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Sample records for bissau guinea bissau

  1. Guinea-Bissau; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the National Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (NPRSP) for Guinea-Bissau. The paper discusses the phenomenon of poverty, its dimensions, extent, and distribution by category and region. It provides a background analysis of developments in poverty based on the diagnostic of past economic policies. The paper presents the priority goals in the fight against poverty by articulating a long-term and medium-term vision as well as strategic actions. The operational s...

  2. Changing pattern of malaria in Bissau, Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Amabelia; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of malaria in Guinea-Bissau, in view of the fact that more funds are available now for malaria control in the country. METHODS: From May 2003 to May 2004, surveillance for malaria was conducted among children less than 5 years of age at three health centres...... of the children who presented at a health centre were clinically diagnosed with malaria, but only 13% of outpatient children who tested for malaria had malaria parasitaemia. Only 44% (963/2193) of children admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of malaria had parasitaemia. The proportion of positive cases...... increased with age. Among hospitalized children with malaria parasitaemia, those less than 2 years old were more likely to have moderate anaemia (RR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02-1.56) (P = 0.03) or severe anaemia (RR = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.25-2.24) (P = 0.0005) than older children. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia...

  3. Crossed Looks: Globalisations and Curriculum in Guinea-Bissau

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rui; dos Santos, Júlio Gonçalves; Pacheco, José Augusto

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on education in Guinea-Bissau in the context of globalisations, examining the concept of globalisation and its relation to education and the curriculum. It focuses on the relatively neglected area of national education policies in Guinea-Bissau, comparing differences and common points of interference/influence of multilateral…

  4. Child health and mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovsted, Jens Anders; Pörtner, Claus Christian; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies factors that influence child health in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau. This environment is characterised by high infant mortality, but not by malnutrition. We show that although maternal education is important in determining child health and mortality this effect diminishes...... or disappears when health knowledge is introduced as an explanatory variable. It emerges that health knowledge has large and positive effects on both child mortality and health when instrumented for to capture endogeneity...

  5. Barriers and facilitators to antiretroviral therapy adherence among patients with HIV in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau: a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dlama; da Silva Te, David; Rodkjær, Lotte Ørneborg;

    2013-01-01

    Adherence is a decisive factor in achieving a successful response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection. No previous studies have been conducted regarding HIV treatment adherence in Guinea-Bissau. In this study we assessed barriers and facilitators to patient ART adherence. Semi......-structured interviews were conducted with 20 adult, HIV infected individuals receiving ART at a HIV treatment centre in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. The grounded theory method was used to gather and analyse data. Results indicated that HIV-related knowledge was a determining factor for optimal adherence. The facilitators...

  6. Sundhedsmaessige konsekvenser af en vaebnet konflikt i Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, Marianne;

    2010-01-01

    The present paper reviews studies carried out by the Bandim Health Project during the armed conflict in Guinea-Bissau, 1998-1999. Common health interventions like vaccination and breastfeeding, as well as focused interventions such as nutrition interventions aimed at malnourished children...

  7. Challenges facing HIV treatment in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Oliveira, Inés

    2014-01-01

    PROBLEM: The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa has improved the quality of life of millions of people and reduced mortality. However, substantial problems with the infrastructure for ART delivery remain. APPROACH: Clinicians and researchers...... at an HIV clinic in Guinea-Bissau identified problems with the delivery of ART by establishing a clinical database and by collaborating with international researchers. LOCAL SETTING: The Bissau HIV cohort study group was established in 2007 as a collaboration between local HIV physicians and international...... HIV researchers. Patients were recruited from the HIV clinic at the country's main hospital in the capital Bissau. RELEVANT CHANGES: Between 2005 and 2013, 5514 HIV-positive patients were treated at the clinic. Working together, local health-care workers and international researchers identified...

  8. Reduced case fatality among hospitalized children during a war in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Veirum, Jens Erik; Biai, S;

    2004-01-01

    During a recent armed conflict in Guinea-Bissau, we observed a marked decline in the case fatality among hospitalized children at the only paediatric department in the country.......During a recent armed conflict in Guinea-Bissau, we observed a marked decline in the case fatality among hospitalized children at the only paediatric department in the country....

  9. A general measles vaccination campaign in urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, S.; Thysen, Sanne Marie; Rodrigues, A;

    2017-01-01

    Background Measles vaccination campaigns targeting children aged 9–59 months are conducted every three years in Guinea-Bissau. Studies have demonstrated beneficial non-specific effects of measles vaccine. We compared mortality one year after the December 2012 measles vaccination campaign in Bissau...... city for children who received campaign measles vaccine with children who did not receive campaign measles vaccine. Methods Field workers from Bandim Health Project registered all children living in the Bandim Health Project's study area who received measles vaccination at the campaign posts. Children...... not seen during the campaign were visited at home and campaign participation status was assessed. We compared mortality rates of participants vs. non-participants in Cox regression models. Results 5633 children aged 9–59 months (85%) received campaign measles vaccination and 1006 (15%) did not. During...

  10. Hepatitis C prevalence among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jespersen, Sanne; Medina, Candida;

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and determine the clinical presentation of risk factors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among HIV-infected patients in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included individuals who had a routine blood analysis performed during...

  11. Tuberculosis burden in an urban population: a cross sectional tuberculosis survey from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; da Silva, Zacarias J; Ravn, Pernille;

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in low income countries. We conducted a cross sectional survey for pulmonary TB and TB symptoms in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, in an urban cohort with known HIV prevalence. TB surveillance in the area is routinely...

  12. Tuberculosis burden in an urban population: a cross sectional tuberculosis survey from Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; da Silva, Zacarias J; Ravn, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in low income countries. We conducted a cross sectional survey for pulmonary TB and TB symptoms in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, in an urban cohort with known HIV prevalence. TB surveillance in the area is routinely based...

  13. Determinants of vitamin a deficiency in children between 6 months and 2 years of age in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Jørgensen, Mathias Jul;

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies Guinea-Bissau as having severe vitamin A deficiency (VAD). To date, no national survey has been conducted. We assessed vitamin A status among children in rural Guinea-Bissau to assess status and identify risk factors for VAD.......The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies Guinea-Bissau as having severe vitamin A deficiency (VAD). To date, no national survey has been conducted. We assessed vitamin A status among children in rural Guinea-Bissau to assess status and identify risk factors for VAD....

  14. MHealth to Improve Measles Immunization in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Emil Rossing; Ravn, Henrik; Batista, Celso Soares Pereira

    2016-01-01

    , implying that if the vaccination coverage is declining there is a significant risk of new measles outbreaks [27]. Meanwhile, mobile health (mHealth; the use of mobile phones for health interventions) has generated much enthusiasm, and shown potential in improving health service delivery in other contexts....... OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of mHealth as a tool for improving MV coverage while contributing to the mHealth evidence base. METHODS: This study will take place at three health centers in different regions of Guinea-Bissau. Participants, defined as mothers of the children...... member). Secondary outcomes include the average number of health center visits (with intention to obtain the MV) required before successful administration. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the rapid proliferation of mHealth projects, only a small number have been evaluated in terms of direct links to health outcomes...

  15. Malaria transmission in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau between 1995 and 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As Plasmodium falciparum prevalence decreases in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, so does immunity resulting in larger at risk populations and increased risk of malaria resurgence. In Bissau, malaria prevalence decreased from ∼50% to 3% between 1995 and 2003. The epidemiological...... characteristics of P. falciparum malaria within Bandim health and demographic surveillance site (population ∼100,000) between 1995 and 2012 are described. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The population was determined by census. 3603 children aged ... (1995-2012) were considered incident cases. The mean annual malaria incidence per thousand children in 1995-1997, 1999-2003, 2007, 2011, 2012 were as follows; age

  16. Butterflies of Guinea-Bissau: VIII. New data, new reports, corrections and biodiversity (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivar-DE-Sousa, António; Vasconcelos, Sasha; Mendes, Luís F; Larsen, Torben B; Baker, Jon; Guilherme, João L

    2016-12-01

    New records are added to the Papilionoidea of Guinea-Bissau, many of which were obtained within the country's Protected Areas. Examination of the collected material yielded 9 new genera and 47 new species for the country, significantly increasing the knowledge of local butterfly diversity. 99 genera and 244 species are now known to occur in Guinea-Bissau, representing an increase of almost 20 % in the number of species and 7 % in the genera in relation to previous data. For each species, the studied material, probable abundance and proposed conservation status in the country are reported; some corrections relative to a few previous misidentifications are added. A gazetteer of the prospected localities is included, as well as species' occurrences within the Protected Areas and previous bibliographic references in Guinea-Bissau. The known geographical range, primary habitat and host-plants of each species/subspecies are also provided.

  17. Advancing Stability and Reconciliation in Guinea-Bissau: Lessons from Africa’s First Narco-State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    groups in Guinea-Bissau. The Bissau-Guinean League for Human Rights has been operating since the mid-1990s and its leadership has explicitly criticized...second-round electoral victory of 72 percent indicated significant support across ethnic, religious, and regional lines. Legend International Boundary

  18. Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus Among Young Twins and Singletons in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Hansen, Lone; da Silva, Leontina I

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVETwins in Africa may be at increased risk of metabolic disorders due to strained conditions in utero, including high exposure to infections. We studied metabolic syndrome (MS) and diabetes mellitus (DM) among young twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSThe study...... was cross-sectional and occurred from October 2009 until August 2011 at the Bandim Health Project, a demographic surveillance site in the capital Bissau. Twins and singleton controls between 5 and 32 years were visited at home. Fasting blood samples for metabolic measurements were collected. Zygosity...

  19. Rotavirus disease in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa: a review of longitudinal community and hospital studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Thea Kølsen; Aaby, Peter; Mølbak, Kåre;

    2010-01-01

    Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of childhood diarrheal disease and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. This article reviews community- and hospital-based surveillance of rotavirus disease in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Here, rotavirus infections exhibit a seasonal pattern, with annual...... epidemics occurring during the relatively dry and cooler months, from January to April, and few cases registered from May to December. Most children (74%) experience their first infection before the age of 2 years, and rotavirus has been identified as the most pathogenic of all diarrheal agents during 2...

  20. Plasmodium falciparum genotypes associated with chloroquine and amodiaquine resistance in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2007-01-01

    Chloroquine is the most commonly used antimalarial in Guinea-Bissau and high doses are routinely prescribed. Blood from 497 patients treated with different doses of chloroquine or amodiaquine were genotyped. Pfcrt and pfmdr1 polymorphisms were identified. Pfmsp2 analysis identified recrudescent i...

  1. Tunga Penetrans: Painful Lesions on the Feet—The First Imported Case from Guinea-Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rosmaninho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungiasis is an endemic disease in certain poor areas around the world. Imported infestations in travelers are becoming more frequent and can lead to considerable morbidity. We report a case of a 50 year-old-man who returned from a trip to Guinea-Bissau with an infection caused by Tunga penetrans.

  2. Job Satisfaction in the Marine and Estuarine Fisheries of Guinea-Bissau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Raul Mendes

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines aspects of job satisfaction among small-scale fishers in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. The willingness of fishers to change metier or occupation is a central aspect of study, and gains relevance from the global degradation of marine environments. The author concludes that small-scale fishers are generally satisfied with the…

  3. Collective trauma processing: dissociation as a way of processing postwar traumatic stress in Guinea Bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; Reis, R.

    2013-01-01

    Guidelines on psychosocial interventions in postconflict areas commonly mention that interventions should be based on local needs and be built on culture-specific expertise. This paper is based on a dissociative cult, the Kiyang-yang (KYY), in Guinea Bissau. In a previous article, we used a refined

  4. Long-term survival after Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Whittle, H

    1993-01-01

    In an urban area of Guinea-Bissau, 384 children were enrolled in a randomized trial comparing morbidity and mortality rates after receiving high-titer Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine administered from 4 months of age, with a control group receiving inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine at 4...

  5. Immunological predictors of survival in HIV type 2-infected rural villagers in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffar, Shabbar; Van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper;

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the association between beta2-microglobulin, neopterin, serum levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), CD4 count, and plasma viremia with survival in 133 HIV-2-infected villagers and 160 controls living in rural Guinea-Bissau. Subjects were recruite...

  6. Spacing, crowding, and child mortality in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, P; Bukh, J; Lisse, I M; Smits, A J

    1983-07-16

    Evidence from a comparative survey of the Balantas in the Tombali region and the Mandingas and Fulas in the Oio region of Guinea-Bissau suggests that overcrowding is a risk factor for child health because the severity of infections increases when 2 or more children are sick simultaneously. Rural Mandingas and Fulas breastfeed for 30 months on average, while rural Balantas do so for 38 months. All groups abstain from sexual intercourse during lactation, resulting in fewer children among Balantas. Polygamy increases crowding in all groups, but adult Balanta men have separate households while Mandinga brothers often live together in the same household. On average, there were .93 children under 5 in Balanta households but 1.91 in Mandinga households. Each wife ideally has her own room among Balanta households, but Mandinga wives live together, with up to 10 women in the same circular hut. Balanta children leave their mothers' bed when the mother gives birth to another child, while Mandinga and Fula mothers may have several children in bed at the same time. Among Balantas an average of .17 persons slept in bed with a mother and child, while among the Mandingas .66 and among the Fulas .69 did so. The weight-for-age as a percentage of the World Health Organization standard for Balantas and Mandingas-Fulas respectively was 106% and 105% at 0-2 months; 104% and 92% at 3-5 months; 90% and 82% at 6-17 months; 86% and 77% at 18-35 months breastfed; and 89% and 81% at 18-35 months weaned. During 1980-81, when no major epidemics occurred, Balanta children under 6 months had a higher survival rate for the following year than did Mandinga and Fula children, with the mortality difference occuring while all children were still breastfed. 8% of Balanta children, 16% of Mandinga children, and 24% of Fula children died within 1 year of examination. Nutritional status did not determine risk of death, but variation in the severity of infection caused by overcrowding may have done so

  7. Household experience and costs of seeking measles vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Fisker, A B; Rodrigues, A.;

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Children younger than 12 months of age are eligible for childhood vaccines through the public health system in Guinea-Bissau. To limit open vial wastage, a restrictive vial opening policy has been implemented; 10-dose measles vaccine vials are only opened if six or more children aged 9......-11 months are present at the vaccination post. Consequently, mothers who bring their child for measles vaccination can be told to return another day. We aimed to describe the household experience and estimate household costs of seeking measles vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Within a national...... sample of village clusters under demographic surveillance, we interviewed mothers of children aged 9-21 months about their experience with seeking measles vaccination. From information about time and money spent, we calculated household costs of seeking measles vaccination. RESULTS: We interviewed...

  8. Termination of breastfeeding after 12 months of age due to a new pregnancy and other causes is associated with increased mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M S; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kare;

    2003-01-01

    As part of an assessment of breastfeeding and child health in Guinea-Bissau, we investigated the impact of mother's reason for weaning on subsequent child mortality.......As part of an assessment of breastfeeding and child health in Guinea-Bissau, we investigated the impact of mother's reason for weaning on subsequent child mortality....

  9. A prospective study of twinning and perinatal mortality in urban Guinea-Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen Morten

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite twinning being common in Africa, few prospective twin studies have been conducted. We studied twinning rate, perinatal mortality and the clinical characteristics of newborn twins in urban Guinea-Bissau. Methods The study was conducted at the Bandim Health Project (BHP, a health and demographic surveillance site in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau. The cohort included all newborn twins delivered at the National Hospital Simão Mendes and in the BHP study area during the period September 2009 to August 2011 as well as singleton controls from the BHP study area. Data regarding obstetric history and pregnancy were collected at the hospital. Live children were examined clinically. For a subset of twin pairs zygosity was established by using genetic markers. Results Out of the 5262 births from mothers included in the BHP study area, 94 were twin births, i.e. a community twinning rate of 18/1000. The monozygotic rate was 3.4/1000. Perinatal mortality among twins vs. singletons was 218/1000 vs. 80/1000 (RR = 2.71, 95% CI: 1.93-3.80. Among the 13783 hospital births 388 were twin births (28/1000. The hospital perinatal twin mortality was 237/1000. Birth weight  Conclusions Twins had a very high perinatal mortality, three-fold higher than singletons. A birth weight 

  10. Prolonged breast feeding, diarrhoeal disease, and survival of children in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Gottschau, A; Aaby, P

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the impact of breast feeding on diarrhoeal disease and survival in children above 1 year of age in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. DESIGN: A community study of an open cohort followed up weekly by interviews over 15 months. Data on feeding practices, anthropometry, and survival.......02). Children aged 12-35 months who were not breast fed had a 3.5 times higher mortality (1.4 to 8.3) than breast fed children. CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial effects of breast feeding are not restricted to infancy. Though children who are partially breast fed after infancy may have a lower state of nutrition than...... were recorded for three years. SETTING: 301 randomly selected houses in a semiurban area in the capital, Bissau. SUBJECTS: 849 children aged less than 3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and duration of diarrhoea, weight for age, and death of a child. RESULTS: The incidence of diarrhoea...

  11. Cryptosporidiosis in infancy and childhood mortality in Guinea Bissau, west Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Højlyng, N; Gottschau, A

    1993-01-01

    in children who had the infection in infancy, and this excess mortality persisted into the second year of life (relative mortality 2.9 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 4.9)). The excess mortality could not be explained by malnutrition, or by socioeconomic factors, hygienic conditions, or breast feeding......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiology of and mortality from cryptosporidiosis in young children in Guinea Bissau, West Africa. DESIGN: Three year community study of an open cohort followed up weekly. SETTING: 301 randomly selected houses in a semi-urban area in the capital, Bissau. SUBJECTS......: 1315 children aged less than 4 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cryptosporidium infection detected by examination of stools during episode of diarrhoea and death of a child. RESULTS: Cryptosporidium spp were found in 239 (7.4%) out of 3215 episodes of diarrhoea. The parasite was most common in younger...

  12. Chloroquine is grossly overdosed and overused but well tolerated in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2009-01-01

    -Bissau are taken or whether they cause adverse effects. We aimed to determine the dosage of chloroquine commonly prescribed, the doses commonly taken and if there were concentration dependent adverse events in routine practice. Chloroquine prescriptions by 8 physicians and chloroquine intake by 102 children were...... recorded. Chloroquine intake and adverse events were assessed by questioning. Chloroquine concentrations were measured in whole blood. The median total chloroquine dose prescribed and that reportedly taken was 81 and 77 mgkg(-1) respectively. The total dose was usually split into 2-3 daily doses of 6...... in the blood at the time of diagnosis and treatment. No severe adverse events were reported. No adverse events were associated with higher chloroquine concentrations. High doses of chloroquine are commonly taken and well tolerated in Guinea-Bissau. Malaria diagnostics are poor and chloroquine is commonly...

  13. Cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau (2008: the importance of "place".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Luquero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As resources are limited when responding to cholera outbreaks, knowledge about where to orient interventions is crucial. We describe the cholera epidemic affecting Guinea-Bissau in 2008 focusing on the geographical spread in order to guide prevention and control activities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted two studies: 1 a descriptive analysis of the cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau focusing on its geographical spread (country level and within the capital; and 2 a cross-sectional study to measure the prevalence of houses with at least one cholera case in the most affected neighbourhood of the capital (Bairro Bandim to detect clustering of households with cases (cluster analysis. All cholera cases attending the cholera treatment centres in Guinea-Bissau who fulfilled a modified World Health Organization clinical case definition during the epidemic were included in the descriptive study. For the cluster analysis, a sample of houses was selected from a satellite photo (Google Earth™; 140 houses (and the four closest houses were assessed from the 2,202 identified structures. We applied K-functions and Kernel smoothing to detect clustering. We confirmed the clustering using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. A total of 14,222 cases and 225 deaths were reported in the country (AR = 0.94%, CFR = 1.64%. The more affected regions were Biombo, Bijagos and Bissau (the capital. Bairro Bandim was the most affected neighborhood of the capital (AR = 4.0. We found at least one case in 22.7% of the houses (95%CI: 19.5-26.2 in this neighborhood. The cluster analysis identified two areas within Bairro Bandim at highest risk: a market and an intersection where runoff accumulates waste (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis allowed for the identification of the most affected regions in Guinea-Bissau during the 2008 cholera outbreak, and the most affected areas within the capital. This information was essential for making

  14. Hepatitis C virus infection in Guinea-Bissau: a sexually transmitted genotype 2 with parenteral amplification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Plamondon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is the continent with the highest prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Genotype 2 HCV is thought to have originated from West Africa several hundred years ago. Mechanisms of transmission remain poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To delineate mechanisms for HCV transmission in West Africa, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of individuals aged >or=50 years in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Dried blood spots were obtained for HCV serology and PCR amplification. Prevalence of HCV was 4.4% (47/1066 among women and 5.0% (27/544 among men. In multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for HCV infection were age (baseline: 50-59 y; 60-69 y, adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.67, 95% CI: 0.91-3.06; >or=70 y, AOR: 3.47, 95% CI: 1.89-6.39, belonging to the Papel, Mancanha, Balanta or Mandjako ethnic groups (AOR: 2.45, 95% CI:1.32-4.53, originating from the Biombo, Cacheu or Oio regions north of Bissau (AOR: 4.16, 95% CI: 1.18-14.73 and having bought or sold sexual services (AOR: 3.60, 95% CI: 1.88-6.89. Of 57 isolates that could be genotyped, 56 were genotype 2. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that transmission of HCV genotype 2 in West Africa occurs through sexual intercourse. In specific locations and subpopulations, medical interventions may have amplified transmission parenterally.

  15. Characterization of incompletely typed rotavirus strains from Guinea-Bissau: identification of G8 and G9 types and a high frequency of mixed infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, T.K.; Page, N.A.; Griffin, D.D.

    2003-01-01

    Among 167 rotaviruis specimens collected from young children in a suburban area of Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, from 1996 to 1998, most identifiable strains belonged to the uncommon P[6], G2 type and approximately 50% remained incompletely typed. In the present study, 76 such strains were further chara...

  16. The emergence and current performance of a health research system: lessons from Guinea Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Maarten O

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how health research systems (HRS in low-income countries emerge and evolve over time, and how this process relates to their performance. Understanding how HRSs emerge is important for the development of well functioning National Health Research Systems (NHRS. The aim of this study was to assess how the HRS in Guinea Bissau has emerged and evolved over time and how the present system functions. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the emergence and current performance of the HRS, using the NHRS framework. We reviewed documents and carried out 39 in-depth interviews, ranging from health research to policy and practice stakeholders. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Results The research practices in Guinea Bissau led to the emergence of a HRS with both local and international links and strong dependencies on international partners and donors. The post-colonial, volatile and resource-dependent context, changes in donor policies, training of local researchers and nature of the research findings influenced how the HRS evolved. Research priorities have mostly been set by 'expatriate' researchers and focused on understanding and reducing child mortality. Research funding is almost exclusively provided by foreign donors and international agencies. The training of Guinean researchers started in the mid-nineties and has since reinforced the links with the health system, broadened the research agenda and enhanced local use of research. While some studies have made an important contribution to global health, the use of research within Guinea Bissau has been constrained by the weak and donor dependent health system, volatile government, top-down policies of international agencies, and the controversial nature of some of the research findings. Conclusions In Guinea Bissau a de facto 'system' of research has emerged through research practices and co

  17. [From Guinea-Bissau to Portugal: Luso-Guineans and immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, F L

    1998-07-01

    "Taking as our point of reference the migratory framework of the society of departure, we first of all anlayse time and volume factors in the patterns of migration from Guinea-Bissau to Portugal, in two distinct segments: immigrants as such and Guineans of Portuguese nationality or ¿Luso-Guineans'. For each of these we have subsequently outlined the paths and strategies of migration, describing their origins and class status before departure as well as how they see and identify themselves in ethnic terms. This analysis brings out the socially selective nature of that migration." (EXCERPT)

  18. Malaria parasitemia and childhood diarrhea in a peri-urban area of Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare;

    1999-01-01

    To examine the association between diarrhea in early childhood and malaria parasitemia, we conducted a nested case-control study in Guinea-Bissau of 297 children with diarrhea and a similar number of children without diarrhea matched for age, season, and residential area. There were no associations...... between diarrhea and parasite rate, parasite density, or clinical malaria. However, anti-malarials were easily available and frequently used, which was reflected by a 0.7% prevalence of children with a parasite density > 100/200 leukocytes. Thus, the findings do not preclude that diarrhea may be a sign...

  19. Performance of 3 Rapid Tests for Discrimination Between HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Bjarnason Obinah, Magnús Pétur; Jespersen, Sanne;

    2014-01-01

    rapid tests for discrimination between HIV-1, HIV-2, and dual infections among 219 patients from Guinea-Bissau by comparing with the gold standard (INNO-LIA). Genie III HIV-1/HIV-2 was the best performer with regard to discriminatory capacity (agreement 91.8%), followed by Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2...

  20. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and other types of dysglycaemia among young twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egegaard Hennild, Ditte; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Joaquím, Luis Carlos

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Twins may be at increased risk of dysglycaemic disorders due to adverse fetal conditions. Data from Africa regarding this association is limited. We studied impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and other types of dysglycemia among twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: The study...

  1. Why do Gull-billed Terns Gelochelidon nilotica feed on fiddler crabs Uca tangeri in Guinea-Bissau?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienen, E.W.M.; Brenninkmeijer, A.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Wintering Gull-billed Terns Gelochelidon nilotica in Guinea Bissau mainly fed on Fiddler Crabs Uca tangeri and were occasionally seen feeding on fish and locusts. Fiddler crabs have a low energy content, requiring a large gross intake to meet daily energy demands. Fiddler crabs also have a low ratio

  2. Long-term survival in trial of medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida; Whittle, H

    1994-01-01

    A trial of protective efficacy which compared medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine (10(4.6) p.f.u.) from the age of 4 months with the standard Schwarz (SW) measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months was started in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in 1985. Because trials of hi...

  3. Reduced All-Cause Child Mortality After General Measles Vaccination Campaign in Rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that measles vaccine (MV) prevents non-measles deaths. MV-campaigns are conducted to eliminate measles infection.The overall mortality effect of MV-campaigns has not been studied. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) surveys children aged 0-4 years in rural...... Guinea-Bissau through a health and demographic surveillance system. A nationalMV-campaign in 2006 targeted children aged 6 months-15 years. In a Cox proportional-hazards model with age as underlying time-scale we compared mortality for children aged 6-59 months after the campaign with mortality...... in the same age group during the two previous years. RESULTS: 8158 children aged 6-59 months were under BHP surveillance during the 2006-campaign and 7999 and 8108 during similar periods in 2004 and 2005. At least 90% of the eligible children received MV in the campaign. There were 161 non-accident deaths...

  4. A prospective study of twinning and perinatal mortality in urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Lund, Najaaraq; Jepsen, Frida Staarup;

    2012-01-01

    .24, CI: 2.39-7.51) and caesarean section (RR = 1.78, CI: 1.06-2.99) were significant risk factors for perinatal twin mortality. Male sex (RR = 1.38, CI: 0.97-1.96), unawareness of twin pregnancy (RR = 1.64, CI: 0.97-2.78) and high blood pressure during pregnancy (RR = 1.77, CI: 0.88-3.57) were borderline...... non-significant. Sixty-five percent (245/375) of the mothers who delivered at the hospital were unaware of their twin pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Twins had a very high perinatal mortality, three-fold higher than singletons. A birth weight ..., and unrecognized twin pregnancy was common. Urgent interventions are needed to lower perinatal twin mortality in Guinea-Bissau....

  5. Immunological predictors of survival in HIV type 2-infected rural villagers in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffar, Shabbar; Van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper;

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the association between beta2-microglobulin, neopterin, serum levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), CD4 count, and plasma viremia with survival in 133 HIV-2-infected villagers and 160 controls living in rural Guinea-Bissau. Subjects were recruited...... in 1991 and visited at home every 3-6 months until 1998. Median beta2-microglobulin, neopterin, and suPAR were significantly higher and CD4% significantly lower among HIV-2-infected individuals than controls. Thirty-one HIV-2-infected individuals died and 7 were lost to follow-up. beta2-Microglobulin, CD4......%, and plasma viral load were associated independently with survival in multivariate analyses. Neopterin and suPAR did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that immune activation is central to the pathogenesis of HIV. They also have important implications for resource-poor settings where...

  6. Persistent and acute diarrhoea as the leading causes of child mortality in urban Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Aaby, P; Ingholt, L;

    1992-01-01

    An investigation of child mortality in a semi-urban community, Bandim II, in the capital of Guinea Bissau was carried out from April 1987 to March 1990. 153 deaths were recorded among 1426 live-born children who were followed for 2753 child-years. The under-five mortality risk was 215 per 1000...... children (95% confidence interval [CI] 176-264), infant mortality 94 per 1000 (95% CI 73-115), and perinatal mortality 52 per 1000 (95% CI 41-63). By prospective registration of morbidity, post-mortem interviews, and examination of available hospital records, a presumptive cause of death was established...... in 86% of the deaths. Persistent and acute diarrhoea were the most frequent causes of death, accounting for 43 and 31 deaths per 1000 children, respectively. Fever deaths (possibly malaria), neonatal deaths, acute respiratory infections, and measles were other frequent causes. The access to health...

  7. Assessing factors for loss to follow-up of HIV infected patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Pernille Bejer; Engell-Sørensen, Thomas; Jespersen, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    to face or by phone by a field assistant and patients were asked why they had not shown up for the scheduled appointment. Patients were included by date of HIV testing and risk factors for LTFU were assessed using Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Among 561 patients (69.5 % HIV-1, 18.0 % HIV-2......Purpose: The objective of this study was to ascertain vital status of patients considered lost to follow-up at an HIV clinic in Guinea-Bissau, and describe reasons for loss to follow-up (LTFU). Methods: This study was a cross-sectional sample of a prospective cohort, carried out between May 15......, 2013, and January 31, 2014. Patients lost to follow-up, who lived within the area of the Bandim Health Project, a demographic surveillance site (DSS), were eligible for inclusion. Active follow-up was attempted by telephone and tracing by a field assistant. Semi-structured interviews were done face...

  8. Malaria transmission in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau between 1995 and 2012: malaria resurgence did not negatively affect mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Ursing

    Full Text Available As Plasmodium falciparum prevalence decreases in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, so does immunity resulting in larger at risk populations and increased risk of malaria resurgence. In Bissau, malaria prevalence decreased from ∼50% to 3% between 1995 and 2003. The epidemiological characteristics of P. falciparum malaria within Bandim health and demographic surveillance site (population ∼100,000 between 1995 and 2012 are described.The population was determined by census. 3603 children aged <15 years that were enrolled in clinical trials at the Bandim health centre (1995-2012 were considered incident cases. The mean annual malaria incidence per thousand children in 1995-1997, 1999-2003, 2007, 2011, 2012 were as follows; age <5 years 22→29→4→9→3, age 5-9 years 15→28→4→33→12, age 10-14 years 9→15→1→45→19. There were 4 campaigns (2003-2010 to increase use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITN amongst children <5 years. An efficacious high-dose chloroquine treatment regime was routinely used until artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT was introduced in 2008. Long lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLIN were distributed in 2011. By 2012 there was 1 net per 2 people and 97% usage. All-cause mortality decreased from post-war peaks in 1999 until 2012 in all age groups and was not negatively affected by malaria resurgence.The cause of decreasing malaria incidence (1995-2007 was probably multifactorial and coincident with the use of an efficacious high-dose chloroquine treatment regime. Decreasing malaria prevalence created a susceptible group of older children in which malaria resurged, highlighting the need to include all age groups in malaria interventions. ACT did not hinder malaria resurgence. Mass distribution of LLINs probably curtailed malaria epidemics. All-cause mortality was not negatively affected by malaria resurgence.

  9. Chloroquine resistant P. falciparum prevalence is low and unchanged between 1990 and 2005 in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Schmidt, Berit Aydin; Lebbad, Marianne;

    2007-01-01

    and other genetic polymorphisms in samples from 1992, 1993, 1995, 2004 and 2005. We have also monitored drug prescriptions for febrile illnesses. The mean proportion of in vitro tests indicating chloroquine resistance was 33% (range 14-54%) with the exception of an outlying value year 2000. The proportion...... of chloroquine resistant P. falciparum detected by in vitro testing did not increase over time. Pfcrt 76T was associated with chloroquine resistance but pfmdr1 86Y was not. The mean pfcrt 76T prevalence varied between 13% and 38%. The prevalence of SNPs at Pfcrt positions 76, 271, 326 and pfmdr1 position 86 did...... of chloroquine resistant P. falciparum has not gradually increased between 1990 and 2005 in Guinea-Bissau. Chloroquine is commonly prescribed at more than double the normal dose in Guinea Bissau. It has previously been hypothesized that treatment with high doses of chloroquine may be effective. We discuss...

  10. Cashew cultivation in Guinea-Bissau – risks and challenges of the success of a cash crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Catarino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades a boom in cashew (Anacardium occidentalecultivation has taken place in Guinea-Bissau, leading to the replacement of traditional slash-and-burn agriculture by a cash crop. As a result, the country is currently one of the world’s largest producers of raw cashew nuts and the cashew sector has acquired enormous importance in Guinea-Bissau’s economy. Changes induced by the cashew boom at social and environmental levels are yet to be analyzed and understood. The present study provides an account of the process of cashew expansion in Guinea-Bissau, reviews the current situation and discusses its future prospects. The cashew tree was introduced into the country by the Portuguese in the XIXth century, but only effectively expanded in the mid-1980s. It is largely cultivated by small farmers around villages and also plays a role in land ownership, since land tenure practices are linked to the planting of trees. The effects of this cashew boom on habitat fragmentation, fire regimes and biodiversity are still to be assessed. On the other hand, the spread of pests and diseases is becoming a problem. Strong dependence on a single cash crop also renders the country vulnerable to market fluctuations, entailing risks to local producers and the national economy. In the medium term, losses of export earnings can occur, which may impact the living standards and food security of Bissau-Guineans both in urban and rural areas.

  11. Temporal trends (1977-2007 and ethnic inequity in child mortality in rural villages of southern Guinea Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boone Peter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guinea Bissau is one of the poorest countries in the world, with one of the highest under-5 mortality rate. Despite its importance for policy planning, data on child mortality are often not available or of poor quality in low-income countries like Guinea Bissau. Our aim in this study was to use the baseline survey to estimate child mortality in rural villages in southern Guinea Bissau for a 30 years period prior to a planned cluster randomised intervention. We aimed to investigate temporal trends with emphasis on historical events and the effect of ethnicity, polygyny and distance to the health centre on child mortality. Methods A baseline survey was conducted prior to a planned cluster randomised intervention to estimate child mortality in 241 rural villages in southern Guinea Bissau between 1977 and 2007. Crude child mortality rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method from birth history of 7854 women. Cox regression models were used to investigate the effects of birth periods with emphasis on historical events, ethnicity, polygyny and distance to the health centre on child mortality. Results High levels of child mortality were found at all ages under five with a significant reduction in child mortality over the time periods of birth except for 1997-2001. That period comprises the 1998/99 civil war interval, when child mortality was 1.5% higher than in the previous period. Children of Balanta ethnic group had higher hazard of dying under five years of age than children from other groups until 2001. Between 2002 and 2007, Fula children showed the highest mortality. Increasing walking distance to the nearest health centre increased the hazard, though not substantially, and polygyny had a negligible and statistically not significant effect on the hazard. Conclusion Child mortality is strongly associated with ethnicity and it should be considered in health policy planning. Child mortality, though considerably decreased during

  12. Y-chromosomal diversity in the population of Guinea-Bissau: a multiethnic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobling Mark A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The geographic and ethnolinguistic differentiation of many African Y-chromosomal lineages provides an opportunity to evaluate human migration episodes and admixture processes, in a pan-continental context. The analysis of the paternal genetic structure of Equatorial West Africans carried out to date leaves their origins and relationships unclear, and raises questions about the existence of major demographic phenomena analogous to the large-scale Bantu expansions. To address this, we have analysed the variation of 31 binary and 11 microsatellite markers on the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome in Guinea-Bissau samples of diverse ethnic affiliations, some not studied before. Results The Guinea-Bissau Y chromosome pool is characterized by low haplogroup diversity (D = 0.470, sd 0.033, with the predominant haplogroup E3a*-M2 shared among the ethnic clusters and reaching a maximum of 82.2% in the Mandenka people. The Felupe-Djola and Papel groups exhibit the highest diversity of lineages and harbor the deep-rooting haplogroups A-M91, E2-M75 and E3*-PN2, typical of Sahel's more central and eastern areas. Their genetic distinction from other groups is statistically significant (P = 0.01 though not attributable to linguistic, geographic or religious criteria. Non sub-Saharan influences were associated with the presence of haplogroup R1b-P25 and particular lineages of E3b1-M78. Conclusion The predominance and high diversity of haplogroup E3a*-M2 suggests a demographic expansion in the equatorial western fringe, possibly supported by a local agricultural center. The paternal pool of the Mandenka and Balanta displays evidence of a particularly marked population growth among the Guineans, possibly reflecting the demographic effects of the agriculturalist lifestyle and their putative relationship to the people that introduced early cultivation practices into West Africa. The paternal background of the Felupe-Djola and Papel

  13. Community Radio: the future speaks "glocal". An African experience: the Guinea-Bissau & Mozambique cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Mota Paula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es un análisis comparativo de realidades de radio comunitaria en dos países africanos lusófonos: Guinea-Bissau y Mozambique, cuyas investigaciones se refieren a 2003, 2004, 2007 y 2009, respectivamente. Se centra en la tensa relación entre poder político y radios comunitarias a través de una revisión teórica de dos conceptos nuevos: "Comunicación para Desarrollo" y "Glocalización". Un estudio amplio e innovador con el objetivo de determinar el papel que estos medios tienen para construir una ciudadanía exigente y participativa. Expone peligros que amenazan la sostenibilidad de estas herramientas de empoderamiento, estando privadas de los marcos institucionales viables. El objetivo principal es identificar similitudes y diferencias, discutir problemas y proponer soluciones viables a la normalización de los criterios y definiciones.

  14. Local knowledge and perceptions of chimpanzees in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joana; Vicente, Luís; Gippoliti, Spartaco; Casanova, Catarina; Sousa, Cláudia

    2014-02-01

    Our study concerns local knowledge and perceptions of chimpanzees among farming communities within Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau. We submitted a survey questionnaire to 100 people living in four villages in the Park to enquire about their knowledge of chimpanzee ecology and human-chimpanzee interactions. Local farmers live in close contact with chimpanzees, consider them to be more similar to humans than any other species, and attribute special importance to them primarily due to expectations of tourism revenue. Interviewees' responses, as a function of gender, village, and age, were analyzed statistically using non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis). Age influenced responses significantly, while gender and village had no significant effect. Youngsters emphasized morphological aspects of human-chimpanzee similarities, while adults emphasized chimpanzee behavior and narratives about the shared history of humans and chimpanzees. Tourism, conservation, and crop raiding feature prominently in people's reports about chimpanzees. Local people's engagement with conservation and tourism-related activities is likely to allow them to manage not only the costs but also the benefits of conservation, and can in turn inform the expectations built upon tourism.

  15. Trials of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Whittle, H; Mordhorst, Camilla

    1994-01-01

    In two trials of measles vaccination in Guinea-Bissau, children were randomized to receive either the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) virus at age 4-8 months or, as a control group, a standard dose (5000 p.f.u.) of the Schwarz (SW) virus at 9-12 months. In the first trial a medium dose of EZ virus (40,000 p......, 18 and 55%, respectively, were positive in the ELISA and HAI tests. At 18-20 months, the children who had received the EZ vaccine had a seropositivity of 91% by the ELISA method and one of 89% by the HAI method. The equivalent values for the SW group of children were 100 and 96% respectively....... Antibody levels in the EZ group, as measured by either method, were significantly lower than the levels in the SW group. The serological results of the present study suggest that lowering the age at measles vaccination to below 9 months is feasible. However, further studies are needed to determine which...

  16. Characterisation of rotavirus strains among hospitalised and non-hospitalised children in Guinea-Bissau, 2002 A high frequency of mixed infections with serotype G8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Aaby, Peter;

    2005-01-01

    In a previous community-based cohort study in Guinea-Bissau from 1996 to 1998, characterisation of rotavirus strains showed a high frequency of less common genotypes such as G8 and G9 and a high proportion of mixed infections.......In a previous community-based cohort study in Guinea-Bissau from 1996 to 1998, characterisation of rotavirus strains showed a high frequency of less common genotypes such as G8 and G9 and a high proportion of mixed infections....

  17. The effect of vitamin A supplementation administered with missing vaccines during national immunization days in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Martins, Cesario; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2009-01-01

    than VAS with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine. We assessed the effect of VAS administered with different vaccines during national immunization days (NIDs). METHODS: In 2003, VAS was distributed during NIDs in Guinea-Bissau. Children 6 months or older were given VAS, and if they were missing...... in Cox models. RESULTS: Twenty of 982 VAS-recipients died during follow-up. The mortality rate ratio (MRR) for VAS with DTP + MV or VAS with DTP was 3.43 (1.36-8.61) compared with VAS only. There were no deaths among those who received VAS with MV alone (P = 0.0005 for homogeneity of VAS effects...

  18. Tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations in cattle along Geba River basin in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúquete, Sara Tudela; Coelho, João; Rosa, Fernanda; Vaz, Yolanda; Cassamá, Bernardo; Padre, Ludovina; Santos, Dulce; Basto, Afonso P; Leitão, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Tick infestations are a major problem for animal production in tropical areas where prevention and control remain deficient. The present study sought to assess the awareness of traditional cattle producers towards the importance of ticks and aimed at the identification of tick species infesting bovines within the Geba River basin, Guinea-Bissau. Interviews with producers revealed that the majority directly correlates the presence of ticks with the occurrence of diseases in cattle. However, insufficient or inadequate control approaches prevail. A total of 337 ticks were collected on bovines at 18 different villages (10 during dry season, and 8 during rainy season). The tick species collected during the dry season were Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) geigyi (56.5%), followed by Amblyomma variegatum (23.3%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (17.6%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1%). In the rainy season A. variegatum was the most collected (88.9%), followed by R. (Boophilus) geigyi (4.2%), R. (Boophilus) annulatus (3.4%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus group (2.8%) and H. truncatum (0.7%). To support species identification, segments of both cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and 12S ribosomal RNA (12S) genes were sequenced and the data gathered were analysed by maximum likelihood and parsimony. Morphological and genetic data of individual specimens gathered in this study provide relevant information for future studies on tick population dynamics in the region. In addition, it led to a deeper characterization of R. sulcatus and a R. sanguineus-like specimen, exploring their genetic relationship with other R. sanguineus, which supports their classification as distinct species within R. sanguineus group.

  19. The quest for safe drinking water: an example from Guinea-Bissau (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordalo, Adriano A; Savva-Bordalo, Joana

    2007-07-01

    While humans require water for life, one-sixth of our species lives without access to safe water. In Africa, the situation is particularly acute because of global warming, the progression of the Sahara desert, civil unrest and poor governance, population growth, migration and poverty. In rural areas, the lack of adequate safe water and sanitary infrastructures leaves millions with doubtful water quality, increasing the harshness of daily life. In this paper, a pilot study was conducted during the wet season on Bolama Island (Guinea-Bissau, West Africa), a UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Reserve. Twenty-eight shallow wells, supplying water to most of the population, were sampled for microbiological, physical and chemical water quality characteristics. A ten-parameter water quality index (WQI) adapted to tropical conditions was applied to compare the different wells. About 79% of the wells showed moderate to heavy fecal contamination. From the surveyed parameters, it was found that chemical contamination was less important, although all samples were acidic, with the pH averaging 5.12+/-0.08. The WQI was 43+/-4% (0%-worst; 100%-best quality), showing that the water from the majority of wells was polluted but should be suitable for domestic use after appropriate treatment. At the onset of the wet season, diarrhea represented 11.5% of all medical cases, 92.5% of which were children aged <15. This paper suggests inexpensive steps to reduce the fecal contamination and control the pH in order to increase the potability of the well water and, concomitantly, to raise the living standards of the population in one of the poorest countries of the world.

  20. Plant products used as mosquito repellents in Guinea Bissau, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pålsson, K; Jaenson, T G

    1999-01-15

    By standardized interviews of people in 23 rural villages, in the Oio region of Guinea Bissau, we collected data on which plant species and plant derived products or methods people use to reduce mosquito biting activity. The following plants were used to reduce numbers of mosquitoes indoors at night: fresh or smouldering Hyptis suaveolens Poit. (Lamiaceae), smoke of the bark of Daniellia oliveri Rolfe (Caesalpiniaceae), smoke of the infructescence of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae), smoke of the seed capsules of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. (Mimosaceae), smoke of the leaves of Azadirachta indica A.Juss. (Meliaceae) and Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae), fresh Ocimum canum Sims (Lamiaceae), and fresh Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Caesalpiniaceae). In two field experiments we estimated the 'repellent activity' of certain of these plants and compared their efficacies with those of two commercially available mosquito repellents, i.e. 'positive' controls. In the first experiment we tested: smouldering H. suaveolens (85.4% repellency); fresh H. suaveolens (73.2%); burning of the bark of D. oliveri (74.7%); and smoke of the leaves of Eucalyptus (72.2%). In the second experiment we tested: smouldering H. suaveolens (83.6% repellency); fresh H. suaveolens (66.5%); burning of the bark of D. oliveri (77.9%); smoke of the leaves of A. indica (76.0%); smoke of the infructescence of E. guineensis (69.0%); fresh O. canum (63.6%); and fresh S. occidentalis; (29.4%). All the products tested, except S. occidentalis were significantly more effective than the negative control.

  1. Costing the scaling-up of human resources for health: lessons from Mozambique and Guinea Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dussault Gilles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In the context of the current human resources for health (HRH crisis, the need for comprehensive Human Resources Development Plans (HRDP is acute, especially in resource-scarce sub-Saharan African countries. However, the financial implications of such plans rarely receive due consideration, despite the availability of much advice and examples in the literature on how to conduct HRDP costing. Global initiatives have also been launched recently to standardise costing methodologies and respective tools. Methods This paper reports on two separate experiences of HRDP costing in Mozambique and Guinea Bissau, with the objective to provide an insight into the practice of costing exercises in information-poor settings, as well as to contribute to the existing debate on HRH costing methodologies. The study adopts a case-study approach to analyse the methodologies developed in the two countries, their contexts, policy processes and actors involved. Results From the analysis of the two cases, it emerged that the costing exercises represented an important driver of the HRDP elaboration, which lent credibility to the process, and provided a financial framework within which HRH policies could be discussed. In both cases, bottom-up and country-specific methods were designed to overcome the countries' lack of cost and financing data, as well as to interpret their financial systems. Such an approach also allowed the costing exercises to feed directly into the national planning and budgeting process. Conclusions The authors conclude that bottom-up and country-specific costing methodologies have the potential to serve adequately the multi-faceted purpose of the exercise. It is recognised that standardised tools and methodologies may help reduce local governments' dependency on foreign expertise to conduct the HRDP costing and facilitate regional and international comparisons. However, adopting pre-defined and insufficiently flexible tools may

  2. Malaria prevention reduces in-hospital mortality among severely ill tuberculosis patients: a three-step intervention in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Fina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria and Tuberculosis (TB are important causes of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Malaria prevention reduces mortality among HIV patients, pregnant women and children, but its role in TB patients is not clear. In the TB National Reference Center in Guinea-Bissau, admitted patients are in severe clinical conditions and mortality during the rainy season is high. We performed a three-step malaria prevention program to reduce mortality in TB patients during the rainy season. Methods Since 2005 Permethrin treated bed nets were given to every patient. Since 2006 environmental prevention with permethrin derivates was performed both indoor and outdoor during the rainy season. In 2007 cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was added during the rainy season. Care was without charge; health education on malaria prevention was performed weekly. Primary outcomes were death, discharge, drop-out. Results 427, 346, 549 patients were admitted in 2005, 2006, 2007, respectively. Mortality dropped from 26.46% in 2005 to 18.76% in 2007 (p-value 0.003, due to the significant reduction in rainy season mortality (death/discharge ratio: 0.79, 0.55 and 0.26 in 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively; p-value 0.001 while dry season mortality remained constant (0.39, 0.37 and 0.32; p-value 0.647. Costs of malaria prevention were limited: 2€/person. No drop-outs were observed. Health education attendance was 96-99%. Conclusions Malaria prevention in African tertiary care hospitals seems feasible with limited costs. Vector control, personal protection and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis seem to reduce mortality in severely ill TB patients. Prospective randomized trials are needed to confirm our findings in similar settings. Trial registration number Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN83944306

  3. Interleukin 12B (IL12B) Genetic Variation and Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Study of Cohorts from The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, United States and Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Gerard A J; Edwards, Digna R Velez; Hill, Philip C;

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether polymorphisms in interleukin-12B (IL12B) associate with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in two West African populations (from The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau) and in two independent populations from North and South America. Nine polymorphisms (seven SNPs, one inser...

  4. Similar efficacy and tolerability of double-dose chloroquine and artemether-lumefantrine for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infection in Guinea-Bissau: a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, Guinea-Bissau introduced artemether-lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Previously, 3 times the standard dose of chloroquine, that was probably efficacious against Plasmodium falciparum with the resistance-associated chloroquine-resistance transporter (pfcrt) 76T allele...

  5. The impact of different doses of vitamin A supplementation on male and female mortality. A randomised trial from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakymenko, Dorthe; Benn, Christine Stabell; Martins, Cesario;

    2011-01-01

    if diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) was the most recent vaccination. We aimed to test these observations. METHODS: During national immunisations days in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, combining oral polio vaccination and VAS, we randomised 8626 children between 6 months and 5 years of age to receive...

  6. Contrasting female-male mortality ratios after routine vaccinations with pentavalent vaccine versus measles and yellow fever vaccine. A cohort study from urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq

    2016-01-01

    , DTP vaccine is associated with increased female mortality relative to male mortality. In 2008, Guinea-Bissau replaced DTP with the DTP-containing pentavalent vaccine (Penta; DTP-H. influenza type B-Hepatitis B) at 6, 10 and 14weeks and yellow fever vaccine (YF) was to be given with MV. We investigated...

  7. Presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae strains from well water samples in Guinea-Bissau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Rocío A; Reyes-Batlle, María; Nicola, Graciela G; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Guillermo Esteban, J; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) include opportunistic pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and the genera Sappinia and Acanthamoeba. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence of potentially pathogenic amoebic strains in water samples collected from wells located in the western part of Guinea-Bissau. The samples were left to precipitate for 48 hours and then the sediments were seeded on non-nutrient agar plates containing Escherichia coli spread and cultures were checked daily for the presence of FLA. Identification of FLA strains was based on the morphological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the 18S rDNA or 16S mitochondrial rDNA genes in the case of Naegleria and Balamuthia genera, respectively. In the case of positive samples of Acanthamoeba, strains were further classified at the genotype level by sequencing the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region located in the 18S rDNA gene as previously described. Sappinia sp. was not isolated during the study and thus, no molecular analysis was performed for this genus. The obtained results revealed the presence of Acanthamoeba (genotypes T3 and T4), Naegleria fowleri, and Balamuthia mandrillaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of FLA in water bodies from Guinea-Bissau and the first report on the isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris from environmental sources in Africa. PMID:24934796

  8. Presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae strains from well water samples in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Rocío A; Reyes-Batlle, María; Nicola, Graciela G; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Guillermo Esteban, J; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-06-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) include opportunistic pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and the genera Sappinia and Acanthamoeba. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence of potentially pathogenic amoebic strains in water samples collected from wells located in the western part of Guinea-Bissau. The samples were left to precipitate for 48 hours and then the sediments were seeded on non-nutrient agar plates containing Escherichia coli spread and cultures were checked daily for the presence of FLA. Identification of FLA strains was based on the morphological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the 18S rDNA or 16S mitochondrial rDNA genes in the case of Naegleria and Balamuthia genera, respectively. In the case of positive samples of Acanthamoeba, strains were further classified at the genotype level by sequencing the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region located in the 18S rDNA gene as previously described. Sappinia sp. was not isolated during the study and thus, no molecular analysis was performed for this genus. The obtained results revealed the presence of Acanthamoeba (genotypes T3 and T4), Naegleria fowleri, and Balamuthia mandrillaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of FLA in water bodies from Guinea-Bissau and the first report on the isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris from environmental sources in Africa.

  9. The training and professional expectations of medical students in Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique

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    Fronteira Inês

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the professional expectations of medical students during the 2007-2008 academic year at the public medical schools of Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique, and to identify their social and geographical origins, their professional expectations and difficulties relating to their education and professional future. Methods Data were collected through a standardised questionnaire applied to all medical students registered during the 2007-2008 academic year. Results Students decide to study medicine at an early age. Relatives and friends seem to have an especially important influence in encouraging, reinforcing and promoting the desire to be a doctor. The degree of feminization of the student population differs among the different countries. Although most medical students are from outside the capital cities, expectations of getting into medical school are already associated with migration from the periphery to the capital city, even before entering medical education. Academic performance is poor. This seems to be related to difficulties in accessing materials, finances and insufficient high school preparation. Medical students recognize the public sector demand but their expectations are to combine public sector practice with private work, in order to improve their earnings. Salary expectations of students vary between the three countries. Approximately 75% want to train as hospital specialists and to follow a hospital-based career. A significant proportion is unsure about their future area of specialization, which for many students is equated with migration to study abroad. Conclusions Medical education is an important national investment, but the returns obtained are not as efficient as expected. Investments in high-school preparation, tutoring, and infrastructure are likely to have a significant impact on the success rate of medical schools. Special attention should be given

  10. Clade A HIV-1 Gag-Specific T Cell Responses Are Frequent but Do Not Correlate with Viral Loads in a Cohort of Treatment-Naive HIV-Infected Individuals Living in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Gómez Román, Victor Raúl; Skov Jensen, Sanne;

    2012-01-01

    In a phase I clinical trial in Guinea-Bissau, we have tested an immunotherapeutic 33 HIV-1 vaccine candidate in HIV-1-infected subjects (Gómez Román et al., under review).…......In a phase I clinical trial in Guinea-Bissau, we have tested an immunotherapeutic 33 HIV-1 vaccine candidate in HIV-1-infected subjects (Gómez Román et al., under review).…...

  11. Infant twin mortality and hospitalisations after the perinatal period - a prospective cohort study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, M; Biering-Sørensen, S; Gomes, G M;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine mortality and hospitalisations among infant twins and singletons after the perinatal period in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: The study was conducted from September 2009 to November 2012 by the Bandim Health Project (BHP). Newborn twins and unmatched singleton controls were included...... at the National Hospital. RESULTS: About 495 twins and 333 singletons were alive on day 7 after birth. In total, 36 twins and 12 singletons died during follow-up, the post-perinatal infant mortality rate being 91/1000 person-years for twins and 42/1000 for singletons (HR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.......09-4.07). In a multivariable analysis among twins only, birth weight twin death. In the subgroup with available HIV status, maternal HIV infection...

  12. A situação epidemiológica da tuberculose na República da Guiné-Bissau, 2000 - 2005 The epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in the Republic of Guinea-Bissau, 2000-2005

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    Cristóvão Manjuba

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A tuberculose na República da Guiné-Bissau não apresenta bons indicadores de saúde, assim como na maioria dos países em vias de desenvolvimento. OBJETIVO: Estudar na República da Guiné-Bissau e nas suas Províncias, a situação epidemiológica da doença no período de 2000 a 2005. MÉTODO: Realizou-se levantamento de dados secundários junto ao Programa Nacional de Luta Contra Lepra e Tuberculose, no período de 2000 a 2005, e análise de relatórios anuais da Capital e das Províncias da Guiné-Bissau, para o cálculo de coeficientes e taxas dos indicadores. RESULTADOS: O número de casos de tuberculose manteve-se estável no período de 2000 (1.959 casos a 2005 (1.888 casos. O percentual de casos pulmonares variou de 96,0 a 98,8%, dos quais 55% eram bacilíferos. Em 2005 o coeficiente de prevalência foi de 142,4/100.000, o de incidência 131,3/100.000 e o de mortalidade, 16,8/100.000 habitantes. A maior concentração de casos ocorreu na região da Capital. A taxa de cura variou entre 46,5% em 2000 e 69,6% em 2005, e a de abandono de tratamento de 29,8% em 2000 para 12,1% em 2005. CONCLUSÃO: Os indicadores do Plano Estratégico Nacional devem ser melhorados, sobretudo no que diz respeito à busca ativa de casos, à descentralização do atendimento aos doentes, à implantação da estratégia DOTS e à necessidade de um sistema de informação e notificação eficientes.INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis does not present good health indicators in the Republic of the Guinea-Bissau, like most other developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To study the epidemiological status of the illness in the 2000-2005 period in the Republic of the Guinea-Bissau and its Provinces. METHOD: Secondary data were collected from the National Fight Against Leprosy and Tuberculosis Program, in the period from 2000 to 2005, and annual reports of the Capital and the Provinces were analyzed to calculate coefficients and indicators. RESULTS: The number of

  13. Decline in overall, smear-negative and HIV-positive TB incidence while smear-positive incidence stays stable in Guinea-Bissau 2004-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvik, G; Rudolf, F; Vieira, F;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To calculate Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in Guinea-Bissau over an 8-year period. METHODS: Since 2003, a surveillance system has registered all TB cases in six suburban districts of Bissau. In this population-based prospective follow-up study, 1205 cases of pulmonary TB were...... identified between January 2004 and December 2011. Incidence rates were calculated using census data from the Bandim Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). RESULTS: The overall incidence of pulmonary TB was 279 per 100 000 person-years of observation; the male incidence being 385, and the female...... 191. TB incidence rates increased significantly with age in both sexes, regardless of smear or HIV status. Despite a peak with unknown cause of 352 per 100 000 in 2007, the overall incidence of pulmonary TB declined over the period. The incidence of HIV infected TB cases declined significantly from...

  14. The occurrence characteristics and integrated control measures of invasion fruit fly in Guinea-Bissau%几内亚比绍的入侵果实蝇发生特点及综合防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢远华; 朱穆君; 杨恒; Marcelino Waz; Julio Malam

    2012-01-01

    Guinea Bissau mango suffered serious damage from fruit flies,with invasion fruit fly being the dominant species.This paper introduces the occurrence characteristics and integrated control measures of invasion fruit fly in Guinea-Bissau.%几内亚比绍芒果遭受实蝇的严重危害,以入侵果实蝇为优势种。本文介绍了几内亚比绍的入侵果实蝇的发生危害特点及综合防治对策。

  15. Interleukin 12B (IL12B genetic variation and pulmonary tuberculosis: a study of cohorts from The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, United States and Argentina.

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    Gerard A J Morris

    Full Text Available We examined whether polymorphisms in interleukin-12B (IL12B associate with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in two West African populations (from The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau and in two independent populations from North and South America. Nine polymorphisms (seven SNPs, one insertion/deletion, one microsatellite were analyzed in 321 PTB cases and 346 controls from Guinea-Bissau and 280 PTB cases and 286 controls from The Gambia. For replication we studied 281 case and 179 control African-American samples and 221 cases and 144 controls of European ancestry from the US and Argentina. First-stage single locus analyses revealed signals of association at IL12B 3' UTR SNP rs3212227 (unadjusted allelic p = 0.04; additive genotypic p = 0.05, OR = 0.78, 95% CI [0.61-0.99] in Guinea-Bissau and rs11574790 (unadjusted allelic p = 0.05; additive genotypic p = 0.05, OR = 0.76, 95% CI [0.58-1.00] in The Gambia. Association of rs3212227 was then replicated in African-Americans (rs3212227 allelic p = 0.002; additive genotypic p = 0.05, OR = 0.78, 95% CI [0.61-1.00]; most importantly, in the African-American cohort, multiple significant signals of association (seven of the nine polymorphisms tested were detected throughout the gene. These data suggest that genetic variation in IL12B, a highly relevant candidate gene, is a risk factor for PTB in populations of African ancestry, although further studies will be required to confirm this association and identify the precise mechanism underlying it.

  16. Knowledge and reported practices of men and women on maternal and child health in rural Guinea Bissau: a cross sectional survey

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    Mann Vera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Participatory health education interventions and/or community-based primary health care in remote regions can improve child survival. The most recent data from Guinea Bissau shows that the country ranks 5th from bottom globally with an under-five mortality rate of 198 per 1000 live births in 2007. EPICS (Enabling Parents to Increase Child Survival is a cluster randomised trial, which is currently running in rural areas of southern Guinea Bissau. It aims to evaluate whether an intervention package can generate a rapid and cost-effective reduction in under-five child mortality. The purpose of the study described here was to understand levels of knowledge on child health and treatment-seeking and preventative behaviours in southern Guinea Bissau in order to develop an effective health education component for the EPICS trial. The study also aimed to assess the effect of gender and ethnicity on knowledge and behaviour. Methods Women and men were interviewed in their households using a structured questionnaire. Characteristics of the households and of the interviewed women and men were tabulated. The number of correct answers given to the health knowledge and practice questions and their percentage distribution were tabulated by items and by gender. An overall health knowledge score was derived. Results There are low levels of appropriate knowledge on child health, some inappropriate practices and generally low vaccination coverage. Health knowledge scores improve significantly amongst those who have accessed higher education. Differences in health knowledge between women and men become insignificant once age and education are accounted for. Conclusions Health education activities should be an integral part of a package to improve child survival in rural Guinea Bissau. These activities should focus on diarrhoea, malaria, pneumonia, pregnancy, delivery, neonatal care and vaccination coverage, as these are areas where knowledge and

  17. Detection and Quantification of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus in Coastal Waters of Guinea-Bissau (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana; Bordalo, Adriano A

    2016-06-01

    V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus are recognized human pathogens. Although several studies are available worldwide, both on environmental and clinical contexts, little is known about the ecology of these vibrios in African coastal waters. In this study, their co-occurrence and relationships to key environmental constraints in the coastal waters of Guinea-Bissau were examined using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) approach. All Vibrio species were universally detected showing higher concentrations by the end of the wet season. The abundance of V. cholerae (ISR 16S-23S rRNA) ranged 0-1.2 × 10(4) MPN/L, whereas V. parahaemolyticus (toxR) varied from 47.9 to 1.2 × 10(5) MPN/L. Although the presence of genotypes associated with virulence was found in environmental V. cholerae isolates, ctxA+ V. cholerae was detected, by MPN-PCR, only on two occasions. Enteropathogenic (tdh+ and trh+) V. parahaemolyticus were detected at concentrations up to 1.2 × 10(3) MPN/L. V. vulnificus (vvhA) was detected simultaneously in all surveyed sites only at the end of the wet season, with maximum concentrations of 1.2 × 10(5) MPN/L. Our results suggest that sea surface water temperature and salinity were the major environmental controls to all Vibrio species. This study represents the first detection and quantification of co-occurring Vibrio species in West African coastal waters, highlighting the potential health risk associated with the persistence of human pathogenic Vibrio species.

  18. Co-administration of live measles and yellow fever vaccines and inactivated pentavalent vaccines is associated with increased mortality compared with measles and yellow fever vaccines only. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik Bylling; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2014-01-01

    is replacing DTP in many low-income countries and yellow fever vaccine (YF) has been introduced to be given together with MV. Pentavalent and YF vaccines were introduced in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. We investigated whether co-administration of pentavalent vaccine with MV and yellow fever vaccine has similar...

  19. Plasmodium falciparum infection rates for some Anopheles spp. from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4in

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    Michelle R. Sanford

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Presence of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in a sample of Anopheles gambiae s.s., A. melas and A. pharoensis collected in Guinea-Bissau during October and November 2009. The percentage of P. falciparum infected samples (10.2% overall was comparable to earlier studies from other sites in Guinea-Bissau (9.6-12.4%. The majority of the specimens collected were identified as A. gambiae which had an individual infection rate of 12.6 % across collection sites. A small number of specimens of A. coluzzii, A. coluzzii x A. gambiae hybrids, A. melas and A. pharoensis were collected and had infection rates of 4.3%, 4.1%, 11.1% and 33.3% respectively. Despite being present in low numbers in indoor collections, the exophilic feeding behaviors of A. melas (N=18 and A. pharoensis (N=6 and high infection rates observed in this survey suggest falciparum-malaria transmission potential outside of the protection of bed nets.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of endemic human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 in a rural community in Guinea-Bissau.

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    Carla van Tienen

    Full Text Available Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1 infection causes lethal adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and severely debilitating HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP in up to 5% of infected adults. HTLV-1 is endemic in parts of Africa and the highest prevalence in West Africa (5% has been reported in Caio, a rural area in the North-West of Guinea-Bissau. It is not known which HTLV-1 variants are present in this community. Sequence data can provide insights in the molecular epidemiology and help to understand the origin and spread of HTLV-1.To gain insight into the molecular diversity of HTLV-1 in West Africa.HTLV-1 infected individuals were identified in community surveys between 1990-2007. The complete Long Terminal Repeat (LTR and p24 coding region of HTLV-1 was sequenced from infected subjects. Socio-demographic data were obtained from community census and from interviews performed by fieldworkers. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to characterize the relationship between the Caio HTLV-1 and HTLV-1 from other parts of the world.LTR and p24 sequences were obtained from 72 individuals (36 LTR, 24 p24 only and 12 both. Consistent with the low evolutionary change of HTLV-1, many of the sequences from unrelated individuals showed 100% nucleotide identity. Most (45 of 46 of the LTR sequences clustered with the Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 subtype 1a, subgroup D (1aD. LTR and p24 sequences from two subjects were divergent and formed a significant cluster with HTLV-1 subtype 1g, and with the most divergent African Simian T-cell Lymphotropic Virus, Tan90.The Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 1aD predominates in this rural West African community. However, HTLV-1 subtype 1g is also present. This subtype has not been described before in West Africa and may be more widespread than previously thought. These data are in line with the hypothesis that multiple monkey-to-man zoonotic events are contributing to HTLV-1 diversity.

  1. Hepatitis B and Delta virus are prevalent but often subclinical co-infections among HIV infected patients in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa: a cross-sectional study.

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    Bo Langhoff Hønge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV may lead to accelerated hepatic disease progression with higher rates of liver cirrhosis and liver-related mortality compared with HBV mono-infection. Co or super-infection with hepatitis Delta virus (HDV may worsen the liver disease and complicate treatment possibilities. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we included HIV-infected individuals who had a routine blood analysis performed at an HIV clinic in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau between the 28th of April and 30th of September 2011. All patients were interviewed, had a clinical exam performed and had a blood sample stored. The patients' samples were tested for HBV and HDV serology, and HBV/HDV viral loads were analyzed using in-house real-time PCR methods. RESULTS: In total, 576 patients (417 HIV-1, 104 HIV-2 and 55 HIV-1/2 were included in this study. Ninety-four (16.3% patients were HBsAg positive of whom 16 (17.0% were HBeAg positive. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, CD4 cell count <200 cells/µl and animist religion were significantly associated with HBsAg positivity. Due to scarcity of available plasma, virological analyses were not performed for eight patients. HBV DNA was detected in 42 of 86 samples (48.8% positive for HBsAg and genotyping was performed in 26 patients; 25 of whom had genotype E and one genotype D. Among 9 patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART, one patient had the [L180M, M204V] mutation associated with lamivudine resistance. Among the HBsAg positive patients 25.0% were also positive for anti-HDV and 4/9 (44.4% had detectable HDV RNA. CONCLUSION: HBV and HDV were frequent co-infections among HIV positive patients in Guinea-Bissau and chronic infection was associated with severe immunosuppression. Lamivudine was widely used among HBsAg positive patients with the risk of developing resistant HBV.

  2. Hepatitis B and Delta Virus Are Prevalent but Often Subclinical Co-Infections among HIV Infected Patients in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jespersen, Sanne; Medina, Candida

    2014-01-01

    with lamivudine resistance. Among the HBsAg positive patients 25.0% were also positive for anti-HDV and 4/9 (44.4%) had detectable HDV RNA. CONCLUSION: HBV and HDV were frequent co-infections among HIV positive patients in Guinea-Bissau and chronic infection was associated with severe immunosuppression....... Ninety-four (16.3%) patients were HBsAg positive of whom 16 (17.0%) were HBeAg positive. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, CD4 cell count HBsAg positivity. Due to scarcity of available plasma, virological analyses were...... not performed for eight patients. HBV DNA was detected in 42 of 86 samples (48.8%) positive for HBsAg and genotyping was performed in 26 patients; 25 of whom had genotype E and one genotype D. Among 9 patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART), one patient had the [L180M, M204V] mutation associated...

  3. Effect of 50 000 IU vitamin A given with BCG vaccine on mortality in infants in Guinea-Bissau: randomised placebo controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, B.R.; Roth, A.; Nante, E.;

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of high dose vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth in an African setting with high infant mortality. Design Randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting Bandim Health Project's demographic surveillance system in Guinea-Bissau, covering...... approximately 90 000 inhabitants. Participants 4345 infants due to receive BCG. Intervention Infants were randomised to 50 000 IU vitamin A or placebo and followed until age 12 months. Main outcome measure Mortality rate ratios. Results 174 children died during follow-up (mortality=47/ 1000 person.......84 (0.55 to 1.27) compared with 1.39 (0.90 to 2.14) in girls (P for interaction=0.10). An explorative analysis revealed a strong interaction between vitamin A and season of administration. Conclusions Vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth had no significant benefit in this African...

  4. Temporal and seasonal changes of genetic polymorphisms associated with altered drug susceptibility to chloroquine, lumefantrine and quinine in Guinea-Bissau between 2003 and 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovel, Irina Tatiana; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rombo, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guinea-Bissau, West-Africa introduced artemether-lumefantrine in 2008 but quinine has also been commonly prescribed for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. An efficacious high-dose chloroquine treatment regimen was used previously. Temporal and seasonal changes...... of genetic polymorphisms associated with altered drug susceptibility to chloroquine, lumefantrine and quinine are described. METHODS: Pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 gene copy numbers, N86Y, Y184F and 1034-1246 sequences were determined using PCR-based methods. Blood samples came from virtually all (n=1806) children aged.......001). CONCLUSIONS: Following the discontinuation of an effective chloroquine regimen highly artemether-lumefantrine susceptible P. falciparum (with pfcrt 76T) accumulated possibly due to suboptimal use of quinine and despite a fitness cost linked to 76T....

  5. Temporal and seasonal changes of genetic polymorphisms associated with altered drug susceptibility to chloroquine, lumefantrine, and quinine in Guinea-Bissau between 2003 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovel, Irina Tatiana; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rombo, Lars; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ursing, Johan

    2015-02-01

    In 2008, artemether-lumefantrine was introduced in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, but quinine has also been commonly prescribed for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. An efficacious high-dose chloroquine treatment regimen was used previously. Temporal and seasonal changes of genetic polymorphisms associated with altered drug susceptibility to chloroquine, lumefantrine, and quinine have been described. P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) K76T, pfmdr1 gene copy numbers, pfmdr1 polymorphisms N86Y and Y184F, and pfmdr1 sequences 1034 to 1246 were determined using PCR-based methods. Blood samples came from virtually all (n=1,806) childrenquinine and despite a fitness cost linked to pfcrt 76T. (The studies reported here were registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00137514 [PSB-2001-chl-amo], NCT00137566 [PSB-2004-paracetamol], NCT00426439 [PSB-2006-coartem], NCT01157689 [AL-eff 2010], and NCT01704508 [Eurartesim 2012].).

  6. Trends and determinants of mortality in women of reproductive age in rural Guinea-Bissau, West Africa--a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mane, Maram; Fisker, Ane B; Ravn, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few studies reporting mortality of women of reproductive age (WRA) in developing countries. The trend and patterns of their mortality may be important for documenting the health status of the population in general. METHODS: We used a prospective open cohort of women aged 12...... to 49 years living in the Bandim Health Project's rural Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in 5 regions of Guinea-Bissau from 1996 to 2007. Information on in- and out-migration and deaths were collected through the HDSS routine procedures. We assessed the trends in mortality...... and the associated determinants using Cox regression models. RESULTS: We followed 27,185 WRA for 141,693 person-years-at-risk (PYO) among whom 9,093 moved out and 1,006 died. Overall standardized mortality rate was 759 per 100,000 PYO. WRA mortality did not decline, but three periods could be distinguished: a stable...

  7. The EPICS Trial: Enabling Parents to Increase Child Survival through the introduction of community-based health interventions in rural Guinea Bissau

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    Frost Chris

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guinea-Bissau is a small country in West Africa with a population of 1.7 million. The WHO and UNICEF reported an under-five child mortality of 203 per 1000, the 10th highest amongst 192 countries. The aim of the trial is to assess whether an intervention package that includes community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for children's diseases within the community, and improved outreach services can generate a rapid and cost-effective reduction in under-five child mortality in rural regions of Guinea-Bissau. Effective Intervention plans to expand the project to a much larger region if there is good evidence after two and a half years that the project is generating a cost-effective, sustainable reduction in child mortality. Methods/design This trial is a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 146 clusters. The trial will run for 2.5 years. The interventions will be introduced in two stages: seventy-three clusters will receive the interventions at the start of the project, and seventy-three control clusters will receive the interventions 2.5 years after the first clusters have received all interventions if the research shows that the interventions are effective. The impact of the interventions and cost-effectiveness will be measured during the first stage. The package of interventions includes a community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, and intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for common children's diseases within the community. It also includes improved outreach services to encourage provision of antenatal and post natal care and provide ongoing monitoring for village health workers. The primary outcome of the trial will be the proportion of children that die under 5 years of age during the trial

  8. Different effects of BCG strains - A natural experiment evaluating the impact of the Danish and the Russian BCG strains on morbidity and scar formation in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, H; Byberg, S; Andersen, Morten Bjerregaard;

    2016-01-01

    models. Scar prevalence and size were compared using binomial regression and ranksum tests. RESULTS: Among 1206 children, 18% received Danish BCG (n=215) and 82% Russian BCG (n=991). The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for consultations was 0.94 (95% CI 0.60-1.46) for Danish BCG compared with Russian BCG......BACKGROUND: Different Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine strains may have different non-specific effects. We assessed the effect of two BCG strains (Danish and Russian) on childhood morbidity and BCG scarification in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: During 2011-2013, infants in the Bandim Health Project....... Girls vaccinated with Danish BCG tended to have lower consultation rates compared with girls vaccinated with Russian BCG (aHR 0.56 (0.25-1.24)), whereas the effect was opposite for boys (aHR 1.24 (0.74-2.11)), p=0.09. Children vaccinated with Danish BCG were more likely to develop a scar (97%) than...

  9. Clinical presentation and opportunistic infections in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Jespersen, Sanne; Katzenstein, Terese L;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Better understanding of HIV-2 infection is likely to affect the patient care in areas where HIV-2 is prevalent. In this study, we aimed to characterize the clinical presentations among HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, newly...... diagnosed HIV patients attending the HIV outpatient clinic at Hospital Nacional Simão Mendes in Guinea-Bissau were enrolled. Demographical and clinical data were collected and compared between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. RESULTS: A total of 169 patients (76% HIV-1, 17% HIV-2 and 6......% HIV 1/2) were included in the study between 21 March 2012 and 14 December 2012. HIV-1 seropositive patients were younger than HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 seropositive patients, but no difference in sex was observed. Patients with HIV-1 and HIV-1/2 had a lower baseline CD4 cell count than HIV-2 seropositive...

  10. Estrategias económicas de las mujeres en la ciudad de Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Diana

    2011-01-01

    El análisis de las diversas prácticas económicas que coexisten con la economía reglamentada por las instituciones oficiales, y las relaciones existentes entre eses fenómenos, en la ciudad de Bissau, capital de Guinea Bissau puede contribuir significativamente para sacar a la luz la importancia de la mujer como agente económicamente activo destacando las actividades dadas fuera del ámbito reglamentado. Las mujeres, responden a los obstáculos, creando redes para enfrentar las dificultades del c...

  11. Sex-differential effect on infant mortality of oral polio vaccine administered with BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau. A natural experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stabell Benn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The policy to provide oral polio vaccine (OPV at birth was introduced in low-income countries to increase coverage. The effect of OPV at birth on overall child mortality was never studied. During a trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS at birth in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during several periods. We took advantage of this "natural experiment" to test the effect on mortality of receiving OPV at birth. METHODOLOGY: Between 2002 and 2004, the VAS trial randomised normal-birth-weight infants to 50,000 IU VAS or placebo administered with BCG. Provision of OPV at birth was not part of the trial, but we noted whether the infants received OPV or not. OPV was missing during several periods in 2004. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compute mortality rate ratios (MRR of children who had received or not received OPV at birth. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 962 (22.1% of the 4345 enrolled children did not receive OPV at birth; 179 children died within the first year of life. Missing OPV at birth was associated with a tendency for decreased mortality (adjusted MRR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.46-1.03, the effect being similar among recipients of VAS and placebo. There was a highly significant interaction between OPV at birth and sex (p = 0.006. Not receiving OPV at birth was associated with a weak tendency for increased mortality in girls (1.14 (0.70-1.89 but significantly decreased mortality in boys (0.35 (0.18-0.71. CONCLUSIONS: In our study OPV at birth had a sex-differential effect on mortality. Poliovirus is almost eradicated and OPV at birth contributes little to herd immunity. A randomised study of the effect of OPV at birth on overall mortality in both sexes is warranted.

  12. Risk factors for active trachoma and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in treatment-naive trachoma-hyperendemic communities of the Bijagos Archipelago, Guinea Bissau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Last

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is hyperendemic on the Bijagós Archipelago of Guinea Bissau. An understanding of the risk factors associated with active trachoma and infection on these remote and isolated islands, which are atypical of trachoma-endemic environments described elsewhere, is crucial to the implementation of trachoma elimination strategies.A cross-sectional population-based trachoma prevalence survey was conducted on four islands. We conducted a questionnaire-based risk factor survey, examined participants for trachoma using the World Health Organization (WHO simplified grading system and collected conjunctival swab samples for 1507 participants from 293 randomly selected households. DNA extracted from conjunctival swabs was tested using the Roche Amplicor CT/NG PCR assay. The prevalence of active (follicular and/or inflammatory trachoma was 11% (167/1508 overall and 22% (136/618 in 1-9 year olds. The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 18% overall and 25% in 1-9 year olds. There were strong independent associations of active trachoma with ocular and nasal discharge, C. trachomatis infection, young age, male gender and type of household water source. C. trachomatis infection was independently associated with young age, ocular discharge, type of household water source and the presence of flies around a latrine.In this remote island environment, household-level risk factors relating to fly populations, hygiene behaviours and water usage are likely to be important in the transmission of ocular C. trachomatis infection and the prevalence of active trachoma. This may be important in the implementation of environmental measures in trachoma control.

  13. Markers of iron status are associated with stage of pregnancy and acute-phase response, but not with parity among pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kæstel, Pernille; Aaby, Peter; Ritz, Christian; Friis, Henrik

    2015-10-14

    While prenatal Fe supplementation prevents maternal Fe deficiency and anaemia, it is uncertain whether it improves infant health outcomes, at least when taken by Fe-replete women. Inflammation as well as physiological changes complicates the assessment of Fe status during pregnancy. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), Hb and the acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) in a cross-sectional study among 738 pregnant women attending antenatal care in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of Fe status markers. The mean gestational age was 23 (sd 7) weeks. Serum ferritin values were lower with progressing gestation, from 27% lower during weeks 16-20 of gestation up to 59% lower after 29 weeks of gestation compared with early pregnancy. Using cut-off values for Fe deficiency as established in non-pregnant individuals, 52% of the women had sTfR levels >2·3 mg/l, while only 25% had serum ferritin levels 2·3 mg/l decreased to 47% after adjustment for elevated serum CRP and ACT levels. On the contrary, the proportion of serum ferritin < 12 μg/l increased to 33% after adjustment for ACT and CRP. The high proportion of elevated serum sTfR calls for pregnancy-specific cut-offs since increased erythropoiesis is expected in response to increased plasma volume of pregnancy. The present study further underlines the need to adjust for inflammation when serum sTfR and serum ferritin are used to assess Fe status in pregnancy.

  14. Plasmodium falciparum infection rates for some Anopheles spp. from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4n3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R. Sanford

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Presence of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in a sample of Anopheles gambiae s.s., A. melas and A. pharoensis collected in Guinea-Bissau during October and November 2009. The percentage of P. falciparum infected samples (10.2% overall; confidence interval (CI: 7.45-13.6% was comparable to earlier studies from other sites in Guinea-Bissau (9.6-12.4%. The majority of the specimens collected were identified as A. gambiae which had an individual infection rate of 12.6 % (CI: 8.88-17.6 across collection sites. A small number of specimens of A. coluzzii, A. coluzzii x A. gambiae hybrids, A. melas and A. pharoensis were collected and had infection rates of 4.3% (CI:0.98-12.4, 4.1% (CI:0.35-14.5, 11.1% (CI:1.86-34.1 and 33.3% (CI:9.25-70.4 respectively. Despite being present in low numbers in indoor collections, the exophilic feeding behaviors of A. melas (N=18 and A. pharoensis (N=6 and high infection rates observed in this survey suggest falciparum-malaria transmission potential outside of the protection of bed nets.

  15. SHORT TERM ADVANTAGES OF A PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP FOR TUBERCULOSIS IN GUINEA BISSAU: REDUCTION OF MORTALITY AND INCREASED DIAGNOSTIC CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fina Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB is widespread in Africa, but weak health systems in developing countries, often display poor quality of care with delays in case identification, irrational therapy and drug shortage, clinical mismanagement, unnecessary expenditures for patients, reduced adherence and increased mortality. Public-private partnership has demonstrated to increase TB case detection, but less is known about its effects on quality of care, mortality and costs for hospitalized TB patients. Methods: Clinical outcomes and costs for TB patients at the TB National Reference Center of Bissau, in Guine Bissau, West Africa were determined during the first 5 months of the public-private management and compared to the ones of previous years when the hospitals was under  direct Government’s management. Results: 215 (2009 and 194 (2013 patients were admitted, respectively. Improvement (p<0.05 was observed in mortality reduction (21% vs 6%, analysis prescription and diagnosis (39% vs 100%, cause of death determination (50% vs 85%, treatment abandonment (15 vs 1. Direct costs for patients during TB diagnostic pathway and inpatient care were significantly reduced, 475 vs 0 USD. Conclusions: Public-private partnerships displays important short term benefits in National TB reference centers, even in post-conflict and low-resource countries. Further studies could aid in determining the overall long term benefits of  this type of cooperation and the specific characteristic of TB and concomitant hematologic and infectious diseases in TB admitted patients.

  16. Artemether-Lumefantrine versus Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Children Aged Less than 15 Years in Guinea-Bissau - An Open-Label Non-Inferiority Randomised Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was introduced for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. Malaria then resurged and recurrent malaria after treatment with AL and stock-outs of AL were common. This study therefore aimed to assess the efficacy of AL and identify...... an alternative second line antimalarial. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) was chosen as it has been shown to be safe and efficacious and to reduce the incidence of recurrent malaria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a multicentre randomised open-label non-inferiority clinical trial, AL or DP were given over 3 days.......022. In a modified intention to treat analysis in which treatment failures day 0 and reinfections were also considered as treatment failures adequate clinical and parasitological responses were 94% and 97% (OR 0.42 [95% CI, 0.13-1.38], p = 0.15). Parasite clearance and symptom resolution were similar with both...

  17. The effect of early measles vaccination at 4.5 months of age on growth at 9 and 24 months of age in a randomized trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S M; Biering-Sørensen, S; Byberg, S;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Providing an early, additional measles vaccine (MV) at 4.5 months of age has been shown to reduce child mortality in low-income countries. We studied the effects on growth at 9 and 24 months of age. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Guinea-Bissau from 2003...... there was no effect of early MV on anthropometry at 9 months. At 24 months children who had received early MV had a significantly larger mid-upper-arm-circumference (MUAC/in cm) (Difference = 0.08; 95% CI (0.02;0.14)) compared with children in the control group; this effect was most pronounced among girls (0.12 (0......-2007 including 6,648 children. Children were randomized 1:1:1 to receive Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age (group A), no vaccine at 4.5 months and Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 9 months (group B), or no vaccine at 4.5 months and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months (group C) Data...

  18. Cashew Chain Value in Guiné-Bissau: Challenges and Contributions for Food Security: A Case Study for Guiné-Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Reynolds Pacheco de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Guiné-Bissau is a recent example of political stabilization after a recent period of instability, where the international community can play an important role in cooperation and development, but with innovation and new effective policies. Food security is certainly one of the big issues to be addressed and cashew production and respective chain value one of the main opportunities to improve the quality of life for many families. Guinea-Bissau can be considered one of the most fragile countries in Sub-Sahara Africa, but at the same time with significant economic potential. Poverty alleviation is very much dependent from agricultural activities and agribusiness will be always at the core of the most possible solutions. Within those possible solutions the contribution of the cashew sector is crucial, which has been playing already a key role in the economy and in the family survival equation. More than 80% of the families depend from agricultural activities and most of them are linked to the production of cashew. This crop represents more than 90% of exports, and at the same time is responsible for income alleviation resources at local family base. However Cashew expansion is a very recent phenomena, with about 20 years of success, beyond all political “turmoil.” Today the country is the second biggest in Africa, after Ivory Coast, and the fourth worldwide (also after India and Vietnam. Exports were around 20 thousand tons in 1990 and close to 200 thousand tons in the last year’s production. But the most important factors to be considered in a cash crop business is also a very “unique” structure of production, mostly family based and where the average dimension of production per family is dominantly between 1 to 2 hectares. Very much related to those structural characteristics, which vary by region, is the role of this crop in the food security dimension of the families, which is calculated to represent in average 4,8 months of income

  19. A instabilidade contínua na Guiné-Bissau

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    Kamilla Rizzi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Pouco mais de um ano após os assassinatos políticos que chocaram a comunidade internacional, uma nova tentativa de golpe militar ocorreu na Guiné-Bissau, em 1º de abril passado. A contínua instabilidade política guineense vem desde a independência, em 1973.

  20. Qualidade dos produtos apícolas da Guiné Bissau: mel e própolis

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Mélissa Andréa

    2014-01-01

    A colmeia é uma fonte de produtos nutritivos e com elevadas potencialidades farmacológicas, como o mel, o pólen, a cera, a geleia real, a apitoxina ou o pão de abelha. Neste trabalho destacamos o mel e a própolis da Guiné- Bissau avaliando a sua qualidade. Na Guiné- Bissau, um país subdesenvolvido situado na costa Ocidental de África, os produtos provenientes da colmeia podem contribuir para o enriquecimento das condições nutricionais da população um problema que se vem mantendo ao longo d...

  1. Increased mortality in the year following discharge from a paediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Jens Erik; Sodeman, Morten; Biai, Sidu

    2007-01-01

    -based surveillance system was available for 4153 admissions contributed by 3373 individuals having between 1 and 8 admissions during the period. Three thousand six hundred forty seven (3647) admissions by 2950 children resulted in live discharges. Postdischarge mortality included all deaths during 1 year following...... live discharge. RESULTS: Among the 221 children who died during the first year after discharge, 170 died in the community and 51 children died during a subsequent hospitalization; thirty-eight died on the day of discharge and almost one third had died within the first 2 weeks. The overall in......-hospital and 12-month posthospital mortality was 20%. Compared to the mortality level in the community and controlled for other determinants of childhood mortality, children discharged from hospital had 12 times higher risk of dying during the first 2 weeks after discharge. The mortality rate ratio (MR) was 6...

  2. First record of Mugil capurrii (Mugilidae, Perciformes) in the Gulf of Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Trape, Sébastien; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Leaping African mullet Mugil capurrii was caught along the Togolese coast in the Gulf of Guinea. This is the first record of this species which usually occurs from Morocco to Guinea Bissau and the southernmost point of its known distribution.

  3. First record of Mugil capurrii (Mugilidae, Perciformes) in the Gulf of Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, S; Durand, J-D

    2011-03-01

    Leaping African mullet Mugil capurrii was caught along the Togolese coast in the Gulf of Guinea. This is the first record of this species which usually occurs from Morocco to Guinea Bissau and the southernmost point of its known distribution.

  4. Alguns ectoparasitas e protozoários em bovinos da República da Guiné-Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    ROSA, FERNANDA; Crespo, Maria Virgínia; Travassos Dias, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Os autores assinalam a presença de algumas espécies de ixodídeos (Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus annulatus, B. geigy e Hyalomma sp.) localizados em diferentes regiões do corpo de bovinos autóctones da República da Guiné-Bissau, colhidos entre Novembro de 1990 e Março de 1991. A pesquisa de protozoários, efectuada principalmente em esfregaços de sangue revelou a presença de Anaplasma marginale, Theileria mutans, Babesia bigemina e Sarcocystis sp. Não foram encontradas lesões relacionada...

  5. A educação durante a colonização portuguesa na Guiné-Bissau (1471-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço Ocuni Cá

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho pretende-se tratar da educação pré-colonial, educação colonial e educação durante a luta de libertação nacional da Guiné-Bissau. Antes da dominação colonial na Guiné-Bissau, não havia instituição escolar tal como existe hoje. Portanto, a educação consistia em aquisição de conhecimentos e normas de comportamento como em qualquer sociedade. A ausência das instituições escolares na sociedade guineense tradicional não significava a inexistência de ensino-aprendizagem, porque se tratava de uma cultura oral, que foi sobreposta pela cultura escrita européia. Neste trabajo pretiende si tratar de la educación pré-colonial, educación colonial e educación duranti la lucha de libartación naciaonal de Guine-Bissau. Antes de la dominación colonial na Guine-Bissau, no habia institución escolar como hay. Portanto, la educación consistia en aquisición de conocimientos y normas de comportamiento como en qualquiera sociedad. La ausencia de las institucines escolares na sociedad guineense tradicional no significaba la inexistencia de ensino-apredizaje, porque se trataba de una cultura oral que hay sobreposta pela cultura escrita europea.

  6. Establishing a Twin Registry in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Gomes, Margarida A; Joaquím, Luis C;

    2013-01-01

    , diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and infectious diseases such as HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria. A major focus area is also the etiology of low birth weight and how epigenetic processes might modulate the consequences of low birth weight in Sub-Saharan Africa. For this, monozygotic twin studies...

  7. Routine vaccinations associated with divergent effects on female and male mortality at the paediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Jens Erik; Sodemann, Morten; Biai, Sidu

    2005-01-01

    unchanged when hospitalised measles cases were excluded from the analysis (0.49 (0.26-0.94)). The effect of measles vaccine was strongest for children with pneumonia (MR=0.28 (0.07-0.91)) and presumptive malaria (MR=0.40 (0.13-1.18)). For measles-vaccinated children, the female to male case fatality ratio......Several studies have suggested that routine childhood immunisations may have non-specific effects on mortality. To examine which disease categories might be affected, we investigated whether immunisation status had an impact on the case fatality for hospitalised children. Between 1990 and 1996...... had been seen at admission, the case fatality ratio for measles-vaccinated children versus measles-unvaccinated children was 0.51 (0.27-0.98), the beneficial effect being significantly stronger for girls than for boys (test of interaction, p=0.050). The protective effect of measles vaccine remained...

  8. Expérience Marocaine sur les goitres négligés en mission humanitaire en Guinée Bissau: à propos de quatre observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraqui, Hicham; Sair, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    La mission humanitaire de notre hôpital militaire médico-chirurgicale en Guinée Bissau avait pour but le rapprochement des soins à la population. Les pathologies rencontrées étaient le plus souvent négligées. Nous rapportons quatre observations de goitres négligés sur une durée de trois mois allant de Mai 2015 à Aout 2015. Nous discuterons les problèmes de pathologies négligées en rapport essentiellement avec le niveau socio-économique bas et l'insuffisance en moyens diagnostiques et thérapeutiques et en personnel de soins qualifiés. PMID:26834925

  9. BCG vaccination scar associated with better childhood survival in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Gustafson, Per; Nhaga, Alexandro

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a non-specific beneficial effect on infant survival and that a BCG scar may be associated with lower child mortality. No study has previously examined the influence of BCG vaccination on cause of death....

  10. The effect of early measles vaccination on thymic size. A randomized study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lone Damkjær; Eriksen, Helle Brander; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    In low-income countries early measles vaccine (MV) is associated with reduced child mortality which cannot be explained by prevention of measles. A large thymus gland in infancy is also associated with reduced mortality. We hypothesized that early MV is associated with increased thymic size. Within...... a randomized trial providing MV at age 4.5 and 9 months or MV only at age 9 months, thymic size was assessed by ultrasound at age 4.5 months, before randomization to early MV or no early MV, and 4 weeks later. Among 656 children, there was no effect of early MV on thymic size, the geometric mean size ratio...... being 0.99 (95% CI: 0.96-1.02). In a post hoc analysis early MV was associated with a negative effect in healthy children but a positive effect in ill children. In conclusion, early MV at age 4.5 months had no overall effect on thymus size 4 weeks later. Trial registration: http...

  11. Vaccination coverage and out-of-sequence vaccinations in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornshøj, Linda; Benn, Christine Stabell; Fernandes, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    this study was conducted. The WHO assesses coverage by 12 months of age. The sequence of vaccines may have an effect on child mortality, but is not considered in official statistics or assessments of programme performance. We assessed vaccination coverage and frequency of out-of-sequence vaccinations by 12...... to ascertain vaccination status. Between 2003 and 2009 vaccination status by 12 months of age was assessed for 5806 children aged 12-23 months; vaccination status by 24 months of age was assessed for 3792 children aged 24-35 months. OUTCOME MEASURES: Coverage of EPI vaccinations and frequency of out......-of-sequence vaccinations. RESULTS: Half of 12-month-old children and 65% of 24-month-old children had completed all EPI vaccinations. Many children received vaccines out of sequence: by 12 months of age 54% of BCG-vaccinated children had received DTP with or before BCG and 28% of measles-vaccinated children had received...

  12. Persisting high hospital and community childhood mortality in an urban setting in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Jens Erik; Biai, Sidu; Jakobsen, Marianne;

    2007-01-01

    minor improvements in acute case management of sick children attending the hospital would be expected to result in substantial reduction in overall childhood mortality. Persistently high acute in-hospital mortality reflects the need of immediate and appropriate care at the hospital. Treatment should......AIM: To describe paediatric hospitalization in a West African capital in relation to overall childhood mortality in the community and to evaluate the potential impact of improved management at the hospital. METHODS: Hospital data on child admissions in a 6-year period were linked to information...... in a community-based longitudinal surveillance system. Paediatric hospitalization rates, risk factors for hospitalizations, community mortality, in-hospital mortality and the proportion of deaths occurring at hospital were examined. RESULTS: Almost 15% of infants and 45% of children less than 5 years of age had...

  13. Trial of high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, T G; Hansen, H L

    1988-01-01

    In a randomised study of 558 children in an urban African community, the protective effect of the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine given in a dose of 40,000 plaque forming units from the age of 4 months was compared with the effects of a standard dose (6000 tissue culture infectious units......) of Schwarz measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months. During two years of follow-up, all 14 clinical cases of measles occurred in the Schwarz group; 10 of the children contracted measles before vaccination and 4 after measles vaccination. Thus the EZ vaccine provided significant protection against...... measles both before and after the usual age of vaccination. Among the children who were exposed to measles at home, those given EZ vaccine were better protected than either unvaccinated children or those given the Schwarz vaccine....

  14. Vaccinia scars associated with better survival for adults. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Gustafson, Per; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin;

    2006-01-01

    Live vaccines including BCG and measles may have non-targeted beneficial effects on childhood survival in areas with high mortality. The authors therefore undertook a survey of vaccinia scars to evaluate subsequent mortality.......Live vaccines including BCG and measles may have non-targeted beneficial effects on childhood survival in areas with high mortality. The authors therefore undertook a survey of vaccinia scars to evaluate subsequent mortality....

  15. Evolution of cocirculating varicella-zoster virus genotypes during a chickenpox outbreak in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Depledge, Daniel P; Gray, Eleanor R; Kundu, Samit;

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a double-stranded DNA alphaherpesvirus, is associated with seasonal outbreaks of varicella in nonimmunized populations. Little is known about whether these outbreaks are associated with a single or multiple viral genotypes and whether new mutations rapidl...

  16. Childhood mortality after oral polio immunisation campaign in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Sodemann, Morten

    2005-01-01

    Though previous studies have suggested a non-specific beneficial effect of oral polio vaccine (OPV), there has been no evaluation of the mortality impact of national polio immunization days. On the other hand, studies examining the effect of OPV and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines, wh...

  17. Effect of revaccination with BCG in early childhood on mortality: randomised trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, A.E.; Benn, Christine Stabell; Ravn, H.;

    2010-01-01

    children compared with controls was 2.69 (1.05 to 6.88) in the period after these campaigns. Throughout the trial, the effect of BCG revaccination on mortality was significantly different (P=0.006) in children who had received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) booster vaccination before enrolment (hazard...... inhabitants. Participants 2871 children aged 19 months to 5 years with low or no reactivity to tuberculin and who were not severely sick on the day of enrolment. Intervention BCG vaccination or no vaccination (control). Main outcome measure Hazard ratios for mortality. Results 77 children died during follow...... controls of 1.04 (0.81 to 1.33). The trial was stopped prematurely because of a cluster of deaths in the BCG arm of the study. This increase in mortality occurred at a time when many children had received missing vaccinations or vitamin A or iron supplementation; the hazard ratio for BCG revaccinated...

  18. BCG coverage and barriers to BCG vaccination in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Sanne Marie; Byberg, Stine; Pedersen, Marie;

    2014-01-01

    in selected intervention regions. Factors associated with delayed BCG vaccination were evaluated using logistic regression models. Coverage between intervention and control regions were evaluated in log-binomial regression models providing prevalence ratios. RESULTS: Among 3951 children born in 2010...

  19. Seven years' experience with Cryptosporidium parvum in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch, M; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S;

    2001-01-01

    , exceeded only by Giardia lamblia which was found in 14.8% of the samples. The highest prevalence of cryptosporidium was found in children aged 6-11 months, whereas the prevalence of other enteric parasites increased with age. Cryptosporidiosis showed a marked seasonal variation, with peak prevalences found...... consistently at the beginning of or just before the rainy seasons, May through July. By contrast, no seasonality was found for the enteric parasites Giardia lamblia or Entamoeba histolytica. We conclude that Cryptosporidium parvum is an important pathogen in children with diarrhoea....

  20. Effect of revaccination with BCG in early childhood on mortality: randomised trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, A.E.; Benn, Christine Stabell; Ravn, H.;

    2010-01-01

    controls of 1.04 (0.81 to 1.33). The trial was stopped prematurely because of a cluster of deaths in the BCG arm of the study. This increase in mortality occurred at a time when many children had received missing vaccinations or vitamin A or iron supplementation; the hazard ratio for BCG revaccinated...... children compared with controls was 2.69 (1.05 to 6.88) in the period after these campaigns. Throughout the trial, the effect of BCG revaccination on mortality was significantly different (P=0.006) in children who had received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) booster vaccination before enrolment (hazard...... ratio 0.36, 0.13 to 0.99) and children who had not received the booster before enrolment (1.78, 1.04 to 3.04). Conclusions There was no overall beneficial effect of being revaccinated with BCG. The effect of BCG revaccination on mortality might depend on other health interventions...

  1. Milk Enzyme Activities and Subclinical Mastitis Among Women in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lill Brith Wium; Hartvig, Ditte Luise; Kæstel, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    Background: Subclinical mastititis (SCM) is a condition with raised milk concentration of sodium and milk immune factors. The milk enzymes N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (AcP), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) have attracted attention in dairy...... research as indicators of SCM, udder health, and milk quality. Study Design: To investigate if milk enzyme activities and the inflammatory interleukin 8 (IL-8) level are increased in women with SCM, we measured sodium, potassium, NAGase, LDH, AcP, AP, and IL-8 in breastmilk samples collected at 2 months...... in univariate linear regression (p enzymes and IL-8). Conclusions: A positive association between the Na/K ratio and the breastmilk enzymes NAGase, LDH, AcP, and AP was found. Breastmilk enzymes have not previously been investigated in relation to SCM in women, and further...

  2. Vaccination technique, PPD reaction and BCG scarring in a cohort of children born in Guinea-Bissau 2000-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Sodemann, Morten; Jensen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The rates of positive tuberculin skin test (TST) reactions and BCG scarring after BCG vaccination vary between studies and populations. Tuberculin reactivity and BCG scarring may be related to better child survival in low-income countries. We therefore studied determinants for TST reaction......=2225) of age. In a subgroup of the children the vaccination technique was monitored by direct observation of post-vaccination wheal and route of administration. Three different types of BCG vaccine supplied by the local Extended Programme on Immunization were used. At 6 months of age the rate of PPD.......66 (1.24-2.21)). In the multivariable analyses of BCG-vaccinated children assessed at 6 months of age, monitoring of vaccination technique and type of BCG vaccine were important. This was not changed by control for other determinants, including sex, season, vaccination place, birthplace, ethnic group...

  3. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito

    2010-01-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys....

  4. Effects of the introduction of new vaccines in Guinea-Bissau on vaccine coverage, vaccine timeliness, and child survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Hornshøj, Linda; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2014-01-01

    and a more restrictive wastage policy, including only vaccinating children younger than 12 months. We assessed coverage of all vaccines in the Expanded Program on Immunizations before and after the new vaccines' introduction, and the implications on child survival. METHODS: This observational cohort study...... received measles vaccine after 12 months of age using data from 1999-2006; and compared child mortality after age 12 months in children who had received measles vaccine and those who had not using data from 1999 to 2006. FINDINGS: The proportion of children who were fully vaccinated by 12 months of age......-2006, child mortality was higher in children who had not received measles vaccine than in those who had. FUNDING: DANIDA, European Research Council, the Danish Independent Research Council, European Union FP7 via OPTIMUNISE, and Danish National Research Foundation....

  5. Paracetamol versus placebo in treatment of non-severe malaria in children in Guinea-Bissau: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Ursing, Johan; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2011-01-01

    The current guidelines for treatment of malaria include paracetamol to children with fever. No convincing evidence for the beneficial effects of this practice exists. Studies show that time to parasite clearance is significantly longer in children treated with paracetamol, which questions...

  6. Heterologous Immunological Effects of Early BCG Vaccination in Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Larsen, Nanna; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) seems to have beneficial nonspecific effects; early BCG vaccination of low-birth-weight (LBW) newborns reduces neonatal mortality by >40% due to prevention of primarily septicemia and pneumonia. METHODS:  Within a randomized trial in LBW infants in Guin...

  7. DTP with or after measles vaccination is associated with increased in-hospital mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Biai, Sidu; Veirum, Jens Erik;

    2007-01-01

    The sequence of routine immunisations may be important for childhood mortality. Three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) should be given at 6, 10, and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age. The sequence is not always respected. We examined in-hospital mortality...... of children having received DTP with or after measles vaccine....

  8. A randomized trial of an early measles vaccine at 4½ months of age in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Søndergaard, Mia; Andersen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor), and secreted cytokines (interferon-γ, TNF-α, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17) after in vitro challenge with innate agonists and recall antigens. We analysed the effect of MV in multiple imputation...

  9. Continued efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as second line treatment for malaria in children in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    sensitivity, the efficacy of S/P was studied immediately before the introduction of the drug and 6-9 years later. METHODS: Children participating in clinical in vivo studies were given S/P if having late clinical treatment failure following the treatment with quinine, chloroquine, or amodiaquine...

  10. Neutralizing Antibody Response and Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in HIV-1-Infected Individuals from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggren, Marie; Jensen, Sanne Skov; Heyndrickx, Leo

    2016-01-01

    cytotoxicity (ADCC) against local and nonlocal circulating HIV-1 strains. The neutralizing activity did not demonstrate higher potential against local circulating strains according to geography and subtype determination, but the plasma from Danish individuals demonstrated significantly higher inhibitory...

  11. Assessment of simple risk markers for early mortality among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Inés; Andersen, Andreas; Furtado, Alcino;

    2012-01-01

    (BMI≤18.5 kg/m2), low mid-upper-arm-circumference (MUAC≤250 mm), low CD4 cell count (≤350 cells/μl) and high suPAR plasma levels (>5.3 ng/ml) were independent predictors of death. Furthermore, mortality among patients with low CD4 cell count, low MUAC or low BMI was concentrated in the highest su...

  12. Effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A given with BCG vaccine on mortality in infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Roth, Adam;

    2008-01-01

    -years). Vitamin A supplementation was not significantly associated with mortality; the mortality rate ratio was 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.44). The effect was 1.00 (0.65 to 1.56) during the first four months and 1.13 (0.75 to 1.68) from 4 to 12 months of age. The mortality rate ratio in boys was 0...

  13. UNICEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana ... Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana ...

  14. Markers of iron status are associated with stage of pregnancy and acute-phase response, but not with parity among pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kæstel, Pernille; Aaby, Peter; Ritz, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    While prenatal Fe supplementation prevents maternal Fe deficiency and anaemia, it is uncertain whether it improves infant health outcomes, at least when taken by Fe-replete women. Inflammation as well as physiological changes complicates the assessment of Fe status during pregnancy. In the present...... pregnancy. Using cut-off values for Fe deficiency as established in non-pregnant individuals, 52 % of the women had sTfR levels >2·3 mg/l, while only 25 % had serum ferritin levels 2·3 mg/l decreased to 47 % after adjustment for elevated serum CRP and ACT levels. On the contrary, the proportion of serum...... ferritin pregnancy-specific cut-offs since increased erythropoiesis is expected in response to increased plasma volume of pregnancy. The present study further underlines the need to adjust...

  15. Assessment of HIV-1 patient recruitability in the Republic of Guinea-Bissau using African versus North American hematology and biochemistry reference intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Román, Victor Raúl; Jensen, Sanne Skov; Leo-Hansen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Hematology and biochemistry reference intervals have been derived from healthy, HIV-negative populations to guide clinical trials worldwide. However, it is less clear how such values may be applied to clinical trials involving HIV-infected individuals. We show that contradictory interpretations...

  16. The effect of neonatal vitamin A supplementation on growth in the first year of life among low-birth-weight infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) may amplify the effect of vaccines. We therefore investigated if neonatal VAS given with and without Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine to low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates had an effect on growth in the first year of life. We hypothesised that VAS would......, and 12 months after inclusion. RESULTS: Overall there was no effect of neonatal VAS on growth in the first year of life. By 2 months, VAS tended to have a beneficial effect on weight and head circumference when given with BCG but not when given without BCG (interaction: weight-for-age p = 0.07 and head...... received DTP. CONCLUSION: The results support other trials indicating that neonatal VAS does not have consistent effects on childhood growth and if anything the effects seem to be temporary. They also show that the effect may differ by vaccination status, being beneficial when given with BCG at birth...

  17. Sex-differential effect on infant mortality of oral polio vaccine administered with BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau. A natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2008-01-01

    was not available during several periods. We took advantage of this "natural experiment" to test the effect on mortality of receiving OPV at birth. METHODOLOGY: Between 2002 and 2004, the VAS trial randomised normal-birth-weight infants to 50,000 IU VAS or placebo administered with BCG. Provision of OPV at birth...

  18. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding is not likely to be cost effective in West Africa. A randomized intervention study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne S; Sodemann, Morten; Biai, Sidu

    2008-01-01

    cohort of 1721 infants were randomized to receive health education: promotion of exclusive breastfeeding for the first 4-6 months of life according to WHO recommendations at the time of the study. All children were followed from birth to 6 months of age. RESULTS: Introduction of both water and weaning...

  19. Characterization of incompletely typed rotavirus strains from Guinea-Bissau: identification of G8 and G9 types and a high frequency of mixed infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, TK; Page, NA; Griffin, DD

    2003-01-01

    strains. Detection of such strains among the previously incompletely typed strains indicates a potential underestimation of mixed infections, if only a standard multiplex PCR procedure is followed. Furthermore cross-priming of the G3 primer with the G8 primer binding site and silent mutations at the P[4...

  20. Dual infections with HIV-1, HIV-2 and HTLV-I are more common in older women than in men in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, B; da Silva, Z; Larsen, Olav Ditlevsen;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between the three human retroviruses, HIV-1, HIV-2 and HTLV-I. DESIGN: Community-based follow-up studies of retrovirus infections in two cohorts. METHODS: A total of 2057 individuals aged 35 years and over were eligible for inclusion. Participants were...... interviewed and had a blood sample drawn. Samples were analysed for HIV-1, HIV-2 and HTLV infections. Uni- and multivariate analyses that included behavioural and socio-economic factors were performed using logistic regression and Poisson regression models. RESULTS: A total of 1686 individuals participated...... with a blood sample in the HIV prevalence analyses and 1581 individuals participated in the HTLV-I prevalence analyses. The overall prevalence was 2.1% for HIV-1, 13.5% for HIV-2 and 7.1% for HTLV-I. Comparing the

  1. Duration of secretory IgM and IgA antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus in a community study in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, L G; Kofoed, P E; Nante, E J;

    2000-01-01

    nasopharyngeal suction on days 7, 14, 30, 60 and 120 in the first epidemic and every fortnight for 6 mo after the second epidemic to measure the duration of secretory IgM and IgA responses. Nearly all of the children had an IgM response during the first month after infection. The response ratio was highest...... on days 7 and 14, being 84% and 71%, respectively. After 30 d the IgM response decreased rapidly. Among 27 age- and sex-matched controls, only 1 child was positive for IgM. During the second epidemic, when the children were followed more intensively, half of the children were IgM-positive after the acute...... phase of infection. A secondary response may be more likely in children with low IgM responses in the acute phase (RR = 2.08 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-4.70)). The IgA response was highest on days 28 and 42 after antigen detection, 72% having a detectable IgA response within the first 1.5 mo...

  2. Serial CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte counts and associated mortality in an HIV-2-infected population in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Poulsen, A G; Aaby, P;

    1996-01-01

    ratio, white blood cell counts, lymphocyte percentages, and absolute lymphocyte counts for HIV-2-seropositive compared with HIV-2-seronegative individuals. Only absolute CD4 T-lymphocyte counts changed more for the HIV-2-seropositive than for HIV-2-seronegative individuals (p = 0.037). HIV-2-infected...... percentages, and CD4/CD8 ratios for the same individual were stable for 31 seropositive and 51 seronegative individuals with repeated measurements. We found no significant differences in the changes during a 2- or 4-year period in CD4 percentages, CD8 percentages, absolute CD8 T-lymphocyte counts, CD4/CD8...

  3. Two different doses of supplemental vitamin A did not affect mortality of normal-birth-weight neonates in Guinea-Bissau in a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Diness, Birgitte R; Balde, Ibraima;

    2014-01-01

    to be administered 2 different doses of vitamin A (50,000 or 25,000 IU) or placebo. Infant mortality rates (MRs) were compared in Cox models providing MR ratios (MRRs). Among 6048 children enrolled, there were 160 deaths in 4125 person-years (MR = 39/1000). There was no difference in mortality between the 2 dosage...

  4. Both very low- and very high in vitro cytokine responses were associated with infant death in low-birth-weight children from Guinea bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Jensen, Kristoffer J; Erikstrup, Christian

    2014-01-01

    children to Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) at birth or later according to local policy. Blood samples were obtained from a sub-group at age 6 weeks. Interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured in whole-blood cell cultures stimulated...

  5. The serum level of soluble urokinase receptor is elevated in tuberculosis patients and predicts mortality during treatment: a community study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Gustafson, P; Sidenius, N

    2002-01-01

    /ml, P culture positive (n = 35, median suPAR 2.41 ng/ml, P = 0.005) and by patients diagnosed on clinical grounds (n = 63, median suPAR 2.13 ng/ml, P = 0.06) compared to 64 TB-negative individuals (median suPAR 1.73 ng/ml). During the 8...

  6. De Guinea-Bissau a Colombia. Benkos Biohó, resistencia y (es) Palenque. Un caso de la diáspora africana

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas Valencia, Henry

    2015-01-01

    En este texto hago referencia al caso de Benkos Biohó como una figura simbólica de la resistencia africana, afrodescendiente y afrocolombiana dada desde los palenques (en Brasil se utiliza la expresión "quilombos"), manifestaciones de resistencia que comenzaron en África y más tarde se reprodujeron en toda América durante el tráfico de personas, la colonización y la esclavización. Hoy estas estrategias están siendo reinventadas y reformuladas por los afrodescendientes, mujeres y hombres, que ...

  7. Hypothermia of newborns is associated with excess mortality in the first 2 months of life in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Nielsen, Jens; Veirum, Jens

    2008-01-01

    's axillary temperature was measured within 12 h of birth. They were followed from birth to 6 months of life through regular home visits. RESULTS: We identified 2926 live births in the study area and 177 deaths before 6 months of age. Based on mortality risk, we defined a temperature below 34.5 degrees C...... as the cut-off point for HT. Two hundred and thirty-eight (8%) children had HT. Controlled for birth weight, HT was associated with a nearly fivefold increase in mortality during the first 7 days of life [mortality ratio (MR) = 4.81 (2.90-8.00)] and with increased mortality from 8 to 56 days of life [MR = 2...... for child survival which have not previously been assessed. The WHO definition of HT should be based on mortality data....

  8. The effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation given with bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine at birth on infant rotavirus infection and diarrhea: a randomized prospective study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Birgitte Rode; Christoffersen, Dorthe; Pedersen, Ulla Britt;

    2010-01-01

    Prophylactic vitamin A supplementation (VAS) reduces mortality and may reduce morbidity associated with diarrhea in children >6 months of age. Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute dehydrating diarrhea among children worldwide.......Prophylactic vitamin A supplementation (VAS) reduces mortality and may reduce morbidity associated with diarrhea in children >6 months of age. Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute dehydrating diarrhea among children worldwide....

  9. Can tuberculosis case finding among health-care seeking adults be improved?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, F; Haraldsdottir, Thorny Linda; Mendes, M S

    2014-01-01

    SETTING: The Bandim Health Project study area in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential usefulness of predictors (elsewhere applied) and clinical scores (TBscore and TBscore II) based on signs and symptoms typical of tuberculosis (TB) in case finding. DESIGN: Observational...

  10. Tuberculosis case finding and mortality prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, F; Wagner, A-J; Back, F M

    2017-01-01

    SETTING: A suburban area of Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau; the study was conducted among presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (prePTB) patients seeking medical care for signs and symptoms suggestive of PTB. OBJECTIVE: To determine if a clinical TB score and a biomarker suPAR (soluble urokinase...

  11. Mobile Misfortune

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how the emergent cocaine trade in Bissau, the capital of the west African country of Guinea-Bissau, has become entangled with and trickled into the life worlds, hopes and fears of the city’s many impoverished young men. The article is divided into two parts. While the first...

  12. Vaccination status and sequence of vaccinations as risk factors for hospitalisation among outpatients in a high mortality country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biai, Sidu; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Most developing countries are implementing the WHO immunisation programme. Although vaccines reach most children, many modifications of the recommended schedule are observed in practice. We investigated the association between vaccination status and risk of hospitalisation in Guinea-Bissau....

  13. Onchocerciasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, ... Media centre Fact sheets Quick Links Sitemap Home Health topics Data Media ... and Services Contacts FAQs Employment Feedback Privacy E-mail scams ...

  14. Variability of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Gulf of Guinea and its relation to physical oceanographic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Karen; Mélin, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    The Gulf of Guinea represents a wide tract of the African coast with complex and rich coastal ecosystems undergoing various pressures. The seasonal variations of chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) along the Gulf of Guinea (GoG) and their relations with physical oceanographic variables were analyzed using satellite observations covering the period 2002-2012. The effects of sea surface temperature (SST), sea level anomalies (SLA), winds, geostrophic currents, eddy kinetic energy (EKE), mesoscale eddies and fronts were considered on a monthly time scale. The analysis for each unit area was carried out on a chlorophyll index (IChla) computed as the product of the mean distance from the coast to the eutrophic threshold (1 mg m-3 isoline) and the average Chla in the eutrophic area. The study, based on satellite-derived Chla, was allowed by the unprecedented coverage given by the products distributed by the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC_CCI) resulting from the merging of data from several satellite missions. The physical variables served as potential predictors in a statistical Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) model. To account for the heterogeneous nature of the GoG, the analysis was conducted on eight systems that made up a partition of the whole region defined on the basis of the BRT model results and climatological properties. The western-most domain, from Guinea-Bissau to Sierra Leone, was associated with upwelling properties in boreal winter and appeared to share some characteristics with the overall Northwest African upwelling system. The region of Ivory Coast and Ghana also had upwelling properties but the main upwelling season was in boreal summer. In general upwelling conditions with cold SST, negative SLA, fairly strong frontal activity, and moderate winds, appeared as the environmental window most favorable to high IChla values. For these systems, the BRT model fitted the IChla data well with a percentage of explained total deviance D2 between 70

  15. Does a ruderal strategy dominate the endemic flora of the West African forests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmgren, M.; Poorter, L.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To understand the distribution pattern of endemic plant species in West African rain forests, one of the global priority areas for biodiversity conservation. Location Upper Guinean forests, West Africa (Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana and Togo). Method

  16. Find an ENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ethiopia Falkland Islands Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Terr Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Is and McDonald Is Holy See ( ...

  17. 78 FR 58861 - Presidential Determination With Respect to Foreign Governments' Efforts Regarding Trafficking in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... section 110(d)(1)(A)(i) of the Act, with respect to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the... Republic, People's Republic of China, Guinea-Bissau, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Papua New Guinea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Uzbekistan, and Yemen that provision to these countries' governments of all...

  18. How Social Media Affects the Dynamics of Protest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    meager role, while traditional media such as TV played a decisive role in the protest. Additionally, the author states that the difficult economic...Eritrea 19. Ethiopia 20. Gabon 21. Gambia 22. Ghana 23. Guinea 24. Guinea-Bissau 25. Kenya 26. Lesotho 27. Liberia 28. Libya 29. Madagascar 30

  19. Arican Friends Happily Gather Together in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>In the summer of 2009,the CPAFFC held the first training course for leading members of the African friendship-with-China organizations. A total of 36 trainees came from 19 countries,namely Djibouti,Togo, Benin,Democratic Republic of Congo, Mauritania,Mali,Algeria, Guinea-Bissau,Guinea,Senegal,Burundi, Cote d’Ivoire,Morocco,

  20. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  1. The Bandim tuberculosis score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Joaquim, Luis Carlos; Vieira, Cesaltina

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out in Guinea-Bissau ’ s capital Bissau among inpatients and outpatients attending for tuberculosis (TB) treatment within the study area of the Bandim Health Project, a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Our aim was to assess the variability between 2...... physicians in performing the Bandim tuberculosis score (TBscore), a clinical severity score for pulmonary TB (PTB), and to compare it to the Karnofsky performance score (KPS). Method : From December 2008 to July 2009 we assessed the TBscore and the KPS of 100 PTB patients at inclusion in the TB cohort and...

  2. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H;

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There has been no reference material for T-lymphocyte subsets for normal children in developing countries. We therefore used T-lymphocyte subset determinations among children in three different studies in Guinea-Bissau to construct age-related reference material and to examine possible...

  3. Oral polio vaccine influences the immune response to BCG vaccination. A natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartono, Erliyani; Lisse, Ida M; Terveer, Elisabeth M;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did...

  4. Long chain alkyl and alkenyl phenols from the roots of Ozoroa insignis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonghong Liu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangdong Key Lab. of Marine Materia Medica. South China Sea Institute of Oceanology; Abreu, Pedro J.M. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica. REQUIMTE

    2006-05-15

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic root extract of Ozoroa insignis, collected in Guinea-Bissau, led to the isolation of a 41-member library of alkyl and alkenylphenols, whose structures were determined by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, and GCMS. Determination of double-bond positions in the side chains of alkenylphenols were established by methylthiolation-GCMS. (author)

  5. The immunological effect of revaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine at 19 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Roth, Adam; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov;

    2013-01-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination has important non-specific immune effects. In a randomized trial in Guinea-Bissau, BCG revaccination was associated with significantly increased survival in children who received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)-booster vaccine before enrolment...

  6. Reforma Ortografica, Planejamento e Difusao Linguistica: O Caso da Lingua Portuguesa (Orthographic Reform, Planning, and Linguistic Diffusion: The Case of Portuguese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, John Robert

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that the Luso-Brazilian Accord is a strategy to spread the Portuguese language in Africa, particularly in the former colonies of Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, and Sao Tome e Principe, and to construct and solidify a community of lusophone nations in geopolitical terms in world affairs. Language planning in these countries…

  7. MIL-STD-2411-1 Change 3. Notice Impacts to NAVAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    2010 Memorandum Report Naval Air Systems Command Tactical Aircraft Moving Map Program PMA-209 47123 Buse Road IPT Patuxent River , MD 20670-1547 74...Guinea-Bissau) BOO Bogota Observatory (Colombia) BUR Bukit Rimpah (Bangka and Belitum Islands, Indonesia) CAZ Camp Area Astro (Camp McMurdo Area

  8. How Multilingual African Contexts Are Pushing Educational Research and Practice in New Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Carol

    2010-01-01

    A strong case can be made for developing more flexible and relevant multilingual strategies for teaching and learning within the field of bilingual education. This paper aims to demonstrate how current linguistic and educational practices in countries like Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique and Ethiopia suggest new directions for research and practice. A…

  9. Does oral polio vaccine at birth affect the size of the thymus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Helle Brander; Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that vaccines have an effect on general mortality which goes beyond specific disease protection. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is widely used in low-income countries, but in observational studies in Guinea-Bissau we observed that not receiving OPV at birth...

  10. High mortality despite good care-seeking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare

    1997-01-01

    The care-seeking behaviour of mothers of 125 children deceased aged 1-30 months was investigated by verbal autopsy in an urban area of Guinea-Bissau. A total of 93% of the children were seen at a health centre or hospital during the 2 weeks before death. In a previous survey covering the period...

  11. Quantification of Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load in a rural West African population: no enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 pathogenesis, but HTLV-I provirus load relates to mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariyoshi, K; Berry, N; Cham, F;

    2003-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load was examined in a cohort of a population in Guinea-Bissau among whom human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 is endemic. Geometric mean of HIV-2 RNA load among HTLV-I-coinfected subjects was significantly lower than that in subjects infec...

  12. High mortality risk among individuals assumed to be TB-negative can be predicted using a simple test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine mortality among assumed TB negative (aTBneg) individuals in Guinea-Bissau and to investigate whether plasma levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) can be used to determine post-consultation mortality risk. METHODS: This prospective West-African cohort study included...

  13. The African Peace and Security Architecture: Myth or Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    tendencies of the cult of a strong leader and corrupt practices. The major aspect of this process is the abusive use of the security agencies and...Europe and to a limited extent the United States. This is attributed to weak law enforcement, high level of corruption and effective monitoring along...evidence of indicators of state failure and the likelihood of conflict in countries such as Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Equitorial Guinea and Zimbabwe , but

  14. Mise à jour de la carte d'occupation des sols des provinces côtières de Guinée-Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François CUQ

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente la chaîne méthodologique de mise à jour d'une carte d'occupation des sols à l'aide d'une image du satellite Landsat-5, en employant des méthodes d'analyse spatiale et en étalonnant des modèles d'évolution du couvert à partir de vérifications sur le terrain.

  15. The When and How of male circumcision and the risk of HIV: a retrosepctive cross-sectional analysis of two HIV surveys from Guiné-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Male circumcision (MC) reduces the risk of HIV, and this risk reduction may be modified by socio-cultural factors such as the timing and method (medical and traditional) of circumcision. Understanding regional variations in circumcision practices and their relationship to HIV...... risk and circumcision status, timing, method of circumcision, and socio-demographic factors. Results: MC was protective against HIV infection in both cohorts, with adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of 0.28 (95% CI 0.12-0.66) and 0.30 (95% CI 0.09-0.93), respectively. We observed that post-pubertal (≥13 years......) circumcision provided the highest level of HIV risk reduction in both cohorts compared to non-circumcised. However, the difference between pre-pubertal (≤12 years) and post-pubertal (≥13 years) circumcision was not significant in the multivariate analysis. Seventy-six percent (678/888) of circumcised males...

  16. Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Attention in this discussion of Equatorial Guinea is directed to the following: the people, history, geography, government, political conditions, the economy, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Equatorial Guinea. The population was estimated at 304,000 in 1983 and the annual growth rate was estimated in the range of 1.7-2.5. The infant mortality rate is 142.9/1000 with a life expectancy of 44.4 years for males and 47.6 years for females. The majority of the Equatoguinean people are of Bantu origin. The largest tribe, the Fang, is indigenous to the mainland, although many now also live on Bioko Island. Portuguese explorers found the island of Bioko in 1471, and the Portuguese retained control until 1778, when the island, adjacent islets, and the commercial rights to the mainland between the Niger and Ogooue Rivers were ceded to Spain. Spain lacked the wealth and the interest to develop an extensive economic infrastructure in Equatorial Guinea during the 1st half of this century, but the Spanish did help Equatorial Guinea achieve 1 of the highest literacy rates in Africa. They also founded a good network of health care facilities. In March 1968, under pressure from Guinean nationalists, Spain announced that it would grant independence to Equatorial Guinea as rapidly as possible. A referendum was held on August 11, 1968, and 63% of the electorate voted in favor of the constitution, which provided for a government with a general assembly and presidentially appointed judges in the Supreme Court. After the coup in August 1979, power was placed in the hands of a Supreme Military Council. A new constitution came into effect after a popular vote in August 1982, abolishing the Supreme Military Council. Under the terms of the constitution, the president was given extensive powers. By the end of 1983, a 60-member Chamber of Representatives of the people had been formed. The government, which is credited with restoring greater personal freedom, is regarded

  17. Identification of conserved subdominant HIV Type 1 CD8(+) T Cell epitopes restricted within common HLA Supertypes for therapeutic HIV Type 1 vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Ingrid; Kløverpris, Henrik; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov;

    2012-01-01

    The high HIV-1 prevalence, up to 4.6% in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, makes it a relevant location for testing of therapeutic vaccines. With the aim of performing a clinical study in Guinea-Bissau, after first testing the vaccine for safety in Denmark, Europe, we here describe the design...... of a universal epitope peptide-based T cell vaccine with relevance for any geographic locations. The two major obstacles when designing such a vaccine are the high diversities of the HIV-1 genome and of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. We selected 15 CD8-restricted epitopes predicted......-specific, HLA-restricted T cell specificities using peptide-MHC class I tetramer labeling of CD8(+) T cells from HIV-1-infected individuals. The selected vaccine epitopes are infrequently targeted in HIV-1-infected individuals from both locations. Moreover, we HLA-typed HIV-1-infected individuals...

  18. Predictive value of soluble haemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 serum levels for survival in verified tuberculosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T B; Gustafson, P; Kronborg, G

    2005-01-01

    Pre-treatment serum levels of sCD163 were measured in a cohort of 236 suspected tuberculosis (TB) cases from Guinea-Bissau, with a median follow-up period of 3.3 years (range 0-6.4 years). In 113 cases, the diagnosis of TB was verified by positive sputum microscopy and/or culture. Among the verif......Pre-treatment serum levels of sCD163 were measured in a cohort of 236 suspected tuberculosis (TB) cases from Guinea-Bissau, with a median follow-up period of 3.3 years (range 0-6.4 years). In 113 cases, the diagnosis of TB was verified by positive sputum microscopy and/or culture. Among...

  19. Potential Global Partners for Smaller-Scale Contingencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    Sant’Egidio. National level organizations are typified by the Inter-Religious Council in the former Yugoslavia and the Inter-Faith Mediation Council in Liberia...is the agency for the French-speaking Community, formerly called the Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation or Agence de Cooperation Culturelle ...has been to act as a mediator in the civil war in Guinea-Bissau (along with the ECOWAS). Its members include seven lusophone countries, with East Timor

  20. Old and New Insurgency Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    of this type of terrorism is to create religious—predominately Islamic—states and relies heavily upon suicide bombing techniques. 9 Extremist... minority rule, would include the independence wars by anti-colonial na- tionalist groups in the Portuguese colonies of Angola, Guinea-Bissau, and...2015 essay on this insurgency form, Bunker identi- fied such predatory capitalist activities as follows: • Stress profit and equity gain at all costs

  1. Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill; Balé, Carlito; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton C.; Lisse, Ida M.; Aaby, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the protective efficacy of measles vaccination in infants in a low income country before 9 months of age. Design Randomised clinical trial. Participants 1333 infants aged 4.5 months: 441 in treatment group and 892 in control group. Setting Urban area in Guinea-Bissau. Intervention Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Main outcome measures Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and m...

  2. Africa’s Oil Coast: How the Region’s Strategic Importance May Cause Operational Challenges for AFRICOM as Currently Constructed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    Task Force Horn of Africa CMO Civil Military Operations CN-LEA Counter- Narco Terrorism and Law Enforcement Assistance Division DIA Defense...Advancing Stability and Reconciliation in Guinea-Bissau: Lessons from Africa’s First Narco -State,” (June 2013): 1. 25...significant role in the WACSI program. The command has established a Counter Narco -Terrorism and Law Enforcement Assistance Division (CN-LEA) to help reduce

  3. Phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of hepatitis C virus genotype 2 in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Peter V; Pepin, Jacques; Frost, Eric; Deslandes, Sylvie; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Pybus, Oliver G

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the origin and nature of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genetic diversity is critical for improving treatment and vaccine design, and such diversity is the sole source of information about the virus' epidemic history prior to its identification 20 years ago. In this paper, we study the molecular epidemiology of HCV genotype 2 in its region of endemic origin, west and central Africa. Our analysis includes 56 new and highly diverse HCV isolates sampled from infected individuals in Guinea-Bissau. By combining phylogenetic, geographical and epidemiological information, we find a previously unappreciated geographical structure in the diversity of HCV genotype 2, pointing to a history of eastwards spatial spread from the west African coast to Cameroon that took place over several centuries. Molecular clock analysis dates the common ancestor of HCV in Guinea-Bissau to 1470 (1414-1582). The phylogenetic position of isolates from Madagascar and Martinique suggests a role for the historical slave trade in the global dissemination of HCV and of the epidemic subtypes 2a and 2c. Coalescent-based estimates of epidemic growth indicate a rapid 20th-century spread of HCV genotype 2 in Cameroon that is absent in Guinea-Bissau. We discuss this contrast in the context of possible parenteral HCV exposure during public-health campaigns undertaken during the colonial era.

  4. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus rapid tests underestimate hepatitis prevalence among HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jespersen, S; Medina, C

    2014-01-01

    to detect HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Blood samples from HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau were stored after testing for HBsAg and anti-HCV with rapid tests. Samples were subsequently re-tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV in Denmark....... RESULTS: Two rapid tests were used in Guinea-Bissau: HBsAg Strip Ref 2034 (VEDA.LAB, Alençon, France; sensitivity 62.3%; specificity 99.2%) and HEPA-SCAN (Bhat Bio-Tech, Bangalore, India; sensitivity 57.1%; specificity 99.7%). In the two tests the ability to obtain the correct outcome depended...... on the antigen and antibody concentrations, respectively. Sex, age, CD4 cell count and antiretroviral therapy status did not differ between false negative and true positive samples in either of the tests. The study is limited by a low number of anti-HCV positive samples. CONCLUSIONS: New diagnostic rapid tests...

  5. Nonadherence is Associated with Lack of HIV-Related Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrehave, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Dlama Nggida; Hønge, Bo Langhoff

    2016-01-01

    -sectional study included 494 HIV-infected individuals from the Bissau HIV Cohort in Guinea-Bissau. They completed a questionnaire designed for assessment of adherence and HIV-related knowledge. RESULTS: A majority were female, 41% were illiterate, 25% did not take the medicine during the last 4 days, and 23......BACKGROUND: Poor treatment adherence is a main barrier for effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. HIV-related knowledge may affect understanding and utilization of HIV medical information, hence limited health literacy is a known barrier to treatment adherence. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross......% skipped their medicine during weekends. The most frequent reasons for not taking medicine were simply forgetting, side effects, lack of food, and being too ill to attend the clinic. Nonadherent patients had a lower level of HIV-related knowledge. CONCLUSION: Main barriers for nonadherence were side...

  6. Community study of the relative impact of HIV-1 and HIV-2 on intrathoracic tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, R; Gustafson, P; Gomes, VF;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection is associated with an increased incidence of and mortality from tuberculosis. Few community studies have examined the effect of HIV-2 on tuberculosis. METHODS: We investigated the association between HIV-1, HIV-2 and active tuberculosis in four districts (population 42...... 709) in Bissau, capital of Guinea-Bissau, with the highest known seroprevalence of HIV-2 infection in the world. From May 1996 to June 1998, tuberculosis surveillance and active case finding among contacts was conducted. Patients were HIV-tested, given specific tuberculosis treatment for 8 months...... was 18.3 times higher (95% CI 12.9-26.0) among HIV-1-positive individuals, 13.7 times higher (9.0-20.7) among dually infected (HIV-1 and HIV-2), and 3.0 times higher (2.1-4.3) among HIV-2-infected compared with HIV-negative individuals. HIV-1 and dually infected tuberculosis patients had a higher...

  7. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates. DESIGN: Randomised, placebo controlled, two by two factorial trial. SETTING: Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. PARTICIPANTS: 1717 low birthweight neonates born at the national hospital....... INTERVENTION: Neonates who weighed less than 2.5 kg were randomly assigned to 25 000 IU vitamin A or placebo, as well as to early BCG vaccine or the usual late BCG vaccine, and were followed until age 12 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Mortality, calculated as mortality rate ratios (MRRs), after follow-up to 12...... months of age for infants who received vitamin A supplementation compared with those who received placebo. RESULTS: No interaction was observed between vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccine allocation (P=0.73). Vitamin A supplementation at birth was not significantly associated with mortality...

  8. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  9. Política monetária do BCEAO e o crédito interno na UEMOA: os casos de Benin, Costa do Marfim, Guiné-Bissau e Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Yalá, Danso António

    2012-01-01

    Mestrado em Economia Monetária e Financeira Pretende-se, neste estudo, investigar em que medida a alteração do instrumento da política monetária baseado em taxas de juro, afecta o crédito interno na UEMOA e paralelamente, o impacto dessa situação no PIB e na inflação. A metodologia usada é o modelo VAR, que pretende identificar os efeitos do choque na taxa de juro directora nas restantes variáveis, mas também se a evolução de uma ou mais dessas variáveis pode levar à alteração das taxas...

  10. José Manuel Pureza, Sílvia Roque e Katia Cardoso (orgs., Jovens e trajetórias de violência. Os casos de Bissau e da Praia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Num momento em que acontecimentos recentes como a Primavera Árabe, as manifestações dos Indignados, e os movimentos “Occupy” puseram em destaque as juventudes e as tensões entre economia, direitos e segurança, este livro reveste‑se de particular importância. Em Jovens e trajetórias de violência, compêndio de textos organizados por José Manuel Pureza, Sílvia Roque e Katia Cardoso e resultante de um projeto de investigação apoiado pela Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, um conjunto diverso ...

  11. Neonatal vitamin A supplementation associated with increased atopy in girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, S; Kiraly, N; Da Costa, K

    2015-01-01

    randomized controlled trial in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: In 2002-2004, we randomized 4345 normal birthweight neonates to NVAS (50 000 IU retinyl palmitate) or placebo together with their Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination. In 2013, we visited the 1692 (39%) children now aged 8-10 years who were still living...... in the study area, and 1478 (87%) were found at home. Provided consent, a skin prick test was performed, and history of allergic symptoms was recorded. Associations of NVAS and atopy (defined as skin prick test reaction of ≥3 mm) were analysed using binomial regression. RESULTS: Of the 1430 children...

  12. Household size is critical to varicella-zoster virus transmission in the tropics despite lower viral infectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nichols, Richard A; Averbeck, Karin T; Poulsen, Anja G;

    2011-01-01

    with viral genetic information on routes of infection, to obtain precise estimates of disease transmission within and between houses. This community contains many large households in which different families live under a single roof, in living quarters divided by partitions. Our data show that household...... that the epidemiology of chickenpox in tropical Guinea Bissau is dependent on the interaction of the social and physical environments. The distinctive clinical presentation of VZV and its ubiquitous distribution make it an attractive model for estimating the variables that contribute to global differences...... in the transmission of airborne viruses....

  13. The immunological effects of oral polio vaccine provided with BCG vaccine at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Lund, Najaaraq

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccines may have non-specific effects. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau suggested that oral polio vaccine at birth (OPV0) provided with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was associated with down-regulation of the immune response to BCG vaccine 6 weeks later. Based...... BCG alone at birth, and subsequently randomised to have a blood sample taken at 2, 4 or 6 weeks post-randomisation. Excreted levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ) were measured from whole blood in vitro stimulations with a panel of recall vaccine antigens (BCG, PPD, OPV), mitogen...

  14. A community study of T lymphocyte subsets and malaria parasitaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H

    1994-01-01

    In a community survey of 312 children aged 3-6 years in urban Guinea-Bissau, we examined Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia and T cell subsets. 183 children (59%) had parasites in their blood, 13 had fever > or = 37.5 degrees C, and 9 (3%) had fever and a parasite density > 5000/microL (clinical...... parasites (P = 0.024), whereas there was no association with CD8 cell percentage or the CD4/CD8 ratio. Asymptomatic parasitaemia may be an important confounder in general community studies of T cell subsets in the tropics....

  15. Effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation on the immune response to Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Birgitte R; Fisker, Ane B; Roth, Adam;

    2007-01-01

    objective was to examine whether VAS influences the immune response to simultaneously administered BCG vaccine. DESIGN: Within a randomized trial of 50,000 IU vitamin A or placebo given with BCG vaccine at birth in Guinea-Bissau, 2710 infants were examined for BCG scar formation and delayed-type...... scar was not affected by VAS. The ex vivo interferon-gamma response to PPD was increased by VAS (means ratio: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.91). CONCLUSIONS: VAS with BCG vaccination does not appear to interfere with the long-term immune response to BCG. However, VAS temporarily altered the DTH reaction to PPD...

  16. Potent Intratype Neutralizing Activity Distinguishes Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) from HIV-1

    OpenAIRE

    Özkaya Şahin, Gülşen; Holmgren, Birgitta; da Silva, Zacarias; Nielsen, Jens; Nowroozalizadeh, Salma; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Månsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Sören; Norrgren, Hans; Aaby, Peter; Jansson, Marianne; Fenyö, Eva Maria

    2012-01-01

    HIV-2 has a lower pathogenicity and transmission rate than HIV-1. Neutralizing antibodies could be contributing to these observations. Here we explored side by side the potency and breadth of intratype and intertype neutralizing activity (NAc) in plasma of 20 HIV-1-, 20 HIV-2-, and 11 dually HIV-1/2 (HIV-D)-seropositive individuals from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Panels of primary isolates, five HIV-1 and five HIV-2 isolates, were tested in a plaque reduction assay using U87.CD4-CCR5 cells a...

  17. The effects of vitamin A supplementation with measles vaccine on leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    on overall mortality of providing VAS with vaccines in Guinea-Bissau, we conducted an immunological sub-study of VAS v. placebo with MV, analysing leucocyte counts, whole blood in vitro cytokine production, vitamin A status and concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP). VAS compared with placebo...... was associated with an increased frequency of CRP≥5 mg/l (28 v. 12 %; P=0·005). Six weeks after supplementation, VAS had significant sex-differential effects on leucocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and basophil cell counts, decreasing them in males but increasing them in females. Mainly in females, the effect of VAS...

  18. A case of imported neurocysticercosis in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadas, Emilia; Badura, Robert; Marques, Tiago; Neno, Miguel; Boura, Márcia; Sutre, Ana Filipa; Beato, Sílvia; Grácio, Maria Amélia; Neves, José Cordeiro

    2015-01-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in resource-poor countries. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman born and residing in Guinea-Bissau, who was transferred to Portugal two months after the onset of a possible meningitis (fever, headache, seizures, and coma) that did not respond to antibiotic treatment. The diagnosis of NCC was confirmed by MR imaging, which showed multiple lesions compatible with cysticercus, and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the cerebrospinal fluid. After 28 days on albendazole and dexamethasone without improvement, she was started on praziquantel, which she completed in six weeks with progressive recovery.

  19. Cultural variation in the clinical presentation of sleep paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Joop T V M

    2005-03-01

    Sleep paralysis is one of the lesser-known and more benign forms of parasomnias. The primary or idiopathic form, also called isolated sleep paralysis, is illustrated by showing how patients from different cultures weave the phenomenology of sleep paralysis into their clinical narratives. Clinical case examples are presented of patients from Guinea Bissau, the Netherlands, Morocco, and Surinam with different types of psychopathology, but all accompanied by sleep paralysis. Depending on the meaning given to and etiological interpretations of the sleep paralysis, which is largely culturally determined, patients react to the event in specific ways.

  20. An epidemic outbreak of cryptosporidiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Kåre; Højlyng, Niels; Ingholt, Liselotte;

    1990-01-01

    significantly associated with diarrhea (OR = 2.79, P = 0.0006). The seasonal distribution was striking, with a peak prevalence in the beginning of the rainy season (May 17.6%) when an epidemic outbreak of diarrhea started. The prevalence was highest in children younger than 18 months, an age at which......In the first year of a prospective community study of childhood diarrhea conducted in a semiurban area in the capital of Guinea Bissau, Cryptosporidium sp. was found in 73 (6.0%) of 1216 episodes of diarrhea. The parasite was the second most prevalent intestinal parasite, and the only one...

  1. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a West African population of tuberculosis patients and unmatched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Olesen, Rikke; Rabna, Paulo;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in African populations and in tuberculosis (TB) patients. VDD has been shown to be associated with TB. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the degree of vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) and VDD in TB patients and healthy adult controls in a...... in a West African population. DESIGN: An unmatched case-control study was performed at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea-Bissau. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentrations were measured in 362 TB patients and in 494 controls. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D(3)...

  2. DC-SIGN (CD209), pentraxin 3 and vitamin D receptor gene variants associate with pulmonary tuberculosis risk in West Africans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, R; Wejse, C; Velez, D R;

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the role of DC-SIGN (CD209), long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in 321 TB cases and 347 healthy controls from Guinea-Bissau. Five additional, functionally relevant SNPs...... within toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2, 4 and 9 were typed but found, when polymorphic, not to affect host vulnerability to pulmonary TB. We did not replicate an association between SNPs in the DC-SIGN promoter and TB. However, we found that two polymorphisms, one in DC-SIGN and one in VDR, were associated...

  3. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a West African population of tuberculosis patients and unmatched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Olesen, Rikke; Rabna, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in African populations and in tuberculosis (TB) patients. VDD has been shown to be associated with TB. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the degree of vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) and VDD in TB patients and healthy adult controls...... in a West African population. DESIGN: An unmatched case-control study was performed at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea-Bissau. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentrations were measured in 362 TB patients and in 494 controls. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D(3) Udgivelsesdato: 2007...

  4. Guinea Fowl Production in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Guinea fowl farming is still in its infancy in Botswana; hence the population of farmed guinea fowl is unknown, as well as, their contribution to human nutrition. Presently, production occurs mainly at subsistence level and females (women appear to dominate the industry. In Botswana, guinea fowl are raised mainly under the semi-intensive system. Guinea fowl meat is of high quality, being high in protein and low in fat content, thus it is highly prized compared to chicken meat. It appears that guinea fowl farming could be more suitable to the rural areas where commercial chicken production has failed because guinea fowl are tolerant to diseases than chickens. Some challenges to guinea fowl production include farmers’ inadequate management skills necessary to raise guinea fowl successfully, inadequate technical support and lack of financial support from government extension services. It appears that guinea fowl production could be an important supplier of high quality animal protein (meat and eggs, as well as, a job creator in the rural areas.

  5. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-01-01

    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin...

  6. Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    The eastern half of the island of New Guinea (85% of total area); the Bismarck, Trobriand, Louisiade, and D'Entrecasteaux Archipelagos; and Bougainville, Buka, and Woodlark islands constitute the predominantly mountainous country of Papua New Guinea. It is located 160 km northeast of Australia in the South Pacific Ocean. This tropical country has 2 monsoon seasons with average annual rainfall ranging from 200-250 cm. It has 1 of the most heterogenous populations in the world with as many as several 1000 separate communities. Only 650 languages have yet been identified with 160 of them totally unrelated to each other or to any other language. At different times in its history, the country (or parts thereof) has been under the control of Germany, Australia (its largest bilateral aid donor), Japan, and Britain. After independence in 1975, Papua New Guinea established a veritable and strong parliamentary democracy. This democracy has an excellent human rights record and has a clear respect for these rights. 75% of the population live predominately at subsistence level. Gross domestic product (GDP) increased about 2%/year during the 1980s with agriculture making up 35% of GDP (40% of exports) and mining (copper and gold) 15%. In 1989, exports included 40% of GDP. Other than mining, the industrial sector made up 9% of GDP with little contributing to exports. Food processing was the fastest growing segment of the industrial segment. 45% of agricultural production consisted of subsistence cultivation. Coffee and cocoa were the 2 leading cash crops. Financially, the country was sound in 1989 with exports and imports almost equal from 1986. The United States relationship with Papua New Guinea is friendly and the 2 countries have a good trade relationship.

  7. Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    The situation of the island archipelago nation of Papua New Guinea is reviewed in terms of its geography, people, history, government, politics economy and foreign relations. Papua New Guinea consists of the eastern half of the main island of New Guinea (the western portion is Indonesia), and several island groups, all located northeast of Australia. The island has extreme geographical variations, ranging from precipitous mountains to extensive swamps and river valleys, all in a monsoon cimate. As a result, there are hundreds of small groups each with unique cultures and languages; over 650 languages, many unrelated to each other. The population is estimated at 3.5 million, growing at about 2.5% per year. Historically, the region has been occupied by Germany, Britain, Japan, and the U.S. The country came under the international trusteeship system in 1949, and now has a vigorous parliamentary government. The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, but is buttressed by resources such as gold, copper, and other metals, oil, timber, tropical agricultural products, fish. The only indusry is local production, since the minimum wage is too high to compete with Asian labor.

  8. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

  9. Guinea Worm in a Frog

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-09

    Dr. Mark Eberhard, a retired parasitologist and CDC guest researcher, discusses Guinea worm infection in a wild-caught frog.  Created: 3/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/9/2017.

  10. Hydrocarbon occurrence in NW Africa's MSGBC area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reymond, A.; Negroni, P.

    1989-06-01

    The MSGBC (Mauritania, Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea Conakry) coastal basin has evolved as a passive margin from Jurassic time up to the present following a period of poorly known rifting of Permian to Middle Jurassic age. Structural configuration of the Paleozoic series is documented by large outcrops and a good number of seismic sections. Based on previous exploration efforts that found significant hydrocarbon shows, a comprehensive study of this African basin's source rocks, maturation evolution and petroleum generation potential was undertaken. About 1,000 geochemical analyses of the Paleozoic, Cretaceous and Tertiary series identified good source rocks in the Cenomano-Turonian, Silurian, Senonian and Paleocene ages. The parameters used to identify and characterize source rock are: Total organic carbon content (TOC) in percent and source potential (in kg HC/t), representing the amount of hydrocarbon generated per ton of rock and determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis.

  11. Guinea pig model of tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pushpa Gupta; U.D.Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Animal models are being developed for testing different vaccine candidates as well as testing of new antituber-cular since a long time.Mice,guinea pigs and rabbits are animals which are frequently used.Though each model has got its merits as well as demerits and each of them differ from human tuberculosis in one aspect or the other but none of the model completely mimics the human disease.Out of the different animal species, guinea pig model is one of the better models as it is very sensitive to M.tuberculosis infection but it has certain limitations like paucity of immunological reagents.However,it is the best model for tuberculosis research.

  12. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  13. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide.

  14. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the...

  15. null Lamington, Papua New Guinea Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dormant stratovolcano in Papua New Guinea suddenly exploded in 1951. Nu?es ardentes (glowing avalanches) shot down the mountain at 100 km per hour, devastated...

  16. Papua New Guinea Tsunami, July 17, 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On the evening of Friday July 17, 1998, a magnitude Ms 7.1 earthquake occurred near the northwest coast Papua New Guinea 850 km (510 miles ) northwest of Port...

  17. The injury mortality burden in Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Mamady Keita; Yao Hongyan; Zhang Xujun; Xiang Huiyun; Tan Hongzhuan; Hu Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The injury mortality burden of Guinea has been rarely addressed. The paper aimed to report patterns of injury mortality burden in Guinea. Methods We retrieved the mortality data from the Guinean Annual Health Statistics Report 2007. The information about underlying cause of deaths was collected based on Guinean hospital discharge data, Hospital Mortuary and City Council Mortuary data. The causes of death are coded in the 9th International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9)...

  18. English and Tok Pisin (New Guinea Pidgin English) in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    1989-01-01

    Tok Pisin, New Guinea Pidgin English, is becoming increasingly important as a "lingua franca" in Papua New Guinea, even though English is the country's official language. Urban versus rural and spoken versus written varieties of the pidgin are examined, and the influence of English on Tok Pisin is investigated. 73 references. (Author/CB)

  19. Introduction of standard measles vaccination in an urban African community in 1979 and overall child survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Søren Wengel; Aaby, Peter; Smedman, Lars

    2016-01-01

    in the anthropometric survey. The cohort was followed for 2 years. INTERVENTION: In December 1979, the children were re-examined anthropometrically. The participating children, aged 6 months to 6 years, were offered MV if they did not have a history of measles infection. There were no routine vaccinations in 1979......OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of the first introduction of measles vaccine (MV) in Guinea-Bissau in 1979. SETTING: Urban community study of the anthropometric status of all children under 6 years of age. PARTICIPANTS: The study cohort included 1451 children in December 1978; 82% took part......-1980. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Age-adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) for measles vaccinated and not vaccinated children; changes in nutritional status. RESULTS: The nutritional status deteriorated significantly from 1978 to 1979. Nonetheless, children who received MV at the December 1979...

  20. Interaction between neonatal vitamin A supplementation and timing of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Martins, Cesario L; Fisker, Ane B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Guinea-Bissau we conducted three trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) from 2002 to 2008. None of the trials found a beneficial effect on mortality. From 2003 to 2007, an early measles vaccine (MV) trial was ongoing, randomizing children 1:2 to early MV at 4.5 months...... with vaccines given several months later. This may have implications for the planning of future child intervention programs....... or no early MV, in addition to the usual MV at 9 months. We have previously found interactions between vitamin A and vaccines. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether there were interactions between NVAS and early MV. DESIGN: We compared the mortality of NVAS and placebo recipients: first, from 4.5 to 8 months...

  1. Therapeutic Vaccination Using Cationic Liposome-Adjuvanted HIV Type 1 Peptides Representing HLA-Supertype-Restricted Subdominant T Cell Epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Román, Victor Raúl Gómez; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Jensen, Sanne Skov;

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine concept based on peptides together with the adjuvant CAF01. Peptides represented 15 HLA-supertype-restricted subdominant and conserved CD8 T cell epitopes and three CD4 T-helper cell epitopes. In this phase I clinical trial, safety and immunogenicity...... were assessed in untreated HIV-1-infected individuals in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Twenty-three HIV-1-infected individuals were randomized to receive placebo (n=5) or vaccine (n=18). Safety was appraised by clinical follow-up combined with monitoring of biochemistry, hematology, CD4 T cell counts......, and HIV-1 viral loads. T cell immunogenicity was monitored longitudinally by interferon (IFN)-γ ELISpot. New vaccine-specific T cell responses were induced in 6/14 vaccinees for whom ELISpot data were valid. CD4 T cell counts and viral loads were stable. The study shows that therapeutic immunization...

  2. Randomized Trials Comparing Inactivated Vaccine after Medium- or High-titer Measles Vaccine with Standard Titer Measles Vaccine after Inactivated Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have suggested that girls have higher mortality if their most recent immunization is an inactivated vaccine rather than a live vaccine. We therefore reanalyzed 5 randomized trials of early measles vaccine (MV) in which it was possible to compare an inactivated...... vaccines [after medium-titer MV (MTMV) or high-titer MV (HTMV)] and a live standard titer MV (after an initial inactivated vaccine). Methods: The trials were conducted in Sudan, Senegal, The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau. The intervention group received live MTMV or HTMV from 4 to 5 months...... and then an inactivated vaccine from 9 to 10 months of age; the control children received inactivated vaccine/placebo from 4 to 5 months and standard titer MV from 9 to 10 months of age. We compared mortality from 9 months until end of study at 3 to 5 years of age for children who received inactivated vaccine (after MTMV...

  3. Breast milk reduces the risk of illness in children of mothers with cholera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Katja; Mølbak, Kåre; Sandström, Anita

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A protective effect of breastfeeding against cholera has been demonstrated in areas endemic of cholera. To assess the protection offered by breast milk from mothers living in an area that had been free from cholera for 7 years, we investigated mothers with cholera and their children...... during an epidemic with Vibrio cholerae El Tor in the capital of Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Eighty mothers with clinical cholera and their children were identified, and interviewed. Blood samples for vibriocidal and antitoxin antibodies were collected from mother-and-child pairs. Breast milk samples were...... collected from lactating mothers.Cholera was defined as acute watery diarrhea during the epidemic and a vibriocidal reciprocal titer of 20 or above. RESULTS: Three (7%) of 42 breastfed children had cholera as defined above compared with 9 (24%) of 38 nonbreastfed children (RR for breastfed children, 0...

  4. Promoting breastfeeding through health education at the time of immunizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M S; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kare

    1999-01-01

    As an intervention against diarrhoea, promotion of breastfeeding has been suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). In the present study from Guinea Bissau we tested the possibilities of promoting breastfeeding at a local health centre. A total of 1250 children were allocated randomly...... group (risk rate 1.18 (95% CI 1.03-1.38) and more mothers had an IUD inserted (risk rate 2.45 (1.27-4.70). The median length of breastfeeding was 23 mo in both groups. There was no difference in the number of children weaned early. Although exclusive breastfeeding was promoted by the intervention, early...... weaning of children in special risk groups was not avoided. An evaluation of the impact of the WHO recommendations in different settings is warranted....

  5. Tuberculin reaction and BCG scar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Aaby, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To test the hypothesis that having a scar and a positive tuberculin skin test (TST) response after vaccination with Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) is associated with reduced infant mortality. Methods We studied cohorts of 2709 normal-birthweight (NBW) and 1102 low-birthweight (LBW......) infants in Guinea-Bissau. Children were enrolled in randomised trials between year 2002 and 2008 and received BCG vaccination at birth. BCG scars and TST responses were assessed at 2 and 6 months of age. The infants were followed for mortality to 12 months of age, and survival was analysed using Cox...... regression. Results At age 2 months, 88% of NBW children and 91% of LBW children had a BCG scar, and 36% and 17% had a TST response, respectively. The LBW infants had nearly twofold higher mortality (4.5%) than the NBW infants (2.8%) between 2 and 12 months of age. In the LBW cohort, the adjusted mortality...

  6. Redescription of Liza bandialensis (Teleostei: Mugilidae) with an identification key to mullet species of Eastern Central Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, Sébastien; Harrison, Ian J; Diouf, Papa Samba; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Liza bandialensis Diouf 1991 is redescribed because previous descriptions have not been in well-distributed publications and have lacked sufficient detail or reference to voucher specimens. The description provided here is based on specimens from the Sine Saloum estuary, Senegal (West Africa), from where the species was originally described. The distinctness of the species is confirmed both by meristic and molecular criteria. L. bandialensis presents a unique combination of characters with a low number of scales in the longitudinal series (32-33), 10.5-12 transverse scale rows, and distinctly yellowish dorsal, anal, and caudal fins. The currently known distribution of L. bandialensis includes coastal waters of Senegal, Gambia and Guinea Bissau. Finally, we provide a morphological identification key for the sixteen species of Mugilidae species occurring along the eastern central Atlantic coast of Africa.

  7. Does the effect of vitamin A supplements depend on vaccination status?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Aaby, Peter; Bale, Carlito

    2012-01-01

    Objective Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) is estimated to reduce all-cause mortality by 24%. Previous studies indicate that the effect of VAS may vary with vaccination status. The authors evaluated the effect of VAS provided in campaigns on child survival overall and by sex and vaccination status...... at the time of supplementation. Design Observational cohort study. Setting and participants The study was conducted in the urban study area of the Bandim Health Project in Guinea-Bissau. The authors documented participation or non-participation in two national vitamin A campaigns in December 2007 and July...... 2008 for children between 6 and 35 months of age. Vaccination status was ascertained by inspection of vaccination cards. All children were followed prospectively. Outcome measures Mortality rates for supplemented and non-supplemented children were compared in Cox models providing mortality rate ratios...

  8. High-dose vitamin A with vaccination after 6 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Bale, Carlito; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2014-01-01

    diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccines, and 21% (1610/7587) received both live and inactivated vaccines. The effect of VAS did not differ by vaccine group. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of the policy on overall mortality. VAS had no overall effect......BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at routine vaccination contacts after 6 months of age based on the assumption that it reduces mortality by 24%. The policy has never been evaluated in randomized controlled trials for its effect on overall...... mortality. We conducted a randomized double-blind trial to evaluate the effect of VAS with vaccines. METHODS: We randomized children aged 6 to 23 months 1:1 to VAS (100000 IU if aged 6-11 months, 200000 IU if aged 12-23 months) or placebo at vaccination contacts in Guinea-Bissau. Mortality rates were...

  9. First report of sylvatic DENV-2-associated dengue hemorrhagic fever in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Franco

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV circulates in human and sylvatic cycles. Sylvatic strains are both ecologically and evolutionarily distinct from endemic viruses. Although sylvatic dengue cycles occur in West African countries and Malaysia, only a few cases of mild human disease caused by sylvatic strains and one single case of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Malaysia have been reported. Here we report a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF with thrombocytopenia (13000/µl, a raised hematocrit (32% above baseline and mucosal bleeding in a 27-year-old male returning to Spain in November 2009 after visiting his home country Guinea Bissau. Sylvatic DENV-2 West African lineage was isolated from blood and sera. This is the first case of DHF associated with sylvatic DENV-2 in Africa and the second case worldwide of DHF caused by a sylvatic strain.

  10. First report of sylvatic DENV-2-associated dengue hemorrhagic fever in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Leticia; Palacios, Gustavo; Martinez, José Antonio; Vázquez, Ana; Savji, Nazir; De Ory, Fernando; Sanchez-Seco, María Paz; Martín, Dolores; Lipkin, W Ian; Tenorio, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) circulates in human and sylvatic cycles. Sylvatic strains are both ecologically and evolutionarily distinct from endemic viruses. Although sylvatic dengue cycles occur in West African countries and Malaysia, only a few cases of mild human disease caused by sylvatic strains and one single case of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Malaysia have been reported. Here we report a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) with thrombocytopenia (13000/µl), a raised hematocrit (32% above baseline) and mucosal bleeding in a 27-year-old male returning to Spain in November 2009 after visiting his home country Guinea Bissau. Sylvatic DENV-2 West African lineage was isolated from blood and sera. This is the first case of DHF associated with sylvatic DENV-2 in Africa and the second case worldwide of DHF caused by a sylvatic strain.

  11. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine Stabell; Andersen, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had...... received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Using hospital admission data from the national pediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea...... enrollment the 2 groups had similar admission rates. Following enrollment, the measles vaccine group had an admission HRR of 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .52-.95), with a ratio of 0.53 (95% CI, .32-.86) for girls and 0.86 (95% CI, .58-1.26) for boys. For children who had not received NVAS...

  12. Reduced in-hospital mortality after improved management of children under 5 years admitted to hospital with malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biai, Sidu; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Gomes, Melba

    2007-01-01

    in the use of the standardised guidelines for the management of malaria, including strict follow-up procedures. Nurses and doctors were randomised to work on intervention or control wards. Personnel in the intervention ward received a small financial incentive ($50 (25 pounds sterling; 35 euros......OBJECTIVE: To test whether strict implementation of a standardised protocol for the management of malaria and provision of a financial incentive for health workers reduced mortality. DESIGN: Randomised controlled intervention trial. SETTING: Paediatric ward at the national hospital in Guinea......-Bissau. All children admitted to hospital with severe malaria received free drug kits. PARTICIPANTS: 951 children aged 3 months to 5 years admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of malaria randomised to normal or intervention wards. INTERVENTIONS: Before the start of the study, all personnel were trained...

  13. Mixed-stock analysis in green turtles Chelonia mydas: mtDNA decipher current connections among west Atlantic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Jordao, Juliana; Bondioli, Ana Cristina Vigliar; Almeida-Toledo, Lurdes Foresti de; Bilo, Karin; Berzins, Rachel; Le Maho, Yvon; Chevallier, Damien; de Thoisy, Benoit

    2017-03-01

    The green turtle Chelonia mydas undertakes wide-ranging migrations between feeding and nesting sites, resulting in mixing and isolation of genetic stocks. We used mtDNA control region to characterize the genetic composition, population structure, and natal origins of C. mydas in the West Atlantic Ocean, at one feeding ground (State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), and three Caribbean nesting grounds (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Suriname). The feeding ground presented considerable frequency of common haplotypes from the South Atlantic, whereas the nesting sites presented a major contribution of the most common haplotype from the Caribbean. MSA revealed multiple origins of individuals at the feeding ground, notably from Ascension Island, Guinea Bissau, and French Guiana. This study enables a better understanding of the dispersion patterns and highlights the importance of connecting both nesting and feeding areas. Effective conservation initiatives need to encompass these ecologically and geographically distinct sites as well as those corridors connecting them.

  14. Development of a Guinea Pig Lung Deposition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Development of a Guinea Pig Lung Deposition Model Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. January...4 Figure 2. Particle deposition in the lung of the guinea pig via endotracheal breathing...Particle deposition in the lungs of guinea pigs via nasal breathing. ......................................... 12 v PREFACE The research work

  15. Piper (Piperaceae) in New Guinea: the climbing species

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, R.O.

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen climbing Piper species are accepted for New Guinea. The three endemics, P. arfakianum, P. subcanirameum and P. versteegii, are fully described. Eight taxa of unclear circumscription are noted. A new variety of P. macropiper, endemic to Morobe Province of Papua New Guinea, is described. The presence of an ant-plant piper in West New Guinea is noted.

  16. Malignant transformation of guinea pig cells after exposure to ultraviolet-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isom, H.C.; Mummaw, J.; Kreider, J.W.

    1983-04-30

    Guinea pig cells were malignantly transformed in vitro by ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV). When guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers were infected with uv-irradiated GPCMV, three continuous epithelioid cell lines which grew in soft agarose were established. Two independently derived GPCMV-transformed liver cells and a cell line derived from a soft agarose clone of one of these lines induced invasive tumors when inoculated subcutaneously or intraperitoneally into nude mice. The tumors were sarcomas possibly derived from hepatic stroma or sinusoid. Transformed cell lines were also established after infection of guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or simian virus 40 (SV40). These cell lines also formed colonies in soft agarose and induced sarcomas in nude mice. It is concluded that (i) GPCMV can malignantly transform guinea pig cells; (ii) cloning of GPCMV-transformed cells in soft agarose produced cells that induced tumors with a shorter latency period but with no alteration in growth rate or final tumor size; and (iii) the tumors produced by GPCMV-and HCMV-transformed guinea pig cells were more similar to each other in growth rate than to those induced by SV40-transformed guinea pig cells.

  17. Phylogeographical footprint of colonial history in the global dispersal of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 group A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Nuno R; Hodges-Mameletzis, Ioannis; Silva, Joana C; Rodés, Berta; Erasmus, Smit; Paolucci, Stefania; Ruelle, Jean; Pieniazek, Danuta; Taveira, Nuno; Treviño, Ana; Gonçalves, Maria F; Jallow, Sabelle; Xu, Li; Camacho, Ricardo J; Soriano, Vincent; Goubau, Patrick; de Sousa, João D; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Suchard, Marc A; Lemey, Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) emerged in West Africa and has spread further to countries that share socio-historical ties with this region. However, viral origins and dispersal patterns at a global scale remain poorly understood. Here, we adopt a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to investigate the spatial dynamics of HIV-2 group A (HIV-2A) using a collection of 320 partial pol and 248 partial env sequences sampled throughout 19 countries worldwide. We extend phylogenetic diffusion models that simultaneously draw information from multiple loci to estimate location states throughout distinct phylogenies and explicitly attempt to incorporate human migratory fluxes. Our study highlights that Guinea-Bissau, together with Côte d'Ivoire and Senegal, have acted as the main viral sources in the early stages of the epidemic. We show that convenience sampling can obfuscate the estimation of the spatial root of HIV-2A. We explicitly attempt to circumvent this by incorporating rate priors that reflect the ratio of human flow from and to West Africa. We recover four main routes of HIV-2A dispersal that are laid out along colonial ties: Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde to Portugal, Côte d'Ivoire and Senegal to France. Within Europe, we find strong support for epidemiological linkage from Portugal to Luxembourg and to the UK. We demonstrate that probabilistic models can uncover global patterns of HIV-2A dispersal providing sampling bias is taken into account and we provide a scenario for the international spread of this virus.

  18. Vitamin C deficiency in weanling guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Trueba, Gilberto Perez; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    2007-01-01

    Neonates are particularly susceptible to malnutrition due to their limited reserves of micronutrients and their rapid growth. In the present study, we examined the effect of vitamin C deficiency on markers of oxidative stress in plasma, liver and brain of weanling guinea pigs. Vitamin C deficiency...... increased, while protein oxidation decreased (P¼0003). The results show that the selective preservation of brain ascorbate and induction of DNA repair in vitamin C-deficient weanling guinea pigs is not sufficient to prevent oxidative damage. Vitamin C deficiency may therefore be particularly adverse during...

  19. Prolactin family of the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, S M Khorshed; Konno, Toshihiro; Rumi, M A Karim; Dong, Yafeng; Weiner, Carl P; Soares, Michael J

    2010-08-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a multifunctional hormone with prominent roles in regulating growth and reproduction. The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) has been extensively used in endocrine and reproduction research. Thus far, the PRL cDNA and protein have not been isolated from the guinea pig. In the present study, we used information derived from the public guinea pig genome database as a tool for identifying guinea pig PRL and PRL-related proteins. Guinea pig PRL exhibits prominent nucleotide and amino acid sequence differences when compared with PRLs of other eutherian mammals. In contrast, guinea pig GH is highly conserved. Expression of PRL and GH in the guinea pig is prominent in the anterior pituitary, similar to known expression patterns of PRL and GH for other species. Two additional guinea pig cDNAs were identified and termed PRL-related proteins (PRLRP1, PRLRP2). They exhibited a more distant relationship to PRL and their expression was restricted to the placenta. Recombinant guinea pig PRL protein was generated and shown to be biologically active in the PRL-responsive Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay. In contrast, recombinant guinea pig PRLRP1 protein did not exhibit PRL-like bioactivity. In summary, we have developed a new set of research tools for investigating the biology of the PRL family in an important animal model, the guinea pig.

  20. On the New-Guinea Mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1907-01-01

    New-Guinea has been called by A. R. Wallace the greatest terra incognita that still remains for the naturalist to explore, and the only region where altogether new and unimagined forms of life may perhaps be found. This he wrote in 1869 and we now living in 1906 can, as a matter of fact, underline t

  1. Piraatlus Guinea lahes ja Nigeerias / Eero Tepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tepp, Eero

    2013-01-01

    Guinea lahes lokkava piraatluse põhjused ja tegurid, mis seda soodustavad: seaduselüngad, looduslikud tingimused, ebapädev korrakaitse, poliitiline olustik, kultuuriline vastuvõetavus, majanduslik tasuvus. Sõjalised ja mittesõjalised meetmetest, mida rakendatakse piraatlusevastases võitluses

  2. The Phytogeography of New Guinea Solanum (Solanaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Symon, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Solanaceae, of which Solanum is the type species, comprise a southern hemisphere family. A general biogeographical introduction is given, with an account of plate tectonics and a discussion of Wallace’s Line and the geographic history of New Guinea. The widely accepted sections of Solanum are di

  3. Public Library Development in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijasuriya, D. E. K.; Evans, John

    1992-01-01

    Presents the findings and recommendations of a consultant supported by UNESCO who prepared a public library development plan for Papua New Guinea. Highlights include extending existing urban library services to rural areas; literacy programs; libraries' roles in national development; financial support; policy and legislation; and education and…

  4. Reptiles and Batrachians from New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidth de Jeude, van Th.W.

    1897-01-01

    The following Reptiles and Batrachians were collected in N. E. New Guinea, in the neighbourhood of Astrolabe bay, by Mr. Kunzmann, one of the collectors of Mr. J. R. H. Neervoort van de Poll, and now make part of the collections of the Leyden Museum.

  5. The Papua and New Guinea Herbarium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Womersley, J.S.; Botanist, Forest

    1951-01-01

    A short account of the establishment of the Herbarium of the Department of Forests, Papua and New Guinea appeared on p. 61, no 3, volume I of Flora Malesiana Bulletin. This Herbarium has now been firmly established and is constantly receiving collections of plants from various parts of Papua and New

  6. New guinea pig model of Cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, William R; Najvar, Laura K; Bocanegra, Rosie; Patterson, Thomas F; Graybill, John R

    2007-08-01

    We developed a guinea pig model of cryptococcal meningitis to evaluate antifungal agents. Immunosuppressed animals challenged intracranially with Cryptococcus neoformans responded to fluconazole and voriconazole. Disease was monitored by serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and quantitative organ cultures. Our model produces disseminating central nervous system disease and responds to antifungal therapy.

  7. Tibial osteosynthesis in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Macedo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A guinea pig was presented with left pelvic limb lameness after unknown trauma. Radiographs revealed complete oblique diaphyseal fracture of the distal third of the left tibia and fibula. The guinea pig was treated surgically with an intramedullary pin. The day after surgery the guinea pig was using the limb comfortably (grade 1/5 lameness. Callus formation was obtained 21 days after surgery without complications.

  8. Spontaneous reproductive pathology in female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Parga, Tamara; La Perle, Krista M D; Newman, Shelley J

    2016-11-01

    Reproductive pathology of domestic guinea pigs is underreported to date. To provide a comprehensive review of uterine disease in guinea pigs, we performed a retrospective study of the pathology archives of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine. By histology, 13 of 37 uterine lesions in 23 animals were neoplastic; the other 24 nonneoplastic lesions included cystic endometrial hyperplasia (16 of 24), endometrial hemorrhage (3 of 24), pyometra (2 of 24), polyp (2 of 24), and mucometra (1 of 24). The most common guinea pig uterine neoplasms were uterine leiomyomas (6 of 13), followed by adenomas (3 of 13) and leiomyosarcomas (1 of 13). Other neoplasms included anaplastic tumors of unknown origin (2 of 13) and choriocarcinoma (1 of 13). Both anaplastic tumors and the choriocarcinoma were positive for vimentin. The choriocarcinoma was positive for HSD83B1, indicating a trophoblastic origin and its final diagnosis. All were negative for cytokeratin and smooth muscle. In multiple animals, more than 1 tumor or lesion was reported. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression was nearly 100% in uterine neoplasms. Nearly all animals for which data were available had cystic rete ovarii (18 of 19); the animal with no cystic rete ovarii had paraovarian cysts. In our study, female pet guinea pigs had a tendency to develop cystic endometrial hyperplasia and uterine neoplasia. Factors for the development of these lesions could be cystic rete ovarii, hormone dysregulation, and/or age. Other factors could contribute to the development of uterine lesions. As in other species, early ovariohysterectomy could decrease the prevalence of uterine lesions.

  9. Indigenous Cultural Festival In Papua New Guinea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang; Xinhua

    2013-01-01

    <正>In August 2012,I had an opportunity to visit Papua New Guinea,situated in the tropical rainforest areas in the western South Pacific Ocean,adjacent to Indonesia in the west and facing Australia across the Torres Straits in the south.It has over 600 big and small islands and a population of 6.75 million with more than 800 tribes speaking

  10. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age: effect on total hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine S; Andersen, Andreas; Balé, Carlito; Schaltz-Buchholzer, Frederik; Do, Vu An; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton; Garly, May-Lill

    2014-06-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Using hospital admission data from the national pediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, we compared admission rates between enrollment and the 9-month vaccination in Cox models, providing admission hazard rate ratios (HRRs) for measles vaccine versus no measles vaccine. All analyses were conducted stratified by sex and reception of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS). Before enrollment the 2 groups had similar admission rates. Following enrollment, the measles vaccine group had an admission HRR of 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .52-.95), with a ratio of 0.53 (95% CI, .32-.86) for girls and 0.86 (95% CI, .58-1.26) for boys. For children who had not received NVAS, the admission HRR was 0.53 (95% CI, .34-.84), with an effect of 0.30 (95% CI, .13-.70) for girls and 0.73 (95% CI, .42-1.28) for boys (P = .08, interaction test). The reduction in admissions was separately significant for measles infection (admission HRR, 0 [95% CI, 0-.24]) and respiratory infections (admission HRR, 0.37 [95% CI, .16-.89]). Early measles vaccine may have major benefits for infant morbidity patterns and healthcare costs. Clinical trials registration NCT00168558.

  11. The Guinea Pigs of a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sarasvathie; McKenna, Sioux

    2016-01-01

    Participants in a study on learning the clinical aspects of medicine in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum repeatedly referred to themselves as "Guinea pigs" at the mercy of a curriculum experiment. This article interrogates and problematises the "Guinea pig" identity ascribed to and assumed by the first cohort of…

  12. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread.

  13. A 2-D guinea pig lung proteome map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea pigs represent an important model for a number of infectious and non-infectious pulmonary diseases. The guinea pig genome has recently been sequenced to full coverage, opening up new research avenues using genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics techniques in this species. In order to furth...

  14. Briti eliit üritas kukutada Ekvatoriaal-Guinea valitsust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Ekvatoriaal-Guineas ja Zimbabwes on vahistatud kümneid inimesi, keda süüdistatakse riigipöördekatses Ekvatoriaal-Guineas. Suurbritannia endise peaministri Margaret Thatcher'i poega Mark Thatcher'it süüdistatakse riigipöördekatse rahastamisele kaasaaitamises

  15. Clean advice for oily money : Consulting for Equatorial Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lachotzki, F.W.I.; Karssing, E.D.

    2011-01-01

    Equatorial Guinea is one of the most extraordinary countries in the world, if also one of the most obscure. Its tremendous yearly revenue from the oil concessions it grants in its Gulf of Guinea territorial waters is little known, but so too is its abysmal record on human rights. The deep-rooted cor

  16. Piper (Piperaceae) in New Guinea: the climbing species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, R.O.

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen climbing Piper species are accepted for New Guinea. The three endemics, P. arfakianum, P. subcanirameum and P. versteegii, are fully described. Eight taxa of unclear circumscription are noted. A new variety of P. macropiper, endemic to Morobe Province of Papua New Guinea, is described. The p

  17. WWF Kikori Catchment Developmental Project, Papua New Guinea orchid survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clements, M.A.; Harris, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    The World Wildlife Fund (Kikori Catchment Developmental Project, Papua New Guinea) has commenced field surveys of the Orchidaceae in the Lake Kutabu and Mt Bosavi areas of Papua New Guinea. The main purpose of the survey is to get a more accurate assessment of the orchids in the region. In a previou

  18. Filial attachment and its disruption: insights from the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael B

    2014-12-01

    Guinea pigs are precocial rodents that show evidence of a selective attachment to the mother who, in turn, exhibits little active maternal care. Effects of separation in guinea pigs are, therefore, more likely to reflect the disruption of attachment than the removal of, or alterations in, patterns of maternal care. Here, effects in guinea pigs of the presence or absence of the mother on psychobiological endpoints and of maternal separation on depressive-like behavior are reviewed. It is argued that results with guinea pigs often align more closely with those of nonhuman primates than those of laboratory rats and mice, and that the guinea pig offers a valuable translational model for studies of the consequences of attachment and its disruption.

  19. Bryophytes from the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (West-Central Africa) : 2., bryophytes collected by Emilio Guinea (1907-1985) in the Island of Bioco in 1947

    OpenAIRE

    Infante, Marta; Heras, Patxi; Buck, William R.

    1997-01-01

    Some unidentified samples of bryophytes collected by Emilio Guinea in Bioco (Equatorial Guinea) in 1947 have been studied. Twenty-seven taxa are the result of this study, nine of them being new for Equatorial Guinea and two new for the island of Bioco. Se han estudiado varias muestras de briófitos sin identificar recogidas por Emilio Guinea en Bioco (Guinea Ecuatorial) en 1947. Veintisiete taxones son el resultado de este estudio, siendo nueve de ellos novedad para Guinea Ecuatorial y dos ...

  20. Republic of Equatorial Guinea; Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This report discusses the IMF estimates and projections of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea's central government financial operations, 2001–06; the tax system as of march 2007; public investment program during 2004–06 (execution) and 2007–08 (budgeted); monetary survey during 2001–06; details of central bank and commercial bank assets during 2001–06; fiscal indicators during 2001–06; and estimates on public debts during 2001–06, etc.

  1. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  2. World species of the genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charuwat Taekul

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Scelioninae is a widespread group in the Old World, found from West Africa to northern Queensland, Australia. The species concepts are revised and a key to world species is presented. The genus is comprised of 6 species, including 2 known species which are redescribed: Platyscelio africanus Risbec (Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe; and Platyscelio pulchricornis Kieffer (Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Taiwan, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam. Five species-group names are considered to be junior synonyms of Platyscelio pulchricornis: Platyscelio abnormis Crawford, syn. n., Platyscelio dunensis Mukerjee, syn. n., Platyscelio mirabilis Dodd, syn. n., Platyscelio punctatus Kieffer, syn. n., and Platyscelio wilcoxi Fullaway. The following species are hypothesized and described as new taxa: Platyscelio arcuatus Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia; Platyscelio mysterium Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa; Platyscelio mzantsi Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (South Africa; and Platyscelio striga Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia.

  3. Blood profiles in unanesthetized and anesthetized guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendy R; Johnston, Matthew S; Higgins, Sarah; Izzo, Angelo A; Kendall, Lon V

    2016-01-01

    The guinea pig is a common animal model that is used in biomedical research to study a variety of systems, including hormonal and immunological responses, pulmonary physiology, corticosteroid response and others. However, because guinea pigs are evolutionarily a prey species, they do not readily show behavioral signs of disease, which can make it difficult to detect illness in a laboratory setting. Minimally invasive blood tests, such as complete blood counts and plasma biochemistry assays, are useful in both human and veterinary medicine as an initial diagnostic technique to rule in or rule out systemic illness. In guinea pigs, phlebotomy for such tests often requires that the animals be anesthetized first. The authors evaluated hematological and plasma biochemical effects of two anesthetic agents that are commonly used with guinea pigs in a research setting: isoflurane and a combination of ketamine and xylazine. Hematological and plasma biochemical parameters were significantly different when guinea pigs were under either anesthetic, compared to when they were unanesthetized. Plasma proteins, liver enzymes, white blood cells and red blood cells appeared to be significantly altered by both anesthetics, and hematological and plasma biochemical differences were greater when guinea pigs were anesthetized with the combination of ketamine and xylazine than when they were anesthetized with isoflurane. Overall these results indicate that both anesthetics can significantly influence hematological and plasma biochemical parameters in guinea pigs.

  4. Functional analysis of guinea pig β1-adrenoceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshio; Takahashi, Hiromi; Shibata, Sayuri; Namiki, Kana; Kimura, Sadao; Koike, Katsuo; Kasuya, Yoshitoshi

    2011-12-01

    Although similarity of pharmacological responses to certain stimuli between guinea pigs and humans has been reported, this has been poorly defined by a molecular biological approach. In this study, we cloned the gene of guinea pig ?1-adrenoceptor (ADRB1). The deduced amino acid sequence of guinea pig ADRB1 (467-aa) showed 91% and 92% identity with the human and rat ADRB1 sequences, respectively. Using HEK293T cells expressing guinea pig, human and rat ADRB1s independently, we elucidated the functional characteristics of each ADRB1. The ligand-binding profiles and the concentration-response relationships for isoprenaline-induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production were similar among the three ADRB1s. Isoprenaline also induced phosphorylation of extracellular-signal related kinases (ERK) through ADRB1s in a concentration-dependent manner. The minimum effective concentration of isoprenaline for phosphorylation of ERK, through guinea pig ADRB1 was the same as through human ADRB1, but markedly lower than that of through rat ADRB1. ERK phosphorylation through guinea pig ADRB1 was sensitive to pertussis toxin, a dominant-negative ras and PD98059, indicating that a G(i)-mediated pathway is involved in the ADRB1/ERK signaling loop. These results suggest that the G(i)-coupling efficacy of guinea pig and human ADRB1s may be higher than that of rat ADRB1.

  5. Immunohistochemical demonstration of airway epithelial cell markers of guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Wang, Jing; He, Hai Yan; Ma, Ling Jie; Zeng, Jin; Deng, Guang Cun; Liu, Xiaoming; Engelhardt, John F; Wang, Yujiong

    2011-10-01

    The guinea pig (Cavea porcellus) is a mammalian non-rodent species in the Caviidae family. The sensitivity of the respiratory system and the susceptibility to infectious diseases allows the guinea pig to be a useful model for both infectious and non-infectious lung diseases such as asthma and tuberculosis. In this report, we demonstrated for the first time, the major cell types and composition in the guinea pig airway epithelium, using cell type-specific markers by immunohistochemical staining using the commercial available immunological reagents that cross-react with guinea pig. Our results revealed the availability of antibodies cross-reacting with airway epithelial cell types of basal, non-ciliated columnar, ciliated, Clara, goblet and alveolar type II cells, as well as those cells expressing Mucin 5AC, Mucin 2, Aquaporin 4 and Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide. The distribution of these various cell types were quantified in the guinea pig airway by immunohistochemical staining and were comparable with morphometric studies using an electron microscopy assay. Moreover, this study also demonstrated that goblet cells are the main secretory cell type in the guinea pig's airway, distinguishing this species from rats and mice. These results provide useful information for the understanding of airway epithelial cell biology and mechanisms of epithelial-immune integration in guinea pig models.

  6. Parasitic zoonoses in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, I L

    2005-03-01

    Relatively few species of zoonotic parasites have been recorded in humans in Papua New Guinea. A greater number of potentially zoonotic species, mostly nematodes, occur in animals but are yet to be reported from humans. Protozoa is the best represented group of those infecting man, with Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanesis, Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Entamoeba polecki, Balantidium coli and, possibly, Blastocystis hominis. The only zoonotic helminths infecting humans include the trematode Paragonimus westermani, the cestodes Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta and the sparganum larva of Spirometra erinacea, and the nematodes Trichinella papuae and Angiostrongylus cantonensis and, possibly, Ascaris suum. Other groups represented are Acanthocephala (Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus)), insects (Chrysomya bezziana, Cimex sp., Ctenocephalides spp.), and mites (Leptotrombidium spp. and, possibly Sarcoptes scabiei, and Demodex sp.). One leech (Phytobdella lineata) may also be considered as being zoonotic. The paucity of zoonotic parasite species can be attributed to long historical isolation of the island of New Guinea and its people, and the absence until recent times of large placental mammals other than pig and dog. Some zoonotic helminths have entered the country with recent importation of domestic animals, in spite of quarantine regulations, and a few more (two cestodes, one nematode and one tick) are poised to enter from neighbouring countries, given the opportunity. Improvement in water supplies, human hygiene and sanitation would reduce the prevalence of many of these parasites, and thorough cooking of meat would lessen the risk of infection by some others.

  7. The genus Freycinetia (Pandanaceae) in New Guinea (Part 4)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh, Kim-Lang

    2002-01-01

    Seventeen new species of Freycinetia Gaudich. are described from groups of islands of New Guinea: Freycinetia admiraltiensis, F. amoena, F. formosula, F. granulata, F. lanceolata, F. nakanaiensis, F. novobritannica (Bismarck Archipelago), F. relegata, F. rossellana (Louisiade Archipelago), F. angust

  8. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in Guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features...... of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require...... repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e...

  9. Ozone-Induced Hypertussive Responses in Rabbits and Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Emlyn; Patacchini, Riccardo; Trevisani, Marcello; Preti, Delia; Branà, Maria Pia; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Cough remains a major unmet clinical need, and preclinical animal models are not predictive for new antitussive agents. We have investigated the mechanisms and pharmacological sensitivity of ozone-induced hypertussive responses in rabbits and guinea pigs. Ozone induced a significant increase in cough frequency and a decrease in time to first cough to inhaled citric acid in both conscious guinea pigs and rabbits. This response was inhibited by the established antitussive drugs codeine and levo...

  10. Republic of Equatorial Guinea; Staff Report 2006 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    Equatorial Guinea’s macroeconomic performance in the recent period has been broadly satisfactory. Despite the macroeconomic environment, however, progress in alleviating poverty and meeting the MDGs has been slow. Executive Directors welcome the government’s intention to prepare a National Poverty Reduction Strategy. In the meantime, the budget process needs to be modified. The pegged exchange rate regime has served Equatorial Guinea well, providing an anchor to hold down inflation and a ...

  11. Combating Piracy in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    AFRICA SECURITY BRIEF A P u b l i c At i o n o f t h e A f r i c A c e n t e r f o r S t r At e g i c S t u d i e S n o . 3 0 / f e b r u...traffic in West Af- rican ports has grown 14 percent an- nually since 1995, the fastest of any region in Sub-Saharan Africa .1 The wider Gulf of Guinea...22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply

  12. Radiation-induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of x rays on brain weight of guinea pig pups at birth was studied for 21-day old embroys exposed in utero to doses of 75 and 100 mGy. When compared to controls and when corrected for body weight, gestation time, litter size, sex, and examiner differences the brains of irradiated pups weighed approximately 46 mg less than those of controls (p<0.001) for the 75-mGy group and about 55 mg less for the 100-mGy group. Brains of females weighed 51 mg less than those of males of the same body weight. Dam weight and caging conditions had no observed effect on brain weight.

  13. Radiation-induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.

    1992-11-01

    The effect of x rays on brain weight of guinea pig pups at birth was studied for 21-day old embroys exposed in utero to doses of 75 and 100 mGy. When compared to controls and when corrected for body weight, gestation time, litter size, sex, and examiner differences the brains of irradiated pups weighed approximately 46 mg less than those of controls (p<0.001) for the 75-mGy group and about 55 mg less for the 100-mGy group. Brains of females weighed 51 mg less than those of males of the same body weight. Dam weight and caging conditions had no observed effect on brain weight.

  14. Signal transduction pathways in guinea pig sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明文; 焦日; 孙青原; 胡国俊; 段崇文; 刘辉; 宋祥芬; 陈大元

    1996-01-01

    Trifluoperazine (TFP), the antagonist of calmodulin (CaM). significantly stimulated the capacitation and acrosome reaction of guinea pig spermatozoa at the concentration of 10-100μmol/L, independent of the external Ca2+. Forskolin, dbcAMP and caffeine evidently promoted the occurrence of acrosome reaction of spermatozoa at early capacitation stage (5 h) in nonsynchronous system but not in synchronous system. If the spermatozoa were capacitated for 15 h in synchronous system, the above three drugs significantly stimulated acrosome reaction in a Ca2+-independent manner. Protein kinase C activators, i.e. phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB) did not influence the occurrence of acrosome reaction of spermatozoa at early capacitation stage, but significantly increased the acrosome reaction rate in capacitated spermatozoa in a Ca2+-independent manner. In contrast. PKC inhibitor staurosporine significantly inhibited the occurrence of acrosome reaction.

  15. Cholera risk factors, Papua New Guinea, 2010

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    Rosewell Alexander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls. Independent risk factors for cholera were: being over 20 years of age (aOR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1, 5.4, defecating in the open air (or river (aOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.4, 14.4 and knowing someone who travelled to a cholera affected area (aOR 4.1; 95%CI 1.6, 10.7; while the availability of soap for handwashing at home was protective (aOR 0.41; 95%CI 0.19, 0.87. Those reporting access to a piped water distribution system in the home were twice as likely to report the availability of soap for handwashing. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 72% (95% CI 47–90 and 71% (95%CI 44–90%. Conclusions Improving population access to the piped water distribution system and sanitation will likely reduce transmission by enabling enhanced hygiene and limiting the contamination of water sources. The One step V. cholerae O1/O139 Antigen Test is of limited utility for clinical decision making in a hospital setting with access to traditional laboratory methods. Settlement dwellers and mobile populations of all age groups should be targeted for interventions in Papua New Guinea.

  16. Spontaneous cyclic embryonic movements in humans and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Renée H M; Mulder, Eduard J H; Lüchinger, Annemarie B; van Kan, Colette M; Taverne, Marcel A M; de Vries, Johanna I P

    2012-08-01

    Motility assessment before birth can be used to evaluate the integrity of the nervous system. Sideways bending (SB) of head and/or rump, the earliest embryonic motility in both humans and guinea pigs, can be visualized sonographically. We know from other species that early embryonic motility is cyclic. This study explores the distribution of SB-to-SB intervals in human and guinea pig embryos before the appearance of more complex movements such as general movements. We hypothesized that the activity in both species is cyclic. We made 15-min sonographic recordings of SBs between 5 weeks and 0 days (5wk0d) and 7wk0d conceptional age (CA) in 18 human embryos of uncomplicated IVF pregnancies (term 38 weeks) and in 20 guinea pig embryos between 3wk4d and 4wk0d CA (term 9 weeks). SB-to-SB interval durations were categorized as long (≥10 s) or short (guinea pigs 38 s (range, 10-288 s) and 5 s (range, 1-9 s), respectively. During development, the duration of long intervals decreased while the number of short intervals increased for both species. The earliest embryonic motility in the human and guinea pig is performed cyclically with distinct developmental milestones. The resemblance of their interval development offers promising possibilities to use the guinea pig as a noninvasive animal model of external influences on motor and neural development.

  17. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  18. Use of a Guinea pig-specific transcriptome array for evaluation of protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection following intranasal vaccination in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Veselenak, Ronald L; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Cap, Andrew P; Guentzel, M Neal; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G; Pyles, Richard B; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.

  19. Check list of the Melastomataceae of Equatorial Guinea

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    Geerinck, Daniel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A chec klist of the Melastomataceae of Equatorial Guinea is presented with 57 taxa. Three species were accepted based only on literature records, their distribution área strongly suggests their presence in Equatorial Guinea. Six species are known from Annobón, 23 from Bioko and 49 from Río Muni. Best-represented genera are Memecylon (10, Calvoa (10 and Tristemma (7. Twenty-six taxa are newly recorded for the country. Heterotis obamae Lejoly & Lisowski is set in synonymy with the previously described Heterotis arenaria Jacq.-Fél.Se presenta el catálogo florístico de la familia Melastomataceae en Guinea Ecuatorial. Se recogen un total de 57 táxones. Tres especies fueron aceptadas teniendo en cuenta solamente la literatura. Su distribución sugiere que su presencia en Guinea Ecuatorial es muy probable. En Annobón están presentes 6 especies, 23 en Bioko y 49 en Río Muni. Los géneros mejor representados son Memecylon (10 especies, Calvoa (10 y Tristemma (7.Veintiséis táxones son citados por primera vez en Guinea Ecuatorial. Se propone Heterotis obamae Lejoly & Lisowski como sinónimo de Heterotis arenaria Jacq.-Fél.

  20. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birck, Malene M; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken M; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-10-11

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals(6). All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility.

  1. [Phototoxicity of Bergamot oil. Comparison between humans and guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, J; Unkovic, J; Delahayes, J; Lafille, C

    1979-01-01

    Phototoxicity of bergamot oil in solar simulating radiation (SSR greater than or equal to 290 nm) and in long ultraviolet radiation (LUV greater than or equal to 320 nm) has been compared by studying photoaugmentation of erythema in the guinea pig after 24 h and pigmentary photoaugmentation in man on the 8th day. The results show that a close relationship exists between guinea pig and human responses, with both radiations used, and that man seems to be slightly more sensitive to phototoxic effects of bergamot oil than the guinea pig. This difference of sensitivity necessarily implies the participation of UVA (320--400 nm) in the phototoxic reaction of bergamot oil with solar radiation. This UVA participation is particularly obvious in the guinea pig; in man, the results are less clear and a certain synergy of UVB rays (290--320 nm) may be involved in the phototoxic UVA-induced reaction of bergamot oil. Despite these slight differences, the erythematous reaction in the guinea pig appears to be a remarkable experimental model to show out potential phototoxic reactions of products containing psoralens in man.

  2. An ecologically relevant guinea pig model of fetal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, S A; Lucas, D; Kleven, G A

    2015-04-15

    The laboratory guinea pig, Cavia porcellus, shares with humans many similarities during pregnancy and prenatal development, including precocial offspring and social dependence. These similarities suggest the guinea pig as a promising model of fetal behavioral development as well. Using innovative methods of behavioral acclimation, fetal offspring of female IAF hairless guinea pigs time mated to NIH multicolored Hartley males were observed longitudinally without restraint using noninvasive ultrasound at weekly intervals across the 10 week gestation. To ensure that the ultrasound procedure did not cause significant stress, salivary cortisol was collected both before and after each observation. Measures of fetal spontaneous movement and behavioral state were quantified from video recordings from week 3 through the last week before birth. Results from prenatal quantification of Interlimb Movement Synchrony and state organization reveal guinea pig fetal development to be strikingly similar to that previously reported for other rodents and preterm human infants. Salivary cortisol readings taken before and after sonography did not differ at any observation time point. These results suggest this model holds translational promise for studying the prenatal mechanisms of neurobehavioral development, including those that may result from adverse events. Because the guinea pig is a highly social mammal with a wide range of socially oriented vocalizations, this model may also have utility for studying the prenatal origins and trajectories of developmental disabilities with social-emotional components, such as autism.

  3. Validation of the regional climate model MAR over the CORDEX Africa domain and comparison with other regional models using unpublished data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prignon, Maxime; Agosta, Cécile; Kittel, Christoph; Fettweis, Xavier; Michel, Erpicum

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the CORDEX project, we have applied the regional model MAR over the Africa domain at a resolution of 50 km. ERA-Interim and NCEP-NCAR reanalysis have been used as 6 hourly forcing at the MAR boundaries over 1950-2015. While MAR was already been validated over the West Africa, it is the first time that MAR simulations are carried out at the scale of the whole continent. Unpublished daily measurements, covering the Sahel and more areas up South, with a large set of variables, are used as validation of MAR, other CORDEX-Africa RCMs and both reanalyses. Comparisons with the CRU and the ECA&D databases are also performed. The unpublished daily data set covers the period 1884-2006 and comes from 1460 stations. The measured variables are wind, evapotranspiration, relative humidity, insolation, rain, surface pressure, temperature, vapour pressure and visibility. It covers 23 countries: Algeria, Benin, Burkina, Canary Islands, Cap Verde, Central Africa, Chad, Congo, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan and Togo.

  4. Population genetic structure of Plasmodium falciparum across a region of diverse endemicity in West Africa

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    Mobegi Victor A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasite population genetic structure varies among areas of differing endemicity, but this has not been systematically studied across Plasmodium falciparum populations in Africa where most infections occur. Methods Ten polymorphic P. falciparum microsatellite loci were genotyped in 268 infections from eight locations in four West African countries (Republic of Guinea, Guinea Bissau, The Gambia and Senegal, spanning a highly endemic forested region in the south to a low endemic Sahelian region in the north. Analysis was performed on proportions of mixed genotype infections, genotypic diversity among isolates, multilocus standardized index of association, and inter-population differentiation. Results Each location had similar levels of pairwise genotypic diversity among isolates, although there were many more mixed parasite genotype infections in the south. Apart from a few isolates that were virtually identical, the multilocus index of association was not significant in any population. Genetic differentiation between populations was low (most pairwise FST values  Conclusions Although proportions of mixed genotype infections varied with endemicity as expected, population genetic structure was similar across the diverse sites. Very substantial reduction in transmission would be needed to cause fragmented or epidemic sub-structure in this region.

  5. [HIV-2 infection in the world. A geographical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, G

    1998-01-01

    The geographical distribution of HIV-2 is not fully understood. However, there is enough evidence to speculate about the origins and differentiation of this geographical pattern. Foci of infection probably developed in some African countries, such as Guinea-Bissau, Angola and Mozambique, in the 1970s. The decolonization of these countries led to the movement of people, and the virus, to historically associated countries such as Portugal, India and Brazil. In Ivory Coast, a focus was probably created due to the dismantling of the plantation economy, with all its demographic, cultural and social consequences. The virus was dispersed to countries close to the Guinea and Ivory Coast foci by the migration of workers and prostitutes. Thus, the diseases has spread from the Atlantic coast of Africa, where it was endemic-sporadic, to other more distant African countries and out of Africa into Europe and North America. The political emancipation of African countries is further increasing and diversifying human movements between countries. The infection has not created an epidemic, either within or outside Africa. This is due to the limited infectivity of the virus and the particular characteristics of the social and epidemiological system. The high-risk groups do not sustain an epidemic relay of the infection and subjects introducing the virus into new areas outside the African foci rarely set up a new autonomous circulation of the virus.

  6. HIV-2 infection throughout the world. A geographical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy

    1998-11-01

    The geographical distribution of HIV-2 is not fully understood. However, there is enough evidence to speculate about the origins and differentiation of this geographical pattern. Foci of infection probably developed in some African countries, such as Guinea-Bissau, Angola and Mozambique, in the 1970s. The decolonization of these countries led to the movement of people, and the virus, to historically associated countries such as Portugal, India and Brazil. In Ivory Coast, a focus was probably created due to the dismantling of the plantation economy, with all its demographic, cultural and social consequences. The virus was dispersed to countries close to the Guinea and Ivory Coast foci by the migration of workers and prostitutes. Thus, the diseases has spread from the Atlantic coast of Africa, where it was endemic-sporadic, to other more distant African countries and out of Africa into Europe and North America. The political emancipation of African countries is further increasing and diversifying human movements between countries. The infection has not created an epidemic, either within or outside Africa. This is due to the limited infectivity of the virus and the particular characteristics of the social and epidemiological system. The high-risk groups do not sustain an epidemic relay of the infection and subjects introducing the virus into new areas outside the African foci rarely set up a new autonomous circulation of the virus.

  7. West African pholcid spiders: an overview, with descriptions of five new species (Araneae, Pholcidae

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    Bernhard A. Huber

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes current knowledge about West African pholcids. West Africa is here defined as the area south of 17°N and west of 5°E, including mainly the Upper Guinean subregion of the Guineo-Congolian center of endemism. This includes all of Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin. An annotated list of the 14 genera and 38 species recorded from this area is given, together with distribution maps and an identification key to genera. Five species are newly described: Anansus atewa sp. nov., Artema bunkpurugu sp. nov., Leptopholcus kintampo sp. nov., Spermophora akwamu sp. nov., and S. ziama sp. nov. The female of Quamtana kitahurira is newly described. Additional new records are given for 16 previously described species, including 33 new country records. Distribution patterns of West African pholcids are discussed, as well as possible explanations for relatively low West African pholcid species diversity as compared to Central and East Africa.

  8. Radiation induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A brain weight deficit of about 70 mg was induced at doses of approximately 75-mGy and a deficit of 60 mg was induced at 100 mGy. This confirms the effects projected and observed by Wanner and Edwards. Although the data do not demonstrate a clear dose-response relationship between the 75-mGy and 100-mGy groups, the data are statistically consistent with a dose-response effect because of the overlapping confidence intervals. The lack of a statistically significant observation is most likely related to the small difference in doses and the limited numbers of animals examined. There are several factors that can influence the brain weight of guinea pig pups, such as caging and housing conditions, the sex of the animal, and litter size. These should be taken into account for accurate analysis. Dam weight did not appear to have a significant effect. The confirmation of a micrencephalic effect induced x rays at doses of 75-mGy during this late embryonic stage of development is consistent with the findings of small head size induced in those exposed prior to the eight week of conception at Hiroshima. This implies a mechanism for micrencephaly different from those previously suggested and lends credence to a causal relation between radiation and small head size in humans at low doses as reported by Miller and Mulvihill. 16 refs., 13 tabs.

  9. Ototoxicity of vancomycin in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海瑛; 高文元; 刁明芳; 张琰敏; 韩红; 王建文

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of vancomycin (V) with multiple intravenous injections on the inner ear of albino guinea pigs. Methods: Three groups of animals were injected with vancomycin hydrochloride (54, 108, 216 mg/kg tively as control groups. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and the duration of post-rotatory nystagmus (PRN) were measured before and after administration. Surface preparation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the cochlea were performed for histological examination. Results: In V 54, 108 mg/kg group, similar to saline control, there was 0- 1.1 dB of threshold shift. In V 216 mg/kg group, average hearing loss was 1.0- 5.7 dB immediately after administration and 1.3 -3.8 dB after 14 d, which was significantly lower than those in GM control group. As the saline control, no significant difference was found in PRN in all V groups before and after treatment; while in the GM group, PRN decreased significantly after treatment. Morphological evaluation demonstrated that in all V and saline animals there was no obvious missing of outer and inner hair cells and SEM showed normal surface morphology. In the GM group, there was 10% - 30% of outer and inner hair cells lost in the basal turn. Conclusion: The ototoxicity of vancomycin is absent or minimal after multiple introvenous administration within this dose range.

  10. 10 CFR 810.8 - Activities requiring specific authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Myanmar) Burundi* Cambodia* Cameroon* Cape Verde* Central African Republic* Chad* China, People's Republic...-Bissau* Haiti* India* Iran Iraq* Israel* Kazakhstan Kenya* Korea, People's Democratic Republic of* Kuwait... Mozambique* Niger* Oman* Pakistan* Palau* Qatar* Russia Rwanda* Sao Tome and Principe* Saudi...

  11. Helminths of the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, in Brazil

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    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Worm burdens were evaluated and compared in two groups of the guinea pig, Cavia poreellus (Linnaeus, 1758: animals of the first group were conventionally maintained in an institutional animal house and those of the second group were openly kept in pet shops in Brazil. Animals from both sources were infected only with the nematode Paraspidodera uncinata (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1914 (10% of prevalence in guinea pigs from lhe institutional facility and 40% in those animals from the pet shop. Other helminth samples recovered from Brazilian guinea pigs during 52 years and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CHIOC were also analyzed. Paraspidodera uncinata and the cestode Monoecocestus parcitesticulatus Rêgo, 1960 were identified in these samples.

  12. INVESTIGATION ON MODEL OF INFLAMMATORY PLEURAL EFFUSION IN GUINEA PIGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯源; 殷凯生; 王祥

    2002-01-01

    Objective To establish an animal model of inflammatory pleural effusion.Methods Forty guinea pigs were divided into two groups: experimental group with 7 subgroups and control group. In the experimental group the right chest cavity of each guinea pig was injected with 0.8~1.0 ml of 1% carrageenan, and guinea pigs of each subgroup were killed and observed respectively on day 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and day 14 after injection.Results Occurring on day 1(within 24 hours), pleural effusion reached the maximum on day 2~3 after injection, so did the neutrophil count in pleural effusion and inflammation of both pleura and lungs and then gradually decreased. The fibrosis and adhesion of pleura appeared on day 7 and were obvious on day 10. The encysted pleurisy was formed on day 14.Conclusion The carrageenan is an ideal pleural inflammatory inducer. This animal model is useful for studying pleural effusion.

  13. Gadsup of Papua New Guinea revisited: a three decade view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, M

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share some highlights of the author's revisits to Papua New Guinea covering three decades (1962-1992) with focus on the Gadsup of the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea. In addition, some recent developments in the country are covered as well as special visits with members of the Papua New Guinea Nurses Association. A comparative analysis of the world view, social structure, and related factors is made with respect to the theory of Culture Care Diversity and Univers-ality with two Gadsup villages. In general, the researcher found limited progress and beneficial health care changes in the two villages. Rascalism with violence was discovered which had cultural functions to redress some of the socioeconomic inequities and dissatisfactions of the indigenous people. Major tenets of the Culture Care theory were supported with the Gadsup, especially related to diverse forms, meanings, and lifestyle processes.

  14. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  15. Parainfluenza 3-Induced Cough Hypersensitivity in the Guinea Pig Airways.

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    Eric J Zaccone

    Full Text Available The effect of respiratory tract viral infection on evoked cough in guinea pigs was evaluated. Guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with either parainfluenza type 3 (PIV3 and cough was quantified in conscious animals. The guinea pigs infected with PIV3 (day 4 coughed nearly three times more than those treated with the viral growth medium in response to capsaicin, citric acid, and bradykinin. Since capsaicin, citric acid, and bradykinin evoked coughing in guinea pigs can be inhibited by drugs that antagonize the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1, it was reasoned that the virally-induced hypertussive state may involve alterations in TPRV1 activity. PIV3 infection caused a phenotypic switch in tracheal nodose Aδ "cough receptors" such that nearly 50% of neurons began to express, de novo, TRPV1 mRNA. There was also an increase TRPV1 expression in jugular C-fiber neurons as determined by qPCR. It has previously been reported that tracheal-specific nodose neurons express the BDNF receptor TrkB and jugular neurons express the NGF receptor TrkA. Jugular neurons also express the artemin receptor GFRα3. All these neurotrophic factors have been associated with increases in TRPV1 expression. In an ex vivo perfused guinea pig tracheal preparation, we demonstrated that within 8 h of PIV3 infusion there was no change in NGF mRNA expression, but there was nearly a 10-fold increase in BDNF mRNA in the tissue, and a small but significant elevation in the expression of artemin mRNA. In summary, PIV3 infection leads to elevations in TRPV1 expression in the two key cough evoking nerve subtypes in the guinea pig trachea, and this is associated with a hypertussive state with respect to various TRPV1 activating stimuli.

  16. Immunoglobulin genomics in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus.

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    Yongchen Guo

    Full Text Available In science, the guinea pig is known as one of the gold standards for modeling human disease. It is especially important as a molecular and cellular biology model for studying the human immune system, as its immunological genes are more similar to human genes than are those of mice. The utility of the guinea pig as a model organism can be further enhanced by further characterization of the genes encoding components of the immune system. Here, we report the genomic organization of the guinea pig immunoglobulin (Ig heavy and light chain genes. The guinea pig IgH locus is located in genomic scaffolds 54 and 75, and spans approximately 6,480 kb. 507 V(H segments (94 potentially functional genes and 413 pseudogenes, 41 D(H segments, six J(H segments, four constant region genes (μ, γ, ε, and α, and one reverse δ remnant fragment were identified within the two scaffolds. Many V(H pseudogenes were found within the guinea pig, and likely constituted a potential donor pool for gene conversion during evolution. The Igκ locus mapped to a 4,029 kb region of scaffold 37 and 24 is composed of 349 V(κ (111 potentially functional genes and 238 pseudogenes, three J(κ and one C(κ genes. The Igλ locus spans 1,642 kb in scaffold 4 and consists of 142 V(λ (58 potentially functional genes and 84 pseudogenes and 11 J(λ -C(λ clusters. Phylogenetic analysis suggested the guinea pig's large germline V(H gene segments appear to form limited gene families. Therefore, this species may generate antibody diversity via a gene conversion-like mechanism associated with its pseudogene reserves.

  17. 3D Geologic Modeling. The example of the Farim-Saliquinhé Phosphates Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, António; Charifo, Gilberto; Almeida, José

    2010-05-01

    The construction of three-dimensional geologic models representing both the structure and properties inherent to each geological unit is nowadays possible due to the computational development of the last decades. The 3D Geologic Modeling (3DGM) is very efficient for storage, display and transfer of geoscience information, and is a key tool in the oil industry in particular for the reservoir characterization and modeling; its use in other geosciences areas has been growing in recent years but is still scarce. In the present work we show a 3D geologic model of the phosphates mineralization of Farim-Saliquinhé (Guinea-Bissau) as a first example of the work being developed in the research center CICEGe (FCT-UNL) by its novel research group on 3DGM, and to demonstrate the usefulness of this kind of geologic models, built with appropriate software, in order to better represent, study, characterize and visualize a geologic case study. The phosphates mineralization of Farim-Saliquinhé (Guinea-Bissau) is a sedimentary deposit located near Saliquinhé, Farim and the Rio Cachéu. The deposit is composed by two members: 1) FPB, an early Middle to Upper Lutetian calcareous-phosphate member; 2) FPA, an upper member of descarbonatized phosphate. Micritic limestones are underlying the mineralized layers, while dolomitic limestones, the FPO phosphate interval, and a younger sandy clayey cover are overlying the phosphatic members (BRGM, 1983; Prian et al., 1987). This work is based on geologic and geochemical data from 69 vertical boreholes carried out by BRGM in the 80s (completed with topographic data). This survey covered an area of about 10x5 km and was aimed to determine the geometry and the reserves of the FPA and FPB phosphate mineralization. The 3D geologic model was developed in gOcad software, which uses a distinctive interpolation method to build the geometry of objects, the DSI - discrete smooth interpolation. The 3D geologic model was built on the BRGM's study area

  18. Astronomical theory of climatic change: support from new Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeh, H H; Chappell, J

    1970-02-06

    Radiocarbon and thorium-230 dates of uplifted coral reef terraces on New Guinea appear to support theories of glaciation which utilize Milankovitch cycles as a controlling trigger mechanism. In addition to high sealevel stands recognized by other workers, the New Guinea data clearly indicate a marine transgression between 50,000 and 35,000 years before the present. A eustatic sea level curve reconstructed from field observations and radiometric dates shows a close correlation with temperature fluctuations in high latitudes as predicted by astronomical data.

  19. DOCA-salts induce heart failure in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiritilli, A

    2001-10-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a common clinical problem confronting physicians and is often the final manifestation of many cardiovascular disorders. Despite recent advances in the pharmacological management of HF, it remains a highly lethal and disabling disorder. A number of animal models have been developed to study both the pathophysiology of HF and new therapeutic approaches to this complex syndrome. Only through an improved understanding of the basic biology of the early stages of the syndrome can HF be prevented or at least anticipated. With this in view, we have developed an easily realisable and inexpensive model in the guinea pig, which presents numerous structural, metabolic and biochemical similarities compared with the human heart. Thirty guinea pigs, aged 5 weeks and weighing 300 g were used. After anaesthesia, left nephrectomy was performed. After 1 week the guinea pigs were divided into: (a) control group (n=15), which received an injection of vehicle as well as tap water for 10 weeks; (b) DOCA-salts group (n=15), where the animals were treated with an IM injection of 10 mg DOCA 5 days a week for 10 weeks and with drinking water containing 9 g/l(-1) NaCl and 2 g/l(-1) KCl. Our results demonstrate that the administration of DOCA-salts to guinea pigs for 10 weeks caused a significant increase in blood pressure (BP+30%) associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), evaluated by LV weight (+37%), LV wall (+36%), by the ratio LV weight/Body weight (+23%) and by an increase in LV volume (+51%). Concerning HF, the latter was clinically evident through an increase in body weight, heart rate and dyspnoea. Indeed, guinea pigs presented pleural and/or pericardial effusion often associated with ascite. This model, which combines pressure and volume overload, results in a slow evolution towards HF. This allows a better understanding of the mechanisms in early LV remodelling which has the potential to develop into HF. Some recent studies have emphasised the value

  20. Intrinsic innervation of the uterus in guinea pig and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, F; Fatani, J A; el-Eishi, H; el-Badawi, M G

    1987-01-01

    The pattern of distribution of cholinergic and adrenergic nerves in the uterus of albino rats and guinea pigs was examined histochemically. In the albino rat, the uterus was found well-innervated by both adrenergic and cholinergic nerves with a clear regional variation. Dense innervation was demonstrated at the tubal and cervical ends of the uterus and in the cervix. Cholinergic nerves supplying the glands were more numerous than the adrenergic nerves which were relatively few. In the guinea-pigs, the uterus was richly innervated by adrenergic nerves with a clear regional variation. No cholinesterase-positive nerves or nerve cells were demonstrated.

  1. Cartilage Degeneration, Subchondral Mineral and Meniscal Mineral Densities in Hartley and Strain 13 Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubo; Scannell, Brian P; Honeycutt, Patrick R; Mauerhan, David R; H, James Norton; Hanley, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a joint disease involved in articular cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and synovial membrane. This study sought to examine cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) and meniscal mineral density (MD) in male Hartley, female Hartley and female strain 13 guinea pigs to determine the association of cartilage degeneration with subchondral BMD and meniscal MD. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD in 12 months old guinea pigs were examined with histochemistry, X-ray densitometry and calcium analysis. We found that male Hartley guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD than female Hartley guinea pigs, but not female strain 13 guinea pigs. Female strain 13 guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration and higher subchondral BMD, but not meniscal MD, than female Hartley guinea pigs. These findings indicate that higher subchondral BMD, not meniscal MD, is associated with more severe cartilage degeneration in the guinea pigs and suggest that abnormal subchondral BMD may be a therapeutic target for OA treatment. These findings also indicate that the pathogenesis of OA in the male guinea pigs and female guinea pigs are different. Female strain 13 guinea pig may be used to study female gender-specific pathogenesis of OA.

  2. Male Circumcision and the Epidemic Emergence of HIV-2 in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlett, Barry Stephen; Camacho, Ricardo Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemic HIV-2 (groups A and B) emerged in humans circa 1930–40. Its closest ancestors are SIVsmm infecting sooty mangabeys from southwestern Côte d'Ivoire. The earliest large-scale serological surveys of HIV-2 in West Africa (1985–91) show a patchy spread. Côte d'Ivoire and Guinea-Bissau had the highest prevalence rates by then, and phylogeographical analysis suggests they were the earliest epicenters. Wars and parenteral transmission have been hypothesized to have promoted HIV-2 spread. Male circumcision (MC) is known to correlate negatively with HIV-1 prevalence in Africa, but studies examining this issue for HIV-2 are lacking. Methods We reviewed published HIV-2 serosurveys for 30 cities of all West African countries and obtained credible estimates of real prevalence through Bayesian estimation. We estimated past MC rates of 218 West African ethnic groups, based on ethnographic literature and fieldwork. We collected demographic tables specifying the ethnic partition in cities. Uncertainty was incorporated by defining plausible ranges of parameters (e.g. timing of introduction, proportion circumcised). We generated 1,000 sets of past MC rates per city using Latin Hypercube Sampling with different parameter combinations, and explored the correlation between HIV-2 prevalence and estimated MC rate (both logit-transformed) in the 1,000 replicates. Results and Conclusions Our survey reveals that, in the early 20th century, MC was far less common and geographically more variable than nowadays. HIV-2 prevalence in 1985–91 and MC rates in 1950 were negatively correlated (Spearman rho = -0.546, IQR: -0.553–-0.546, p≤0.0021). Guinea-Bissau and Côte d'Ivoire cities had markedly lower MC rates. In addition, MC was uncommon in rural southwestern Côte d'Ivoire in 1930.The differential HIV-2 spread in West Africa correlates with different historical MC rates. We suggest HIV-2 only formed early substantial foci in cities with substantial uncircumcised

  3. Ototoxic drugs: difference in sensitivity between mice and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirrier, A L; Van den Ackerveken, P; Kim, T S; Vandenbosch, R; Nguyen, L; Lefebvre, P P; Malgrange, B

    2010-03-01

    The development of experimental animal models has played an invaluable role in understanding the mechanisms of neurosensory deafness and in devising effective treatments. The purpose of this study was to develop an adult mouse model of ototoxic drug-induced hearing loss and to compare the ototoxicity in the adult mouse to that in the well-described guinea pig model. Mice are a powerful model organism, especially due to the large availability of antibodies, probes and genetic mutants. In this study, mice (n=114) and guinea pigs (n=35) underwent systemic treatment with either kanamycin or cisplatin. Auditory brainstem responses showed a significant threshold shift in guinea pigs 2 weeks after the beginning of the ototoxic treatment, while there was no significant hearing impairment recorded in mice. Hair cells and neuronal loss were correlated with hearing function in both guinea pigs and mice. These results indicate that the mouse is not a good model for ototoxicity, which should be taken into consideration in all further investigations concerning ototoxicity-induced hearing loss.

  4. Some liver function indicators in guinea pigs injected with cyanide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idonije O. Blessing

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine the lethal effect of cyanide poisoning on the liver cells using ALP, AST, ALT and Bilirubin (Total and Conjugated as test indicators, eighteen (18 male guinea pigs, age matched were used for this study. This included 12 guinea pigs which served as test groups and injected with different concentrations of potassium cyanide saline solution while 6 guinea pigs without cyanide injection served as control group. Blood samples were collected from the guinea pigs three hours after the injections of the cyanide saline solution. The blood samples were analysed for liver enzymes and bilirubin using standard methods. The result of the plasma AST and ALT at the different concentrations showed decreased levels which were significant when compared with the controls. The plasma levels of Total and Conjugated bilirubin were also significantly decreased when compared with controls. However, the levels of the ALP in both test and control groups showed no significant difference. This study therefore highlighted the need to determine the levels of these liver function indicators in cases of cyanide poisoning to ensure efficient management of patients who are exposed to the cyanide.

  5. Remuneration disparities in Oceania: Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marai, Leo; Kewibu, Vincent; Kinkin, Elly; Peter Peniop, John; Salini, Christian; Kofana, Genesis

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores the impact of remuneration differences on workers in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. In these countries remunerative differences are linked to government policy (in Papua New Guinea) and job contracts (in the Solomon Islands), and have impacted on industrial relations in both settings (strike action). A total of N = 350 professionals (n = 60 expatriates) from 54 organizations in aid, government, higher education and industry (mean response rate = 36%) responded to an organizational survey form. Remuneration ratios between international and local respondents based on the World Bank's index of purchasing power parity approached 9:1. In both sites staff compared pay and benefits (remuneration) packages: Internationally remunerated staff rated their ability higher than their local counterparts did; locally remunerated groups reported more injustice in remuneration, were more demotivated by the gaps, and were more likely to be thinking about leaving the organization. In-country workshops of N = 40 largely local stakeholders from aid and community organizations plus government ministries considered the survey's findings and recommended: in Solomon Islands, (a) introducing a policy of localization, (b) establishing a remuneration commission (already existent in Papua New Guinea), and (c) reducing the remunerative gap; in Papua New Guinea, (d) reversing the post-Independence "dual pay system" (currently official policy), (e) instituting pay-for-performance, and (f) ensuring the existent localization policy is applied to recruitment, selection, and staff career planning and management.

  6. The vertical birthing position of the Trobrianders, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, U

    1987-05-01

    During an ethnomedical field study the author succeeded in participating and photographing 4 traditional birthgivings among the Trobrianders/Papua New Guinea. Their various vertical postures are described with special reference to specific Trobriand practices and discussed by literature review. The results suggest that vertical birthing positions are advantageous to horizontal ones and should be reconsidered by modern Western obstetrics.

  7. Diplomas at the University of Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, A.

    1975-01-01

    The development of sub-graduate diploma courses (programs conferring special expertise for advancement in a career) at the University of Papua New Guinea are described as an innovation distinguishing the University by comparison with its Australian antecedents. Several diplomas are offered in education, commerce, police studies, and journalism.…

  8. Survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Noviello, Emilio; Ianniello, Davide; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Little information is available on the occurrence of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in cavies kept as pets in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from 60 guinea pigs housed in pet shops or privately owned. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminthic eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, the specimens were analyzed also by the Remel Xpect® Giardia/Cryptosporidium immunoassay. Intestinal parasites were detected in 19 out of 60 guinea pigs (31.7 %). Paraspidodera uncinata eggs were found in 13.3 % (8/60) of the rodents examined, Nippostrongylus-like eggs in 10 % (6/60), and finally Eimeria caviae oocysts were found in 10 % (6/60) of the animals. In one case, both E. caviae oocysts and P. uncinata eggs were found. None of the samples was positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

  9. Further notes on the spiders of New Guinea I (Argyopidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrysanthus, Fr.

    1971-01-01

    In this paper several collections of spiders are dealt with, originating from New Guinea, Bismarck Arch., Solomon Is., and from islands of the Great Barrier Reef and in the Coral Sea. Descriptions, figures and/or remarks are given of the following species: Argyope aemula (Walckenaer), A. aetherea (W

  10. Eudynamis Minima, an apparently new Cuckoo from Southwestern New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1911-01-01

    Only an adult male of this apparently new form of the genus Eudynamis has been collected near Bivak Island, in the Noord River, Southwestern New Guinea, at 9 January 1910 by the members of the last Lorentz-expedition to the snowy mountains. (Coll. Lorentz n°. 508). The plumage is black, glossed with

  11. Reflections on the Fiftieth Reunion of the Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loud, Oliver

    1988-01-01

    A member of the original faculty of the experimental Ohio State University Laboratory High School reflects at a fiftieth reunion of the first graduating class. Students were used as guinea pigs to determine the effects of providing teenagers with liberating, interesting, and customized education from university faculty. (SM)

  12. Guinea pig ductus arteriosus. II - Irreversible closure after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, F. S.; Cooke, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying irreversibility of ductal closure after birth, studies were undertaken to determine the exact time course for the onset of irreversible closure of the guinea pig ductus arteriosus. Parallel studies of the reactivity of ductal smooth muscle to oxygen and studies of the postpartum cellular changes within the vessel were also carried out.

  13. Piper (Piperaceae) in New Guinea: the non-climbing species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, R.O.

    2003-01-01

    A taxonomic account is given of six Piper species of New Guinea: P. bolanicum spec. nov., P. gibbil­imbum, P. recessum spec. nov., P. subbullatum, P. triangulare and P. wabagense. These small shrubby trees are best represented in secondary growth and forest at 1300–2500 m altitude, with P. gibbilimb

  14. Spontaneous cyclic embryonic movements in humans and guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felt, Renee H. M.; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Luchinger, Annemarie B.; van Kan, Colette M.; Taverne, Marcel A. M.; de Vries, J. I. P.

    2012-01-01

    Motility assessment before birth can be used to evaluate the integrity of the nervous system. Sideways bending (SB) of head and/or rump, the earliest embryonic motility in both humans and guinea pigs, can be visualized sonographically. We know from other species that early embryonic motility is cycl

  15. Folk Opera: Stories Crossing Borders in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseman, B.; Baldwin, A.; Linthwaite, H.

    2014-01-01

    The Life Drama project is a drama-based sexual health promotion project, developed by a cross-cultural research team in Papua New Guinea (PNG) over the past four years. Recognising the limitations of established theatre-in-education and theatre-for-development approaches when working across cultures, the research team explored ways of tapping into…

  16. The endemic species of Podocarpus in New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laubenfels, de David J.

    1980-01-01

    Among the more than a dozen species of Podocarpus sensu stricto known to occur on the island of New Guinea inch New Britain, five are not known elsewhere. Unlike most of the non-endemic species, these five are widely distributed on the island in their appropriate ecological zones. Only one of the fi

  17. A new fish of the family Scorpaenidae from New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1964-01-01

    The ichthyological collections brought together in various parts of New Guinea by staff members of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in 1954 and 1955 (cf. Boeseman, 1963), contain a series of scorpion-fishes which are here described as a new species, representing a new genus. Cheroscorpaena g

  18. Paraperipatus Lorentzi Horst, a new Peripatus from Dutch New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1910-01-01

    During his last expedition to the central mountain range of New Guinea, Mr. H. A. Lorentz collected a couple of Peripatus-specimens, which he kindly placed into my hands for examination. They were found amidst moss on Mount Wichmann at a height of 3000 M. That the couple consists of a male and a fem

  19. Use of Chinese hybrid rice with modified SRI in Guinea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Jiming; Wang Xuehua

    2003-01-01

    @@ Guinea is one of the nations in West Africa where riceis an important and main staple food for the people. Its riceaverage yield is only 1.5 tons per hectare, however, muchlower than those in the rest of the world. With the increaseof the population, the shortfall in rice production becomesmore and more serious. Therefore, it is very important toincrease the rice yield.

  20. Friends from Benin on the Gulf of Guinea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>In late June, Beijing was very hot under the scorching sun, but it could not stop Severin Adjovi, mayor of Ouidah of Benin on the Gulf of Guinea, from leading a delegation to visit China. Under the Sahara-type heat wave, the

  1. Good Order at Sea in the Gulf of Guinea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov; Nordby, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    and Central African states decided to establish six maritime zones along their coastline in order to improve the maritime security in the Gulf of Guinea. A process heavily supported by UN’s International Maritime Organisation (IMO). Finally, the chapter suggests that maritime security issues in the Gulf...

  2. The species of Stegonotus (Serpentes, Colubridae) in Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcdowell, S.B.

    1972-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Currently, New Guinea Stegonotus with 17 scales at midbody and divided subcaudals are identified as S. modestus. But this will not account for the disparity in dentition within "S. modestus", nor the colour differences even at one locality, nor that in East and West Sepik Districts ther

  3. The Begoias of New Guinea – an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sands, M.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    A brief introduction to the family Begoniaceae and genus Begonia is followed by an outline of the key morphological characters of begonias and a review of the sections (Diploclinium, Petermannia and Symbegonia) and species of the genus occurring in New Guinea. The essential characteristics of these

  4. Antispasmodic effect of 4'-methylepigallocatechin on guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Marcelly Barbosa; Souza, Fábia Valéria Menezes; dos Santos Estevam, Charlez; Pizza, Cosimo; Sant'ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Marçal, Rosilene Moretti

    2012-10-01

    The antispasmodic effect of 4'-methylepigallocatechin (MEC), which was isolated from Maytenus rigida Mart (Celestraceae), was investigated in vitro in guinea pig intestinal segments. In the isolated ileum, MEC (1 nM-100 μM) did not modify the ileal spontaneous tonus or the electrically elicited contractions. MEC (8 μM) significantly (prigida stem bark.

  5. The myrmecophilous species of Myristica (Myristicaceae) from New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1998-01-01

    The phenomenon of myrmecosymbiosis in Myristica, only occurring in some species from New Guinea, is reviewed here. A key to myrmecophilous taxa (and resembling species) is presented, and the status of their myrmecophily is briefly discussed. Three myrmecophytes are described as new species (M. dasyc

  6. Mother Tongue-Based Bilingual Education in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Susan; Paraide, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG), an independent state in the southwest Pacific, is the most linguistically diverse country in the world. Its roughly six million people speak over 800 distinct languages. In spite of this diversity, in 1995 the Papua New Guinean government established a mother tongue-based bilingual education programme in which community…

  7. Petroleum service projects in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken-Worgu, Kenneth Chukwumeka

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this record of study is to examine the major facets involved in managing several petroleum service projects located in three different countries in the Gulf of Guinea simultaneously, while effectively engaging in business development activities for the Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS). This work also furnishes adequate background on related subject matters to enable understanding of the projects presented. The petroleum services sector is the back bone of the oil and gas industry. Services companies are vital to the success of all petroleum and energy producers in the USA, the Gulf of Guinea and the world. There is a need and demand for these service companies because they play various roles such as logistics, drilling, construction, dredging, pipe laying, procurement, food supply, human resource supply, etc. The Gulf of Guinea comprises of countries from west and central Africa. This project was limited to Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon. This area holds the largest petroleum reserves in Africa and plays a vital role in the global supply of petroleum. The Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS), plans to establish herself as one of the leading petroleum service companies in this gulf. To manage this expansion, I have taken the role of Gulf of Guinea manager to apply my background as a petroleum engineer as well as my business skills to build a successful division of the company. This work provides a record of study of the management of services, projects and contracts carried out by the OIS group in the gulf of Guinea. The following are the specific projects in the Gulf of Guinea that I participated in: Managing delivering, maintenance and marketing of offshore vessels, Offshore pipe laying project, Integrated pipeline maintenance project, Development a petroleum technical training facilities, Agbami pipe insulation project, Engineering lift project and Capital budgeting analysis for potential investments. The details of the specific

  8. Market potential for guinea fowl (Numidia meleagris) products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzimure, James; Saina, Happyson; Ngorora, Grace P K

    2011-12-01

    The survey evaluated the market potential for guinea fowl (GF; Numidia meleagris) products in the city of Harare, Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to traders/producers (n = 17), retailers (n = 12), cafeteria industry (n = 33) and consumers (n = 1,680) to establish their perceptions on guinea fowl products. The average household size was 6 ± 2. Each trader sold 10 ± 6.30 keets (mean ± standard error), 33 ± 15.05 growers, 20 ± 12.69 breeders and 20 ± 10.1 crates of 30 eggs per month. Each household consumed 2.5 ± 1.39 kg of GF meat and 3 ± 0.65 dozens of GF eggs per month. Retailers purchased 52 ± 44.42 crates of GF eggs and 41 ± 30.50/kg of GF meat whilst cafeteria purchased 33.6 ± 14 crates of GF eggs and 65.5 ± 33.52 kg of GF meat per month. Growers for breeding were the major product for sale by traders (94.1%) at a price of US$7.50 ± 1.74/bird. Different industries were offering different prices for guinea fowl products because of their scarcity on the market. The mean purchase price per crate of 30 guinea fowl eggs sold to the retail and cafeteria were US$3.00 ± 0.58 and US$4.50 ± 0.50, respectively. The mean purchase prices for GF meat was lower (P supply due to the absence of good road networks to connect source areas and the market, perishability of dressed chickens due to power cuts and poor publicity. Overall, the study showed that there is greater market potential for guinea fowl products and farmers can channel their products through traders, cafeteria and retail industries.

  9. The Changing Face of Librarianship in Papua New Guinea: Libraries for Life in the Papua New Guinea Information Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Margaret J.

    "Libraries for life" in Papua New Guinea today is not an impossible goal to strive for to achieve with today's new and old information and communication technologies. However, in order for this to happen, a number of questions will need to be asked. There are three that need immediate attention: (1) What is an "information…

  10. Characterization of fetal growth by repeated ultrasound measurements in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, K; Guenther, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2014-08-01

    Fetal growth during pregnancy has previously been studied in the domesticated guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) after dissecting pregnant females, but there are no studies describing the fetal growth in their wild progenitor, the wild guinea pig (C aperea). In this study, 50 pregnancies of wild guinea pig sows were investigated using modern ultrasound technique. The two most common fetal growth parameters (biparietal diameter [BPD] and crown-rump-length [CRL]) and uterine position were measured. Data revealed similar fetal growth patterns in the wild guinea pig and domesticated guinea pig in the investigated gestation period, although they differ in reproductive milestones such as gestation length (average duration of pregnancy 68 days), average birth weight, and litter mass. In this study, pregnancy lasted on average 60.2 days with a variance of less than a day (0.96 days). The measured fetal growth parameters are strongly correlated with each (R = 0.91; P guinea pig.

  11. Effect of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection of female guinea pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Rank, R G; White, H. J.; Hough, A. J.; Pasley, J N; Barron, A L

    1982-01-01

    Female guinea pigs were treated daily with 1 mg of beta-estradiol-3-benzoate intramuscularly beginning 14 days before intravaginal inoculation with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis and continuing during the course of the infection. Treatment with estradiol was found to markedly influence the course of genital infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis, producing infections of greater intensity and longer duration than those in control...

  12. Antibronchoconstrictor Effects of Securidaca Longipedunculata (Fresen.)Root Bark Methanolic Extract in Guinea-pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Ojewole, John AO; Ilesanmi, Olapade RS; Olayiwola, Gbola

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the antibronchoconstrictor effects of Securidaca longipedunculata (Fresen.) root bark methanolic extract (MESL) in guinea-pigs. The plant extract relaxed spasmogen-(acetylcholine-, histamine-, serotonin-, and potassium-) induced contractions of the guinea-pig isolated tracheal muscle prepations in a concentration-related manner. The plant extract also protected guinea-pigs against histamine aerosol-induced bronchospasm in vivo. Neither the relaxant effects o...

  13. Erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor expression in the guinea pig inner ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Wagner, Niels; Lidegaard Frederiksen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    , this study determines expression of EPO and EPOR in the inner ear of the guinea pig. Normal guinea pig inner ears were processed for immunohistochemistry, using poly-clonal antibodies against EPO and the EPO receptor. EPO expression was exclusively found in most, but not all spiral ganglion neurons...... expressed by several cell types within the guinea pig cochlea. We hypothesize on the existence of a local paracrine system and that EPO treatment may be feasible following inner ear damage....

  14. Validation of a Behavioral Ethogram for Assessing Postoperative Pain in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    OpenAIRE

    Dunbar, Misha L; David, Emily M; Aline, Marian R; Lofgren, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Although guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) have been used in research for more than a century and remain the most prevalent USDA-covered species, little has been elucidated regarding the recognition of clinical pain or analgesic efficacy in this species. We sought to assess pain in guinea pigs by using newer, clinically relevant methods that have been validated in other rodent species: the behavioral ethogram and cageside proxy indicator. In this study, 10 male guinea pigs underwent electronic vo...

  15. Changes of gastrointestinal myoelectric activity and bile acid pool size after cholecystectomy in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Mei Zhang; Lei Dong; Li-Na Liu; Bi-Xia Chang; Qian He; Qian Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the bile acid pool size after cholecystectomy whether or not correlated to the gastrointestinal migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) in guinea pigs.METHODS: Gallbladder motilities were assessed before cholecystectomy. Furthermore, we continuously monitored interdigestive gastrointestinal motilities using bipolar electrodes in conscious guinea pigs before and after surgery at 4 wk in standard diet group and high cholesterol diet (cholesterol gallstone) group. Total bile acid pool sizes were measured by isotope dilution method at meantime.RESULTS: After cholecystectomy, there were parallel falls in duration of phase Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and MMC cycle duration but increase in amplitude in the guinea pigs with normal gallbladder function, and in the guinea pigs with cholesterol stones. However, There were not significantly differences. On the other hand, the bile acid pool was definitely small in the GS guinea pigs compared to normal guinea pigs and became slightly smaller after cholecystectomy. Similarly, bile acid in gallbladder bile, fecal bile acid was slightly increased in GS guinea pigs after cholecystectomy, to the same degree as normal. These differences, however, were not significant.CONCLUSION: It is concluded that in the guinea pigs with normal gallbladder function, and in the guinea pigs with cholesterol stones: (1) Cholecystectomy produce a similar but less marked trend in bile acid pool; and (2) MMC are linked to enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, rather than surgery, which is consistent with changes of the bile acid pool size. As a result, gastrointestinal dyskinesia is not involved in occurrence of postcholecystectomy syndrome.

  16. Characterization of the guinea pig adipocyte thyrotropin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennick, S E; Thomas, C G; Nayfeh, S N

    1986-02-26

    125I-TSH binding to porcine thyroid and guinea pig fat resulted in curvilinear Scatchard plots with similar dissociation constants for the high and low affinity binding components. Antibodies from the sera of patients with Graves' disease inhibited binding to the high and low affinity binding components of both tissues. Covalent cross-linking of 125I-TSH to membranes from each tissue resulted in the specific labeling of two protein bands. The guinea pig fat receptor subunits have Mr values of 52,000 and 38,000, whereas the porcine thyroid receptor subunits have values of 46,000 & 35,000. The labeling of the receptor subunits was inhibited by preincubation with Graves' autoantibodies. Despite possessing a different subunit composition, the receptors from these tissues exhibit similar affinity for TSH and share similar antigenic determinants for Graves' autoantibodies.

  17. Paragonimus worm from a New Guinea native in 1926

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenlin Wang; David Blair; Tian Min; Fang Li; Dianhua Wang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To reobserve and research the specimen of Paragonimus worm found in the left lung of a New Guinea native in 1926, which was previously identified as Paragonimuswestermani Kerbert or Paragonimus ringeri Cobbold. Methods: Using reconstructive software and microscopy to observe some organs of the worm, and compared with other species of paragonimus. Results: The three dimensional (3D) views of ovary and two testes of New Guinea specimen showed that the ovary was clearly divided into six lobes. These two testes were situated oppositely in the body. One teste was divided into four branches, while another was divided into five. The cuticular spines were arranged in groups over the entire skin covered in a slide, each group was consisted of two to four single spine. Conclusions: Based on 3D views and measurements, we reclassified it as Paragonimus siamensis. This was also the first report of human case infected by Paragonimus siamensis.

  18. Papua New Guinea: multi-level awareness campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Population Awareness Campaign in Papua New Guinea has been launched as a nationwide population education effort. Provinical workshops will be held for local leaders and community groups to create an awareness of the ways in which rapid population growth interferes with development efforts. Other activities involving more specific family planning-related messages will be films, radio programs, and plays in the Pidgin language. These are all designed to air in rural areas.

  19. Beam-Beam Simulations with GUINEA-PIG

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    While the bunches in a linear collider cross only once, due to their small size they experience a strong beam-beam effect. GUINEA-PIG is a code to simulate the impact of this effect on luminosity and back ground. A short overview of the program is given with examples of its application to the back ground strudies for TESLA, the top quark threshold scan and a possible luminosity monitor, as well as some results for CLIC.

  20. Promoting International Energy Security: Volume 4, The Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Acquisition of Exploration Blocks in Gabon,” Form 6-K filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, File number 1-15106, Rio de Janeiro ...of supplies of oil and natural gas. This is particularly the case in the Gulf of Guinea. In this area, the largest and most important exporter is...reported, not only in Nigeria, but also in the territorial waters of Ghana, whose political stability and governance conditions are higher. In this

  1. Belowground carbon cycle of Napier and Guinea grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Y.; Crow, S. E.; Litton, C. M.; Deenik, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) sequestration may partially offset rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), in particular, are perennial C4 grasses with high capacity to produce large amounts of both aboveground and belowground biomass. Thus, they have a potential to sequester soil C while simultaneously provide aboveground biomass for energy production. In this study, both grasses were ratooned (no-till) to leave belowground biomass intact and facilitate C accumulation through improvement of soil aggregation. The primary objective of the study was to determine if and how these grasses sequester soil C. For 8 selected grass varieties, we: (1) determined the quantity and quality of belowground C input, (2) quantified changes in soil organic C (SOC) during two harvesting cycles (May 2010 to July 2011), and (3) fractionated soil C pools to determine where changes in SOC occurred. Soil-surface CO2 efflux and root biomass were used as measures of the quantity of belowground C input. Root lignin/N ratios and decay constants from litterbag studies were used as measures of the belowground C input quality. We hypothesized that grass varieties with higher quantity and lower quality of belowground C input would sequester more soil C. Root biomass collected on May 2010 ranged from 13 to 302 g m-2 at 15 cm depth, where Local (Napier) and OG05 (Guinea) varieties were significantly greater than the K06 variety (Guinea). However, cumulative soil-surface CO2 efflux showed no significant differences between the three varieties. Root Lignin/N ranged from 16 to 55 and Guinea varieties were significantly higher on average than Napier varieties. Root decay constants were variable among varieties, with OG05 and K06 showing higher resistance to decay compared to Local. Soil C sequestration potentials and factors affecting the process are imperative to determine suitable variety for bioenergy production.

  2. Pathogenesis of enteritis necroticans in Papula New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, G; Walker, P D

    1976-01-17

    It is suggested that enteritis necroticans occurs in the people of the Highlands of Papua New Guinea because they have low levels of digestive proteases in the intestinal lumen. These low protease levels are the result of a low-protein diet and the presence of heat-stable trypsin inhibitors in sweet potatato, the dietary staple. Low proteolytic activity allows the B toxin of Clostridium welchii type C, which is extremely susceptible to proteolysis, to initiate the disease.

  3. Hyperthyroidism in four guinea pigs: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, F; Hierlmeier, B; Christian, M; Reifinger, M

    2013-12-01

    Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed in four guinea pigs by demonstration of an increased serum total thyroxine concentration. The main clinical signs were comparable with those observed in feline hyperthyroidism and included weight loss despite maintenance of appetite and a palpable mass in the ventral cervical region. Three animals were treated successfully with methimazole for between 13 and 28 months. Clinical signs and regular measurement of circulating total thyroxine concentrations appear to be convenient parameters for monitoring response to medical therapy.

  4. Migration of craniofacial periosteum in growing guinea-pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    The use of a carbon particle tattoo provided stable periosteal markers and a means of recording periosteal movement both anteroposteriorly and transversely during growth in guinea-pigs. In general, the periosteum migrated toward the cranial sutures. The radial pattern, demonstrated on the frontal bones and indicated on the nasal and parietal bones, showed that a periosteal envelope is identifiable with each bone. The area of origin of this centrifugal pattern of migration coincided with the o...

  5. Tick-borne rickettsiae in Guinea and Liberia

    OpenAIRE

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Diatta, G.; Zolia, Y.; Balde, M. C.; Kohar, H.; Trape, Jean-François; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    While the high seroprevalence for the rickettsiae that cause spotted fevers and the multiple pathogenic rickettsiae is known, the data on the distribution of rickettsial diseases in Africa are often incomplete. We collected ticks from domestic or wild animals (generally a source of bushmeat) that were in contact with humans in 2 neighboring countries of tropical West Africa, Guinea and Liberia. In total, 382 ticks representing 6 species were collected in Liberia and 655 ticks representing 7 s...

  6. Identification and sequence analysis of Tapasin gene in guinea fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varuna P. Panicker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An attempt has been made to identify and study the nucleotide sequence variability in exon 5 - exon 6 regions of guinea fowl Tapasin gene. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from randomly selected birds (12 guinea fowl birds and Tapasin gene amplified using chicken specific primers designed from GenBank submitted sequences. Polymerase chain reaction conditions were standardized so as get only single amplicons. Obtained products were then cloned and sequenced; sequences were then analyzed using suitable software. Results: Amplicon size of the Tapasin gene in guinea fowl was same as reported in chicken with areas of transitions and transversions. The sequence variations reported in these coding sequences might have influence in the protein structure, which may be correlated with the increased immune status of the bird when compared with chicken breeds. Conclusion: Since Tapasin gene is an immunologically important gene, which plays an important role in the immune status of the bird. Sequence variations in the gene can be correlated with the altered immune status of the bird.

  7. Prehistoric human impact on rainforest biodiversity in highland New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Simon G

    2007-02-28

    In the highlands of New Guinea, the development of agriculture as an indigenous innovation during the Early Holocene is considered to have resulted in rapid loss of forest cover, a decrease in forest biodiversity and increased land degradation over thousands of years. But how important is human activity in shaping the diversity of vegetation communities over millennial time-scales? An evaluation of the change in biodiversity of forest habitats through the Late Glacial transition to the present in five palaeoecological sites from highland valleys, where intensive agriculture is practised today, is presented. A detailed analysis of the longest and most continuous record from Papua New Guinea is also presented using available biodiversity indices (palynological richness and biodiversity indicator taxa) as a means of identifying changes in diversity. The analysis shows that the collapse of key forest habitats in the highland valleys is evident during the Mid - Late Holocene. These changes are best explained by the adoption of new land management practices and altered disturbance regimes associated with agricultural activity, though climate change may also play a role. The implications of these findings for ecosystem conservation and sustainability of agriculture in New Guinea are discussed.

  8. Novel antitussive effect of suplatast tosilate in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-Rong; Syono, Ryo-ichi; Fukumi, Syu-ichi; Kimoto, Kenji; Shirasaki, Tetsuya; Soeda, Fumio; Takahama, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    We studied the antitussive effects of suplatast, a Th2 cytokine inhibitor, and compared them with the effects of codeine using an experimental cough model in guinea pigs. Suplatast and codeine dose-dependently inhibited cough caused by mechanical stimulation of the larynx, but they did not inhibit cough caused by mechanical stimulation of the bifurcation of the trachea. In guinea pigs with bronchitis, suplatast had an antitussive effect on cough caused by stimulation of the larynx, whereas codeine did not inhibit such cough. In SO2-exposed guinea pigs, suplatast tended to inhibit cough caused by mechanical stimulation of the tracheal bifurcation. Further, suplatast inhibited citric acid-induced cough augmented by pretreatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, whereas codeine did not inhibit such cough. Suplatast also inhibited bradykinin-induced discharges of airway vagal afferent nerves and significantly inhibited 4-aminopyridine-induced discharges of airway vagal afferent nerves. These findings indicate that the antitussive effects of suplatast are mediated by a novel mechanism involving the peripheral nervous system.

  9. Pathogenesis of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T M; Bunton, T E; Shaia, C I; Raymond, J W; Honnold, S P; Donnelly, G C; Shamblin, J D; Wilkinson, E R; Cashman, K A

    2016-01-01

    Machupo virus, the cause of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever with no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics. This study evaluated the guinea pig as a model using the Machupo virus-Chicava strain administered via aerosol challenge. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and sequential changes in serum chemistry and hematology. The incubation period was 5 to 12 days, and complete blood counts revealed leukopenia with lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Gross pathologic findings included congestion and hemorrhage of the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa, noncollapsing lungs with fluid exudation, enlarged lymph nodes, and progressive pallor and friability of the liver. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and cell death in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, renal pelvis, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system, interpreted as nonsuppurative encephalitis, was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. Macrophages in the tracheobronchial lymph node, on day 5 postexposure, were the first cells to demonstrate visible viral antigen. Viral antigen was detected throughout the lymphoid system by day 9 postexposure, followed by prominent spread within epithelial tissues and then brain. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection and supports the utility of guinea pigs as an additional animal model for vaccine and therapeutic development.

  10. New genus of diminutive microhylid frogs from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Kraus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of diminutive (10.1-11.3 mm microhylid frogs is described from New Guinea that is unique in its combination ofonly seven presacral vertebrae, a reduced phalangeal formula that leaves the first fingers and first toes as vestigial nubs, and reduction of the prepollex and prehallux to single elements. Relationships to other genera are unknown, but overall similarity suggests some relationship to Cophixalus, although that genus also differs in some muscle characters and likely remains paraphyletic. The new genus contains two species, which are among the smallest known frogs in the world. Their miniaturization may be related to their inhabiting leaf litter, exploitation of which may for small size. The new genus is currently known only from one mountaintop in the southeasternmost portion of New Guinea and another on a nearby island. This region is part of the East Papuan Composite Terrane and, should this lineage prove endemic to that region, it may suggest that it originated prior to that geological unit’s docking with mainland New Guinea at 23–29 MY.

  11. Congenital guinea pig infection with attenuated Junin virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxaca, M C; Gómez, M M; Malumbres, E; de Guerrero, L B

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pigs born from mothers infected before or during pregnancy with 10(3) PFU of the attenuated XJC13 or XJ0 strains of Junin virus (JV) by the intramuscular route showed 31.5% mortality that was not attributable to the mothers' clinical condition or to lack of care. There was a slight drop in mortality rate when the mothers were infected at the beginning or end of their gestation period. JV isolation from the 9 offspring killed from 1 to 125 days of age proved that virus transmitted transplacentally or soon after birth was able to persist, although titers were not higher than 10(2.7) PFU/g of tissue in various organs, including brain. Cell-associated viremia could thus account for viral spread after birth. Since an active humoral response was detected in the same animals, although Nt antibody titers were below 1:16, a state of tolerance did not exist in these congenitally infected animals. The carrier state appeared to modify guinea pig susceptibility to JV; after challenge with the pathogenic XJ strain of JV, 2 animals survived and developed normal humoral responses, while half of the remaining animals did not show typical signs of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. Although JV persistence appeared to cause no deleterious effects in surviving guinea pigs, its long-term risk remains to be determined.

  12. Interstitial cells of Cajal and Auerbach's plexus. A scanning electron microscopical study of guinea-pig small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Harry; Thuneberg, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy...

  13. The Convolvulaceae of Malesia X. Additional notes on the species from New Guinea with description of a new Merremia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.

    1972-01-01

    After the publication of my paper on the Convolvulaceae of New Guinea (Nova Guinea n.s. 6,1955,1—32) several new collections were made in this island. Some of these contain species up till then unknown from New Guinea, other give a better idea on the distribution within the island of species earlier

  14. Does oral polio vaccine have non-specific effects on all-cause mortality? Natural experiments within a randomised controlled trial of early measles vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Andersen, Andreas; Martins, Cesário L; Fisker, Ane B; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton C; Benn, Christine S

    2016-01-01

    Background BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs). If an unplanned intervention with a vaccine (a natural experiment) modifies the estimated effect in a randomised controlled trial (RCT), this suggests NSEs. We used this approach to test NSEs of triple oral polio vaccine (OPV). Methods During an RCT of 2 doses of MV at 4.5 and 9 months versus 1 dose of MV at 9 months of age, we experienced 2 natural experiments with OPV. We assessed whether these OPV experiments modified the effect of 2-dose MV in the MV trial. Setting MV RCT conducted in urban Guinea-Bissau 2003–2009. Interventions Natural experiments with OPV due to missing vaccine and the implementation of OPV campaigns. Main outcome measure Changes in the mortality rate ratio (MRR) for 2-dose MV versus 1-dose MV. Results First, the MRR (2-dose/1-dose MV) overall was 0.70 (0.52 to 0.94), but the MRR was 1.04 (0.53 to 2.04) when OPV at birth (OPV0) was not given, suggesting that early priming with OPV was important for the effect of 2-dose MV. The effect of OPV0 depended on age of administration; the MRR (2-dose/1-dose MV) was 0.45 (0.29 to 0.71) for children receiving OPV0 in the first week of life, but 3.63 (0.87 to 15.2) for those receiving OPV0 after the first month of life (p=0.007, test of no interaction). Second, campaign-OPV may have reduced the difference between the randomisation groups since the MRR (2-dose/1-dose MV) was 0.60 (0.42 to 0.85) for children who had not received campaign-OPV before RCT-enrolment versus 0.72 (0.23 to 2.31) and 1.42 (0.70 to 2.90) for children who had received 1 or 2 doses of campaign-OPV-before-enrolment, respectively. Conclusions Bissau had no polio infection during this trial, so OPV0 and campaign-OPV may have NSEs since they modified the effect of 2-dose MV in an RCT. Different interventions may interact to a much larger effect than usually assumed. PMID:28011813

  15. Countries population determination to test rice crisis indicator at national level using k-means cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Y.; Purwandari, T.; Sukono; Ariska, Y. D.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain information on the population of the countries which is have similarities with Indonesia based on three characteristics, that is the democratic atmosphere, rice consumption and purchasing power of rice. It is useful as a reference material for research which tested the strength and predictability of the rice crisis indicators Unprecedented Restlessness (UR). The similarities countries with Indonesia were conducted using multivariate analysis that is non-hierarchical cluster analysis k-Means with 38 countries as the data population. This analysis is done repeatedly until the obtainment number of clusters which is capable to show the differentiator power of the three characteristics and describe the high similarity within clusters. Based on the results, it turns out with 6 clusters can describe the differentiator power of characteristics of formed clusters. However, to answer the purpose of the study, only one cluster which will be taken accordance with the criteria of success for the population of countries that have similarities with Indonesia that cluster contain Indonesia therein, there are countries which is sustain crisis and non-crisis of rice in 2008, and cluster which is have the largest member among them. This criterion is met by cluster 2, which consists of 22 countries, namely Indonesia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Fiji, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Japan, Korea South, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Suriname.

  16. Hope in Africa?: social representations of world history and the future in six African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabecinhas, Rosa; Liu, James H; Licata, Laurent; Klein, Olivier; Mendes, Júlio; Feijó, João; Niyubahwe, Aline

    2011-10-01

    Data on social representations of world history have been collected everywhere in the world except sub-Saharan Africa. Two studies using open-ended data involving university students from six African countries fill this gap. In Study 1, nominations from Cape Verde and Mozambique for the most important events in world history in the past 1000 years were dominated by war and politics, recency effects, and Western-centrism tempered by African sociocentrism on colonization and independence. The first three findings replicated previous research conducted in other parts of the world, but the last pattern contrasted sharply with European data. Study 2 employed a novel method asking participants how they would begin the narration of world history, and then to describe a major transition to the present. Participants most frequently wrote about the evolution of humanity out of Africa, followed by war and then colonization as a beginning, and then replicated previous findings with war, colonization, and technology as major transitions to the present. Finally, when asked about how they foresaw the future, many participants expressed hope for peace and cooperation, especially those facing more risk of collective violence (Burundi and Congo). A colonial/liberation narrative was more predominant in the data from former Portuguese colonies (Angola, Cape Verde, and Guinea-Bissau) than from former Belgian colonies (Burundi and Congo).

  17. The Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries. A New Forum of Coordination and Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frigdiano Álvaro Durántez Prados

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The constitution of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP in Lisbon, July 1996, represented the culmination of the manifest willingness for association among the Portuguese-speaking nations on different continents. As an exponent of the currents of international solidarity founded on cultural and historical bases, the countries of Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal and Santo Tome and Principe formalized a new forum for dialogue, reflection and cooperation that merits the attention in and of itself, as a new formalized scheme for political-diplomatic coordination and privileged cooperation among its members.At the same time, the manifest identification of the historical processes, conceptualizations, principles, objectives and the identifiable reference points of this Community with the Latin American Community of Nations (comprised of Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries on the American and European continents, besides the many reciprocal interconnections and parallelisms, point to the need –perhaps the historical opportunity– of considering a substantial and formalized coming together of all members and parts toarticulate a forum or general space for “Iberian”-speaking countries, in which the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries could be one of the primary elements for coherence.

  18. Revaccination with Live Attenuated Vaccines Confer Additional Beneficial Nonspecific Effects on Overall Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine S; Fisker, Ane B; Whittle, Hilton C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Live vaccines against measles (MV), tuberculosis (BCG), polio (OPV) and smallpox reduce mortality more than explained by target-disease prevention. The beneficial nonspecific effects (NSEs) of MV are strongest when MV is given in presence of maternal antibodies. We therefore hypothesi......BACKGROUND: Live vaccines against measles (MV), tuberculosis (BCG), polio (OPV) and smallpox reduce mortality more than explained by target-disease prevention. The beneficial nonspecific effects (NSEs) of MV are strongest when MV is given in presence of maternal antibodies. We therefore....... In a quasi-experimental study two doses before and after 9months compared with one dose of MV after 9months of age reduced mortality by 59% (25-81%). BCG-revaccination significantly enhanced BCG's effect against overall child mortality in two RCTs. In a natural experiment study of OPV campaigns over a 13......-year-period in Guinea-Bissau, each additional dose of OPV was associated with a 13% (4-21%) reduction in mortality rate. The beneficial NSEs of smallpox vaccination for survival increased significantly with the number of smallpox vaccination scars. INTERPRETATION: Revaccination with live vaccines led...

  19. Oral Polio Vaccine Influences the Immune Response to BCG Vaccination. A Natural Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartono, E.; Lisse, I.M.; Terveer, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did...... not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. Methods and Findings: We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who received BCG...... scar (0.95 (0.91-1.00), p = 0.057)). Among children with a scar, OPV was associated with reduced scar size, the regression coefficient being -0.24 (-0.43-0.05), p = 0.012. Conclusions: This study is the first to address the consequences for the immune response to BCG of simultaneous administration...

  20. Mating strategies of young women: role of physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devendra

    2004-02-01

    The female physical attractiveness stereotype has been reported to contain both desirable (sociable, poised, interesting) and undesirable (snobbish, likely to request divorce and have extra-marital affairs) personal qualities. To investigate whether such an attractiveness stereotype is cross-cultural, I asked men and women from Azore Island, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, and the U.S. to judge the attractiveness of female figures differing in body weight and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and to rank these figures according to perceived personal attributes. There was a strong cross-cultural consensus for attractiveness; figures with low WHR were judged to be more attractive than figures with high WHR within each weight category. Participants also judged attractive figures as less faithful than less-attractive figures. To explore the basis of a possible 'darker side ' of the attractiveness stereotype, behavior tactics of young U.S. women were examined. Compared to women with high WHRs, low-WHR women reported engaging in more flirting to make dates jealous, suggesting some truth to the attractiveness stereotype. Taken together, these findings suggest that female attractiveness influences the type of mating strategies employed by women.

  1. Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) genetic diversity at Paranaguá Estuarine Complex feeding grounds in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, Juliana Costa; Bondioli, Ana Cristina Vigliar; Guebert, Flavia Maria; de Thoisy, Benoit; Toledo, Lurdes Foresti de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Sea turtles are marine reptiles that undertake long migrations through their life, with limited information regarding juvenile stages. Feeding grounds (FGs), where they spend most of their lives, are composed by individuals from different natal origins, known as mixed stock populations. The aim of this study was to assess genetic composition, natal origins and demographic history of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) at the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC), Brazil, considered a Natural World Heritage site. Tissue samples of stranded animals were collected (n = 60), and 700 bp mitochondrial DNA sequences were generated and compared to shorter sequences from previously published studies. Global exact tests of differentiation revealed significant differences among PEC and the other FGs, except those at the South Atlantic Ocean. Green turtles at PEC present genetic signatures similar to those of nesting females from Ascension Island, Guinea Bissau and Aves Island/Surinam. Population expansion was evidenced to have occurred 20–25 kYA, reinforcing the hypothesis of recovery from Southern Atlantic refugia after the last Glacial Maximum. These results contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of green turtle populations at a protected area by providing knowledge on the dispersion patterns and reinforcing the importance of the interconnectivity between nesting and foraging populations. PMID:26500439

  2. The effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation administered with BCG vaccine at birth may be modified by subsequent DTP vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria;

    2009-01-01

    Unexpectedly, we found no overall beneficial effect on mortality in a randomised trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) or placebo administered with BCG vaccine at birth in Guinea-Bissau. We conducted an explorative analysis to examine whether subsequent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP......) vaccinations had modified the effect of VAS at birth. VAS was associated with a weak tendency for decreased mortality as long as BCG was the most recent vaccination, the mortality rate ratio being 0.86 (0.48-1.54); 0.82 (0.32-2.08) in girls and 0.89 (0.43-1.88) in boys. However, after DTP vaccination VAS...... at birth was associated with increased mortality in girls (2.19 (1.09-4.38)), whereas no difference was seen for boys (0.90 (0.44-1.82)) (p=0.08 for equal effect of VAS in the two sexes if DTP is the last vaccine). The explanation for the lack of beneficial effect in our setting may have been that VAS...

  3. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination administered after measles vaccine: increased female mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter

    2012-10-01

    In low-income countries, children should receive 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age, and measles vaccine at 9 months of age. However, there is often a delay in administering the vaccines, and DTP is often given after measles vaccine. Previous observations suggest that this practice is associated with increased mortality for female, but not for male children. Within a vitamin A trial in Guinea-Bissau, vaccination status was registered at the time of measles vaccination at 9 months; 141 (31%) of 455 children were missing 1 or more DTP vaccines and were likely to receive them afterward. We examined whether missing DTP vaccine at this time point was associated with sex-differential effects on mortality. In female children, missing DTP was associated with 3.55 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-10.26) times higher risk of dying before 36 months of age, whereas it made no difference in male children (0.97 [0.34-2.80]). The result supports that receiving DTP after measles vaccine affects female children negatively.

  4. Tracking cashew economically important diseases in the West African region using metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa eMonteiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, agricultural land-uses in West Africa were marked by dramatic shifts in the coverage of individual crops. Nowadays, cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. is one of the most export-oriented horticulture crops, notably in Guinea-Bissau. Relying heavily on agriculture to increase their income, developing countries have been following a strong trend of moving on from traditional farming systems towards commercial production. Emerging infectious diseases, driven either by adaptation to local conditions or inadvertent importation of plant pathogens, are able to cause tremendous cashew production losses, with economic and social impact of which, in developing countries is often underestimated. Presently, plant genomics with metagenomics as an emergent tool, presents an enormous potential to better characterize diseases by providing extensive knowledge on plant pathogens at a large scale. In this perspective, we address metagenomics as a promising genomic tool to identify cashew fungal associated diseases as well as to discriminate the causal pathogens, aiming at obtaining tools to help design effective strategies for disease control and thus promote the sustainable production of cashew in West African region.

  5. The collection and database of Birds of Angola hosted at IICT (Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical), Lisboa, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Miguel; Reino, Luís; Beja, Pedro; Mills, Michael Stuart Lyne; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Ramos, Manuela; Rodrigues, Diana; Neves, Isabel Queirós; Consciência, Susana; Figueira, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The bird collection of the Instituto de Investigação Cientítica Tropical (Lisbon, Portugal) holds 5598 preserved specimens (skins), mainly from Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Principe, and Cape Verde. The subset collection from Angola includes 1560 specimens, which were taxonomically revised and georeferenced for the publication of this data paper. The collection contains a total of 522 taxa, including 161 species and 361 subspecies. Two species are classified by the IUCN Red List as Endangered - the wattled crane (Grus carunculata) and the Gabela bush-shrike (Laniarius amboimensis) - and two are classified as vulnerable - African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) and the white-headed vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis). The temporal span of the database ranges between 1943 and 1979, but 32% are from years 1958-1959, and 25% from years 1968-1969. The spatial coverage of the collection is uneven, with 2/3 of the records representing only four of the eighteen provinces of the country, namely Huíla, Moxico, Namibe and Cuanza Sul. It adds, however, valuable information for the Huíla area of the Angolan Scarp, which is probably a biodiversity hotspot of global conservation priority. Furthermore, this georeferenced database adds invaluable bird information to the GBIF network, for one of the countries with highest but less known biodiversity in Africa.

  6. HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 (HTLV-1 AND HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 (HTLV-2: GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH TRENDS AND COLLABORATION NETWORKS (1989-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio GONZÁLEZ-ALCAIDE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Publications are often used as a measure of research work success. Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV type 1 and 2 are human retroviruses, which were discovered in the early 1980s, and it is estimated that 15-20 million people are infected worldwide. This article describes a bibliometric review and a coauthorship network analysis of literature on HTLV indexed in PubMed in a 24-year period. A total of 7,564 documents were retrieved, showing a decrease in the number of documents from 1996 to 2007. HTLV manuscripts were published in 1,074 journals. Japan and USA were the countries with the highest contribution in this field (61% followed by France (8%. Production ranking changed when the number of publications was normalized by population (Dominican Republic and Japan, by gross domestic product (Guinea-Bissau and Gambia, and by gross national income per capita (Brazil and Japan. The present study has shed light on some of the defining features of scientific collaboration performed by HTLV research community, such as the existence of core researchers responsible for articulating the development of research in the area, facilitating wider collaborative relationships and the integration of new authors in the research groups.

  7. Pan-atlantic analysis of the overlap of a highly migratory species, the leatherback turtle, with pelagic longline fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossette, S; Witt, M J; Miller, P; Nalovic, M A; Albareda, D; Almeida, A P; Broderick, A C; Chacón-Chaverri, D; Coyne, M S; Domingo, A; Eckert, S; Evans, D; Fallabrino, A; Ferraroli, S; Formia, A; Giffoni, B; Hays, G C; Hughes, G; Kelle, L; Leslie, A; López-Mendilaharsu, M; Luschi, P; Prosdocimi, L; Rodriguez-Heredia, S; Turny, A; Verhage, S; Godley, B J

    2014-04-01

    Large oceanic migrants play important roles in ecosystems, yet many species are of conservation concern as a result of anthropogenic threats, of which incidental capture by fisheries is frequently identified. The last large populations of the leatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea, occur in the Atlantic Ocean, but interactions with industrial fisheries could jeopardize recent positive population trends, making bycatch mitigation a priority. Here, we perform the first pan-Atlantic analysis of spatio-temporal distribution of the leatherback turtle and ascertain overlap with longline fishing effort. Data suggest that the Atlantic probably consists of two regional management units: northern and southern (the latter including turtles breeding in South Africa). Although turtles and fisheries show highly diverse distributions, we highlight nine areas of high susceptibility to potential bycatch (four in the northern Atlantic and five in the southern/equatorial Atlantic) that are worthy of further targeted investigation and mitigation. These are reinforced by reports of leatherback bycatch at eight of these sites. International collaborative efforts are needed, especially from nations hosting regions where susceptibility to bycatch is likely to be high within their exclusive economic zone (northern Atlantic: Cape Verde, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Senegal, Spain, USA and Western Sahara; southern Atlantic: Angola, Brazil, Namibia and UK) and from nations fishing in these high-susceptibility areas, including those located in international waters.

  8. Communication and Information About “Safer Sex:” Intervention Issues Within Communities of African Migrants Living in Poorer Neighbourhoods in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Gaspar, Tania; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Reis, Marta; Ramiro, Lúcia

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the influence of migrant status on sexual behavior and communication about “safer sex” and to identify ethnic-specific prevention issues. Data were obtained from a special administration of the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey in a special sample of Portuguese schools located in low-income Lisbon neighborhoods with large proportions of African migrants. Survey participants included 919 6th, 8th and 10th graders (52.3% female), of whom 19.2% were migrant foreigners from African Portuguese-speaking countries, including Cape Verde (60.8%), Mozambique (1.6%), Angola (16.8%), S. Tomé (8%), and Guinea-Bissau (14.8%). Subsequently, four focus groups were held with adolescent who had participated in the survey (n = 45), three focus group with health and education professionals (n = 25), and one focus group with parents (n = 6). Compared with Portuguese adolescents, African migrant teens reported initial sexual intercourse at earlier ages, less frequent condom use, and less frequent and less comfortable communications with parents about sexual issues. Implications for selective prevention of STD are discussed and recommendations are made. PMID:19081810

  9. The Bandim TBscore – reliability, further development, and evaluation of potential uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Rudolf

    2014-05-01

    W=0.49, 95% CI 0.33–0.65. KPS was influenced by HIV status, whereas TBscore was unaffected by it. In paper II, proposed TBscoreII was validated internally, in Guinea-Bissau, and externally, in Ethiopia. In both settings, a failure to bring down the score by ≥25% from baseline to 2 months of treatment predicted subsequent failure (p=0.007. Finally, in paper III, TBscore and TBscoreII were assessed in health-care-seeking adults and found to be higher in PTB-diagnosed patients, 4.9 (95% CI 4.6–5.2 and 3.9 (95% CI 3.8–4.0, respectively, versus patients not diagnosed with PTB, 3.0 (95% CI 2.7–3.2 and 2.4 (95% CI 2.3–2.5, respectively. Had we referred only patients with cough >2 weeks to sputum smear, we would have missed 32.1% of the smear confirmed cases in our cohort. A TBscoreII>=2 missed 8.6%. Conclusions: TBscore and TBscoreII are useful monitoring tools for PTB patients on treatment, as they could fill the void which currently exists in risk grading of patients. They may also have a role in PTB screening; however, this requires our findings to be repeated elsewhere.

  10. Green turtle (Chelonia mydas genetic diversity at Paranaguá Estuarine Complex feeding grounds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Costa Jordão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are marine reptiles that undertake long migrations through their life, with limited information regarding juvenile stages. Feeding grounds (FGs, where they spend most of their lives, are composed by individuals from different natal origins, known as mixed stock populations. The aim of this study was to assess genetic composition, natal origins and demographic history of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas at the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC, Brazil, considered a Natural World Heritage site. Tissue samples of stranded animals were collected (n = 60, and 700 bp mitochondrial DNA sequences were generated and compared to shorter sequences from previously published studies. Global exact tests of differentiation revealed significant differences among PEC and the other FGs, except those at the South Atlantic Ocean. Green turtles at PEC present genetic signatures similar to those of nesting females from Ascension Island, Guinea Bissau and Aves Island/Surinam. Population expansion was evidenced to have occurred 20–25 kYA, reinforcing the hypothesis of recovery from Southern Atlantic refugia after the last Glacial Maximum. These results contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of green turtle populations at a protected area by providing knowledge on the dispersion patterns and reinforcing the importance of the interconnectivity between nesting and foraging populations.

  11. The collection and database of Birds of Angola hosted at IICT (Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, Lisboa, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Monteiro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The bird collection of the Instituto de Investigação Cientítica Tropical (Lisbon, Portugal holds 5598 preserved specimens (skins, mainly from Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Principe, and Cape Verde. The subset collection from Angola includes 1560 specimens, which were taxonomically revised and georeferenced for the publication of this data paper. The collection contains a total of 522 taxa, including 161 species and 361 subspecies. Two species are classified by the IUCN Red List as Endangered - the wattled crane (Grus carunculata and the Gabela bush-shrike (Laniarius amboimensis - and two are classified as vulnerable - African penguin (Spheniscus demersus and the white-headed vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis. The temporal span of the database ranges between 1943 and 1979, but 32% are from years 1958–1959, and 25% from years 1968–1969. The spatial coverage of the collection is uneven, with 2/3 of the records representing only four of the eighteen provinces of the country, namely Huíla, Moxico, Namibe and Cuanza Sul. It adds, however, valuable information for the Huíla area of the Angolan Scarp, which is probably a biodiversity hotspot of global conservation priority. Furthermore, this georeferenced database adds invaluable bird information to the GBIF network, for one of the countries with highest but less known biodiversity in Africa.

  12. Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) genetic diversity at Paranaguá Estuarine Complex feeding grounds in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, Juliana Costa; Bondioli, Ana Cristina Vigliar; Guebert, Flavia Maria; de Thoisy, Benoit; Toledo, Lurdes Foresti de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Sea turtles are marine reptiles that undertake long migrations through their life, with limited information regarding juvenile stages. Feeding grounds (FGs), where they spend most of their lives, are composed by individuals from different natal origins, known as mixed stock populations. The aim of this study was to assess genetic composition, natal origins and demographic history of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) at the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC), Brazil, considered a Natural World Heritage site. Tissue samples of stranded animals were collected (n = 60), and 700 bp mitochondrial DNA sequences were generated and compared to shorter sequences from previously published studies. Global exact tests of differentiation revealed significant differences among PEC and the other FGs, except those at the South Atlantic Ocean. Green turtles at PEC present genetic signatures similar to those of nesting females from Ascension Island, Guinea Bissau and Aves Island/Surinam. Population expansion was evidenced to have occurred 20-25 kYA, reinforcing the hypothesis of recovery from Southern Atlantic refugia after the last Glacial Maximum. These results contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of green turtle populations at a protected area by providing knowledge on the dispersion patterns and reinforcing the importance of the interconnectivity between nesting and foraging populations.

  13. Cartilage interposition in ossiculoplasty with hydroxylapatite prostheses : A histopathologic study in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, AGW; Verheul, J; Albers, FWJ; Segenhout, HM

    2002-01-01

    In this experimental animal study, a cartilage disk was interposed between a synthetic middle ear prosthesis and the tympanic membrane in guinea pigs to investigate its effect on the extrusion process of the implant. Two groups of guinea pigs were studied. One group consisted of animals in which the

  14. Engendering Mines in Development : A Promising Approach from Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a culturally diverse, environmentally rich country with over five million inhabitants, the majority of whom live on the eastern half of the rugged and mountainous island of New Guinea, the rest scattered among tropical archipelagos in the Bismark and Solomon seas. PNG's natural beauty hides a legacy of poverty and dependence on natural resources, especially mining...

  15. Cartilage interposition in ossiculoplasty with hydroxylapatite prostheses - A histological study in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, AGW; Verheul, J; Albers, FWJ; Segenhout, HM; Rosowski, JJ; Merchant, SN

    2000-01-01

    In this experimental animal study, a cartilage disc was interposed between a synthetic middle ear prosthesis and the tympanic membrane of guinea pigs to investigate its effect on the extrusion process of the implant. Two groups of guinea pigs were studied. One group consisted of animals in which the

  16. A taxonomic revision of the genus Grammitis Swartz (Grammitidaceae: Filicales) in New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parris, B.S.

    1983-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the fern genus Grammitis Swartz (Grammitidaceae) in New Guinea has been made, in which 64 species belonging to 14 species groups are recognised. Forty-five species are endemic to New Guinea and 21 species are hitherto undescribed. Problems in generic classification are outlin

  17. Nickel-sulphate-induced contact dermatitis in the guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohold, A E; Nielsen, G D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1991-01-01

    Nickel sulphate is a sensitizer in guinea pigs, but the frequency of sensitization varies from study to study. The dose-response relationship for NiSO4.6H2O was evaluated in the guinea pig maximization test in this study. 6 intradermal (0.01%-3.0% aq.) and 6 topical (0.25%-10.0% pet...

  18. Behavioral responses of deafened guinea pigs to intracochlear electrical stimulation: a new rapid psychophysical procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterberg, M.J.H.; Versnel, H.

    2014-01-01

    In auditory research the guinea pig is often preferred above rats and mice because of the easily accessible cochlea and because the frequency range of its hearing is more comparable to that of humans. Studies of the guinea-pig auditory system primarily apply histological and electrophysiological mea

  19. The guinea pig maximization test--with a multiple dose design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Vølund, A; Frankild, S

    1995-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) is usually performed with one moderately irritant induction dose of the allergen and gives a qualitative assessment-hazard identification-of the allergenicity of the chemical. We refined the GPMT by applying a multiple dose design and used 30 guinea pigs...

  20. Interrelationships of Non-Formal Mother Tongue Education and Citizenship in Guinea and Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Andrea; Yerende, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Guinea and Senegal are multilingual countries that use French as a language of instruction in the formal educational sector with some significant exceptions. As in many other African countries, such exceptions in Guinea and Senegal, use local African languages primarily in the non-formal sector for a variety of purposes, such as adult literacy and…

  1. Virginia Woolf's "Three Guineas" and Betty Friedan's "The Second Stage": The Role of the Outsider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Nancy

    Although both Virginia Woolf in "Three Guineas" and Betty Friedan in "The Second Stage" address the role of women as "outsiders" in a male-dominated society, their attitudes towards the issue--despite certain similarities--differ in at least one important way. "Three Guineas," a feminist-pacifist satire on…

  2. Cumulative irritancy in the guinea pig from low grade irritant vehicles and the angry skin syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1980-01-01

    A 4-week open cumulative irritancy test in guinea pigs discriminated between two low grade irritant vehicles, nonionic base (anhydrous) and hydrophilic ointment. The procedure might be useful as a predictive test for low grade irritants. The angry skin syndrome was established in the guinea pigs...

  3. Molecular cloning, expression, and in silico structural analysis of guinea pig IL-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirisala, Vijaya R; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Ramasamy, Suresh K; McMurray, David N

    2013-11-01

    Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine and the signature cytokine of Th17 cells, a subset which is involved in cytokine and chemokine production, neutrophil recruitment, promotion of T cell priming, and antibody production. IL-17 may play an important role in tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. In preparation for investigating its role in the highly relevant guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis, we cloned guinea pig IL-17A for the first time. The complete coding sequence of the guinea pig IL-17A gene (477 nucleotides; 159 amino acids) was subcloned into a prokaryotic expression vector (pET-30a) resulting in the expression of a 17 kDa recombinant guinea pig IL-17A protein which was confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. Homology modeling of guinea pig IL-17A revealed that the three-dimensional structure resembles that of human IL-17A. The secondary structure predicted for this protein showed the presence of one extra helix in the N-terminal region. The expression profile of IL-17A was analyzed quantitatively in spleen, lymph node, and lung cells from BCG-vaccinated guinea pigs by real-time PCR. The guinea pig IL-17A cDNA and its recombinant protein will serve as valuable tools for molecular and immunological studies in the guinea pig model of pulmonary TB and other human diseases.

  4. Re-imaging the Modernity of Sierra Leone and Equatorial Guinea: Africa past and Africa present

    OpenAIRE

    Codling, Rosetta

    2011-01-01

    This paper engages the concept of the imposed Modernity of Europe upon the African republics of Sierra Leone and Equatorial Guinea. Evidence of the encroachment of a ‘false’ Modernity upon Africa’s Sierra Leone and Equatorial Guinea are chronicled in the works of Donato Ndongo (Shadows of Your Black Memory) and Syl Cheney Coker (The Last Harmattan of Alusine Dunbar).

  5. The genus Baeturia Stål as represented in New Guinea (Homoptera, Cicadidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blöte, H.C.

    1960-01-01

    Until now only three species of the genus Baeturia have been recorded from New Guinea, viz., B. bicolorata Distant, B. viridicata Distant, and B. nana Jacobi. As I had the opportunity to study a fairly large collection of this group from different sources, collected in New Guinea, it appeared to me

  6. Caridean shrimps (Crustacea, Decapoda) from seagrass habitats in Hansa Bay, Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grave, de Sammy

    1999-01-01

    Five species of caridean shrimps collected from seagrass habitats at Hansa Bay, on the northern coastline of Papua New Guinea are reported. Four species are new to the fauna of Papua New Guinea. Morphological details of Nikoides danae, Latreutes pymoeus and L. porcinus are discussed and compared to

  7. Door Ellende tot Armoede : De DETA-jongens als kwartiermakers op Nieuw-Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Johannes

    1999-01-01

    In the last phase of Indonesian decolonisation struggle the Eurasian community feared an independent Indonesia and hoped for Dutch New Guinea as a safe haven to build a land for their own. A few hundred young Eurasian men were sent to New Guinea to make preparations for the emigration of large numbe

  8. Diseases in pet guinea pigs: a retrospective study in 1000 animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarikova, A; Hauptman, K; Jeklova, E; Knotek, Z; Jekl, V

    2015-08-22

    Guinea pigs are commonly kept as pet animals; however, information about particular disease prevalence is lacking. The objective of this article was to present disease prevalence in 1000 pet guinea pigs from private owners divided into three age groups: under two years; between two and five years; and above five years. Medical records of guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) that were presented to the authors' clinic in the period from January 2008 to August 2013 were reviewed. The most commonly diagnosed disease in guinea pigs was dental disease (36.3 per cent), with higher prevalence in the middle age group (Pguinea pigs (Pguinea pigs from a total of 1000 animals were healthy. This is the first study to describe the disease prevalence in three age groups of pet guinea pigs.

  9. Vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli induces resistance of guinea pigs to virulent Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, B; Moretti, E; Fretes, R

    2014-01-15

    Chagas' disease, endemic in Latin America, is spread in natural environments through animal reservoirs, including marsupials, mice and guinea pigs. Farms breeding guinea pigs for food are located in some Latin-American countries with consequent risk of digestive infection. The aim of this work was to study the effect of vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli in guinea pigs challenged with Trypanosoma cruzi. Animals were vaccinated with fixated epimastigotes of T. rangeli, emulsified with saponin. Controls received only PBS. Before being challenged with T. cruzi, parasitemia, survival rates and histological studies were performed. The vaccinated guinea pigs revealed significantly lower parasitemia than controls (pguinea pigs and dogs. The development of vaccines for use in animals, like domestic dogs and guinea pigs in captivity, opens up new opportunities for preventive tools, and could reduce the risk of infection with T. cruzi in the community.

  10. A First Generation Comparative Chromosome Map between Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, Svetlana A; Perelman, Polina L; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Serdyukova, Natalia A; Li, Tangliang; Fu, Beiyuan; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ng, Bee L; Nie, Wenhui; Liehr, Thomas; Stanyon, Roscoe; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Yang, Fengtang

    2015-01-01

    The domesticated guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Hystricomorpha, Rodentia), is an important laboratory species and a model for a number of human diseases. Nevertheless, genomic tools for this species are lacking; even its karyotype is poorly characterized. The guinea pig belongs to Hystricomorpha, a widespread and important group of rodents; so far the chromosomes of guinea pigs have not been compared with that of other hystricomorph species or with any other mammals. We generated full sets of chromosome-specific painting probes for the guinea pig by flow sorting and microdissection, and for the first time, mapped the chromosomal homologies between guinea pig and human by reciprocal chromosome painting. Our data demonstrate that the guinea pig karyotype has undergone extensive rearrangements: 78 synteny-conserved human autosomal segments were delimited in the guinea pig genome. The high rate of genome evolution in the guinea pig may explain why the HSA7/16 and HSA16/19 associations presumed ancestral for eutherians and the three syntenic associations (HSA1/10, 3/19, and 9/11) considered ancestral for rodents were not found in C. porcellus. The comparative chromosome map presented here is a starting point for further development of physical and genetic maps of the guinea pig as well as an aid for genome assembly assignment to specific chromosomes. Furthermore, the comparative mapping will allow a transfer of gene map data from other species. The probes developed here provide a genomic toolkit, which will make the guinea pig a key species to unravel the evolutionary biology of the Hystricomorph rodents.

  11. Growth failure after recurrent fever in young guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, S C; Faurie, A; Pettifor, J M; Laburn, H P

    2007-03-16

    Infection causes fever and suppression of appetite, a combination of effects which threatens normal growth in infected children. We have used an animal model to study the effects on growth of recurrent simulated Gram-positive bacterial infection. After weaning, 10 guinea pig pups underwent surgery under general anaesthesia for the implantation of temperature-sensitive radiotelemeters and thereafter were assigned to receive intramuscular injections of either 50 microg/kg muramyl dipeptide (MDP), or sterile saline. During a 30-day period corresponding to their rapid growth phase, the pups were given eight injections. MDP resulted in fevers of about 1.5 degrees C on each occasion, but no significant change in body temperature occurred after saline injections. Food intake was suppressed during each febrile episode such that 24-h intake was significantly lower on days of injections of MDP, compared to days between MDP injections in the same animals, and compared to that of animals injected with saline. The rate of weight gain of the MDP-injected guinea pigs was significantly lower than that of the control group and failed even to achieve a rate similar to the saline-injected group in their more adult-like growth phase. Plasma zinc concentration was significantly lower in MDP-compared to saline-injected animals sampled 8 days after the last injection. Our results show that recurrent fever during the growth phase of young guinea pigs results in irreversible growth failure, and that reduced food intake on days when the animals were febrile was at least partly responsible for this reduced rate of growth.

  12. Ozone-Induced Hypertussive Responses in Rabbits and Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Emlyn; Patacchini, Riccardo; Trevisani, Marcello; Preti, Delia; Branà, Maria Pia; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive

    2016-04-01

    Cough remains a major unmet clinical need, and preclinical animal models are not predictive for new antitussive agents. We have investigated the mechanisms and pharmacological sensitivity of ozone-induced hypertussive responses in rabbits and guinea pigs. Ozone induced a significant increase in cough frequency and a decrease in time to first cough to inhaled citric acid in both conscious guinea pigs and rabbits. This response was inhibited by the established antitussive drugs codeine and levodropropizine. In contrast to the guinea pig, hypertussive responses in the rabbit were not inhibited by bronchodilator drugs (β2 agonists or muscarinic receptor antagonists), suggesting that the observed hypertussive state was not secondary to bronchoconstriction in this species. The ozone-induced hypertussive response in the rabbit was inhibited by chronic pretreatment with capsaicin, suggestive of a sensitization of airway sensory nerve fibers. However, we could find no evidence for a role of TRPA1 in this response, suggesting that ozone was not sensitizing airway sensory nerves via activation of this receptor. Whereas the ozone-induced hypertussive response was accompanied by a significant influx of neutrophils into the airway, the hypertussive response was not inhibited by the anti-inflammatory phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor roflumilast at a dose that clearly exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. In summary, our results suggest that ozone-induced hypertussive responses to citric acid may provide a useful model for the investigation of novel drugs for the treatment of cough, but some important differences were noted between the two species with respect to sensitivity to bronchodilator drugs.

  13. Citicoline retards myopia progression following form deprivation in guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuangzhen; Fu, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    The retinal dopaminergic system is involved in the myopic shift following form deprivation. Citicoline has been demonstrated to stimulate the dopaminergic system in the brain and retina. Furthermore, citicoline has been used in many neurogenic diseases, such as senile cognitive impairment, stroke and Parkinson's disease as well as in amblyopia and glaucoma. Our aim was to investigate the effect of citicoline on the refractive state and retinal dopamine level in form deprivation myopia of guinea pigs. Guinea pigs, at an age of four weeks, were randomly divided into normal control, deprivation, deprived + citicoline and deprived + vehicle groups. Form deprivation myopia was induced by a translucent eye shield covering the right eye. Citicoline was injected intraperitoneally twice a day (500 mg/kg, 9 am and 9 pm) for 10 days. In vitro, retinal explants were cultured with citicoline for 24 h, with a final citicoline concentration of 100 µmol/L. The ocular refractive parameters and retinal dopamine content were measured. After occlusion for 10 days, the form-deprived eyes became myopic with an increase in axial length and a decrease in retinal dopamine content. The intraperitoneal injection of citicoline reduced the myopic degree (from −3.25 ± 0.77D to −0.62 ± 0.47D, P citicoline, retinal dopamine content increased significantly (from 0.42 ± 0.14 ng to 0.62 ± 0.21 ng, P citicoline could retard the myopic shift induced by form deprivation in guinea pigs, which was mediated by an increase in the retinal dopamine levels. PMID:26979720

  14. Auditory effects of noise on infant and adult guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, J; Caiazzo, A J

    1977-01-01

    This pilot study compared the susceptibility of the infant (48 hr) and adult (120 days) guinea pig to the effects of noise. Subjects were exposed to a narrow band of noise (center frequency 4 kHz) at an intensity of 115 dB sound pressure level (SPL) for 1 hr. Postexposure thresholds were obtained by a conditioned suppression technique. Results indicated that the infant animals displayed a mean hearing threshold of 25 dB SPL that significantly differed from the adult mean threshold of 7.5 dB SPL.

  15. Drepanosticta machadoi spec. nov. from New Guinea (Odonata: Platystictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theischinger, G; Richards, S J

    2014-09-22

    Drepanosticta machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype ♂: Dablin Creek, Hindenburg Range) from Papua New Guinea is described. The new species is a predominantly black damselfly, the male with four pale/bright pattern elements on each side of the synthorax, dorsum of segments 9 and 10 largely bright blue, and a uniquely shaped posterior lobe of the pronotum which is a wide-angled fork with rather straight, narrow finger-like prongs. It is referred to the Drepanosticta conica group of species and a key to the males of the D. conica group is provided.

  16. Microbial flora of odontogenic abscesses in pet guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarikova, A; Hauptman, K; Knotek, Z; Jekl, V

    2016-10-01

    Abscesses of odontogenic origin in guinea pigs pose a serious health problem and need to be treated with a combination of surgical and medical therapy. The aim of this prospective study was to describe the microbial flora of odontogenic abscesses associated with osteomyelitis in 24 pet guinea pigs, to perform antibiotic sensitivity testing, and to make recommendations for practitioners on the antibiotics of first choice. Inclusion criteria for the study included the animal being diagnosed with an odontogenic abscess which underwent surgery and was not pre-treated with an antibiotic. Inclusion criteria matched for 24 guinea pigs. Samples (pus, capsule and affected tooth/bone) for bacteriological examination were collected under sterile conditions during the surgical procedure. The most commonly isolated bacteria from abscesses of odontogenic origin were Bacteroides fragilis in 12.8 per cent (6/47) of cases, Pasteurella multocida in 10.6 per cent (5/47) and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius in 8.5 per cent (4/47). Aerobic bacterial species only were isolated in 29.2 per cent (7/24) of cases, anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 33.3 per cent (8/24), and mixed infection with anaerobic and aerobic bacterial species was seen in 37.5 per cent (9/24). Aerobes (n=20) were sensitive to enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin in 100 per cent of samples, benzylpenicillin potassium (penicillin G, PNCG) in 90 per cent, cephalotin in 85 per cent, amoxicillin-clavulanate in 75 per cent, doxycycline in 70 per cent, gentamicin in 65 per cent and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 55 per cent. Anaerobes (n=27) were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate in 100 per cent of cases, clindamycin in 96.3 per cent, metronidazole in 92.6 per cent, PNCG in 92.6 per cent and cephalotin in 74.1 per cent. As guinea pigs are strictly herbivorous animals, based on the results of this study the recommended antibiotic treatment for odontogenic abscesses is a combination of fluoroquinolones and metronidazole.

  17. Early histological maturation in the hippocampus of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacher, J; Palop, J J; Ramirez, C; Molowny, A; Lopez-Garcia, C

    2000-06-01

    The vesicular zinc-rich synaptic systems of the principal neurons of the hippocampus are well developed in newborn guinea pigs, a precocial species. In addition, alvear and fimbrial myelinated fibers as well as significant inhibitory interneurons (i.e. somatostatin, parvalbumin and opioid immunoreactive hippocampal interneurons) are also well developed. On the contrary, neither vesicular zinc synapses nor myelinated fibers nor the above mentioned immunoreactive interneurons are detectable in newborn specimens of other related altricial species such as rats or rabbits. These data suggest that early maturation of a highly integrative center related to cognitive map building such as the hippocampus is characteristic of precocial species.

  18. Guinea: Background and Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,Library of Congress,101 Independence Ave., SE,Washington...DC,20540-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11...des Membres du Gouvernement de Kabiné Komara,” January 14, 2009. 33 BBC News Online, “Troops Crawl After Guinea Attack,” July 24, 2009; United Nations

  19. Guinea: Background and Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    Guinéenne de Presse, “ Discours A La Nation du Chef de l’Etat,” November 3, 2009; Jeune Afrique, “Massacres du 28 Septembre: Dadis a-t-il été...Guinean identity. The Bureau Politique National, the country’s highest decision-making body, included members of each of Guinea’s major ethnic...disappeared in Guinea between 1958 and 1982 (Amnesty International, Emprisonnement, ‘Disparitions’ et Assassinats Politiques en République Populaire

  20. Molecular cloning and expression of the IL-10 gene from guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirisala, Vijaya R; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Bix, Gregory; Yoshimura, Teizo; McMurray, David N

    2012-04-25

    The Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is one of the most relevant small animals for modeling human tuberculosis (TB) in terms of susceptibility to low dose aerosol infection, the organization of granulomas, extrapulmonary dissemination and vaccine-induced protection. It is also considered to be a gold standard for a number of other infectious and non-infectious diseases; however, this animal model has a major disadvantage due to the lack of readily available immunological reagents. In the present study, we successfully cloned a cDNA for the critical Th2 cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10), from inbred Strain 2 guinea pigs using the DNA sequence information provided by the genome project. The complete open reading frame (ORF) consists of 537 base pairs which encodes a protein of 179 amino acids. This cDNA sequence exhibited 87% homology with human IL-10. Surprisingly, it showed only 84% homology with the previously published IL-10 sequence from the C4-deficient (C4D) guinea pig, leading us to clone IL-10 cDNA from the Hartley strain of guinea pig. The IL-10 gene from the Hartley strain showed 100% homology with the IL-10 sequence of Strain 2 guinea pigs. In order to validate the only published IL-10 sequence existing in Genbank reported from C4D guinea pigs, genomic DNA was isolated from tissues of C4D guinea pigs. Amplification with various sets of primers showed that the IL-10 sequence reported from C4D guinea pigs contained numerous errors. Hence the IL-10 sequence that is being reported by us replaces the earlier sequence making our IL-10 sequence to be the first one accurate from guinea pig. Recombinant guinea pig IL-10 proteins were subsequently expressed in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, purified and were confirmed by N-terminal sequencing. Polyclonal anti-IL-10 antibodies were generated in rabbits using the recombinant IL-10 protein expressed in this study. Taken together, our results indicate that the DNA sequence information provided by the genome project

  1. Performance of West African dwarf goats fed Guinea grass-Verano stylo mixture, N-fertilized and unfertilized Guinea grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamikole, M A.; Ezenwa, I; Akinsoyinu, A O.; Arigbede, M O.; Babayemi, O J.

    2001-02-01

    The supplementary values of Verano stylo in a mixed Guinea grass (Panicum maximum cv. Ntchisi)-Verano stylo (Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano) diet from a sown grass-legume mixture and N fertilized grass were compared in West African dwarf (WAD) goats. Liveweight (LW) gain, feed intake, digestibility and N utilization were determined using 15 goats in two trials lasting for 98 days. Goats were fed Guinea grass-Verano stylo mixture (GSM), N-fertilized (NFG) and unfertilized grass (UFG). The goats were divided into three groups of five animals each and randomly allocated to the dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Total DM and OM intakes of the goats did not vary significantly among the forage diets and averaged 55.1 and 50.4gkg(-1)W(0.75) per day, respectively. CP intake (gkg(-1)W(0.75) per day) was highest with NFG (5.6) followed by GSM (4.8) and the UFG (3.5). Total N excreted followed the same trend as the CP intake. There was no significant difference between N-retention of GSM and NFG (28.5 and 26.7%), but goats on UFG had a negative N balance (-9.16%). Animals on GSM had significantly higher liveweight gain (31.9g per day) than those of NFG (25.1g per day) and UFG (21.9g per day) which also differed significantly. The digestibilities of total DM, OM, CP, NDF were higher with GSM than NFG or UFG. It is concluded that growing Verano stylo in mixture with Guinea grass is a better option for improving the feed quality of forage diets for goats than direct application of inorganic fertilizer at 200kgNha(-1) to the pure grass.

  2. A comparison of virulence of intraperitoneal infection of Burkholderia mallei strains in guinea-pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslampanah, M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Male guinea pigs show high susceptibility to Burkholderia mallei and have been used as animal models in glanders studies. The purpose of our study was to elucidate glanders comparative pathogenesis in guinea pigs. We present here the histological changes and bacterial isolation that develop over time in guinea pigs inoculated intraperitoneally (IP with two strain of B. mallei. Ten male guinea pigs were inoculated intraperitoneally with either the standard strain of Burkholderia mallei or B. mallei strain from Siberian tiger at the Tehran zoo individually, then euthanized at multiple time points post inoculation. Histopathologic changes were similar in both groups and consisted of pyogranulomatous inflammation. In the standard strain study guinea pigs, changes were first seen at 48 hours in liver and heart then in spleen, lung, and kidney at day 3. These changes generally reached maximal incidence and severity by day 3 but decreased by comparison in all tissues except the liver, lung and kidney. Changes were first seen in Siberian tiger strain study guinea pigs also at 48 hours in lung, liver and spleen. At day 3, changes were present in liver, spleen and mediastinal lymph nodes. These changes were maximal at day 4 and 5. In contrast there are differences in incidence and severity between the two strain study guinea pigs. Our findings based on histopathological study indicate that Siberian tiger strain has more severity in gross and necropsy examination but in pathologic lesion was qualitatively similar generally. Additionally, by bacterial isolation, we confirmed the presence of B. mallei.

  3. Hairless pigmented guinea pigs: a new model for the study of mammalian pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L; Murray, M S; Pawelek, J M

    1990-09-01

    A stock of hairless pigmented guinea pigs was developed to facilitate studies of mammalian pigmentation. This stock combines the convenience of a hairless animal with a pigmentary system that is similar to human skin. In both human and guinea pig skin, active melanocytes are located in the basal layer of the interfollicular epidermis. Hairless albino guinea pigs on an outbred Hartley background (CrI:IAF/HA(hr/hr)BR; designated hr/hr) were mated with red-haired guinea pigs (designated Hr/Hr). Red-haired heterozygotes from the F1 generation (Hr/hr) were then mated with each other or with hairless albino guinea pigs. The F2 generation included hairless pigmented guinea pigs that retained their interfollicular epidermal melanocytes and whose skin was red-brown in color. Following UV irradiation, there was an increase in cutaneous pigmentation as well as an increase in the number of active epidermal melanocytes. An additional strain of black hairless guinea pigs was developed using black Hr/Hr animals and a similar breeding scheme. These two strains should serve as useful models for studies of the mammalian pigment system.

  4. Investigation Into the Humaneness of Slaughter Methods for Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcelus) in the Andean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Georgina; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy A; Gibson, Troy J

    2016-01-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcelus) are an important source of nonhuman animal protein in the Andean region of South America. Specific guidelines regarding the welfare of guinea pigs before and during slaughter have yet to be developed. This study critically assessed the humaneness of 4 different stunning/slaughter methods for guinea pigs: cervical neck dislocation (n = 60), electrical head-only stunning (n = 83), carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning (n = 21), and penetrating captive bolt (n = 10). Following cervical neck dislocation, 97% of guinea pigs had at least 1 behavioral or cranial/spinal response. Six percent of guinea pigs were classified as mis-stunned after electrical stunning, and 1% were classified as mis-stunned after captive bolt. Increased respiratory effort was observed during CO2 stunning. Apart from this finding, there were no other obvious behavioral responses that could be associated with suffering. Of the methods assessed, captive bolt was deemed the most humane, effective, and practical method of stunning guinea pigs. Cervical neck dislocation should not be recommended as a slaughter method for guinea pigs.

  5. Temperature Preference in IAF Hairless and Hartley Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleven, Gale A; Joshi, Prianca

    2016-03-01

    The Hairless strain of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) is the result of a spontaneous recessive mutation first identified at the Institute Armand Frappier (IAF) in 1978. Despite the longstanding availability of this strain, little is known about its thermoregulatory behavior. The aim of this study was to determine temperature preference in Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs by observing each strain in a ring-shaped apparatus containing a nonlinear temperature gradient. Temperatures were maintained by separately controlled heating mats lining the apparatus. Set point temperatures ranged from 24 to 38 °C. Guinea pigs (Hartley female, Hairless female, and Hairless male guinea pigs; n = 8 each group) were placed either singly or in pairs at 1 of the 8 randomized starting points within the apparatus. Subjects were observed for 30 min and coded for location within the temperature gradient by both frequency and duration. When placed singly in the apparatus, all 3 groups spent more time in the 30 °C zones. However, when placed as pairs with a cagemate, Hartley female guinea pigs spent more time in the cooler range of temperatures from 24 to 30 °C, whereas Hairless guinea pigs preferred a range of 30 to 38 °C. These results confirm a temperature preference of 30 ± 2 °C for both Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs when singly housed. However, data from the paired housing condition suggest that context plays an important role in thermoregulatory behavior.

  6. Clinical signs, therapy and zoonotic risk of pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, A; Hein, J; Heusinger, A; Mueller, R S

    2013-03-01

    Systematic studies about pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis are rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical signs, therapy and zoonotic risk of pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis. Questionnaires from both owners (n = 74) of pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis and their veterinarians (n = 101) were analysed regarding clinical signs, therapy and data pertinent to zoonotic potential. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was found in 97% of cases. In the weeks preceding the onset of the clinical signs, a new guinea pig joined the household in 43% of cases. One third of the affected guinea pigs had lived in the household for less than 3 months. Predominant clinical signs were alopecia (83%), scaling (73%) and crusting (70%). The most commonly affected body site was the head (75%). In approximately one quarter of the cases humans showed clinical signs of dermatophytosis, in half the households, only children were affected. Skin lesions were seen most often on the face, the neck and the arms. Pet guinea pigs carrying dermatophytes must be considered a serious zoonotic risk for their owners, especially for children. A major risk factor for dermatophytosis seems to be a recent acquisition of a new guinea pig.

  7. Detection of antibodies against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus GDVII strain in experimental guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häger, C; Glage, S; Held, N; Bleich, E M; Burghard, A; Mähler, M; Bleich, André

    2016-10-01

    A disease affecting guinea pigs called 'guinea pig lameness' characterized by clinical signs of depression, lameness of limbs, flaccid paralysis, weight loss and death within a few weeks was first described by Römer in 1911. After a research group in our facility kept laboratory guinea pigs from two different origins together in one room, lameness was observed in two animals. Further investigations revealed a serological immune response against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV; GDVII strain) in these animals. Histopathology of the lumbar spinal cord of these animals showed mononuclear cell infiltration and necrotic neurons in the anterior horn. Therefore, all guinea pigs from this contaminated animal unit, from other units in our facility, as well as from different European institutions and breeding centres were screened for antibodies directed against GDVII. Our investigations showed that approximately 80% of all guinea pigs from the contaminated animal unit were seropositive for GDVII, whereas animals from other separate units were completely negative. In addition, 43% of tested sera from the different European institutions and breeding centres contained antibodies against GDVII. The present data confirm that an unknown viral infection causes an immune response in experimental guinea pigs leading to seroconversion against GDVII and that guinea pigs from a commercial breeder are the source of the infection.

  8. Artesunate/amodiaquine malaria treatment for Equatorial Guinea (Central Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charle, Pilar; Berzosa, Pedro; de Lucio, Aida; Raso, José; Nseng Nchama, Gloria; Benito, Agustín

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination artesunate (AS)/amodiaquine (AQ) therapy, and 2) to determine the difference between recrudescence and resistance. An in vivo efficacy study was conducted in Equatorial Guinea. A total of 122 children 6-59 months of age from two regional hospitals were randomized and subjected to a 28-day clinical and parasitological follow-up. A blood sample on Whatman paper was taken on Days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 or on any day in cases of treatment failure, with the parasite DNA then being extracted for molecular analysis purposes. A total of 4 children were excluded, and 9 cases were lost to follow-up. There were 17 cases of late parasitological failure, 3 cases of late clinical failure, and 89 cases of adequate clinical and parasitological response. The parasitological failure rate was 18.3% (20 of 109) and the success rate 81.70% (95% confidence interval [72.5-87.9%]). After molecular correction, real treatment efficacy stood at 97.3%. Our study showed the good efficacy of combination AS/AQ therapy. This finding enabled this treatment to be recommended to Equatorial Guinea's National Malaria Control Program to change the official treatment policy as of March 2008.

  9. Radiation effect on the middle ear of the guinea pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Hirofumi; Nishizawa, Shinji; Hiraide, Fumihisa; Inoue, Tetsuzo

    1984-08-01

    It is known that radiation therapy of the head and neck causes otitis media with effusion. Otitis media with effusion was induced in guinea pigs by cobalt-60 irradiation. Twenty guinea pigs with intact drum and normal Preyer reflex were used. The animals were irradiated with doses of 2,000 rad, 4,000 rad, and 6,000 rad. They were sacrificed seven days after the irradiation. Other animals were irradiated with doses of 4,000 rad and sacrificed one day, three days, seven days, and fourteen days after the irradiation. Vascular permeability of the middle ear mucosa was observed by Majno's vascular labelling technique. Pathological change of the middle ear was examined under the light microscope. Vascular permeability increased in three days after 4,000 rad irradiation and small vessels were labelled with carbon particles. Seven days after irradiation, carbon labelling of small vessels was more extensive and extravascular blackening was present in the adjacent tissues. Edematous change of the middle ear mucosa and metaplasia of the epithelial cells were also observed. New bone formation of the tympanic bulla was increased by repeated irradiations. (author).

  10. Spasmolytic effect of traditional herbal formulation on guinea pig ileum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dushyant; Ganguly, Kuntal; Hegde, H. V.; Patil, P. A.; Kholkute, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The herbal formulation consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Cassia fistula L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Cuminum cyminum L. is widely used by the local traditional practitioners in rural Northern Karnataka for spasmodic abdominal pain. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate safety and spasmolytic effect of poly-herbal formulation. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss mice, as per the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. The spasmolytic activity of the formulation was studied in isolated guinea pig ileum model using histamine and acetylcholine as agonists. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnetts post-hoc test and P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulation did not show any adverse toxic effects and found to be safe. It also showed significant (P < 0.05) relaxation in different agonist like histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractions in guinea pig ileum. Conclusion: Antispasmodic activity of the herbal formulation can be attributed to its atropine-like activity. The present findings, therefore, support its utility in spasmodic abdominal pain. PMID:26604555

  11. Guinea Pig Maximization Test for Trichloroethylene and Its Metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To study the contact allergenic activities of trichloroethylene (TCE) and its three metabolites trichloroacetic acid, trichloroethanol and chloral hydrate. Methods A modified guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) was adopted. The skin sensitization (edema and erythema) was observed in trichloroethylene, trichloroacetic acid, trichloroethanol, chloral hydrate and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. Results The allergenic rate of TCE, trichloroacetic acid and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene was 71.4%, 58.3% and 100.0% respectively, and that of trichloroethanol and chloral hydrate was 0%. The mean response score of TCE, trichloroacetic acid and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene was 2.3, 1.1, 6.0 respectively. The histopathological analysis also showed an induction of allergenic transfomation in guinea pig skin by both TCE and trichloroacetic acid. Conclusion TCE appears to be a strong allergen while trichloroacetic acid a moderate one. On the other hand, both trichloroethanol and chloral hydrate are weak sensitization potentials. Immunologic reaction induced by TCE might be postulated as the pathological process of this illness. Consequently, it is suggested that in the mechanism of Occupational Dermatitis Medicamentose-Like (ODML) induced by TCE, the chemical itself might be the main cause of allergy. As one of its metabolic products, trichloroacetic acid might be a subordinate factor.

  12. Micro hydro power for rural electrification in Papua New Guinea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gafiye, G.D. [Papua New Guinea Univ. of Technology (Papua New Guinea)

    1996-12-31

    About 85 percent of the population of Papua New Guinea live in remote rural areas. The country has, however, the potential for renewable energy resources such as solar, biomass and hydro power. Due to the ruggedness of the country, the majority of the communities have no access to grid electricity to meet their energy requirements. There is a need to have a reliable electricity supply to these areas. This can be met by the use of micro hydro power and solar systems. Micro hydro has been investigated for many of the stations. Solar will be investigated in the case where micro hydro is not possible. Government policy on rural electrification, and the introduction of micro hydro power is discussed. A number of recommendations are made as to the assistance which could be provided to communities so that they can take advantage of the technology. Those organizations which have expertise in micro hydro power should be encouraged to set up offices in Papua New Guinea and undertake activities such as training, construction and local manufacture. (author). 5 refs.

  13. The water masses between Mindanao and New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashino, Yuji; Aoyama, Michio; Kawano, Takeshi; Hendiarti, Nani; Syaefudin; Anantasena, Yudi; Muneyama, Kei; Watanabe, Hidetoshi

    1996-05-01

    Water masses between Mindanao and New Guinea are investigated, using hydrographic data, during two R/V Kaiyo World Ocean Circulation Experiment cruises conducted in October 1992 and February 1994. The analysis of this data indicates that the South Pacific Tropical Water (SPTW), which is formed in the southern hemisphere, reached the area of Morotai Island in 1992 and farther north in 1994. The Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) exists in the southwestern area of the southernmost Philippine Sea. There is northeastward flow between Talaud Islands and Morotai Island, which is probably a part of the retroflection of the Mindanao Current. The remnant of the North Pacific Intermediate Water, advected by the flow from the Celebes Sea, was found in 1992. The New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, transporting SPTW and AAIW from the southern hemisphere, is divided into at least two parts because the retroflection of the Mindanao Current prevents its shallow part from reaching farther north; the shallow part of SPTW turns eastward as a source water of North Equatorial Countercurrent and retroflects toward the southeast. AAIW and the lower part of SPTW flow northward and seem to be linked with the Mindanao Undercurrent.

  14. Cortical evoked potentials recorded from the guinea pig without averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walloch, R A

    1975-01-01

    Potentials evoked by tonal pulses and recorded with a monopolar electrode on the pial surface over the auditory cortex of the guinea pig are presented. These potentials are compared with average potentials recorded in previous studies with an electrode on the dura. The potentials recorded by these two techniques have similar waveforms, peak latencies and thresholds. They appear to be generated within the same region of the cerebral cortex. As can be expected, the amplitude of the evoked potentials recorded from the pial surface is larger than that recorded from the dura. Consequently, averaging is not needed to extract the evoked potential once the dura is removed. The thresholds for the evoked cortical potential are similar to behavioral thresholds for the guinea pig at high frequencies; however, evoked potential thresholds are eleveate over behavioral thresholds at low frequencies. The removal of the dura and the direct recording of the evoked potential appears most appropriate for acute experiments. The recording of an evoked potential with dura electrodes empploying averaging procedures appears most appropriate for chronic studies.

  15. Spasmolytic effect of traditional herbal formulation on guinea pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushyant Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The herbal formulation consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Cassia fistula L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Cuminum cyminum L. is widely used by the local traditional practitioners in rural Northern Karnataka for spasmodic abdominal pain. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate safety and spasmolytic effect of poly-herbal formulation. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss mice, as per the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD guidelines. The spasmolytic activity of the formulation was studied in isolated guinea pig ileum model using histamine and acetylcholine as agonists. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnetts post-hoc test and P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulation did not show any adverse toxic effects and found to be safe. It also showed significant (P < 0.05 relaxation in different agonist like histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractions in guinea pig ileum. Conclusions: Antispasmodic activity of the herbal formulation can be attributed to its atropine-like activity. The present findings, therefore, support its utility in spasmodic abdominal pain.

  16. Synaptic localization of. kappa. opioid receptors in guinea pig neostriatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jomary, C.; Beaudet, A. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Gairin, J.E. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Toulouse (France))

    1992-01-15

    Distribution of {kappa} opioid receptors was examined by EM radioautography in sections of guinea pig neostriatum with the selective {sup 125}I-labeled dynorphin analog (D-Pro{sup 10})dynorphin-(1-11). Most specifically labeled binding sites were found by probability circle analysis to be associated with neuronal membrane appositions. Because of limitations in resolution of the method, the radioactive sources could not be ascribed directly to either one of the apposed plasma membranes. Nevertheless, three lines of evidence favored a predominant association of ligand with dendrites of intrinsic striatal neurons: (1) the high frequency with which labeled interfaces implicated a dendrite, (2) the enrichment of dendrodendritic interfaces, and (3) the occurrence of dendritic profiles labeled at several contact points along their plasma membranes. A small proportion of labeled sites was associated with axo-axonic interfaces, which may subserve the {kappa} opioid-induced regulation of presynaptic dopamine and acetylcholine release documented in guinea pig neostriatum. These results support the hypothesis that in mammalian brain {kappa} opioid receptors are conformationally and functionally distinct from {mu} and {delta} types.

  17. Placental transfer of ruthenium in rat and guinea-pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levack, V.M.; Pottinger, H.; Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-01

    Ruthenium-106 in citrate solution was administered intravenously to rat at different stages of pregnancy and to guinea-pig either before conception or in late pregnancy. The results for rat showed that retention in the embryo/foetus measured at 3-5 days after administration increased from about 0.0002% of injected activity per embryo/foetus on day 12 of gestation to about 0.05% at birth. The relative concentrations of {sup 106}Ru in embryo/foetus and mother (C{sub f}/C{sub m} ratio) were about 0.1 in each case. Concentrations in the yolk sac on day 12 were about 1% g{sup -1} compared with 0.01% g{sup -1} kin the foetus/ Retention in the guinea-pig foetus in late gestation at 7 days after administration (days 50-57) was about 0.2% injected activity per foetus, corresponding to a C{sub f}/C{sub m} = 0.2. Retention in each foetoplacental unit was 2% of injected {sup 106}Ru with 50% in the yolk sac, 35% in the placenta and 10% in the foetus. For administration 4 weeks prior to conception, the level of {sup 106}Ru retained in the foetus on day 57 of gestation was two orders of magnitude lower than after short-term administration, with a C{sub f}/C{sub m} about 0.004. (author).

  18. Cutaneous sensitization to some polyisocyanate prepolymers in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissu, D; Binet, S; Limasset, J C

    1998-11-01

    Isocyanates are used extensively in the polyurethane industry. Pulmonary and dermal sensitization resulting from exposure to diisocyanates has frequently been reported, but the potential effects of polyisocyanates on health are less well known. Thus, since 1978, occupational exposure limits have been established for diisocyanates only. Nevertheless, respiratory diseases and dermatitis have been reported in the polyurethane industry after accidental isocyanate contact during spills or splashes. The aim of this experimental work was to assess the dermal hypersensitivity of guinea pigs to some polyisocyanate prepolymers by means of a well-conducted standard predictive Buehler test. Our results showed that dicyclohexylmethane 4,4'-diisocyanate (HMDI), toluylene 2,4-diisocyanate (TDI), TDI adduct triol, TDI isocyanurate, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), HDI isocyanurate, HDI biuret and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) induced dermal sensitization while IPDI isocyanurate did not. In conclusion, the dermal hypersensitivity of guinea pigs to some polyisocyanates was similar to those of their corresponding monomers except for IPDI isocyanurate, suggesting that the results from diisocyanate monomers could not be a valuable approach for the detection of the sensitization potency of the corresponding prepolymers.

  19. Tick-borne rickettsiae in Guinea and Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Diatta, Georges; Zolia, Yah; Balde, Mamadou Cellou; Kohar, Henry; Trape, Jean-François; Raoult, Didier

    2012-02-01

    While the high seroprevalence for the rickettsiae that cause spotted fevers and the multiple pathogenic rickettsiae is known, the data on the distribution of rickettsial diseases in Africa are often incomplete. We collected ticks from domestic or wild animals (generally a source of bushmeat) that were in contact with humans in 2 neighboring countries of tropical West Africa, Guinea and Liberia. In total, 382 ticks representing 6 species were collected in Liberia and 655 ticks representing 7 species were collected in Guinea. We found rickettsiae in 9 different species of ticks from both countries. Rickettsia africae was found in 93-100% of Amblyomma variegatum, in 14-93% of Rhipicephalus (B.) geigyi, Rh. (B.) annulatus, and Rh. (B.) decoloratus, and in several Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Haemaphysalis paraleachi. A genetic variant of R. africae was found in Amblyomma compressum. R. massiliae was found in 10/61 (16%) of Rh. senegalensis ticks and in 2% of Haemaphysalis paraleachi ticks collected from dogs. We identified a new rickettsia in one of 44 (2%) Ixodes muniensis collected from a dog in Liberia. As this rickettsia is not yet isolated, we propose the provisional name "Candidatus Rickettsia liberiensis" (for the West African country where the host tick was collected).

  20. Chlamydial salpingitis in female guinea pigs receiving oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, A L; Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; White, H J; Mrak, R E

    1988-01-01

    Female guinea pigs were given daily doses of a combination of oral contraceptive (OC) agents, consisting of mestranol and norethynodrel suspended in sesame oil or distilled H2O, and were infected in the genital tract with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). Counts of chlamydial inclusions in cells of vaginal smears collected during infection, showed prolongation and enhancement of infection in OC-treated animals as compared with controls. Appearance of IgG and IgA antibodies to GPIC in genital secretions, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was also delayed in OC-treated animals as compared with controls. OC-treated infected animals were killed on days 15 and 43, and gross pathological evidence for ascending infection culminating in salpingitis was found in all of five and four of five animals, respectively. On the other hand, among untreated infected controls on each sacrifice day, only one of five animals had any evidence for ascending infection. Chlamydiae were detected by light and electron microscopy in fallopian tube tissue collected on day 15 following OC-treatment but not in tissue from control animals.

  1. Pathogenesis of a Chinese strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Yan, Hao; Ma, Lei; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-12-01

    Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) is considered one of the most important respiratory tract agents of cattle and is widespread among cattle around the world. A BAV-3 strain was isolated from a bovine nasal swab for the first time in China in 2009 and named HLJ0955. Subsequently, BAV-3 has frequently been isolated from calves with respiratory diseases in China. To date, only limited study on the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in cotton rats has been conducted, and the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in guinea pigs has not been reported. Therefore, sixteen albino guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with HLJ0955. All of the infected guinea pigs had apparently elevated rectal temperatures (39.2 °C-39.9 °C) at 2-7 days post-inoculation (PI). Consolidation and petechial hemorrhage were also observed in guinea pigs experimentally infected with HLJ0955. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration and by immunohistochemistry in the lungs of guinea pigs as early as 24 h PI. Viral DNA was detectable in the lungs of infected guinea pigs during 11 days of observation by real-time PCR. Virus-neutralizing antibodies against BAV-3 were detectable from 11 days PI and reached a peak titer at 15 days PI. Histopathological changes mainly occurred in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and were characterized by thickening of alveolar septa, mononuclear cell infiltration, hemorrhage and alveolar epithelial necrosis. These results indicate that HLJ0955 can replicate in the lungs of guinea pigs and cause fever and gross and histological lesions. The guinea pig infection model of BAV-3 would serve as a useful system for monitoring the infection process and pathogenesis of the Chinese BAV-3 strain HLJ0955, as well as immune responses to BAV-3 vaccines.

  2. Hematological Assessment in Pet Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus): Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count.

  3. Eviota brahmi n. sp. from Papua New Guinea, with a redescription of Eviota nigriventris (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, David W; Tornabene, Luke

    2014-04-28

    Greenfield & Randall (2011) described the gobiid fishes Eviota dorsogilva from Fiji and E. dorsopurpurea from Papua New Guinea as new species in what they termed the Eviota nigriventris complex. They also extended the range of E. nigriventris, type locality Banda Sea, to Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea. In the present paper, we describe their misidentified E. nigriventris from Papua New Guinea as a new species, E. brahmi, and redescribe E. nigriventris based on new material from near the type locality. The four species of this complex differ mainly in coloration, but are also shown to be distinct using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

  4. Ontogeny of fetal movements in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kan, C M; de Vries, J I P; Lüchinger, A B; Mulder, E J H; Taverne, M A M

    2009-09-07

    Assessment of fetal motility is an approach to evaluate the development and function of the nervous system before birth. Reference values for the time of first occurrence and the incidence of normal fetal movements are indispensable for studies in which prenatal motor activity is applied as a model to study the central and peripheral nervous systems. Studies on fetal motility have been performed in a few species, particularly in the human. The aim of the present study is to describe the ontogeny of fetal motility in the guinea pig, a precocious polytocous species. After a pilot study to establish procedures for repeated ultasonographic scanning of guinea pigs, 10 domesticated animals were scanned (5.0 or 7.5 MHz convex transducer) at 2-4 day intervals between day 24 and 63 of gestation (term age 68 days). Per animal two selected fetuses were each scanned for 15 min. Images were stored on videotape and analyzed off-line for the first onset, presence and quality of fetal movement patterns, and quantity of sideway bendings, general movements, breathing movements and periods of fetal rest. Twenty-five different movement patterns could be characterized, 6 emerging at the onset of motor activity were performed only temporarily. The very first fetal movement was observed on day 24 gestational age, and subsequently most other movements developed during a period of only 5 days. Interfetal difference in onset of the frequently occurring sideway bendings, general movements, and front and hind limb movements was only 2 days. Sideway bendings and general movements co-existed during days 29 to 43. There were developmental trends in the course of pregnancy. Sideway bendings increased rapidly between 24 and 30 days and declined hereafter. General movements and fetal breathing increased during midpregnancy and declined towards parturition. Conversely, fetal rest was observed for approximately 60% of time at midgestation and a marked increase was found towards parturition. There

  5. Aristotle, alive and well in Papua New Guinea science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeha, Beno B.

    1990-09-01

    National High School students from Papua New Guinea were interviewed about two situations; the results of their Aristotle-like views regarding `forced' and `natural' motion are presented and discussed. Twenty-one National High School Students were interviewed about two situations similarly used elsewhere (Osborne and Gibert 1979, 1980, Osborne 1980a) and the results of these Aristotle-like views possessed by students have been presented and discussed above. With each of the six summary statements some extracts have been provided from interviews conducted by the author with students who had come from various parts of Pupua New Guinea. Students' views have been compiled to give a composite picture of the Aristotle-like ideas. Some impression of the commonality of the ideas/beliefs has been provided by reference to the work of others who have reported similar tendencies in testing and interviewing physics students. Throughout the study, students' Aristotlean-like views have been given a respected status that reflects their widespread use, their internal coherence and their tenacity in the face of classroom teaching in a Pupua New Guinea National High School. In analysing individual interview transcripits, attempts were made to construct ideas/beliefs that can account for statements by each student in a manner that statements are consistent with each other. The assumption that all of a student's statements are logically compatible to a listener or reader is difficult to maintain. However, it is one that has to be made as a hypothesis to work with, otherwise it is too easy to discount sections of a student's discourse that seem inconsistent with understandable parts. The aims of this part of the study have been to provide science educationalists with a repertoire of common Aristolean-like beliefs which have persisted in students. These views differ in some ways from the orthodox physics views. By better understanding of the students' beliefs and commitments about

  6. Participation of breast and leg muscles in shivering thermogenesis in young turkeys and guinea fowl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Maurine W.; Mourik, Sijmen van; Tøien, Øivind; Koolmees, Peter A.; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, Monique H.G.; Heldmaier, G.

    1997-01-01

    Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) chicks (0-27 days posthatch) were exposed to decreasing or increasing ambient temperatures. Root mean square electromyographic activity of musculus pectoralis (m. pect.) and musculus iliotibialis (m. iliot.) was recorded simultaneously

  7. Effect of Montelukast on bradykinin-induced contraction of isolated tracheal smooth muscle of guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Noor

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: It is concluded that montelukast significantly inhibits, in a dose-dependent manner, the bradykinin-induced contraction of the guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, and alludes to an interaction between the bradykinin and leukotriene mediators.

  8. Type I hair cell degeneration in the utricular macula of the waltzing guinea pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig A; Raarup, Merete Krog; Ulfendahl, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Waltzing guinea pigs are an inbred guinea pig strain with a congenital and progressive balance and hearing disorder. A unique rod-shaped structure is found in the type I vestibular hair cells, that traverses the cell in an axial direction, extending towards the basement membrane. The present study...... estimates the total number of utricular hair cells and supporting cells in waltzing guinea pigs and age-matched control animals using the optical fractionator method. Animals were divided into four age groups (1, 7, 49 and 343 day-old). The number of type I hair cells decreased by 20% in the 343 day......-old waltzing guinea pigs compared to age-matched controls and younger animals. Two-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy using antibodies against fimbrin and betaIII-tubulin showed that the rods were exclusive to type I hair cells. There was no significant change in the length of the filament rods with age...

  9. COMPARATIVE GENOTOXIC RESPONSES TO ARSENITE IN GUINEA PIG, MOUSE, RAT AND HUMAN LYMPHOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative genotoxic responses to arsenite in guinea pig, mouse, rat and human lymphocytes.Inorganic arsenic is a known human carcinogen causing skin, lung, and bladder cancer following chronic exposures. Yet, long-term laboratory animal carcinogenicity studies have ...

  10. The effect of restraining on the heart rate in guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikiskova, H.

    1980-01-01

    The emotional effect of different applications of electrodes and the fixation for cariographic examination was investigated using guinea pigs. The effect of the stress is discussed in terms of heart rhythm and behavior.

  11. In vivo effects of the IKr agonist NS3623 on cardiac electrophysiology of the guinea pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rie Schultz; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Rønn, Lars Christian B

    2008-01-01

    to examining the in vivo effects of NS3623. Injection of 30 mg/kg NS3623 shortened the corrected QT interval by 25 +/- 4% in anaesthetized guinea pigs. Accordingly, 50 mg/kg of NS3623 shortened the QT interval by 30 +/- 6% in conscious guinea pigs. Finally, pharmacologically induced QT prolongation by a h......ERG channel antagonist (0.15 mg/kg E-4031) could be reverted by injection of NS3623 (50 mg/kg) in conscious guinea pigs. In conclusion, the present in vivo study demonstrates that injection of the hERG channel agonist NS3623 results in shortening of the QTc interval as well as reversal of a pharmacologically...... induced QT prolongation in both anaesthetized and conscious guinea pigs....

  12. Induction of follicular luteinization by equine chorionic gonadotropin in cyclic guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-rong; Wang, Wei; Shi, Fang-xiong

    2015-12-01

    The effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on follicular development and ovulation in cyclic guinea pigs were investigated by histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Three groups of guinea pigs (n=12) were administrated subcutaneously with saline, 20 or 50 IU of eCG, respectively, on cyclic Day 12 (Day 1=vaginal openings). Ovaries were collected at 4 and 8 d after administration (6 animals per group each time). The eCG administration induced significant and distinct morphological changes in the ovaries, as it promoted the luteinization of granulosa cells, but not follicular development. In addition, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) were immunolocalized specifically in luteinized follicles. Our experiments together indicate that eCG administration can induce follicular luteinization but not superovulation in guinea pigs. The eCG in cyclic guinea pigs functions similar to that of luteinizing hormone (LH), but not follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

  13. Family Outbreaks of Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis following a Meal of Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Fournier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella outbreaks have been linked to a wide variety of foods, including recent nationwide outbreaks. Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, also known as cuy or cobayo, has long been a popular delicacy and ceremonial food in the Andean region in South America. This case report describes three family outbreaks of nontyphoidal salmonellosis, each occurring after a meal of guinea pigs. We believe this case report is the first to describe a probable association between the consumption of guinea pig meat and human salmonellosis. Physicians should be aware of the association of Salmonella and the consumption of guinea pigs, given the increasing immigration of people from the Andean region of South America and the increasing travel to this region.

  14. Papular dermatitis induced in guinea pigs by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and ...

  15. Antispasmodic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Thymus vulgaris on the guinea-pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Mehdi; Abarghoei, Mitra Emmami; Ansari, Reza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Taherian, Abbas Ali; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Toussy, Gafar; Mousavi, Shahrokh

    2008-01-01

    The effects of Thymus vulgaris hydroalcoholic extract on the contractile responses of the isolated guinea-pig ileum were investigated. Contraction changes in the terminal ileum of guinea pigs were monitored using a force displacement transducer amplifier connected to a physiograph. Thymus vulgaris extract inhibited the contractile responses in a dose-dependent manner and also decreased the amplitude of peristaltic waves. It is concluded that T. vulgaris has an antispasmodic action on guinea pig ileum by decreasing the amplitudes of the muscle contractions during peristalsis. The EC50 was calculated as 1.7 mg mL(-1). In guinea-pig ileum the extract led to an antispasmodic effect, possibly by affecting the anticholinergic and serotoninergic pathways.

  16. Mordellidae (Coleoptera: Heteromera) from Papua New Guinea, with descriptions of new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batten, R.

    1990-01-01

    New records from Papua New Guinea are given for the following species: Ophthalmoglipa australis Franciscolo, Tolidopalpus castaneicolor Ermisch, Mordellapygium elongatum Ray; the following new species are described: Paratomoxia agathae, Mordellistenoda ismayi, M. trapezoides, Glipostenoda neocastane

  17. Three new species of Craterispermum (Rubiaceae) from the Lower Guinea Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taedoumg, H.; Hamon, P.

    2012-01-01

    Three species of Craterispermum are described from Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon. Detailed descriptions and distribution maps are provided for each species, their conservation status is assessed and their taxonomic affinities are discussed. An identification key for the Craterispermum specie

  18. Population dynamics of Metapenaeus ensis (Penaeidae) in the Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Waffy, A.

    1990-01-01

    Growth, total mortality and seasonality of recruitment of male Metapenaeus ensis (Penaeidae) were determined based on length-frequency data (n = 9007) collected in 1988 in the Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea.

  19. Herpes simplex virus type 1 ribonucleotide reductase null mutants induce lesions in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, S R; Kik, N A; Birch, G M; Chiego, D J; Shipman, C

    1989-12-01

    Two herpes simplex virus type 1 ribonucleotide reductase null mutants, hrR3 and ICP6 delta, produced cutaneous lesions in guinea pigs as severe as those of wild-type strains. The lesions induced by hrR3 resulted from in vivo replication of the mutant virus, suggesting that this virus-encoded enzyme is nonessential for virus replication in guinea pigs.

  20. Soviet Foreign Policy in Guinea and Somalia, Implications for American Policy Toward Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Somalia, see footnote 6. 9Middle Guinea came under French sovereignty in 1897, Upper Guinea between 1895 and 1899 and the Forest Region in 1911. Harold ...16Stevens, The Soviet Union and Black Africa, p. 80. 17Victor Lasky , The Ugly Russian (New York: Trident Press, 1965), p. 111. 199 ’BAfrica Research Bulletin...Affairs. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1973. Lake, Anthony. The "Tar Baby" Option. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976. Lasky , Victor. The Ugly

  1. Spontaneous behavior in noise and silence: a possible new measure to assess tinnitus in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeringa, Amarins N; Agterberg, Martijn J H; van Dijk, Pim

    2014-01-01

    This study describes two experiments that were conducted in search for a behavioral paradigm to test for tinnitus in guinea pigs. Conditioning paradigms are available to determine the presence of tinnitus in animals and are based on the assumption that tinnitus impairs their ability to detect silent intervals in continuous noise. Guinea pigs have not been subjected to these paradigms yet; therefore, we investigated whether guinea pigs could be conditioned in the two-way shuttle-box paradigm to respond to silent intervals in noise. Even though guinea pigs could be trained relatively easy to respond to the presence of a noise interval, training guinea pigs to silent intervals in noise was unsuccessful. Instead, it appeared that they became immobile when the continuous stimulus was suddenly stopped. This was confirmed by the next experiment, in which we subjected guinea pigs to alternating intervals of noise and silence with a random duration between 30 and 120 s. Indeed, guinea pigs were significantly longer immobile during silence compared to during noise. By interpreting immobility as a signature of perceiving silence, we hypothesized that the presence of tinnitus would reduce immobility in silence. Therefore, we unilaterally exposed one group of guinea pigs to an 11-kHz tone of 124 dB sound pressure level for 1 h. A subset of the exposed animals was significantly more active in silence, but also more active in noise, as compared to the control group. The increased mobility during silent intervals might represent tinnitus. However, the increased mobility in noise of this group implies that the observed behavior could have derived from, e.g., an overall increase in activity. Therefore, conducting validation experiments is very important before implementing this method as a new screening tool for tinnitus. Follow-up experiments are discussed to further elucidate the origin of the increased mobility in both silence and noise.

  2. Behavioral responses of deafened guinea pigs to intracochlear electrical stimulation: a new rapid psychophysical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agterberg, Martijn J H; Versnel, Huib

    2014-07-01

    In auditory research the guinea pig is often preferred above rats and mice because of the easily accessible cochlea and because the frequency range of its hearing is more comparable to that of humans. Studies of the guinea-pig auditory system primarily apply histological and electrophysiological measures. Behavioral animal paradigms, in particular in combination with these histological and electrophysiological methods, are necessary in the development of new therapeutic interventions. However, the guinea pig is not considered an attractive animal for behavioral experiments. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a behavioral task suitable for guinea pigs, that can be utilized in cochlear-implant related research. Guinea pigs were trained in a modified shuttle-box in which a stream of air was used as unconditioned stimulus (UCS). A stream of air was preferred over conventionally used methods as electric foot-shocks since it produces less stress, which is a confounding factor in behavioral experiments. Hearing guinea pigs were trained to respond to acoustic stimuli. They responded correctly within only five sessions of ten minutes. The animals maintained their performance four weeks after the right cochlea was implanted with an electrode array. After systemic deafening, the animals responded in the first session immediately to intracochlear electrical stimulation. These responses were not affected by daily chronic electrical stimulation (CES). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that guinea pigs can be trained relatively fast to respond to acoustic stimuli, and that the training has a lasting effect, which generalizes to intracochlear electrical stimulation after deafening. Furthermore, it demonstrates that bilaterally deafened guinea pigs with substantial (∼50%) loss of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs), detect intracochlear electrical stimulation.

  3. Yu Zhengsheng Attends Reception Marking 45th Anniversary Of China-Equatorial Guinea Diplomatic Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Liya

    2015-01-01

    On April 29,the CPAFFC held a reception in Beijing to celebrate the 45th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Equatorial Guinea.Yu Zhengsheng,Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC)and Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo,President of Equatorial Guinea,spoke on the occasion.Among the audience of some 150were Abdul’ahat Abdulrixit,former

  4. Spontaneous behavior in noise and silence: a possible new measure to assess tinnitus in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarins Nieske Heeringa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes two experiments that were conducted in search for a behavioral paradigm to test for tinnitus in guinea pigs. Conditioning paradigms are available to determine the presence of tinnitus in animals and are based on the assumption that tinnitus impairs their ability to detect silent intervals in continuous noise. Guinea pigs have not been subjected to these paradigms yet, therefore we investigated whether guinea pigs could be conditioned in the two-way shuttle box paradigm to respond to silent intervals in noise. Even though guinea pigs could be trained relatively easy to respond to the presence of a noise interval, training guinea pigs to silent intervals in noise was unsuccessful. Instead, it appeared that they became immobile when the continuous stimulus was suddenly stopped. This was confirmed by the next experiment, in which we subjected guinea pigs to alternating intervals of noise and silence with a random duration between 30 – 120 s. Indeed, guinea pigs were significantly longer immobile during silence compared to during noise. By interpreting immobility as a signature of perceiving silence, we hypothesized that the presence of tinnitus would reduce immobility in silence. Therefore, we unilaterally exposed one group of guinea pigs to an 11-kHz tone of 124 dB SPL for 1 hour. A subset of the exposed animals was significantly more active in silence, but also more active in noise, as compared to the control group. The increased mobility during silent intervals might represent tinnitus. However, the increased mobility in noise of this group implies that the observed behavior could have derived from e.g. an overall increase in activity. Therefore, conducting validation experiments is very important before implementing this method as a new screening tool for tinnitus. Follow-up experiments are discussed to further elucidate the origin of the increased mobility in both silence and noise.

  5. Relaxant effect of the H2-receptor antagonist oxmetidine on guinea-pig and human airways.

    OpenAIRE

    Advenier, C; Gnassounou, J. P.; Scarpignato, C.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of three different H2-receptor antagonists (cimetidine, ranitidine and oxmetidine) were tested on isolated preparations of guinea-pig trachea and human bronchus against contractions induced by acetylcholine, histamine and potassium chloride (KCl). In addition, their influence on calcium concentration-response curves in guinea-pig tracheal spirals was examined in a potassium-rich solution (30 mM). Finally, their effects were studied in vivo against acetylcholine and histamine-induc...

  6. Allogeneic guinea pig mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate neurological changes in experimental colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Stavely, Rhian; Robinson, Ainsley M.; Miller, Sarah; Boyd, Richard; Sakkal, Samy; Nurgali, Kulmira

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is of great interest because of their immunomodulatory properties. Damage to the enteric nervous system (ENS) is implicated in IBD pathophysiology and disease progression. The most commonly used model to study inflammation-induced changes to the ENS is 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonate acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in guinea pigs; however, no studies using guinea pig MSCs in colitis have been performed. ...

  7. Emphysema in Papua New Guinea--a pathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R; Toogood, I

    1975-04-01

    The authors examined 47 lungs obtained at post mortem in Papua New Gunea. These were inflated with formalin, fixed under pressure, sliced and examined for emphysema using a "point-counting" method. There was no emphysema before the age of 30 years. The pathological types encountered were similar to those in the United Kingdom. In patients over 50 years of age there appeared to be little difference between the amount of emphysema present in Paua New Guinea and in the United Kingdom. Enviromental air pollution seemed to be relatively unimportant in the pathogenesis. Repeated lower respiratory tract infections may be more important. Emphysema appeared to be more prevalent in lowland than highland dwellers. The findings of this pathological study supported the clinical and epidemiological studies carried out concurrently, but independently by others.

  8. linear accelerator simulation framework with placet and guinea-pig

    CERN Document Server

    Snuverink, Jochem; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    Many good tracking tools are available for simulations for linear accelerators. However, several simple tasks need to be performed repeatedly, like lattice definitions, beam setup, output storage, etc. In addition, complex simulations can become unmanageable quite easily. A high level layer would therefore be beneficial. We propose LinSim, a linear accelerator framework with the codes PLACET and GUINEA-PIG. It provides a documented well-debugged high level layer of functionality. Users only need to provide the input settings and essential code and / or use some of the many implemented imperfections and algorithms. It can be especially useful for first-time users. Currently the following accelerators are implemented: ATF2, ILC, CLIC and FACET. This note is the comprehensive manual, discusses the framework design and shows its strength in some condensed examples.

  9. Bioactive natural products from Papua New Guinea marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noro, Jeffery C; Kalaitzis, John A; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-10-01

    The discovery of novel natural products for drug development relies heavily upon a rich biodiversity, of which the marine environment is an obvious example. Marine natural product research has spawned several drugs and many other candidates, some of which are the focus of current clinical trials. The sponge megadiversity of Papua New Guinea is a rich but underexplored source of bioactive natural products. Here, we review some of the many natural products derived from PNG sponges with an emphasis on those with interesting biological activity and, therefore, drug potential. Many bioactive natural products discussed here appear to be derived from non-ribosomal peptide and polyketide biosynthesis pathways, strongly suggesting a microbial origin of these compounds. With this in mind, we also explore the notion of sponge-symbiont biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds and present examples to support the working hypothesis.

  10. Development of cholinephosphotransferase in guinea pig lung mitochondria and microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stith, I E; Das, S K

    1982-02-02

    Development of mitochondrial and microsomal choline phosphotransferase in the fetal guinea pig lung was investigated. The activity in fetal mitochondria was more than twice of that in fetal microsomes. However, in adult lung, the enzyme was distributed mostly in microsomes. In fetal lung, both the mitochondrial and microsomal enzyme activity was greatest at approx. 81% of the total gestation period (55 days). The specific activity in the microsomal fraction than declined until term, but increased again in the 24-h newborn from 1.0 to 2.3 nmol/min per mg protein. The activity in the mitochondrial fraction declined after 61 days (2.8 nmol/min per mg) to a minimal level at term (0.6 nmol/min per mg). Although the enzyme activity decreased from day 55 (1.2 nmol/min per mg), the amount of phosphatidylcholine gradually increased between day 55 and term.

  11. Processing of communication calls in Guinea pig auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine M S Grimsley

    Full Text Available Vocal communication is an important aspect of guinea pig behaviour and a large contributor to their acoustic environment. We postulated that some cortical areas have distinctive roles in processing conspecific calls. In order to test this hypothesis we presented exemplars from all ten of their main adult vocalizations to urethane anesthetised animals while recording from each of the eight areas of the auditory cortex. We demonstrate that the primary area (AI and three adjacent auditory belt areas contain many units that give isomorphic responses to vocalizations. These are the ventrorostral belt (VRB, the transitional belt area (T that is ventral to AI and the small area (area S that is rostral to AI. Area VRB has a denser representation of cells that are better at discriminating among calls by using either a rate code or a temporal code than any other area. Furthermore, 10% of VRB cells responded to communication calls but did not respond to stimuli such as clicks, broadband noise or pure tones. Area S has a sparse distribution of call responsive cells that showed excellent temporal locking, 31% of which selectively responded to a single call. AI responded well to all vocalizations and was much more responsive to vocalizations than the adjacent dorsocaudal core area. Areas VRB, AI and S contained units with the highest levels of mutual information about call stimuli. Area T also responded well to some calls but seems to be specialized for low sound levels. The two dorsal belt areas are comparatively unresponsive to vocalizations and contain little information about the calls. AI projects to areas S, VRB and T, so there may be both rostral and ventral pathways for processing vocalizations in the guinea pig.

  12. Cortical representation of species-specific vocalizations in Guinea pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Suta

    Full Text Available We investigated the representation of four typical guinea pig vocalizations in the auditory cortex (AI in anesthetized guinea pigs with the aim to compare cortical data to the data already published for identical calls in subcortical structures - the inferior colliculus (IC and medial geniculate body (MGB. Like the subcortical neurons also cortical neurons typically responded to many calls with a time-locked response to one or more temporal elements of the calls. The neuronal response patterns in the AI correlated well with the sound temporal envelope of chirp (an isolated short phrase, but correlated less well in the case of chutter and whistle (longer calls or purr (a call with a fast repetition rate of phrases. Neuronal rate vs. characteristic frequency profiles provided only a coarse representation of the calls' frequency spectra. A comparison between the activity in the AI and those of subcortical structures showed a different transformation of the neuronal response patterns from the IC to the AI for individual calls: i while the temporal representation of chirp remained unchanged, the representations of whistle and chutter were transformed at the thalamic level and the response to purr at the cortical level; ii for the wideband calls (whistle, chirp the rate representation of the call spectra was preserved in the AI and MGB at the level present in the IC, while in the case of low-frequency calls (chutter, purr, the representation was less precise in the AI and MGB than in the IC; iii the difference in the response strength to natural and time-reversed whistle was found to be smaller in the AI than in the IC or MGB.

  13. Efficacy of doramectin in Trixacarus caviae infestation in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shanker K; Dimri, Umesh; Ahmed, Quazi Shahir; Sayedda, Kauser; Singh, Krishna Veer

    2013-04-01

    The present study was intended to evaluate the efficacy of doramectin against seven naturally Trixacarus caviae infested male guinea pigs. Multiple skin scrapings of all the seven guinea pigs were found microscopically positive for T. caviae mites. Clinically these animals revealed, more or less denuded, very red often thickened, and crustated cutaneous lesions restricted at the sacral region and back. Doramectin 1 % (w/v) was administered intramuscularly at a dose rate of 400 μg/kg once weekly, which resulted in profound improvements in clinical conditions within 14 days after the first doramectin application. It took almost 28 days for the cutaneous lesions to disappear and to witness partial hair coat regrowth. Two moderately infested guinea pigs required only single injection of doramectin to achieve complete parasitological cure, while remaining five (one moderately infested and four severely infested) guinea pigs required two injections of doramectin to achieve complete parasitological cure. No adverse effects were revealed by any of the doramectin treated guinea pigs during the study period. Thus, it can be concluded from the present study that guinea pigs naturally infested by T. caviae mites can be cured safely using two doses of doramectin once in a week.

  14. Anti-anaphylactic action of nordihydroguaiaretic acid in antigen sensitized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergren, Dale R; Valentine, Jimmie L

    2016-12-01

    Therapeutic natural products and medicinal herbs has gained popularity. The anti-antigenic action of the plant alkaloid nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) was studied in ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized guinea pigs. In one series of experiments conscious, non-sedated guinea pigs were challenged with OA aerosol. Specific airway resistance (SRAW) was monitored using a two-chambered whole-body plethysmograph. OA aerosol increased SRAW above that produced by vehicle administration. Prior NDGA administration by a 1min 0.9% aerosol (w/vol) attenuated the increase in SRAW resulting from OA challenge. In the anesthetized guinea pig pretreated with indomethacin, pyrilamine and propranolol, intravenous OA injection increased intra-tracheal pressure above vehicle injection. Intravenous NDGA administration (5mg/kg) reduced the intra-tracheal pressure increases. In a third series of experiments plasma leukotriene C4 was measured by radio-immunoassay in 3 groups challenged with OA aerosol: vehicle-treated OA-sensitized, OA-sensitized receiving NDGA and vehicle treated guinea pigs. NDGA pretreatment reduced plasma LTC4 in response to OA challenge in OA sensitized guinea pigs. This study demonstrates that NDGA is an effective antigenic agent when given by aerosol or intravenous injection in either conscious or anesthetized guinea pigs, respectively. The mechanism of action of NDGA is presumed primarily be due to the blockage of 5-lipoxygenase and therefore the synthesis of leukotrienes.

  15. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K; Marques, Patricia X; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S; Forney, Larry J; Myers, Garry S A; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rank, Roger G; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection.

  16. Protective effects of isorhynchophylline on cardiac arrhythmias in rats and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Runtao; Dong, Guo; Yu, Jiangbo; Wang, Xu; Fu, Songbin; Yang, Shusen

    2011-09-01

    As one important constituent extracted from a traditional Chinese medicine, Uncaria Rhynchophylla Miq Jacks, isorhynchophylline has been used to treat hypertension, epilepsy, headache, and other illnesses. Whether isorhynchophylline protects hearts against cardiac arrhythmias is still incompletely investigated. This study was therefore aimed to examine the preventive effects of isorhynchophylline on heart arrhythmias in guinea pigs and rats and then explore their electrophysiological mechanisms. In vivo, ouabain and calcium chloride were used to establish experimental arrhythmic models in guinea pigs and rats. In vitro, the whole-cell patch-lamp technique was used to study the effect of isorhynchophylline on action potential duration and calcium channels in acutely isolated guinea pig and rat cardiomyocytes. The dose of ouabain required to induce cardiac arrhythmias was much larger in guinea pigs administered with isorhynchophylline. Additionally, the onset time of cardiac arrhythmias induced by calcium chloride was prolonged, and the duration was shortened in rats pretreated with isorhynchophylline. The further study showed that isorhynchophylline could significantly decrease action potential duration and inhibit calcium currents in isolated guinea pig and rat cardiomyocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, isorhynchophylline played a remarkably preventive role in cardiac arrhythmias through the inhibition of calcium currents in rats and guinea pigs.

  17. Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy: The Measurement of VX Depth Profiles in Hairless Guinea Pig Skin and the Evaluation of RSDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    USAMRICD-TR-15-01 Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy: The Measurement of VX Depth Profiles in Hairless Guinea Pig Skin and the Evaluation...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER guinea pig skin and the evaluation of RSDL 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Braue, EH...upper skin layers of hairless guinea pigs and to determine the ability of Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) to remove or degrade VX from

  18. Maternal vitamin C deficiency does not reduce hippocampal volume and beta-tubulin III intensity in prenatal Guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Schjoldager, Janne Gram; Paidi, Maya Devi

    2016-01-01

    the observed deficits remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that vitC deficiency in utero may lead to a decreased neuronal maturation and increased cellular death giving rise to alterations of the hippocampal morphology in a guinea pig model. Brains from prenatal guinea pig pups (n = 9-10 in each group...... study found that hippocampal volume and beta-tubulin isotype III intensity in the prenatal guinea pig were influenced by gestational day but not by maternal vitC intake...

  19. Pharmacological investigation into the effects of histamine and histamine analogues on guinea-pig and rat colon in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, M. J.; MORALES-OLIVAS, F. J.; RUBIO, E.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of histamine and specific histamine agonists has been examined on isolated longitudinal colon strips of guinea-pig and rat. Histamine and 2-pyridyl-ethylamine but not 4 methylhistamine produced a concentration-related contractile response in the guinea-pig colon. The H1-antagonist clemizole antagonized competitively the effect of histamine but the H2-antagonist ranitidine did not modify the dose-response curve to histamine in the guinea-pig colon. Atropine, hexamethonium, prazosin...

  20. Inhalation and Percutaneous Toxicokinetics of Sulfur Mustard and Its Adducts in Hairless Guinea Pigs and Marmosets. Efficacy of Naval Scavengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Marmosets . Efficacy of Nasal Scavengers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jan P. Langenberg, Ph.D., Pharm.D. Henk C. Trap CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: TNO Prins...Inhalation and Percutaneous Toxicokinetics of Sulfur Mustard and Its Adducts in Hairless Guinea Pigs and Marmosets . Efficacy of Nasal Scavengers 5b. GRANT...inhalation toxicokinetics of sulfur mustard were studied in more detail in the hairless guinea pig as well as in the marmoset . Hairless guinea pigs were 5

  1. Early Identification and Prevention of the Spread of Ebola in High-Risk African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, Lucy; Gerber, A Russell; Greiner, Ashley L; Hastings, Deborah L; Mirkovic, Kelsey; Paczkowski, Magdalena M; Sidibe, Sekou; Banaski, James; Walker, Chastity L; Brooks, Jennifer C; Caceres, Victor M; Arthur, Ray R; Angulo, Frederick J

    2016-07-08

    In the late summer of 2014, it became apparent that improved preparedness was needed for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in at-risk countries surrounding the three highly affected West African countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia). The World Health Organization (WHO) identified 14 nearby African countries as high priority to receive technical assistance for Ebola preparedness; two additional African countries were identified at high risk for Ebola introduction because of travel and trade connections. To enhance the capacity of these countries to rapidly detect and contain Ebola, CDC established the High-Risk Countries Team (HRCT) to work with ministries of health, CDC country offices, WHO, and other international organizations. From August 2014 until the team was deactivated in May 2015, a total of 128 team members supported 15 countries in Ebola response and preparedness. In four instances during 2014, Ebola was introduced from a heavily affected country to a previously unaffected country, and CDC rapidly deployed personnel to help contain Ebola. The first introduction, in Nigeria, resulted in 20 cases and was contained within three generations of transmission; the second and third introductions, in Senegal and Mali, respectively, resulted in no further transmission; the fourth, also in Mali, resulted in seven cases and was contained within two generations of transmission. Preparedness activities included training, developing guidelines, assessing Ebola preparedness, facilitating Emergency Operations Center establishment in seven countries, and developing a standardized protocol for contact tracing. CDC's Field Epidemiology Training Program Branch also partnered with the HRCT to provide surveillance training to 188 field epidemiologists in Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, and Senegal to support Ebola preparedness. Imported cases of Ebola were successfully contained, and all 15 priority countries now have a stronger capacity to rapidly detect and contain

  2. West Africa Extreme Rainfall Events and Large-Scale Ocean Surface and Atmospheric Conditions in the Tropical Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on daily precipitation from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP data during April–October of the 1997–2014 period, the daily extreme rainfall trends and variability over West Africa are characterized using 90th-percentile threshold at each grid point. The contribution of the extreme rainfall amount reaches ~50–90% in the northern region while it is ~30–50% in the south. The yearly cumulated extreme rainfall amount indicates significant and negative trends in the 6°N–12°N; 6°N–12°N; 17°W–10°W and 4°N–7°N; 4°N–7°N; 6°E–10°E 4°N–7°N; 6°E–10°E 4°N–7°N; 6°E–10°E domains, while the number of days exhibits nonsignificant trends over West Africa. The empirical orthogonal functions performed on the standardized anomalies show four variability modes that include all West Africa with a focus on the Sahelian region, the eastern region including the south of Nigeria, the western part including Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea-Bissau, and finally a small region at the coast of Ghana and Togo. These four modes are influenced differently by the large-scale ocean surface and atmospheric conditions in the tropical Atlantic. The results are applicable in planning the risks associated with these climate hazards, particularly on water resource management and civil defense.

  3. Characterization of population structure from the mitochondrial DNA vis-à-vis language and geography in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Esther J; Koki, George; Merriwether, D Andrew

    2010-08-01

    Situated along a corridor linking the Asian continent with the outer islands of the Pacific, Papua New Guinea has long played a key role in understanding the initial peopling of Oceania. The vast diversity in languages and unique geographical environments in the region have been central to the debates on human migration and the degree of interaction between the Pleistocene settlers and newer migrants. To better understand the role of Papua New Guinea in shaping the region's prehistory, we sequenced the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of three populations, a total of 94 individuals, located in the East Sepik Province of Papua New Guinea. We analyzed these samples with a large data set of Oceania populations to examine the role of geography and language in shaping population structure within New Guinea and between the region and Island Melanesia. Our results from median-joining networks, star-cluster age estimates, and population genetic analyses show that while highland New Guinea populations seem to be the oldest settlers, there has been significant gene flow within New Guinea with little influence from geography or language. The highest genetic division is between Papuan speakers of New Guinea versus East Papuan speakers located outside of mainland New Guinea. Our study supports the weak language barriers to genetic structuring among populations in close contact and highlights the complexity of understanding the genetic histories of Papua New Guinea in association with language and geography.

  4. Molecular cloning, sequence identification and expression profile of domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus UGT1A1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Deming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic guinea pig is a model animal for human disease research. Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1 is an important human disease-related gene. In this study, the complete coding sequence of domestic guinea pig gene UGT1A1 was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The open reading frame of the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene is 1602 bp in length and was found to encode a protein of 533 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that the UGT1A1 protein of domestic guinea pig shared high homology with the UGT1A1 proteins of degu (84%, damara mole-rat (84%, human (80%, northern white-cheeked gibbon (80%, Colobus angolensis palliatus (80% and golden snub-nosed monkey (79%. This gene contains five exons and four introns, as revealed by the computer-assisted analysis. The results also showed that the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene had a close genetic relationship with the UGT1A1 gene of degu. The prediction of transmembrane helices showed that domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 might be a transmembrane protein. Expression profile analysis indicated that the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene was differentially expressed in detected domestic guinea pig tissues. Our experiment laid a primary foundation for using the domestic guinea pig as a model animal to study the UGT1A1-related human diseases.

  5. Seismotectonics of New Guinea: a Model for Arc Reversal Following Arc-Continent Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Patricia; Taylor, Brian

    1987-02-01

    The structure and evolution of the northern New Guinea collision zone is deduced from International Seismological Center (ISC) seismicity (1964-1985), new and previously published focal mechanisms and a reexamination of pertinent geological data. A tectonic model for the New Guinea margin is derived which illustrates the sequential stages in the collision and suturing of the Bewani-Toricelli-Adelbert-Finisterre-Huon-New Britain arc to central New Guinea followed by subduction polarity reversal in the west. East of 149°E, the Solomon plate is being subducted both to the north and south; bringing the New Britain and Trobriand forearcs toward collision. West of 149°E the forearcs have collided, and together they override a fold in the doubly subducted Solomon plate lithosphere, which has an axis that is parallel to the strike of the Ramu-Markham suture and that plunges westward at an angle of 5° beneath the coast ranges of northern New Guinea. Active volcanism off the north coast of New Guinea is related to subduction of the Solomon plate beneath the Bismarck plate. Active volcanism of the Papuan peninsula and Quaternary volcanism of the New Guinea highlands are related to slow subduction of the Solomon plate beneath the Indo-Australian plate along the Trobriand Trough and the trough's former extension to the west, respectively. From 144°-148°E, seismicity and focal mechanisms reveal that convergence between the sutured Bismarck and Indo-Australian plates is accommodated by thrusting within the Finisterre and Adelbert ranges and compression of the New Guinea orogenic belt, together with basement-involved foreland folding and thrusting to the south. The Finisterre block overthrusts the New Guinea orogenic belt, whereas the Adelbert block is sutured to New Guinea and overthrusts the oceanic lithosphere of the Bismarck Sea. Along the New Guinea Trench, west of 144°E, seismicity defines a southward dipping Wadati-Benioif zone, and focal mechanisms indicate oblique

  6. Establishment of a leptospirosis model in guinea pigs using an epicutaneous inoculations route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospires are presumed to enter their host via small abrasions or breaches of the skin. The intraperitoneal route, although commonly used in guinea pig and hamster models of leptospirosis, does not reflect conditions encountered during natural infection. The aim of this study is to develop a novel leptospirosis guinea pig model through epicutaneous route and to elucidate the pathogenesis of leptospirosis in experimental guinea pigs by comparing the data from other studies using different infection routes. Methods The guinea pigs were inoculated with 5 × 108 Leptospira interrogans strain Lai onto either shaved-only or abraded skin. The guinea pigs were sacrificed at 2, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 144 h post-infection (p.i. followed by harvest of the lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, and the skin around the inoculated sites for further examinations. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE staining and electron microscopy were used to detect the pathologic changes. Real time PCR and immunohistochemistry staining were performed to detect dynamic distribution of leptospires in blood and tissues, respectively. Results In the guinea pigs with abraded skin inoculations, leptospires were detected in blood as early as 2 h post infection (p.i. and then disseminated to the liver, lungs and kidneys of almost all animals within 96 h p.i.. Leptospires were also detected engulfed in the swelling vascular endothelial cells and were frequently aggregated around the capillaries in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue under the inoculated site. For the guinea pigs with abraded skin inoculations, hemorrhage at the dermis around the inoculated site was found before the appearance of internal organs hemorrhage, severe lesions such as hemorrhages in the lungs, nephritis, jaundice, haematuria were also observed, and two of seven guinea pigs died at 144 h p.i. while no lesions and leptospires were detected in the shaved-only guinea pigs using the same dose of strain Lai

  7. Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Jensen, T G

    1990-01-01

    Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.6%,...... vaccination. These data suggest that it will be necessary to vaccinate before age 9 months to control measles in hyperendemic urban African areas....

  8. The seasonal upwellings in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, Jean-Marc

    Observational as well as numerical experiments show that Ekman divergence neither at the equator nor at the coast can explain a significant part of the annual upwelling in the Gulf of Guinea. The remote forcing theory is tested by analyzing both historical data and the FOCAL hydrographic stations (1982-1984). The meteorological data base is analysed as well. Analyses of the thermostad show that waters with the same characteristics as those of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) are carried by the equatorial under current (EUC) and the South Equatorial Undercurrent (SEUC) from the western-central equatorial Atlantic at 35° - 29°W towards the thermostad regions in the Gulf of Guinea. The thermostad water is then carried back westward in the two geostrophic compensation flows flanking the EUC at 2° - 3°N and 2° - 3°S. The cooling of the subthermoclinal waters off Abidjan (5°N) and Pointe-Noire (5°S) is related to the advection and vertical spreading of SACW between 500m and 50m in May-June-July. An exceptional warm event occurred in early 1984 in the Gulf of Guinea. The winds collapsed nearly completely all along the equator in January-April 1984. The onset of the African monsoon was late (in July-August 1984), then the monsoon was weaker than climatology in August-October 1984. The equatorial thermocline was observed 50m deeper than climatology in February 1984, then near the surface in July 1984. Sea levels rose over the equatorial Atlantic, the surge reaching about 13cm at 6°E in February 1984, when the western-central equatorial Atlantic was nearly flat. Minimum sea levels occurred in June-July 1984 at 6°E, before the African monsoon. During this event, the maximum speed in the shallow core of the equatorial undercurrent at 4°W and 6°E was nearly insensitive to large changes in the thermal structure (downwelling or upwelling situations). In February-May 1984, we have observed distinct increasing eastward flows at the equator below 250m and minimum

  9. Airway hyperresponsiveness induced by repeated esophageal infusion of HCl in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yan-Mei; Cao, Ai-Li; Zheng, Jian-Pu; Wang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Yong-Shun; Liu, Chun-Fang; Zhang, Bei-Bei; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Sheng-Liang; Wu, Da-Zheng

    2014-11-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux is a common disorder closely related to chronic airway diseases, such as chronic cough, asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic obstructive disease. Indeed, gastroesophageal acid reflux into the respiratory tract causes bronchoconstriction, but the underlying mechanisms have still not been clarified. This study aimed to elucidate functional changes of bronchial smooth muscles (BSMs) isolated from guinea pigs in an animal model of gastroesophageal reflux. The marked airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness and remodeling were observed after guinea pigs were exposed to intraesophageal HCl infusion for 14 days. In addition, contractile responses to acetylcholine (ACh), KCl, electrical field stimulation, and extracellular Ca(2+) were greater in guinea pigs infused with HCl compared with control groups. The L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (L-VDCC) blocker, nicardipine, significantly inhibited ACh- and Ca(2+)-enhanced BSM contractions in guinea pigs infused with HCl. The Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y27632, attenuated ACh-enhanced BSM contractions in guinea pigs infused with HCl. Moreover, mRNA and protein expressions for muscarinic M2 and M3 receptors, RhoA, and L-VDCC in BSM were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot. Expressions of mRNA and protein for muscarinic M3 receptors, RhoA, and L-VDCC were greater than in BSM of HCl-infused guinea pigs, whereas levels of muscarinic M2 receptors were unchanged. We demonstrate that acid infusion to the lower esophagus and, subsequently, microaspiration into the respiratory tract in guinea pigs leads to airway hyperresponsiveness and overactive BSM. Functional and molecular results indicate that overactive BSM is the reason for enhancement of extracellular Ca(2+) influx via L-VDCC and Ca(2+) sensitization through Rho-kinase signaling.

  10. Analysis of humoral immune responses to LM1 ganglioside in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yajuan; Chen, Zi-Wei; Siegel, Allan; Koshy, Ranie; Ramirez, Cristhian; Raabe, Timothy D; Devries, George H; Ilyas, Amjad A

    2012-05-15

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune-mediated disease triggered by a preceding infection. A substantial body of evidence implicates antibodies to various gangliosides in subtypes of GBS. A significant proportion of patients with acute demyelinating subset of GBS have IgG antibodies against peripheral nervous system myelin specific neolactogangliosides such as LM1 and Hex-LM1. Although anti-neolactoganglioside antibodies in GBS were described more than two decades ago, their pathogenic role in neuropathy remains unknown due to the lack of suitable experimental models. In this study, we immunized ten guinea pigs with purified LM1 ganglioside mixed with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Control guinea pigs were injected with KLH emulsified in CFA only. The animals were bled every four week intervals. The animals were boosted 3 times every four weeks. Experiments were terminated four months after initial immunization. Nine of 10 guinea pigs immunized with LM1 exhibited antibody responses to LM1. Anti-LM1 IgG titers in nine guinea pigs ranged from 1:400 to 1:12,800 at 16-weeks after initial immunization. Anti-LM1 antibodies were predominantly of IgG2 subclass. One guinea pig with the highest levels of IgG antibodies exhibited mild signs of neuropathy. There was no evidence of demyelination or inflammation in the sciatic nerves of LM1-immunized guinea pigs. Anti-LM1 antibodies bound to rat sciatic nerve myelin and to isolated rat Schwann cells. In summary, our findings suggest that relatively high levels of anti-LM1 IgG antibodies can be induced in guinea pigs and that LM1 is localized in peripheral nerve myelin and in Schwann cells. Further studies are needed to determine the pathogenic potential of anti-neolactoganglioside antibodies in neuropathy.

  11. Growth characteristics of pearl gray guinea fowl as predicted by the Richards, Gompertz, and logistic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahashon, S N; Aggrey, S E; Adefope, N A; Amenyenu, A; Wright, D

    2006-02-01

    This study was undertaken to describe the growth pattern of the pearl gray Guinea fowl. Using BW data from hatch to 22 wk, 3 nonlinear mathematical functions (Richards, Gompertz, and logistic) were used to estimate growth patterns of the pearl gray guinea fowl. The logistic and Gompertz models are a special case of the Richards model, which has a variable point of inflection defined by the shape or growth trajectory parameter, m. The shape parameter m was 1.08 and 0.98 in males and females, respectively, suggesting that the growth pattern of the pearl gray female guinea fowl is Gompertz. The pearl gray guinea fowl exhibited sexual dimorphism for their growth characteristics. From the Gompertz model, the asymptotic BW, growth rate, and age at maximum growth were 1.62 kg, 0.22 kg/wk, and 6.65 wk in males, respectively, and 1.70 kg, 0.19 kg/wk, and 6.70 wk in females, respectively. The ages at maximum growth were 6.65, 6.47, and 8.12 wk for the Richards, Gompertz, and logistic models, respectively. The pearl gray guinea fowl females have a higher asymptotic BW compared with the males. The average asymptotic BW of about 1.57 kg for both sexes predicted by the logistic model was below the average predicted BW from the Richards (1.66 kg) and Gompertz (1.67 kg) models, respectively, at 22 wk of age. The inverse relationship between the asymptotic weight and both relative growth and age at maximum growth of the pearl gray guinea fowl is similar to that of chickens, quail, and ducks. Success in studying the growth characteristics of guinea fowl will contribute to the efforts of genetically improving this least-studied avian species.

  12. "Training by Papua New Guinea Women, for Papua New Guinea Women": Lessons from the Development of a Co-Constructed Course for Women Smallholder Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamphilon, Barbara; Mikhailovich, Katja; Chambers, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the lessons from a collaborative project that worked with women agricultural leaders in Papua New Guinea. The project sought to build the capacity of these leaders as trainers in a way that would enable the development of a sustainable community of practice and worked within a critical and place-based pedagogy underpinned by…

  13. Acute and subchronic dermal toxicity of nanosilver in guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbabi Bidgoli S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available M Korani1, SM Rezayat1,2,4, K Gilani3, S Arbabi Bidgoli4, S Adeli11Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 2Department of Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 4Department of Toxicology & Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAUPS, Tehran, IranAbstract: Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for a long time in different forms, but silver nanoparticles (nanosilver have recently been recognized as potent antimicrobial agents. Although nanosilver is finding diverse medical applications such as silver-based dressings and silver-coated medical devices, its dermal and systemic toxicity via dermal use has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the potential toxicity of colloidal nanosilver in acute and subchronic guinea pigs. Before toxicity assessments, the size of colloidal nanosilver was recorded in sizes <100 nm by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. For toxicological assessments, male guinea pigs weighing 350 to 400 g were exposed to two different concentrations of nanosilver (1000 and 10,000 µg/mL in an acute study and three concentrations of nanosilver (100, 1000, and 10,000 µg/mL in a subchronic study. Toxic responses were assessed by clinical and histopathologic parameters. In all experimental animals the sites of exposure were scored for any type of dermal toxicity and compared with negative control and positive control groups. In autopsy studies during the acute test, no significant changes in organ weight or major macroscopic changes were detected, but dose-dependent histopathologic abnormalities were seen in skin, liver, and spleen of all test groups. In addition, experimental animals subjected to subchronic tests showed greater

  14. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachser Norbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all

  15. THE GENETIC-INDUCED HEARING lOSS CAN BLOCK THE EFFECT OF NOISE TRAUMA IN WAlTZING GUINEA PIG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Busheng; Duan Maoli

    2013-01-01

    The waltzing guinea pig may be a good model to investigate if genetic factor can change the sensitivity in noise-induced hearing loss. A total of 34 waltzig guinea pigs were studied and we found that there is no any significant increased sensitivity to noise trauma if the age-induced hearing loss was considered in waltz-ing guinea pig.

  16. Response to the Ebola epidemics in Guinea: Public Health Organisational issues and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierno Baldé

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of its magnitude and changing dynamics, the Ebola epidemics currently affecting some West African countries constitutes one of the most serious public health problems in recent decades. Conceptualised as a case study with two levels of analysis, this article aims at analysing the response to the Ebola epidemics in Guinea in order to ultimately highlight the public health organisational issues related to this response and to propose some possible solutions to improve the efficiency of this response. This article is based on documentary analysis, observation and a three month participating immersion conducted in Guinea from June 2014 to August 2014. Using certain elements of Parsons’ social action theory, this study has shown the existence of 4 systems of social intervention in the organisation and management of the response to the Ebola epidemics in Guinea. They are the WHO, MSF, the Red Cross and the Ministry of Health. Each of these systems of social intervention has specific characteristics and specificities and interacts actively at several levels of the healthsystem of Guinea. Having completed the analysis of the interventions undertaken by these 4 systems of social action, and using the conceptual basis of the complexity theory, we propose some avenues for reflection and action for improving the quality of the response to the Ebola epidemics in Guinea, in order to finally restrain and stop its propagation in other African countries and other continents.

  17. Effects of Changing to Individually Ventilated Caging on Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giral, Marta; Armengol, Clara; Sánchez-Gómez, Sonia; Gavaldà, Amadeu

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of changing to IVC housing on guinea pigs by recording several physiologic parameters in guinea pigs housed sequentially in open-top cages (OTC) and IVC. To register heart rate and locomotor activity, 10 male Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs implanted with telemetric transmitters were moved from OTC to new, freshly prepared OTC or IVC and subsequently monitored by telemetry during the 4 d after the first cage change. Body weight and food consumption were measured twice during the study. Comparison of data from OTC- and IVC-housed guinea pigs showed no relevant differences in heart rate (mean ± 1 SD; 213 ± 10 bpm and 207 ± 9 bpm, respectively) at any time point. In contrast, locomotor activity varied: whereas activity during the first 4 h after the change of cage type was greater in IVC-housed animals, that during the following 24 h was greater in OTC but was similar between groups thereafter. Animals housed in OTC consumed more food than did those in IVC and, under both conditions, consumption was statistically related to body weight changes. Together, these results show that a change to IVC housing induced only transient increases in locomotor activity in guinea pigs without a marked increase in heart rate but with a decrease in food consumption. Because decreased food consumption was the only stress-associated sign during the 4-d observation, longer studies are needed to ascertain the importance of this finding.

  18. Congenital malformations caused by Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Leg. Mimosoideae) in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Josenaldo S; Rocha, Brena P; Colodel, Edson M; Freitas, Sílvio H; Dória, Renata G S; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Evêncio-Neto, Joaquim; Mendonça, Fábio S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Stryphnodendron fissuratum pods in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and test the hypothesis that this plant has teratogenic effects. Thus, sixteen guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups of four animals each. Groups 10, 20 and 40 consisted of guinea pigs that received commercial food that contained crushed pods of S. fissuratum at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 g/kg, respectively, during the period of organogenesis. Control group consisted of guinea pigs under the same management conditions that did not receive crushed pods of S. fissuratum in their food. In all experimental groups, the main clinical signs of poisoning consisted of anorexia, prostration, absence of vocalizations, alopecia, diarrhea, and abortions within the adult guinea pigs. Those that did not abort gave birth to weak, malnourished pups, some of which had fetal malformations. The main teratogenic changes consisted of eventration, arthrogryposis, amelia of the forelimbs, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, anotia and agnathia. The reductions in the number of offspring and the malformations observed in the experimental groups suggest that S. fissuratum affects fetal development and is teratogenic.

  19. Phosphodiesterase 5 and effects of sildenafil on cerebral arteries of man and guinea pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina; Khurana, Tejvir S; Rybalkin, Sergei D

    2005-01-01

    and UK-114,542, and a PDE1 inhibitor UK-90,234 on cGMP hydrolysis were investigated in human and guinea pig cerebral arteries. The vasoactive responses of the compounds were evaluated in guinea pig basilar arteries in vitro, with concomitant measurements of cAMP and cGMP. PDE5 was found in human middle...... cerebral arteries. Sildenafil and UK-114,542 inhibited cGMP hydrolysis concentration-dependently in both species. In guinea pig arteries, sildenafil induced an endothelium-dependent vasodilatation only at concentrations above 10 nM, which was augmented by sodium nitroprusside and attenuated by reduction...... of cGMP, but was cGMP independent at high concentrations. UK-114,542 was more and UK-90,234 was less potent than sildenafil. In conclusion, PDE5 is present in human and guinea pig cerebral arteries, and is inhibited by sildenafil at micromolar levels. Sildenafil in vitro is a poor dilator of guinea pig...

  20. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases and ovarian morphological changes in androgenized cyclic female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-rong; Shen, Ting; Wang, Yan-li; Wei, Quan-wei; Shi, Fang-xiong

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and ovarian morphological changes in androgenized cyclic female guinea pigs. Adult cyclic female guinea pigs were injected daily for 28 days with medium doses of testosterone propionate (TP; 1 mg/100g), high doses of TP (2 mg/100g), or saline (control). Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P4) were measured. Histologic sections of ovaries were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and by immunohistochemistry. Expressions of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the ovary were characterized by immunohistochemistry. After 28 days of TP injection, serum testosterone concentrations were increased dose-dependently. An appropriate dosage of TP could induce permanent anovulation in guinea pigs, making them a potential model for human polycystic ovary syndrome. MMP-2 and MMP-9 are jointly involved in the growth and atresia of ovarian follicles in cyclic guinea pigs. Increased numbers of atretic antral follicles in the ovary might be associated with the observed high expression of MMP-2 in androgenized cyclic guinea pigs.

  1. Possible mechanism(s) for relaxant effects of Foeniculum vulgare on guinea pig tracheal chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, M H; Khatami, A; Nazari, A

    2004-07-01

    In a previous study the relaxant (bronchodilatory) effect of Foeniculum vulgare on isolated guinea pig tracheal chains was demonstrated. To study mechanisms responsible for this effect the present study evaluated the inhibitory effect of this plant on contracted tracheal chains of guinea pig. The relaxant effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts and an essential oil from Foeniculum vulgare were compared to negative controls (saline for aqueous extract and essential oil and ethanol for ethanol extract) and a positive control (diltiazem) using isolated tracheal chains of the guinea pig precontracted by 10 microM methacholine (group 1) and 60 mM KCl (group 2, n = 7 for each group). In the group 1, experiments diltiazem, ethanol extract, and essential oil from Foeniculum vulgare showed a significant relaxant effect on methacholine induced contraction of tracheal chains compared to those of negative controls (p Foeniculum vulgare. However with regard to the effect of KCl on calcium channels, the results indicated that the inhibitory effect of ethanol extracts and essential oil from Foeniculum vulgare on calcium channels is not contributing to their relaxant (bronchodilatory) effects on guinea pig tracheal chains. However the results suggest a potassium channel opening effect for this plant, which may contribute on its relaxant effect on guinea pig tracheal chains.

  2. Reduced noise susceptibility in littermate offspring from heterozygous animals of the German waltzing guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjönsberg, Åsa; Mannström, Paula

    2015-07-08

    The German waltzing guinea pig is a spontaneously mutated strain with severe auditory and vestibular impairment caused by a so far unknown genetic mutation. The animals are born deaf and show a circling behavior. The heterozygote animals of this guinea pig strain have functionally normal hearing and balance. However, these animals have, in earlier studies, shown an increased resistance to noise compared with normal wild-type guinea pigs. In the present study, we explored the functional hearing with auditory brainstem response thresholds before and at different time points after noise exposure. Symptom-free littermates from heterozygote couples of the German waltzing guinea pigs were exclusively used for the study, which, after the hearing test, were sent back for breeding to confirm their genotype (i.e. heterozygote or normal). The aim of this paper was to ascertain that the previously shown reduced susceptibility to noise trauma in the heterozygote animals of the German waltzing guinea pig was also evident when littermates were used as control animals. The findings are important for further analysis of the heterozygote animals of this strain and for future investigations of the underlying mechanisms behind the diverse susceptibility to exposures of loud sound.

  3. Microsatellite loci in Japanese quail and cross-species amplification in chicken and guinea fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizutani Makoto

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In line with the Gifu University's initiative to map the Japanese quail genome, a total of 100 Japanese quail microsatellite markers isolated in our laboratory were evaluated in a population of 20 unrelated quails randomly sampled from a colony of wild quail origin. Ninety-eight markers were polymorphic with an average of 3.7 alleles per locus and a mean heterozygosity of 0.423. To determine the utility of these markers for comparative genome mapping in Phasianidae, cross-species amplification of all the markers was tested with chicken and guinea fowl DNA. Amplification products similar in size to the orthologous loci in quail were observed in 42 loci in chicken and 20 loci in guinea fowl. Of the cross-reactive markers, 57.1% in chicken and 55.0% in guinea fowl were polymorphic when tested in 20 birds from their respective populations. Five of 15 markers that could cross-amplify Japanese quail, chicken, and guinea fowl DNA were polymorphic in all three species. Amplification of orthologous loci was confirmed by sequencing 10 loci each from chicken and guinea fowl and comparing with them the corresponding quail sequence. The microsatellite markers reported would serve as a useful resource base for genetic mapping in quail and comparative mapping in Phasianidae.

  4. Prevalencia de infección tuberculosa en la población de inmigrantes en Ceuta, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Fernández Sanfrancisco

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La tuberculosis es la enfermedad infecciosa más extendida en el mundo. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron conocer la prevalencia de infección tuberculosa en los inmigrantes que durante 1998 estuvieron en el campamento de Calamocarro en Ceuta y analizar si existen diferencias según país o región geográfica de procedencia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal sobre la población total de inmigrantes en el campamento de Calamocarro en 1998. Se practicó la intradermorreacc ión según la técnica de Mantoux según protocolo ya establecido, a los 2.223 inmigrantes (1979 varones y 244 mujeres procedentes de distintos países africanos (Nigeria, Mali, Guinea Bissau, Camerún, Ghana, Sierra Leona, Rep Dem Congo, y Liberia, principalmente en el campamento de refugiados de Calamocarro de Ceuta. Los resultados se presentan para tres puntos de corte de la induración: <5mm; entre 5 y 10mm; e igual o superior a 10mm. Resultados: Los inmigrantes procedían de 36 países africanos, el 89,0% eran varones y el 11,0% mujeres (p < 0,001 con una edad media de 24,9 ± 4,3 y 23,4 ± 4,1 años respectivamente. El 32,6% presentaron una respuesta al test de Mantoux igual o superior a 10 mm, 33,2% en varones y 27,9% en mujeres (p = 0,09. Sólo hubo un 1,1% con induración 5-10 mm de probable origen vacunal. Por zonas geográficas, las tasas más altas se presentaron en inmigrantes procedentes de la República Democrática del Congo (65,1% y de Camerún (48,4%, seguidos a distancia por Nigeria (34,0%, Liberia (32,7%, Mauritania (29,1%, Sierra Leona (28,8%, Costa de Marfil (27,8%, Guinea Bissau (27,4%, Ghana (26,3%, Argelia (25,6%, Mali (24,1% y R.Guinea (20,9% (p<0,0001. Conclusiones: La población inmigrante procedente de países centroafricanos presenta una alta prevalencia de infección tuberculosa, constituyendo un grupo de riesgo de padecer la enfermedad. Por tanto, es fundamental la implantación de programas específicos de b

  5. Using drama to target risky behaviours in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommi, S S; Peter, W; Bisai, N

    2000-06-01

    This paper discusses the collaborative work between Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Lae, and the Seeds Performing Arts Theatre, which adopted the approach of using drama to target risky behaviors in the country. In a baseline study on knowledge, behavior and practice among target groups, results showed that general knowledge about sexually transmitted disease and HIV/AIDS is very poor in these groups. In addition, there is a continued practice of risky behaviors, which could lead to HIV infection among these groups. In view of such, drama presentations were undertaken to disseminate information to specific audiences. Scripts and songs were written and a flip chart was created to show the statistics on HIV/AIDS. In addition, role playing, which included references to factors facilitating the transmission of HIV was given. In 1998, a total of performances were given to over 3000 people: 12 for transport industry and sex workers, and 2 for general communities. Moreover, two other local theater groups were trained on HIV/AIDS topics.

  6. Sources and management of hazardous waste in Papua New Guinea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K. [Univ. of Papua New Guinea (Papua New Guinea)

    1996-12-31

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) has considerable mineral wealth, especially in gold and copper. Large-scale mining takes place, and these activities are the source of most of PNG`s hazardous waste. Most people live in small farming communities throughout the region. Those living adjacent to mining areas have experienced some negative impacts from river ecosystem damage and erosion of their lands. Industry is centered mainly in urban areas and Generates waste composed of various products. Agricultural products, pesticide residues, and chemicals used for preserving timber and other forestry products also produce hazardous waste. Most municipal waste comes from domestic and commercial premises; it consists mainly of combustibles, noncombustibles, and other wastes. Hospitals generate pathogenic organisms, radioactive materials, and chemical and pharmaceutical laboratory waste. Little is known about the actual treatment of waste before disposal in PNG. Traditional low-cost waste disposal methods are usually practiced, such as use of landfills; storage in surface impoundments; and disposal in public sewers, rivers, and the sea. Indiscriminate burning of domestic waste in backyards is also commonly practiced in urban and rural areas. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Mother tongue-based bilingual education in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Susan; Paraide, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG), an independent state in the southwest Pacific, is the most linguistically diverse country in the world. Its roughly six million people speak over 800 distinct languages. In spite of this diversity, in 1995 the Papua New Guinean government established a mother tongue-based bilingual education programme in which community languages are taught as a subject and used for instruction in the first three years of formal education. English is introduced as a subject in the third year of school and becomes one of the languages of instruction, with the community language, in early primary. In grades seven and eight, teachers use only English for instruction, although community languages can still be used informally. By the early 2000s, over 400 languages were being used in PNG's formal education system. This paper describes the background to PNG's bilingual education programme, then provides an overview of its main features and the positive outcomes as well as the problems encountered since it was initiated 15 years ago.

  8. Unique human immune signature of Ebola virus disease in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal, Paula; Oestereich, Lisa; Lüdtke, Anja; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Wozniak, David M; Kerber, Romy; Korva, Miša; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Bore, Joseph A; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Duraffour, Sophie; Weller, Romy; Thorenz, Anja; Cimini, Eleonora; Viola, Domenico; Agrati, Chiara; Repits, Johanna; Afrough, Babak; Cowley, Lauren A; Ngabo, Didier; Hinzmann, Julia; Mertens, Marc; Vitoriano, Inês; Logue, Christopher H; Boettcher, Jan Peter; Pallasch, Elisa; Sachse, Andreas; Bah, Amadou; Nitzsche, Katja; Kuisma, Eeva; Michel, Janine; Holm, Tobias; Zekeng, Elsa-Gayle; García-Dorival, Isabel; Wölfel, Roman; Stoecker, Kilian; Fleischmann, Erna; Strecker, Thomas; Di Caro, Antonino; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Kurth, Andreas; Meschi, Silvia; Mély, Stephane; Newman, Edmund; Bocquin, Anne; Kis, Zoltan; Kelterbaum, Anne; Molkenthin, Peter; Carletti, Fabrizio; Portmann, Jasmine; Wolff, Svenja; Castilletti, Concetta; Schudt, Gordian; Fizet, Alexandra; Ottowell, Lisa J; Herker, Eva; Jacobs, Thomas; Kretschmer, Birte; Severi, Ettore; Ouedraogo, Nobila; Lago, Mar; Negredo, Anabel; Franco, Leticia; Anda, Pedro; Schmiedel, Stefan; Kreuels, Benno; Wichmann, Dominic; Addo, Marylyn M; Lohse, Ansgar W; De Clerck, Hilde; Nanclares, Carolina; Jonckheere, Sylvie; Van Herp, Michel; Sprecher, Armand; Xiaojiang, Gao; Carrington, Mary; Miranda, Osvaldo; Castro, Carlos M; Gabriel, Martin; Drury, Patrick; Formenty, Pierre; Diallo, Boubacar; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N'Faly; Carroll, Miles W; Günther, Stephan; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-05-01

    Despite the magnitude of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the pathophysiology of EVD. In particular, very little is known about human immune responses to Ebola virus. Here we evaluate the physiology of the human T cell immune response in EVD patients at the time of admission to the Ebola Treatment Center in Guinea, and longitudinally until discharge or death. Through the use of multiparametric flow cytometry established by the European Mobile Laboratory in the field, we identify an immune signature that is unique in EVD fatalities. Fatal EVD was characterized by a high percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressing the inhibitory molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1, which correlated with elevated inflammatory markers and high virus load. Conversely, surviving individuals showed significantly lower expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1 as well as lower inflammation, despite comparable overall T cell activation. Concomitant with virus clearance, survivors mounted a robust Ebola-virus-specific T cell response. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of the T cell response is a key component of EVD pathophysiology.

  9. Sustainability of Land Groups in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepani Karigawa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a review of existing literature relating to Incorporated Land Groups in Papua New Guinea (PNG, followed by a case study of two urban incorporated land groups (ILGs in the city of Lae. The paper is an attempt at assessing the sustainability of ILGs in the country. The challenges facing the ILGs have heightened public fears that the land groups may not be sustainable. Based on the argument in previous studies that the ILGs are not sustainable, the paper used primary data from two separate questionnaire surveys of randomly selected ILG landowners (including legal settlers and ILG stakeholders to investigate the problem. The combined sample size of 129 respondents (32.7% was representative of the total ILG population, while a total of 25 indicators were used to test the respondents’ perceptions regarding ILG sustainability. Findings reveal that only one of the indicators received the positive support of the stakeholders, while no indicator was supported by the landowners. This suggests that the ILGs in PNG are not sustainable legal entities. This dilemma is a consequence of the challenges facing the ILGs, including the issues of corruption in the Lands Department, illiteracy among landowners, poor publicity given to ILGs’ functions, and the dysfunctional ILG legal framework.

  10. Injuries caused by pigs in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barss, P; Ennis, S

    Pigs are intelligent animals that can be formidable adversaries to humans because of their sharp tusks and their ability to attack swiftly. Domestic and feral pigs have an important role in the ecology of village life in Melanesia. A six-year review of all injuries that were caused by pigs that were referred from the villages in Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, to the Provincial Hospital was completed. Some of the injuries that were seen among the 20 patients who were studied included: three penetrating abdominal injuries with prolapse and strangulation of the intestine; a "sucking" chest wound; bilateral pneumothoraces; two infected open fractures of the radius and the ulna; a perforating injury of the knee with septic arthritis; a hand injury with laceration of multiple tendons; an arterial injury of the wrist; injury of a tibial nerve with foot drop; and a severe scrotal injury with exposure of the testicles. Most injuries resulted from the hunting of feral pigs. Adult male hunters who used dogs and carried only one spear were injured most frequently. Wounds from injuries by pigs are deep, often involve multiple critical structures, and are grossly contaminated. Resuscitation requires the administration of fluid and often blood. Treatment includes irrigation, debridement and closure of the wound. The principles of managing such injuries, the prevention of injuries, the ecology of pigs and humans, human infections originating from pigs, and safer methods of hunting pigs are discussed.

  11. Maternal vitamin C deficiency during pregnancy results in transient fetal and placental growth retardation in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Janne Gram; Paidi, Maya Devi; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2015-01-01

    of vitC's impact on intrauterine development is sparse. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of maternal vitC status on fetal and placental development in guinea pigs. METHODS: Twenty pregnant Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs were randomized into four groups to receive diets either sufficient (918...

  12. Spot-on Treatments of Diflubenzuron and Permethrin to Control a Guinea Pig Louse, Gliricola Porcelli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (L.)) (Rodentia: Caviidae) are pets and laboratory animals. They can be infested by a chewing louse, Gliricola porcelli (Schrank) (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), which is fairly common in some animal rearing facilities, pet stores, and on wild guinea pigs. Infestation with G....

  13. Stagnant stunting rate despite rapid economic growth in Papua New Guinea - factors correlated with malnutrition among children under five

    OpenAIRE

    Hou,Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    Maternal and child undernutrition is a pervasive and detrimental condition in Papua New Guinea. Despite rapid economic growth during the past decade, the stunting rate for children under 5, one of the primary indicators for child undernutrition, was estimated at 46 percent in Papua New Guinea in 2010, stagnant from 44 percent in 2005. This paper analyzes the association between the demogra...

  14. Effects of long term feeding of raw soya bean flour on virus- induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in guinea fowl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirev, T.; Woutersen, R.A.; Kiril, A.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of a diet enriched with 25% raw soya bean flour (RSF) on the pancreas and on the avian retrovirus Pts 56-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in guinea fowl were studied. It has been shown that prolonged RSF feeding of new-hatched virus-infected and uninfected guinea fowl-poults induced enl

  15. Gender Differences in the Anatomy of the Perineal Glands in Guinea Pigs and the Effect of Castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, T. M.; Arnbjerg, J.; Ruelokke, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Perineal glands in guinea pigs are part of the sebaceous glandular complex. Their secretions are used for scent marking. This is important for social status and can be seen in both sexes and castrated males. Discrepancy exits about the existence of these glands in female guinea pigs and knowledge...

  16. L-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute L-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette Rønne; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    products prone to oxidation-was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences......, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA...... in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs-as in humans-is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin...

  17. Oxidative DNA damage in vitamin C-supplemented guinea pigs after intratracheal instillation of diesel exhaust particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Daneshvar, B.; Loft, S.

    2003-01-01

    The health effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are thought to involve oxidative damage. We have investigated the effect of intratracheal DEP instillation to guinea pigs in three groups of 12 animals each given 0, 0.7, or 2.1 mg. Five days later guinea pigs exposed to DEP had increased levels...... of oxidized amino acids (gamma-glutamyl semialdehyde), DNA strand breaks, and 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in the lung. Bulky DNA ad- ducts were not significantly elevated in the lung. The antioxidant enzyme activity of glutathione reductase was increased in the lung of DEP-exposed guinea pigs....... The concentrations of ascorbate in liver, lung, and plasma were unaltered by the DEP exposure. The results indicate that in guinea pigs DEP causes oxidative DNA damage rather than bulky DNA adducts in the lung. Guinea pigs, which are similar to humans with respect to vitamin C metabolism, may serve as a new model...

  18. A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and humans (Homo sapiens)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrand, Falk; Ebersbach, Tine; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared...... the guinea pig microbiome to existing human gut metagenome data from the MetaHIT project. Results: We found that the bacterial richness obtained for human samples was lower than for guinea pig samples. The intestinal microbiotas of both species were dominated by the two phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes......, but at genus level, the majority of identified genera (320 of 376) were differently abundant in the two hosts. For example, the guinea pig contained considerably more of the mucin-degrading Akkermansia, as well as of the methanogenic archaea Methanobrevibacter than found in humans. Most microbiome functional...

  19. Human Recombinant PLD2 Can Repress p65 Activity of Guinea Pigs of Chronic Asthma in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Zhu; Weibin Zou; Chuanxing Yu; Junjin Lin; Xiaoli He

    2006-01-01

    This article is to investigate the effect of human recombinant phospholipase D2 (rhPLD2) in vivo on the expression of nuclear transcription factor p65 in chronic asthma of guinea pigs. After treating the guinea pigs with chronic asthma by rhPLD2, the crude nuclear extraction was assayed with TransAM Transcription Factor Assay Kit for the activity of pulmo tissue nuclear transcription factor p65. Compared with the healthy guinea pigs, the activity of nuclear transcription factor p65 in guinea pigs of chronic asthma is much higher than that of control groups. Our results showed that rhPLD2 markedly depressed the activity of p65 when the guinea pigs were attacked by chronic asthma. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2006;3(4):307-310.

  20. Improved laboratory capacity is required to respond better to future cholera outbreaks in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Horwood

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholera was first detected in Papua New Guinea in July 2009, caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor serotype Ogawa. By late 2011, 15 500 cases had been reported throughout lowland Papua New Guinea with a case fatality rate of 3.2%. The epidemic has since slowed, with only sporadic cases reported in Western Province and the Autonomous Region of Bougainville (ARB. Accurate and timely diagnosis is a critical element of the public health response to cholera, yet in low-income countries where the burden of cholera is the greatest, diagnostic services are often limited. Here we report on the diagnostic challenges and the logistical factors that impacted on diagnosis during the first reported outbreak of cholera in Papua New Guinea.