from 3 to 7 years (Group 3) with different-sized ovarian cysts. Prior to surgery, the animals received clinical examination, blood testing (complete blood count and serum biochemistry profile) and examination of the abdomen using ultrasonography, to assess the condition of the reproductive tract and ensure the guinea pigs were fit for surgery. Ovariohysterectomy was performed via a unilateral flank incision made close to the erector spinae muscle starting approximately 1 cm caudal to the last rib. Both ovaries, uterine horns, and the uterine cervix were localised, ligated, and dissected through this unilateral retroperitoneal incision. Ovariohysterectomy was successfully completed via a single flank incision in 38/41 (93%) guinea pigs. Three guinea pigs with ovarian cysts from Group 3, which were >6 years old died during surgery due to circulatory and respiratory failure under anaesthesia. In the remaining 38 cases, surgery proceeded without complications. A further two guinea pigs from Group 3 were reluctant to move or eat for the first 3 days after surgery but recovered after provision of supportive care. All 38 animals fully recovered and wound healing was normal. This is the first report of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank incision in guinea pigs. This approach is a simple, minimally invasive and safe alternative to the midline or bilateral flank approaches currently used for surgery of the reproductive tract in guinea pigs.

  1. Papua New Guinea: at the crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinawaeola, M

    1982-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea the most important factor regulating fertility is virtually universal prolonged breastfeeding. A prescription is required in order to purchase baby bottles and teats. The current family planning program is designed to improve family health and welfare and not to affect population growth rates. In drawing up its 1982 budget, the government decided to abolish the family planning program at the national level and transfer this function to provincial governments and to abolish the population program within the Office of Environment and Conservation. The decision regarding the family planning program was a response to the policy of implementing the decentralizing health function to provincial governments. The longterm effects of the decentralization of family planning are unclear as yet. In Papua New Guinea the primary pressures toward large families are those associated with having children as a source of support in old age. Parental expectations have changed traditional expectations of care and food to incorporate new forms of support from grown children who are educated and employed. The value of child labor does not appear as great in Papua New Guinea as in other agricultural systems. As yet Papua New Guinea does not have a specific population policy, but the government indicated its intention to formulate a policy in the National Development Strategy (NDS) adopted in 1976. The NDS recognized the need to examine all the longer term implications of population growth and endorsed a population research program to this end. A population program was approved for funding in 1978. The program was designed to progress in 3 stages: research and education; population policy formulation; and policy implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Although almost all family planning services are supported by the government, many of these services are delivered by nongovernment organizations. Oral contraceptives (OCs) and injections (Depo-Provera) are the most

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Guinea baboon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Guinea baboon Papio papio Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Papio_papio_L.png Papio_papi...o_NL.png Papio_papio_S.png Papio_papio_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papi...o&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NS ...

  3. Blood profiles in unanesthetized and anesthetized guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendy R; Johnston, Matthew S; Higgins, Sarah; Izzo, Angelo A; Kendall, Lon V

    2016-01-01

    The guinea pig is a common animal model that is used in biomedical research to study a variety of systems, including hormonal and immunological responses, pulmonary physiology, corticosteroid response and others. However, because guinea pigs are evolutionarily a prey species, they do not readily show behavioral signs of disease, which can make it difficult to detect illness in a laboratory setting. Minimally invasive blood tests, such as complete blood counts and plasma biochemistry assays, are useful in both human and veterinary medicine as an initial diagnostic technique to rule in or rule out systemic illness. In guinea pigs, phlebotomy for such tests often requires that the animals be anesthetized first. The authors evaluated hematological and plasma biochemical effects of two anesthetic agents that are commonly used with guinea pigs in a research setting: isoflurane and a combination of ketamine and xylazine. Hematological and plasma biochemical parameters were significantly different when guinea pigs were under either anesthetic, compared to when they were unanesthetized. Plasma proteins, liver enzymes, white blood cells and red blood cells appeared to be significantly altered by both anesthetics, and hematological and plasma biochemical differences were greater when guinea pigs were anesthetized with the combination of ketamine and xylazine than when they were anesthetized with isoflurane. Overall these results indicate that both anesthetics can significantly influence hematological and plasma biochemical parameters in guinea pigs.

  4. Absorption of cadmium in the newborn and juvenile guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.; Jarboe, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    The accepted premise that absorption is enhanced in the newborn animal is based primarily on studies using the rat, which has a relatively immature gastrointestinal system at birth. This study was conducted to determine if enhanced absorption of cadmium also occurs in the guinea pig, a species that is more precocious at birth than the rat. Newborn guinea pigs were administered a single oral dose of 5 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd (0.25 mCi of /sup 115m/Cd per milligram of cadmium) between 8 and 24 hr of age and killed at intervals between 1 and 14 days after the dosing. Juvenile guinea pigs were similarly dosed with 20 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd and killed 1 to 5 days later. Guinea pigs dosed on the day of birth absorbed approximately 6% of the dose by 1 day after the dosing and nearly 25% of the dose by 11 days. This is a cumulative absorption five times that found in rats dosed at 24 hr and two times that of rats dosed at 2 hr. The residence time of cadmium in the gastrointestinal tract was longer in newborn guinea pigs than in juvenile guinea pigs but was still significantly less than that in the newborn rat. We concluded that the absorption of cadmium from the gastrointestinal tract was greater in newborn guinea pigs than in rats, even though the residence time of cadmium in the intestinal tract was less in guinea pigs than in rats and the maturity at birth of the guinea pig is greater than that of the rat. The bases of these differences were not readily apparent

  5. A new species of Odontosoria (Lindsaeaceae) from New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehtonen, S.

    2011-01-01

    A new fern species, Odontosoria quadripinnata, is described from New Guinea. The new species resembles O. retusa, but has quadripinnate laminas, short sori and monolete spores in contrast to tripinnate laminar division, continuous sori and trilete spores in O. retusa.

  6. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation on skin of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenwen; Chen Qiang; Li Peng; Ling Ling; Lin Xiaochen; Ren Shuping; Liu Yajuan; Li Yun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the adverse effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B) on the skin of guinea pig. Methods: Guinea pig skin was irradiated with UV-B, the skin changes in external appearance, pathology, and the contents of OH and O 2 - produced in the skin were determined to study the adverse effects of UV-B on the guinea pig skin. Results: UV-B caused red swelling and desquamation of skin, with the increasing of the UV-B irradiation, the cells in stratum spinosum began to proliferate vigorously, the MDA and ROS contents in UVB radiation group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: UV-B can cause injury to guinea pig skin and has the potential to produce skin cancer. (authors)

  7. Revision of the termite family Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera) in New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguignon, Thomas; Roisin, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we completed a revision of the Termitidae from New Guinea and neighboring islands, recording a total of 45 species. Here, we revise a second family, the Rhinotermitidae, to progress towards a full picture of the termite diversity in New Guinea. Altogether, 6 genera and 15 species are recorded, among which two species, Coptotermes gambrinus and Parrhinotermes barbatus, are new to science. The genus Heterotermes is reported from New Guinea for the first time, with two species restricted to the southern part of the island. We also provide the first New Guinea records for six species of the genera Coptotermes and Schedorhinotermes. We briefly describe soldiers and imagoes of each species and provide a key based on soldier characters. Finally, we discuss the taxonomic and biogeographical implication of our results. A replacement name, Schedolimulus minutides Bourguignon, is proposed for the termitophilous staphylinid Schedolimulus minutus Bourguignon, to solve a question of secondary homonymy.

  8. Revision of the termite family Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera in New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bourguignon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we completed a revision of the Termitidae from New Guinea and neighboring islands, recording a total of 45 species. Here, we revise a second family, the Rhinotermitidae, to progress towards a full picture of the termite diversity in New Guinea. Altogether, 6 genera and 15 species are recorded, among which two species, Coptotermes gambrinus and Parrhinotermes barbatus, are new to science. The genus Heterotermes is reported from New Guinea for the first time, with two species restricted to the southern part of the island. We also provide the first New Guinea records for six species of the genera Coptotermes and Schedorhinotermes. We briefly describe soldiers and imagoes of each species and provide a key based on soldier characters. Finally, we discuss the taxonomic and biogeographical implication of our results. A replacement name, Schedolimulus minutides Bourguignon, is proposed for the termitophilous staphylinid Schedolimulus minutus Bourguignon, to solve a question of secondary homonymy.

  9. Radiation-induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.

    1992-11-01

    The effect of x rays on brain weight of guinea pig pups at birth was studied for 21-day old embroys exposed in utero to doses of 75 and 100 mGy. When compared to controls and when corrected for body weight, gestation time, litter size, sex, and examiner differences the brains of irradiated pups weighed approximately 46 mg less than those of controls (p<0.001) for the 75-mGy group and about 55 mg less for the 100-mGy group. Brains of females weighed 51 mg less than those of males of the same body weight. Dam weight and caging conditions had no observed effect on brain weight.

  10. Radiation-induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of x rays on brain weight of guinea pig pups at birth was studied for 21-day old embroys exposed in utero to doses of 75 and 100 mGy. When compared to controls and when corrected for body weight, gestation time, litter size, sex, and examiner differences the brains of irradiated pups weighed approximately 46 mg less than those of controls (p<0.001) for the 75-mGy group and about 55 mg less for the 100-mGy group. Brains of females weighed 51 mg less than those of males of the same body weight. Dam weight and caging conditions had no observed effect on brain weight.

  11. Good Order at Sea in the Gulf of Guinea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Lindskov Jacobsen, Katja

    In this chapter, we first outline the maritime security situation in the Gulf of Guinea region at present. It is examined in the context of Good Order at Sea. Second, we describe the most recent maritime security initiative launched during the Yaoundé Summit in 2013. During the summit, West...... of Guinea is a global problem to be addressed by actors from the region as well as by states and institutions from other parts of the world....

  12. Evaluation of hypersensitivity to microencapsulated ampicillin in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, I S; Kopydlowski, K M; Cuenin, P; Setterstrom, J A

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the sustained release of ampicillin from a biodegradable drug-delivery system (microencapsulated ampicillin anhydrate (MEAA)) will increase or decrease the intensity of a hypersensitivity reaction compared with that observed with free drug. Ovalbumin, which is known to elicit a marked hypersensitivity reaction in guinea pigs, and microencapsulated ovalbumin (MOVA) were tested in parallel with ampicillin and MEAA. Guinea pigs were sensitized biweekly by subcutaneous and intramuscular injections of ampicillin, MEAA, ovalbumin, MOVA or placebo microspheres (test articles), each mixed with Freund's adjuvant, and challenged 2 weeks later, intradermally, with the free compounds. In a separate set of experiments, guinea pigs were sensitized by implantation of the same agents in the caudal thigh of anaesthetized animals. Skin allergic reactions were tested at 1 and 3 weeks following local implantation of the test articles. Sera of sensitized guinea pigs were tested for specific IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and skin samples from the site of the inflammatory reaction were fixed, stained and evaluated histologically. Guinea pigs sensitized systemically with MEAA or MOVA showed smaller, but not statistically different skin allergic response than animals given corresponding free compounds. However, guinea pigs sensitized by local implantation of MEAA showed a significantly lower inflammatory response (P MEAA. There was no significant difference in specific IgG antibody response in the sera of guinea pigs sensitized locally with either free or microencapsulated ampicillin or ovalbumin. Histology of skin revealed a milder inflammatory reaction with MEAA or MOVA than with ampicillin or ovalbumin, respectively. We conclude that the encapsulated ampicillin or ovalbumin and subsequent release of each agent will elicit a reduced hypersensitivity reaction in guinea pigs than will the free agent.

  13. Guinea: Background and Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    Guinea’s oil production potential is drawing interest among international oil firms in light of recent large oil discoveries in nearby countries...Hyperdynamics, a small independent Texas-based oil prospecting firm, holds exploration rights in Guinea under a Production Sharing Contract (PSC) signed...March 17, 2010. See also Catherine Hunter, “Hyperdynamics Drums Up Support for Work on Guinea Acreage with Dana, Repsol ,” IHS Global Insight Daily

  14. Methods for cryopreservation of guinea fowl sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Váradi

    Full Text Available Conservation of indigenous poultry species is an important part of the new Hungarian agricultural strategy. Semen cryopreservation is the most practical method for the long term storage of poultry genetic material. The objective was to compare four protocols for cryopreservation of guinea fowl sperm (slow and fast programmable, freezing in nitrogen vapor, and pellet and three cryoprotectants (10% ethylene glycol, 6% dimethyl-formamide and 6% dimethyl-acetamide. The efficiency of the methods was examined by in vitro tests (subjective motility scoring, sperm concentration, morphological and live/dead sperm analysis with eosin-aniline staining. Thereafter, the two most promising methods were tested by artificial insemination of frozen-thawed semen (3 times a week for 3 weeks using 300 million spermatozoa/hen, followed by candling of incubated eggs, assessment of fertilization, embryonic death, and hatching rate. The survival rate of live, intact spermatozoa was greatest (p≤0.05 in pellet method and the slow programmable protocol (with 10% ethylene glycol (28.6 and 23.5%. The two best protocols (based on in vitro assessment of post-thaw semen quality were subsequently tested in vivo with artificial insemination. The pellet method yielded a 64% fertility rate compared to slow protocol with only 30% fertility. Regardless, both freezing protocols significantly increased embryonic deaths compared to the control group (16,7; 9,1 and 8,3%, respectively. During the 3-week in vivo trial, fertility increased and early embryonic death decreased over time. According to the results the guinea fowl sperm could tolerate the fast freezing in pellet better than the slower freezing rates and resulted acceptable fertility rate.

  15. Peat in the mountains of New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Hope

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are common in montane areas above 1,000 m in New Guinea and become extensive above 3,000 m in the subalpine zone. In the montane mires, swamp forests and grass or sedge fens predominate on swampy valley bottoms. These mires may be 4–8 m in depth and up to 30,000 years in age. In Papua New Guinea (PNG there is about 2,250 km2 of montane peatland, and Papua Province (the Indonesian western half of the island probably contains much more. Above 3,000 m, peat soils form under blanket bog on slopes as well as on valley floors. Vegetation types include cushion bog, grass bog and sedge fen. Typical peat depths are 0.5‒1 m on slopes, but valley floors and hollows contain up to 10 m of peat. The estimated total extent of mountain peatland is 14,800 km2 with 5,965 km2 in PNG and about 8,800 km2 in Papua Province. The stratigraphy, age structure and vegetation histories of 45 peatland or organic limnic sites above 750 m have been investigated since 1965. These record major vegetation shifts at 28,000, 17,000‒14,000 and 9,000 years ago and a variable history of human disturbance from 14,000 years ago with extensive clearance by the mid-Holocene at some sites. While montane peatlands were important agricultural centres in the Holocene, the introduction of new dryland crops has resulted in the abandonment of some peatlands in the last few centuries. Despite several decades of research, detailed knowledge of the mountain peatlands is poor and this is an obstacle to scientific management.

  16. [Arbovirus circulation in the Republic of Guinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butenko, A M

    1996-01-01

    In 1978-1991 the USSR-Guinea Virological and Microbiological Laboratory functioned in Kindia, the Republic of Guinea. Arbovirus activity in this country was studied by a number of virologists and other specialists. Their personal contribution and achievements in this collaboration are reflected in the present paper. About 74,000 mosquitoes, 100,000 Ixodidae ticks, 1,500 wild birds, 2,700 bats, 106 monkeys, and 308 other mammals, 927 blood samples collected from febrile patients were examined in 1978-1989, using inoculation of new-born white mice. As a result of this work 127 strains of the following arboviruses were isolated: Chikungunia (1 strain), Dengue 2 (4), Saboya (7), Wesselsbron (1), Bunyamwera (4), M'Poko (5), Rift Valley Fever (6), CHF-Congo (9), Dugbe (22), Bhanja (6), Forecariah (2), Jos (26), Abadina (15), Kindia (2), Ark 6956 (1), Fomede (2), Bluetongue (9), Mossuril (2), AnK 6009 (1), and Kolente (2). Dengue 2, Wesselsbron, Bunyamwera, M'Poko, Kindia, Mossuril viruses were isolated from mosquitoes. Ixodidae ticks were sources for isolation of Chikungunia, Saboya, CCHF, Dugbe, Bhanja, Forecaciah, Jos, Abadina, Kindia, Ark 6956, Fomede, Bluetongue, and Kolente viruses. Saboya, RVF, Fomede, Kolente, AnK 6909 were isolated from bats (Chiroptera); Saboya, Abadina, and Bluetongue viruses from birds. One strain of Dugbe virus was originated from the brain of Cercopithecus patas. Bunyamwera and Abadina viruses were isolated from the blood of two febrile patients. Serological identification of many strains was kindly conducted at the Pasteur Institute, Dakar (J. P.Digoutte) and some at the YARU, USA (R. Shope). Kindia and Ark 6956 (Reovirus, gr. Palyam), Fomede (gr. Chobar Gorge), Forecariah (Bunyavirus, gr. Bhanja), Kolente (Rhabdovirus) were identified as an original type of Lagos bat virus. The results of seroepidemiological surveys are also presented.

  17. [Experimental study of infectious hepatitis in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asharafova, R A; Tuliaganov, P D; Kasymkhodzhaev, E S

    1976-04-01

    The authors carried out a comparative study of morphological changes in the liver of guinea-pigs in various times following intraperitoneal administration of the serum taken from a patient with infectious hepatitis (1st group), administration of the serum in combination with the urine (2nd group), administration of the serum in combination with the patient's duodenal juice (3rd group), and administration of the serum in combination with a hepatic antigen prepared of the liver of a healthy guinea-pig (4th group). Observations over the behaviour of the animals and morphological investigations showed a high sensitivity of guinea-pigs to virus-containing materials. The reaction was particularly pronounced in animals which were given the serum taken from a patient with infectious hepatitis in combination with a hepatic antigen, and the microscopic picture of the liver almost similar to that of the patient with Botkin's disease. Moreover, in the course of the study it was found possible to re-inoculate the virus obtained from the guinea-pigs subjected to a combined exposure to the serum from a patient with infectious hepatits and hepatic antigen. Comparing the results of the study on guinea-pigs with those obtained previously in the experimental study of viral hepatitis on white rats (1970), the authors have come to the conclusion that guinea-pigs may be used for modelling and experimental investigation of Botkin's disease.

  18. Prevalence of fur mites (Chirodiscoides caviae) in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Santoro, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Chirodiscoides caviae is the most common fur mite affecting guinea pigs; infestation is generally asymptomatic. No studies have been published on the prevalence of such mites in guinea pigs in southern Italy. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical signs of C. caviae infestation in guinea pigs in southern Italy. Clinical records of guinea pigs evaluated from August 2012 to July 2013 were retrospectively searched. In this retrospective matched case-control study, records of guinea pigs with evidence of C. caviae infestation were selected. The prevalence of C. caviae infestation was evaluated and exposure variables were assessed among guinea pigs with and without infestation using stepwise conditional logistic regression. Guinea pigs seen during the same time period, but without a diagnosis of C. caviae, were included as control animals. The prevalence of C. caviae was 32% (42 of 131); 66.6% of affected guinea pigs (28 of 42) originated from pet shops, whereas 28% (14 of 42) were privately owned. Thirty-one guinea pigs (73.8%) were asymptomatic, whereas 11 (26.1%) showed clinical signs (pruritus, alopecia, erythema and scaling). The most frequently affected area was the lumbosacral region (38 of 42). Guinea pigs in pet shops were more likely to be affected by C. caviae than owned guinea pigs (odds ratio, 5.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.32-11.29; P guinea pigs in southern Italy. Chirodiscoides mites should be sought in guinea pigs, particularly in animals coming from pet shops. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  19. National Immunization Campaigns with Oral Polio Vaccine Reduce All-Cause Mortality: A Natural Experiment within Seven Randomized Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Andersen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA recent WHO review concluded that live BCG and measles vaccine (MV may have beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs reducing mortality from non-targeted diseases. NSEs of oral polio vaccine (OPV were not examined. If OPV vaccination campaigns reduce the mortality rate, it would suggest beneficial NSEs.SettingBetween 2002 and 2014, Guinea-Bissau had 15 general OPV campaigns and other campaigns with OPV plus vitamin A supplementation (VAS, VAS-only, MV, and H1N1 vaccine. In this period, we conducted seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs with mortality as main outcome.MethodsWithin these RCTs, we assessed whether the mortality rate was lower after-campaign than before-campaign. We used Cox models with age as underlying time and further adjusted for low birth-weight, season and time trend in mortality. We calculated the adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR for after-campaign vs before-campaign.ResultsThe mortality rate was lower after OPV-only campaigns than before, the MRR being 0.81 (95% CI = 0.68–0.95. With each additional dose of campaign-OPV the mortality rate declined further (MRR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79–0.96 per dose (test for trend, p = 0.005. No other type of campaign had similar beneficial effects. Depending on initial age and with follow-up to 3 years of age, the number needed to treat with campaign-OPV-only to save one life was between 68 and 230 children.ConclusionBissau had no case of polio infection so the results suggest that campaign-OPV has beneficial NSEs. Discontinuation of OPV-campaigns in low-income countries may affect general child mortality levels negatively.

  20. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  1. Nations of the earth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    These books contain summaries of the national reports prepared for the UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, June 1992. Summary reports of the following countries are included: V. 1) Algeria, Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Canada, Chad, China, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, France, Guinea, Jordan, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Paraguay, Romania, Senegal, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Sweden, Tokelau, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Yemen Arab Republic, Yugoslavia. V. 2) Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Bulgaria, Central African Republic, Colombia, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Japan, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Morocco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Oman, Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, Pacific Islands Developing Countries, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sudan, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Zimbabwe

  2. A guinea pig model of Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Krause, Keeton K; Azouz, Francine; Nakano, Eileen; Nerurkar, Vivek R

    2017-04-11

    Animal models are critical to understand disease and to develop countermeasures for the ongoing epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV). Here we report that immunocompetent guinea pigs are susceptible to infection by a contemporary American strain of ZIKV. Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were inoculated with 10 6 plaque-forming units of ZIKV via subcutaneous route and clinical signs were observed. Viremia, viral load in the tissues, anti-ZIKV neutralizing antibody titer, and protein levels of multiple cytokine and chemokines were analyzed using qRT-PCR, plaque assay, plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and multiplex immunoassay. Upon subcutaneous inoculation with PRVABC59 strain of ZIKV, guinea pigs demonstrated clinical signs of infection characterized by fever, lethargy, hunched back, ruffled fur, and decrease in mobility. ZIKV was detected in the whole blood and serum using qRT-PCR and plaque assay. Anti-ZIKV neutralizing antibody was detected in the infected animals using PRNT. ZIKV infection resulted in a dramatic increase in protein levels of multiple cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in the serum. ZIKV replication was observed in spleen and brain, with the highest viral load in the brain. This data demonstrate that after subcutaneous inoculation, the contemporary ZIKV strain is neurotropic in guinea pigs. The guinea pig model described here recapitulates various clinical features and viral kinetics observed in ZIKV-infected patients, and therefore may serve as a model to study ZIKV pathogenesis, including pregnancy outcomes and for evaluation of vaccines and therapeutics.

  3. Hypervitaminosis D in Guinea Pigs with α-Mannosidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, JanLee A; Brice, Angela K; Bagel, Jessica H; Mexas, Angela M; Yoon, Sea Young; Wolfe, John H

    2013-01-01

    A colony of guinea pigs (n = 9) with α-mannosidosis was fed a pelleted commercial laboratory guinea pig diet. Over 2 mo, all 9 guinea pigs unexpectedly showed anorexia and weight loss (11.7% to 30.0% of baseline weight), and 3 animals demonstrated transient polyuria and polydipsia. Blood chemistry panels in these 3 guinea pigs revealed high-normal total calcium, high-normal phosphate, and high ALP. Urine specific gravity was dilute (1.003, 1.009, 1.013) in the 3 animals tested. Postmortem examination of 7 animals that were euthanized after failing to respond to supportive care revealed renal interstitial fibrosis with tubular mineralization, soft tissue mineralization in multiple organs, hepatic lipidosis, and pneumonia. Analysis of the pelleted diet revealed that it had been formulated with a vitamin D3 content of more than 150 times the normal concentration. Ionized calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D values were both high in serum saved from 2 euthanized animals, confirming the diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D. This report discusses the clinical signs, blood chemistry results, and gross and histologic findings of hypervitaminosis D in a colony of guinea pigs. When unexpected signs occur colony-wide, dietary differentials should be investigated at an early time point. PMID:23582422

  4. Evaluation of Ebola Virus Countermeasures in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) pathology in humans remains incompletely understood; therefore, a number of rodent and nonhuman primate (NHP) models have been established to study the disease caused by this virus. While the macaque model most accurately recapitulates human disease, rodent models, which display only certain aspects of human disease but are more cost-effective, are widely used for initial screens during EBOV countermeasure development. In particular, mice and guinea pigs were among the first species used for the efficacy testing of EBOV vaccines and therapeutics. While mice have low predictive value, guinea pigs have proven to be a more reliable predictor for the evaluation of countermeasures in NHPs. In addition, guinea pigs are larger in size compared to mice, allowing for more frequent collection of blood samples at larger volumes. However, guinea pigs have the disadvantage that there is only a limited pool of immunological tools available to characterize host responses to vaccination, treatment and infection. In this chapter, the efficacy testing of an EBOV vaccine and a therapeutic in the guinea pig model are described.

  5. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birck, Malene M; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken M; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-10-11

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals(6). All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility.

  6. Melioidosis in Papua New Guinea and Oceania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Warner

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis has only been sporadically reported throughout Melanesia and the Pacific region since the first report from Guam in 1946; therefore, its contribution to the disease burden in this region is largely unknown. However, the outcome of a small number of active surveillance programs, serological surveys, and presumptive imported cases identified elsewhere provide an insight into its epidemiology and potential significance throughout the region. Both clinical cases and environmental reservoirs have been described from the rural district of Balimo in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea and from the Northern Province of New Caledonia. In both these locations the incidence of disease is similar to that described in tropical Australia and Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates are also phylogenetically linked to Australian isolates. Serological evidence and presumptive imported cases identified elsewhere suggest that melioidosis exists in other countries throughout the Pacific. However, the lack of laboratory facilities and clinical awareness, and the burden of other infections of public health importance such as tuberculosis, contribute to the under-recognition of melioidosis in this region.

  7. Radiation protection in hospitals of Equatorial Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabat Macambo, P.

    2001-01-01

    With a population of four hundred thousand (400.000) inhabitants and distributed in a territory of 28 thousand (28.000) km 2 , the use of ionizing radiations for medical practice in Equatorial Guinea is few and decreasing. It is used for diagnostic practices in the main hospitals of the country, where the work burden is not over 20 patients per day. The political, social and economical embryonic development of the country until recently had a negative influence on indicators and health organisations, so that even now the country does not have any radiological protection law, this shortness, in addition with the old architectural structure that x ray tools is lodging, as well as dosimetrical lack of employed staff, put this staff under risk of electromagnetic energy. This is to show the present survey of medical activities with ionizing radiation and to request technical support for implementing suitably the basic standards of radiation protection which will help us as basis for the elaboration outline law, on radiological protection in accordance with the new guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

  8. Radiation induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A brain weight deficit of about 70 mg was induced at doses of approximately 75-mGy and a deficit of 60 mg was induced at 100 mGy. This confirms the effects projected and observed by Wanner and Edwards. Although the data do not demonstrate a clear dose-response relationship between the 75-mGy and 100-mGy groups, the data are statistically consistent with a dose-response effect because of the overlapping confidence intervals. The lack of a statistically significant observation is most likely related to the small difference in doses and the limited numbers of animals examined. There are several factors that can influence the brain weight of guinea pig pups, such as caging and housing conditions, the sex of the animal, and litter size. These should be taken into account for accurate analysis. Dam weight did not appear to have a significant effect. The confirmation of a micrencephalic effect induced x rays at doses of 75-mGy during this late embryonic stage of development is consistent with the findings of small head size induced in those exposed prior to the eight week of conception at Hiroshima. This implies a mechanism for micrencephaly different from those previously suggested and lends credence to a causal relation between radiation and small head size in humans at low doses as reported by Miller and Mulvihill. 16 refs., 13 tabs

  9. Radiation induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A brain weight deficit of about 70 mg was induced at doses of approximately 75-mGy and a deficit of 60 mg was induced at 100 mGy. This confirms the effects projected and observed by Wanner and Edwards. Although the data do not demonstrate a clear dose-response relationship between the 75-mGy and 100-mGy groups, the data are statistically consistent with a dose-response effect because of the overlapping confidence intervals. The lack of a statistically significant observation is most likely related to the small difference in doses and the limited numbers of animals examined. There are several factors that can influence the brain weight of guinea pig pups, such as caging and housing conditions, the sex of the animal, and litter size. These should be taken into account for accurate analysis. Dam weight did not appear to have a significant effect. The confirmation of a micrencephalic effect induced x rays at doses of 75-mGy during this late embryonic stage of development is consistent with the findings of small head size induced in those exposed prior to the eight week of conception at Hiroshima. This implies a mechanism for micrencephaly different from those previously suggested and lends credence to a causal relation between radiation and small head size in humans at low doses as reported by Miller and Mulvihill. 16 refs., 13 tabs.

  10. Papua New Guinea : The World Bank Group Country Opinion Survey FY 2014

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey in Papua New Guinea assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Papua New Guinea perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Papua New Guinea on 1) their views regarding ...

  11. Use of a Guinea pig-specific transcriptome array for evaluation of protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection following intranasal vaccination in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Veselenak, Ronald L; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Cap, Andrew P; Guentzel, M Neal; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G; Pyles, Richard B; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.

  12. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  13. Fatal light aircraft accidents in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, G H

    1981-02-01

    The number of light aircraft (less than 5,700) in the developing world is small compared to those in the West, and little information on aviation accidents is readily available from developing countries. Papua New Guinea, enjoys a priviledged position, since aviation was introduced early and much of the country was opened through flying. During the period of Australian trusteeship until independence in 1975, the Australian Department of Transport applied its own rigorous standards to aviation in Papua New Guinea, a policy continued by the present Civil Aviation Agency. As a result of tight supervisory controls, accurate statistics on accidents are available, from which comparisons with other countries can be made. A study has been made of fatal light aircraft accidents in Papua New Guinea. Some of the Medical problems involved in accident prevention in a developing country are discussed.

  14. Logistics of Guinea Worm Disease Eradication in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H.; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P. Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R.; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-01-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical–logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries. PMID:24445199

  15. Market potential for guinea fowl (Numidia meleagris) products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzimure, James; Saina, Happyson; Ngorora, Grace P K

    2011-12-01

    The survey evaluated the market potential for guinea fowl (GF; Numidia meleagris) products in the city of Harare, Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to traders/producers (n = 17), retailers (n = 12), cafeteria industry (n = 33) and consumers (n = 1,680) to establish their perceptions on guinea fowl products. The average household size was 6 ± 2. Each trader sold 10 ± 6.30 keets (mean ± standard error), 33 ± 15.05 growers, 20 ± 12.69 breeders and 20 ± 10.1 crates of 30 eggs per month. Each household consumed 2.5 ± 1.39 kg of GF meat and 3 ± 0.65 dozens of GF eggs per month. Retailers purchased 52 ± 44.42 crates of GF eggs and 41 ± 30.50/kg of GF meat whilst cafeteria purchased 33.6 ± 14 crates of GF eggs and 65.5 ± 33.52 kg of GF meat per month. Growers for breeding were the major product for sale by traders (94.1%) at a price of US$7.50 ± 1.74/bird. Different industries were offering different prices for guinea fowl products because of their scarcity on the market. The mean purchase price per crate of 30 guinea fowl eggs sold to the retail and cafeteria were US$3.00 ± 0.58 and US$4.50 ± 0.50, respectively. The mean purchase prices for GF meat was lower (P cafeteria (US$3.67 ± 0.83/kg). The challenges faced by producers in the marketing of guinea fowl products included poor supply due to the absence of good road networks to connect source areas and the market, perishability of dressed chickens due to power cuts and poor publicity. Overall, the study showed that there is greater market potential for guinea fowl products and farmers can channel their products through traders, cafeteria and retail industries.

  16. Immunoglobulin genomics in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongchen; Bao, Yonghua; Meng, Qingwen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Meng, Qingyong; Ren, Liming; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2012-01-01

    In science, the guinea pig is known as one of the gold standards for modeling human disease. It is especially important as a molecular and cellular biology model for studying the human immune system, as its immunological genes are more similar to human genes than are those of mice. The utility of the guinea pig as a model organism can be further enhanced by further characterization of the genes encoding components of the immune system. Here, we report the genomic organization of the guinea pig immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy and light chain genes. The guinea pig IgH locus is located in genomic scaffolds 54 and 75, and spans approximately 6,480 kb. 507 V(H) segments (94 potentially functional genes and 413 pseudogenes), 41 D(H) segments, six J(H) segments, four constant region genes (μ, γ, ε, and α), and one reverse δ remnant fragment were identified within the two scaffolds. Many V(H) pseudogenes were found within the guinea pig, and likely constituted a potential donor pool for gene conversion during evolution. The Igκ locus mapped to a 4,029 kb region of scaffold 37 and 24 is composed of 349 V(κ) (111 potentially functional genes and 238 pseudogenes), three J(κ) and one C(κ) genes. The Igλ locus spans 1,642 kb in scaffold 4 and consists of 142 V(λ) (58 potentially functional genes and 84 pseudogenes) and 11 J(λ) -C(λ) clusters. Phylogenetic analysis suggested the guinea pig's large germline V(H) gene segments appear to form limited gene families. Therefore, this species may generate antibody diversity via a gene conversion-like mechanism associated with its pseudogene reserves.

  17. Education, employment and practice: Midwifery graduates in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, Alison; Puawe, Paula; Buasi, Nancy; West, Florence; Samor, Mary K; Joseph, Nina; Rumsey, Michele; Dawson, Angela; Homer, Caroline S E

    2016-10-01

    Papua New Guinea has a very high maternal mortality rate (773/100,000), low rates of supervised births and a critical shortage of skilled midwives. A midwifery education initiative commenced in 2012, funded by the Australian Government and led by the National Department of Health. One specific objective of the initiative was to improve the standard of clinical teaching and practice in four schools of midwifery. There were 394 midwives educated over the 4 year period (2012-2015) representing half of all midwives in Papua New Guinea. A study was undertaken to describe the educational programme, employment, practices and experiences of graduates who studied midwifery in 2012 and 2013 as part of the initiative. the aim of this paper is to explore the education, employment and practice of newly graduated midwives in Papua New Guinea. a mixed methods descriptive study design was used. Surveys and focus groups were used to gather data. Ethical approval was granted by the relevant Human Research Ethics Committees. all midwifery graduates in 2012 and 2013 from the four midwifery schools in Papua New Guinea were included in the study and almost 80% were contacted. nearly 90% of graduates were working as midwives, with an additional 3% working as midwifery or nursing educators. This study discovered that graduates exhibited increased skills acquisition and confidence, leadership in maternal and newborn care services and a marked improvement in the provision of respectful care to women. The graduates faced challenges to implement evidence based care with barriers including the lack of appropriate resources and differences of opinion with senior staff. factors affecting the quality of midwifery education will need to be addressed if Papua New Guinea is to continue to improve the status of maternal and newborn health. Specifically, the length of the midwifery education, the quality of clinical practice and the exposure to rural and remote area practice need addressing in many

  18. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates from humans in Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, María Alejandra; Iborra, Asunción; Vargas, Antonio; Nsie, Eugenia; Mbá, Luciano; Fuentes, Isabel

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the study was to perform a molecular characterization of clinical isolates of Cryptosporidium species from Equatorial Guinea. Standard laboratory methods were used to identify 35 cryptosporidiosis cases among 185 patients. PCR-RFLP successfully identified 34 Cryptosporidium species from these 35 cases, comprising C. parvum (52.9%), C. hominis (44.1%) and C. meleagridis (2.9%); over 90% of the species were isolated from HIV-positive patients. This is the first report of the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species isolated from humans in Equatorial Guinea and shows that zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission is present in this country.

  19. Astronomical theory of climatic change: support from new Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeh, H H; Chappell, J

    1970-02-06

    Radiocarbon and thorium-230 dates of uplifted coral reef terraces on New Guinea appear to support theories of glaciation which utilize Milankovitch cycles as a controlling trigger mechanism. In addition to high sealevel stands recognized by other workers, the New Guinea data clearly indicate a marine transgression between 50,000 and 35,000 years before the present. A eustatic sea level curve reconstructed from field observations and radiometric dates shows a close correlation with temperature fluctuations in high latitudes as predicted by astronomical data.

  20. Potassium transport across guinea pig distal colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechkemmer, G.; Halm, D.R.; Frizzell, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Active absorption and secretion of K was studied by measuring bidirectional 42 K fluxes across short-circuited guinea pig distal colon. Tissues were pretreated with mucosal (m) and serosal (s) indomethacin (1 μM) and amiloride (0.1 mM, m) to suppress spontaneous, electrogenic Cl secretion and Na absorption. Under these conditions, the short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) was 0.4 μeq/cm 2 h while electroneutral K absorption was 2.8 μeq/cm 2 h. Epinephrine (5 μM, s) stimulated electrogenic K secretion, reducing net K absorption to 1.3 μeq/cm 2 h. Bumetanide (0.1 mM, s) abolished this K secretion and restored K absorption to control values, suggesting mechanistic similarities between K and Cl secretion. K absorption was inhibited 40% by the gastric H/K ATPase inhibitor, omeprazole (0.1 mM, m), and was abolished by ouabain (0.1 mM, m). Neutral K absorption does not appear to be mediated by an apical membrane Na/K pump since: the effect of mucosal ouabain on K absorption does not require the presence of mucosal or serosal Na, unidirectional Na fluxes are not influenced by mucosal ouabain, and K absorption is not affected when Na absorption is abolished by amiloride. Net K transport is determined by the balance between electroneutral K absorption and electrogenic K secretion. The ouabain sensitivity of K absorption suggests that colonic H/K ATPase differs from its gastric counterpart

  1. Guinea pig complement potently measures vibriocidal activity of human antibodies in response to cholera vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Whun; Jeong, Soyoung; Ahn, Ki Bum; Yang, Jae Seung; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The vibriocidal assay using guinea pig complement is widely used for the evaluation of immune responses to cholera vaccines in human clinical trials. However, it is unclear why guinea pig complement has been used over human complement in the measurement of vibriocidal activity of human sera and there have not been comparison studies for the use of guinea pig complement over those from other species. Therefore, we comparatively investigated the effects of complements derived from human, guinea pig, rabbit, and sheep on vibriocidal activity. Complements from guinea pig, rabbit, and human showed concentration-dependent vibriocidal activity in the presence of quality control serum antibodies. Of these complements, guinea pig complement was the most sensitive and effective over a wide concentration range. When the vibriocidal activity of complements was measured in the absence of serum antibodies, human, sheep, and guinea pig complements showed vibriocidal activity up to 40-fold, 20-fold, and 1-fold dilution, respectively. For human pre- and post-vaccination sera, the most potent vibriocidal activity was observed when guinea pig complement was used. In addition, the highest fold-increases between pre- and post- vaccinated sera were obtained with guinea pig complement. Furthermore, human complement contained a higher amount of V. cholerae- and its lipopolysaccharide-specific antibodies than guinea pig complement. Collectively, these results suggest that guinea pig complements are suitable for vibriocidal assays due to their high sensitivity and effectiveness to human sera.

  2. Cartilage Degeneration, Subchondral Mineral and Meniscal Mineral Densities in Hartley and Strain 13 Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubo; Scannell, Brian P; Honeycutt, Patrick R; Mauerhan, David R; H, James Norton; Hanley Jr, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a joint disease involved in articular cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and synovial membrane. This study sought to examine cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) and meniscal mineral density (MD) in male Hartley, female Hartley and female strain 13 guinea pigs to determine the association of cartilage degeneration with subchondral BMD and meniscal MD. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD in 12 months old guinea pigs were examined with histochemistry, X-ray densitometry and calcium analysis. We found that male Hartley guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD than female Hartley guinea pigs, but not female strain 13 guinea pigs. Female strain 13 guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration and higher subchondral BMD, but not meniscal MD, than female Hartley guinea pigs. These findings indicate that higher subchondral BMD, not meniscal MD, is associated with more severe cartilage degeneration in the guinea pigs and suggest that abnormal subchondral BMD may be a therapeutic target for OA treatment. These findings also indicate that the pathogenesis of OA in the male guinea pigs and female guinea pigs are different. Female strain 13 guinea pig may be used to study female gender-specific pathogenesis of OA. PMID:26401159

  3. Paraperipatus Lorentzi Horst, a new Peripatus from Dutch New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1910-01-01

    During his last expedition to the central mountain range of New Guinea, Mr. H. A. Lorentz collected a couple of Peripatus-specimens, which he kindly placed into my hands for examination. They were found amidst moss on Mount Wichmann at a height of 3000 M. That the couple consists of a male and a

  4. Evaluation of community-based surveillance for Guinea worm, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-03

    Aug 3, 2012 ... This report was cited in Southern Sudan Integrated Disease. Surveillance and Response Assessment Report, 2007. A paper on the current situation, which takes into account the recommendations listed here, is being prepared by Samuel Makoy. background. Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) is ...

  5. Otoprotection in guinea pigs exposed to pesticides and ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Andréa Dulor; Silveira, Aron Ferreira da; Munaro, Gisiane; Zanrosso, Crisley Dossin

    2012-06-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agriculture, despite the risk of hearing loss related to the exposure to their chemical components. This study looks into protective drugs to counteract the ototoxicity of pesticides. This study aims to analyze the effect ginkgo biloba extract may have in protecting against possible cochlear damage caused by organophosphate pesticides (methamidophos). Anatomic changes are assessed through surface and electron microscopy. This is a prospective experimental study. Twenty-one guinea pigs were given saline solution, pesticide, and ginkgo biloba alone or combined for seven consecutive days. Then their cochleas were removed and examined in a scanning electron microscope. Pesticide-exposed guinea pigs had morphological alterations in their cochleas and injuries in the three turns analyzed through electron microscopy. Injury intensity varied according to the dosages of the agents given to the test subjects. Guinea pigs treated with pesticide and ginkgo biloba maintained the architecture of their outer hair cells in all cochlear turns. The antioxidant properties found in the ginkgo biloba extract protected guinea pigs from pesticide ototoxicity.

  6. Notes on New Guinea Rubiaceae. Versteegia and Maschalodesme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridsdale, C.E.; Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1972-01-01

    Within the rain forests of New Guinea there are many small pachycaul treelets belonging to the Rubiaceae. Generally these are rare in occurrence and poorly represented in the herbarium, due in part to the problem of protecting rami- or cauliflorous flowers and fruits during routine processing and

  7. Contraction Of Isolated Guinea Pig Ileum By Tephrosia vogelii Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out on the isolated guinea pig ileum, using the crude methanolic leaf extract of Tephrosia vogelii Hook. f., and with the aim of determining its effects on contraction of intestinal smooth muscle. Modified Magnus technique was employed in setting up the tissue. Acetylcholine (ACh), histamine and ...

  8. Economcis of cattle fattening with crop residues in Northern Guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the economics of Cattle fattening with crop residues in Northern Guinea Savannah Ecological Zone of Nigeria, Data were collected from 100 respondents between January to December, 1999 using simple random sampling technique. Interview method was employed. The data were ...

  9. Five new species of Barringtonia (Lecythidaceae) from Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jebb, M.; Prance, G.T.

    2011-01-01

    Five new species of Barringtonia from Papua New Guinea are described and discussed: B. lumina, B. monticola, B. pinnifolia, B. serenae and B. tagala. All five species belong to section Barringtonia with closed flower buds. Notes are also provided for the seven monocaulous pachycaul species of

  10. Folk Opera: Stories Crossing Borders in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseman, B.; Baldwin, A.; Linthwaite, H.

    2014-01-01

    The Life Drama project is a drama-based sexual health promotion project, developed by a cross-cultural research team in Papua New Guinea (PNG) over the past four years. Recognising the limitations of established theatre-in-education and theatre-for-development approaches when working across cultures, the research team explored ways of tapping into…

  11. Mother Tongue-Based Bilingual Education in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Susan; Paraide, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG), an independent state in the southwest Pacific, is the most linguistically diverse country in the world. Its roughly six million people speak over 800 distinct languages. In spite of this diversity, in 1995 the Papua New Guinean government established a mother tongue-based bilingual education programme in which community…

  12. Notes on the genus Rhododendron (Ericaceae) in Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kores, P.

    1984-01-01

    A new species, Rhododendron caliginis (Ericaceae) is described from Papua New Guinea and 2 species of Rhododendron previously described as new by A. Gilli (1980) are reduced. Rhododendron heptaster is reduced to R. konori and R. sleumeri is reduced to R. blackii.

  13. Identity and Ethnomathematics Projects in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Indigenous students may find mathematics in schools difficult because there is discontinuity between cultural mathematics and school mathematics. One of the reasons for this is that their teacher's identity as a mathematical thinker may not link to their cultural ways of thinking. In Papua New Guinea, there is a subject to assist student teachers…

  14. Nutrient deficiencies of agricultural crops in Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; Bourke, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea the population is growing faster than the area under cultivation. As a result, land use is being intensified and soil nutrient depletion may occur, resulting in nutrient deficiencies of agricultural crops. This paper reviews nutrient deficiencies in the agricultural crops of

  15. DNA Barcodes of Lepidoptera Reared from Yawan, Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miller, S. E.; Rosati, M. E.; Gewa, B.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Weiblen, G. D.; Herbert, P. D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 2 (2015), s. 247-250 ISSN 0013-8797 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04258S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : DNA barcodes * Lepidoptera * Papua New Guinea Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.593, year: 2015

  16. Characteristics of Guinea Fowl Breeding in West Africa: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houndonougbo, PV.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Guinea fowl production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is generally practiced under family and traditional rearing systems mainly for consumption and income generation, but this species plays also a major socio-cultural role in specific ceremonies. Birds are kept in free range or in confinement with outdoor access and fed on grain cereals, vegetables, edible termites and kitchen residues found in nature or occasionally supplied by the farmers. Several Guinea fowl varieties are observed and all are characterized by slow growth, high mortality of young animals and a relatively wild instinct. Although this avian species is resistant to some poultry diseases (Newcastle disease, Marek disease, Gumboro disease, ..., local guinea fowl are very sensitive to other poorly controlled diseases that require further study. These varieties differ greatly by their feather color, their morphological characteristics and growth performance, but further thorough and sustained research is needed to quantify these differences. Several researches established the nutritional requirements of local Guinea fowl but in terms of breeding, little works were done compared to chicken. Some recessive and dominant genes as well as genotypic differences were highlighted between varieties.

  17. Effect of thyroxine on experimental bronchospasm in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, D N; Bagchi, D; Mandal, S; De, K; Chaudhuri, S B; Dutta, S; Roy, K; Roy, G; Saha, S

    1995-07-01

    Effect of Thyroxine was studied in histamine induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs. Chronic treatment with the drug significantly protected against experimental bronchospasm. Thyroxine also potentiated salbutamol evoked bronchodilation in this experimental model. Up-regulation of beta-2 adrenoceptors in bronchial smooth muscle may be the probable mechanism of action of thyroxine.

  18. Evaluation of community-based surveillance for Guinea worm, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) is an ancient parasitic disease and is set to be the next disease eradicated from the world and the first to be overcome without a vaccine or treatment. South Sudan and Ghana account for more than 95% of global dracunculiasis. Methods and Materials: We used the ...

  19. Guinea worm disease and its persistence in some rural communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out in six villages of Ogun State, Nigeria, from January to December 2004 to identify the reasons for the persistence of guinea worm disease in spite of eradication measures. Pre-tested structured questionnaires were administered to 250 head of households in the endemic villages to assess their ...

  20. Economics of Soybean Production Technology in the Guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the economics of soybean production technology in the Guinea Savanna of Nigeria within the framework of small scale farming households using rain-fed soybean production technology, The study measured the rate of compliance with the recommended package, profitability of, as well as the technical ...

  1. Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum on guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... smooth muscles, we investigated the effects of aqueous leaf extract of the plant on the contractile responses of isolated tracheal rings. Guinea pigs were grouped into non-sensitized, ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized, OA-sensitized but 200 mg/kg/day x 21 extract-treated, and OA-sensitized but 400 mg/kg/day x 21 extract-treated.

  2. Extract On Acid Induced Corneal Burn In Guinea Pigs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cucumber is the edible fruit of the cucumber plant, Cucumis Sativus. Cucumber is used for skin treatment and natural beautification. It is called a cool fruit which effect is believed to bring relief to the eyes in summer. Thirty six guinea pigs between ages 17-20weeks and weight 0.4-0.7kg had their cornea induced with acid ...

  3. Reflections on the Fiftieth Reunion of the Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loud, Oliver

    1988-01-01

    A member of the original faculty of the experimental Ohio State University Laboratory High School reflects at a fiftieth reunion of the first graduating class. Students were used as guinea pigs to determine the effects of providing teenagers with liberating, interesting, and customized education from university faculty. (SM)

  4. Cytological Determination Of The Estrus Cycle In Guinea Pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cytologic study was carried out to determine the Estrus cycle in 5 female guinea pigs of reproductive age, for a period of 28 days in the Animal House of the College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu. Vaginal smears were collected from the animals and made on clean grease-free slides, fixed in ...

  5. Plague in Guinea Pigs and Its Prevention by Subunit Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenee, Lauriane E.; Ciletti, Nancy; Berube, Bryan; Krausz, Thomas; Elli, Derek; Hermanas, Timothy; Schneewind, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    Human pneumonic plague is a devastating and transmissible disease for which a Food and Drug Administration–approved vaccine is not available. Suitable animal models may be adopted as a surrogate for human plague to fulfill regulatory requirements for vaccine efficacy testing. To develop an alternative to pneumonic plague in nonhuman primates, we explored guinea pigs as a model system. On intranasal instillation of a fully virulent strain, Yersinia pestis CO92, guinea pigs developed lethal lung infections with hemorrhagic necrosis, massive bacterial replication in the respiratory system, and blood-borne dissemination to other organ systems. Expression of the Y. pestis F1 capsule was not required for the development of pulmonary infection; however, the capsule seemed to be important for the establishment of bubonic plague. The mean lethal dose (MLD) for pneumonic plague in guinea pigs was estimated to be 1000 colony-forming units. Immunization of guinea pigs with the recombinant forms of LcrV, a protein that resides at the tip of Yersinia type III secretion needles, or F1 capsule generated robust humoral immune responses. Whereas LcrV immunization resulted in partial protection against pneumonic plague challenge with 250 MLD Y. pestis CO92, immunization with recombinant F1 did not. rV10, a vaccine variant lacking LcrV residues 271-300, elicited protection against pneumonic plague, which seemed to be based on conformational antibodies directed against LcrV. PMID:21406168

  6. Survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Noviello, Emilio; Ianniello, Davide; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Little information is available on the occurrence of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in cavies kept as pets in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from 60 guinea pigs housed in pet shops or privately owned. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminthic eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, the specimens were analyzed also by the Remel Xpect® Giardia/Cryptosporidium immunoassay. Intestinal parasites were detected in 19 out of 60 guinea pigs (31.7 %). Paraspidodera uncinata eggs were found in 13.3 % (8/60) of the rodents examined, Nippostrongylus-like eggs in 10 % (6/60), and finally Eimeria caviae oocysts were found in 10 % (6/60) of the animals. In one case, both E. caviae oocysts and P. uncinata eggs were found. None of the samples was positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

  7. Effect of dietary supplementation of guinea hen weed ( Petiveria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary supplementation of guinea hen weed ( Petiveria alliacea ) leaf and root meals on nutrient utilization and intestinal morphology of finishing broiler chicken. ... Crude protein, ash and NFE digestibility of birds fed diet containing PRM were higher compared to birds fed PLM. Birds fed 1500mg/kg had the highest ...

  8. A new ostracod (Entocytheridae, Notocytherinae) on New Guinea crayfish1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, D.G.; Hart, C.W.

    1970-01-01

    In 1967 we examined the crayfish collections in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, to determine if the crayfishes collected in New Guinea in 1954 by Dr. L. B. Holthuis, Dr. L. D. Brongersma, and Dr. M. Boeseman (Boeseman, 1963) were hosts to commensal ostracods. Of the collections

  9. Wages in Guinea. WageIndicator survey 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.; Ngeh Tingum, E.; Diallo, H.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face survey on wages and working conditions in Guinea, conducted between the 13th of September and 2nd of October 2012. In total 1,962 persons were interviewed, the majority in urban areas. More male than female workers were

  10. The species of Stegonotus (Serpentes, Colubridae) in Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcdowell, S.B.

    1972-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Currently, New Guinea Stegonotus with 17 scales at midbody and divided subcaudals are identified as S. modestus. But this will not account for the disparity in dentition within "S. modestus", nor the colour differences even at one locality, nor that in East and West Sepik Districts

  11. Guinea vulture sanctuary a first in Africa | Anon | Vulture News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guinea vulture sanctuary a first in Africa. Anon. Abstract. No Abstract. Vulture News Vol. 56 () 2007: pp.86-87. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  12. Estimating runoff and soil moisture deficit in guinea savannah region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimation ofrunoff and soil moisture deficit in Guinea Savannah region using semi arid model based on soil water balance technique (SAMBA) was carried out. The input to the SAMBA model are daily rainfall, daily evapotranspiration. type and date of planting of crop, and soil parameters. The estimated runoff was ...

  13. A new Vaccinium (Ericaceae) from Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    During a recent expedition to the Burgers Mountains and Mt. Kegum, Papua New Guinea, several collections were made of a Vaccinium that appeared to be undescribed. With Sleumer’s revision (1967) the new Vaccinium keys out to the section Oarianthe Schltr. and then to V. oranjense J. J. S. (p. 767,

  14. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in Guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical feature...... not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals(6). All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility....... repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.......g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do...

  15. Guinea worm eradication program in Borno state: The need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to update the status of Guinea worm and Eradication Program in Borno State and to demonstrate the effectiveness of adopting appropriate intervention strategies. The assessment of the prevalence of Dracunculus medinensis was carried out by active case search. Three hundred and ten ...

  16. Prevalence And Disabilities Caused By Guinea-Worm Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was carried out in 2001 to ascertain the status of Guinea worm disease infection among farm households in Ebonyi Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State. A total of 3,777 respondents were randomly sampled from 15 communities that comprised the LGA. The sample respondents were clinically examined ...

  17. Cost and Return Analysis of Ginger Production in the Guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focuses on the cost and return analysis of ginger production in the guinea savannah agro ecology of Nigeria. The study is aimed at highlighting the profitability of ginger production with a view to informing and influencing farmers and relevant stakeholders. The study was conducted at Kajuru, Kaduna state in the ...

  18. Absorption of transuranic nitrates by rats, guinea pigs, and dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption of 238 Pu and 241 Am from the gstrointestinal tract was found to be quite similar for rats, guinea pigs, and dogs. Different oxidation state mixtures of 238 Pu nitrate (95% versus 65% Pu IV) were absorbed to about the same extent

  19. Miliusa lanceolata (Annonaceae), a new species from Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaowasku, T.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A new species, Miliusa lanceolata Chaowasku & Keßler (Annonaceae), is described and illustrated. It has been so far recorded from the D’Entrecasteaux Islands (Goodenough and Normanby Islands) and Louisiade Archipelago (Sudest Island), southeast off Papua New Guinea and is characterized by densely

  20. Petroleum service projects in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken-Worgu, Kenneth Chukwumeka

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this record of study is to examine the major facets involved in managing several petroleum service projects located in three different countries in the Gulf of Guinea simultaneously, while effectively engaging in business development activities for the Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS). This work also furnishes adequate background on related subject matters to enable understanding of the projects presented. The petroleum services sector is the back bone of the oil and gas industry. Services companies are vital to the success of all petroleum and energy producers in the USA, the Gulf of Guinea and the world. There is a need and demand for these service companies because they play various roles such as logistics, drilling, construction, dredging, pipe laying, procurement, food supply, human resource supply, etc. The Gulf of Guinea comprises of countries from west and central Africa. This project was limited to Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon. This area holds the largest petroleum reserves in Africa and plays a vital role in the global supply of petroleum. The Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS), plans to establish herself as one of the leading petroleum service companies in this gulf. To manage this expansion, I have taken the role of Gulf of Guinea manager to apply my background as a petroleum engineer as well as my business skills to build a successful division of the company. This work provides a record of study of the management of services, projects and contracts carried out by the OIS group in the gulf of Guinea. The following are the specific projects in the Gulf of Guinea that I participated in: Managing delivering, maintenance and marketing of offshore vessels, Offshore pipe laying project, Integrated pipeline maintenance project, Development a petroleum technical training facilities, Agbami pipe insulation project, Engineering lift project and Capital budgeting analysis for potential investments. The details of the specific

  1. The Changing Face of Librarianship in Papua New Guinea: Libraries for Life in the Papua New Guinea Information Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Margaret J.

    "Libraries for life" in Papua New Guinea today is not an impossible goal to strive for to achieve with today's new and old information and communication technologies. However, in order for this to happen, a number of questions will need to be asked. There are three that need immediate attention: (1) What is an "information…

  2. Effect of Hypergravity Stress on Gaseous Exchange and Survival of Young and Old Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradian, Kh. K.; Timchenko, A. N.

    Hypergravity tolerance decreases in aging Guinea pigs, the range being lower than in other studied species of laboratory mammals - mice, hamsters, and rats. Moreover, for the gaseous exchange rate and body temperature, the decline during the stress is not characteristic for Guinea pigs of both age groups, in contrast to other species. In general, hypergravity tolerance of Guinea pigs could be more appropriate experimental models.

  3. Family Outbreaks of Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis following a Meal of Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Fournier, John B.; Knox, Kimberly; Harris, Maureen; Newstein, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella outbreaks have been linked to a wide variety of foods, including recent nationwide outbreaks. Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also known as cuy or cobayo, has long been a popular delicacy and ceremonial food in the Andean region in South America. This case report describes three family outbreaks of nontyphoidal salmonellosis, each occurring after a meal of guinea pigs. We believe this case report is the first to describe a probable association between the consumption of guinea pig me...

  4. Gay men and other men who have sex with men in West Africa: evidence from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dramé, Fatou Maria; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Lopes, Magda; Ndaw, Marième; Sow, Abdoulaye; Diouf, Daouda; Baral, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of lessons learned from field experiences in HIV prevention, treatment and care services for men who have sex with men in the four contiguous West African countries of the Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea-Conakry and Senegal. Service provision for men who have sex with men in these countries is contextualised by the epidemiology of HIV, as well as the socio-political environment. These countries share notable commonalities in terms of social structures and culture, though past approaches to the needs of men who have sex with men have varied greatly. This synthesis includes three distinct components. The first focuses on what is known about HIV epidemiology among men who have sex with men in these countries and provides an overview of the data gaps affecting the quality of service provision. The second aspect describes the HIV prevention and treatment services currently available and how organisations and strategies have evolved in their approach to working with men who have sex with men. Finally, an examination of the political and cultural climate highlights socio-cultural factors that enable or impede HIV prevention and treatment efforts for men who have sex with men. The review concludes with a series of recommendations for impactful research, advocacy and service provision to improve the health and human rights context for men who have sex with men in West Africa.

  5. Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae), a new invasive fruit fly pest for the Afrotropical region: host plant range and distribution in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goergen, Georg; Vayssières, Jean-François; Gnanvossou, Désiré; Tindo, Maurice

    2011-08-01

    In 2003, the invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Drew et al. 2005), of possible Sri Lankan origin, has been detected in the East and about 1 yr later in West Africa. In regular surveys in Benin and Cameroon covering 4 yr, samples from 117 plant species across 43 families have been obtained. Incubation of field-collected fruits demonstrate that in West and Central Africa (WCA) B. invadens is highly polyphagous, infesting wild and cultivated fruits of at least 46 species from 23 plant families with guava (Psidium spp.), mango (Mangifera spp.), and citrus (spp.), and the wild hosts tropical almond (Terminalia catappa L.), African wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte) Baill.), and sheanut (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F.Gaertn.) showing the highest infestation index. B. invadens occurs in 22 countries of WCA with new records for Angola, Central African Republic, the Congo, DR Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Sierra Leone. Overall, the pest has spread across a North-South distance of ≍5,000 km representing a contiguous area of >8.3 million km(2) within WCA. B. invadens has adapted to a wide range of ecological and climatic conditions extending from low land rainforest to dry savanna. Because of its highly destructive and invasive potential, B. invadens poses a serious threat to horticulture in Africa if left uncontrolled. Moreover, the presence of this quarantine pest causes considerable restrictions on international trade of affected crops.

  6. West African pholcid spiders: an overview, with descriptions of five new species (Araneae, Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard A. Huber

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes current knowledge about West African pholcids. West Africa is here defined as the area south of 17°N and west of 5°E, including mainly the Upper Guinean subregion of the Guineo-Congolian center of endemism. This includes all of Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin. An annotated list of the 14 genera and 38 species recorded from this area is given, together with distribution maps and an identification key to genera. Five species are newly described: Anansus atewa sp. nov., Artema bunkpurugu sp. nov., Leptopholcus kintampo sp. nov., Spermophora akwamu sp. nov., and S. ziama sp. nov. The female of Quamtana kitahurira is newly described. Additional new records are given for 16 previously described species, including 33 new country records. Distribution patterns of West African pholcids are discussed, as well as possible explanations for relatively low West African pholcid species diversity as compared to Central and East Africa.

  7. Population genetic structure of Plasmodium falciparum across a region of diverse endemicity in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobegi Victor A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasite population genetic structure varies among areas of differing endemicity, but this has not been systematically studied across Plasmodium falciparum populations in Africa where most infections occur. Methods Ten polymorphic P. falciparum microsatellite loci were genotyped in 268 infections from eight locations in four West African countries (Republic of Guinea, Guinea Bissau, The Gambia and Senegal, spanning a highly endemic forested region in the south to a low endemic Sahelian region in the north. Analysis was performed on proportions of mixed genotype infections, genotypic diversity among isolates, multilocus standardized index of association, and inter-population differentiation. Results Each location had similar levels of pairwise genotypic diversity among isolates, although there were many more mixed parasite genotype infections in the south. Apart from a few isolates that were virtually identical, the multilocus index of association was not significant in any population. Genetic differentiation between populations was low (most pairwise FST values  Conclusions Although proportions of mixed genotype infections varied with endemicity as expected, population genetic structure was similar across the diverse sites. Very substantial reduction in transmission would be needed to cause fragmented or epidemic sub-structure in this region.

  8. The perception of radioactive waste among the people of Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: West Africa is one of the Africa's most populated regions, with a total population of approximately 200 million people. The West African sub-region comprises of sixteen different countries, which are as follows: Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Code Ivore, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Sierra-Leone, Gambia, Senegal, Mauritania, Western Sahara, Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger Republique. Apart from Nigeria, Senegal and Ghana all the other remaining' countries are extremely poor and unviable. As a result of this the sub-region has been experiencing a lot of civil unrest, countries like Liberia, Sierra Leon and Code Ivore have been experiencing civil wars since the early 1990s. In addition to the already existing problems of trafficking in drugs, arms, humans and weaponry trade within the sub-region. Today the sub-region is experiencing the coming of a new evil deal called 'Trade in radio active waste'; which involves the transporting Of radioactive wastes from the developed countries to it's waste bin in West Africa, where it is unsafely buried after collecting millions of dollars from It's original owners. Recent statistics have revealed that most of the people involved in the evil businesses of trafficking in drugs, human, arms and trading in weaponry, are diverting in to the so called evil business of 'Trade in Radioactive waste' because this new illegal trade financially exceeds the rest of the above listed evil businesses

  9. Variants in the SP110 gene are associated with genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, Kerrie; Campbell, Sarah J.; Fielding, Katherine; Sillah, Jackson; Bah, Boubacar; Gustafson, Per; Manneh, Kebba; Lisse, Ida; Sirugo, Giorgio; Bennett, Steve; Aaby, Peter; McAdam, Keith P. W. J.; Bah-Sow, Oumou; Lienhardt, Christian; Kramnik, Igor; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2006-01-01

    The sst1 locus has been identified in a mouse model to control resistance and susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Subsequent studies have now identified Ipr1 (intracellular pathogen resistance 1) to be the gene responsible. Ipr1 is encoded within the sst1 locus and is expressed in the tuberculosis lung lesions and macrophages of sst1-resistant, but not sst1-susceptible mice. We have therefore examined the closest human homologue of Ipr1, SP110, for its ability to control susceptibility to M. tuberculosis infection in humans. In a study of families from The Gambia we have identified three polymorphisms that are associated with disease. On examination of additional families from Guinea-Bissau and the Republic of Guinea, two of these associations were independently replicated. These variants are in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other and lie within a 31-kb block of low haplotypic diversity, suggesting that a polymorphism within this region has a role in genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis in humans. PMID:16803959

  10. Percutaneous absorption of hexachlorophene in rats, guinea pigs and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, C; Chow, A Y; Downie, R H; Buttar, H S

    1978-02-01

    A comparative study of the percutaneous absorption of hexachlorophene (HCP) was undertaken in rats, guinea pigs and pigs. [14C]Hexachlorophene ([14C]HCP) was applied evenly over the shaved back of the animals at a dose of 40 microgram/cm2 skin surface. Urine and feces were collected at 24-h intervals for 5 days from animals kept in metabolism cages. Different methods were used for quantitating the percutaneous absorption of HCP. This study showed that skin permeability to HCP decreased in the following order: rat, guinea pig and pig. The permeability characteristics of the pig skin to topically applied HCP were comparable to the published human data. We suggest that pig may be a suitable animal model for studying the percutaneous absorption of antimicrobial drugs.

  11. EFFECT OF TOTAL VERTICAL VIBRATION ON FUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE VESTIBULAR APPARATUS IN GUINEA PIGS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    VESTIBULAR APPARATUS, VIBRATION), GUINEA PIGS , ELECTROMYOGRAPHY, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), EXPOSURE(PHYSIOLOGY), STRESS(PHYSIOLOGY), BLOOD CHEMISTRY, BODY WEIGHT, BODY TEMPERATURE, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, TABLES(DATA), USSR

  12. Impact of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1+2 dual infection on the outcome of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wejse, C; Patsche, C B; Kühle, A; Bamba, F J V; Mendes, M S; Lemvik, G; Gomes, V F; Rudolf, F

    2015-03-01

    HIV-1 infection has been shown to impact the outcome of patients with tuberculosis (TB), but data regarding the impact of HIV-2 on TB outcomes are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV types on mortality among TB patients in Guinea-Bissau and to examine the predictive ability of the TBscoreII, a clinical score used to assess disease severity. In a prospective follow-up study, we examined the prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1+2 co-infection in TB patients in Guinea-Bissau, and the impact on outcomes at 12 months of follow-up. We included all adult TB patients in an observational TB cohort at the Bandim Health Project (BHP) in Guinea-Bissau between 2003 and 2013 and assessed survival status at 12 months after the start of treatment. A total 1312 patients were included; 499 (38%) were female (male/female ratio 1.6). Three hundred and seventy-nine patients were HIV-infected: 241 had HIV-1, 93 had HIV-2, and 45 were HIV-1+2 dual infected. The HIV type-associated risk of TB was 6-fold higher for HIV-1, 7-fold higher for HIV-1+2 dual infection, and 2-fold higher for HIV-2 compared with the HIV-uninfected. Of the patients included, 144 (11%) died, 62 (12%) among females and 82 (9%) among males (hazard ratio (HR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-1.30; p=0.596). Compared to male patients, female patients were younger (1 year younger, 95% CI 0.5-2; p=0.04), reported a longer duration of symptoms (14 days longer, 95% CI 4-25; p=0.003), and had a higher TBscoreII (0.5 points more, 95% CI 0.3-0.7; pHIV-infected (36% vs. 25%; pHIV infection increased the mortality risk, with HIV-1 infection displaying the highest HR (5.0, 95% CI 3.5-7.1), followed by HIV-1+2 (HR 4.2, 95% CI 2.2-7.8) and HIV-2 (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.8). A TBscoreII ≥4 was associated with increased mortality (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5-3.1). Significantly increased HRs were found for signs of wasting; a BMI HIV type-associated risk of TB was much higher for HIV-1 patients and higher but

  13. Permissive Residents: West Papuan refugees living in Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Glazebrook, Diana

    2008-01-01

    This book offers another frame through which to view the event of the outrigger landing of 43 West Papuans in Australia in 2006. West Papuans have crossed boundaries to seek asylum since 1962, usually eastward into Papua New Guinea (PNG), and occasionally southward to Australia. Between 1984–86, around 11,000 people crossed into PNG seeking asylum. After the Government of PNG acceded to the United Nations Convention and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, West Papuans were relocated ...

  14. First synoptic analysis of volcanic degassing in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Brendan T.; Edmonds, Marie; Mather, Tamsin A.; Carn, Simon A.

    2012-03-01

    We report the first satellite-based survey of volcanic sulphur dioxide (SO2) degassing in Papua New Guinea, using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) data. OMI is sensitive to low-level passive degassing. These observations are useful for volcano monitoring, hazard assessment (particularly aviation hazard) and assessment of arc geochemical budgets and are of immense value in remote regions with little ground-based instrumentation, such as Papua New Guinea. We identify Bagana, Manam, Rabaul, Ulawun and Langila as the active sources of volcanic SO2 in Papua New Guinea, with Bagana being the largest source. We present an OMI SO2 time series for 2005-2008 and a total detected regional output of ˜1.8 × 109 kg SO2. About 40% of emissions were released by major eruption events at Manam (January 2005), Bagana (June 2006) and Rabaul (October 2006). Over the past century however, we estimate that major explosive eruptions contribute Papua New Guinea's volcanoes are compared with our OMI observations. The total OMI SO2 output is only ˜20% of the total extrapolated from DOAS, a discrepancy which we demonstrate is consistent with other volcanic arcs. Therefore, the true total regional SO2 output may be considerably higher than that detected by OMI. Uncertainties in the OMI SO2data include the effects of in-plume chemical processing and dilution of SO2 prior to the satellite overpass, OMI's reduced sensitivity to low levels of SO2 in the planetary boundary layer and interference by meteorological clouds.

  15. Beam-Beam Simulations with GUINEA-PIG

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    While the bunches in a linear collider cross only once, due to their small size they experience a strong beam-beam effect. GUINEA-PIG is a code to simulate the impact of this effect on luminosity and back ground. A short overview of the program is given with examples of its application to the back ground strudies for TESLA, the top quark threshold scan and a possible luminosity monitor, as well as some results for CLIC.

  16. Seroprevalence investigation of bovine brucellosis in Macenta and Yomou, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, Seydou; Sidimé, Youssouf; Sun, Yixue; Doumbouya, Sayon; Cong, Yanlong

    2014-10-01

    Brucellosis is one of the world's major zoonotic diseases associated with reproductive disorders and a potential infection of human. Brucellosis leads to serious economic losses due to late-term abortion, stillbirth, weak calves, and sterility. In Guinea, the data on brucellosis was only detected as far back as 10 years ago. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in the provinces of Macenta and Yomou of Guinea. A structured questionnaire was used in the clinical study, and 345 cattle were clinically examined. Three hundred serum samples were initially subjected to the Rose Bengal test (RBT); the positive results of which were confirmed by the complement fixation test (CFT). The investigation indicated that farmers had little information on brucellosis. Hygroma, abortion, sterility, and placental retention were the observed symptoms. Of the 29 RBT-positive samples, 26 were confirmed by CFT. The prevalence of brucellosis in Macenta and Yomou was 12 and 5.33 %, respectively. In both provinces, the prevalence mean was 8.67 %. This study highlighted the immediate necessity to carry out a strengthened surveillance of human and animal brucellosis to obtain as many data as possible in order to establish strategies for prevention and management of brucellosis in Guinea.

  17. AFLP analysis of genetic variability in New Guinea impatiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jason; Xu, Mingliang; Dudley, John W; Korban, Schuyler S

    2003-05-01

    New Guinea impatiens ( Impatiens hawkeri) is an economically important floral crop, however, little work has been conducted to further our understanding of the genetics of this crop. In this study, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technology to investigate the level of polymorphism present among 41 commercial cultivars of New Guinea impatiens, study their genetic relatedness, and assess the genetic diversity in this material. An efficient DNA extraction protocol was developed, and a total of 48 EcoRI and MseI primer combinations were used for PCR amplification. Amplification products were then subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The AFLP analysis showed that all 41 cultivars generated between 73 and 130 scoreable polymorphic bands per primer combination. Gower's Genetic Dissimilarity estimates for the entire set of cultivars ranged between 0.940 and 0.488. A dendogram was generated from these dissimilarity data that revealed four groupings among these 41 cultivars. The implications of these results on genotypic variation, genetic relationships, and genetic diversity in New Guinea impatiens will be discussed.

  18. Identification and sequence analysis of Tapasin gene in guinea fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varuna P. Panicker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An attempt has been made to identify and study the nucleotide sequence variability in exon 5 - exon 6 regions of guinea fowl Tapasin gene. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from randomly selected birds (12 guinea fowl birds and Tapasin gene amplified using chicken specific primers designed from GenBank submitted sequences. Polymerase chain reaction conditions were standardized so as get only single amplicons. Obtained products were then cloned and sequenced; sequences were then analyzed using suitable software. Results: Amplicon size of the Tapasin gene in guinea fowl was same as reported in chicken with areas of transitions and transversions. The sequence variations reported in these coding sequences might have influence in the protein structure, which may be correlated with the increased immune status of the bird when compared with chicken breeds. Conclusion: Since Tapasin gene is an immunologically important gene, which plays an important role in the immune status of the bird. Sequence variations in the gene can be correlated with the altered immune status of the bird.

  19. New genus of diminutive microhylid frogs from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Kraus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of diminutive (10.1-11.3 mm microhylid frogs is described from New Guinea that is unique in its combination ofonly seven presacral vertebrae, a reduced phalangeal formula that leaves the first fingers and first toes as vestigial nubs, and reduction of the prepollex and prehallux to single elements. Relationships to other genera are unknown, but overall similarity suggests some relationship to Cophixalus, although that genus also differs in some muscle characters and likely remains paraphyletic. The new genus contains two species, which are among the smallest known frogs in the world. Their miniaturization may be related to their inhabiting leaf litter, exploitation of which may for small size. The new genus is currently known only from one mountaintop in the southeasternmost portion of New Guinea and another on a nearby island. This region is part of the East Papuan Composite Terrane and, should this lineage prove endemic to that region, it may suggest that it originated prior to that geological unit’s docking with mainland New Guinea at 23–29 MY.

  20. Guinea pigs as an animal model for sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abu Rafee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The overwhelming use of rat models in nerve regeneration studies is likely to induce skewness in treatment outcomes. To address the problem, this study was conducted in 8 adult guinea pigs of either sex to investigate the suitability of guinea pig as an alternative model for nerve regeneration studies. A crush injury was inflicted to the sciatic nerve of the left limb, which led to significant decrease in the pain perception and neurorecovery up to the 4th weak. Lengthening of foot print and shortening of toe spread were observed in the paw after nerve injury. A 3.49 ± 0.35 fold increase in expression of neuropilin 1 (NRP1 gene and 2.09 ± 0.51 fold increase in neuropilin 2 (NRP2 gene were recorded 1 week after nerve injury as compared to the normal nerve. Ratios of gastrocnemius muscle weight and volume of the experimental limb to control limb showed more than 50% decrease on the 30th day. Histopathologically, vacuolated appearance of the nerve was observed with presence of degenerated myelin debris in digestion chambers. Gastrocnemius muscle also showed degenerative changes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed loose and rough arrangement of connective tissue fibrils and presence of large spherical globules in crushed sciatic nerve. The findings suggest that guinea pigs could be used as an alternative animal model for nerve regeneration studies and might be preferred over rats due to their cooperative nature while recording different parameters.

  1. Involvement of galectin-9 in guinea pig allergic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hitomi; Kashio, Yumiko; Shoji, Hiroki; Shinonaga, Rika; Yoshimura, Teizo; Nishi, Nozomu; Nabe, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takanori; Kohno, Shigekatsu; Hirashima, Mitsuomi

    2007-01-01

    There is little information about the involvement of galectin-9 (Gal-9) in allergic inflammation. Thus, we investigated the role of Gal-9 in asthma model guinea pigs. Airway resistance (R(aw)) was measured using a double-flow plethysmograph system. Gal-9 expression in the lung was assessed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Eosinophil chemotactic activity was evaluated in a chamber containing a polyvinylpyrolidone-free membrane. Cell apoptosis was analyzed on a flowcytometry with propidium iodide. In cloning guinea pig Gal-9 we identified three isoforms that differ only in the length of their linker peptides, just as with human Gal-9. Guinea pig Gal-9 was found to be a chemoattractant for eosinophils and to promote induction of apoptosis in sensitized but not non-sensitized T lymphocytes. In allergic airway hypersensitivity model, a low level of Gal-9 expression was observed in the nonsensitized/nonchallenged group, but upregulation was detected at 7 h after challenge and sustained up to 24 h. Such upregulation correlated with elevation of eosinophil peroxidase activity but not with increased R(aw). The present results provide evidence that Gal-9 is not involved in airway hypersensitivity, but is partly involved in prolonged eosinophil accumulation in the lung.

  2. Studies of guinea pig immunoglobulin isotype, idiotype and antiidiotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirrell, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Immunization of Guinea pigs with diphtheria toxoid generated antibodies of the IgG class that were capable of neutralizing native toxin in vivo. Sera from these animals were used to affinity purify idiotypic antibodies (AB1). AB1 vaccines derived from the IgG1 class and from F(ab') 2 of IgG1 + IgG2 (IgG1/2) classes were effective in inducing a syngeneic anti-idiotype (AB2) response. Animals immunized with AB1 consisting of both IgG1/2 did not elicit a detectable AB2 response. Binding of homologous 125 I-F(ab') 2 (AB1) to the antiidiotype was inhibited 90% in the presence of DT.F(ab') 2 derived from preimmune serum or had no inhibitory effects on the idiotype-antiidiotype interactions. Two groups of outbred guinea pigs were vaccinated with alum absorbed F(ab') 2 of anti-idiotype IgG1/2 (AB2). Of the ten animals inoculated with AB2, three tested positive by RIA against 125 I-DT. Two of the RIA positive sera contained antibodies that neutralized diphtheria toxin in a rabbit intracutaneous assay. Purification of guinea pig IgG by protein A-Sepharose affinity chromatography resulted in the separation of three distinct IgG populations

  3. Interstitial cells of Cajal and Auerbach's plexus. A scanning electron microscopical study of guinea-pig small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Harry; Thuneberg, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy...

  4. Caridean shrimps (Crustacea, Decapoda) from seagrass habitats in Hansa Bay, Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grave, de Sammy

    1999-01-01

    Five species of caridean shrimps collected from seagrass habitats at Hansa Bay, on the northern coastline of Papua New Guinea are reported. Four species are new to the fauna of Papua New Guinea. Morphological details of Nikoides danae, Latreutes pymoeus and L. porcinus are discussed and compared to

  5. The guinea pig maximization test--with a multiple dose design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Vølund, A; Frankild, S

    1995-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) is usually performed with one moderately irritant induction dose of the allergen and gives a qualitative assessment-hazard identification-of the allergenicity of the chemical. We refined the GPMT by applying a multiple dose design and used 30 guinea pigs in...

  6. Interrelationships of Non-Formal Mother Tongue Education and Citizenship in Guinea and Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Andrea; Yerende, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Guinea and Senegal are multilingual countries that use French as a language of instruction in the formal educational sector with some significant exceptions. As in many other African countries, such exceptions in Guinea and Senegal, use local African languages primarily in the non-formal sector for a variety of purposes, such as adult literacy and…

  7. Type I hair cell degeneration in the utricular macula of the waltzing guinea pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig A; Raarup, Merete Krog; Ulfendahl, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Waltzing guinea pigs are an inbred guinea pig strain with a congenital and progressive balance and hearing disorder. A unique rod-shaped structure is found in the type I vestibular hair cells, that traverses the cell in an axial direction, extending towards the basement membrane. The present stud...

  8. On a new bird of paradise from Central New Guinea, Falcinellus meyeri albicans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1915-01-01

    Among the collection of birdskins brought home by the third expedition to Mount Wilhelmina in the Snow Mountains of New Guinea there are some specimens, males and females, of a bird of paradise, much resembling Falcinellus meyeri (Finsch) from South-east New Guinea, but differing in some points.

  9. Food-Based Newcastle Disease V 4 Vaccine In Guinea Fowl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy trial of the feed-based Newcastle disease V4 (NDV4HR) vaccine was carried out on guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata, Pallas) in Maiduguri, Nigeria between December 2000 and March 2001. Eighty-five guinea fowls divided into 17 experimental groups of 5 birds per group were used in the study. The trial ...

  10. The innate immunity of guinea pigs against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Xu, Wei Wei; Zhang, Zhaowei; Liu, Jing; Li, Jing; Sun, Lijuan; Sun, Weiyang; Jiao, Peirong; Sang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Zhiguang; Yu, Zhijun; Li, Yuanguo; Feng, Na; Wang, Tiecheng; Wang, Hualei; Yang, Songtao; Zhao, Yongkun; Zhang, Xuemei; Wilker, Peter R; Liu, WenJun; Liao, Ming; Chen, Hualan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2017-05-02

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses are a major pandemic concern. In contrast to the highly virulent phenotype of H5N1 in humans and many animal models, guinea pigs do not typically display signs of severe disease in response to H5N1 virus infection. Here, proteomic and transcriptional profiling were applied to identify host factors that account for the observed attenuation of A/Tiger/Harbin/01/2002 (H5N1) virulence in guinea pigs. RIG-I and numerous interferon stimulated genes were among host proteins with altered expression in guinea pig lungs during H5N1 infection. Overexpression of RIG-I or the RIG-I adaptor protein MAVS in guinea pig cell lines inhibited H5N1 replication. Endogenous GBP-1 expression was required for RIG-I mediated inhibition of viral replication upstream of the activity of MAVS. Furthermore, we show that guinea pig complement is involved in viral clearance, the regulation of inflammation, and cellular apoptosis during influenza virus infection of guinea pigs. This work uncovers features of the guinea pig innate immune response to influenza that may render guinea pigs resistant to highly pathogenic influenza viruses.

  11. On a new species of Denisonia (Reptilia, Serpentes) from New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.; Knaap-van Meeuwen, M.S.

    1964-01-01

    Until now the Elapid genus Denisonia had not been recorded from New Guinea, and this is remarkable in so far as the genus is known from Australia (and Tasmania) to the south, and from the Solomon Islands to the northeast of New Guinea. It is therefore not very surprising that now evidence has been

  12. Renal failure in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) following ingestion of oxalate containing plants

    OpenAIRE

    Holowaychuk, Marie K.

    2006-01-01

    A 1-year-old guinea pig presented with anorexia, lethargy, and weight loss, 1 week after ingesting a peace lily leaf. Laboratory findings were suggestive of renal failure and included elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine with concurrent isosthenuria. The guinea pig was euthanized 1 month later due to worsening clinical signs.

  13. The Gulf of Guinea Coast and the Global Quest for Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper suggests that the Gulf of Guinea states should strengthen the already existing cooperation among the Gulf of Guinea Commission members and other related agencies in the region as this would enhance more cooperation among the states and avoid major oil related conflicts in the region. It is important to create ...

  14. Excellence in exotics: Case report: urolithiasis in a female Guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Heidi L

    2013-02-01

    A 2-year-old, intact female guinea pig presented to the clinic for a history of squealing and straining to urinate for 2 days. The husbandry of this animal was acceptable, and the diet consisted of commercial alfalfa-based guinea pig pellets, alfalfa hay, a variety of vegetables, and a water-soluble vitamin C supplement.

  15. The genus Baeturia Stål as represented in New Guinea (Homoptera, Cicadidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blöte, H.C.

    1960-01-01

    Until now only three species of the genus Baeturia have been recorded from New Guinea, viz., B. bicolorata Distant, B. viridicata Distant, and B. nana Jacobi. As I had the opportunity to study a fairly large collection of this group from different sources, collected in New Guinea, it appeared to me

  16. [Mitochondrial DNA4568 deletions in guinea-pig associated with presbycusis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xue-mei; Yang, Yuan; Liang, Chuang-yu; Zheng, Zhong

    2006-12-01

    To determine weather or not the mtDNA(4568) deletions in guinea-pig contribute to the development of presbycusis. Forty-four guinea-pigs were divided into 2 groups: group A (young control group, normal hearing, 22 guineas) and group B (aged group). The group B was subdivided into group B(1) (old normal hearing, 6 guineas) and group B(2) (old hearing loss, 16 guineas). First the guineas were tested by auditory brainstem response (ABR), and then the Cortis's tissues, auditory nerve tissues, brain and blood were harvested and the total DNA was extracted. The mtDNA(4568) deletion was analyzed by PCR. Hearing loss was occurred with age. The mtDNA(4568) deletion incidence of aged group in all tissues was significant higher than that of young control group (Ppresbycusis (B(2) group) were significant higher than that of aged normal hearing group (B(1) group) (Ppresbycusis and aged normal hearing group (P> 0.05). mtDNA(4568) deletion of guinea-pig possibly contributes to aging and mtDNA(4568) deletion in Cortis's and auditory nerve tissues of guinea-pig may be associated with presbycusis. There is no enough evidence to prove that the mtDNA(4568) deletions in brain and blood are related with presbycusis.

  17. Patterns of Y-chromosome diversity intersect with the trans-New Guinea hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Mona (Stefano); M. Tommaseo-Ponzetta (Mila); S. Brauer (Silke); H. Sudoyo (Herawati); S. Marzuki (Sangkot); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe island of New Guinea received part of the first human expansion out of Africa (>40,000 years ago), but its human genetic history remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined Y-chromosome diversity in 162 samples from the Bird's Head region of northwest New Guinea (NWNG) and

  18. Location of bladder and urethral sphincter motoneurons in the male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, R; Izhar, Z; Gerrits, PO; Miner, W; Holstege, G; Gerrits, Peter O.

    2004-01-01

    Although the guinea pig is used widely in experimental medical research, including in studies on micturition control, the spinal origin of preganglionic parasympathetic bladder and somatic external urethral sphincter motoneurons is not known. In the male, guinea pig using wheat germ

  19. Genetic variability in yam cultivars from the Guinea- Sudan zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is an important food and cash crop in the Guinea-Sudan zone of Benin. The genetic diversity of about 70 cultivars of Dioscorea cayenensis/Dioscorea rotundata (Guinea yam) and about 20 cultivars of Dioscorea alata (water yam) was analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD).

  20. Agro-Forestry system in West Africa: integrating a green solution to cope with soil depletion towards agricultural sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Vidigal, Patricia; Romeiras, Maria Manuel; Ribeiro, Ana; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Viegas, Wanda; Catarino, Luís

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades, agriculture in West Africa has been marked by dramatic shifts with the coverage of single crops, increasing pressure over the available arable land. Yet, West African countries are still striving to achieve sustainable production at an increased scale for global market needs. Market-driven rapid intensification is often a major cause for cropland area expansion at the expense of deforestation and soil degradation, especially to export commodities in times of high prices. Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is nowadays an important export-oriented crop, being produced under intensive cultivation regimes in several tropical regions. Particularly, among the main cashew production areas, West Africa is the most recent and dynamic in the world, accounting for 45% of the world cashew nuts production in 2015. Considering its global market values, several developing countries rely on cashew nuts as national economy revenues, namely in Guinea-Bissau. Considering the intensive regime of cashew production in Guinea-Bissau, and as widely recognized, intensive agriculture linked with extensification can negatively impact ecosystems, affecting natural resources availability, soil erosion and arability compromised by excessive salinity. Ultimately this will result in the disruption of carbon - nitrogen cycle, important to the agricultural ecosystem sustainability. As such, tree intercropped with legumes as cover crops, offers a sustainable management of the land area, thus creating substantial benefits both economically and environmentally, as it enhances diversification of products outputs and proving to be more sustainable than forestry and/or agricultural monocultures. Soil fertility improvement is a key entry point for achieving food security, and also increment agriculture commodities of the agro-system. Without using inorganic fertilizers, the green solution for improving soil management is to incorporate adapted multi-purpose legumes as cover crops