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Sample records for bissau guinea bissau

  1. Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Guinea-Bissau is a small country on the west coast of Africa, bounded on the north by Senegal and on the south and east by Guinea. Most of the coastal area and the lowland along the rivers is covered by palm trees and mangrove thickets; a transitional zone of hardwood gives way to the tree-covered grasslands of the interior. The country's population is composed of several diverse tribal groups, each with its own language and customs. A former Portuguese colony, Guinea-Bissau was granted independence in 1974 after a 13-year revolutionary struggle. Today it is a 1-party state headed by Joao Bernardo Vieira--chief executive, head of party, and commander in chief of the armed forces. Among the world's least developed countries, the chief economic activity in Guinea-Bissau is agriculture. Rice is the major crop and staple food, but production has been insufficient to satisfy local needs. Small amounts of peanuts, cashews, palm kernels, and timber are exported, along with some fish and seafood. As part of an economic reform program, the government is privatizing para-statal organizations, paying higher prices to farmers as an incentive for increased production, and encouraging the entrepreneurs to exploit the country's resources. Guinea-Bissau follows a foreign policy of nonalignment, maintaining good relations with communist as well as noncommunist states. PMID:12178000

  2. Changing pattern of malaria in Bissau, Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Amabelia; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Kofoed, Poul-Erik;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of malaria in Guinea-Bissau, in view of the fact that more funds are available now for malaria control in the country. METHODS: From May 2003 to May 2004, surveillance for malaria was conducted among children less than 5 years of age at three health centres...... covering the study area of the Bandim Health Project (BHP) and at the outpatient clinic of the national hospital in Bissau. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the community in different malaria seasons. RESULTS: Malaria was overdiagnosed in both health centres and hospital. Sixty-four per cent of...... the children who presented at a health centre were clinically diagnosed with malaria, but only 13% of outpatient children who tested for malaria had malaria parasitaemia. Only 44% (963/2193) of children admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of malaria had parasitaemia. The proportion of positive cases...

  3. Crossed Looks: Globalisations and Curriculum in Guinea-Bissau

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rui; dos Santos, Júlio Gonçalves; Pacheco, José Augusto

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on education in Guinea-Bissau in the context of globalisations, examining the concept of globalisation and its relation to education and the curriculum. It focuses on the relatively neglected area of national education policies in Guinea-Bissau, comparing differences and common points of interference/influence of multilateral…

  4. Urban Cholera transmission hotspots and their implications for Reactive Vaccination: evidence from Bissau city, Guinea Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Azman, Andrew S.; Francisco J Luquero; Amabelia Rodrigues; Pedro Pablo Palma; Grais, Rebecca F.; Cunhate Na Banga; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Justin Lessler

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of cholera vaccines in response to epidemics (reactive vaccination) may provide an effective supplement to traditional control measures. In Haiti, reactive vaccination was considered but, until recently, rejected in part due to limited global supply of vaccine. Using Bissau City, Guinea-Bissau as a case study, we explore neighborhood-level transmission dynamics to understand if, with limited vaccine and likely delays, reactive vaccination can significantly change the course of...

  5. Geologia da Guiné-Bissau = Geology of Guinea Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Paulo Hagendorn

    2010-01-01

    Apresenta-se a geologia da República da Guiné-Bissau de forma sintética, partindo do enquadramento no NW de África e englobando, quer características particulares decorrentes da cartografia geológica empreendida, nomeadamente em termos geomorfológicos, lito-estratigráficos e sedimentológicos, neste caso com uma contribuição referente à análise de proveniência sedimentar, quer algumas particularidades dos trabalhos de geologia no país.

  6. Venturing into cashew business in Guinea - Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Flamengo, Bianca Carvalho Voss Wahnon

    2011-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics This project consists of a business plan for a cashew processing factory in Guinea-Bissau. A company will be created to implement the project with the objective to sell whole white cashews to the general cashew market of the Netherland. To do so the company will have to acquire the ISO 22000 certification and fulfill the Dutch importers qual...

  7. The Guinea-Bissau family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Groenheit

    Full Text Available The Guinea-Bissau family of strains is a unique group of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that, although genotypically closely related, phenotypically demonstrates considerable heterogeneity. We have investigated 414 M. tuberculosis complex strains collected in Guinea-Bissau between 1989 and 2008 in order to further characterize the Guinea-Bissau family of strains. To determine the strain lineages present in the study sample, binary outcomes of spoligotyping were compared with spoligotypes existing in the international database SITVIT2. The major circulating M. tuberculosis clades ranked in the following order: AFRI (n = 195, 47.10%, Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM (n = 75, 18.12%, ill-defined T clade (n = 53, 12.8%, Haarlem (n = 37, 8.85%, East-African-Indian (EAI (n = 25, 6.04%, Unknown (n = 12, 2.87%, Beijing (n = 7, 1.68%, X clade (n = 4, 0.96%, Manu (n = 4, 0.97%, CAS (n = 2, 0.48%. Two strains of the LAM clade isolated in 2007 belonged to the Cameroon family (SIT61. All AFRI isolates except one belonged to the Guinea-Bissau family, i.e. they have an AFRI_1 spoligotype pattern, they have a distinct RFLP pattern with low numbers of IS6110 insertions, and they lack the regions of difference RD7, RD8, RD9 and RD10, RD701 and RD702. This profile classifies the Guinea-Bissau family, irrespective of phenotypic biovar, as part of the M. africanum West African 2 lineage, or the AFRI_1 sublineage according to the spoligtyping nomenclature. Guinea-Bissau family strains display a variation of biochemical traits classically used to differentiate M. tuberculosis from M. bovis. Yet, the differential expression of these biochemical traits was not related to any genes so far investigated (narGHJI and pncA. Guinea-Bissau has the highest prevalence of M. africanum recorded in the African continent, and the Guinea-Bissau family shows a high phylogeographical specificity for Western Africa, with Guinea-Bissau

  8. Child health and mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovsted, Jens Anders; Pörtner, Claus Christian; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies factors that influence child health in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau. This environment is characterised by high infant mortality, but not by malnutrition. We show that although maternal education is important in determining child health and mortality this effect diminishes...... or disappears when health knowledge is introduced as an explanatory variable. It emerges that health knowledge has large and positive effects on both child mortality and health when instrumented for to capture endogeneity...

  9. Barriers and facilitators to antiretroviral therapy adherence among patients with HIV in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau: a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dlama; da Silva Te, David; Rodkjær, Lotte Ørneborg;

    2013-01-01

    -structured interviews were conducted with 20 adult, HIV infected individuals receiving ART at a HIV treatment centre in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. The grounded theory method was used to gather and analyse data. Results indicated that HIV-related knowledge was a determining factor for optimal adherence. The facilitators...

  10. An annotated ornithological bibliography of Guinea-Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Hazevoet, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Guinea-Bissau, a former Portuguese colony, is a small country (36,125 km²) in West Africa bordered by Senegal in the north and Guinea (Conakry) in the east and south. Little is known about the country’s ornithology and comparatively few papers on its birds have been published. The following is an attempt at a comprehensive ornithological bibliography of Guinea-Bissau. Much of the results of ornithological work in the country have been published in Portuguese journals and Dutch reports, which ...

  11. An annotated ornithological bibliography of Guinea-Bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazevoet, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Guinea-Bissau, a former Portuguese colony, is a small country (36,125 km²) in West Africa bordered by Senegal in the north and Guinea (Conakry) in the east and south. Little is known about the country’s ornithology and comparatively few papers on its birds have been published. The following is an at

  12. Increased mortality in the year following discharge from a paediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Jens Erik; Sodeman, Morten; Biai, Sidu;

    2007-01-01

    for postdischarge mortality included ethnic group, housing quality and maternal education, and were similar to risk factors for community mortality. The same diagnoses that had high acute mortality, including anaemia, diarrhoea and 'other', were also associated with high postdischarge mortality. CONCLUSION......BACKGROUND: Few studies in developing countries have examined posthospital mortality and little is known about the magnitude of posthospital mortality and risk factors for long-term survival. A better understanding of the determinants of posthospital mortality could help improve discharge policies...... and interventions with implications for overall childhood mortality. STUDY POPULATION: In the period from 1991 to 1996 all paediatric admissions coming from the Bandim Health Project's area were registered at the National Hospital in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Posthospitalization information from a population...

  13. Feeding ecology of wintering terns in Guinea-Bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, A; Stienen, EWM; Klaassen, M; Kersten, M

    2002-01-01

    We studied the feeding ecology of Little Terns Sterna albifrons , Sandwich Terns S. sandvicensis and Royal Terns S. maxima in the Archipelago dos Bijagos (11degrees40'N, 15degrees45'W) in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) during the winter of 1992/1993. More than 95% of all prey taken by these terns were

  14. Feeding ecology of wintering terns in Guinea-Bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, A.; Stienen, E.W.M.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Kersten, M.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the feeding ecology of Little Terns Sterna albifrons, Sandwich Terns S. sandvicensis and Royal Terns S. maxima in the Archipélago dos Bijagós (11°40'N, 15°45'W) in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) during the winter of 1992/1993. More than 95% of all prey taken by these terns were roundfish, ra

  15. Guinea-Bissau : Land Tenure Issues and Policy Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    The present study reports on the Government of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau's efforts to develop a comprehensive strategy for enhancing land rights security and achieving social and economic development objectives. This report is divided into two main parts. The first part summarizes the current state of development of the government s land policy, as well as the legal and traditional fra...

  16. Sundhedsmaessige konsekvenser af en vaebnet konflikt i Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, Marianne;

    2010-01-01

    The present paper reviews studies carried out by the Bandim Health Project during the armed conflict in Guinea-Bissau, 1998-1999. Common health interventions like vaccination and breastfeeding, as well as focused interventions such as nutrition interventions aimed at malnourished children...

  17. Challenges facing HIV treatment in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Oliveira, Inés;

    2014-01-01

    PROBLEM: The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa has improved the quality of life of millions of people and reduced mortality. However, substantial problems with the infrastructure for ART delivery remain. APPROACH: Clinicians and researchers...... at an HIV clinic in Guinea-Bissau identified problems with the delivery of ART by establishing a clinical database and by collaborating with international researchers. LOCAL SETTING: The Bissau HIV cohort study group was established in 2007 as a collaboration between local HIV physicians and international...... HIV researchers. Patients were recruited from the HIV clinic at the country's main hospital in the capital Bissau. RELEVANT CHANGES: Between 2005 and 2013, 5514 HIV-positive patients were treated at the clinic. Working together, local health-care workers and international researchers identified...

  18. Feeding ecology of wintering terns in Guinea-Bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, A.; Stienen, E.W.M.; Klaassen, M.; Kersten, M.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the feeding ecology of little tTerns Sterna albifrons, sandwich terns S. sandvicensis and royal terns S. maxima in the Archipélago dos Bijagós (11°40'N, 15°45'W) in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) during the winter of 1992/1993. More than 95 of all prey taken by these terns were roundfish, ra

  19. Reduced case fatality among hospitalized children during a war in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Veirum, Jens Erik; Biai, S;

    2004-01-01

    During a recent armed conflict in Guinea-Bissau, we observed a marked decline in the case fatality among hospitalized children at the only paediatric department in the country.......During a recent armed conflict in Guinea-Bissau, we observed a marked decline in the case fatality among hospitalized children at the only paediatric department in the country....

  20. Tuberculosis burden in an urban population: a cross sectional tuberculosis survey from Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; da Silva, Zacarias J; Ravn, Pernille;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in low income countries. We conducted a cross sectional survey for pulmonary TB and TB symptoms in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, in an urban cohort with known HIV prevalence. TB surveillance in the area is routinely based...

  1. Tuberculosis burden in an urban population: a cross sectional tuberculosis survey from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; da Silva, Zacarias J; Ravn, Pernille;

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in low income countries. We conducted a cross sectional survey for pulmonary TB and TB symptoms in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, in an urban cohort with known HIV prevalence. TB surveillance in the area is routinely...

  2. Conflict, Growth, and Poverty in Guinea-Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Boubacar-Sid; Wodon, Quentin

    2007-01-01

    Conflicts and political instability have been serious constraints to growth in Guinea-Bissau. Of special concern was the civil war of 1998, which lasted 11 months and led to substantial loss of life as well as to a massive decrease in GDP per capita. Based on research on the economic cost of conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa conducted by Lopez and Wodon (2005) and using a technique to identify outliers in time series and to correct the series for such outliers, this chapter estimates that GDP p...

  3. Determinants of vitamin a deficiency in children between 6 months and 2 years of age in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Jørgensen, Mathias Jul;

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies Guinea-Bissau as having severe vitamin A deficiency (VAD). To date, no national survey has been conducted. We assessed vitamin A status among children in rural Guinea-Bissau to assess status and identify risk factors for VAD.......The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies Guinea-Bissau as having severe vitamin A deficiency (VAD). To date, no national survey has been conducted. We assessed vitamin A status among children in rural Guinea-Bissau to assess status and identify risk factors for VAD....

  4. Routine vaccinations associated with divergent effects on female and male mortality at the paediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Jens Erik; Sodemann, Morten; Biai, Sidu;

    2005-01-01

    was 0.54 (0.28-0.97). Among children having received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and oral polio (OPV) as the last vaccines, girls had higher case fatality than boys, the mortality ratio being 1.63 (1.03-2.59). The female to male ratios were significantly inversed for DTP and OPV versus measles......, the Bandim Health Project maintained a register of all children from the study area hospitalised at the paediatric ward of the central hospital in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. The study included 2079 hospitalised children aged 1.5-17 months coming from the Bandim study area. Among children whose vaccination card...... had been seen at admission, the case fatality ratio for measles-vaccinated children versus measles-unvaccinated children was 0.51 (0.27-0.98), the beneficial effect being significantly stronger for girls than for boys (test of interaction, p=0.050). The protective effect of measles vaccine remained...

  5. MULTI-FACETED MEDIATION IN THE GUINEA-BISSAU CIVIL WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Massey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An exchange of gunfire in Bissau city between soldiers loyal to President and mutinous troops supporting the recently dismissed army chief of staff Brigadier Ansumane Mané in the early morning of 7 June 1998 heralded the start of 11 months of civil conflict. ‘It was not a huge war’, the Economist noted, ‘but for the 1m people…of Guinea-Bissau, it was devastating…Hundreds of people were killed, the city was destroyed and hundreds of thousands fled into the countryside’. The primary reason for the fighting - irrevocable splits within the government and leading Partido Africano da Independencia da Guiné-Bissau e Cabo Verde (PAIGC - sat amidst a web of geopolitical machinations and posturing.Guinea-Bissau became the locus for mediation based, for a large part, on political opportunism. These efforts resulted in a peace operation with ostensible humanitarian motives which, nonetheless, was also marked by strong political impulses. As William Zartman has remarked, ‘Africa does not lack mediators’. In the case of the war in Bissau the gamut of potential intermediaries – regional, African and extra-African – offered assistance. This confusion of good offices led to rival mediation efforts whose polarisation mirrored that on the battlefield.

  6. Long-term survival after Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Whittle, H;

    1993-01-01

    In an urban area of Guinea-Bissau, 384 children were enrolled in a randomized trial comparing morbidity and mortality rates after receiving high-titer Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine administered from 4 months of age, with a control group receiving inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine at 4...

  7. Immunological predictors of survival in HIV type 2-infected rural villagers in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffar, Shabbar; Van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper;

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the association between beta2-microglobulin, neopterin, serum levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), CD4 count, and plasma viremia with survival in 133 HIV-2-infected villagers and 160 controls living in rural Guinea-Bissau. Subjects were recruite...

  8. Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus Among Young Twins and Singletons in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Hansen, Lone; da Silva, Leontina I;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVETwins in Africa may be at increased risk of metabolic disorders due to strained conditions in utero, including high exposure to infections. We studied metabolic syndrome (MS) and diabetes mellitus (DM) among young twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSThe study...... was cross-sectional and occurred from October 2009 until August 2011 at the Bandim Health Project, a demographic surveillance site in the capital Bissau. Twins and singleton controls between 5 and 32 years were visited at home. Fasting blood samples for metabolic measurements were collected. Zygosity...

  9. Rotavirus disease in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa: a review of longitudinal community and hospital studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Thea Kølsen; Aaby, Peter; Mølbak, Kåre;

    2010-01-01

    Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of childhood diarrheal disease and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. This article reviews community- and hospital-based surveillance of rotavirus disease in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Here, rotavirus infections exhibit a seasonal pattern, with annual...... epidemics occurring during the relatively dry and cooler months, from January to April, and few cases registered from May to December. Most children (74%) experience their first infection before the age of 2 years, and rotavirus has been identified as the most pathogenic of all diarrheal agents during 2...

  10. Spacing, crowding, and child mortality in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, P; Bukh, J; Lisse, I M; Smits, A J

    1983-07-16

    Evidence from a comparative survey of the Balantas in the Tombali region and the Mandingas and Fulas in the Oio region of Guinea-Bissau suggests that overcrowding is a risk factor for child health because the severity of infections increases when 2 or more children are sick simultaneously. Rural Mandingas and Fulas breastfeed for 30 months on average, while rural Balantas do so for 38 months. All groups abstain from sexual intercourse during lactation, resulting in fewer children among Balantas. Polygamy increases crowding in all groups, but adult Balanta men have separate households while Mandinga brothers often live together in the same household. On average, there were .93 children under 5 in Balanta households but 1.91 in Mandinga households. Each wife ideally has her own room among Balanta households, but Mandinga wives live together, with up to 10 women in the same circular hut. Balanta children leave their mothers' bed when the mother gives birth to another child, while Mandinga and Fula mothers may have several children in bed at the same time. Among Balantas an average of .17 persons slept in bed with a mother and child, while among the Mandingas .66 and among the Fulas .69 did so. The weight-for-age as a percentage of the World Health Organization standard for Balantas and Mandingas-Fulas respectively was 106% and 105% at 0-2 months; 104% and 92% at 3-5 months; 90% and 82% at 6-17 months; 86% and 77% at 18-35 months breastfed; and 89% and 81% at 18-35 months weaned. During 1980-81, when no major epidemics occurred, Balanta children under 6 months had a higher survival rate for the following year than did Mandinga and Fula children, with the mortality difference occuring while all children were still breastfed. 8% of Balanta children, 16% of Mandinga children, and 24% of Fula children died within 1 year of examination. Nutritional status did not determine risk of death, but variation in the severity of infection caused by overcrowding may have done so

  11. Vaccination coverage and out-of-sequence vaccinations in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornshøj, Linda; Benn, Christine Stabell; Fernandes, Manuel;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The WHO aims for 90% coverage of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), which in Guinea-Bissau included BCG vaccine at birth, three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months when...... this study was conducted. The WHO assesses coverage by 12 months of age. The sequence of vaccines may have an effect on child mortality, but is not considered in official statistics or assessments of programme performance. We assessed vaccination coverage and frequency of out-of-sequence vaccinations by 12...... and 24 months of age. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Bandim Health Project's (BHP) rural Health and Demographic Surveillance site covers 258 randomly selected villages in all regions of Guinea-Bissau. Villages are visited biannually and vaccination cards inspected...

  12. Chloroquine is grossly overdosed and overused but well tolerated in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2009-01-01

    High chloroquine doses are commonly prescribed in Guinea-Bissau. Double dose chloroquine has been shown to be more efficacious (92% efficacy) than the standard dose (80% efficacy). However, chloroquine is toxic when overdosed and it is not known if the high doses prescribed in Guinea-Bissau are...... recorded. Chloroquine intake and adverse events were assessed by questioning. Chloroquine concentrations were measured in whole blood. The median total chloroquine dose prescribed and that reportedly taken was 81 and 77 mgkg(-1) respectively. The total dose was usually split into 2-3 daily doses of 6.......6 mgkg(-1) each. These were taken unsupervised for median of 5 days. Forty percent of the study children had chloroquine concentrations in the same range as those found in a previous study in which double the normal dose (50mgkg(-1)) of chloroquine was taken. Only 3/102 children had P. falciparum in the...

  13. The training and professional expectations of medical students in Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Fronteira Inês; Rodrigues Amabélia; Fresta Mário; Sidat Mohsin; Ferrinho Paulo; da Silva Florinda; Mercer Hugo; Cabral Jorge; Dussault Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the professional expectations of medical students during the 2007-2008 academic year at the public medical schools of Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique, and to identify their social and geographical origins, their professional expectations and difficulties relating to their education and professional future. Methods Data were collected through a standardised questionnaire applied to all medical students registered dur...

  14. Population status of Pan troglodytes verus in Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park, Guinea-Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Joana S.; Marques, Tiago A.; Vicente, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus, has been classified as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1988. Intensive agriculture, commercial plantations, logging, and mining have eliminated or degraded the habitats suitable for P. t. verus over a large part of its range. In this study we assessed the effect of land-use change on the population size and density of chimpanzees at Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park (LCNP), Guinea-Bissau. We further explored chimpanzee distribution in relation ...

  15. Termination of breastfeeding after 12 months of age due to a new pregnancy and other causes is associated with increased mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M S; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kare;

    2003-01-01

    As part of an assessment of breastfeeding and child health in Guinea-Bissau, we investigated the impact of mother's reason for weaning on subsequent child mortality.......As part of an assessment of breastfeeding and child health in Guinea-Bissau, we investigated the impact of mother's reason for weaning on subsequent child mortality....

  16. A prospective study of twinning and perinatal mortality in urban Guinea-Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen Morten

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite twinning being common in Africa, few prospective twin studies have been conducted. We studied twinning rate, perinatal mortality and the clinical characteristics of newborn twins in urban Guinea-Bissau. Methods The study was conducted at the Bandim Health Project (BHP, a health and demographic surveillance site in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau. The cohort included all newborn twins delivered at the National Hospital Simão Mendes and in the BHP study area during the period September 2009 to August 2011 as well as singleton controls from the BHP study area. Data regarding obstetric history and pregnancy were collected at the hospital. Live children were examined clinically. For a subset of twin pairs zygosity was established by using genetic markers. Results Out of the 5262 births from mothers included in the BHP study area, 94 were twin births, i.e. a community twinning rate of 18/1000. The monozygotic rate was 3.4/1000. Perinatal mortality among twins vs. singletons was 218/1000 vs. 80/1000 (RR = 2.71, 95% CI: 1.93-3.80. Among the 13783 hospital births 388 were twin births (28/1000. The hospital perinatal twin mortality was 237/1000. Birth weight  Conclusions Twins had a very high perinatal mortality, three-fold higher than singletons. A birth weight 

  17. Hepatitis C prevalence among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jespersen, Sanne; Medina, Candida;

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and determine the clinical presentation of risk factors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among HIV-infected patients in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included individuals who had a routine blood analysis performed during...... the period April 28 to September 30, 2011. Patient samples were tested for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) with a chemiluminescence test (Architect, Abbott, USA) and INNO-LIA HCV Score (Innogenetics, Belgium). HCV viral load and genotype were analyzed using an in-house real-time PCR method. Results: In total, 576...... patients were included (417 HIV-1, 104 HIV-2, and 55 HIV-1/2). Ten (1.7%) patients were anti-HCV-positive and eight (1.4%) patients had detectable HCV RNA; all were genotype 2. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, age >50 years was associated with anti-HCV reactivity (p

  18. Plasmodium falciparum genotypes associated with chloroquine and amodiaquine resistance in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2007-01-01

    infections. The pfcrt 72-76 haplotypes were CVIET and CVMNK. The pfcrt 76T prevalence was 23% at day 0 and 96%, 83% and 100% at recrudescence following treatment with 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg of chloroquine and 15 mg/kg of amodiaquine respectively. When treating pfcrt 76T carrying P. falciparum the efficacy...... of 50 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg of chloroquine was 78% and 34% respectively (P = 0.007). The genetic basis of chloroquine resistance is probably the same in Guinea-Bissau as in the rest of Africa. The low pfcrt 76T prevalence suggests that resistance to normal dose chloroquine does not confer a major advantage...... to falciparum in Bissau and could be a result of treatment with high-dose chloroquine....

  19. Cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau (2008: the importance of "place".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Luquero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As resources are limited when responding to cholera outbreaks, knowledge about where to orient interventions is crucial. We describe the cholera epidemic affecting Guinea-Bissau in 2008 focusing on the geographical spread in order to guide prevention and control activities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted two studies: 1 a descriptive analysis of the cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau focusing on its geographical spread (country level and within the capital; and 2 a cross-sectional study to measure the prevalence of houses with at least one cholera case in the most affected neighbourhood of the capital (Bairro Bandim to detect clustering of households with cases (cluster analysis. All cholera cases attending the cholera treatment centres in Guinea-Bissau who fulfilled a modified World Health Organization clinical case definition during the epidemic were included in the descriptive study. For the cluster analysis, a sample of houses was selected from a satellite photo (Google Earth™; 140 houses (and the four closest houses were assessed from the 2,202 identified structures. We applied K-functions and Kernel smoothing to detect clustering. We confirmed the clustering using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. A total of 14,222 cases and 225 deaths were reported in the country (AR = 0.94%, CFR = 1.64%. The more affected regions were Biombo, Bijagos and Bissau (the capital. Bairro Bandim was the most affected neighborhood of the capital (AR = 4.0. We found at least one case in 22.7% of the houses (95%CI: 19.5-26.2 in this neighborhood. The cluster analysis identified two areas within Bairro Bandim at highest risk: a market and an intersection where runoff accumulates waste (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis allowed for the identification of the most affected regions in Guinea-Bissau during the 2008 cholera outbreak, and the most affected areas within the capital. This information was essential for making

  20. The emergence and current performance of a health research system: lessons from Guinea Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Maarten O

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how health research systems (HRS in low-income countries emerge and evolve over time, and how this process relates to their performance. Understanding how HRSs emerge is important for the development of well functioning National Health Research Systems (NHRS. The aim of this study was to assess how the HRS in Guinea Bissau has emerged and evolved over time and how the present system functions. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the emergence and current performance of the HRS, using the NHRS framework. We reviewed documents and carried out 39 in-depth interviews, ranging from health research to policy and practice stakeholders. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Results The research practices in Guinea Bissau led to the emergence of a HRS with both local and international links and strong dependencies on international partners and donors. The post-colonial, volatile and resource-dependent context, changes in donor policies, training of local researchers and nature of the research findings influenced how the HRS evolved. Research priorities have mostly been set by 'expatriate' researchers and focused on understanding and reducing child mortality. Research funding is almost exclusively provided by foreign donors and international agencies. The training of Guinean researchers started in the mid-nineties and has since reinforced the links with the health system, broadened the research agenda and enhanced local use of research. While some studies have made an important contribution to global health, the use of research within Guinea Bissau has been constrained by the weak and donor dependent health system, volatile government, top-down policies of international agencies, and the controversial nature of some of the research findings. Conclusions In Guinea Bissau a de facto 'system' of research has emerged through research practices and co

  1. [From Guinea-Bissau to Portugal: Luso-Guineans and immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, F L

    1998-07-01

    "Taking as our point of reference the migratory framework of the society of departure, we first of all anlayse time and volume factors in the patterns of migration from Guinea-Bissau to Portugal, in two distinct segments: immigrants as such and Guineans of Portuguese nationality or ¿Luso-Guineans'. For each of these we have subsequently outlined the paths and strategies of migration, describing their origins and class status before departure as well as how they see and identify themselves in ethnic terms. This analysis brings out the socially selective nature of that migration." (EXCERPT)

  2. Malaria parasitemia and childhood diarrhea in a peri-urban area of Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare;

    1999-01-01

    To examine the association between diarrhea in early childhood and malaria parasitemia, we conducted a nested case-control study in Guinea-Bissau of 297 children with diarrhea and a similar number of children without diarrhea matched for age, season, and residential area. There were no associations...... between diarrhea and parasite rate, parasite density, or clinical malaria. However, anti-malarials were easily available and frequently used, which was reflected by a 0.7% prevalence of children with a parasite density > 100/200 leukocytes. Thus, the findings do not preclude that diarrhea may be a sign of...

  3. Community Radio: the future speaks "glocal". An African experience: the Guinea-Bissau & Mozambique cases

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Mota Paula

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo es un análisis comparativo de realidades de radio comunitaria en dos países africanos lusófonos: Guinea-Bissau y Mozambique, cuyas investigaciones se refieren a 2003, 2004, 2007 y 2009, respectivamente. Se centra en la tensa relación entre poder político y radios comunitarias a través de una revisión teórica de dos conceptos nuevos: "Comunicación para Desarrollo" y "Glocalización". Un estudio amplio e innovador con el objetivo de determinar el papel que estos medios tienen para ...

  4. Why do Gull-billed Terns Gelochelidon nilotica feed on fiddler crabs Uca tangeri in Guinea-Bissau?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienen, E.W.M.; Brenninkmeijer, A.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Wintering Gull-billed Terns Gelochelidon nilotica in Guinea Bissau mainly fed on Fiddler Crabs Uca tangeri and were occasionally seen feeding on fish and locusts. Fiddler crabs have a low energy content, requiring a large gross intake to meet daily energy demands. Fiddler crabs also have a low ratio

  5. Neutralizing Antibody Response and Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in HIV-1-Infected Individuals from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borggren, Marie; Jensen, Sanne Skov; Heyndrickx, Leo; Palm, Angelica A; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jespersen, Sanne; da Silva, Zacarias José; Karlsson, Ingrid; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2016-05-01

    The development of therapeutic and prophylactic HIV vaccines for African countries is urgently needed, but the question of what immunogens to use needs to be answered. One approach is to include HIV envelope immunogens derived from HIV-positive individuals from a geographically concentrated epidemic with more limited viral genetic diversity for a region-based vaccine. To address if there is a basis for a regional selected antibody vaccine, we have screened two regionally separate cohorts from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark for neutralizing antibody activity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against local and nonlocal circulating HIV-1 strains. The neutralizing activity did not demonstrate higher potential against local circulating strains according to geography and subtype determination, but the plasma from Danish individuals demonstrated significantly higher inhibitory activity than that from Guinea-Bissau individuals against both local and nonlocal virus strains. Interestingly, an opposite pattern was observed with ADCC activity, where Guinea-Bissau individual plasma demonstrated higher activity than Danish plasma and was specifically against the local circulating subtype. Thus, on basis of samples from these two cohorts, no local-specific neutralizing activity was detected, but a local ADCC response was identified in the Guinea-Bissau samples, suggesting potential use of regional immunogens for an ADCC-inducing vaccine. PMID:26621287

  6. Persistent and acute diarrhoea as the leading causes of child mortality in urban Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Aaby, P; Ingholt, L;

    1992-01-01

    in 86% of the deaths. Persistent and acute diarrhoea were the most frequent causes of death, accounting for 43 and 31 deaths per 1000 children, respectively. Fever deaths (possibly malaria), neonatal deaths, acute respiratory infections, and measles were other frequent causes. The access to health......An investigation of child mortality in a semi-urban community, Bandim II, in the capital of Guinea Bissau was carried out from April 1987 to March 1990. 153 deaths were recorded among 1426 live-born children who were followed for 2753 child-years. The under-five mortality risk was 215 per 1000...... children (95% confidence interval [CI] 176-264), infant mortality 94 per 1000 (95% CI 73-115), and perinatal mortality 52 per 1000 (95% CI 41-63). By prospective registration of morbidity, post-mortem interviews, and examination of available hospital records, a presumptive cause of death was established...

  7. BCG coverage and barriers to BCG vaccination in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Sanne Marie; Byberg, Stine; Pedersen, Marie;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BCG vaccination is recommended at birth in low-income countries, but vaccination is often delayed. Often 20-dose vials of BCG are not opened unless at least ten children are present for vaccination ("restricted vial-opening policy"). BCG coverage is usually reported as 12-month coverage......, not disclosing the delay in vaccination. Several studies show that BCG at birth lowers neonatal mortality. We assessed BCG coverage at different ages and explored reasons for delay in BCG vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) runs a health and demographic surveillance system...... in selected intervention regions. Factors associated with delayed BCG vaccination were evaluated using logistic regression models. Coverage between intervention and control regions were evaluated in log-binomial regression models providing prevalence ratios. RESULTS: Among 3951 children born in 2010...

  8. Reduced All-Cause Child Mortality After General Measles Vaccination Campaign in Rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that measles vaccine (MV) prevents non-measles deaths. MV-campaigns are conducted to eliminate measles infection.The overall mortality effect of MV-campaigns has not been studied. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) surveys children aged 0-4 years in rural...... Guinea-Bissau through a health and demographic surveillance system. A nationalMV-campaign in 2006 targeted children aged 6 months-15 years. In a Cox proportional-hazards model with age as underlying time-scale we compared mortality for children aged 6-59 months after the campaign with mortality...... in the same age group during the two previous years. RESULTS: 8158 children aged 6-59 months were under BHP surveillance during the 2006-campaign and 7999 and 8108 during similar periods in 2004 and 2005. At least 90% of the eligible children received MV in the campaign. There were 161 non-accident deaths...

  9. Immunological predictors of survival in HIV type 2-infected rural villagers in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffar, Shabbar; Van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper;

    2005-01-01

    , CD4%, and plasma viral load were associated independently with survival in multivariate analyses. Neopterin and suPAR did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that immune activation is central to the pathogenesis of HIV. They also have important implications for resource......We investigated the association between beta2-microglobulin, neopterin, serum levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), CD4 count, and plasma viremia with survival in 133 HIV-2-infected villagers and 160 controls living in rural Guinea-Bissau. Subjects were recruited...... in 1991 and visited at home every 3-6 months until 1998. Median beta2-microglobulin, neopterin, and suPAR were significantly higher and CD4% significantly lower among HIV-2-infected individuals than controls. Thirty-one HIV-2-infected individuals died and 7 were lost to follow-up. beta2-Microglobulin...

  10. Prolonged breast feeding, diarrhoeal disease, and survival of children in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Gottschau, A; Aaby, P;

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the impact of breast feeding on diarrhoeal disease and survival in children above 1 year of age in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. DESIGN: A community study of an open cohort followed up weekly by interviews over 15 months. Data on feeding practices, anthropometry, and survival...... was higher in weaned children than in partially breast fed children, both in 1 year olds (relative risk 1.41; 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.62) and in 2 year olds (1.67; 1.29 to 2.15). The mean duration of an episode of diarrhoea was 5.3 days in breast fed children compared with 6.3 days in weaned...... the weaned ones, the benefit in terms of lower morbidity may be more important for child survival in places with a high morbidity from diarrhoea and with high mortality....

  11. Performance of 3 Rapid Tests for Discrimination Between HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Bjarnason Obinah, Magnús Pétur; Jespersen, Sanne;

    2014-01-01

    rapid tests for discrimination between HIV-1, HIV-2, and dual infections among 219 patients from Guinea-Bissau by comparing with the gold standard (INNO-LIA). Genie III HIV-1/HIV-2 was the best performer with regard to discriminatory capacity (agreement 91.8%), followed by Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2...... (agreement 90.9%) and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0 (agreement 84.5%). Our results underscore the need for evaluation of tests in relevant populations before implementation.......As HIV-2 is intrinsically resistant to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, it is mandatory to discriminate between HIV types before initiating antiretroviral treatment. Guinea-Bissau has the world's highest prevalence of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected individuals. We evaluated 3...

  12. Effects of the introduction of new vaccines in Guinea-Bissau on vaccine coverage, vaccine timeliness, and child survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Hornshøj, Linda; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2008, the GAVI Alliance funded the introduction of new vaccines (including pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis [DTP] plus hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens) in Guinea-Bissau. The introduction was accompanied by increased vaccination outreach services...... and a more restrictive wastage policy, including only vaccinating children younger than 12 months. We assessed coverage of all vaccines in the Expanded Program on Immunizations before and after the new vaccines' introduction, and the implications on child survival. METHODS: This observational cohort study...... used data from the Bandim Health Project, which has monitored vaccination status and mortality in randomly selected village clusters in Guinea-Bissau since 1990. We assessed the change in vaccination coverage using cohort data from children born in 2007 and 2009; analysed the proportion of children who...

  13. Chloroquine resistant P. falciparum prevalence is low and unchanged between 1990 and 2005 in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Schmidt, Berit Aydin; Lebbad, Marianne;

    2007-01-01

    and other genetic polymorphisms in samples from 1992, 1993, 1995, 2004 and 2005. We have also monitored drug prescriptions for febrile illnesses. The mean proportion of in vitro tests indicating chloroquine resistance was 33% (range 14-54%) with the exception of an outlying value year 2000. The proportion...... of chloroquine resistant P. falciparum detected by in vitro testing did not increase over time. Pfcrt 76T was associated with chloroquine resistance but pfmdr1 86Y was not. The mean pfcrt 76T prevalence varied between 13% and 38%. The prevalence of SNPs at Pfcrt positions 76, 271, 326 and pfmdr1 position 86 did...... of chloroquine resistant P. falciparum has not gradually increased between 1990 and 2005 in Guinea-Bissau. Chloroquine is commonly prescribed at more than double the normal dose in Guinea Bissau. It has previously been hypothesized that treatment with high doses of chloroquine may be effective. We discuss...

  14. Malaria transmission in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau between 1995 and 2012: malaria resurgence did not negatively affect mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Ursing

    Full Text Available As Plasmodium falciparum prevalence decreases in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, so does immunity resulting in larger at risk populations and increased risk of malaria resurgence. In Bissau, malaria prevalence decreased from ∼50% to 3% between 1995 and 2003. The epidemiological characteristics of P. falciparum malaria within Bandim health and demographic surveillance site (population ∼100,000 between 1995 and 2012 are described.The population was determined by census. 3603 children aged <15 years that were enrolled in clinical trials at the Bandim health centre (1995-2012 were considered incident cases. The mean annual malaria incidence per thousand children in 1995-1997, 1999-2003, 2007, 2011, 2012 were as follows; age <5 years 22→29→4→9→3, age 5-9 years 15→28→4→33→12, age 10-14 years 9→15→1→45→19. There were 4 campaigns (2003-2010 to increase use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITN amongst children <5 years. An efficacious high-dose chloroquine treatment regime was routinely used until artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT was introduced in 2008. Long lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLIN were distributed in 2011. By 2012 there was 1 net per 2 people and 97% usage. All-cause mortality decreased from post-war peaks in 1999 until 2012 in all age groups and was not negatively affected by malaria resurgence.The cause of decreasing malaria incidence (1995-2007 was probably multifactorial and coincident with the use of an efficacious high-dose chloroquine treatment regime. Decreasing malaria prevalence created a susceptible group of older children in which malaria resurged, highlighting the need to include all age groups in malaria interventions. ACT did not hinder malaria resurgence. Mass distribution of LLINs probably curtailed malaria epidemics. All-cause mortality was not negatively affected by malaria resurgence.

  15. Cashew cultivation in Guinea-Bissau – risks and challenges of the success of a cash crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Catarino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades a boom in cashew (Anacardium occidentalecultivation has taken place in Guinea-Bissau, leading to the replacement of traditional slash-and-burn agriculture by a cash crop. As a result, the country is currently one of the world’s largest producers of raw cashew nuts and the cashew sector has acquired enormous importance in Guinea-Bissau’s economy. Changes induced by the cashew boom at social and environmental levels are yet to be analyzed and understood. The present study provides an account of the process of cashew expansion in Guinea-Bissau, reviews the current situation and discusses its future prospects. The cashew tree was introduced into the country by the Portuguese in the XIXth century, but only effectively expanded in the mid-1980s. It is largely cultivated by small farmers around villages and also plays a role in land ownership, since land tenure practices are linked to the planting of trees. The effects of this cashew boom on habitat fragmentation, fire regimes and biodiversity are still to be assessed. On the other hand, the spread of pests and diseases is becoming a problem. Strong dependence on a single cash crop also renders the country vulnerable to market fluctuations, entailing risks to local producers and the national economy. In the medium term, losses of export earnings can occur, which may impact the living standards and food security of Bissau-Guineans both in urban and rural areas.

  16. Infant twin mortality and hospitalisations after the perinatal period - a prospective cohort study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, M; Biering-Sørensen, S; Gomes, G M;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine mortality and hospitalisations among infant twins and singletons after the perinatal period in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: The study was conducted from September 2009 to November 2012 by the Bandim Health Project (BHP). Newborn twins and unmatched singleton controls were included...... at the National Hospital Simão Mendes in the capital Bissau. Children were examined clinically at enrolment. Maternal, pregnancy and obstetric information was collected and HIV testing offered at birth. Follow-up occurred at home at 2, 6 and 12 months and through linkage with the paediatric admission register...... at the National Hospital. RESULTS: About 495 twins and 333 singletons were alive on day 7 after birth. In total, 36 twins and 12 singletons died during follow-up, the post-perinatal infant mortality rate being 91/1000 person-years for twins and 42/1000 for singletons (HR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1...

  17. Y-chromosomal diversity in the population of Guinea-Bissau: a multiethnic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobling Mark A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The geographic and ethnolinguistic differentiation of many African Y-chromosomal lineages provides an opportunity to evaluate human migration episodes and admixture processes, in a pan-continental context. The analysis of the paternal genetic structure of Equatorial West Africans carried out to date leaves their origins and relationships unclear, and raises questions about the existence of major demographic phenomena analogous to the large-scale Bantu expansions. To address this, we have analysed the variation of 31 binary and 11 microsatellite markers on the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome in Guinea-Bissau samples of diverse ethnic affiliations, some not studied before. Results The Guinea-Bissau Y chromosome pool is characterized by low haplogroup diversity (D = 0.470, sd 0.033, with the predominant haplogroup E3a*-M2 shared among the ethnic clusters and reaching a maximum of 82.2% in the Mandenka people. The Felupe-Djola and Papel groups exhibit the highest diversity of lineages and harbor the deep-rooting haplogroups A-M91, E2-M75 and E3*-PN2, typical of Sahel's more central and eastern areas. Their genetic distinction from other groups is statistically significant (P = 0.01 though not attributable to linguistic, geographic or religious criteria. Non sub-Saharan influences were associated with the presence of haplogroup R1b-P25 and particular lineages of E3b1-M78. Conclusion The predominance and high diversity of haplogroup E3a*-M2 suggests a demographic expansion in the equatorial western fringe, possibly supported by a local agricultural center. The paternal pool of the Mandenka and Balanta displays evidence of a particularly marked population growth among the Guineans, possibly reflecting the demographic effects of the agriculturalist lifestyle and their putative relationship to the people that introduced early cultivation practices into West Africa. The paternal background of the Felupe-Djola and Papel

  18. Cashew cultivation in Guinea-Bissau – risks and challenges of the success of a cash crop

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Catarino; Yusufo Menezes; Raul Sardinha

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades a boom in cashew (Anacardium occidentale)cultivation has taken place in Guinea-Bissau, leading to the replacement of traditional slash-and-burn agriculture by a cash crop. As a result, the country is currently one of the world’s largest producers of raw cashew nuts and the cashew sector has acquired enormous importance in Guinea-Bissau’s economy. Changes induced by the cashew boom at social and environmental levels are yet to be analyzed and understood. The present study pro...

  19. Local knowledge and perceptions of chimpanzees in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joana; Vicente, Luís; Gippoliti, Spartaco; Casanova, Catarina; Sousa, Cláudia

    2014-02-01

    Our study concerns local knowledge and perceptions of chimpanzees among farming communities within Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau. We submitted a survey questionnaire to 100 people living in four villages in the Park to enquire about their knowledge of chimpanzee ecology and human-chimpanzee interactions. Local farmers live in close contact with chimpanzees, consider them to be more similar to humans than any other species, and attribute special importance to them primarily due to expectations of tourism revenue. Interviewees' responses, as a function of gender, village, and age, were analyzed statistically using non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis). Age influenced responses significantly, while gender and village had no significant effect. Youngsters emphasized morphological aspects of human-chimpanzee similarities, while adults emphasized chimpanzee behavior and narratives about the shared history of humans and chimpanzees. Tourism, conservation, and crop raiding feature prominently in people's reports about chimpanzees. Local people's engagement with conservation and tourism-related activities is likely to allow them to manage not only the costs but also the benefits of conservation, and can in turn inform the expectations built upon tourism.

  20. Trials of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Whittle, H; Mordhorst, Camilla;

    1994-01-01

    In two trials of measles vaccination in Guinea-Bissau, children were randomized to receive either the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) virus at age 4-8 months or, as a control group, a standard dose (5000 p.f.u.) of the Schwarz (SW) virus at 9-12 months. In the first trial a medium dose of EZ virus (40,000 p......, 18 and 55%, respectively, were positive in the ELISA and HAI tests. At 18-20 months, the children who had received the EZ vaccine had a seropositivity of 91% by the ELISA method and one of 89% by the HAI method. The equivalent values for the SW group of children were 100 and 96% respectively....... Antibody levels in the EZ group, as measured by either method, were significantly lower than the levels in the SW group. The serological results of the present study suggest that lowering the age at measles vaccination to below 9 months is feasible. However, further studies are needed to determine which...

  1. Chimpanzee oil-palm use in southern Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joana; Barata, André V; Sousa, Cláudia; Casanova, Catarina C N; Vicente, Luís

    2011-05-01

    Cantanhez National Park in southern Guinea-Bissau is a mosaic of forest, mangrove, savanna, and agricultural fields, with a high prevalence of oil-palm trees (Elaeis guineensis). It hosts many different animal species, including the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus). Very little is known about the ecology of chimpanzees inhabiting this area. The main aims of this study were to evaluate chimpanzee nesting behavior, define trends of habitat use, and estimate chimpanzee density in four separate forests by applying the marked nest counts methodology. From the 287 new nests counted, 92% were built in oil-palm trees with a significantly higher frequency of nests in the forest edge than in forest cores. Differences in nest detection rates were observed in the four monitored forests, with two forests being more important for chimpanzee's nesting demands. The number of nests documented in the forests seemed to be correlated with the frequency of other signs of chimpanzee activity. Although chimpanzees selected nests on the forest edge, they were most frequently observed in forest core areas. Constraints associated with estimating chimpanzee density through oil-palm nest counting are discussed. PMID:21259301

  2. Community Radio: the future speaks "glocal". An African experience: the Guinea-Bissau & Mozambique cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Mota Paula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es un análisis comparativo de realidades de radio comunitaria en dos países africanos lusófonos: Guinea-Bissau y Mozambique, cuyas investigaciones se refieren a 2003, 2004, 2007 y 2009, respectivamente. Se centra en la tensa relación entre poder político y radios comunitarias a través de una revisión teórica de dos conceptos nuevos: "Comunicación para Desarrollo" y "Glocalización". Un estudio amplio e innovador con el objetivo de determinar el papel que estos medios tienen para construir una ciudadanía exigente y participativa. Expone peligros que amenazan la sostenibilidad de estas herramientas de empoderamiento, estando privadas de los marcos institucionales viables. El objetivo principal es identificar similitudes y diferencias, discutir problemas y proponer soluciones viables a la normalización de los criterios y definiciones.

  3. Local knowledge and perceptions of chimpanzees in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joana; Vicente, Luís; Gippoliti, Spartaco; Casanova, Catarina; Sousa, Cláudia

    2014-02-01

    Our study concerns local knowledge and perceptions of chimpanzees among farming communities within Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau. We submitted a survey questionnaire to 100 people living in four villages in the Park to enquire about their knowledge of chimpanzee ecology and human-chimpanzee interactions. Local farmers live in close contact with chimpanzees, consider them to be more similar to humans than any other species, and attribute special importance to them primarily due to expectations of tourism revenue. Interviewees' responses, as a function of gender, village, and age, were analyzed statistically using non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis). Age influenced responses significantly, while gender and village had no significant effect. Youngsters emphasized morphological aspects of human-chimpanzee similarities, while adults emphasized chimpanzee behavior and narratives about the shared history of humans and chimpanzees. Tourism, conservation, and crop raiding feature prominently in people's reports about chimpanzees. Local people's engagement with conservation and tourism-related activities is likely to allow them to manage not only the costs but also the benefits of conservation, and can in turn inform the expectations built upon tourism. PMID:24123061

  4. Different doses of amodiaquine and chloroquine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Ursing, Johan; Poulsen, Anja;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare different doses of chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (AQ) for the treatment of falciparum malaria in children. Children with Plasmodium falciparum monoinfection were allocated by block randomisation to treatment with CQ 50/kg mg or 25 mg/kg or AQ 15 mg...... is not superior to treatment with CQ 50 mg/kg. However, 25 mg/kg of CQ is less efficient. As an interim option, Guinea-Bissau could change the recommended first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria to CQ 50 mg/kg, reserving AQ as a partner drug for a future combination therapy....

  5. High mortality despite good care-seeking behaviour: a community study of childhood deaths in Guinea-Bissau.

    OpenAIRE

    Sodemann, M.; Jakobsen, M. S.; Mølbak, K.; Alvarenga, I. C.; Aaby, P

    1997-01-01

    The care-seeking behaviour of mothers of 125 children deceased aged 1-30 months was investigated by verbal autopsy in an urban area of Guinea-Bissau. A total of 93% of the children were seen at a health centre or hospital during the 2 weeks before death. In a previous survey covering the period 1987-90 we found that 78% of the children who died had presented for consultation (8); despite this increase in care seeking, infant mortality had not decreased. Comparison of elapsed time from disease...

  6. Population status of Pan troglodytes verus in Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana S; Marques, Tiago A; Vicente, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus, has been classified as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1988. Intensive agriculture, commercial plantations, logging, and mining have eliminated or degraded the habitats suitable for P. t. verus over a large part of its range. In this study we assessed the effect of land-use change on the population size and density of chimpanzees at Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park (LCNP), Guinea-Bissau. We further explored chimpanzee distribution in relation to landscape-level proxies of human disturbance. Nest count and distance-sampling methods were employed along 11 systematically placed linear transects in 2010 and 2011. Estimated nest decay rate was 293.9 days (%CV = 58.8). Based on this estimate of decay time and using the Standing-Crop Nest Count Method, we obtained a habitat-weighted average chimpanzee density estimate for 2011 of 0.22 nest building chimpanzees/km(2) (95% CI 0.08-0.62), corresponding to 137 (95% CI 51.0-390.0) chimpanzees for LCNP. Human disturbance had a negative influence on chimpanzee distribution as nests were built farther away from human settlements, roads, and rivers than if they were randomly distributed, coinciding with the distribution of the remaining patches of dense canopy forest. We conclude that the continuous disappearance of suitable habitat (e.g. the replacement of LCNP's dense forests by monocultures of cashew plantations) may be compromising the future of one of the most threatened Guinean coastal chimpanzee populations. We discuss strategies to ensure long-term conservation in this important refuge for this chimpanzee subspecies at its westernmost margin of geographic distribution. PMID:23940766

  7. Population status of Pan troglodytes verus in Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana S Carvalho

    Full Text Available The western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus, has been classified as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1988. Intensive agriculture, commercial plantations, logging, and mining have eliminated or degraded the habitats suitable for P. t. verus over a large part of its range. In this study we assessed the effect of land-use change on the population size and density of chimpanzees at Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park (LCNP, Guinea-Bissau. We further explored chimpanzee distribution in relation to landscape-level proxies of human disturbance. Nest count and distance-sampling methods were employed along 11 systematically placed linear transects in 2010 and 2011. Estimated nest decay rate was 293.9 days (%CV = 58.8. Based on this estimate of decay time and using the Standing-Crop Nest Count Method, we obtained a habitat-weighted average chimpanzee density estimate for 2011 of 0.22 nest building chimpanzees/km(2 (95% CI 0.08-0.62, corresponding to 137 (95% CI 51.0-390.0 chimpanzees for LCNP. Human disturbance had a negative influence on chimpanzee distribution as nests were built farther away from human settlements, roads, and rivers than if they were randomly distributed, coinciding with the distribution of the remaining patches of dense canopy forest. We conclude that the continuous disappearance of suitable habitat (e.g. the replacement of LCNP's dense forests by monocultures of cashew plantations may be compromising the future of one of the most threatened Guinean coastal chimpanzee populations. We discuss strategies to ensure long-term conservation in this important refuge for this chimpanzee subspecies at its westernmost margin of geographic distribution.

  8. Plant products used as mosquito repellents in Guinea Bissau, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pålsson, K; Jaenson, T G

    1999-01-15

    By standardized interviews of people in 23 rural villages, in the Oio region of Guinea Bissau, we collected data on which plant species and plant derived products or methods people use to reduce mosquito biting activity. The following plants were used to reduce numbers of mosquitoes indoors at night: fresh or smouldering Hyptis suaveolens Poit. (Lamiaceae), smoke of the bark of Daniellia oliveri Rolfe (Caesalpiniaceae), smoke of the infructescence of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae), smoke of the seed capsules of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. (Mimosaceae), smoke of the leaves of Azadirachta indica A.Juss. (Meliaceae) and Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae), fresh Ocimum canum Sims (Lamiaceae), and fresh Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Caesalpiniaceae). In two field experiments we estimated the 'repellent activity' of certain of these plants and compared their efficacies with those of two commercially available mosquito repellents, i.e. 'positive' controls. In the first experiment we tested: smouldering H. suaveolens (85.4% repellency); fresh H. suaveolens (73.2%); burning of the bark of D. oliveri (74.7%); and smoke of the leaves of Eucalyptus (72.2%). In the second experiment we tested: smouldering H. suaveolens (83.6% repellency); fresh H. suaveolens (66.5%); burning of the bark of D. oliveri (77.9%); smoke of the leaves of A. indica (76.0%); smoke of the infructescence of E. guineensis (69.0%); fresh O. canum (63.6%); and fresh S. occidentalis; (29.4%). All the products tested, except S. occidentalis were significantly more effective than the negative control.

  9. Interleukin 12B (IL12B) Genetic Variation and Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Study of Cohorts from The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, United States and Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Gerard A J; Edwards, Digna R Velez; Hill, Philip C;

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether polymorphisms in interleukin-12B (IL12B) associate with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in two West African populations (from The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau) and in two independent populations from North and South America. Nine polymorphisms (seven SNPs, one inser...

  10. Characterisation of rotavirus strains among hospitalised and non-hospitalised children in Guinea-Bissau, 2002 A high frequency of mixed infections with serotype G8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Aaby, Peter;

    2005-01-01

    In a previous community-based cohort study in Guinea-Bissau from 1996 to 1998, characterisation of rotavirus strains showed a high frequency of less common genotypes such as G8 and G9 and a high proportion of mixed infections....

  11. Similar efficacy and tolerability of double-dose chloroquine and artemether-lumefantrine for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infection in Guinea-Bissau: a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, Guinea-Bissau introduced artemether-lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Previously, 3 times the standard dose of chloroquine, that was probably efficacious against Plasmodium falciparum with the resistance-associated chloroquine-resistance transporter (pfcrt) 76T allele...

  12. Presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae strains from well water samples in Guinea-Bissau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Rocío A; Reyes-Batlle, María; Nicola, Graciela G; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Guillermo Esteban, J; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) include opportunistic pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and the genera Sappinia and Acanthamoeba. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence of potentially pathogenic amoebic strains in water samples collected from wells located in the western part of Guinea-Bissau. The samples were left to precipitate for 48 hours and then the sediments were seeded on non-nutrient agar plates containing Escherichia coli spread and cultures were checked daily for the presence of FLA. Identification of FLA strains was based on the morphological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the 18S rDNA or 16S mitochondrial rDNA genes in the case of Naegleria and Balamuthia genera, respectively. In the case of positive samples of Acanthamoeba, strains were further classified at the genotype level by sequencing the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region located in the 18S rDNA gene as previously described. Sappinia sp. was not isolated during the study and thus, no molecular analysis was performed for this genus. The obtained results revealed the presence of Acanthamoeba (genotypes T3 and T4), Naegleria fowleri, and Balamuthia mandrillaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of FLA in water bodies from Guinea-Bissau and the first report on the isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris from environmental sources in Africa. PMID:24934796

  13. Presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae strains from well water samples in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Rocío A; Reyes-Batlle, María; Nicola, Graciela G; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Guillermo Esteban, J; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-06-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) include opportunistic pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and the genera Sappinia and Acanthamoeba. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence of potentially pathogenic amoebic strains in water samples collected from wells located in the western part of Guinea-Bissau. The samples were left to precipitate for 48 hours and then the sediments were seeded on non-nutrient agar plates containing Escherichia coli spread and cultures were checked daily for the presence of FLA. Identification of FLA strains was based on the morphological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the 18S rDNA or 16S mitochondrial rDNA genes in the case of Naegleria and Balamuthia genera, respectively. In the case of positive samples of Acanthamoeba, strains were further classified at the genotype level by sequencing the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region located in the 18S rDNA gene as previously described. Sappinia sp. was not isolated during the study and thus, no molecular analysis was performed for this genus. The obtained results revealed the presence of Acanthamoeba (genotypes T3 and T4), Naegleria fowleri, and Balamuthia mandrillaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of FLA in water bodies from Guinea-Bissau and the first report on the isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris from environmental sources in Africa.

  14. The effect of canopy closure on chimpanzee nest abundance in Lagoas de Cufada National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joana; Casanova, Catarina; Barata, André V; Sousa, Cláudia

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to gather baseline information about chimpanzee nesting and density in Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park (LCNP), in Guinea-Bissau. Old and narrow trails were followed to estimate chimpanzee density through marked-nest counts and to test the effect of canopy closure (woodland savannah, forest with a sparse canopy, and forest with a dense canopy) on nest distribution. Chimpanzee abundance was estimated at 0.79 nest builders/km(2), the lowest among the areas of Guinea-Bissau with currently studied chimpanzee populations. Our data suggest that sub-humid forest with a dense canopy accounts for significantly higher chimpanzee nest abundance (1.50 nests/km of trail) than sub-humid forest with a sparse canopy (0.49 nests/km of trail) or woodland savannah (0.30 nests/km of trail). Dense-canopy forests play an important role in chimpanzee nesting in the patchy and highly humanized landscape of LCNP. The tree species most frequently used for nesting are Dialium guineense (46 %) and Elaeis guineensis (28 %). E. guineensis contain nests built higher in the canopy, while D. guineense contain nests built at lower heights. Nests observed during baseline sampling and replications suggest seasonal variations in the tree species used for nest building. PMID:24408762

  15. Malaria prevention reduces in-hospital mortality among severely ill tuberculosis patients: a three-step intervention in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Fina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria and Tuberculosis (TB are important causes of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Malaria prevention reduces mortality among HIV patients, pregnant women and children, but its role in TB patients is not clear. In the TB National Reference Center in Guinea-Bissau, admitted patients are in severe clinical conditions and mortality during the rainy season is high. We performed a three-step malaria prevention program to reduce mortality in TB patients during the rainy season. Methods Since 2005 Permethrin treated bed nets were given to every patient. Since 2006 environmental prevention with permethrin derivates was performed both indoor and outdoor during the rainy season. In 2007 cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was added during the rainy season. Care was without charge; health education on malaria prevention was performed weekly. Primary outcomes were death, discharge, drop-out. Results 427, 346, 549 patients were admitted in 2005, 2006, 2007, respectively. Mortality dropped from 26.46% in 2005 to 18.76% in 2007 (p-value 0.003, due to the significant reduction in rainy season mortality (death/discharge ratio: 0.79, 0.55 and 0.26 in 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively; p-value 0.001 while dry season mortality remained constant (0.39, 0.37 and 0.32; p-value 0.647. Costs of malaria prevention were limited: 2€/person. No drop-outs were observed. Health education attendance was 96-99%. Conclusions Malaria prevention in African tertiary care hospitals seems feasible with limited costs. Vector control, personal protection and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis seem to reduce mortality in severely ill TB patients. Prospective randomized trials are needed to confirm our findings in similar settings. Trial registration number Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN83944306

  16. Chiara Pussetti, Poetica delle Emozioni: I Bijagó della Guinea Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Luís Silva

    2013-01-01

    Este livro de Chiara Pussetti nasce do trabalho de campo que constituiu a base empírica da sua tese de doutoramento em antropologia cultural e etnologia, pela Universidade de Turim. Esse trabalho decorreu em Bubaque, a ilha principal do arquipélago de Bijagós, pertencente à Guiné-Bissau e formado por um conjunto de oitenta e oito ilhas, que se distinguem entre si por assinaláveis diferenças linguísticas e socioculturais. A autora desenvolveu as suas pesquisas entre 1994 e 2001, em períodos de...

  17. Clade A HIV-1 Gag-Specific T Cell Responses Are Frequent but Do Not Correlate with Viral Loads in a Cohort of Treatment-Naive HIV-Infected Individuals Living in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Gómez Román, Victor Raúl; Skov Jensen, Sanne;

    2012-01-01

    In a phase I clinical trial in Guinea-Bissau, we have tested an immunotherapeutic 33 HIV-1 vaccine candidate in HIV-1-infected subjects (Gómez Román et al., under review).…......In a phase I clinical trial in Guinea-Bissau, we have tested an immunotherapeutic 33 HIV-1 vaccine candidate in HIV-1-infected subjects (Gómez Román et al., under review).…...

  18. The training and professional expectations of medical students in Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fronteira Inês

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the professional expectations of medical students during the 2007-2008 academic year at the public medical schools of Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique, and to identify their social and geographical origins, their professional expectations and difficulties relating to their education and professional future. Methods Data were collected through a standardised questionnaire applied to all medical students registered during the 2007-2008 academic year. Results Students decide to study medicine at an early age. Relatives and friends seem to have an especially important influence in encouraging, reinforcing and promoting the desire to be a doctor. The degree of feminization of the student population differs among the different countries. Although most medical students are from outside the capital cities, expectations of getting into medical school are already associated with migration from the periphery to the capital city, even before entering medical education. Academic performance is poor. This seems to be related to difficulties in accessing materials, finances and insufficient high school preparation. Medical students recognize the public sector demand but their expectations are to combine public sector practice with private work, in order to improve their earnings. Salary expectations of students vary between the three countries. Approximately 75% want to train as hospital specialists and to follow a hospital-based career. A significant proportion is unsure about their future area of specialization, which for many students is equated with migration to study abroad. Conclusions Medical education is an important national investment, but the returns obtained are not as efficient as expected. Investments in high-school preparation, tutoring, and infrastructure are likely to have a significant impact on the success rate of medical schools. Special attention should be given

  19. Neutralizing Antibody Response and Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in HIV-1-Infected Individuals from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggren, Marie; Jensen, Sanne Skov; Heyndrickx, Leo;

    2016-01-01

    The development of therapeutic and prophylactic HIV vaccines for African countries is urgently needed, but the question of what immunogens to use needs to be answered. One approach is to include HIV envelope immunogens derived from HIV-positive individuals from a geographically concentrated...... epidemic with more limited viral genetic diversity for a region-based vaccine. To address if there is a basis for a regional selected antibody vaccine, we have screened two regionally separate cohorts from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark for neutralizing antibody activity and antibody-dependent cellular...... cytotoxicity (ADCC) against local and nonlocal circulating HIV-1 strains. The neutralizing activity did not demonstrate higher potential against local circulating strains according to geography and subtype determination, but the plasma from Danish individuals demonstrated significantly higher inhibitory...

  20. The effect of vitamin A supplementation administered with missing vaccines during national immunization days in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Martins, Cesario; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2009-01-01

    than VAS with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine. We assessed the effect of VAS administered with different vaccines during national immunization days (NIDs). METHODS: In 2003, VAS was distributed during NIDs in Guinea-Bissau. Children 6 months or older were given VAS, and if they were missing......BACKGROUND: WHO recommends high-dose Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after 6 months of age. It has not been studied whether the effect of VAS on mortality depends on the type of vaccine. We have hypothesized that VAS administered with measles vaccine (MV) is more beneficial...... vaccines, these were often given as well. We compared survival between children who had received VAS alone, VAS with DTP or DTP + MV, or VAS with MV. We also compared the survival between participants and non-participants. We followed 6- to 17-month old children until 18 months of age and analysed survival...

  1. The when and how of male circumcision and the risk of HIV: a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of two HIV surveys from Guinea-Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Dlama Nggida; Wejse, Christian; Larsen, Olav; da Silva, Zacarias; Aaby, Peter; Sodemann, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Male circumcision (MC) reduces the risk of HIV, and this risk reduction may be modified by socio-cultural factors such as the timing and method (medical and traditional) of circumcision. Understanding regional variations in circumcision practices and their relationship to HIV is crucial and can increase insight into the HIV epidemic in Africa. Methods We used data from two retrospective HIV surveys conducted in Guinea-Bissau from 1993 to 1996 (1996 cohort) and from 2004 to 2007 (...

  2. Similar Efficacy and Tolerability of Double-Dose Chloroquine and Artemether-Lumefantrine for Treatment of Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Guinea-Bissau: A Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ursing, Johan; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Blessborn, Daniel; Thoft-Nielsen, Rikke; Björkman, Anders; Rombo, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Background. In 2008, Guinea-Bissau introduced artemether-lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Previously, 3 times the standard dose of chloroquine, that was probably efficacious against Plasmodium falciparum with the resistance-associated chloroquine-resistance transporter (pfcrt) 76T allele, was routinely used. The present study compared the efficacy and tolerability of a double standard dose of chloroquine with the efficacy and tolerability of artemether-lumefantrine.

  3. Perceptions of the usefulness of external support to immunization coverage in Guinea-Bissau: a Delphi analysis of the GAVI-Alliance cash-based support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ferrinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although many countries have improved vaccination coverage in recent years, some, including Guinea-Bissau, failed to meet expected targets. This paper tries to understand the main barriers to better vaccination coverage in the context of the GAVI-Alliance (The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation cash-based support provided to Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: The analysis is based on a document analysis and a three round Delphi study with a final consensus meeting. RESULTS: Consensus attributed about 25% of the failure to perform better to implementation problems; and about 10% to governance and also 10% to scarce resources. The qualitative analysis validates the importance of implementation issues and upgraded the relevance of the human resources crisis as an important drawback. The recommendations were balanced in their upstream-downstream focus but were blind to health information issues and logistical difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: It is commendable that such a fragile state, with all sorts of barriers, manages to sustain a slow steady growth of its vaccination coverage. Not reaching the targets set reflects the inappropriateness of those targets rather than a lack of commitment of the health workforce. In the unstable context of countries such as Guinea-Bissau, the predictability of the funds from global health initiatives like the GAVI-Alliance seem to make all the difference in achieving small consistent health gains even in the presence of other major bottlenecks.

  4. Decline in overall, smear-negative and HIV-positive TB incidence while smear-positive incidence stays stable in Guinea-Bissau 2004-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvik, G; Rudolf, F; Vieira, F;

    2014-01-01

    identified between January 2004 and December 2011. Incidence rates were calculated using census data from the Bandim Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). RESULTS: The overall incidence of pulmonary TB was 279 per 100 000 person-years of observation; the male incidence being 385, and the female......OBJECTIVE: To calculate Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in Guinea-Bissau over an 8-year period. METHODS: Since 2003, a surveillance system has registered all TB cases in six suburban districts of Bissau. In this population-based prospective follow-up study, 1205 cases of pulmonary TB were...... 191. TB incidence rates increased significantly with age in both sexes, regardless of smear or HIV status. Despite a peak with unknown cause of 352 per 100 000 in 2007, the overall incidence of pulmonary TB declined over the period. The incidence of HIV infected TB cases declined significantly from...

  5. Characterization of incompletely typed rotavirus strains from Guinea-Bissau: identification of G8 and G9 types and a high frequency of mixed infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, TK; Page, NA; Griffin, DD;

    2003-01-01

    Among 167 rotavirus specimens collected from young children in a suburban area of Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, from 1996 to 1998, most identifiable strains belonged to the uncommon P[6], G2 type and approximately 50% remained incompletely typed. In the present study, 76 such strains were further......%, respectively, identical to other African G8 and G9 strains. Multiple G and/or P types were identified at a high frequency (59%), including two previously undescribed mixed infections, P[4]P[6], G2G8 and P[4]P[6], G2G9. These mixed infections most likely represent naturally occurring reassortance of rotavirus......] and P[6] primer binding sites were detected. These findings highlight the need for regular evaluation of the multiplex primer PCR method and typing primers. The high frequency of uncommon as well as reassortant rotavirus strains in countries where rotavirus is an important cause of child mortality...

  6. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and other types of dysglycaemia among young twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennild, Ditte Egegaard; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Joaquím, Luis Carlos;

    2016-01-01

    was conducted from February 2011 until March 2012 at the Bandim Health Project, a health and demographic surveillance system site in the capital Bissau. Twins (n = 209) and singletons (n = 182) were recruited from a previously established cohort. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed, along...

  7. Long-term survival in trial of medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida; Whittle, H;

    1994-01-01

    -titre measles vaccine have found increased mortality among female recipients, we examined whether EZ medium-titre vaccine was associated with any long-term impact on mortality, suppression of T-cells, or growth. The mortality rate ratio over 5 years of follow-up was 1.12 for EZ children compared with children......A trial of protective efficacy which compared medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine (10(4.6) p.f.u.) from the age of 4 months with the standard Schwarz (SW) measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months was started in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in 1985. Because trials of high...... in the standard group (P = 0.63). Seventy-five percent of the children still residing in the area at 5 years of age took part in an immunological and anthropometric examination. There was no difference in T-cell subsets between the two groups. There was no difference in mid-upper-arm circumference, but EZ...

  8. Lack of awareness of treatment failure among HIV-1-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau – a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida; da Silva Té, David; Correira, Faustino Gomes; Laursen, Alex Lund; Erikstrup, Christian; Østergaard, Lars; Wejse, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction With more people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), the need to detect treatment failure and switch to second-line ART has also increased. We assessed CD4 cell counts (as a marker of treatment failure), determined the rate of switching to second-line treatment and evaluated mortality related to treatment failure among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, adult patients infected with HIV-1 receiving ≥6 months of ART at an HIV clinic in Bissau were included from June 2005 to July 2014 and followed until January 2015. Treatment failure was defined as 1) a fall in CD4 count to baseline (or below) or 2) CD4 levels persistently below 100 cells/µL after ≥6 months of ART. Cox hazard models, with time since six months of ART as the time-varying coefficient, were used to estimate the hazard ratio for death and loss to follow-up. Results We assessed 1,591 HIV-1-infected patients for immunological treatment failure. Treatment failure could not be determined in 594 patients (37.3%) because of missing CD4 cell counts. Among the remaining 997 patients, 393 (39.4%) experienced failure. Only 39 patients (9.9%) with failure were switched from first- to second-line ART. The overall switching rate was 3.1 per 100 person-years. Mortality rate was higher in patients with than without treatment failure, with adjusted hazard rate ratios (HRRs) 10.0 (95% CI: 0.9–107.8), 7.6 (95% CI: 1.6–35.5) and 3.1 (95% CI: 1.5–6.3) in the first, second and following years, respectively. During the first year of follow-up, patients experiencing treatment failure had a higher risk of being lost to follow-up than patients not experiencing treatment failure (adjusted HRR 4.4; 95% CI: 1.7–11.8). Conclusions We found a high rate of treatment failure, an alarmingly high number of patients for whom treatment failure could not be assessed, and a low rate of switching to a second-line therapy. These factors could lead to an increased

  9. Lack of awareness of treatment failure among HIV-1-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau – a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Jespersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With more people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART, the need to detect treatment failure and switch to second-line ART has also increased. We assessed CD4 cell counts (as a marker of treatment failure, determined the rate of switching to second-line treatment and evaluated mortality related to treatment failure among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, adult patients infected with HIV-1 receiving ≥6 months of ART at an HIV clinic in Bissau were included from June 2005 to July 2014 and followed until January 2015. Treatment failure was defined as 1 a fall in CD4 count to baseline (or below or 2 CD4 levels persistently below 100 cells/µL after ≥6 months of ART. Cox hazard models, with time since six months of ART as the time-varying coefficient, were used to estimate the hazard ratio for death and loss to follow-up. Results: We assessed 1,591 HIV-1-infected patients for immunological treatment failure. Treatment failure could not be determined in 594 patients (37.3% because of missing CD4 cell counts. Among the remaining 997 patients, 393 (39.4% experienced failure. Only 39 patients (9.9% with failure were switched from first- to second-line ART. The overall switching rate was 3.1 per 100 person-years. Mortality rate was higher in patients with than without treatment failure, with adjusted hazard rate ratios (HRRs 10.0 (95% CI: 0.9–107.8, 7.6 (95% CI: 1.6–35.5 and 3.1 (95% CI: 1.5–6.3 in the first, second and following years, respectively. During the first year of follow-up, patients experiencing treatment failure had a higher risk of being lost to follow-up than patients not experiencing treatment failure (adjusted HRR 4.4; 95% CI: 1.7–11.8. Conclusions: We found a high rate of treatment failure, an alarmingly high number of patients for whom treatment failure could not be assessed, and a low rate of switching to a second-line therapy. These factors could lead to an

  10. The occurrence characteristics and integrated control measures of invasion fruit fly in Guinea-Bissau%几内亚比绍的入侵果实蝇发生特点及综合防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢远华; 朱穆君; 杨恒; Marcelino Waz; Julio Malam

    2012-01-01

    Guinea Bissau mango suffered serious damage from fruit flies,with invasion fruit fly being the dominant species.This paper introduces the occurrence characteristics and integrated control measures of invasion fruit fly in Guinea-Bissau.%几内亚比绍芒果遭受实蝇的严重危害,以入侵果实蝇为优势种。本文介绍了几内亚比绍的入侵果实蝇的发生危害特点及综合防治对策。

  11. Interleukin 12B (IL12B genetic variation and pulmonary tuberculosis: a study of cohorts from The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, United States and Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard A J Morris

    Full Text Available We examined whether polymorphisms in interleukin-12B (IL12B associate with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in two West African populations (from The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau and in two independent populations from North and South America. Nine polymorphisms (seven SNPs, one insertion/deletion, one microsatellite were analyzed in 321 PTB cases and 346 controls from Guinea-Bissau and 280 PTB cases and 286 controls from The Gambia. For replication we studied 281 case and 179 control African-American samples and 221 cases and 144 controls of European ancestry from the US and Argentina. First-stage single locus analyses revealed signals of association at IL12B 3' UTR SNP rs3212227 (unadjusted allelic p = 0.04; additive genotypic p = 0.05, OR = 0.78, 95% CI [0.61-0.99] in Guinea-Bissau and rs11574790 (unadjusted allelic p = 0.05; additive genotypic p = 0.05, OR = 0.76, 95% CI [0.58-1.00] in The Gambia. Association of rs3212227 was then replicated in African-Americans (rs3212227 allelic p = 0.002; additive genotypic p = 0.05, OR = 0.78, 95% CI [0.61-1.00]; most importantly, in the African-American cohort, multiple significant signals of association (seven of the nine polymorphisms tested were detected throughout the gene. These data suggest that genetic variation in IL12B, a highly relevant candidate gene, is a risk factor for PTB in populations of African ancestry, although further studies will be required to confirm this association and identify the precise mechanism underlying it.

  12. Knowledge and reported practices of men and women on maternal and child health in rural Guinea Bissau: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Vera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Participatory health education interventions and/or community-based primary health care in remote regions can improve child survival. The most recent data from Guinea Bissau shows that the country ranks 5th from bottom globally with an under-five mortality rate of 198 per 1000 live births in 2007. EPICS (Enabling Parents to Increase Child Survival is a cluster randomised trial, which is currently running in rural areas of southern Guinea Bissau. It aims to evaluate whether an intervention package can generate a rapid and cost-effective reduction in under-five child mortality. The purpose of the study described here was to understand levels of knowledge on child health and treatment-seeking and preventative behaviours in southern Guinea Bissau in order to develop an effective health education component for the EPICS trial. The study also aimed to assess the effect of gender and ethnicity on knowledge and behaviour. Methods Women and men were interviewed in their households using a structured questionnaire. Characteristics of the households and of the interviewed women and men were tabulated. The number of correct answers given to the health knowledge and practice questions and their percentage distribution were tabulated by items and by gender. An overall health knowledge score was derived. Results There are low levels of appropriate knowledge on child health, some inappropriate practices and generally low vaccination coverage. Health knowledge scores improve significantly amongst those who have accessed higher education. Differences in health knowledge between women and men become insignificant once age and education are accounted for. Conclusions Health education activities should be an integral part of a package to improve child survival in rural Guinea Bissau. These activities should focus on diarrhoea, malaria, pneumonia, pregnancy, delivery, neonatal care and vaccination coverage, as these are areas where knowledge and

  13. Sex-differential effect on infant mortality of oral polio vaccine administered with BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau. A natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The policy to provide oral polio vaccine (OPV) at birth was introduced in low-income countries to increase coverage. The effect of OPV at birth on overall child mortality was never studied. During a trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not availa......-differential effect on mortality. Poliovirus is almost eradicated and OPV at birth contributes little to herd immunity. A randomised study of the effect of OPV at birth on overall mortality in both sexes is warranted....

  14. Territorial and land-use rights perspectives on human-chimpanzee-elephant coexistence in West Africa (Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, nineteenth to twenty-first centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblan, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    The first part of this article compares the distribution of chimpanzee and elephant populations in reaction to human territorial dynamics of West African trade in parts of nineteenth century Guinea, Guinea-Bissau and Senegal. It answers for this specific region the question of whether present-day situations of close chimpanzee-human spatial proximity are stable or only temporary phenomena in long-term processes of environmental change, and shows that conservation policies centred on either of these two "flagship" species carry radically different ecological, political and territorial implications. The second part shifts to local-level perspectives on human-chimpanzee relationships, emphasizing the land rights contentions and misunderstandings created by the implementation of protected areas at Bossou and in the Boké region of Guinea. These case studies help to look at acts of resistance and local interpretations of primate conservation policies as opportunities to reconsider what is being protected, for what purpose, as whose heritage, and to move towards new and more legitimate opportunities for the implementation of conservation policies. PMID:27038218

  15. Diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in ART-naïve patients with HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual infection in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiniche, Ditte; Jespersen, Sanne; Erikstrup, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is expected to increase in sub-Saharan Africa. Patients with HIV are at particular risk. We investigated the DM burden among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients with HIV in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Patients were consecutively included. D...

  16. Plasmodium falciparum infection rates for some Anopheles spp. from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4in

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    Michelle R. Sanford

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Presence of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in a sample of Anopheles gambiae s.s., A. melas and A. pharoensis collected in Guinea-Bissau during October and November 2009. The percentage of P. falciparum infected samples (10.2% overall was comparable to earlier studies from other sites in Guinea-Bissau (9.6-12.4%. The majority of the specimens collected were identified as A. gambiae which had an individual infection rate of 12.6 % across collection sites. A small number of specimens of A. coluzzii, A. coluzzii x A. gambiae hybrids, A. melas and A. pharoensis were collected and had infection rates of 4.3%, 4.1%, 11.1% and 33.3% respectively. Despite being present in low numbers in indoor collections, the exophilic feeding behaviors of A. melas (N=18 and A. pharoensis (N=6 and high infection rates observed in this survey suggest falciparum-malaria transmission potential outside of the protection of bed nets.

  17. Two different doses of supplemental vitamin A did not affect mortality of normal-birth-weight neonates in Guinea-Bissau in a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Diness, Birgitte R; Balde, Ibraima;

    2014-01-01

    -Bissau with the primary aim of comparing the effect of 50,000 with 25,000 IU neonatal vitamin A on infant mortality. The secondary aim was to study the effect of NVAS vs. placebo, including a combined analysis of NVAS trials. Between 2004 and 2007, normal-birth-weight neonates were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio...... to be administered 2 different doses of vitamin A (50,000 or 25,000 IU) or placebo. Infant mortality rates (MRs) were compared in Cox models providing MR ratios (MRRs). Among 6048 children enrolled, there were 160 deaths in 4125 person-years (MR = 39/1000). There was no difference in mortality between the 2 dosage...... groups: the MRR for 25,000 vs. 50,000 IU was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.38). Neither dose of NVAS was associated with lower mortality than placebo (MRR = 1.28; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.81). In a combined analysis of the present trial and 2 previous NVAS trials in Guinea-Bissau, the effect of receiving NVAS (any dose...

  18. Molecular epidemiology of endemic human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 in a rural community in Guinea-Bissau.

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    Carla van Tienen

    Full Text Available Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1 infection causes lethal adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and severely debilitating HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP in up to 5% of infected adults. HTLV-1 is endemic in parts of Africa and the highest prevalence in West Africa (5% has been reported in Caio, a rural area in the North-West of Guinea-Bissau. It is not known which HTLV-1 variants are present in this community. Sequence data can provide insights in the molecular epidemiology and help to understand the origin and spread of HTLV-1.To gain insight into the molecular diversity of HTLV-1 in West Africa.HTLV-1 infected individuals were identified in community surveys between 1990-2007. The complete Long Terminal Repeat (LTR and p24 coding region of HTLV-1 was sequenced from infected subjects. Socio-demographic data were obtained from community census and from interviews performed by fieldworkers. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to characterize the relationship between the Caio HTLV-1 and HTLV-1 from other parts of the world.LTR and p24 sequences were obtained from 72 individuals (36 LTR, 24 p24 only and 12 both. Consistent with the low evolutionary change of HTLV-1, many of the sequences from unrelated individuals showed 100% nucleotide identity. Most (45 of 46 of the LTR sequences clustered with the Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 subtype 1a, subgroup D (1aD. LTR and p24 sequences from two subjects were divergent and formed a significant cluster with HTLV-1 subtype 1g, and with the most divergent African Simian T-cell Lymphotropic Virus, Tan90.The Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 1aD predominates in this rural West African community. However, HTLV-1 subtype 1g is also present. This subtype has not been described before in West Africa and may be more widespread than previously thought. These data are in line with the hypothesis that multiple monkey-to-man zoonotic events are contributing to HTLV-1 diversity.

  19. Hepatitis B and Delta virus are prevalent but often subclinical co-infections among HIV infected patients in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa: a cross-sectional study.

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    Bo Langhoff Hønge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV may lead to accelerated hepatic disease progression with higher rates of liver cirrhosis and liver-related mortality compared with HBV mono-infection. Co or super-infection with hepatitis Delta virus (HDV may worsen the liver disease and complicate treatment possibilities. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we included HIV-infected individuals who had a routine blood analysis performed at an HIV clinic in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau between the 28th of April and 30th of September 2011. All patients were interviewed, had a clinical exam performed and had a blood sample stored. The patients' samples were tested for HBV and HDV serology, and HBV/HDV viral loads were analyzed using in-house real-time PCR methods. RESULTS: In total, 576 patients (417 HIV-1, 104 HIV-2 and 55 HIV-1/2 were included in this study. Ninety-four (16.3% patients were HBsAg positive of whom 16 (17.0% were HBeAg positive. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, CD4 cell count <200 cells/µl and animist religion were significantly associated with HBsAg positivity. Due to scarcity of available plasma, virological analyses were not performed for eight patients. HBV DNA was detected in 42 of 86 samples (48.8% positive for HBsAg and genotyping was performed in 26 patients; 25 of whom had genotype E and one genotype D. Among 9 patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART, one patient had the [L180M, M204V] mutation associated with lamivudine resistance. Among the HBsAg positive patients 25.0% were also positive for anti-HDV and 4/9 (44.4% had detectable HDV RNA. CONCLUSION: HBV and HDV were frequent co-infections among HIV positive patients in Guinea-Bissau and chronic infection was associated with severe immunosuppression. Lamivudine was widely used among HBsAg positive patients with the risk of developing resistant HBV.

  20. Trends and determinants of mortality in women of reproductive age in rural Guinea-Bissau, West Africa--a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mane, Maram; Fisker, Ane B; Ravn, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few studies reporting mortality of women of reproductive age (WRA) in developing countries. The trend and patterns of their mortality may be important for documenting the health status of the population in general. METHODS: We used a prospective open cohort of women aged 12...... to 49 years living in the Bandim Health Project's rural Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in 5 regions of Guinea-Bissau from 1996 to 2007. Information on in- and out-migration and deaths were collected through the HDSS routine procedures. We assessed the trends in mortality...... and the associated determinants using Cox regression models. RESULTS: We followed 27,185 WRA for 141,693 person-years-at-risk (PYO) among whom 9,093 moved out and 1,006 died. Overall standardized mortality rate was 759 per 100,000 PYO. WRA mortality did not decline, but three periods could be distinguished: a stable...

  1. Effect of 50 000 IU vitamin A given with BCG vaccine on mortality in infants in Guinea-Bissau: randomised placebo controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, B.R.; Roth, A.; Nante, E.;

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of high dose vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth in an African setting with high infant mortality. Design Randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting Bandim Health Project's demographic surveillance system in Guinea-Bissau, covering...... approximately 90 000 inhabitants. Participants 4345 infants due to receive BCG. Intervention Infants were randomised to 50 000 IU vitamin A or placebo and followed until age 12 months. Main outcome measure Mortality rate ratios. Results 174 children died during follow-up (mortality=47/ 1000 person.......84 (0.55 to 1.27) compared with 1.39 (0.90 to 2.14) in girls (P for interaction=0.10). An explorative analysis revealed a strong interaction between vitamin A and season of administration. Conclusions Vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth had no significant benefit in this African...

  2. Temporal and seasonal changes of genetic polymorphisms associated with altered drug susceptibility to chloroquine, lumefantrine and quinine in Guinea-Bissau between 2003 and 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovel, Irina Tatiana; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rombo, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guinea-Bissau, West-Africa introduced artemether-lumefantrine in 2008 but quinine has also been commonly prescribed for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. An efficacious high-dose chloroquine treatment regimen was used previously. Temporal and seasonal changes...... of genetic polymorphisms associated with altered drug susceptibility to chloroquine, lumefantrine and quinine are described. METHODS: Pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 gene copy numbers, N86Y, Y184F and 1034-1246 sequences were determined using PCR-based methods. Blood samples came from virtually all (n=1806) children aged.......001). CONCLUSIONS: Following the discontinuation of an effective chloroquine regimen highly artemether-lumefantrine susceptible P. falciparum (with pfcrt 76T) accumulated possibly due to suboptimal use of quinine and despite a fitness cost linked to 76T....

  3. Temporal and seasonal changes of genetic polymorphisms associated with altered drug susceptibility to chloroquine, lumefantrine, and quinine in Guinea-Bissau between 2003 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovel, Irina Tatiana; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rombo, Lars; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ursing, Johan

    2015-02-01

    In 2008, artemether-lumefantrine was introduced in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, but quinine has also been commonly prescribed for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. An efficacious high-dose chloroquine treatment regimen was used previously. Temporal and seasonal changes of genetic polymorphisms associated with altered drug susceptibility to chloroquine, lumefantrine, and quinine have been described. P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) K76T, pfmdr1 gene copy numbers, pfmdr1 polymorphisms N86Y and Y184F, and pfmdr1 sequences 1034 to 1246 were determined using PCR-based methods. Blood samples came from virtually all (n=1,806) childrenquinine and despite a fitness cost linked to pfcrt 76T. (The studies reported here were registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00137514 [PSB-2001-chl-amo], NCT00137566 [PSB-2004-paracetamol], NCT00426439 [PSB-2006-coartem], NCT01157689 [AL-eff 2010], and NCT01704508 [Eurartesim 2012].).

  4. Serial CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte counts and associated mortality in an HIV-2-infected population in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Poulsen, A G; Aaby, P;

    1996-01-01

    In an urban community in Guinea-Bissau, we followed a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) seropositive individuals (N = 47) and seronegative controls (N = 82). T-lymphocyte subset determinations were done in 1988, 1990, and 1992. Serial determinations of CD4 percentages, CD8...... ratio, white blood cell counts, lymphocyte percentages, and absolute lymphocyte counts for HIV-2-seropositive compared with HIV-2-seronegative individuals. Only absolute CD4 T-lymphocyte counts changed more for the HIV-2-seropositive than for HIV-2-seronegative individuals (p = 0.037). HIV-2-infected...... percentages, and CD4/CD8 ratios for the same individual were stable for 31 seropositive and 51 seronegative individuals with repeated measurements. We found no significant differences in the changes during a 2- or 4-year period in CD4 percentages, CD8 percentages, absolute CD8 T-lymphocyte counts, CD4/CD8...

  5. The impact of different doses of vitamin A supplementation on male and female mortality. A randomised trial from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakymenko, Dorthe; Benn, Christine Stabell; Martins, Cesario;

    2011-01-01

    if diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) was the most recent vaccination. We aimed to test these observations. METHODS: During national immunisations days in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, combining oral polio vaccination and VAS, we randomised 8626 children between 6 months and 5 years of age to receive...... VAS group and the recommended dose VAS group. The MRRs were 1.23 (0.60-2.54) after 6 months and 1.17 (0.73-1.87) after 12 months. This tendency was similar in boys and girls. The low dose was not associated with lower mortality in girls if the most recent vaccine was DTP (MRR = 0.60 (0.14-2.50) after...

  6. Contamination of drinking water sources during the rainy season in an urban post-conflict community in Guinea Bissau: implications for sanitation priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombatti, R; Vieira, C S; Bassani, F; Cristofoli, R; Coin, A; Bertinato, L; Riccardi, F

    2009-06-01

    Since the 1998 civil warcholera outbreaks and waterborne infections have been a major cause of morbidity and mortality during the rainy season in Guinea Bidsau. Our survey aims at: (1) describing the distribution, characteristics and use of water sources and sewage facilities in a central area of the capital city of Bissau; (2) determining the microbiological quality of drinking water during the rainy season. After mapping of the Cuntum 3 study area, water sources' and latrines' location, characteristics and use were determined by visual inspection and interviews with householders. Microbiological analyses were peformed from water sources for evaluation of total Coliforms, E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis. Twelve water sources (9 wells, 3 taps) and 15 latrines were identified and used by 444 inhabitants. Water sources and latrines were at less than 5 meters distance apart. Wells were self-built, hand-dug, shallow (4-6 meters), unprotected. Taps were located outdoor. Latrines were self-built, open air, unprotected. None of the houses had a bathroom. Maintenance of wells, taps and latrines is not performed on regular basis and well's handling habits are not safe. Well and tap water showed heavy faecal contamination with more than 1000 CFU/100 ml. The contamination of drinking water in Bissau due to poor construction, maintenance and improperuse ten years after the civil war, demonstrates the need to allocate resources after conflicts in the area of water and sanitation. Both should be included as a priority in post-conflict reconstruction programs in order to reduce cholera outbreaks and diarrhoea related mortality. PMID:20175419

  7. The EPICS Trial: Enabling Parents to Increase Child Survival through the introduction of community-based health interventions in rural Guinea Bissau

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    Frost Chris

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guinea-Bissau is a small country in West Africa with a population of 1.7 million. The WHO and UNICEF reported an under-five child mortality of 203 per 1000, the 10th highest amongst 192 countries. The aim of the trial is to assess whether an intervention package that includes community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for children's diseases within the community, and improved outreach services can generate a rapid and cost-effective reduction in under-five child mortality in rural regions of Guinea-Bissau. Effective Intervention plans to expand the project to a much larger region if there is good evidence after two and a half years that the project is generating a cost-effective, sustainable reduction in child mortality. Methods/design This trial is a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 146 clusters. The trial will run for 2.5 years. The interventions will be introduced in two stages: seventy-three clusters will receive the interventions at the start of the project, and seventy-three control clusters will receive the interventions 2.5 years after the first clusters have received all interventions if the research shows that the interventions are effective. The impact of the interventions and cost-effectiveness will be measured during the first stage. The package of interventions includes a community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, and intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for common children's diseases within the community. It also includes improved outreach services to encourage provision of antenatal and post natal care and provide ongoing monitoring for village health workers. The primary outcome of the trial will be the proportion of children that die under 5 years of age during the trial

  8. Contrasting female-male mortality ratios after routine vaccinations with pentavalent vaccine versus measles and yellow fever vaccine. A cohort study from urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq;

    2016-01-01

    for Penta and 3028 for MV (2907 co-administered with YF). During follow-up 112 children died. The female/male mortality rate ratio was 1.73 (1.11-2.70) following Penta and 0.38 (0.12-1.19) after MV (p=0.02 for same effect). Adjusting for maternal education or weight-for-age at the time of vaccination did......, DTP vaccine is associated with increased female mortality relative to male mortality. In 2008, Guinea-Bissau replaced DTP with the DTP-containing pentavalent vaccine (Penta; DTP-H. influenza type B-Hepatitis B) at 6, 10 and 14weeks and yellow fever vaccine (YF) was to be given with MV. We investigated...... possible sex-differential mortality rates following Penta and MV+YF vaccination. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) registers vaccines given by the three government health centres in the study area and vital status through demographic surveillance. We assessed the association between sex and mortality...

  9. Clinical presentation and opportunistic infections in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Jespersen, Sanne; Katzenstein, Terese L;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Better understanding of HIV-2 infection is likely to affect the patient care in areas where HIV-2 is prevalent. In this study, we aimed to characterize the clinical presentations among HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, newly...... diagnosed HIV patients attending the HIV outpatient clinic at Hospital Nacional Simão Mendes in Guinea-Bissau were enrolled. Demographical and clinical data were collected and compared between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. RESULTS: A total of 169 patients (76% HIV-1, 17% HIV-2 and 6......% HIV 1/2) were included in the study between 21 March 2012 and 14 December 2012. HIV-1 seropositive patients were younger than HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 seropositive patients, but no difference in sex was observed. Patients with HIV-1 and HIV-1/2 had a lower baseline CD4 cell count than HIV-2 seropositive...

  10. Co-administration of live measles and yellow fever vaccines and inactivated pentavalent vaccines is associated with increased mortality compared with measles and yellow fever vaccines only. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik Bylling; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2014-01-01

    Studies from low-income countries indicate that co-administration of inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and live attenuated measles vaccine (MV) is associated with increased mortality compared with receiving MV only. Pentavalent (DTP-H. Influenza type B-Hepatitis B) vaccine...... is replacing DTP in many low-income countries and yellow fever vaccine (YF) has been introduced to be given together with MV. Pentavalent and YF vaccines were introduced in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. We investigated whether co-administration of pentavalent vaccine with MV and yellow fever vaccine has similar...

  11. Markers of iron status are associated with stage of pregnancy and acute-phase response, but not with parity among pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kæstel, Pernille; Aaby, Peter; Ritz, Christian; Friis, Henrik

    2015-10-14

    While prenatal Fe supplementation prevents maternal Fe deficiency and anaemia, it is uncertain whether it improves infant health outcomes, at least when taken by Fe-replete women. Inflammation as well as physiological changes complicates the assessment of Fe status during pregnancy. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), Hb and the acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) in a cross-sectional study among 738 pregnant women attending antenatal care in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of Fe status markers. The mean gestational age was 23 (sd 7) weeks. Serum ferritin values were lower with progressing gestation, from 27% lower during weeks 16-20 of gestation up to 59% lower after 29 weeks of gestation compared with early pregnancy. Using cut-off values for Fe deficiency as established in non-pregnant individuals, 52% of the women had sTfR levels >2·3 mg/l, while only 25% had serum ferritin levels 2·3 mg/l decreased to 47% after adjustment for elevated serum CRP and ACT levels. On the contrary, the proportion of serum ferritin < 12 μg/l increased to 33% after adjustment for ACT and CRP. The high proportion of elevated serum sTfR calls for pregnancy-specific cut-offs since increased erythropoiesis is expected in response to increased plasma volume of pregnancy. The present study further underlines the need to adjust for inflammation when serum sTfR and serum ferritin are used to assess Fe status in pregnancy.

  12. Sex-differential effect on infant mortality of oral polio vaccine administered with BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau. A natural experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stabell Benn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The policy to provide oral polio vaccine (OPV at birth was introduced in low-income countries to increase coverage. The effect of OPV at birth on overall child mortality was never studied. During a trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS at birth in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during several periods. We took advantage of this "natural experiment" to test the effect on mortality of receiving OPV at birth. METHODOLOGY: Between 2002 and 2004, the VAS trial randomised normal-birth-weight infants to 50,000 IU VAS or placebo administered with BCG. Provision of OPV at birth was not part of the trial, but we noted whether the infants received OPV or not. OPV was missing during several periods in 2004. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compute mortality rate ratios (MRR of children who had received or not received OPV at birth. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 962 (22.1% of the 4345 enrolled children did not receive OPV at birth; 179 children died within the first year of life. Missing OPV at birth was associated with a tendency for decreased mortality (adjusted MRR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.46-1.03, the effect being similar among recipients of VAS and placebo. There was a highly significant interaction between OPV at birth and sex (p = 0.006. Not receiving OPV at birth was associated with a weak tendency for increased mortality in girls (1.14 (0.70-1.89 but significantly decreased mortality in boys (0.35 (0.18-0.71. CONCLUSIONS: In our study OPV at birth had a sex-differential effect on mortality. Poliovirus is almost eradicated and OPV at birth contributes little to herd immunity. A randomised study of the effect of OPV at birth on overall mortality in both sexes is warranted.

  13. Heterologous Immunological Effects of Early BCG Vaccination in Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Larsen, Nanna; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) seems to have beneficial nonspecific effects; early BCG vaccination of low-birth-weight (LBW) newborns reduces neonatal mortality by >40% due to prevention of primarily septicemia and pneumonia. METHODS:  Within a randomized trial in LBW infants in Guinea......, particularly of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. CONCLUSION:  Four weeks after immunization, BCG-vaccinated infants have a significantly increased production of cytokines upon heterologous challenge, particularly T helper cell type 1 polarizing and typically monocyte-derived pro...

  14. Development in Guine-Bissau : situation and perspectives

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    Van Damme, PLJ.

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Guine-Bissau is a young nation with a lot of political, socio-economic and climatic problems. Some of these (budget, monetary and price policy, infrastructure should be solved before rural development projects can be expected to have positive long term effects.

  15. Cashew Chain Value in Guiné-Bissau: Challenges and Contributions for Food Security: A Case Study for Guiné-Bissau

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    Bernardo Reynolds Pacheco de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Guiné-Bissau is a recent example of political stabilization after a recent period of instability, where the international community can play an important role in cooperation and development, but with innovation and new effective policies. Food security is certainly one of the big issues to be addressed and cashew production and respective chain value one of the main opportunities to improve the quality of life for many families. Guinea-Bissau can be considered one of the most fragile countries in Sub-Sahara Africa, but at the same time with significant economic potential. Poverty alleviation is very much dependent from agricultural activities and agribusiness will be always at the core of the most possible solutions. Within those possible solutions the contribution of the cashew sector is crucial, which has been playing already a key role in the economy and in the family survival equation. More than 80% of the families depend from agricultural activities and most of them are linked to the production of cashew. This crop represents more than 90% of exports, and at the same time is responsible for income alleviation resources at local family base. However Cashew expansion is a very recent phenomena, with about 20 years of success, beyond all political “turmoil.” Today the country is the second biggest in Africa, after Ivory Coast, and the fourth worldwide (also after India and Vietnam. Exports were around 20 thousand tons in 1990 and close to 200 thousand tons in the last year’s production. But the most important factors to be considered in a cash crop business is also a very “unique” structure of production, mostly family based and where the average dimension of production per family is dominantly between 1 to 2 hectares. Very much related to those structural characteristics, which vary by region, is the role of this crop in the food security dimension of the families, which is calculated to represent in average 4,8 months of income

  16. HLA polymorphisms in Cabo Verde and Guiné-Bissau inferred from sequence-based typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, Hélder; Bruges-Armas, Jácome; Middleton, Derek; Brehm, António

    2005-10-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, and -DRB1 polymorphisms were examined in the Cabo Verde and Guiné-Bissau populations. The data were obtained at high-resolution level, using sequence-based typing. The most frequent alleles in each locus was: A*020101 (16.7% in Guiné-Bissau and 13.5% in Cabo Verde), B*350101 (14.4% in Guiné-Bissau and 13.2% in Cabo Verde), DRB1*1304 (19.6% in Guiné-Bissau), and DRB1*1101 (10.1% in Cabo Verde). The predominant three loci haplotype in Guiné-Bissau was A*2301-B*1503-DRB1*1101 (4.6%) and in Cabo Verde was A*3002-B*350101-DRB1*1001 (2.8%), exclusive to northwestern islands (5.6%) and absent in Guiné-Bissau. The present study corroborates historic sources and other genetic studies that say Cabo Verde were populated not only by Africans but also by Europeans. Haplotypes and dendrogram analysis shows a Caucasian genetic influence in today's gene pool of Cabo Verdeans. Haplotypes and allele frequencies present a differential distribution between southeastern and northwestern Cabo Verde islands, which could be the result of different genetic influences, founder effect, or bottlenecks. Dendrograms and principal coordinates analysis show that Guineans are more similar to North Africans than other HLA-studied sub-Saharans, probably from ancient and recent genetic contacts with other peoples, namely East Africans. PMID:16386651

  17. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems-- Guinea-Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO),Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), World Resources Institute, International Food Policy Research Institute, Global Maritime Boundaries Database (GMBD),World Conservation Monitoring Centre(WCMC),The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems (ISME

  18. Qualidade dos produtos apícolas da Guiné Bissau: mel e própolis

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Mélissa Andréa

    2014-01-01

    A colmeia é uma fonte de produtos nutritivos e com elevadas potencialidades farmacológicas, como o mel, o pólen, a cera, a geleia real, a apitoxina ou o pão de abelha. Neste trabalho destacamos o mel e a própolis da Guiné- Bissau avaliando a sua qualidade. Na Guiné- Bissau, um país subdesenvolvido situado na costa Ocidental de África, os produtos provenientes da colmeia podem contribuir para o enriquecimento das condições nutricionais da população um problema que se vem mantendo ao longo d...

  19. Malaria transmission in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau between 1995 and 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2014-01-01

    (1995-2012) were considered incident cases. The mean annual malaria incidence per thousand children in 1995-1997, 1999-2003, 2007, 2011, 2012 were as follows; age campaigns (2003-2010) to increase use...... per 2 people and 97% usage. All-cause mortality decreased from post-war peaks in 1999 until 2012 in all age groups and was not negatively affected by malaria resurgence. CONCLUSION: The cause of decreasing malaria incidence (1995-2007) was probably multifactorial and coincident with the use...... curtailed malaria epidemics. All-cause mortality was not negatively affected by malaria resurgence....

  20. Alguns ectoparasitas e protozoários em bovinos da República da Guiné-Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    ROSA, FERNANDA; Crespo, Maria Virgínia; Travassos Dias, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Os autores assinalam a presença de algumas espécies de ixodídeos (Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus annulatus, B. geigy e Hyalomma sp.) localizados em diferentes regiões do corpo de bovinos autóctones da República da Guiné-Bissau, colhidos entre Novembro de 1990 e Março de 1991. A pesquisa de protozoários, efectuada principalmente em esfregaços de sangue revelou a presença de Anaplasma marginale, Theileria mutans, Babesia bigemina e Sarcocystis sp. Não foram encontradas lesões relacionada...

  1. A educação durante a colonização portuguesa na Guiné-Bissau (1471-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço Ocuni Cá

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho pretende-se tratar da educação pré-colonial, educação colonial e educação durante a luta de libertação nacional da Guiné-Bissau. Antes da dominação colonial na Guiné-Bissau, não havia instituição escolar tal como existe hoje. Portanto, a educação consistia em aquisição de conhecimentos e normas de comportamento como em qualquer sociedade. A ausência das instituições escolares na sociedade guineense tradicional não significava a inexistência de ensino-aprendizagem, porque se tratava de uma cultura oral, que foi sobreposta pela cultura escrita européia. Neste trabajo pretiende si tratar de la educación pré-colonial, educación colonial e educación duranti la lucha de libartación naciaonal de Guine-Bissau. Antes de la dominación colonial na Guine-Bissau, no habia institución escolar como hay. Portanto, la educación consistia en aquisición de conocimientos y normas de comportamiento como en qualquiera sociedad. La ausencia de las institucines escolares na sociedad guineense tradicional no significaba la inexistencia de ensino-apredizaje, porque se trataba de una cultura oral que hay sobreposta pela cultura escrita europea.

  2. Establishing a Twin Registry in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Gomes, Margarida A; Joaquím, Luis C;

    2013-01-01

    , diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and infectious diseases such as HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria. A major focus area is also the etiology of low birth weight and how epigenetic processes might modulate the consequences of low birth weight in Sub-Saharan Africa. For this, monozygotic twin studies...... represent a powerful tool. Though twin studies have been carried out by the Bandim Health Project for more than 30 years, the renewed registry described here was officially established in 2009 and includes both a cohort of newborn twins and a cohort of young and adult twins. Currently more than 1,500 twins...

  3. Persisting high hospital and community childhood mortality in an urban setting in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Jens Erik; Biai, Sidu; Jakobsen, Marianne;

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To describe paediatric hospitalization in a West African capital in relation to overall childhood mortality in the community and to evaluate the potential impact of improved management at the hospital. METHODS: Hospital data on child admissions in a 6-year period were linked to information...... in a community-based longitudinal surveillance system. Paediatric hospitalization rates, risk factors for hospitalizations, community mortality, in-hospital mortality and the proportion of deaths occurring at hospital were examined. RESULTS: Almost 15% of infants and 45% of children less than 5 years of age had...... been hospitalized, and 24% of all deaths in the community occurred in-hospital. Community infant and under-three mortality rates were 110 and 207 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. In-hospital mortality remained persistently high from 1991 to 1996 and the overall in-hospital mortality was 12...

  4. Trial of high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, T G; Hansen, H L;

    1988-01-01

    In a randomised study of 558 children in an urban African community, the protective effect of the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine given in a dose of 40,000 plaque forming units from the age of 4 months was compared with the effects of a standard dose (6000 tissue culture infectious units......) of Schwarz measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months. During two years of follow-up, all 14 clinical cases of measles occurred in the Schwarz group; 10 of the children contracted measles before vaccination and 4 after measles vaccination. Thus the EZ vaccine provided significant protection against...... measles both before and after the usual age of vaccination. Among the children who were exposed to measles at home, those given EZ vaccine were better protected than either unvaccinated children or those given the Schwarz vaccine....

  5. Cryptosporidiosis in infancy and childhood mortality in Guinea Bissau, west Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Højlyng, N; Gottschau, A;

    1993-01-01

    in children who had the infection in infancy, and this excess mortality persisted into the second year of life (relative mortality 2.9 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 4.9)). The excess mortality could not be explained by malnutrition, or by socioeconomic factors, hygienic conditions, or breast feeding...

  6. Milk Enzyme Activities and Subclinical Mastitis Among Women in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lill Brith Wium; Hartvig, Ditte Luise; Kæstel, Pernille;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Subclinical mastititis (SCM) is a condition with raised milk concentration of sodium and milk immune factors. The milk enzymes N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (AcP), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) have attracted attention in dairy re...

  7. Childhood mortality after oral polio immunisation campaign in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Sodemann, Morten;

    2005-01-01

    Though previous studies have suggested a non-specific beneficial effect of oral polio vaccine (OPV), there has been no evaluation of the mortality impact of national polio immunization days. On the other hand, studies examining the effect of OPV and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines, wh...

  8. Vaccinia scars associated with better survival for adults. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Gustafson, Per; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin;

    2006-01-01

    Live vaccines including BCG and measles may have non-targeted beneficial effects on childhood survival in areas with high mortality. The authors therefore undertook a survey of vaccinia scars to evaluate subsequent mortality.......Live vaccines including BCG and measles may have non-targeted beneficial effects on childhood survival in areas with high mortality. The authors therefore undertook a survey of vaccinia scars to evaluate subsequent mortality....

  9. A prospective study of twinning and perinatal mortality in urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Lund, Najaaraq; Jepsen, Frida Staarup;

    2012-01-01

    regarding obstetric history and pregnancy were collected at the hospital. Live children were examined clinically. For a subset of twin pairs zygosity was established by using genetic markers. RESULTS: Out of the 5262 births from mothers included in the BHP study area, 94 were twin births, i.e. a community...... twinning rate of 18/1000. The monozygotic rate was 3.4/1000. Perinatal mortality among twins vs. singletons was 218/1000 vs. 80/1000 (RR = 2.71, 95% CI: 1.93-3.80). Among the 13783 hospital births 388 were twin births (28/1000). The hospital perinatal twin mortality was 237/1000.Birth weight ....24, CI: 2.39-7.51) and caesarean section (RR = 1.78, CI: 1.06-2.99) were significant risk factors for perinatal twin mortality. Male sex (RR = 1.38, CI: 0.97-1.96), unawareness of twin pregnancy (RR = 1.64, CI: 0.97-2.78) and high blood pressure during pregnancy (RR = 1.77, CI: 0.88-3.57) were borderline...

  10. Costing the scaling-up of human resources for health: lessons from Mozambique and Guinea Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Dussault Gilles; Russo Giuliano; Tyrrell Amanda K; Ferrinho Paulo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction In the context of the current human resources for health (HRH) crisis, the need for comprehensive Human Resources Development Plans (HRDP) is acute, especially in resource-scarce sub-Saharan African countries. However, the financial implications of such plans rarely receive due consideration, despite the availability of much advice and examples in the literature on how to conduct HRDP costing. Global initiatives have also been launched recently to standardise costing met...

  11. Evolution of cocirculating varicella-zoster virus genotypes during a chickenpox outbreak in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Depledge, Daniel P; Gray, Eleanor R; Kundu, Samit;

    2014-01-01

    patterns, and (recent) natural history. IMPORTANCE: VZV is a highly infectious virus and the causative agent of chickenpox and shingles, the latter being particularly associated with the risk of painful complications. Seasonal outbreaks of chickenpox are very common among young children, yet little...

  12. BCG vaccination scar associated with better childhood survival in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Gustafson, Per; Nhaga, Alexandro;

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a non-specific beneficial effect on infant survival and that a BCG scar may be associated with lower child mortality. No study has previously examined the influence of BCG vaccination on cause of death....

  13. The effect of early measles vaccination on thymic size. A randomized study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lone Damkjær; Eriksen, Helle Brander; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie;

    2014-01-01

    In low-income countries early measles vaccine (MV) is associated with reduced child mortality which cannot be explained by prevention of measles. A large thymus gland in infancy is also associated with reduced mortality. We hypothesized that early MV is associated with increased thymic size. Within...... a randomized trial providing MV at age 4.5 and 9 months or MV only at age 9 months, thymic size was assessed by ultrasound at age 4.5 months, before randomization to early MV or no early MV, and 4 weeks later. Among 656 children, there was no effect of early MV on thymic size, the geometric mean size ratio...... being 0.99 (95% CI: 0.96-1.02). In a post hoc analysis early MV was associated with a negative effect in healthy children but a positive effect in ill children. In conclusion, early MV at age 4.5 months had no overall effect on thymus size 4 weeks later. Trial registration: http...

  14. Effect of revaccination with BCG in early childhood on mortality: randomised trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, A.E.; Benn, Christine Stabell; Ravn, H.;

    2010-01-01

    controls of 1.04 (0.81 to 1.33). The trial was stopped prematurely because of a cluster of deaths in the BCG arm of the study. This increase in mortality occurred at a time when many children had received missing vaccinations or vitamin A or iron supplementation; the hazard ratio for BCG revaccinated...... inhabitants. Participants 2871 children aged 19 months to 5 years with low or no reactivity to tuberculin and who were not severely sick on the day of enrolment. Intervention BCG vaccination or no vaccination (control). Main outcome measure Hazard ratios for mortality. Results 77 children died during follow......-up. Compared with controls, the BCG revaccinated children had a hazard ratio of 1.20 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 1.89). Two hundred and fifty children were admitted to hospital for the first time between enrolment and the end of the study, with an incidence rate ratio for BCG revaccinated children versus...

  15. Effect of revaccination with BCG in early childhood on mortality: randomised trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, A.E.; Benn, Christine Stabell; Ravn, H.;

    2010-01-01

    children compared with controls was 2.69 (1.05 to 6.88) in the period after these campaigns. Throughout the trial, the effect of BCG revaccination on mortality was significantly different (P=0.006) in children who had received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) booster vaccination before enrolment (hazard...... inhabitants. Participants 2871 children aged 19 months to 5 years with low or no reactivity to tuberculin and who were not severely sick on the day of enrolment. Intervention BCG vaccination or no vaccination (control). Main outcome measure Hazard ratios for mortality. Results 77 children died during follow...... controls of 1.04 (0.81 to 1.33). The trial was stopped prematurely because of a cluster of deaths in the BCG arm of the study. This increase in mortality occurred at a time when many children had received missing vaccinations or vitamin A or iron supplementation; the hazard ratio for BCG revaccinated...

  16. Seven years' experience with Cryptosporidium parvum in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch, M; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S;

    2001-01-01

    consistently at the beginning of or just before the rainy seasons, May through July. By contrast, no seasonality was found for the enteric parasites Giardia lamblia or Entamoeba histolytica. We conclude that Cryptosporidium parvum is an important pathogen in children with diarrhoea....

  17. Assessing factors for loss to follow-up of HIV infected patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Pernille Bejer; Engell-Sørensen, Thomas; Jespersen, Sanne;

    2016-01-01

    , 2013, and January 31, 2014. Patients lost to follow-up, who lived within the area of the Bandim Health Project, a demographic surveillance site (DSS), were eligible for inclusion. Active follow-up was attempted by telephone and tracing by a field assistant. Semi-structured interviews were done face...

  18. Promoção e difusão da língua portuguesa na República da Guiné-Bissau: o PASEG e as OfLP

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Manuel Fernando Castro

    2015-01-01

    A conjuntura de fragilidade que caracteriza a República da Guiné-Bissau aliada à pobreza do povo deste pequeno território da África Ocidental tem tido consequências catastróficas tanto na educação como no desenvolvimento do país. Cientes de que a educação constitui uma das chaves para a superação do subdesenvolvimento, o Governo guineense e a comunidade internacional têm reunido esforços, procurando inverter o cenário registado. O Estado português, sensível à situação do sis...

  19. A transnacionalização das políticas educativas : itinerários da cooperação portuguesa em Cabo Verde, Guiné-Bissau e S. Tomé e Príncipe (1974-2002)

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Maria Arlete Pereira da, 1959-

    2008-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Ciências da Educação (Administração Educacional), 2009, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação The main focus of the present investigation is on the transnationalization of the education policies in Cape Verde, Guine-Bissau and San Tome and Prince from 1974 to 2002 and it deals mostly with the role played by the Portuguese co operants in this field, namely teachers, teacher trainers and education technicians. Our investigation is bas...

  20. Paracetamol versus placebo in treatment of non-severe malaria in children in Guinea-Bissau: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Ursing, Johan; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2011-01-01

    The current guidelines for treatment of malaria include paracetamol to children with fever. No convincing evidence for the beneficial effects of this practice exists. Studies show that time to parasite clearance is significantly longer in children treated with paracetamol, which questions...

  1. Continued efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as second line treatment for malaria in children in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    sensitivity, the efficacy of S/P was studied immediately before the introduction of the drug and 6-9 years later. METHODS: Children participating in clinical in vivo studies were given S/P if having late clinical treatment failure following the treatment with quinine, chloroquine, or amodiaquine...

  2. A Randomized Trial of an Early Measles Vaccine at 4½ Months of Age in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Søndergaard, Mia; Andersen, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor), and secreted cytokines (interferon-γ, TNF-α, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17) after in vitro challenge with innate agonists and recall antigens. We analysed the effect of MV in multiple imputation...

  3. L’amor come stile culturale. Auto-poiesi e strategie emozionali tra i giovani di Bubaque, Guinea Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Bordonaro

    2013-01-01

    L’antropologia delle emozioni è legata in prevalenza a contesti etnografici descritti, direbbero Gupta e Ferguson (a cura, 1997), come “campi puri”. La maggior parte degli antropologi che lavora sulle emozioni, ha osservato William Reddy (1999, p. 256), utilizzano nelle loro etnografie il presente etnografico e si avvalgono di generalizzazioni che si fondano implicitamente su una concezione dei contesti culturali come ambiti di significati articolati logicamente in un sistema e segnati da con...

  4. L’amor come stile culturale. Auto-poiesi e strategie emozionali tra i giovani di Bubaque, Guinea Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Bordonaro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available L’antropologia delle emozioni è legata in prevalenza a contesti etnografici descritti, direbbero Gupta e Ferguson (a cura, 1997, come “campi puri”. La maggior parte degli antropologi che lavora sulle emozioni, ha osservato William Reddy (1999, p. 256, utilizzano nelle loro etnografie il presente etnografico e si avvalgono di generalizzazioni che si fondano implicitamente su una concezione dei contesti culturali come ambiti di significati articolati logicamente in un sistema e segnati da confini precisi. Anche quando viene riconosciuta una molteplicità di discorsi contrastanti sulle emozioni, come nell’analisi di Lila Abu-Lughod (1986 delle performance emozionali tra i beduini awlad’ ali, l’ordine culturale all’interno del quale queste collisioni discorsive vengono comunque orchestrate getta un fondato sospetto sull’utilizzabilità degli strumenti di analisi proposti nel “manifesto” di Abu-Lughod e Lutz (a cura, 1990 in contesti meno puri o, forse, meno purificati.

  5. From Guinea-Bissau to Colombia. Benkos Biohó, resistance and (is Palenque. A case of the African Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Arenas Valencia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article I mention the case of Benkos Biohó as a symbolic figure of the african, afrodescendant and afrocolombian resistance, conducted by the "palenques" (known as "quilombos" in Brazil, manifestations of resistance that started in Africa and were reproduced later in America during human traffic, colonization and enslavement. Today, this strategies are reinvented and reformulated by the afrodescendants, women and men, that  live in this territories. Regarding the ways and methods,  these were always diverse, from the armed fight to the freedom demands in courts. But they always looked for advances, improvements and progress in an opressor colonial system.

  6. Vaccination technique, PPD reaction and BCG scarring in a cohort of children born in Guinea-Bissau 2000-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Sodemann, Morten; Jensen, Henrik;

    2005-01-01

    reactors (>1mm) after BCG vaccination was 25% and the rate of scarring was 89%. One BCG strain was associated with fewer PPD reactors (OR=0.54 (0.31-0.91)) and BCG scars (OR=0.13 (0.05-0.37)) and larger post-vaccination wheals produced more PPD reactions (OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.02-1.43)) and BCG scars (OR 1.......66 (1.24-2.21)). In the multivariable analyses of BCG-vaccinated children assessed at 6 months of age, monitoring of vaccination technique and type of BCG vaccine were important. This was not changed by control for other determinants, including sex, season, vaccination place, birthplace, ethnic group...

  7. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito;

    2010-01-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys.......Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys....

  8. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito;

    2010-01-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys....

  9. DTP with or after measles vaccination is associated with increased in-hospital mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Biai, Sidu; Veirum, Jens Erik;

    2007-01-01

    The sequence of routine immunisations may be important for childhood mortality. Three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) should be given at 6, 10, and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age. The sequence is not always respected. We examined in-hospital mortality...... of children having received DTP with or after measles vaccine....

  10. Effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A given with BCG vaccine on mortality in infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Roth, Adam;

    2008-01-01

    -years). Vitamin A supplementation was not significantly associated with mortality; the mortality rate ratio was 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.44). The effect was 1.00 (0.65 to 1.56) during the first four months and 1.13 (0.75 to 1.68) from 4 to 12 months of age. The mortality rate ratio in boys was 0...

  11. Assessment of simple risk markers for early mortality among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Inés; Andersen, Andreas; Furtado, Alcino;

    2012-01-01

    (BMI≤18.5 kg/m2), low mid-upper-arm-circumference (MUAC≤250 mm), low CD4 cell count (≤350 cells/μl) and high suPAR plasma levels (>5.3 ng/ml) were independent predictors of death. Furthermore, mortality among patients with low CD4 cell count, low MUAC or low BMI was concentrated in the highest su...

  12. 76 FR 46209 - Importation of Tomatoes From the Economic Community of West African States Into the Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ...: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Niger..., Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Niger,...

  13. Hypothermia of newborns is associated with excess mortality in the first 2 months of life in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Nielsen, Jens; Veirum, Jens;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term effects of neonatal hypothermia (HT) on survival. METHODS: Using the longitudinal community and hospital surveillance system of the Bandim Health Project, we followed children born between 1997 and 2002 at the only maternity ward in the city. All children......'s axillary temperature was measured within 12 h of birth. They were followed from birth to 6 months of life through regular home visits. RESULTS: We identified 2926 live births in the study area and 177 deaths before 6 months of age. Based on mortality risk, we defined a temperature below 34.5 degrees C...... as the cut-off point for HT. Two hundred and thirty-eight (8%) children had HT. Controlled for birth weight, HT was associated with a nearly fivefold increase in mortality during the first 7 days of life [mortality ratio (MR) = 4.81 (2.90-8.00)] and with increased mortality from 8 to 56 days of life [MR = 2...

  14. Different effects of BCG strains - A natural experiment evaluating the impact of the Danish and the Russian BCG strains on morbidity and scar formation in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, H; Byberg, S; Bjerregaard-Andersen, M;

    2016-01-01

    . Girls vaccinated with Danish BCG tended to have lower consultation rates compared with girls vaccinated with Russian BCG (aHR 0.56 (0.25-1.24)), whereas the effect was opposite for boys (aHR 1.24 (0.74-2.11)), p=0.09. Children vaccinated with Danish BCG were more likely to develop a scar (97%) than...... children vaccinated with Russian BCG (87%), the relative risk (RR) being 1.11 (1.06-1.16). The effect was stronger in girls, and BCG scar size was larger among infants vaccinated with the Danish strain. CONCLUSION: BCG strain influences scar prevalence and scar size, and may have sex differential effects...

  15. Duration of secretory IgM and IgA antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus in a community study in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, L G; Kofoed, P E; Nante, E J;

    2000-01-01

    nasopharyngeal suction on days 7, 14, 30, 60 and 120 in the first epidemic and every fortnight for 6 mo after the second epidemic to measure the duration of secretory IgM and IgA responses. Nearly all of the children had an IgM response during the first month after infection. The response ratio was highest...... on days 7 and 14, being 84% and 71%, respectively. After 30 d the IgM response decreased rapidly. Among 27 age- and sex-matched controls, only 1 child was positive for IgM. During the second epidemic, when the children were followed more intensively, half of the children were IgM-positive after the acute...... phase of infection. A secondary response may be more likely in children with low IgM responses in the acute phase (RR = 2.08 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-4.70)). The IgA response was highest on days 28 and 42 after antigen detection, 72% having a detectable IgA response within the first 1.5 mo...

  16. The serum level of soluble urokinase receptor is elevated in tuberculosis patients and predicts mortality during treatment: a community study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Gustafson, P; Sidenius, N;

    2002-01-01

    /ml). During the 8-month treatment period, 23 TB cases died. In a multivariate Cox model controlling for HIV status, age, sex, CD4 count and type of TB diagnosis, the mortality increase per ng suPAR was 1.25 (95%CI 1.12-1.40). After treatment, suPAR levels had decreased to the levels of TB-negative individuals...

  17. Duration of secretory IgM and IgA antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus in a community study in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, L G; Kofoed, P E; Nante, E J;

    2000-01-01

    days 7 and 14, being 84% and 71%, respectively. After 30 d the IgM response decreased rapidly. Among 27 age- and sex-matched controls, only 1 child was positive for IgM. During the second epidemic, when the children were followed more intensively, half of the children were IgM-positive after the acute...... of these children had a simultaneous IgM-positive response. When 29 of the children were tested after an epidemic when they were 1-3-y-old, >80% again had high IgM (24/29, 82%) and IgA (28/29, 94%) levels. Among samples collected over a 1-y period from infants with LRI in a community morbidity...

  18. Assessment of HIV-1 patient recruitability in the Republic of Guinea-Bissau using African versus North American hematology and biochemistry reference intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Román, Victor Raúl; Jensen, Sanne Skov; Leo-Hansen, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    Hematology and biochemistry reference intervals have been derived from healthy, HIV-negative populations to guide clinical trials worldwide. However, it is less clear how such values may be applied to clinical trials involving HIV-infected individuals. We show that contradictory interpretations...

  19. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding is not likely to be cost effective in West Africa. A randomized intervention study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne S; Sodemann, Morten; Biai, Sidu;

    2008-01-01

    cohort of 1721 infants were randomized to receive health education: promotion of exclusive breastfeeding for the first 4-6 months of life according to WHO recommendations at the time of the study. All children were followed from birth to 6 months of age. RESULTS: Introduction of both water and weaning...

  20. Markers of iron status are associated with stage of pregnancy and acute-phase response, but not with parity among pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kæstel, Pernille; Aaby, Peter; Ritz, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    While prenatal Fe supplementation prevents maternal Fe deficiency and anaemia, it is uncertain whether it improves infant health outcomes, at least when taken by Fe-replete women. Inflammation as well as physiological changes complicates the assessment of Fe status during pregnancy. In the present...... pregnancy. Using cut-off values for Fe deficiency as established in non-pregnant individuals, 52 % of the women had sTfR levels >2·3 mg/l, while only 25 % had serum ferritin levels 2·3 mg/l decreased to 47 % after adjustment for elevated serum CRP and ACT levels. On the contrary, the proportion of serum...... ferritin pregnancy-specific cut-offs since increased erythropoiesis is expected in response to increased plasma volume of pregnancy. The present study further underlines the need to adjust...

  1. Both very low- and very high in vitro cytokine responses were associated with infant death in low-birth-weight children from Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Jensen, Kristoffer J; Erikstrup, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    children to Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) at birth or later according to local policy. Blood samples were obtained from a sub-group at age 6 weeks. Interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured in whole-blood cell cultures stimulated with...... lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or purified protein derivative (PPD). The outcome was mortality between bleeding and 1 year of age. Non-linear associations between cytokine responses and mortality were examined. RESULTS: Cytokine measurements were available from 390 children. The mortality rate...... (MR) was high (6.8/100 person-years-observation (PYO)). Both low and high cytokine responses to LPS and PHA were associated with high mortality (MR up to 25/100 PYO in the lowest 10% and 9.2/100 PYO in the highest 10%). In BCG-vaccinated children, higher IFN-γ responses to PPD were associated with...

  2. Characterization of incompletely typed rotavirus strains from Guinea-Bissau: identification of G8 and G9 types and a high frequency of mixed infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, T.K.; Page, N.A.; Griffin, D.D.;

    2003-01-01

    %, respectively, identical to other African G8 and G9 strains. Multiple G and/or P types were identified at a high frequency (59%), including two previously undescribed mixed infections, P[4]P[6], G2G8 and P[4]P[6], G2G9. These mixed infections most likely represent naturally occurring reassortance of rotavirus......] and P[6] primer binding sites were detected. These findings highlight the need for regular evaluation of the multiplex primer PCR method and typing primers. The high frequency of uncommon as well as reassortant rotavirus strains in countries where rotavirus is an important cause of child mortality...... underscores the need for extensive strain surveillance as a basis to develop appropriate rotavirus vaccine candidates....

  3. Hepatitis B and Delta Virus Are Prevalent but Often Subclinical Co-Infections among HIV Infected Patients in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jespersen, Sanne; Medina, Candida;

    2014-01-01

    . Ninety-four (16.3%) patients were HBsAg positive of whom 16 (17.0%) were HBeAg positive. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, CD4 cell count religion were significantly associated with HBsAg positivity. Due to scarcity of available plasma, virological analyses were...

  4. The when and how of male circumcision and the risk of HIV: a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of two HIV surveys from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dlama; Wejse, Christian; Larsen, Olav Ditlevsen;

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Male circumcision (MC) reduces the risk of HIV, and this risk reduction may be modified by socio-cultural factors such as the timing and method (medical and traditional) of circumcision. Understanding regional variations in circumcision practices and their relationship to HIV...... risk and circumcision status, timing, method of circumcision, and socio-demographic factors. Results: MC was protective against HIV infection in both cohorts, with adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of 0.28 (95% CI 0.12-0.66) and 0.30 (95% CI 0.09-0.93), respectively. We observed that post-pubertal (≥13 years......) circumcision provided the highest level of HIV risk reduction in both cohorts compared to non-circumcised. However, the difference between pre-pubertal (≤12 years) and post-pubertal (≥13 years) circumcision was not significant in the multivariate analysis. Seventy-six percent (678/888) of circumcised males...

  5. O português, sua variação e seu ensino na África: exemplos de Angola, Caboverde, Guiné-Bissau, Moçambique e São Tomé e Príncipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Okoudowa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A língua portuguesa chegou nos Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa (PALOPs pela colonização. No continente, entrou em contato com línguas da grande família linguística, Níger-Congo A e B. Do A, temos línguas faladas em Guiné-Bissau que são línguas do grupo mande como o Balanta, o Manjaco, o Pepel, o Mandinka. Do B, temos línguas faladas em Angola e Moçambique que são essencialmente línguas do grupo banto. Como exemplo, temos: o Kimbundu, o Umbundu, o Kicongo, o Chokuê  etc em Angola;  o Changana, o Kisuaíli, o Nyanja, o Zulu etc em Moçambique. O contato do português com as línguas africanas gerou crioulos de base portuguesa nas ilhas de Cabo Verde e São Tomé e Príncipe. O Presente trabalho tem por objetivo, analisar a realidade linguística dos PALOPs e apontar alguma pista para os problemas que encontram no ensino da língua portuguesa. Já que o ensino monolíngue do português tem mostrado seus limites nos países africanos de língua oficial portuguesa. Para melhorar essa situação, pensamos que o ensino da língua portuguesa deve integrar as línguas nativas africanas desses países.

  6. The effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation given with bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine at birth on infant rotavirus infection and diarrhea: a randomized prospective study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Birgitte Rode; Christoffersen, Dorthe; Pedersen, Ulla Britt;

    2010-01-01

    Prophylactic vitamin A supplementation (VAS) reduces mortality and may reduce morbidity associated with diarrhea in children >6 months of age. Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute dehydrating diarrhea among children worldwide.......Prophylactic vitamin A supplementation (VAS) reduces mortality and may reduce morbidity associated with diarrhea in children >6 months of age. Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute dehydrating diarrhea among children worldwide....

  7. Can tuberculosis case finding among health-care seeking adults be improved?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, F; Haraldsdottir, Thorny Linda; Mendes, M S;

    2014-01-01

    SETTING: The Bandim Health Project study area in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential usefulness of predictors (elsewhere applied) and clinical scores (TBscore and TBscore II) based on signs and symptoms typical of tuberculosis (TB) in case finding. DESIGN: Observational...

  8. 76 FR 13598 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ..., Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Guinea- Bissau, Haiti, Kenya, Lao.... Is the need clearly established with statistics on food deficiencies, malnutrition, micronutrient... clearly demonstrate commitment to reducing the prevalence of malnutrition and under-nutrition in...

  9. Vaccination status and sequence of vaccinations as risk factors for hospitalisation among outpatients in a high mortality country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biai, Sidu; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Nielsen, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    Most developing countries are implementing the WHO immunisation programme. Although vaccines reach most children, many modifications of the recommended schedule are observed in practice. We investigated the association between vaccination status and risk of hospitalisation in Guinea-Bissau....

  10. Guiné-Bissau e Cabo Verde : da unidade à separação

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Antero da Conceição Monteiro

    2007-01-01

    Depois da Segunda Guerra Mundial, a conjuntura política internacional tornou-se favorável para os países que se encontravam sob a dominação estrangeira no que concerne à descolonização. É neste contexto que nas colónias portuguesa surgiram movimentos independentistas, entre os quais o PAIGC, fundado por Amílcar Cabral a 19 de Setembro de 1956. Esse partido tinha dois objectivos: primeiro libertar a Guiné e Cabo Verde e depois fazer a união desses dois Estados. Depois da independência desses d...

  11. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates: two by two factorial randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna; Roth, Adam; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Lausch, Karen Rokkedal; Ravn, Henrik; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates. Design Randomised, placebo controlled, two by two factorial trial. Setting Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Participants 1717 low birthweight neonates born at the national hospital. Intervention Neonates who weighed less than 2.5 kg were randomly assigned to 25 000 IU vitamin A or placebo, as well as to early BCG vaccine or the usual late BCG vaccine, and were followed until age 12...

  12. 9 CFR 93.405 - Health certificate for ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Central African Republic, China, Columbia, Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Isla de... Register citations affecting § 93.405, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the...

  13. 旱季几内亚比绍海域浮游动物的种类组成及其多样性%The species composition and diversity of zooplankton in the seawaters of Guinea-Bissau during the drought season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国平; 邹晓荣; 许柳雄; 朱江峰

    2008-01-01

    利用2006年1月31日~4月17日采用底拖网在几内亚比绍海域收集的数据,对该海域4个不同地质特征水域的浮游动物的种类组成及其多样性进行了比较研究.整个海区以区域1(16°30′~17°00′W,11°30′~12°20′N)的浮游动物平均生物量最高,为2 992 mg/m.3;区域3(16°40′~17°20′W,10°00′~11°00′N)最低,仅为1 069 mg/m.3.浮游动物主要分属浮游甲壳类Crustacean、水母类Medusae、毛颚类Chaetognatha和被囊类Tunicata等,其中浮游甲壳类共计6目22科22属23种.桡足类Copepods为4个水域最主要的浮游动物,除区域3外,所占比例均达到80%以上,其次为莹虾类Lucifer.区域1、区域2(16°55′~17°30′W,11°00′~12°20′N)和区域3数量最多的种类依次为桡足类、莹虾类和毛颚类,而区域4(16°20′~16°40′W,10°20′~10°35′N)中毛颚类数量要高于莹虾类.区域1的浮游动物种类及其多样性指数(H=1.55)为4个水域最高,但其丰富度指数却最低(D=0.28).区域3的丰富度指数(D=0.58)和均匀度指数(J=1.26)均为4个水域最高.区域4的多样性指数(H=1.07)和均匀度指数(J=0.59)为4个水域最低.

  14. Does a ruderal strategy dominate the endemic flora of the West African forests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmgren, M.; Poorter, L.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To understand the distribution pattern of endemic plant species in West African rain forests, one of the global priority areas for biodiversity conservation. Location Upper Guinean forests, West Africa (Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana and Togo). Method

  15. Find a Hematologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ethiopia Falkland Islands Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Terr Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard & McDonald Islands Honduras Hong Kong Hungary ...

  16. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Falkland Is (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Terr Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Is and McDonald Is Holy See ( ...

  17. Find an ENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ethiopia Falkland Islands Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Terr Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Is and McDonald Is Holy See ( ...

  18. Find an Eye M.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Islands Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France France - Metropolitan French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Terr Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard & Mcdonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City ) ...

  19. Arican Friends Happily Gather Together in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>In the summer of 2009,the CPAFFC held the first training course for leading members of the African friendship-with-China organizations. A total of 36 trainees came from 19 countries,namely Djibouti,Togo, Benin,Democratic Republic of Congo, Mauritania,Mali,Algeria, Guinea-Bissau,Guinea,Senegal,Burundi, Cote d’Ivoire,Morocco,

  20. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  1. Diarrhea in Early Childhood: Short-term Association With Weight and Long-term Association With Length

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie A. Richard; Black, Robert E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Kang, Gagandeep; Lanata, Claudio F.; Mølbak, Kåre; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Sack, R. Bradley; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Checkley, William

    2013-01-01

    The short-term association between diarrhea and weight is well-accepted, but the long-term association between diarrhea and growth is less clear. Using data from 7 cohort studies (Peru, 1985–1987; Peru, 1989–1991; Peru, 1995–1998; Brazil, 1989–1998; Guinea-Bissau, 1987–1990; Guinea-Bissau, 1996–1997; and Bangladesh, 1993–1996), we evaluated the lagged relationship between diarrhea and growth in the first 2 years of life. Our analysis included 1,007 children with 597,638 child-days of diarrhea...

  2. How Multilingual African Contexts Are Pushing Educational Research and Practice in New Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Carol

    2010-01-01

    A strong case can be made for developing more flexible and relevant multilingual strategies for teaching and learning within the field of bilingual education. This paper aims to demonstrate how current linguistic and educational practices in countries like Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique and Ethiopia suggest new directions for research and practice. A…

  3. High-Dose Chloroquine for Treatment of Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Bergqvist, Yngve;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Due to development of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum new antimalarial therapies are needed. In Guinea-Bissau, routinely used triple standard-dose chloroquine remained effective for decades despite the existence of "chloroquine-resistant" P. falciparum. This study aimed to...

  4. Reforma Ortografica, Planejamento e Difusao Linguistica: O Caso da Lingua Portuguesa (Orthographic Reform, Planning, and Linguistic Diffusion: The Case of Portuguese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, John Robert

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that the Luso-Brazilian Accord is a strategy to spread the Portuguese language in Africa, particularly in the former colonies of Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, and Sao Tome e Principe, and to construct and solidify a community of lusophone nations in geopolitical terms in world affairs. Language planning in these countries…

  5. Comparison of nasopharyngeal aspirate and nasal swab specimens for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in different settings in a developing country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, L G; Trautner, S; Kofoed, P-E;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) for diagnostic purposes using nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) and nasal swabs (NS) in different clinical settings in a community study in Guinea-Bissau. METHOD: During 1996-98 paired specimens were obtained from 635 children under 5...

  6. DC-SIGN (CD209), pentraxin 3 and vitamin D receptor gene variants associate with pulmonary tuberculosis risk in West Africans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, R; Wejse, C; Velez, D R;

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the role of DC-SIGN (CD209), long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in 321 TB cases and 347 healthy controls from Guinea-Bissau. Five additional, functionally relevant SNPs w...

  7. The immunological effect of revaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine at 19 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Roth, Adam; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov;

    2013-01-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination has important non-specific immune effects. In a randomized trial in Guinea-Bissau, BCG revaccination was associated with significantly increased survival in children who received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)-booster vaccine before enrolment...

  8. Management of childhood diarrhea and use of oral rehydration salts in a suburban West African community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare;

    1999-01-01

    In a household survey in Guinea-Bissau, 319 episodes of diarrhea in children were followed by interviews every second day with the aim of investigating perceived morbidity and subsequent actions taken. The majority of the mothers had good knowledge of oral rehydration salts (ORS). However, only 58...

  9. Vigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the relationship between conflict, social invisibility and negative potentiality. Taking its empirical point of departure in fieldwork conducted in Belfast, Northern Ireland, and Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, it illuminates the manner in which people orientate themselves toward...... precarious prospects and potentialities. It focuses on the way futures are foretold and the forth-coming negotiated in an attempt to pre-empt violent possibilities. Much has been written about the experiential implications of violence, as well as its structural, symbolic or ritual dimensions. Yet, little...

  10. The Bandim tuberculosis score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Joaquim, Luis Carlos; Vieira, Cesaltina;

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out in Guinea-Bissau ’ s capital Bissau among inpatients and outpatients attending for tuberculosis (TB) treatment within the study area of the Bandim Health Project, a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Our aim was to assess the variability between 2...... physicians in performing the Bandim tuberculosis score (TBscore), a clinical severity score for pulmonary TB (PTB), and to compare it to the Karnofsky performance score (KPS). Method : From December 2008 to July 2009 we assessed the TBscore and the KPS of 100 PTB patients at inclusion in the TB cohort and...

  11. Community wildlife management in west africa : a regional overview

    OpenAIRE

    Zeba, S.

    1998-01-01

    This report is intended to be a West African contribution to a global study of IIED on community wildlife management issues. Its geographic focus is the 16 member countries of the Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS), including 9 francophone countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali, Ivory-Coast, Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea,Togo), 5 anglophone countries (Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, The Gambia) and 2 lusophone countries (Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde). This region has mo...

  12. Evidence for the Emergence of New Rice Types of Interspecific Hybrid Origin in West African Farmers' Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin Nuijten; Robbert van Treuren; Struik, Paul C.; Alfred Mokuwa; Florent Okry; Béla Teeken; Paul Richards

    2009-01-01

    In West Africa two rice species (Oryza glaberrima Steud. and Oryza sativa L.) co-exist. Although originally it was thought that interspecific hybridization is impossible without biotechnological methods, progenies of hybridization appear to occur in farmer fields. AFLP analysis was used to assess genetic diversity in West Africa (including the countries The Gambia, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Guinea Conakry, Sierra Leone, Ghana and Togo) using 315 rice samples morphologically classified prior to ...

  13. The When and How of male circumcision and the risk of HIV: a retrosepctive cross-sectional analysis of two HIV surveys from Guiné-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Male circumcision (MC) reduces the risk of HIV, and this risk reduction may be modified by socio-cultural factors such as the timing and method (medical and traditional) of circumcision. Understanding regional variations in circumcision practices and their relationship to HIV...... risk and circumcision status, timing, method of circumcision, and socio-demographic factors. Results: MC was protective against HIV infection in both cohorts, with adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of 0.28 (95% CI 0.12-0.66) and 0.30 (95% CI 0.09-0.93), respectively. We observed that post-pubertal (≥13 years......) circumcision provided the highest level of HIV risk reduction in both cohorts compared to non-circumcised. However, the difference between pre-pubertal (≤12 years) and post-pubertal (≥13 years) circumcision was not significant in the multivariate analysis. Seventy-six percent (678/888) of circumcised males...

  14. Household size is critical to varicella-zoster virus transmission in the tropics despite lower viral infectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nichols, Richard A; Averbeck, Karin T; Poulsen, Anja G;

    2011-01-01

    chickenpox, which, in temperate countries, is a relatively benign childhood infection; yet in tropical countries it tends to occur at later age, a trend associated with markedly increased severity including complications, hospitalization, and overall burden of care. To investigate global differences in the...... epidemiology of chickenpox we studied a population in Guinea Bissau, which in contrast to other tropical countries has an unexpectedly early age of infection with VZV, comparable to temperate latitudes. In this study we used detailed records from over 3000 houses during an outbreak of chickenpox, combined with...... the epidemiology of chickenpox in tropical Guinea Bissau is dependent on the interaction of the social and physical environments. The distinctive clinical presentation of VZV and its ubiquitous distribution make it an attractive model for estimating the variables that contribute to global differences...

  15. Therapeutic vaccination using cationic liposome-adjuvanted HIV type 1 peptides representing HLA-supertype-restricted subdominant T cell epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Román, Victor Raúl Gómez; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Jensen, Sanne Skov;

    2013-01-01

    were assessed in untreated HIV-1-infected individuals in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Twenty-three HIV-1-infected individuals were randomized to receive placebo (n=5) or vaccine (n=18). Safety was appraised by clinical follow-up combined with monitoring of biochemistry, hematology, CD4 T cell counts...... is feasible and safe in Guinea-Bissau and that it is possible to redirect T cell immunity with CAF01-adjuvanted HIV-1 peptide vaccine during untreated HIV-1 infection in some patients. However, relatively few preexisting and vaccine-induced HIV-1 T cell responses to CD8 T cell epitopes were detected...... against HIV-1 using IFN-γ ELISpot in this chronically infected African population....

  16. Risk factors for diarrheal disease incidence in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Jensen, H; Ingholt, L;

    1997-01-01

    To determine risk factors for diarrhea, the authors followed an open cohort of 1,314 children from Guinea-Bissau by weekly diarrhea recall interviews between April 1987 and March 1990. Data on feeding practices and measles infection were available for all children and, for 531 children, comprehen...... of breastfeeding, important interventions against diarrhea include improvements in water supply, hygiene, and food handling. However, because of effect modification by breastfeeding, the largest effects of these interventions will probably be among weaned children....

  17. Tracking cashew economically important diseases in the West African region using metagenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Filipa; Romeiras, Maria M.; Figueiredo, Andreia; Sebastiana, Mónica; Baldé, Aladje; Catarino, Luís; Batista, Dora

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, agricultural land-uses in West Africa were marked by dramatic shifts in the coverage of individual crops. Nowadays, cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is one of the most export-oriented horticulture crops, notably in Guinea-Bissau. Relying heavily on agriculture to increase their income, developing countries have been following a strong trend of moving on from traditional farming systems toward commercial production. Emerging infectious diseases, driven either by adap...

  18. The Relationship Between Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease, Other Bacterial Bloodstream Infections, and Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Se Eun; Pak, Gi Deok; Aaby, Peter; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ali, Mohammad; Aseffa, Abraham; Biggs, Holly M.; Bjerregaard-andersen, Morten; Breiman, Robert F.; Crump, John A.; Cruz Espinoza, Ligia Maria; Eltayeb, Muna Ahmed; Gasmelseed, Nagla; Julian T Hertz; Im, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Country-specific studies in Africa have indicated that Plasmodium falciparum is associated with invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease. We conducted a multicenter study in 13 sites in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania to investigate the relationship between the occurrence of iNTS disease, other systemic bacterial infections, and malaria. Febrile patients received a blood culture and a malaria test. Isolated bac...

  19. Y-chromosome STRs DYS385, DYS19, DYS389-I and II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393 in five African populations

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, V; Carvalho, M; Antunes, S.; Anjos, M. J.; Andrade, L.; Santos, M. V.; Corte-Real, F.; Vieira, D. N.; Gamero, J. J.; Vide, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The Y chromosome has been used to compare the relationship between populations, representing a rich source of potential information to trace paternal lineages and providing a record of our relatedness. Among different population groups, African populations seem to be very interesting to study, considering the theory of the origin of modern humans and the ethnic variability usually existing. Methods: Five male populations from Angola (n=48), Cap Verde (n=47), Guinea-Bissau (n=32), ...

  20. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus rapid tests underestimate hepatitis prevalence among HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jespersen, S; Medina, C;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the case of coinfection with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatic disease progression is often accelerated, with higher rates of liver cirrhosis and liver-related mortality. We aimed to evaluate the performance of the rapid tests used routinely...... to detect HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Blood samples from HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau were stored after testing for HBsAg and anti-HCV with rapid tests. Samples were subsequently re-tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV in Denmark....... RESULTS: Two rapid tests were used in Guinea-Bissau: HBsAg Strip Ref 2034 (VEDA.LAB, Alençon, France; sensitivity 62.3%; specificity 99.2%) and HEPA-SCAN (Bhat Bio-Tech, Bangalore, India; sensitivity 57.1%; specificity 99.7%). In the two tests the ability to obtain the correct outcome depended...

  1. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ferrinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although many countries have improved vaccination coverage in recent years, some, including Guinea-Bissau, failed to meet expected targets. This paper tries to understand the main barriers to better vaccination coverage in the context of the GAVI-Alliance (The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation cash-based support provided to Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: The analysis is based on a document analysis and a three round Delphi study with a final consensus meeting. RESULTS: Consensus attributed about 25% of the failure to perform better to implementation problems; and about 10% to governance and also 10% to scarce resources. The qualitative analysis validates the importance of implementation issues and upgraded the relevance of the human resources crisis as an important drawback. The recommendations were balanced in their upstream-downstream focus but were blind to health information issues and logistical difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: It is commendable that such a fragile state, with all sorts of barriers, manages to sustain a slow steady growth of its vaccination coverage. Not reaching the targets set reflects the inappropriateness of those targets rather than a lack of commitment of the health workforce. In the unstable context of countries such as Guinea-Bissau, the predictability of the funds from global health initiatives like the GAVI-Alliance seem to make all the difference in achieving small consistent health gains even in the presence of other major bottlenecks.

  2. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates. DESIGN: Randomised, placebo controlled, two by two factorial trial. SETTING: Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. PARTICIPANTS: 1717 low birthweight neonates born at the national hospital....... INTERVENTION: Neonates who weighed less than 2.5 kg were randomly assigned to 25 000 IU vitamin A or placebo, as well as to early BCG vaccine or the usual late BCG vaccine, and were followed until age 12 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Mortality, calculated as mortality rate ratios (MRRs), after follow-up to 12...... months of age for infants who received vitamin A supplementation compared with those who received placebo. RESULTS: No interaction was observed between vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccine allocation (P=0.73). Vitamin A supplementation at birth was not significantly associated with mortality...

  3. Nonadherence is Associated with Lack of HIV-Related Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrehave, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Dlama Nggida; Hønge, Bo Langhoff;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poor treatment adherence is a main barrier for effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. HIV-related knowledge may affect understanding and utilization of HIV medical information, hence limited health literacy is a known barrier to treatment adherence. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross......-sectional study included 494 HIV-infected individuals from the Bissau HIV Cohort in Guinea-Bissau. They completed a questionnaire designed for assessment of adherence and HIV-related knowledge. RESULTS: A majority were female, 41% were illiterate, 25% did not take the medicine during the last 4 days, and 23......% skipped their medicine during weekends. The most frequent reasons for not taking medicine were simply forgetting, side effects, lack of food, and being too ill to attend the clinic. Nonadherent patients had a lower level of HIV-related knowledge. CONCLUSION: Main barriers for nonadherence were side...

  4. Community study of the relative impact of HIV-1 and HIV-2 on intrathoracic tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, R; Gustafson, P; Gomes, VF;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection is associated with an increased incidence of and mortality from tuberculosis. Few community studies have examined the effect of HIV-2 on tuberculosis. METHODS: We investigated the association between HIV-1, HIV-2 and active tuberculosis in four districts (population 42...... 709) in Bissau, capital of Guinea-Bissau, with the highest known seroprevalence of HIV-2 infection in the world. From May 1996 to June 1998, tuberculosis surveillance and active case finding among contacts was conducted. Patients were HIV-tested, given specific tuberculosis treatment for 8 months...... and followed regarding mortality. Simultaneously, an HIV sero-survey was performed in a random sample of 1748 permanent residents. RESULTS: During a 25-month period, 366 tuberculosis cases were identified. After excluding cases among visitors to the area, and adjusting for age, the incidence of tuberculosis...

  5. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine Stabell; Andersen, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had...... received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Using hospital admission data from the national pediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea......-Bissau, we compared admission rates between enrollment and the 9-month vaccination in Cox models, providing admission hazard rate ratios (HRRs) for measles vaccine versus no measles vaccine. All analyses were conducted stratified by sex and reception of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS). Before...

  6. 15 CFR 2013.1 - Designations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-Bissau Guyana Haiti India Indonesia Kenya Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Maldives Mali Mauritania Mozambique Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Rwanda Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Isl. Sri Lanka Tanzania Togo...

  7. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  8. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-01-01

    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the...

  9. Guinea Fowl Production in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Guinea fowl farming is still in its infancy in Botswana; hence the population of farmed guinea fowl is unknown, as well as, their contribution to human nutrition. Presently, production occurs mainly at subsistence level and females (women appear to dominate the industry. In Botswana, guinea fowl are raised mainly under the semi-intensive system. Guinea fowl meat is of high quality, being high in protein and low in fat content, thus it is highly prized compared to chicken meat. It appears that guinea fowl farming could be more suitable to the rural areas where commercial chicken production has failed because guinea fowl are tolerant to diseases than chickens. Some challenges to guinea fowl production include farmers’ inadequate management skills necessary to raise guinea fowl successfully, inadequate technical support and lack of financial support from government extension services. It appears that guinea fowl production could be an important supplier of high quality animal protein (meat and eggs, as well as, a job creator in the rural areas.

  10. Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    The eastern half of the island of New Guinea (85% of total area); the Bismarck, Trobriand, Louisiade, and D'Entrecasteaux Archipelagos; and Bougainville, Buka, and Woodlark islands constitute the predominantly mountainous country of Papua New Guinea. It is located 160 km northeast of Australia in the South Pacific Ocean. This tropical country has 2 monsoon seasons with average annual rainfall ranging from 200-250 cm. It has 1 of the most heterogenous populations in the world with as many as several 1000 separate communities. Only 650 languages have yet been identified with 160 of them totally unrelated to each other or to any other language. At different times in its history, the country (or parts thereof) has been under the control of Germany, Australia (its largest bilateral aid donor), Japan, and Britain. After independence in 1975, Papua New Guinea established a veritable and strong parliamentary democracy. This democracy has an excellent human rights record and has a clear respect for these rights. 75% of the population live predominately at subsistence level. Gross domestic product (GDP) increased about 2%/year during the 1980s with agriculture making up 35% of GDP (40% of exports) and mining (copper and gold) 15%. In 1989, exports included 40% of GDP. Other than mining, the industrial sector made up 9% of GDP with little contributing to exports. Food processing was the fastest growing segment of the industrial segment. 45% of agricultural production consisted of subsistence cultivation. Coffee and cocoa were the 2 leading cash crops. Financially, the country was sound in 1989 with exports and imports almost equal from 1986. The United States relationship with Papua New Guinea is friendly and the 2 countries have a good trade relationship.

  11. Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    The situation of the island archipelago nation of Papua New Guinea is reviewed in terms of its geography, people, history, government, politics economy and foreign relations. Papua New Guinea consists of the eastern half of the main island of New Guinea (the western portion is Indonesia), and several island groups, all located northeast of Australia. The island has extreme geographical variations, ranging from precipitous mountains to extensive swamps and river valleys, all in a monsoon cimate. As a result, there are hundreds of small groups each with unique cultures and languages; over 650 languages, many unrelated to each other. The population is estimated at 3.5 million, growing at about 2.5% per year. Historically, the region has been occupied by Germany, Britain, Japan, and the U.S. The country came under the international trusteeship system in 1949, and now has a vigorous parliamentary government. The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, but is buttressed by resources such as gold, copper, and other metals, oil, timber, tropical agricultural products, fish. The only indusry is local production, since the minimum wage is too high to compete with Asian labor. PMID:12177935

  12. A case of imported neurocysticercosis in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadas, Emilia; Badura, Robert; Marques, Tiago; Neno, Miguel; Boura, Márcia; Sutre, Ana Filipa; Beato, Sílvia; Grácio, Maria Amélia; Neves, José Cordeiro

    2015-01-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in resource-poor countries. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman born and residing in Guinea-Bissau, who was transferred to Portugal two months after the onset of a possible meningitis (fever, headache, seizures, and coma) that did not respond to antibiotic treatment. The diagnosis of NCC was confirmed by MR imaging, which showed multiple lesions compatible with cysticercus, and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the cerebrospinal fluid. After 28 days on albendazole and dexamethasone without improvement, she was started on praziquantel, which she completed in six weeks with progressive recovery.

  13. Neonatal vitamin A supplementation associated with increased atopy in girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, S; Kiraly, N; Da Costa, K;

    2015-01-01

    randomized controlled trial in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: In 2002-2004, we randomized 4345 normal birthweight neonates to NVAS (50 000 IU retinyl palmitate) or placebo together with their Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination. In 2013, we visited the 1692 (39%) children now aged 8-10 years who were still living...... in the study area, and 1478 (87%) were found at home. Provided consent, a skin prick test was performed, and history of allergic symptoms was recorded. Associations of NVAS and atopy (defined as skin prick test reaction of ≥3 mm) were analysed using binomial regression. RESULTS: Of the 1430 children...

  14. Potent Intratype Neutralizing Activity Distinguishes Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) from HIV-1

    OpenAIRE

    Özkaya Şahin, Gülşen; Holmgren, Birgitta; da Silva, Zacarias; Nielsen, Jens; Nowroozalizadeh, Salma; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Månsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Sören; Norrgren, Hans; Aaby, Peter; Jansson, Marianne; Fenyö, Eva Maria

    2012-01-01

    HIV-2 has a lower pathogenicity and transmission rate than HIV-1. Neutralizing antibodies could be contributing to these observations. Here we explored side by side the potency and breadth of intratype and intertype neutralizing activity (NAc) in plasma of 20 HIV-1-, 20 HIV-2-, and 11 dually HIV-1/2 (HIV-D)-seropositive individuals from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Panels of primary isolates, five HIV-1 and five HIV-2 isolates, were tested in a plaque reduction assay using U87.CD4-CCR5 cells a...

  15. The immunological effects of oral polio vaccine provided with BCG vaccine at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Lund, Najaaraq;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccines may have non-specific effects. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau suggested that oral polio vaccine at birth (OPV0) provided with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was associated with down-regulation of the immune response to BCG vaccine 6 weeks later. Based...... BCG alone at birth, and subsequently randomised to have a blood sample taken at 2, 4 or 6 weeks post-randomisation. Excreted levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ) were measured from whole blood in vitro stimulations with a panel of recall vaccine antigens (BCG, PPD, OPV), mitogen...

  16. The Effect of Oral Polio Vaccine at Birth on Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Najaaraq; Andersen, Andreas; Hansen, Anna Sofie K;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Routine vaccines may have nonspecific effects on mortality. An observational study found that OPV given at birth (OPV0) was associated with increased male infant mortality. We investigated the effect of OPV0 on infant mortality in a randomized trial in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: A total...... of 7012 healthy normal-birth-weight neonates were randomized to BCG only (intervention group) or OPV0 with BCG (usual practice). All children were to receive OPV with pentavalent vaccine (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and hepatitis B) at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Seven...

  17. High mortality risk among individuals assumed to be TB-negative can be predicted using a simple test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine mortality among assumed TB negative (aTBneg) individuals in Guinea-Bissau and to investigate whether plasma levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) can be used to determine post-consultation mortality risk. METHODS: This prospective West-African cohort study included......PAR levels negative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed...... a high mortality rate among aTBneg individuals and demonstrated that suPAR measurements can provide prognostic information on mortality among individuals without disease diagnosis. Measuring suPAR is a technically simple method for determining mortality risk in individuals that are assumed to be TB-negative....

  18. Vitamin D as Supplementary Treatment for Tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Gomes, Victor F; Rabna, Paulo;

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE: Vitamin D has been shown to be involved in host immune response towards M. tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: To test whether vitamin D supplementation of TB patients improved clinical outcome and reduced mortality. METHODS: We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in TB...... clinics at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea Bissau. We included 365 adult TB patients starting anti-tuberculosis treatment, 281 completed 12 month follow-up. The intervention was 100,000 IU cholecalciferol or placebo at inclusion and again at 5 and 8 months after start of treatment. Measurements...

  19. The effect of at-birth vitamin A supplementation on differential leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mathias J; Fisker, Ane B; Sartono, Erliyani;

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth was not associated with improved survival in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in Guinea-Bissau. However, a negative sex-differential effect, which became evident after diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination, was noted; among girls who had...... with lower TNF-α and IL-10 production for girls without DTP and boys with DTP, resulting in significant three-way interactions between VAS, sex and DTP vaccination status (P=0·03 and P=0·04, respectively) for spontaneous TNF-α and IL-10 production. The results substantiate the potential role of VAS...

  20. Effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation on the immune response to Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Birgitte R; Fisker, Ane B; Roth, Adam;

    2007-01-01

    scar was not affected by VAS. The ex vivo interferon-gamma response to PPD was increased by VAS (means ratio: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.91). CONCLUSIONS: VAS with BCG vaccination does not appear to interfere with the long-term immune response to BCG. However, VAS temporarily altered the DTH reaction to PPD...... objective was to examine whether VAS influences the immune response to simultaneously administered BCG vaccine. DESIGN: Within a randomized trial of 50,000 IU vitamin A or placebo given with BCG vaccine at birth in Guinea-Bissau, 2710 infants were examined for BCG scar formation and delayed...

  1. Giardia Duodenalis e Desnutrição Crónica em Crianças Menores de Cinco Anos de uma Região Rural da Guiné-Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Centeno-Lima, Sónia; Rosado-Marques, Vitor; Ferreira, Filipa; Rodrigues, Ruben; Indenque, Benjamim; Camará, Idrissa; de Sousa, Bruno; Aguiar, Pedro; Nunes, Baltazar; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    [PT] Introdução: A desnutrição e as infecções por parasitas intestinais como Giardia duodenalis coexistem nas mesmas regiões geográficas, atingindo maiores prevalências em países em desenvolvimento. O ciclo da desnutrição e infecção implica que ambas as condições se podem agravar mutuamente e comprometer o crescimento e desenvolvimento das crianças, com especial relevância para as menores de cinco anos. O objectivo do presente estudo foi investigar a associação entre a desnutrição crónica e a...

  2. Parasitoses intestinais em crianças de uma região rural da Guiné-Bissau: prevalência e relação com o estado nutricional

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Raquel Lima dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Humana e Ambiente). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2010 As parasitoses intestinais (helmintoses e protozooses) representam um grave problema de saúde pública nos países em desenvolvimentos. A morbilidade causada por estes agentes patogénicos é na maioria das vezes relacionada com desnutrição, resultando em deficiências no desenvolvimento físico e cognitivo da população infantil, geralmente a mais afectada. Os principais mecanismos de tra...

  3. Relação da cárie dentária com os hábitos alimentares da população infanto-juvenil da Guiné-Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Carolina Tendeiro da

    2014-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária Introdução e objetivos: A cárie dentária é uma das mais frequentes doenças da infância e a alimentação pode constituir um importante factor de risco, já que a etiologia da cárie dentária está relacionada com a ação de microorganismos orais que produzem ácidos orgânicos, a partir do metabolismo dos hidratos de carbono. A higiene oral ...

  4. José Manuel Pureza, Sílvia Roque e Katia Cardoso (orgs., Jovens e trajetórias de violência. Os casos de Bissau e da Praia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Num momento em que acontecimentos recentes como a Primavera Árabe, as manifestações dos Indignados, e os movimentos “Occupy” puseram em destaque as juventudes e as tensões entre economia, direitos e segurança, este livro reveste‑se de particular importância. Em Jovens e trajetórias de violência, compêndio de textos organizados por José Manuel Pureza, Sílvia Roque e Katia Cardoso e resultante de um projeto de investigação apoiado pela Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, um conjunto diverso ...

  5. Africa's contribution to putting an end to nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    African States play an important role in worldwide efforts towards nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament. All 53 African States are parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which aims at preventing the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, advancing nuclear disarmament, and facilitating the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Of Africa's 53 States, 51 have signed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and 38 have also ratified it as of September 2010. Mauritius and Somalia are the only two States still to sign the Treaty. The States that have signed but not yet ratified are: Angola, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Sao Tome and Principe, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. Egypt's ratification is of particular importance as it is one of those States whose ratification is required for the Treaty's entry into force.

  6. Interaction between neonatal vitamin A supplementation and timing of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Martins, Cesario L; Fisker, Ane B;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Guinea-Bissau we conducted three trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) from 2002 to 2008. None of the trials found a beneficial effect on mortality. From 2003 to 2007, an early measles vaccine (MV) trial was ongoing, randomizing children 1:2 to early MV at 4.5 months ...... with vaccines given several months later. This may have implications for the planning of future child intervention programs.......BACKGROUND: In Guinea-Bissau we conducted three trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) from 2002 to 2008. None of the trials found a beneficial effect on mortality. From 2003 to 2007, an early measles vaccine (MV) trial was ongoing, randomizing children 1:2 to early MV at 4.5 months...... for children randomized to early MV or no early MV; and second, from 9 to 17 months in children who had received two MV or one MV. Mortality rates (MR) were compared in Cox models producing mortality rate ratios (MRR). RESULTS: A total of 5141 children were randomized to NVAS (N=3015) or placebo (N=2126...

  7. Impact of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1+2 dual infection on the outcome of tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, C; Patsche, C B; Kühle, A;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection has been shown to impact the outcome of patients with tuberculosis (TB), but data regarding the impact of HIV-2 on TB outcomes are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV types on mortality among TB patients in Guinea-Bissau and to examine the...... predictive ability of the TBscoreII, a clinical score used to assess disease severity. METHODS: In a prospective follow-up study, we examined the prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1+2 co-infection in TB patients in Guinea-Bissau, and the impact on outcomes at 12 months of follow-up. We included all adult...... seventy-nine patients were HIV-infected: 241 had HIV-1, 93 had HIV-2, and 45 were HIV-1+2 dual infected. The HIV type-associated risk of TB was 6-fold higher for HIV-1, 7-fold higher for HIV-1+2 dual infection, and 2-fold higher for HIV-2 compared with the HIV-uninfected. Of the patients included, 144 (11...

  8. Activity studies of sesquiterpene oxides and sulfides from the plant Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) and its repellency on Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashitani, T; Garboui, S S; Schubert, F; Vongsombath, C; Liblikas, I; Pålsson, K; Borg-Karlson, A-K

    2015-12-01

    Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), a plant traditionally used as a mosquito repellent, has been investigated for repellent properties against nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus. Essential oils and volatile compounds of fresh and dried leaves, from plants originating from Laos and Guinea-Bissau, were identified by GC-MS and tested in a tick repellency bioassay. All the essential oils were strongly repellent against the ticks, even though the main volatile constituents differed in their proportions of potentially tick repellent chemicals. (+)/(-)-sabinene were present in high amounts in all preparations, and dominated the emission from dry and fresh leaves together with 1,8-cineol and α-phellandrene. 1,8-Cineol and sabinene were major compounds in the essential oils from H. suaveolens from Laos. Main compounds in H. suaveolens from Guinea-Bissau were (-)-sabinene, limonene and terpinolene. Among the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons identified, α-humulene exhibited strong tick repellency (96.8 %). Structure activity studies of oxidation or sulfidation products of germacrene D, α-humulene and β-caryophyllene, showed increased tick repellent activity: of mint sulfide (59.4 %), humulene-6,7-oxide (94.5 %) and caryophyllene-6,7-oxide (96.9 %). The substitution of oxygen with sulfur slightly lowered the repellency. The effects of the constituents in the oils can then be regarded as a trade off between the subsequently lower volatility of the sesquiterpene derivatives compared to the monoterpenes and may thus increase their potential usefulness as tick repellents. PMID:26385208

  9. Papua New Guinea Student Assesment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This report focuses specifically on policies in the area of student assessment. Papua New Guinea has focused on increasing student learning outcomes by improving the quality of education in the country. An effective student assessment system is an important component of efforts to improve education quality and learningoutcomes because it provides the necessary information to meet stakehold...

  10. Alternative Poultry Breeding: Guinea Fowl Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezai Alkan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guinea fowl live on the Africa continent as wild and where used intensively family livestock farming in the rural. Although the homeland of the Africa continent, Guinea growing rapidly increasing in the World. Nowadays, Guinea fowl is an important alternative genetic resource can be used in organic livestock farming which developing quickly. Able to adapt to different climatic conditions, have an economic efficiency level in the don’t good environmental conditions and being resistant to diseases are the biggest advantages. Besides, Guinea fowl eats insects, ticks, worms, mouse and snakes, especially in the surrounding of the livestock farming in the rural it can be used for biological control of these pests easily. Because of these advantages, Guinea fowl has a potential for alternative poultry production in Turkey. In this review, importance and general characteristics of Guinea fowl are given.

  11. Guinea pig model of tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pushpa Gupta; U.D.Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Animal models are being developed for testing different vaccine candidates as well as testing of new antituber-cular since a long time.Mice,guinea pigs and rabbits are animals which are frequently used.Though each model has got its merits as well as demerits and each of them differ from human tuberculosis in one aspect or the other but none of the model completely mimics the human disease.Out of the different animal species, guinea pig model is one of the better models as it is very sensitive to M.tuberculosis infection but it has certain limitations like paucity of immunological reagents.However,it is the best model for tuberculosis research.

  12. Severe allergic reactions to guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Jeffrey L

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic sensitization and reactions to guinea pig (Cavia porcellus have been well documented in laboratory animal handlers, primarily manifesting as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Severe allergic reactions, however, are rare. Methods We report two patients with severe allergic reactions following non-occupational exposure to guinea pigs. The first patient, an 11-year-old female, developed ocular, nasal, skin and laryngeal edema symptoms immediately after handling a guinea pig. The second patient, a 24-year-old female, developed symptoms of isolated laryngeal edema after cleaning a guinea pig cage. Percutaneous skin testing, RAST, ELISA and ELISA inhibition testing with guinea pig extract were performed. Results Both patients had IgE-mediated allergy to guinea pig confirmed by ELISA and either RAST or skin testing. ELISA inhibition studies confirmed the specificity of the IgE reactivity to guinea pig. Conclusion Severe IgE-mediated reactions can occur following non-occupational guinea pig exposure. Physicians should be aware of this possibility.

  13. Clausiliidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) from western New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosjes, F.E.

    1956-01-01

    During the zoological exploration of Netherlands New Guinea sponsored by the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, in 1954-1955, four specimens of Clausiliidae were found. There are no previous records of the occurrence of Clausiliidae in New Guinea; the most eastern locality in the Indo-Aus

  14. Prolactin Family of the Guinea Pig, Cavia porcellus

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, S.M. Khorshed; Konno, Toshihiro; Rumi, M. A. Karim; Dong, Yafeng; Weiner, Carl P.; Soares, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a multifunctional hormone with prominent roles in regulating growth and reproduction. The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) has been extensively used in endocrine and reproduction research. Thus far, the PRL cDNA and protein have not been isolated from the guinea pig. In the present study, we used information derived from the public guinea pig genome database as a tool for identifying guinea pig PRL and PRL-related proteins. Guinea pig PRL exhibits prominent nucleotide and amino...

  15. Guinea-pig breeding for meat production

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera Hidalgo, Grey Estefanía

    2013-01-01

    Guinea-pig breeding for meat production is one of the unknown economical activities in the Czech Republic and in many other contries in the world. It is an industry that is developing fast in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Colombia, because of fact that it is easy, fast and it does not need a lot of investment and where its consumption averages 20 to 65 milion guinea-pigs per year. The main objective of guinea-pig breeding just like breeding of other livestock, is to produce big amounts of meat w...

  16. Papua New Guinea Tsunami, July 17, 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On the evening of Friday July 17, 1998, a magnitude Ms 7.1 earthquake occurred near the northwest coast Papua New Guinea 850 km (510 miles ) northwest of Port...

  17. English and Tok Pisin (New Guinea Pidgin English) in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    1989-01-01

    Tok Pisin, New Guinea Pidgin English, is becoming increasingly important as a "lingua franca" in Papua New Guinea, even though English is the country's official language. Urban versus rural and spoken versus written varieties of the pidgin are examined, and the influence of English on Tok Pisin is investigated. 73 references. (Author/CB)

  18. Malignant transformation of guinea pig cells after exposure to ultraviolet-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinea pig cells were malignantly transformed in vitro by ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV). When guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers were infected with uv-irradiated GPCMV, three continuous epithelioid cell lines which grew in soft agarose were established. Two independently derived GPCMV-transformed liver cells and a cell line derived from a soft agarose clone of one of these lines induced invasive tumors when inoculated subcutaneously or intraperitoneally into nude mice. The tumors were sarcomas possibly derived from hepatic stroma or sinusoid. Transformed cell lines were also established after infection of guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or simian virus 40 (SV40). These cell lines also formed colonies in soft agarose and induced sarcomas in nude mice. It is concluded that (i) GPCMV can malignantly transform guinea pig cells; (ii) cloning of GPCMV-transformed cells in soft agarose produced cells that induced tumors with a shorter latency period but with no alteration in growth rate or final tumor size; and (iii) the tumors produced by GPCMV-and HCMV-transformed guinea pig cells were more similar to each other in growth rate than to those induced by SV40-transformed guinea pig cells

  19. Vitamin C deficiency in weanling guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Trueba, Gilberto Perez; Poulsen, Henrik E.;

    2007-01-01

    Neonates are particularly susceptible to malnutrition due to their limited reserves of micronutrients and their rapid growth. In the present study, we examined the effect of vitamin C deficiency on markers of oxidative stress in plasma, liver and brain of weanling guinea pigs. Vitamin C deficiency...... increased, while protein oxidation decreased (P¼0003). The results show that the selective preservation of brain ascorbate and induction of DNA repair in vitamin C-deficient weanling guinea pigs is not sufficient to prevent oxidative damage. Vitamin C deficiency may therefore be particularly adverse during...

  20. A community study of T lymphocyte subsets and malaria parasitaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H;

    1994-01-01

    In a community survey of 312 children aged 3-6 years in urban Guinea-Bissau, we examined Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia and T cell subsets. 183 children (59%) had parasites in their blood, 13 had fever > or = 37.5 degrees C, and 9 (3%) had fever and a parasite density > 5000/microL (clinical....... Children with parasitaemia but without fever had a significantly lower percentage of CD4 cells than children without parasites (P = 0.031), but did not differ in any other haematological index. Controlling for other factors, the CD4 cell percentage was inversely correlated with the density of malaria...... malaria). Compared with children with no parasitaemia or asymptomatic parasitaemia, children with acute malaria had lymphopenia and significantly lower total CD4 and CD8 cell counts, but there was no significant difference in white blood cell count percentages of CD4 and CD8 cells, or the CD4/CD8 ratio...

  1. High mortality despite good care-seeking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare;

    1997-01-01

    The care-seeking behaviour of mothers of 125 children deceased aged 1-30 months was investigated by verbal autopsy in an urban area of Guinea-Bissau. A total of 93% of the children were seen at a health centre or hospital during the 2 weeks before death. In a previous survey covering the period...... beds resulted in 15 mothers being refused hospitalization for their child. Of hospitalized children, 42% were discharged as improved or recovered during the 30 days preceding death. These results reveal a need for improved hospital admission criteria, improved recognition of the symptoms of serious...... 1987-90 we found that 78% of the children who died had presented for consultation (8); despite this increase in care seeking, infant mortality had not decreased. Comparison of elapsed time from disease onset to first consultation between children who died and matched surviving controls indicated...

  2. First report of sylvatic DENV-2-associated dengue hemorrhagic fever in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Franco

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV circulates in human and sylvatic cycles. Sylvatic strains are both ecologically and evolutionarily distinct from endemic viruses. Although sylvatic dengue cycles occur in West African countries and Malaysia, only a few cases of mild human disease caused by sylvatic strains and one single case of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Malaysia have been reported. Here we report a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF with thrombocytopenia (13000/µl, a raised hematocrit (32% above baseline and mucosal bleeding in a 27-year-old male returning to Spain in November 2009 after visiting his home country Guinea Bissau. Sylvatic DENV-2 West African lineage was isolated from blood and sera. This is the first case of DHF associated with sylvatic DENV-2 in Africa and the second case worldwide of DHF caused by a sylvatic strain.

  3. First report of sylvatic DENV-2-associated dengue hemorrhagic fever in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Leticia; Palacios, Gustavo; Martinez, José Antonio; Vázquez, Ana; Savji, Nazir; De Ory, Fernando; Sanchez-Seco, María Paz; Martín, Dolores; Lipkin, W Ian; Tenorio, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) circulates in human and sylvatic cycles. Sylvatic strains are both ecologically and evolutionarily distinct from endemic viruses. Although sylvatic dengue cycles occur in West African countries and Malaysia, only a few cases of mild human disease caused by sylvatic strains and one single case of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Malaysia have been reported. Here we report a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) with thrombocytopenia (13000/µl), a raised hematocrit (32% above baseline) and mucosal bleeding in a 27-year-old male returning to Spain in November 2009 after visiting his home country Guinea Bissau. Sylvatic DENV-2 West African lineage was isolated from blood and sera. This is the first case of DHF associated with sylvatic DENV-2 in Africa and the second case worldwide of DHF caused by a sylvatic strain.

  4. Reduced in-hospital mortality after improved management of children under 5 years admitted to hospital with malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biai, Sidu; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Gomes, Melba;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test whether strict implementation of a standardised protocol for the management of malaria and provision of a financial incentive for health workers reduced mortality. DESIGN: Randomised controlled intervention trial. SETTING: Paediatric ward at the national hospital in Guinea......)/month for nurses and $160 for doctors) and their compliance with standard case management was closely monitored. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In-hospital mortality and cumulative mortality within 4 weeks of hospital admission. RESULTS: In-hospital mortality was 5% for the intervention group and 10% in the control group......-Bissau. All children admitted to hospital with severe malaria received free drug kits. PARTICIPANTS: 951 children aged 3 months to 5 years admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of malaria randomised to normal or intervention wards. INTERVENTIONS: Before the start of the study, all personnel were trained...

  5. Long term impact of high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine on T lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Knudsen, K;

    1994-01-01

    conducted in Guinea-Bissau. To test for possible long term impact on the immune system, an investigation of T cell subsets was conducted among all children still residing in the community at 3 to 5 years of age. No differences were found between recipients of medium titer vaccine and controls. In the second......Several trials of high titer measles vaccine (> 10(4.7) plaque-forming unit) have found female recipients of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) vaccine to have lower survival than female recipients of standard measles vaccine. Two trials with medium and high titer EZ vaccine from the age of 4 months were...... unlikely to explain the reduced survival which has been associated with high titer EZ measles vaccination. In the 2 years after the investigation of T cell subsets, there was no increased mortality for recipients of EZ vaccine. Hence it is unlikely that high titer vaccine has an persistent adverse effect...

  6. The effects of vitamin A supplementation with measles vaccine on leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    As WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after age 6 months, many children receive VAS together with measles vaccine (MV). We aimed to investigate the immunological effect of VAS given with MV. Within a randomised placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect...... on overall mortality of providing VAS with vaccines in Guinea-Bissau, we conducted an immunological sub-study of VAS v. placebo with MV, analysing leucocyte counts, whole blood in vitro cytokine production, vitamin A status and concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP). VAS compared with placebo...... on cytokine responses differed by previous VAS: in previous VAS recipients, VAS increased the pro-inflammatory and T helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokine responses, whereas VAS decreased these responses in previously unsupplemented children. In previous VAS recipients, VAS was associated with increased IFN...

  7. Maeslingevaccination og alder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Andersen, M; Sodemann, Morten;

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies have found administration of high-titre measles vaccine before 9 months of age to be associated with reduced survival. Since this suggests that early immunization could be unsafe, we examined the results of immunization campaigns with Schwarz standard measles vaccine carried out...... in 1980-1983 in three areas of Guinea-Bissau. Children were followed to death, migration or the age of five years. Children immunized at 4-8 months of age, of whom many were later re-immunized, had lower mortality between nine months and five years of age compared with children vaccinated at 9-11 months...... of age. The improved survival was unrelated to better protection against measles. There was no sign of socio-cultural differences between children immunized at different ages. Vaccination before 9 months of age is apparently safe and it may reduce childhood mortality compared with the currently...

  8. Quantification of Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load in a rural West African population: no enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 pathogenesis, but HTLV-I provirus load relates to mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariyoshi, K; Berry, N; Cham, F;

    2003-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load was examined in a cohort of a population in Guinea-Bissau among whom human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 is endemic. Geometric mean of HIV-2 RNA load among HTLV-I-coinfected subjects was significantly lower than that in subjects...... infected with HIV-2 alone (212 vs. 724 copies/mL; P=.02). Adjusted for age, sex, and HIV status, the risk of death increased with HTLV-I provirus load; mortality hazard ratio was 1.59 for each log10 increase in HTLV-I provirus copies (P=.038). There is no enhancing effect of HTLV-I coinfection on HIV-2...

  9. First report of sylvatic DENV-2-associated dengue hemorrhagic fever in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Leticia; Palacios, Gustavo; Martinez, José Antonio; Vázquez, Ana; Savji, Nazir; De Ory, Fernando; Sanchez-Seco, María Paz; Martín, Dolores; Lipkin, W Ian; Tenorio, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) circulates in human and sylvatic cycles. Sylvatic strains are both ecologically and evolutionarily distinct from endemic viruses. Although sylvatic dengue cycles occur in West African countries and Malaysia, only a few cases of mild human disease caused by sylvatic strains and one single case of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Malaysia have been reported. Here we report a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) with thrombocytopenia (13000/µl), a raised hematocrit (32% above baseline) and mucosal bleeding in a 27-year-old male returning to Spain in November 2009 after visiting his home country Guinea Bissau. Sylvatic DENV-2 West African lineage was isolated from blood and sera. This is the first case of DHF associated with sylvatic DENV-2 in Africa and the second case worldwide of DHF caused by a sylvatic strain. PMID:21829739

  10. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cecilia; Garly, M.L.;

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine in a randomised trial whether a 25% difference in mortality exists between 4.5 months and 3 years of age for children given two standard doses of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those given one dose of measles vaccine at 9 months...... of age (current policy). Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting The Bandim Health Project, Guinea-Bissau, which maintains a health and demographic surveillance system in an urban area. Participants 6648 children aged 4.5 months of age who had received three doses of diphtheria......-tetanus-pertussis vaccine at least four weeks before enrolment. A large proportion of the children (80%) had previously taken part in randomised trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation. Intervention Children were randomised to receive Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age (group A), no vaccine...

  11. High-dose vitamin A with vaccination after 6 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Bale, Carlito; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2014-01-01

    diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccines, and 21% (1610/7587) received both live and inactivated vaccines. The effect of VAS did not differ by vaccine group. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of the policy on overall mortality. VAS had no overall effect......BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at routine vaccination contacts after 6 months of age based on the assumption that it reduces mortality by 24%. The policy has never been evaluated in randomized controlled trials for its effect on overall...... mortality. We conducted a randomized double-blind trial to evaluate the effect of VAS with vaccines. METHODS: We randomized children aged 6 to 23 months 1:1 to VAS (100000 IU if aged 6-11 months, 200000 IU if aged 12-23 months) or placebo at vaccination contacts in Guinea-Bissau. Mortality rates were...

  12. Piraatlus Guinea lahes ja Nigeerias / Eero Tepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tepp, Eero

    2013-01-01

    Guinea lahes lokkava piraatluse põhjused ja tegurid, mis seda soodustavad: seaduselüngad, looduslikud tingimused, ebapädev korrakaitse, poliitiline olustik, kultuuriline vastuvõetavus, majanduslik tasuvus. Sõjalised ja mittesõjalised meetmetest, mida rakendatakse piraatlusevastases võitluses

  13. The Papua and New Guinea Herbarium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Womersley, J.S.; Botanist, Forest

    1951-01-01

    A short account of the establishment of the Herbarium of the Department of Forests, Papua and New Guinea appeared on p. 61, no 3, volume I of Flora Malesiana Bulletin. This Herbarium has now been firmly established and is constantly receiving collections of plants from various parts of Papua and New

  14. Public Library Development in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijasuriya, D. E. K.; Evans, John

    1992-01-01

    Presents the findings and recommendations of a consultant supported by UNESCO who prepared a public library development plan for Papua New Guinea. Highlights include extending existing urban library services to rural areas; literacy programs; libraries' roles in national development; financial support; policy and legislation; and education and…

  15. Equatorial Guinea : Public Investment Management Review

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Moreno, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The chapter offers concise diagnostics of the public investment management (PIM) system in Equatorial Guinea. It provides specific examples of how underperforming institutions throughout the investment process raise the risk of selecting white elephants, reducing the value for money of investment projects and undermining the quality of completed projects. Politically compatible recommendat...

  16. The Phytogeography of New Guinea Solanum (Solanaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Symon, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Solanaceae, of which Solanum is the type species, comprise a southern hemisphere family. A general biogeographical introduction is given, with an account of plate tectonics and a discussion of Wallace’s Line and the geographic history of New Guinea. The widely accepted sections of Solanum are di

  17. On the New-Guinea Mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1907-01-01

    New-Guinea has been called by A. R. Wallace the greatest terra incognita that still remains for the naturalist to explore, and the only region where altogether new and unimagined forms of life may perhaps be found. This he wrote in 1869 and we now living in 1906 can, as a matter of fact, underline t

  18. Tibial osteosynthesis in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Macedo; M.A. Goulart; M.M. Alievi; V.S. Mombach; Í.S. Dal-Bó; M.S. Mucillo; R. B. Silva; B.W. Minto

    2015-01-01

    A guinea pig was presented with left pelvic limb lameness after unknown trauma. Radiographs revealed complete oblique diaphyseal fracture of the distal third of the left tibia and fibula. The guinea pig was treated surgically with an intramedullary pin. The day after surgery the guinea pig was using the limb comfortably (grade 1/5 lameness). Callus formation was obtained 21 days after surgery without complications.

  19. Indigenous Cultural Festival In Papua New Guinea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang; Xinhua

    2013-01-01

    <正>In August 2012,I had an opportunity to visit Papua New Guinea,situated in the tropical rainforest areas in the western South Pacific Ocean,adjacent to Indonesia in the west and facing Australia across the Torres Straits in the south.It has over 600 big and small islands and a population of 6.75 million with more than 800 tribes speaking

  20. Elastase-induced emphysema in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary function changes measured in guinea pigs 4 to 5 wk following intratracheal instillation of crystalline porcine pancreatic elastase resembled comparable changes in humans with moderately severe pulmonary emphysema. Compared with saline-treated controls, elastase-treated animals had increased values for all divisions of lung volume, increased static compliance and prolonged time constants. Since humans with emphysema are especially sensitive to air pollutants, elastase-treated animals may be useful as sensitive animal models in inhalatio toxicology

  1. Anthrax, fairly undetected in Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson Makaen; Lydia Tasi

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is caused by the organism Bacillus anthracis. The organism is globally occurring and epidemics are reported the world over. It is an important infectious disease of domestic animals and can survive harsh conditions that would otherwise be drastic for other microorganisms. To date, no outbreak has been reported in the Pacific Island region except Australia and New Zealand where B. anthracis has been isolated from livestock. Papua New Guinea has had sporadic (reported) instances of anth...

  2. Las labiadas (Lamiaceae) de Guinea Ecuatorial

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, R.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of 223 collections of the Lamiaceae family, from Bioko island, Rio Muni (Equatorial Guinea mainland) and Annobon, corresponding to 14 genera and 28 species, is presented. A key of genera and, in each genus, a key of species are included. The basionym and type material, a brief description, the known chromosomic numbers, the distribution area and some known popular uses from each species, also included are photographs of sheets and distribution maps. Some biogeographical asp...

  3. Briti eliit üritas kukutada Ekvatoriaal-Guinea valitsust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Ekvatoriaal-Guineas ja Zimbabwes on vahistatud kümneid inimesi, keda süüdistatakse riigipöördekatses Ekvatoriaal-Guineas. Suurbritannia endise peaministri Margaret Thatcher'i poega Mark Thatcher'it süüdistatakse riigipöördekatse rahastamisele kaasaaitamises

  4. Clean advice for oily money : Consulting for Equatorial Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lachotzki, F.W.I.; Karssing, E.D.

    2011-01-01

    Equatorial Guinea is one of the most extraordinary countries in the world, if also one of the most obscure. Its tremendous yearly revenue from the oil concessions it grants in its Gulf of Guinea territorial waters is little known, but so too is its abysmal record on human rights. The deep-rooted cor

  5. The Guinea Pigs of a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sarasvathie; McKenna, Sioux

    2016-01-01

    Participants in a study on learning the clinical aspects of medicine in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum repeatedly referred to themselves as "Guinea pigs" at the mercy of a curriculum experiment. This article interrogates and problematises the "Guinea pig" identity ascribed to and assumed by the first cohort of…

  6. WWF Kikori Catchment Developmental Project, Papua New Guinea orchid survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clements, M.A.; Harris, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    The World Wildlife Fund (Kikori Catchment Developmental Project, Papua New Guinea) has commenced field surveys of the Orchidaceae in the Lake Kutabu and Mt Bosavi areas of Papua New Guinea. The main purpose of the survey is to get a more accurate assessment of the orchids in the region. In a previou

  7. Republic of Equatorial Guinea; Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This report discusses the IMF estimates and projections of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea's central government financial operations, 2001–06; the tax system as of march 2007; public investment program during 2004–06 (execution) and 2007–08 (budgeted); monetary survey during 2001–06; details of central bank and commercial bank assets during 2001–06; fiscal indicators during 2001–06; and estimates on public debts during 2001–06, etc.

  8. Protection of breastfeeding in Papua New Guinea.

    OpenAIRE

    Friesen, H.; Vince, J; Boas, P.; Danaya, R.

    1999-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea the bottle-feeding of babies has been increasing, predominantly among unemployed women of low educational status. Many women are unaware of their legal right to have breaks at work for the purpose of breastfeeding, and a high proportion of workplaces have no facilities for mothers who wish to breastfeed their children. The laws on the feeding of infants should be updated and implemented, and an effort is needed to explain the benefits of breastfeeding and the rights of wor...

  9. Bryophytes from the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (West-Central Africa) : 2., bryophytes collected by Emilio Guinea (1907-1985) in the Island of Bioco in 1947

    OpenAIRE

    Infante, Marta; Heras, Patxi; Buck, William R.

    1997-01-01

    Some unidentified samples of bryophytes collected by Emilio Guinea in Bioco (Equatorial Guinea) in 1947 have been studied. Twenty-seven taxa are the result of this study, nine of them being new for Equatorial Guinea and two new for the island of Bioco. Se han estudiado varias muestras de briófitos sin identificar recogidas por Emilio Guinea en Bioco (Guinea Ecuatorial) en 1947. Veintisiete taxones son el resultado de este estudio, siendo nueve de ellos novedad para Guinea Ecuatorial y dos ...

  10. Effect of antithymocyte serum on the course of chlamydial genital infection in female guinea pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Rank, R G; Barron, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    The treatment of female guinea pigs, infected in the genital tract with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis, with rabbit anti-guinea pig thymocyte serum extended the course of the infection by 20 to 30 days. The rabbit anti-guinea pig thymocyte serum was shown to suppress delayed hypersensitivity responses to the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis agent and the contact allergen oxazolone. The appearance of antibody in genital secretions was delayed, but the infection ...

  11. Parasitic zoonoses in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, I L

    2005-03-01

    Relatively few species of zoonotic parasites have been recorded in humans in Papua New Guinea. A greater number of potentially zoonotic species, mostly nematodes, occur in animals but are yet to be reported from humans. Protozoa is the best represented group of those infecting man, with Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanesis, Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Entamoeba polecki, Balantidium coli and, possibly, Blastocystis hominis. The only zoonotic helminths infecting humans include the trematode Paragonimus westermani, the cestodes Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta and the sparganum larva of Spirometra erinacea, and the nematodes Trichinella papuae and Angiostrongylus cantonensis and, possibly, Ascaris suum. Other groups represented are Acanthocephala (Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus)), insects (Chrysomya bezziana, Cimex sp., Ctenocephalides spp.), and mites (Leptotrombidium spp. and, possibly Sarcoptes scabiei, and Demodex sp.). One leech (Phytobdella lineata) may also be considered as being zoonotic. The paucity of zoonotic parasite species can be attributed to long historical isolation of the island of New Guinea and its people, and the absence until recent times of large placental mammals other than pig and dog. Some zoonotic helminths have entered the country with recent importation of domestic animals, in spite of quarantine regulations, and a few more (two cestodes, one nematode and one tick) are poised to enter from neighbouring countries, given the opportunity. Improvement in water supplies, human hygiene and sanitation would reduce the prevalence of many of these parasites, and thorough cooking of meat would lessen the risk of infection by some others. PMID:15831107

  12. Nations of the earth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These books contain summaries of the national reports prepared for the UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, June 1992. Summary reports of the following countries are included: V. 1) Algeria, Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Canada, Chad, China, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, France, Guinea, Jordan, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Paraguay, Romania, Senegal, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Sweden, Tokelau, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Yemen Arab Republic, Yugoslavia. V. 2) Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Bulgaria, Central African Republic, Colombia, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Japan, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Morocco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Oman, Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, Pacific Islands Developing Countries, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sudan, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Zimbabwe

  13. World species of the genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charuwat Taekul

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Scelioninae is a widespread group in the Old World, found from West Africa to northern Queensland, Australia. The species concepts are revised and a key to world species is presented. The genus is comprised of 6 species, including 2 known species which are redescribed: Platyscelio africanus Risbec (Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe; and Platyscelio pulchricornis Kieffer (Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Taiwan, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam. Five species-group names are considered to be junior synonyms of Platyscelio pulchricornis: Platyscelio abnormis Crawford, syn. n., Platyscelio dunensis Mukerjee, syn. n., Platyscelio mirabilis Dodd, syn. n., Platyscelio punctatus Kieffer, syn. n., and Platyscelio wilcoxi Fullaway. The following species are hypothesized and described as new taxa: Platyscelio arcuatus Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia; Platyscelio mysterium Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa; Platyscelio mzantsi Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (South Africa; and Platyscelio striga Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia.

  14. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  15. The genus Freycinetia (Pandanaceae) in New Guinea (Part 4)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh, Kim-Lang

    2002-01-01

    Seventeen new species of Freycinetia Gaudich. are described from groups of islands of New Guinea: Freycinetia admiraltiensis, F. amoena, F. formosula, F. granulata, F. lanceolata, F. nakanaiensis, F. novobritannica (Bismarck Archipelago), F. relegata, F. rossellana (Louisiade Archipelago), F. angust

  16. Anthrax, fairly undetected in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Makaen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is caused by the organism Bacillus anthracis. The organism is globally occurring and epidemics are reported the world over. It is an important infectious disease of domestic animals and can survive harsh conditions that would otherwise be drastic for other microorganisms. To date, no outbreak has been reported in the Pacific Island region except Australia and New Zealand where B. anthracis has been isolated from livestock. Papua New Guinea has had sporadic (reported instances of anthrax outbreak, but has not been scientifically established. It is still unclear if the anthrax causing organism is present in the environment or wildlife in the country. It remains to be so until scientific evidence becomes available. This article aims to review scientific evidence of anthrax in the country.

  17. Cholera risk factors, Papua New Guinea, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosewell Alexander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls. Independent risk factors for cholera were: being over 20 years of age (aOR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1, 5.4, defecating in the open air (or river (aOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.4, 14.4 and knowing someone who travelled to a cholera affected area (aOR 4.1; 95%CI 1.6, 10.7; while the availability of soap for handwashing at home was protective (aOR 0.41; 95%CI 0.19, 0.87. Those reporting access to a piped water distribution system in the home were twice as likely to report the availability of soap for handwashing. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 72% (95% CI 47–90 and 71% (95%CI 44–90%. Conclusions Improving population access to the piped water distribution system and sanitation will likely reduce transmission by enabling enhanced hygiene and limiting the contamination of water sources. The One step V. cholerae O1/O139 Antigen Test is of limited utility for clinical decision making in a hospital setting with access to traditional laboratory methods. Settlement dwellers and mobile populations of all age groups should be targeted for interventions in Papua New Guinea.

  18. Las labiadas (Lamiaceae de Guinea Ecuatorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, R.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of 223 collections of the Lamiaceae family, from Bioko island, Rio Muni (Equatorial Guinea mainland and Annobon, corresponding to 14 genera and 28 species, is presented. A key of genera and, in each genus, a key of species are included. The basionym and type material, a brief description, the known chromosomic numbers, the distribution area and some known popular uses from each species, also included are photographs of sheets and distribution maps. Some biogeographical aspects about the generic and specific distribution in the studied area are discussed. Calaminta pseudosimensis (Brenan R. Morales, comb. nov. is proposed.

    Se estudian e identifican 223 colecciones de plantas vasculares que corresponden a 14 géneros y 28 especies pertenecientes a la familia Lamiaceae procedentes de las islas de Bioko, Annobón y Río Muni (Guinea Ecuatorial continental. Se incluye una clave de géneros y en cada género, si ha lugar, clave de especies. Se citan de cada especie su basiónimo y material tipo, se incluyen una breve descripción y números cromosomáticos, área de distribución y usos populares conocidos. Se aportan fotografías de pliegos y mapas de distribución. Se discuten aspectos bio - geográficos dentro de la distribución genérica y específica en el área estudiada. Se propone la combinación Calaminta pseudosimensis (Brenan R. Morales, comb. nov.

  19. Republic of Equatorial Guinea; Staff Report 2006 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    Equatorial Guinea’s macroeconomic performance in the recent period has been broadly satisfactory. Despite the macroeconomic environment, however, progress in alleviating poverty and meeting the MDGs has been slow. Executive Directors welcome the government’s intention to prepare a National Poverty Reduction Strategy. In the meantime, the budget process needs to be modified. The pegged exchange rate regime has served Equatorial Guinea well, providing an anchor to hold down inflation and a ...

  20. Ascitic starch phagocytosis in experimental guinea-pig peritonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, J. B.; Davies, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Phagocytosis of starch granules in ascitic fluid was sought in guinea-pigs 1 to 10 days after i.p. injection of a suspension of starch powder. Starch phagocytosis occurred in 75.9% of control animals with free peritoneal fluid. It probably represents a nonspecific reaction to the particulate nature of starch granules. Guinea-pigs sensitized to starch by nuchal inoculation of an emulsion of Freund's adjuvant and starch showed no increase in frequency or intensity of ascitic starch phagocytosis...

  1. Radiation protection in hospitals of Equatorial Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a population of four hundred thousand (400.000) inhabitants and distributed in a territory of 28 thousand (28.000) km2, the use of ionizing radiations for medical practice in Equatorial Guinea is few and decreasing. It is used for diagnostic practices in the main hospitals of the country, where the work burden is not over 20 patients per day. The political, social and economical embryonic development of the country until recently had a negative influence on indicators and health organisations, so that even now the country does not have any radiological protection law, this shortness, in addition with the old architectural structure that x ray tools is lodging, as well as dosimetrical lack of employed staff, put this staff under risk of electromagnetic energy. This is to show the present survey of medical activities with ionizing radiation and to request technical support for implementing suitably the basic standards of radiation protection which will help us as basis for the elaboration outline law, on radiological protection in accordance with the new guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

  2. Ototoxicity of vancomycin in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海瑛; 高文元; 刁明芳; 张琰敏; 韩红; 王建文

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of vancomycin (V) with multiple intravenous injections on the inner ear of albino guinea pigs. Methods: Three groups of animals were injected with vancomycin hydrochloride (54, 108, 216 mg/kg tively as control groups. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and the duration of post-rotatory nystagmus (PRN) were measured before and after administration. Surface preparation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the cochlea were performed for histological examination. Results: In V 54, 108 mg/kg group, similar to saline control, there was 0- 1.1 dB of threshold shift. In V 216 mg/kg group, average hearing loss was 1.0- 5.7 dB immediately after administration and 1.3 -3.8 dB after 14 d, which was significantly lower than those in GM control group. As the saline control, no significant difference was found in PRN in all V groups before and after treatment; while in the GM group, PRN decreased significantly after treatment. Morphological evaluation demonstrated that in all V and saline animals there was no obvious missing of outer and inner hair cells and SEM showed normal surface morphology. In the GM group, there was 10% - 30% of outer and inner hair cells lost in the basal turn. Conclusion: The ototoxicity of vancomycin is absent or minimal after multiple introvenous administration within this dose range.

  3. Check list of the Melastomataceae of Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geerinck, Daniel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A chec klist of the Melastomataceae of Equatorial Guinea is presented with 57 taxa. Three species were accepted based only on literature records, their distribution área strongly suggests their presence in Equatorial Guinea. Six species are known from Annobón, 23 from Bioko and 49 from Río Muni. Best-represented genera are Memecylon (10, Calvoa (10 and Tristemma (7. Twenty-six taxa are newly recorded for the country. Heterotis obamae Lejoly & Lisowski is set in synonymy with the previously described Heterotis arenaria Jacq.-Fél.Se presenta el catálogo florístico de la familia Melastomataceae en Guinea Ecuatorial. Se recogen un total de 57 táxones. Tres especies fueron aceptadas teniendo en cuenta solamente la literatura. Su distribución sugiere que su presencia en Guinea Ecuatorial es muy probable. En Annobón están presentes 6 especies, 23 en Bioko y 49 en Río Muni. Los géneros mejor representados son Memecylon (10 especies, Calvoa (10 y Tristemma (7.Veintiséis táxones son citados por primera vez en Guinea Ecuatorial. Se propone Heterotis obamae Lejoly & Lisowski como sinónimo de Heterotis arenaria Jacq.-Fél.

  4. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  5. Use of a Guinea pig-specific transcriptome array for evaluation of protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection following intranasal vaccination in Guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shradha Wali

    Full Text Available Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.

  6. INVESTIGATION ON MODEL OF INFLAMMATORY PLEURAL EFFUSION IN GUINEA PIGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯源; 殷凯生; 王祥

    2002-01-01

    Objective To establish an animal model of inflammatory pleural effusion.Methods Forty guinea pigs were divided into two groups: experimental group with 7 subgroups and control group. In the experimental group the right chest cavity of each guinea pig was injected with 0.8~1.0 ml of 1% carrageenan, and guinea pigs of each subgroup were killed and observed respectively on day 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and day 14 after injection.Results Occurring on day 1(within 24 hours), pleural effusion reached the maximum on day 2~3 after injection, so did the neutrophil count in pleural effusion and inflammation of both pleura and lungs and then gradually decreased. The fibrosis and adhesion of pleura appeared on day 7 and were obvious on day 10. The encysted pleurisy was formed on day 14.Conclusion The carrageenan is an ideal pleural inflammatory inducer. This animal model is useful for studying pleural effusion.

  7. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  8. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in Guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie;

    2014-01-01

    of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require...... repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.......g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do...

  9. Parainfluenza 3-Induced Cough Hypersensitivity in the Guinea Pig Airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Zaccone

    Full Text Available The effect of respiratory tract viral infection on evoked cough in guinea pigs was evaluated. Guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with either parainfluenza type 3 (PIV3 and cough was quantified in conscious animals. The guinea pigs infected with PIV3 (day 4 coughed nearly three times more than those treated with the viral growth medium in response to capsaicin, citric acid, and bradykinin. Since capsaicin, citric acid, and bradykinin evoked coughing in guinea pigs can be inhibited by drugs that antagonize the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1, it was reasoned that the virally-induced hypertussive state may involve alterations in TPRV1 activity. PIV3 infection caused a phenotypic switch in tracheal nodose Aδ "cough receptors" such that nearly 50% of neurons began to express, de novo, TRPV1 mRNA. There was also an increase TRPV1 expression in jugular C-fiber neurons as determined by qPCR. It has previously been reported that tracheal-specific nodose neurons express the BDNF receptor TrkB and jugular neurons express the NGF receptor TrkA. Jugular neurons also express the artemin receptor GFRα3. All these neurotrophic factors have been associated with increases in TRPV1 expression. In an ex vivo perfused guinea pig tracheal preparation, we demonstrated that within 8 h of PIV3 infusion there was no change in NGF mRNA expression, but there was nearly a 10-fold increase in BDNF mRNA in the tissue, and a small but significant elevation in the expression of artemin mRNA. In summary, PIV3 infection leads to elevations in TRPV1 expression in the two key cough evoking nerve subtypes in the guinea pig trachea, and this is associated with a hypertussive state with respect to various TRPV1 activating stimuli.

  10. Parainfluenza 3-Induced Cough Hypersensitivity in the Guinea Pig Airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Eric J; Lieu, TinaMarie; Muroi, Yukiko; Potenzieri, Carl; Undem, Blair E; Gao, Peisong; Han, Liang; Canning, Brendan J; Undem, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    The effect of respiratory tract viral infection on evoked cough in guinea pigs was evaluated. Guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with either parainfluenza type 3 (PIV3) and cough was quantified in conscious animals. The guinea pigs infected with PIV3 (day 4) coughed nearly three times more than those treated with the viral growth medium in response to capsaicin, citric acid, and bradykinin. Since capsaicin, citric acid, and bradykinin evoked coughing in guinea pigs can be inhibited by drugs that antagonize the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1), it was reasoned that the virally-induced hypertussive state may involve alterations in TPRV1 activity. PIV3 infection caused a phenotypic switch in tracheal nodose Aδ "cough receptors" such that nearly 50% of neurons began to express, de novo, TRPV1 mRNA. There was also an increase TRPV1 expression in jugular C-fiber neurons as determined by qPCR. It has previously been reported that tracheal-specific nodose neurons express the BDNF receptor TrkB and jugular neurons express the NGF receptor TrkA. Jugular neurons also express the artemin receptor GFRα3. All these neurotrophic factors have been associated with increases in TRPV1 expression. In an ex vivo perfused guinea pig tracheal preparation, we demonstrated that within 8 h of PIV3 infusion there was no change in NGF mRNA expression, but there was nearly a 10-fold increase in BDNF mRNA in the tissue, and a small but significant elevation in the expression of artemin mRNA. In summary, PIV3 infection leads to elevations in TRPV1 expression in the two key cough evoking nerve subtypes in the guinea pig trachea, and this is associated with a hypertussive state with respect to various TRPV1 activating stimuli. PMID:27213574

  11. Parainfluenza 3-Induced Cough Hypersensitivity in the Guinea Pig Airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, TinaMarie; Muroi, Yukiko; Potenzieri, Carl; Undem, Blair E.; Gao, Peisong; Han, Liang; Canning, Brendan J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of respiratory tract viral infection on evoked cough in guinea pigs was evaluated. Guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with either parainfluenza type 3 (PIV3) and cough was quantified in conscious animals. The guinea pigs infected with PIV3 (day 4) coughed nearly three times more than those treated with the viral growth medium in response to capsaicin, citric acid, and bradykinin. Since capsaicin, citric acid, and bradykinin evoked coughing in guinea pigs can be inhibited by drugs that antagonize the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1), it was reasoned that the virally-induced hypertussive state may involve alterations in TPRV1 activity. PIV3 infection caused a phenotypic switch in tracheal nodose Aδ “cough receptors” such that nearly 50% of neurons began to express, de novo, TRPV1 mRNA. There was also an increase TRPV1 expression in jugular C-fiber neurons as determined by qPCR. It has previously been reported that tracheal-specific nodose neurons express the BDNF receptor TrkB and jugular neurons express the NGF receptor TrkA. Jugular neurons also express the artemin receptor GFRα3. All these neurotrophic factors have been associated with increases in TRPV1 expression. In an ex vivo perfused guinea pig tracheal preparation, we demonstrated that within 8 h of PIV3 infusion there was no change in NGF mRNA expression, but there was nearly a 10-fold increase in BDNF mRNA in the tissue, and a small but significant elevation in the expression of artemin mRNA. In summary, PIV3 infection leads to elevations in TRPV1 expression in the two key cough evoking nerve subtypes in the guinea pig trachea, and this is associated with a hypertussive state with respect to various TRPV1 activating stimuli. PMID:27213574

  12. ESTUDIO DE VIABILIDAD DE UNA CLINICA PRIVADA EN GUINEA ECUATORIAL

    OpenAIRE

    TEN ROLDÁN, CARLOTA

    2012-01-01

    El presente documento contiene un estudio de viabilidad sobre un proyecto consistente en la construcción de una clínica privada en Guinea Ecuatorial, concretamente en la ciudad de Bata, la más poblada del país. Esta idea surge de un propósito real de llevar a cabo dicho proyecto por parte de un inversor nativo de Guinea Ecuatorial.La metodología empleada para llevar a cabo dicha tarea ha sido elaboración de un estudio del entorno, analizando las características demográficas y económicas del p...

  13. DOCA-salts induce heart failure in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiritilli, A

    2001-10-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a common clinical problem confronting physicians and is often the final manifestation of many cardiovascular disorders. Despite recent advances in the pharmacological management of HF, it remains a highly lethal and disabling disorder. A number of animal models have been developed to study both the pathophysiology of HF and new therapeutic approaches to this complex syndrome. Only through an improved understanding of the basic biology of the early stages of the syndrome can HF be prevented or at least anticipated. With this in view, we have developed an easily realisable and inexpensive model in the guinea pig, which presents numerous structural, metabolic and biochemical similarities compared with the human heart. Thirty guinea pigs, aged 5 weeks and weighing 300 g were used. After anaesthesia, left nephrectomy was performed. After 1 week the guinea pigs were divided into: (a) control group (n=15), which received an injection of vehicle as well as tap water for 10 weeks; (b) DOCA-salts group (n=15), where the animals were treated with an IM injection of 10 mg DOCA 5 days a week for 10 weeks and with drinking water containing 9 g/l(-1) NaCl and 2 g/l(-1) KCl. Our results demonstrate that the administration of DOCA-salts to guinea pigs for 10 weeks caused a significant increase in blood pressure (BP+30%) associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), evaluated by LV weight (+37%), LV wall (+36%), by the ratio LV weight/Body weight (+23%) and by an increase in LV volume (+51%). Concerning HF, the latter was clinically evident through an increase in body weight, heart rate and dyspnoea. Indeed, guinea pigs presented pleural and/or pericardial effusion often associated with ascite. This model, which combines pressure and volume overload, results in a slow evolution towards HF. This allows a better understanding of the mechanisms in early LV remodelling which has the potential to develop into HF. Some recent studies have emphasised the value

  14. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html). PMID:27389614

  15. Population genetic structure of Plasmodium falciparum across a region of diverse endemicity in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobegi Victor A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasite population genetic structure varies among areas of differing endemicity, but this has not been systematically studied across Plasmodium falciparum populations in Africa where most infections occur. Methods Ten polymorphic P. falciparum microsatellite loci were genotyped in 268 infections from eight locations in four West African countries (Republic of Guinea, Guinea Bissau, The Gambia and Senegal, spanning a highly endemic forested region in the south to a low endemic Sahelian region in the north. Analysis was performed on proportions of mixed genotype infections, genotypic diversity among isolates, multilocus standardized index of association, and inter-population differentiation. Results Each location had similar levels of pairwise genotypic diversity among isolates, although there were many more mixed parasite genotype infections in the south. Apart from a few isolates that were virtually identical, the multilocus index of association was not significant in any population. Genetic differentiation between populations was low (most pairwise FST values  Conclusions Although proportions of mixed genotype infections varied with endemicity as expected, population genetic structure was similar across the diverse sites. Very substantial reduction in transmission would be needed to cause fragmented or epidemic sub-structure in this region.

  16. Validation of the regional climate model MAR over the CORDEX Africa domain and comparison with other regional models using unpublished data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prignon, Maxime; Agosta, Cécile; Kittel, Christoph; Fettweis, Xavier; Michel, Erpicum

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the CORDEX project, we have applied the regional model MAR over the Africa domain at a resolution of 50 km. ERA-Interim and NCEP-NCAR reanalysis have been used as 6 hourly forcing at the MAR boundaries over 1950-2015. While MAR was already been validated over the West Africa, it is the first time that MAR simulations are carried out at the scale of the whole continent. Unpublished daily measurements, covering the Sahel and more areas up South, with a large set of variables, are used as validation of MAR, other CORDEX-Africa RCMs and both reanalyses. Comparisons with the CRU and the ECA&D databases are also performed. The unpublished daily data set covers the period 1884-2006 and comes from 1460 stations. The measured variables are wind, evapotranspiration, relative humidity, insolation, rain, surface pressure, temperature, vapour pressure and visibility. It covers 23 countries: Algeria, Benin, Burkina, Canary Islands, Cap Verde, Central Africa, Chad, Congo, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan and Togo.

  17. West African pholcid spiders: an overview, with descriptions of five new species (Araneae, Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard A. Huber

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes current knowledge about West African pholcids. West Africa is here defined as the area south of 17°N and west of 5°E, including mainly the Upper Guinean subregion of the Guineo-Congolian center of endemism. This includes all of Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin. An annotated list of the 14 genera and 38 species recorded from this area is given, together with distribution maps and an identification key to genera. Five species are newly described: Anansus atewa sp. nov., Artema bunkpurugu sp. nov., Leptopholcus kintampo sp. nov., Spermophora akwamu sp. nov., and S. ziama sp. nov. The female of Quamtana kitahurira is newly described. Additional new records are given for 16 previously described species, including 33 new country records. Distribution patterns of West African pholcids are discussed, as well as possible explanations for relatively low West African pholcid species diversity as compared to Central and East Africa.

  18. The perception of radioactive waste among the people of Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: West Africa is one of the Africa's most populated regions, with a total population of approximately 200 million people. The West African sub-region comprises of sixteen different countries, which are as follows: Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Code Ivore, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Sierra-Leone, Gambia, Senegal, Mauritania, Western Sahara, Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger Republique. Apart from Nigeria, Senegal and Ghana all the other remaining' countries are extremely poor and unviable. As a result of this the sub-region has been experiencing a lot of civil unrest, countries like Liberia, Sierra Leon and Code Ivore have been experiencing civil wars since the early 1990s. In addition to the already existing problems of trafficking in drugs, arms, humans and weaponry trade within the sub-region. Today the sub-region is experiencing the coming of a new evil deal called 'Trade in radio active waste'; which involves the transporting Of radioactive wastes from the developed countries to it's waste bin in West Africa, where it is unsafely buried after collecting millions of dollars from It's original owners. Recent statistics have revealed that most of the people involved in the evil businesses of trafficking in drugs, human, arms and trading in weaponry, are diverting in to the so called evil business of 'Trade in Radioactive waste' because this new illegal trade financially exceeds the rest of the above listed evil businesses

  19. Remuneration disparities in Oceania: Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marai, Leo; Kewibu, Vincent; Kinkin, Elly; Peter Peniop, John; Salini, Christian; Kofana, Genesis

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores the impact of remuneration differences on workers in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. In these countries remunerative differences are linked to government policy (in Papua New Guinea) and job contracts (in the Solomon Islands), and have impacted on industrial relations in both settings (strike action). A total of N = 350 professionals (n = 60 expatriates) from 54 organizations in aid, government, higher education and industry (mean response rate = 36%) responded to an organizational survey form. Remuneration ratios between international and local respondents based on the World Bank's index of purchasing power parity approached 9:1. In both sites staff compared pay and benefits (remuneration) packages: Internationally remunerated staff rated their ability higher than their local counterparts did; locally remunerated groups reported more injustice in remuneration, were more demotivated by the gaps, and were more likely to be thinking about leaving the organization. In-country workshops of N = 40 largely local stakeholders from aid and community organizations plus government ministries considered the survey's findings and recommended: in Solomon Islands, (a) introducing a policy of localization, (b) establishing a remuneration commission (already existent in Papua New Guinea), and (c) reducing the remunerative gap; in Papua New Guinea, (d) reversing the post-Independence "dual pay system" (currently official policy), (e) instituting pay-for-performance, and (f) ensuring the existent localization policy is applied to recruitment, selection, and staff career planning and management.

  20. The endemic species of Podocarpus in New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laubenfels, de David J.

    1980-01-01

    Among the more than a dozen species of Podocarpus sensu stricto known to occur on the island of New Guinea inch New Britain, five are not known elsewhere. Unlike most of the non-endemic species, these five are widely distributed on the island in their appropriate ecological zones. Only one of the fi

  1. Remuneration disparities in Oceania: Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marai, Leo; Kewibu, Vincent; Kinkin, Elly; Peter Peniop, John; Salini, Christian; Kofana, Genesis

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores the impact of remuneration differences on workers in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. In these countries remunerative differences are linked to government policy (in Papua New Guinea) and job contracts (in the Solomon Islands), and have impacted on industrial relations in both settings (strike action). A total of N = 350 professionals (n = 60 expatriates) from 54 organizations in aid, government, higher education and industry (mean response rate = 36%) responded to an organizational survey form. Remuneration ratios between international and local respondents based on the World Bank's index of purchasing power parity approached 9:1. In both sites staff compared pay and benefits (remuneration) packages: Internationally remunerated staff rated their ability higher than their local counterparts did; locally remunerated groups reported more injustice in remuneration, were more demotivated by the gaps, and were more likely to be thinking about leaving the organization. In-country workshops of N = 40 largely local stakeholders from aid and community organizations plus government ministries considered the survey's findings and recommended: in Solomon Islands, (a) introducing a policy of localization, (b) establishing a remuneration commission (already existent in Papua New Guinea), and (c) reducing the remunerative gap; in Papua New Guinea, (d) reversing the post-Independence "dual pay system" (currently official policy), (e) instituting pay-for-performance, and (f) ensuring the existent localization policy is applied to recruitment, selection, and staff career planning and management. PMID:22044056

  2. Good Order at Sea in the Gulf of Guinea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov; Nordby, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    and Central African states decided to establish six maritime zones along their coastline in order to improve the maritime security in the Gulf of Guinea. A process heavily supported by UN’s International Maritime Organisation (IMO). Finally, the chapter suggests that maritime security issues in the Gulf...

  3. The Begoias of New Guinea – an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sands, M.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    A brief introduction to the family Begoniaceae and genus Begonia is followed by an outline of the key morphological characters of begonias and a review of the sections (Diploclinium, Petermannia and Symbegonia) and species of the genus occurring in New Guinea. The essential characteristics of these

  4. Effect of experimental hypothyroidism on hearing in adult guinea pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Stearns, M; Goodwin, P

    1983-01-01

    A group of guinea pigs was rendered hypothyroid using propylthiouracil solution in their drinking water. The animals were hypothyroid for at least 120 days. During this time no change was noted in their hearing thresholds for high-frequency clicks. The audiometric evaluation was performed using brainstem evoked response audiometry.

  5. Some liver function indicators in guinea pigs injected with cyanide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idonije O. Blessing

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine the lethal effect of cyanide poisoning on the liver cells using ALP, AST, ALT and Bilirubin (Total and Conjugated as test indicators, eighteen (18 male guinea pigs, age matched were used for this study. This included 12 guinea pigs which served as test groups and injected with different concentrations of potassium cyanide saline solution while 6 guinea pigs without cyanide injection served as control group. Blood samples were collected from the guinea pigs three hours after the injections of the cyanide saline solution. The blood samples were analysed for liver enzymes and bilirubin using standard methods. The result of the plasma AST and ALT at the different concentrations showed decreased levels which were significant when compared with the controls. The plasma levels of Total and Conjugated bilirubin were also significantly decreased when compared with controls. However, the levels of the ALP in both test and control groups showed no significant difference. This study therefore highlighted the need to determine the levels of these liver function indicators in cases of cyanide poisoning to ensure efficient management of patients who are exposed to the cyanide.

  6. Survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Noviello, Emilio; Ianniello, Davide; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Little information is available on the occurrence of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in cavies kept as pets in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from 60 guinea pigs housed in pet shops or privately owned. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminthic eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, the specimens were analyzed also by the Remel Xpect® Giardia/Cryptosporidium immunoassay. Intestinal parasites were detected in 19 out of 60 guinea pigs (31.7 %). Paraspidodera uncinata eggs were found in 13.3 % (8/60) of the rodents examined, Nippostrongylus-like eggs in 10 % (6/60), and finally Eimeria caviae oocysts were found in 10 % (6/60) of the animals. In one case, both E. caviae oocysts and P. uncinata eggs were found. None of the samples was positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

  7. The species of Stegonotus (Serpentes, Colubridae) in Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcdowell, S.B.

    1972-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Currently, New Guinea Stegonotus with 17 scales at midbody and divided subcaudals are identified as S. modestus. But this will not account for the disparity in dentition within "S. modestus", nor the colour differences even at one locality, nor that in East and West Sepik Districts ther

  8. The genus Freycinetia (Pandanaceae) in New Guinea (Part 4)

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh, Kim-Lang

    2002-01-01

    Seventeen new species of Freycinetia Gaudich. are described from groups of islands of New Guinea: Freycinetia admiraltiensis, F. amoena, F. formosula, F. granulata, F. lanceolata, F. nakanaiensis, F. novobritannica (Bismarck Archipelago), F. relegata, F. rossellana (Louisiade Archipelago), F. angusta, F. awaiarensis, F. boluboluensis, F. fergussonensis, F. goodenoughensis, F. lenifolia, F. normanbyensis (D’Entrecasteaux Islands), and F. woodlarkensis (Woodlark Island). Specific characters fro...

  9. The alpine flora of Mount Wilhelm (New Guinea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, R.D.

    1958-01-01

    The flora of the higher mountains of New Guinea has been the object of several extensive collecting trips in the past forty years. Until quite recently, however, a serious gap in our knowledge was the very scanty information available from the area between Mount Wilhelmina in the West and Mount Sara

  10. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section 113.38 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD...

  11. The vertical birthing position of the Trobrianders, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, U

    1987-05-01

    During an ethnomedical field study the author succeeded in participating and photographing 4 traditional birthgivings among the Trobrianders/Papua New Guinea. Their various vertical postures are described with special reference to specific Trobriand practices and discussed by literature review. The results suggest that vertical birthing positions are advantageous to horizontal ones and should be reconsidered by modern Western obstetrics.

  12. Nutrient deficiencies of agricultural crops in Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; Bourke, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea the population is growing faster than the area under cultivation. As a result, land use is being intensified and soil nutrient depletion may occur, resulting in nutrient deficiencies of agricultural crops. This paper reviews nutrient deficiencies in the agricultural crops of Papu

  13. Petroleum service projects in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken-Worgu, Kenneth Chukwumeka

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this record of study is to examine the major facets involved in managing several petroleum service projects located in three different countries in the Gulf of Guinea simultaneously, while effectively engaging in business development activities for the Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS). This work also furnishes adequate background on related subject matters to enable understanding of the projects presented. The petroleum services sector is the back bone of the oil and gas industry. Services companies are vital to the success of all petroleum and energy producers in the USA, the Gulf of Guinea and the world. There is a need and demand for these service companies because they play various roles such as logistics, drilling, construction, dredging, pipe laying, procurement, food supply, human resource supply, etc. The Gulf of Guinea comprises of countries from west and central Africa. This project was limited to Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon. This area holds the largest petroleum reserves in Africa and plays a vital role in the global supply of petroleum. The Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS), plans to establish herself as one of the leading petroleum service companies in this gulf. To manage this expansion, I have taken the role of Gulf of Guinea manager to apply my background as a petroleum engineer as well as my business skills to build a successful division of the company. This work provides a record of study of the management of services, projects and contracts carried out by the OIS group in the gulf of Guinea. The following are the specific projects in the Gulf of Guinea that I participated in: Managing delivering, maintenance and marketing of offshore vessels, Offshore pipe laying project, Integrated pipeline maintenance project, Development a petroleum technical training facilities, Agbami pipe insulation project, Engineering lift project and Capital budgeting analysis for potential investments. The details of the specific

  14. Mobile Misfortune

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman

    2015-01-01

    of the mobility it enables. This article, thus, looks at the motives and manners in which young men in Bissau become caught up in transnational flows of cocaine. It shows how motion is emotively anchored and affectively bound: tied to and directed toward a feeling of worth and realisation of being, and how...

  15. Prevalence of HIV 2: A retrospective study from a HIV/AIDS consult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Guerreiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The western Africa is the origin of the HIV2 infection where Guinea Bissau has been the country where the rate of infection is higher. This infection have extended to Europe through the relationship established between European countries and there African colonies in the past. At 2010, 1.295 cases of HIV 2 infection were notified in Portugal, which represents nearly 3.3% of all HIV infections. Almost 510 of these cases are classified as AIDS. Although the majority of notified cases is from African patients there is still a significant contribution of the Portuguese people in these numbers. Retrospective analysis of HIV2 infected women and men followed at Faro's Hospital HIV/AIDS consult between January 1992 and June 2012. In this sample were included every patient older than 15 years and were excluded every patient than haven't been at the consult for a period superior to 18–24 months. Deceased patients and address change were also exclusion factors. Of all 1500 patients followed in consult, 35 of them were infected with HIV2 (2.3%; 18 women and 17 men. There were 3 patients that were co-infected with HIV1 and HIV2. Mean age were 52.9 years. 19 of the infected patients were leucodermic and 16 were melanodermic. The majority of patients (19 cases were Portuguese. The rest of them were from Africa where Guinea Bissau were the only country represented. In opposition to the HIV1 infection, the sexual transmission is by far the more common way of being infected. There's no case of vertical transmission known in our population. At the first contact, the majority of patients appear asymptomatic (16 cases while a minority (4 cases manifest themselves by AIDS. There is an AIDS case that result from HIV1 and HIV2 co-infection (only one intravenous drug user in the group. The more common treatment is the association of NRTI and PI. The HIV2 infection is characterized by a longer clinical evolution when compared to the HIV1 infection. That fact explains

  16. The anaphylactic release of platelet-activating factor from perfused guinea-pig lungs.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, M. F.; Moncada, S; Parente, L.

    1986-01-01

    The release of platelet-activating factor (Paf-acether) and of its inactive precursor/metabolite lyso-platelet activating factor (lyso-Paf) from control and sensitized guinea-pig isolated lungs challenged with antigen was investigated. Control guinea-pig lungs perfused either through the pulmonary circulation or through the airways and challenged with antigen did not release Paf-acether. Sensitized guinea-pig isolated lungs perfused through the pulmonary circulation and challenged with antige...

  17. Paragonimus worm from a New Guinea native in 1926

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenlin Wang; David Blair; Tian Min; Fang Li; Dianhua Wang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To reobserve and research the specimen of Paragonimus worm found in the left lung of a New Guinea native in 1926, which was previously identified as Paragonimuswestermani Kerbert or Paragonimus ringeri Cobbold. Methods: Using reconstructive software and microscopy to observe some organs of the worm, and compared with other species of paragonimus. Results: The three dimensional (3D) views of ovary and two testes of New Guinea specimen showed that the ovary was clearly divided into six lobes. These two testes were situated oppositely in the body. One teste was divided into four branches, while another was divided into five. The cuticular spines were arranged in groups over the entire skin covered in a slide, each group was consisted of two to four single spine. Conclusions: Based on 3D views and measurements, we reclassified it as Paragonimus siamensis. This was also the first report of human case infected by Paragonimus siamensis.

  18. Robert Koch redux: malaria immunology in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisic, D I; Mueller, I; Betuela, I; Siba, P; Schofield, L

    2010-08-01

    Over a century ago, the malaria expedition of the brilliant microbiologist Robert Koch to the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and German New Guinea (now Papua New Guinea, or PNG), resulted in profound observations that are still central to our current understanding of the epidemiology and acquisition of immunity to the malaria parasite Plasmodium. The tradition of malaria research in PNG pioneered by Koch continues to this day, with a number of recent studies still continuing to elucidate his original concepts and hypotheses. These include age and exposure-related acquisition of immunity, species-specific and cross-species immunity, correlates of protective immunity and determining the prospects for anti-malaria vaccines. PMID:20626817

  19. The preparation of recombinant interleukin-6 and its protection for irradiated guinea-pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To purify recombinant human interleukin-6 from gene-engineered E. coli and study the effects of IL-6 on survival period and platelet count of irradiated guinea-pigs. Methods: Recombinant human IL-6 was expressed in gene-engineered E. coli and purified with reversed phase chromatography. Purified IL-6 was then administered to irradiated guinea-pig. Results: IL-6 could significantly prolong the survival period and increase the platelet count of irradiated guinea-pigs. Conclusion: IL-6 showed its effective protection for irradiated guinea-pigs

  20. Changes of gastrointestinal myoelectric activity and bile acid pool size after cholecystectomy in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Mei Zhang; Lei Dong; Li-Na Liu; Bi-Xia Chang; Qian He; Qian Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the bile acid pool size after cholecystectomy whether or not correlated to the gastrointestinal migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) in guinea pigs.METHODS: Gallbladder motilities were assessed before cholecystectomy. Furthermore, we continuously monitored interdigestive gastrointestinal motilities using bipolar electrodes in conscious guinea pigs before and after surgery at 4 wk in standard diet group and high cholesterol diet (cholesterol gallstone) group. Total bile acid pool sizes were measured by isotope dilution method at meantime.RESULTS: After cholecystectomy, there were parallel falls in duration of phase Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and MMC cycle duration but increase in amplitude in the guinea pigs with normal gallbladder function, and in the guinea pigs with cholesterol stones. However, There were not significantly differences. On the other hand, the bile acid pool was definitely small in the GS guinea pigs compared to normal guinea pigs and became slightly smaller after cholecystectomy. Similarly, bile acid in gallbladder bile, fecal bile acid was slightly increased in GS guinea pigs after cholecystectomy, to the same degree as normal. These differences, however, were not significant.CONCLUSION: It is concluded that in the guinea pigs with normal gallbladder function, and in the guinea pigs with cholesterol stones: (1) Cholecystectomy produce a similar but less marked trend in bile acid pool; and (2) MMC are linked to enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, rather than surgery, which is consistent with changes of the bile acid pool size. As a result, gastrointestinal dyskinesia is not involved in occurrence of postcholecystectomy syndrome.

  1. Comparative Phylogeography in Rainforest Trees from Lower Guinea, Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Myriam Heuertz; Jérôme Duminil; Gilles Dauby; Vincent Savolainen; Olivier J Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography is an effective approach to assess the evolutionary history of biological communities. We used comparative phylogeography in fourteen tree taxa from Lower Guinea (Atlantic Equatorial Africa) to test for congruence with two simple evolutionary scenarios based on physio-climatic features 1) the W-E environmental gradient and 2) the N-S seasonal inversion, which determine climatic and seasonality differences in the region. We sequenced the trnC-ycf6 plastid DNA region ...

  2. The present use of guinea pigs for chiropractic research *

    OpenAIRE

    McGregor, Marion; Wiles, Michael R.; Grice, Adrian S.

    1980-01-01

    The necessity for an animal model in chiropractic research is considered and a short review of previous experimentation of manipulation on animals is presented. The guinea pig is proposed as a suitable animal model, and research into its suitability is presented. Analysis includes the animal’s physical characteristics, the choice of anesthetic and parametric and roentgenographic evaluation. A device for supporting the anesthetized animal during standard and motion roentgenographic examination...

  3. Pathogenesis of enteritis necroticans in Papula New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, G; Walker, P D

    1976-01-17

    It is suggested that enteritis necroticans occurs in the people of the Highlands of Papua New Guinea because they have low levels of digestive proteases in the intestinal lumen. These low protease levels are the result of a low-protein diet and the presence of heat-stable trypsin inhibitors in sweet potatato, the dietary staple. Low proteolytic activity allows the B toxin of Clostridium welchii type C, which is extremely susceptible to proteolysis, to initiate the disease.

  4. Pathogenesis of enteritis necroticans in Papula New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, G; Walker, P D

    1976-01-17

    It is suggested that enteritis necroticans occurs in the people of the Highlands of Papua New Guinea because they have low levels of digestive proteases in the intestinal lumen. These low protease levels are the result of a low-protein diet and the presence of heat-stable trypsin inhibitors in sweet potatato, the dietary staple. Low proteolytic activity allows the B toxin of Clostridium welchii type C, which is extremely susceptible to proteolysis, to initiate the disease. PMID:54640

  5. Feeding, ranging and social organisation of the Guinea baboon

    OpenAIRE

    Sharman, Martin John

    1982-01-01

    Before this study, the Guinea or Western baboon, Papio papio, was almost unknown in its natural environment. This thesis reports a nineteen-month field study of two troops of P. papio carried out in south-eastern Senegal. The monkeys were followed on foot, and aspects of their feeding, ranging and social behaviour were recorded. The troops were censused whenever possible. Both study groups, and other troops in the area, were found to be unusually large by comparison with other known troop...

  6. Effects of Ramosetron on Gastrointestinal Transit of Guinea Pig

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yoo Mi; Lee, Young Ju; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Tae Il; Park, Hyojin

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims A selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) type 3 receptor antagonist, ramosetron, inhibits stress-induced abnormal defecation in animals and is currently used as a therapeutic drug for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ramosetron on altered gastrointestinal (GI) transit. Methods Male guinea pigs weighing approximately 300 g were used. The effect of ramosetron was investigated on altered GI transit induced by thyrotropin-...

  7. Papua New Guinea: multi-level awareness campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Population Awareness Campaign in Papua New Guinea has been launched as a nationwide population education effort. Provinical workshops will be held for local leaders and community groups to create an awareness of the ways in which rapid population growth interferes with development efforts. Other activities involving more specific family planning-related messages will be films, radio programs, and plays in the Pidgin language. These are all designed to air in rural areas.

  8. Economic modelling of plant germplasm collections in Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Godden, David P.; Kennedy, John O.S.; Kambuou, Rosa N.

    1997-01-01

    Papua New Guinea has major ex situ field collections of plant genetic material in its major staple food crops (aibika, banana, cassava, sago, sweet potato, taro, yams). The PNG Government has become concerned at the cost of maintaining these collections. With limited germplasm conservation resources available, difficult choices must be made as to which plants to maintain. What resources should be devoted to maintaining plant genetic diversity in the wild or in collections. How should these re...

  9. Analysing multidimensional poverty in Guinea: A fuzzy set approach

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, F.L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the multidimensional aspect of poverty in Guinea taking into account both the monetary and non monetary dimensions of poverty. We use data from the Full Base Survey on Poverty Assessment (FBSPA 2002-2003). The methodology relies on the fuzzy set approach of Dagum and Costa (2004) which is supplemented by the decomposition methods of Mussard and Pi Alperin (2005). The main results that emerge are: i) the identification of the key variables associated with poverty, i...

  10. Prehistoric human impact on rainforest biodiversity in highland New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Simon G

    2007-02-28

    In the highlands of New Guinea, the development of agriculture as an indigenous innovation during the Early Holocene is considered to have resulted in rapid loss of forest cover, a decrease in forest biodiversity and increased land degradation over thousands of years. But how important is human activity in shaping the diversity of vegetation communities over millennial time-scales? An evaluation of the change in biodiversity of forest habitats through the Late Glacial transition to the present in five palaeoecological sites from highland valleys, where intensive agriculture is practised today, is presented. A detailed analysis of the longest and most continuous record from Papua New Guinea is also presented using available biodiversity indices (palynological richness and biodiversity indicator taxa) as a means of identifying changes in diversity. The analysis shows that the collapse of key forest habitats in the highland valleys is evident during the Mid - Late Holocene. These changes are best explained by the adoption of new land management practices and altered disturbance regimes associated with agricultural activity, though climate change may also play a role. The implications of these findings for ecosystem conservation and sustainability of agriculture in New Guinea are discussed. PMID:17255031

  11. Effects of inhaled hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) on guinea pig cholinesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, M H; Hansen, G A; Brown, W E

    1984-04-01

    Hexamethylene diisocyanate, HDI, a starting material in the production of many polyurethane products, was found to inhibit stoichiometrically mammalian and electric eel cholinesterases in an in vivo system (W. E. Brown, A. H. Green, M. H. Karol, and Y. Alarie , 1982, Toxicol . Appl. Pharmacol. 62, 45-52). The current study examined in vivo effects on guinea pig cholinesterases resulting from inhalation of HDI. Guinea pigs were exposed to atmospheres of 0.5, 1.8, or 4.0 ppm HDI (ceiling value = 0.02 ppm) for up to 6 hr. Blood samples were drawn prior to exposure and at specified times during exposure. No inhibition of serum cholinesterase was detected following exposure to 0.5 ppm HDI for 6 hr, to 1.8 ppm HDI for 2 hr, or to 4.0 ppm HDI for 3 hr. Similarly, no inhibition was detected when erythrocytes from each blood sample were assayed for acetylcholinesterase activity. Last, animals were sacrificed and cholinesterase activity determined in bronchial lavage fluid. Enzyme levels of HDI-exposed animals were not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) from those of control animals exposed to water vapor. In conclusion, although in vitro experiments had demonstrated potent anticholinesterase activity by HDI, in vivo inhalation exposure of guinea pigs to HDI at concentrations 25-200 times above the recommended (ACGIH) ceiling value did not produce measurable inhibition of cholinesterase activity. PMID:6724200

  12. Studies of guinea pig immunoglobulin isotype, idiotype and antiidiotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirrell, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Immunization of Guinea pigs with diphtheria toxoid generated antibodies of the IgG class that were capable of neutralizing native toxin in vivo. Sera from these animals were used to affinity purify idiotypic antibodies (AB1). AB1 vaccines derived from the IgG1 class and from F(ab{prime}){sub 2} of IgG1 + IgG2 (IgG1/2) classes were effective in inducing a syngeneic anti-idiotype (AB2) response. Animals immunized with AB1 consisting of both IgG1/2 did not elicit a detectable AB2 response. Binding of homologous {sup 125}I-F(ab{prime}){sub 2} (AB1) to the antiidiotype was inhibited 90% in the presence of DT.F(ab{prime}){sub 2} derived from preimmune serum or had no inhibitory effects on the idiotype-antiidiotype interactions. Two groups of outbred guinea pigs were vaccinated with alum absorbed F(ab{prime}){sub 2} of anti-idiotype IgG1/2 (AB2). Of the ten animals inoculated with AB2, three tested positive by RIA against {sup 125}I-DT. Two of the RIA positive sera contained antibodies that neutralized diphtheria toxin in a rabbit intracutaneous assay. Purification of guinea pig IgG by protein A-Sepharose affinity chromatography resulted in the separation of three distinct IgG populations.

  13. New genus of diminutive microhylid frogs from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Kraus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of diminutive (10.1-11.3 mm microhylid frogs is described from New Guinea that is unique in its combination ofonly seven presacral vertebrae, a reduced phalangeal formula that leaves the first fingers and first toes as vestigial nubs, and reduction of the prepollex and prehallux to single elements. Relationships to other genera are unknown, but overall similarity suggests some relationship to Cophixalus, although that genus also differs in some muscle characters and likely remains paraphyletic. The new genus contains two species, which are among the smallest known frogs in the world. Their miniaturization may be related to their inhabiting leaf litter, exploitation of which may for small size. The new genus is currently known only from one mountaintop in the southeasternmost portion of New Guinea and another on a nearby island. This region is part of the East Papuan Composite Terrane and, should this lineage prove endemic to that region, it may suggest that it originated prior to that geological unit’s docking with mainland New Guinea at 23–29 MY.

  14. Interstitial cells of Cajal and Auerbach's plexus. A scanning electron microscopical study of guinea-pig small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Harry; Thuneberg, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy...

  15. Cloning, pharmacological characterization, and polymorphism screening of the guinea pig β2-adrenoceptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostendorp, Jaap; Meurs, Herman; Nelemans, S. Adriaan; Zaagsma, Johan; Kauffman, Henk F.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Boddeke, Hendrikus W.G.M.; Biber, Knut

    2002-01-01

    In asthma, beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist responsiveness has been associated with Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms of the beta(2)-adrenoceptor. Since the guinea pig is extensively used as an animal model for asthma, we investigated the occurrence of possible polymorphism of the guinea pig beta(2)-a

  16. Interrelationships of Non-Formal Mother Tongue Education and Citizenship in Guinea and Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Andrea; Yerende, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Guinea and Senegal are multilingual countries that use French as a language of instruction in the formal educational sector with some significant exceptions. As in many other African countries, such exceptions in Guinea and Senegal, use local African languages primarily in the non-formal sector for a variety of purposes, such as adult literacy and…

  17. Re-imaging the Modernity of Sierra Leone and Equatorial Guinea: Africa past and Africa present

    OpenAIRE

    Codling, Rosetta

    2011-01-01

    This paper engages the concept of the imposed Modernity of Europe upon the African republics of Sierra Leone and Equatorial Guinea. Evidence of the encroachment of a ‘false’ Modernity upon Africa’s Sierra Leone and Equatorial Guinea are chronicled in the works of Donato Ndongo (Shadows of Your Black Memory) and Syl Cheney Coker (The Last Harmattan of Alusine Dunbar).

  18. Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii from guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) and rabbits from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from a feral guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) and domestic rabbits from Brazil for the first time. Serum and brains from 10 guinea fowl and 21 rabbits from Brazil were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 2 of 10 fowl and 2 of 21 rabbit...

  19. Cartilage interposition in ossiculoplasty with hydroxylapatite prostheses : A histopathologic study in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, AGW; Verheul, J; Albers, FWJ; Segenhout, HM

    2002-01-01

    In this experimental animal study, a cartilage disk was interposed between a synthetic middle ear prosthesis and the tympanic membrane in guinea pigs to investigate its effect on the extrusion process of the implant. Two groups of guinea pigs were studied. One group consisted of animals in which the

  20. Cartilage interposition in ossiculoplasty with hydroxylapatite prostheses - A histological study in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, AGW; Verheul, J; Albers, FWJ; Segenhout, HM; Rosowski, JJ; Merchant, SN

    2000-01-01

    In this experimental animal study, a cartilage disc was interposed between a synthetic middle ear prosthesis and the tympanic membrane of guinea pigs to investigate its effect on the extrusion process of the implant. Two groups of guinea pigs were studied. One group consisted of animals in which the

  1. Three new species of Craterispermum (Rubiaceae) from the Lower Guinea Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Taedoumg, H.; Hamon, P.

    2012-01-01

    Three species of Craterispermum are described from Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon. Detailed descriptions and distribution maps are provided for each species, their conservation status is assessed and their taxonomic affinities are discussed. An identification key for the Craterispermum species present in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon is given.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Pathogenic Guinea Pig Cytomegalovirus from Salivary Gland Homogenates of Infected Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dongmei; Tamburro, Kristen; Dittmer, Dirk; Cui, Xiaohong; McVoy, Michael A.; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Schleiss, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The sequence of guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) was determined by direct sequencing of salivary gland homogenates obtained following sustained, serial in vivo passage of pathogenic virus in guinea pigs. The 233,501-nucleotide salivary gland (SG) genome was noted to have 11 differences compared to the tissue culture-passaged virus, although no variations were noted in putative protein coding sequences.

  3. Characterization of fetal growth by repeated ultrasound measurements in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, K; Guenther, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2014-08-01

    Fetal growth during pregnancy has previously been studied in the domesticated guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) after dissecting pregnant females, but there are no studies describing the fetal growth in their wild progenitor, the wild guinea pig (C aperea). In this study, 50 pregnancies of wild guinea pig sows were investigated using modern ultrasound technique. The two most common fetal growth parameters (biparietal diameter [BPD] and crown-rump-length [CRL]) and uterine position were measured. Data revealed similar fetal growth patterns in the wild guinea pig and domesticated guinea pig in the investigated gestation period, although they differ in reproductive milestones such as gestation length (average duration of pregnancy 68 days), average birth weight, and litter mass. In this study, pregnancy lasted on average 60.2 days with a variance of less than a day (0.96 days). The measured fetal growth parameters are strongly correlated with each (R = 0.91; P pig.

  4. Ozone-Induced Hypertussive Responses in Rabbits and Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Emlyn; Patacchini, Riccardo; Trevisani, Marcello; Preti, Delia; Branà, Maria Pia; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive

    2016-04-01

    Cough remains a major unmet clinical need, and preclinical animal models are not predictive for new antitussive agents. We have investigated the mechanisms and pharmacological sensitivity of ozone-induced hypertussive responses in rabbits and guinea pigs. Ozone induced a significant increase in cough frequency and a decrease in time to first cough to inhaled citric acid in both conscious guinea pigs and rabbits. This response was inhibited by the established antitussive drugs codeine and levodropropizine. In contrast to the guinea pig, hypertussive responses in the rabbit were not inhibited by bronchodilator drugs (β2 agonists or muscarinic receptor antagonists), suggesting that the observed hypertussive state was not secondary to bronchoconstriction in this species. The ozone-induced hypertussive response in the rabbit was inhibited by chronic pretreatment with capsaicin, suggestive of a sensitization of airway sensory nerve fibers. However, we could find no evidence for a role of TRPA1 in this response, suggesting that ozone was not sensitizing airway sensory nerves via activation of this receptor. Whereas the ozone-induced hypertussive response was accompanied by a significant influx of neutrophils into the airway, the hypertussive response was not inhibited by the anti-inflammatory phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor roflumilast at a dose that clearly exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. In summary, our results suggest that ozone-induced hypertussive responses to citric acid may provide a useful model for the investigation of novel drugs for the treatment of cough, but some important differences were noted between the two species with respect to sensitivity to bronchodilator drugs.

  5. Growth failure after recurrent fever in young guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, S C; Faurie, A; Pettifor, J M; Laburn, H P

    2007-03-16

    Infection causes fever and suppression of appetite, a combination of effects which threatens normal growth in infected children. We have used an animal model to study the effects on growth of recurrent simulated Gram-positive bacterial infection. After weaning, 10 guinea pig pups underwent surgery under general anaesthesia for the implantation of temperature-sensitive radiotelemeters and thereafter were assigned to receive intramuscular injections of either 50 microg/kg muramyl dipeptide (MDP), or sterile saline. During a 30-day period corresponding to their rapid growth phase, the pups were given eight injections. MDP resulted in fevers of about 1.5 degrees C on each occasion, but no significant change in body temperature occurred after saline injections. Food intake was suppressed during each febrile episode such that 24-h intake was significantly lower on days of injections of MDP, compared to days between MDP injections in the same animals, and compared to that of animals injected with saline. The rate of weight gain of the MDP-injected guinea pigs was significantly lower than that of the control group and failed even to achieve a rate similar to the saline-injected group in their more adult-like growth phase. Plasma zinc concentration was significantly lower in MDP-compared to saline-injected animals sampled 8 days after the last injection. Our results show that recurrent fever during the growth phase of young guinea pigs results in irreversible growth failure, and that reduced food intake on days when the animals were febrile was at least partly responsible for this reduced rate of growth.

  6. Ozone-Induced Hypertussive Responses in Rabbits and Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Emlyn; Patacchini, Riccardo; Trevisani, Marcello; Preti, Delia; Branà, Maria Pia; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive

    2016-04-01

    Cough remains a major unmet clinical need, and preclinical animal models are not predictive for new antitussive agents. We have investigated the mechanisms and pharmacological sensitivity of ozone-induced hypertussive responses in rabbits and guinea pigs. Ozone induced a significant increase in cough frequency and a decrease in time to first cough to inhaled citric acid in both conscious guinea pigs and rabbits. This response was inhibited by the established antitussive drugs codeine and levodropropizine. In contrast to the guinea pig, hypertussive responses in the rabbit were not inhibited by bronchodilator drugs (β2 agonists or muscarinic receptor antagonists), suggesting that the observed hypertussive state was not secondary to bronchoconstriction in this species. The ozone-induced hypertussive response in the rabbit was inhibited by chronic pretreatment with capsaicin, suggestive of a sensitization of airway sensory nerve fibers. However, we could find no evidence for a role of TRPA1 in this response, suggesting that ozone was not sensitizing airway sensory nerves via activation of this receptor. Whereas the ozone-induced hypertussive response was accompanied by a significant influx of neutrophils into the airway, the hypertussive response was not inhibited by the anti-inflammatory phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor roflumilast at a dose that clearly exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. In summary, our results suggest that ozone-induced hypertussive responses to citric acid may provide a useful model for the investigation of novel drugs for the treatment of cough, but some important differences were noted between the two species with respect to sensitivity to bronchodilator drugs. PMID:26837703

  7. A restoration plan for the Fly River, Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    The Fly River Catchment drains about 3,300 km2 of southwester Papua New Guinea. The Fly River and its largest tributary, the Strickland river, are both subject to sediment discharges from mines in their headwaters. However, because of a naturally large sediment load, the increased loading on the Strickland and on the Lower fly below the confluence of the two rivers is not problematic. However, the discharge form the Ok Tedi mine into a tributaries of the Fly by the same name has choked po...

  8. Molecular basis of complement C3 deficiency in guinea pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Auerbach, H S; de Burger, R; Dodds, A.; Colten, H R

    1990-01-01

    In experiments to ascertain the biochemical basis of a genetically determined deficiency of the third component of complement (C3) in guinea pigs, we found that C3-deficient liver and peritoneal macrophages contain C3 messenger RNA of normal size (approximately 5 kb) and amounts, that this mRNA programs synthesis of pro-C3 in oocytes primed with liver RNA and in primary macrophage cultures. In each instance, heterodimeric native C3 protein was secreted with normal kinetics but the C3 protein ...

  9. Formation of slow-reacting substance by guinea pig immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancar, S.; Akimura, O. K.; Dias da Silva, W.

    1976-01-01

    The capacity of guinea pig antibodies to mediate the antigen-induced release of slow-reacting substance (SRS) in the rat peritoneal cavity is restricted to IgG2 and, to a lesser extent, to IgG1 populations of immunoglobulin. IgM and homocytotropic antibody of the reaginic type lacked this activity. The process was partially blocked by previous decomplementation of the rats, was not affected by previous reduction of the circulating leukocytes, and was partially suppressed by previous depletion of circulating platelets with an antiserum to rat platelets. PMID:11696

  10. Observations on chloralose-induced myoclonus in guinea-pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, D; Hallett, M.; Jenner, P; Marsden, C D

    1980-01-01

    1 The physiological, biochemical and pharmacological features of alpha-chloralose-induced myoclonus in the guinea-pig have been studied. 2 EMG bursts in muscles jerking in chloralose-induced myoclonus are long, and are not time-locked to any cortical event recorded in the EEG, although they are evoked by auditory or peripheral nerve stimuli. 3 The efferent conduction velocity down the spinal cord of the signals generating the EMG bursts is fast but the afferent conduction velocity up the cord...

  11. Green turtle (Chelonia mydas genetic diversity at Paranaguá Estuarine Complex feeding grounds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Costa Jordão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are marine reptiles that undertake long migrations through their life, with limited information regarding juvenile stages. Feeding grounds (FGs, where they spend most of their lives, are composed by individuals from different natal origins, known as mixed stock populations. The aim of this study was to assess genetic composition, natal origins and demographic history of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas at the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC, Brazil, considered a Natural World Heritage site. Tissue samples of stranded animals were collected (n = 60, and 700 bp mitochondrial DNA sequences were generated and compared to shorter sequences from previously published studies. Global exact tests of differentiation revealed significant differences among PEC and the other FGs, except those at the South Atlantic Ocean. Green turtles at PEC present genetic signatures similar to those of nesting females from Ascension Island, Guinea Bissau and Aves Island/Surinam. Population expansion was evidenced to have occurred 20–25 kYA, reinforcing the hypothesis of recovery from Southern Atlantic refugia after the last Glacial Maximum. These results contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of green turtle populations at a protected area by providing knowledge on the dispersion patterns and reinforcing the importance of the interconnectivity between nesting and foraging populations.

  12. The Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries. A New Forum of Coordination and Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frigdiano Álvaro Durántez Prados

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The constitution of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP in Lisbon, July 1996, represented the culmination of the manifest willingness for association among the Portuguese-speaking nations on different continents. As an exponent of the currents of international solidarity founded on cultural and historical bases, the countries of Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal and Santo Tome and Principe formalized a new forum for dialogue, reflection and cooperation that merits the attention in and of itself, as a new formalized scheme for political-diplomatic coordination and privileged cooperation among its members.At the same time, the manifest identification of the historical processes, conceptualizations, principles, objectives and the identifiable reference points of this Community with the Latin American Community of Nations (comprised of Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries on the American and European continents, besides the many reciprocal interconnections and parallelisms, point to the need –perhaps the historical opportunity– of considering a substantial and formalized coming together of all members and parts toarticulate a forum or general space for “Iberian”-speaking countries, in which the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries could be one of the primary elements for coherence.

  13. Oral polio vaccine influences the immune response to BCG vaccination. A natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartono, Erliyani; Lisse, Ida M; Terveer, Elisabeth M;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did...... not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who received BCG...... scar (0.95 (0.91-1.00), p = 0.057)). Among children with a scar, OPV was associated with reduced scar size, the regression coefficient being -0.24 (-0.43-0.05), p = 0.012. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to address the consequences for the immune response to BCG of simultaneous administration...

  14. Oral Polio Vaccine Influences the Immune Response to BCG Vaccination. A Natural Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartono, E.; Lisse, I.M.; Terveer, E.M.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did...... not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. Methods and Findings: We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who received BCG...... scar (0.95 (0.91-1.00), p = 0.057)). Among children with a scar, OPV was associated with reduced scar size, the regression coefficient being -0.24 (-0.43-0.05), p = 0.012. Conclusions: This study is the first to address the consequences for the immune response to BCG of simultaneous administration...

  15. Discrepancies in HLA typing by PCR-SSOP and SBT techniques: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, Hélder; Bruges-Armas, Jácome; Brehm, António

    2007-10-01

    Six hundred twenty-one samples from Portugal, the Cabo Verde archipelago, and Guinea-Bissau were typed for HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (PCR-SSOP) method and the sequence-based typing (SBT) method to characterize and compare discrepancies between the two methods. Fifty-three alleles (4.27% of 1242 chromosomes typed) identified by the PCR-SSOP method were not concordant with the results obtained using the SBT method. Thirty-four (2.74% of total chromosomes typed) PCR-SSOP mistyping results were discrepancies inside the same allele group and 19 others (1.53% of total chromosomes typed) were relative to nonconcordant results between different groups. PCR-SSOP allele mistyping is the result of interpretation difficulties resulting from less intense, absent, or dubious hybridization patterns. Noncommercial PCR-SSOP procedures are highly exigent on the technicians' experience and the availability of properly calibrated high-precision equipment. PMID:18478969

  16. The Bandim TBscore – reliability, further development, and evaluation of potential uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Rudolf

    2014-05-01

    W=0.49, 95% CI 0.33–0.65. KPS was influenced by HIV status, whereas TBscore was unaffected by it. In paper II, proposed TBscoreII was validated internally, in Guinea-Bissau, and externally, in Ethiopia. In both settings, a failure to bring down the score by ≥25% from baseline to 2 months of treatment predicted subsequent failure (p=0.007. Finally, in paper III, TBscore and TBscoreII were assessed in health-care-seeking adults and found to be higher in PTB-diagnosed patients, 4.9 (95% CI 4.6–5.2 and 3.9 (95% CI 3.8–4.0, respectively, versus patients not diagnosed with PTB, 3.0 (95% CI 2.7–3.2 and 2.4 (95% CI 2.3–2.5, respectively. Had we referred only patients with cough >2 weeks to sputum smear, we would have missed 32.1% of the smear confirmed cases in our cohort. A TBscoreII>=2 missed 8.6%. Conclusions: TBscore and TBscoreII are useful monitoring tools for PTB patients on treatment, as they could fill the void which currently exists in risk grading of patients. They may also have a role in PTB screening; however, this requires our findings to be repeated elsewhere.

  17. Mating strategies of young women: role of physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devendra

    2004-02-01

    The female physical attractiveness stereotype has been reported to contain both desirable (sociable, poised, interesting) and undesirable (snobbish, likely to request divorce and have extra-marital affairs) personal qualities. To investigate whether such an attractiveness stereotype is cross-cultural, I asked men and women from Azore Island, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, and the U.S. to judge the attractiveness of female figures differing in body weight and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and to rank these figures according to perceived personal attributes. There was a strong cross-cultural consensus for attractiveness; figures with low WHR were judged to be more attractive than figures with high WHR within each weight category. Participants also judged attractive figures as less faithful than less-attractive figures. To explore the basis of a possible 'darker side ' of the attractiveness stereotype, behavior tactics of young U.S. women were examined. Compared to women with high WHRs, low-WHR women reported engaging in more flirting to make dates jealous, suggesting some truth to the attractiveness stereotype. Taken together, these findings suggest that female attractiveness influences the type of mating strategies employed by women. PMID:15216423

  18. Predictive value of soluble haemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 serum levels for survival in verified tuberculosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T B; Gustafson, P; Kronborg, G;

    2005-01-01

    during TB treatment remained significant in a multivariate Cox model controlling for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, age and gender, with a mortality increase of 1.19 (95% CI, 1.04-1.36) per microg of sCD163, and a hazard ratio (HR) for sCD163 levels above the upper reference limit of 4.18 (95......Pre-treatment serum levels of sCD163 were measured in a cohort of 236 suspected tuberculosis (TB) cases from Guinea-Bissau, with a median follow-up period of 3.3 years (range 0-6.4 years). In 113 cases, the diagnosis of TB was verified by positive sputum microscopy and/or culture. Among the...... verified TB cases, a decreased survival rate was found in 27 patients with sCD163 levels above the upper reference limit (3.95 microg/mL). The difference in survival was significant during TB treatment (log rank, p<0.02) and after long-term follow-up (log rank, p<0.001). The decrease in survival rate...

  19. Violent Conflicts and Civil Strife in West Africa: Causes, Challenges and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Annan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of intra-state conflicts or ‘new wars’ in West Africa has brought many of its economies to the brink of collapse, creating humanitarian casualties and concerns. For decades, countries such as Liberia, Sierra Leone, Côte d’Ivoire and Guinea- Bissau were crippled by conflicts and civil strife in which violence and incessant killings were prevalent. While violent conflicts are declining in the sub-region, recent insurgencies in the Sahel region affecting the West African countries of Mali, Niger and Mauritania and low intensity conflicts surging within notably stable countries such as Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal sends alarming signals of the possible re-surfacing of internal and regional violent conflicts. These conflicts are often hinged on several factors including poverty, human rights violations, bad governance and corruption, ethnic marginalization and small arms proliferation. Although many actors including the ECOWAS, civil society and international community have been making efforts, conflicts continue to persist in the sub-region and their resolution is often protracted. This paper posits that the poor understanding of the fundamental causes of West Africa’s violent conflicts and civil strife would likely cause the sub-region to continue experiencing and suffering the brunt of these violent wars.

  20. Mating strategies of young women: role of physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devendra

    2004-02-01

    The female physical attractiveness stereotype has been reported to contain both desirable (sociable, poised, interesting) and undesirable (snobbish, likely to request divorce and have extra-marital affairs) personal qualities. To investigate whether such an attractiveness stereotype is cross-cultural, I asked men and women from Azore Island, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, and the U.S. to judge the attractiveness of female figures differing in body weight and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and to rank these figures according to perceived personal attributes. There was a strong cross-cultural consensus for attractiveness; figures with low WHR were judged to be more attractive than figures with high WHR within each weight category. Participants also judged attractive figures as less faithful than less-attractive figures. To explore the basis of a possible 'darker side ' of the attractiveness stereotype, behavior tactics of young U.S. women were examined. Compared to women with high WHRs, low-WHR women reported engaging in more flirting to make dates jealous, suggesting some truth to the attractiveness stereotype. Taken together, these findings suggest that female attractiveness influences the type of mating strategies employed by women.

  1. Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) genetic diversity at Paranaguá Estuarine Complex feeding grounds in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, Juliana Costa; Bondioli, Ana Cristina Vigliar; Guebert, Flavia Maria; de Thoisy, Benoit; Toledo, Lurdes Foresti de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Sea turtles are marine reptiles that undertake long migrations through their life, with limited information regarding juvenile stages. Feeding grounds (FGs), where they spend most of their lives, are composed by individuals from different natal origins, known as mixed stock populations. The aim of this study was to assess genetic composition, natal origins and demographic history of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) at the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC), Brazil, considered a Natural World Heritage site. Tissue samples of stranded animals were collected (n = 60), and 700 bp mitochondrial DNA sequences were generated and compared to shorter sequences from previously published studies. Global exact tests of differentiation revealed significant differences among PEC and the other FGs, except those at the South Atlantic Ocean. Green turtles at PEC present genetic signatures similar to those of nesting females from Ascension Island, Guinea Bissau and Aves Island/Surinam. Population expansion was evidenced to have occurred 20-25 kYA, reinforcing the hypothesis of recovery from Southern Atlantic refugia after the last Glacial Maximum. These results contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of green turtle populations at a protected area by providing knowledge on the dispersion patterns and reinforcing the importance of the interconnectivity between nesting and foraging populations. PMID:26500439

  2. Pan-atlantic analysis of the overlap of a highly migratory species, the leatherback turtle, with pelagic longline fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossette, S; Witt, M J; Miller, P; Nalovic, M A; Albareda, D; Almeida, A P; Broderick, A C; Chacón-Chaverri, D; Coyne, M S; Domingo, A; Eckert, S; Evans, D; Fallabrino, A; Ferraroli, S; Formia, A; Giffoni, B; Hays, G C; Hughes, G; Kelle, L; Leslie, A; López-Mendilaharsu, M; Luschi, P; Prosdocimi, L; Rodriguez-Heredia, S; Turny, A; Verhage, S; Godley, B J

    2014-04-01

    Large oceanic migrants play important roles in ecosystems, yet many species are of conservation concern as a result of anthropogenic threats, of which incidental capture by fisheries is frequently identified. The last large populations of the leatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea, occur in the Atlantic Ocean, but interactions with industrial fisheries could jeopardize recent positive population trends, making bycatch mitigation a priority. Here, we perform the first pan-Atlantic analysis of spatio-temporal distribution of the leatherback turtle and ascertain overlap with longline fishing effort. Data suggest that the Atlantic probably consists of two regional management units: northern and southern (the latter including turtles breeding in South Africa). Although turtles and fisheries show highly diverse distributions, we highlight nine areas of high susceptibility to potential bycatch (four in the northern Atlantic and five in the southern/equatorial Atlantic) that are worthy of further targeted investigation and mitigation. These are reinforced by reports of leatherback bycatch at eight of these sites. International collaborative efforts are needed, especially from nations hosting regions where susceptibility to bycatch is likely to be high within their exclusive economic zone (northern Atlantic: Cape Verde, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Senegal, Spain, USA and Western Sahara; southern Atlantic: Angola, Brazil, Namibia and UK) and from nations fishing in these high-susceptibility areas, including those located in international waters.

  3. Nilotes from Karamoja, Uganda: haplotype data defined by 17 Y-chromosome STRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Verónica; Alves, Cíntia; Amorim, António; Carracedo, Angel; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Gusmão, Leonor

    2010-07-01

    In this work 118 Nilote male samples were genotyped from Karamoja region, in Northeast Uganda, through 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs)-DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and GATA H4.1. A total of 94 different haplotypes were found, where 19 were shared by at least two individuals, and haplotype diversity amounted to 0.9958+/-0.0017. When considering only the nine Y-STRs included in the minimal haplotype (YHRD) the haplotype diversity decreased to 0.9807+/-0.0048, a similar value to those found in other African populations such as Mozambique, Angola and Guinea-Bissau. Population comparisons were performed between our sample and nine other African populations. Significant R(st) genetic distances were obtained between the Nilote population from Karamoja and all African populations used for comparison, except Xhosa sample from South Africa. In the multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot, the Karamoja sample is well separated from all other populations, standing between the Ethiopia and the Bantu samples, although closer to this last group. PMID:20457037

  4. Tracking cashew economically important diseases in the West African region using metagenomics

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    Filipa eMonteiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, agricultural land-uses in West Africa were marked by dramatic shifts in the coverage of individual crops. Nowadays, cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. is one of the most export-oriented horticulture crops, notably in Guinea-Bissau. Relying heavily on agriculture to increase their income, developing countries have been following a strong trend of moving on from traditional farming systems towards commercial production. Emerging infectious diseases, driven either by adaptation to local conditions or inadvertent importation of plant pathogens, are able to cause tremendous cashew production losses, with economic and social impact of which, in developing countries is often underestimated. Presently, plant genomics with metagenomics as an emergent tool, presents an enormous potential to better characterize diseases by providing extensive knowledge on plant pathogens at a large scale. In this perspective, we address metagenomics as a promising genomic tool to identify cashew fungal associated diseases as well as to discriminate the causal pathogens, aiming at obtaining tools to help design effective strategies for disease control and thus promote the sustainable production of cashew in West African region.

  5. The collection and database of Birds of Angola hosted at IICT (Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, Lisboa, Portugal

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    Miguel Monteiro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The bird collection of the Instituto de Investigação Cientítica Tropical (Lisbon, Portugal holds 5598 preserved specimens (skins, mainly from Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Principe, and Cape Verde. The subset collection from Angola includes 1560 specimens, which were taxonomically revised and georeferenced for the publication of this data paper. The collection contains a total of 522 taxa, including 161 species and 361 subspecies. Two species are classified by the IUCN Red List as Endangered - the wattled crane (Grus carunculata and the Gabela bush-shrike (Laniarius amboimensis - and two are classified as vulnerable - African penguin (Spheniscus demersus and the white-headed vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis. The temporal span of the database ranges between 1943 and 1979, but 32% are from years 1958–1959, and 25% from years 1968–1969. The spatial coverage of the collection is uneven, with 2/3 of the records representing only four of the eighteen provinces of the country, namely Huíla, Moxico, Namibe and Cuanza Sul. It adds, however, valuable information for the Huíla area of the Angolan Scarp, which is probably a biodiversity hotspot of global conservation priority. Furthermore, this georeferenced database adds invaluable bird information to the GBIF network, for one of the countries with highest but less known biodiversity in Africa.

  6. Does oral polio vaccine at birth affect the size of the thymus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Helle Brander; Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that vaccines have an effect on general mortality which goes beyond specific disease protection. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is widely used in low-income countries, but in observational studies in Guinea-Bissau we observed that not receiving OPV at birth......). The association between OPV0 and the log transformed thymic size indicators were analyzed in ANCOVA models with thymic size at follow-up as the outcome and adjusting for thymic size at enrollment and age at follow-up. Estimates were reported as geometric mean ratios (GMR) with 95% confidence intervals, comparing.......06-1.40)), but the effect was not seen after 4 weeks (GMR: 0.97 (0.92-1.03)) and 6 weeks (GMR: 0.99 (0.82-1.19)). There were no strong sex-differences. DISCUSSION: Overall there was no effect on thymic size of OPV0 when administered with BCG. The results could indicate that if an effect occurs, it is only within the first...

  7. Communication and Information About “Safer Sex:” Intervention Issues Within Communities of African Migrants Living in Poorer Neighbourhoods in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Gaspar, Tania; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Reis, Marta; Ramiro, Lúcia

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the influence of migrant status on sexual behavior and communication about “safer sex” and to identify ethnic-specific prevention issues. Data were obtained from a special administration of the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey in a special sample of Portuguese schools located in low-income Lisbon neighborhoods with large proportions of African migrants. Survey participants included 919 6th, 8th and 10th graders (52.3% female), of whom 19.2% were migrant foreigners from African Portuguese-speaking countries, including Cape Verde (60.8%), Mozambique (1.6%), Angola (16.8%), S. Tomé (8%), and Guinea-Bissau (14.8%). Subsequently, four focus groups were held with adolescent who had participated in the survey (n = 45), three focus group with health and education professionals (n = 25), and one focus group with parents (n = 6). Compared with Portuguese adolescents, African migrant teens reported initial sexual intercourse at earlier ages, less frequent condom use, and less frequent and less comfortable communications with parents about sexual issues. Implications for selective prevention of STD are discussed and recommendations are made. PMID:19081810

  8. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination administered after measles vaccine: increased female mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter

    2012-10-01

    In low-income countries, children should receive 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age, and measles vaccine at 9 months of age. However, there is often a delay in administering the vaccines, and DTP is often given after measles vaccine. Previous observations suggest that this practice is associated with increased mortality for female, but not for male children. Within a vitamin A trial in Guinea-Bissau, vaccination status was registered at the time of measles vaccination at 9 months; 141 (31%) of 455 children were missing 1 or more DTP vaccines and were likely to receive them afterward. We examined whether missing DTP vaccine at this time point was associated with sex-differential effects on mortality. In female children, missing DTP was associated with 3.55 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-10.26) times higher risk of dying before 36 months of age, whereas it made no difference in male children (0.97 [0.34-2.80]). The result supports that receiving DTP after measles vaccine affects female children negatively.

  9. The effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation administered with BCG vaccine at birth may be modified by subsequent DTP vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria;

    2009-01-01

    Unexpectedly, we found no overall beneficial effect on mortality in a randomised trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) or placebo administered with BCG vaccine at birth in Guinea-Bissau. We conducted an explorative analysis to examine whether subsequent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP......) vaccinations had modified the effect of VAS at birth. VAS was associated with a weak tendency for decreased mortality as long as BCG was the most recent vaccination, the mortality rate ratio being 0.86 (0.48-1.54); 0.82 (0.32-2.08) in girls and 0.89 (0.43-1.88) in boys. However, after DTP vaccination VAS...... at birth was associated with increased mortality in girls (2.19 (1.09-4.38)), whereas no difference was seen for boys (0.90 (0.44-1.82)) (p=0.08 for equal effect of VAS in the two sexes if DTP is the last vaccine). The explanation for the lack of beneficial effect in our setting may have been that VAS...

  10. Laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babona, D V; Slama, G; Puiahi, E

    1996-09-01

    In Papua New Guinea, the laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection is based on proof of HIV antibody in the patient's serum. Under the government scheme, the testing is done in 30 laboratories, including the Papua New Guinea HIV Reference Laboratory (NRL), the Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service in Port Moresby, and 19 provincial and 9 district laboratories. An alternative testing strategy was adopted in 1993 based on a WHO recommendation, replacing the classical testing strategy (enzyme immunoassay + Western blot). The alternative testing strategy uses several EIA, rapid or simple HIV antibody assays for the detection and confirmation of the HIV antibody. This approach is faster and cheaper, with the same sensitivity and specificity as the classical testing algorithm. Except for the NRL, the Serodia Fujirebio HIV-1 gelatin particle agglutination assay is used throughout the country as the screening test. The PNG National HIV Reference Laboratory is the only laboratory authorized to perform confirmatory testing and to release positive results. Therefore, all serum samples reactive in the screening assay are sent to the NRL for confirmation by the battery of EIA, rapid or simple assays in accordance with the alternative testing strategy adopted. The paper explains the alternative testing strategy and highlights the principle of each individual test that is employed.

  11. Cortical evoked potentials recorded from the guinea pig without averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walloch, R A

    1975-01-01

    Potentials evoked by tonal pulses and recorded with a monopolar electrode on the pial surface over the auditory cortex of the guinea pig are presented. These potentials are compared with average potentials recorded in previous studies with an electrode on the dura. The potentials recorded by these two techniques have similar waveforms, peak latencies and thresholds. They appear to be generated within the same region of the cerebral cortex. As can be expected, the amplitude of the evoked potentials recorded from the pial surface is larger than that recorded from the dura. Consequently, averaging is not needed to extract the evoked potential once the dura is removed. The thresholds for the evoked cortical potential are similar to behavioral thresholds for the guinea pig at high frequencies; however, evoked potential thresholds are eleveate over behavioral thresholds at low frequencies. The removal of the dura and the direct recording of the evoked potential appears most appropriate for acute experiments. The recording of an evoked potential with dura electrodes empploying averaging procedures appears most appropriate for chronic studies.

  12. Synaptic localization of. kappa. opioid receptors in guinea pig neostriatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jomary, C.; Beaudet, A. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Gairin, J.E. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Toulouse (France))

    1992-01-15

    Distribution of {kappa} opioid receptors was examined by EM radioautography in sections of guinea pig neostriatum with the selective {sup 125}I-labeled dynorphin analog (D-Pro{sup 10})dynorphin-(1-11). Most specifically labeled binding sites were found by probability circle analysis to be associated with neuronal membrane appositions. Because of limitations in resolution of the method, the radioactive sources could not be ascribed directly to either one of the apposed plasma membranes. Nevertheless, three lines of evidence favored a predominant association of ligand with dendrites of intrinsic striatal neurons: (1) the high frequency with which labeled interfaces implicated a dendrite, (2) the enrichment of dendrodendritic interfaces, and (3) the occurrence of dendritic profiles labeled at several contact points along their plasma membranes. A small proportion of labeled sites was associated with axo-axonic interfaces, which may subserve the {kappa} opioid-induced regulation of presynaptic dopamine and acetylcholine release documented in guinea pig neostriatum. These results support the hypothesis that in mammalian brain {kappa} opioid receptors are conformationally and functionally distinct from {mu} and {delta} types.

  13. Spasmolytic effect of traditional herbal formulation on guinea pig ileum

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    Dushyant Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The herbal formulation consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Cassia fistula L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Cuminum cyminum L. is widely used by the local traditional practitioners in rural Northern Karnataka for spasmodic abdominal pain. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate safety and spasmolytic effect of poly-herbal formulation. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss mice, as per the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD guidelines. The spasmolytic activity of the formulation was studied in isolated guinea pig ileum model using histamine and acetylcholine as agonists. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnetts post-hoc test and P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulation did not show any adverse toxic effects and found to be safe. It also showed significant (P < 0.05 relaxation in different agonist like histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractions in guinea pig ileum. Conclusions: Antispasmodic activity of the herbal formulation can be attributed to its atropine-like activity. The present findings, therefore, support its utility in spasmodic abdominal pain.

  14. Cutaneous sensitization to some polyisocyanate prepolymers in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissu, D; Binet, S; Limasset, J C

    1998-11-01

    Isocyanates are used extensively in the polyurethane industry. Pulmonary and dermal sensitization resulting from exposure to diisocyanates has frequently been reported, but the potential effects of polyisocyanates on health are less well known. Thus, since 1978, occupational exposure limits have been established for diisocyanates only. Nevertheless, respiratory diseases and dermatitis have been reported in the polyurethane industry after accidental isocyanate contact during spills or splashes. The aim of this experimental work was to assess the dermal hypersensitivity of guinea pigs to some polyisocyanate prepolymers by means of a well-conducted standard predictive Buehler test. Our results showed that dicyclohexylmethane 4,4'-diisocyanate (HMDI), toluylene 2,4-diisocyanate (TDI), TDI adduct triol, TDI isocyanurate, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), HDI isocyanurate, HDI biuret and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) induced dermal sensitization while IPDI isocyanurate did not. In conclusion, the dermal hypersensitivity of guinea pigs to some polyisocyanates was similar to those of their corresponding monomers except for IPDI isocyanurate, suggesting that the results from diisocyanate monomers could not be a valuable approach for the detection of the sensitization potency of the corresponding prepolymers. PMID:9840262

  15. Artesunate/amodiaquine malaria treatment for Equatorial Guinea (Central Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charle, Pilar; Berzosa, Pedro; de Lucio, Aida; Raso, José; Nseng Nchama, Gloria; Benito, Agustín

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination artesunate (AS)/amodiaquine (AQ) therapy, and 2) to determine the difference between recrudescence and resistance. An in vivo efficacy study was conducted in Equatorial Guinea. A total of 122 children 6-59 months of age from two regional hospitals were randomized and subjected to a 28-day clinical and parasitological follow-up. A blood sample on Whatman paper was taken on Days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 or on any day in cases of treatment failure, with the parasite DNA then being extracted for molecular analysis purposes. A total of 4 children were excluded, and 9 cases were lost to follow-up. There were 17 cases of late parasitological failure, 3 cases of late clinical failure, and 89 cases of adequate clinical and parasitological response. The parasitological failure rate was 18.3% (20 of 109) and the success rate 81.70% (95% confidence interval [72.5-87.9%]). After molecular correction, real treatment efficacy stood at 97.3%. Our study showed the good efficacy of combination AS/AQ therapy. This finding enabled this treatment to be recommended to Equatorial Guinea's National Malaria Control Program to change the official treatment policy as of March 2008.

  16. Guinea Pig Maximization Test for Trichloroethylene and Its Metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To study the contact allergenic activities of trichloroethylene (TCE) and its three metabolites trichloroacetic acid, trichloroethanol and chloral hydrate. Methods A modified guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) was adopted. The skin sensitization (edema and erythema) was observed in trichloroethylene, trichloroacetic acid, trichloroethanol, chloral hydrate and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. Results The allergenic rate of TCE, trichloroacetic acid and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene was 71.4%, 58.3% and 100.0% respectively, and that of trichloroethanol and chloral hydrate was 0%. The mean response score of TCE, trichloroacetic acid and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene was 2.3, 1.1, 6.0 respectively. The histopathological analysis also showed an induction of allergenic transfomation in guinea pig skin by both TCE and trichloroacetic acid. Conclusion TCE appears to be a strong allergen while trichloroacetic acid a moderate one. On the other hand, both trichloroethanol and chloral hydrate are weak sensitization potentials. Immunologic reaction induced by TCE might be postulated as the pathological process of this illness. Consequently, it is suggested that in the mechanism of Occupational Dermatitis Medicamentose-Like (ODML) induced by TCE, the chemical itself might be the main cause of allergy. As one of its metabolic products, trichloroacetic acid might be a subordinate factor.

  17. Morphogenesis in guinea grass pastures under rotational grazing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Baptaglin Montagner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter when sward light interception reached 95% during regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves.

  18. Measurement of guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 131I-MBP. Two critical features of the assay were: (1) alkylation of the MBP with iodoacetamide prior to radioiodination and (2) inclusion of another basic protein, either protamine or histone, in the phosphate buffer. Freshly isolated non-alkylated MBP was immunologically deficient when compared to alkylated or reduced MBP, but its reactivity could be redtores by reduction with dithiothreitol and alkylation. Reduction and alkylation also restored the immunoreactivity of polymerized MBP. MBP levels were not elevated in sera from guinea pigs parasitized with Trichinella spiralis and having peripheral blood eosinophilia. Muscle extracts from Trichinella infected animals showed significantly higher levels of MBP activity than normal controls. MBP was measurable in extracts of untreated eosinophils, but reduction and alkylation of these extracts increased MBP activity several fold. The RIA permits detection of MBP in body fluids and tissues at levels as low as 2 ng./ml. The RIA is useful in assessing increased or decreased levels of MBP activity in samples from experimental animals when compared to samples from controls. (author)

  19. A comparison of virulence of intraperitoneal infection of Burkholderia mallei strains in guinea-pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslampanah, M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Male guinea pigs show high susceptibility to Burkholderia mallei and have been used as animal models in glanders studies. The purpose of our study was to elucidate glanders comparative pathogenesis in guinea pigs. We present here the histological changes and bacterial isolation that develop over time in guinea pigs inoculated intraperitoneally (IP with two strain of B. mallei. Ten male guinea pigs were inoculated intraperitoneally with either the standard strain of Burkholderia mallei or B. mallei strain from Siberian tiger at the Tehran zoo individually, then euthanized at multiple time points post inoculation. Histopathologic changes were similar in both groups and consisted of pyogranulomatous inflammation. In the standard strain study guinea pigs, changes were first seen at 48 hours in liver and heart then in spleen, lung, and kidney at day 3. These changes generally reached maximal incidence and severity by day 3 but decreased by comparison in all tissues except the liver, lung and kidney. Changes were first seen in Siberian tiger strain study guinea pigs also at 48 hours in lung, liver and spleen. At day 3, changes were present in liver, spleen and mediastinal lymph nodes. These changes were maximal at day 4 and 5. In contrast there are differences in incidence and severity between the two strain study guinea pigs. Our findings based on histopathological study indicate that Siberian tiger strain has more severity in gross and necropsy examination but in pathologic lesion was qualitatively similar generally. Additionally, by bacterial isolation, we confirmed the presence of B. mallei.

  20. Guinea pig model for evaluating the potential public health risk of swine and avian influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influenza viruses circulating in animals sporadically transmit to humans and pose pandemic threats. Animal models to evaluate the potential public health risk potential of these viruses are needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the guinea pig as a mammalian model for the study of the replication and transmission characteristics of selected swine H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 and avian H9N2 influenza viruses, compared to those of pandemic (H1N1 2009 and seasonal human H1N1, H3N2 influenza viruses. The swine and avian influenza viruses investigated were restricted to the respiratory system of guinea pigs and shed at high titers in nasal tracts without prior adaptation, similar to human strains. None of the swine and avian influenza viruses showed transmissibility among guinea pigs; in contrast, pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus transmitted from infected guinea pigs to all animals and seasonal human influenza viruses could also horizontally transmit in guinea pigs. The analysis of the receptor distribution in the guinea pig respiratory tissues by lectin histochemistry indicated that both SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors widely presented in the nasal tract and the trachea, while SAα2,3-Gal receptor was the main receptor in the lung. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that the guinea pig could serve as a useful mammalian model to evaluate the potential public health threat of swine and avian influenza viruses.

  1. Towards global Guinea worm eradication in 2015: the experience of South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofeso, Niyi

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, the Guinea worm parasite (Dracunculus medinensis) has caused disabling misery, infecting people who drink stagnant water contaminated with the worm's larvae. In 2012, there were 542 cases of Guinea worm reported globally, of which 521 (96.1%) were reported in South Sudan. Protracted civil wars, an inadequate workforce, neglect of potable water provision programs, suboptimal Guinea worm surveillance and case containment, and fragmented health systems account for many of the structural and operational factors encumbering South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication efforts. This article reviews the impacts of six established Guinea worm control strategies in South Sudan: (1) surveillance to determine actual caseload distribution and trends in response to control measures; (2) educating community members from whom worms are emerging to avoid immersing affected parts in sources of drinking water; (3) filtering potentially contaminated drinking water using cloth filters or filtered drinking straws; (4) treating potentially contaminated surface water with the copepod larvicide temephos (Abate); (5) providing safe drinking water from boreholes or hand-dug wells; and (6) containment of transmission through voluntary isolation of each patient to prevent contamination of drinking water sources, provision of first aid, and manual extraction of the worm. Surveillance, community education, potable water provision, and case containment remain weak facets of the program. Abate pesticide is not a viable option for Guinea worm control in South Sudan. In light of current case detection and containment trends, as well as capacity building efforts for Guinea worm eradication, South Sudan is more likely to eradicate Guinea worm by 2020, rather than by 2015. The author highlights areas in which substantial improvements are required in South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication program, and suggests improvement strategies. PMID:23623648

  2. Pathogenesis of a Chinese strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Yan, Hao; Ma, Lei; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-12-01

    Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) is considered one of the most important respiratory tract agents of cattle and is widespread among cattle around the world. A BAV-3 strain was isolated from a bovine nasal swab for the first time in China in 2009 and named HLJ0955. Subsequently, BAV-3 has frequently been isolated from calves with respiratory diseases in China. To date, only limited study on the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in cotton rats has been conducted, and the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in guinea pigs has not been reported. Therefore, sixteen albino guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with HLJ0955. All of the infected guinea pigs had apparently elevated rectal temperatures (39.2 °C-39.9 °C) at 2-7 days post-inoculation (PI). Consolidation and petechial hemorrhage were also observed in guinea pigs experimentally infected with HLJ0955. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration and by immunohistochemistry in the lungs of guinea pigs as early as 24 h PI. Viral DNA was detectable in the lungs of infected guinea pigs during 11 days of observation by real-time PCR. Virus-neutralizing antibodies against BAV-3 were detectable from 11 days PI and reached a peak titer at 15 days PI. Histopathological changes mainly occurred in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and were characterized by thickening of alveolar septa, mononuclear cell infiltration, hemorrhage and alveolar epithelial necrosis. These results indicate that HLJ0955 can replicate in the lungs of guinea pigs and cause fever and gross and histological lesions. The guinea pig infection model of BAV-3 would serve as a useful system for monitoring the infection process and pathogenesis of the Chinese BAV-3 strain HLJ0955, as well as immune responses to BAV-3 vaccines.

  3. Fertility levels, patterns and differentials in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei, W K

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of a survey conducted between November 1979 and March 1980, new evidence is presented on changes in fertility levels, patterns, and differentials in Papua New Guinea. A single-stage systematic sample designed was used to select respondents in both rural and urban areas. 3986 females in the childbearing age group of 15-49 years and 2297 males ranging in age between 20 and 54 years were interviewed. 1066 males and 1857 females lived in rural areas and 1231 males and 2129 females resided in urban areas. Information was collected on the following: births occurring in the 12 months prior to the survey; the number of children ever born of all female respondents; a complete pregnancy history of all female respondents; and the age structure of the female respondents. The results of the estimated fertility measures for the rural and urban areas of Papua New Guinea are high by world standards: adjusted estimates of total fertility rates of between 6-7, gross reproduction rates of 2.99 and 2.76, and net reproduction rates of 2.25 and 2.08 for the urban and rural areas. Fertility was higher for rural respondents in all age groups except in the 30-34 and the 45-49 age groups where the rates were slightly higher for urban respondents. These differences in the fertility rates were substantial, particularly among respondents under 25 years old. The rural total fertility rate was 8.5% higher than the urban rate; the differences in the gross reproduction rate and the net reproduction rate were 8.3% and 8.2%, respectively. In the rural sample, respondents with primary education had a slightly lower fertility than those with no education, but the respondents with secondary and tertiary education showed marked differences than those with primary education, especially in the 20-39 year age groups. The differences among the youngest (15-19) year age group and the older (40-44) and (45-49) age groups were not large. The pattern for the urban sample was similar to the rural

  4. Postnatal development of substance P in the inner ear of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, R; Zelck, U; Rathsack, R; Oehme, P; Scholtz, H J; Koitschev, A; Beleites, B

    1990-01-01

    Appreciable amounts of substance P (SP) were found in guinea pig cochleas. The highest values were found in the postnatal period. Data presented favor the assumption of SP acting as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter in the inner ear. PMID:1693520

  5. Participation of breast and leg muscles in shivering thermogenesis in young turkeys and guinea fowl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Maurine W.; Mourik, Sijmen van; Tøien, Øivind; Koolmees, Peter A.; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, Monique H.G.; Heldmaier, G.

    1997-01-01

    Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) chicks (0-27 days posthatch) were exposed to decreasing or increasing ambient temperatures. Root mean square electromyographic activity of musculus pectoralis (m. pect.) and musculus iliotibialis (m. iliot.) was recorded simultaneously

  6. Family Outbreaks of Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis following a Meal of Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Fournier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella outbreaks have been linked to a wide variety of foods, including recent nationwide outbreaks. Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, also known as cuy or cobayo, has long been a popular delicacy and ceremonial food in the Andean region in South America. This case report describes three family outbreaks of nontyphoidal salmonellosis, each occurring after a meal of guinea pigs. We believe this case report is the first to describe a probable association between the consumption of guinea pig meat and human salmonellosis. Physicians should be aware of the association of Salmonella and the consumption of guinea pigs, given the increasing immigration of people from the Andean region of South America and the increasing travel to this region.

  7. Chronic estrogen exposure maintains elevated levels of progesterone receptor mRNA in guinea pig hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, D A; Millhorn, D E

    1991-05-01

    We performed in situ hybridization on hypothalamic sections from ovariectomized guinea pig using a cocktail of three 35S-labeled oligonucleotides complementary to mammalian progesterone receptor (PR) cDNA. PR mRNA was readily detected in hypothalamic neurons from guinea pigs pretreated with 17 beta-estradiol benzoate (E2B), but not from animals which did not receive supplemental E2B. The distribution of PR mRNA-containing cells corresponded well with previous localizations of PR in guinea pig. In contrast to earlier reports of E2B regulation of PR mRNA in rat hypothalamus, however, we found that PR mRNA remained elevated during chronic exposure to E2B (up to 10 days) in guinea pig. PMID:2072827

  8. Type I hair cell degeneration in the utricular macula of the waltzing guinea pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig A; Raarup, Merete Krog; Ulfendahl, Mats;

    2008-01-01

    Waltzing guinea pigs are an inbred guinea pig strain with a congenital and progressive balance and hearing disorder. A unique rod-shaped structure is found in the type I vestibular hair cells, that traverses the cell in an axial direction, extending towards the basement membrane. The present study...... estimates the total number of utricular hair cells and supporting cells in waltzing guinea pigs and age-matched control animals using the optical fractionator method. Animals were divided into four age groups (1, 7, 49 and 343 day-old). The number of type I hair cells decreased by 20% in the 343 day......-old waltzing guinea pigs compared to age-matched controls and younger animals. Two-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy using antibodies against fimbrin and betaIII-tubulin showed that the rods were exclusive to type I hair cells. There was no significant change in the length of the filament rods with age...

  9. Three new species of Craterispermum (Rubiaceae) from the Lower Guinea Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taedoumg, H.; Hamon, P.

    2012-01-01

    Three species of Craterispermum are described from Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon. Detailed descriptions and distribution maps are provided for each species, their conservation status is assessed and their taxonomic affinities are discussed. An identification key for the Craterispermum specie

  10. Mordellidae (Coleoptera: Heteromera) from Papua New Guinea, with descriptions of new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batten, R.

    1990-01-01

    New records from Papua New Guinea are given for the following species: Ophthalmoglipa australis Franciscolo, Tolidopalpus castaneicolor Ermisch, Mordellapygium elongatum Ray; the following new species are described: Paratomoxia agathae, Mordellistenoda ismayi, M. trapezoides, Glipostenoda neocastane

  11. Papular dermatitis induced in guinea pigs by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and ...

  12. Effect of Montelukast on bradykinin-induced contraction of isolated tracheal smooth muscle of guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Noor

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: It is concluded that montelukast significantly inhibits, in a dose-dependent manner, the bradykinin-induced contraction of the guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, and alludes to an interaction between the bradykinin and leukotriene mediators.

  13. Flight intensities of rock pigeons (Columba guinea and sunflower damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Kok

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Daily flight patterns of rock pigeons (Columba guinea in the Bloemfontein area are characterised by prominent peaks in early morning and late afternoon. During the middle of the day the birds usually rest in shady places of buildings situated en route to and from field crops in the immediate vicinity of the city. Sunflower is damaged mainly by rock pigeons of which the local population was estimated to be at least 6000. Investigations of bird damage to sunflower within a radius of 20 km from the city centre amounts to between 1 and 7% of the potential seed yield. The regular hunting of rock pigeons is recom­mended as a deterrent.

  14. Plant regeneration from organ culture in white Guinea Yam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explants from leaves, leaf segments, petioles and internodal stem of in vitro grown seedlings of white guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata Poir, cv. 'Obiaoturugo' were cultured on defined media. NAA at concentrations of 0.5-1.0 mg/1 induced shoot regeneration from petiolar and inter-nodal stem pieces, and rooting occurred with little or no callusing from whole leaves or leaf segments. With concentration of 3.0-10.0 m/1 NAA, explants from petioles, inter-nodal stem, whole leaves and leaf segments formed callus which produced roots. These explants developed plantlets when subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/1 BAP and 0.1 mg/1 NAA. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab

  15. linear accelerator simulation framework with placet and guinea-pig

    CERN Document Server

    Snuverink, Jochem; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    Many good tracking tools are available for simulations for linear accelerators. However, several simple tasks need to be performed repeatedly, like lattice definitions, beam setup, output storage, etc. In addition, complex simulations can become unmanageable quite easily. A high level layer would therefore be beneficial. We propose LinSim, a linear accelerator framework with the codes PLACET and GUINEA-PIG. It provides a documented well-debugged high level layer of functionality. Users only need to provide the input settings and essential code and / or use some of the many implemented imperfections and algorithms. It can be especially useful for first-time users. Currently the following accelerators are implemented: ATF2, ILC, CLIC and FACET. This note is the comprehensive manual, discusses the framework design and shows its strength in some condensed examples.

  16. Mycoplasma pneumoniae induces cytotoxic activity in guinea pig bronchoalveolar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precultured guinea pig alveolar macrophages (AM) and freshly harvested alveolar cells (FHAC) activated by interaction with Mycoplasma pneumoniae were cytotoxic for xenogeneic 75selenomethionine-labeled tumor target cells. Phagocytosis of whole opsonized or nonopsonized M. pneumoniae cells was more effective in eliciting cytotoxicity than uptake of sonicated microorganisms. The addition of living mycoplasma cells to the assay system enhanced the cytotoxic effect considerably. Target cells were significantly more susceptible to the cytotoxic action of phagocytes if they were coated with mycoplasma antigen or cocultured together with M. pneumoniae. The activation of the phagocytes could be inhibited by 2-deoxy-D-glucose but not by antimicrobial substances suppressing mycoplasma protein synthesis. It was accompanied by 51Cr release without detectable signs of cell damage. The supernatants of activated cells were cytotoxic for approximately 24 h. Inhibition, release, and cytotoxic activity indicate the necessity of an intact metabolism of the effector cells and suggest a secretion of cytotoxic substances

  17. Comparative phylogeography in rainforest trees from Lower Guinea, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuertz, Myriam; Duminil, Jérôme; Dauby, Gilles; Savolainen, Vincent; Hardy, Olivier J

    2014-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography is an effective approach to assess the evolutionary history of biological communities. We used comparative phylogeography in fourteen tree taxa from Lower Guinea (Atlantic Equatorial Africa) to test for congruence with two simple evolutionary scenarios based on physio-climatic features 1) the W-E environmental gradient and 2) the N-S seasonal inversion, which determine climatic and seasonality differences in the region. We sequenced the trnC-ycf6 plastid DNA region using a dual sampling strategy: fourteen taxa with small sample sizes (dataset 1, mean n = 16/taxon), to assess whether a strong general pattern of allele endemism and genetic differentiation emerged; and four taxonomically well-studied species with larger sample sizes (dataset 2, mean n = 109/species) to detect the presence of particular shared phylogeographic patterns. When grouping the samples into two alternative sets of two populations, W and E, vs. N and S, neither dataset exhibited a strong pattern of allelic endemism, suggesting that none of the considered regions consistently harboured older populations. Differentiation in dataset 1 was similarly strong between W and E as between N and S, with 3-5 significant F ST tests out of 14 tests in each scenario. Coalescent simulations indicated that, given the power of the data, this result probably reflects idiosyncratic histories of the taxa, or a weak common differentiation pattern (possibly with population substructure) undetectable across taxa in dataset 1. Dataset 2 identified a common genetic break separating the northern and southern populations of Greenwayodendron suaveolens subsp. suaveolens var. suaveolens, Milicia excelsa, Symphonia globulifera and Trichoscypha acuminata in Lower Guinea, in agreement with differentiation across the N-S seasonal inversion. Our work suggests that currently recognized tree taxa or suspected species complexes can contain strongly differentiated genetic lineages, which could lead

  18. Comparative phylogeography in rainforest trees from Lower Guinea, Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Heuertz

    Full Text Available Comparative phylogeography is an effective approach to assess the evolutionary history of biological communities. We used comparative phylogeography in fourteen tree taxa from Lower Guinea (Atlantic Equatorial Africa to test for congruence with two simple evolutionary scenarios based on physio-climatic features 1 the W-E environmental gradient and 2 the N-S seasonal inversion, which determine climatic and seasonality differences in the region. We sequenced the trnC-ycf6 plastid DNA region using a dual sampling strategy: fourteen taxa with small sample sizes (dataset 1, mean n = 16/taxon, to assess whether a strong general pattern of allele endemism and genetic differentiation emerged; and four taxonomically well-studied species with larger sample sizes (dataset 2, mean n = 109/species to detect the presence of particular shared phylogeographic patterns. When grouping the samples into two alternative sets of two populations, W and E, vs. N and S, neither dataset exhibited a strong pattern of allelic endemism, suggesting that none of the considered regions consistently harboured older populations. Differentiation in dataset 1 was similarly strong between W and E as between N and S, with 3-5 significant F ST tests out of 14 tests in each scenario. Coalescent simulations indicated that, given the power of the data, this result probably reflects idiosyncratic histories of the taxa, or a weak common differentiation pattern (possibly with population substructure undetectable across taxa in dataset 1. Dataset 2 identified a common genetic break separating the northern and southern populations of Greenwayodendron suaveolens subsp. suaveolens var. suaveolens, Milicia excelsa, Symphonia globulifera and Trichoscypha acuminata in Lower Guinea, in agreement with differentiation across the N-S seasonal inversion. Our work suggests that currently recognized tree taxa or suspected species complexes can contain strongly differentiated genetic lineages

  19. Growth and breast-milk intake in Papua New Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to show what is possible if lactation performance and growth are measured in the context of the WHO Growth Reference Study. The fact is that a piece of work very similar to that which could be reasonably proposed for the present study was done in the 1980's in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and reading Alison Orr-Ewing's thesis it is interesting to find the statement 'The apparent adequacy of mean nutrient intakes up to 6 months and the small and late effect of morbidity on weight gain observed in this study, both substantiate the suggestion that the growth faltering relative to international standards which occurs from 3-5 months is probably largely due to the inappropriate nature of the standards'. This sort of finding was emerging from many research centres at that time (see for example Whitehead and Paul, in my own department) and provided the impetus to develop new standards for growth such as in the WHO Growth Reference Programme. At the same sort of time too, both myself and Dr Peter Heywood, then at the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research were attending one of the first meetings for nutritionists held at IAEA in Vienna. There is thus a certain satisfaction that can be derived from the appropriateness of describing the work at this meeting but it must be tinged with regret that it has taken nearly 20 years to achieve it. The published work from PNG deals only with lactation but the present report will contain some unpublished material on growth and morbidity

  20. Passive protection by polyclonal antibodies against Bacillus anthracis infection in guinea pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Little, S F; Ivins, B E; Fellows, P F; Friedlander, A M

    1997-01-01

    The protective effects of polyclonal antisera produced by injecting guinea pigs with protective antigen (PA), the chemical anthrax vaccine AVA, or Sterne spore vaccine, as well as those of toxin-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) produced against PA, lethal factor, and edema factor, were examined in animals infected with Bacillus anthracis spores. Only the anti-PA polyclonal serum significantly protected the guinea pigs from death, with 67% of infected animals surviving. Although none ...

  1. Hereditary susceptibility to inner ear stress agents studied in heterozygotes of the German waltzing guinea pig

    OpenAIRE

    Skjönsberg, Åsa

    2006-01-01

    The German waltzing guinea pig is a strain of animals expressing deafness and severe balance disorders already at birth. The mutation arose spontaneously in a breeding facility in Germany and as the affected animals show a characteristic waltzing behavior, the strain is named the German waltzing guinea pig. The strain is presently bred only at Karolinska Institutet. The hereditary inner car impairment has a recessive mode of inheritance and the strain thus produces not o...

  2. Progress towards the eradication of Tsetse from the Loos islands, Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Onikoyamou Mory F; Courtin Fabrice; Bouyer Jérémy; Camara Mamadou; Kagbadouno Moise S; Schofield Chris J; Solano Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis is the main vector of sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis - HAT) in West Africa, in particular in littoral Guinea where this disease is currently very active. The Loos islands constitute a small archipelago some 5 km from mainland Guinea, where G. p. gambiensis is well known as a nuisance and potential disease vector by inhabitants of the three main islands, Fotoba, Room, and Kassa. The National Control Program again...

  3. Molecular Phylogeny of Burkholderia pseudomallei from a Remote Region of Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Baker; Talima Pearson; Price, Erin P.; Julia Dale; Paul Keim; Heidie Hornstra; Andrew Greenhill; Gabriel Padilla; Jeffrey Warner

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The island of New Guinea is located midway between the world's two major melioidosis endemic regions of Australia and Southeast Asia. Previous studies in Papua New Guinea have demonstrated autochthonous melioidosis in Balimo, Western province. In contrast to other regions of endemicity, isolates recovered from both environmental and clinical sources demonstrate narrow genetic diversity over large spatial and temporal scales. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed molecular ty...

  4. Emergence of the Gulf of Guinea in the Global Economy; Prospects and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Damian Ondo Mañe

    2005-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea's tremendous potential is creating investment opportunities for the region. Some of its resources, such as oil, minerals, and forests, continue to attract significant investments whereas others, like natural gas, could be exploited to their full potential if necessary investments were undertaken. Nevertheless, the Gulf of Guinea has to cope with numerous challenges, both exogenous and endogenous, before it can fully benefit from its riches. One of these problems stems from ...

  5. Yu Zhengsheng Attends Reception Marking 45th Anniversary Of China-Equatorial Guinea Diplomatic Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Liya

    2015-01-01

    On April 29,the CPAFFC held a reception in Beijing to celebrate the 45th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Equatorial Guinea.Yu Zhengsheng,Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC)and Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo,President of Equatorial Guinea,spoke on the occasion.Among the audience of some 150were Abdul’ahat Abdulrixit,former

  6. Assessment of vaccine testing at three laboratories using the guinea pig model of tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Grover, Ajay; Troudt, JoLynn; Arnett, Kimberly; Izzo, Linda; Lucas, Megan; Strain, Katie; McFarland, Christine; Hall, Yper; McMurray, David; Williams, Ann; Dobos, Karen; Izzo, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    The guinea pig model of tuberculosis is used extensively in different locations to assess the efficacy of novel tuberculosis vaccines during pre-clinical development. Two key assays are used to measure protection against virulent challenge: a 30 day post-infection assessment of mycobacterial burden and long term post-infection survival and pathology analysis. To determine the consistency and robustness of the guinea pig model for testing vaccines, a comparative assessment between three sites ...

  7. Cumulative irritancy in the guinea pig from low grade irritant vehicles and the angry skin syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1980-01-01

    A 4-week open cumulative irritancy test in guinea pigs discriminated between two low grade irritant vehicles, nonionic base (anhydrous) and hydrophilic ointment. The procedure might be useful as a predictive test for low grade irritants. The angry skin syndrome was established in the guinea pigs ...... one Freunds complete adjuvant intradermal injection on day 0, or by daily open applications of 10% sodium lauryl sulfate in petrolatum to the neck area of the animals....

  8. Actions and mechanisms of action of novel analogues of sotalol on guinea-pig and rabbit ventricular cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Connors, S. P.; Gill, E. W.; Terrar, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    1. The actions and mechanisms of action of novel analogues of sotalol which prolong cardiac action potentials were investigated in guinea-pig and rabbit isolated ventricular cells. 2. In guinea-pig and rabbit cells the compounds significantly prolonged action potential duration at 20% and 90% repolarization levels without affecting resting membrane potential. In guinea-pig but not rabbit cells there was an increase in action potential amplitude and in rabbit cells there was no change in the s...

  9. Isolation and characterisation of a dinucleotide microsatellite set for a parentage and biodiversity study in domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Aviles; Vincenzo Landi; Juan Vicente Delgado; José Luis Vega-Pla; Amparo Martinez

    2015-01-01

    The domestic guinea pig is a valuable genetic resource because it is part of local folklore and food tradition in many South American countries. The economic importance of the guinea pig is due to its high feed efficiency and the quality of animal protein produced. For these reasons, our study is aimed to design a complete dinucleotide microsatellite marker set following international recommendation to assess the genetic diversity and genealogy management of guinea pigs. We selected a total o...

  10. A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and humans (Homo sapiens)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrand, Falk; Ebersbach, Tine; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared...... the guinea pig microbiome to existing human gut metagenome data from the MetaHIT project. Results: We found that the bacterial richness obtained for human samples was lower than for guinea pig samples. The intestinal microbiotas of both species were dominated by the two phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes...

  11. Seismotectonics of New Guinea: a Model for Arc Reversal Following Arc-Continent Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Patricia; Taylor, Brian

    1987-02-01

    The structure and evolution of the northern New Guinea collision zone is deduced from International Seismological Center (ISC) seismicity (1964-1985), new and previously published focal mechanisms and a reexamination of pertinent geological data. A tectonic model for the New Guinea margin is derived which illustrates the sequential stages in the collision and suturing of the Bewani-Toricelli-Adelbert-Finisterre-Huon-New Britain arc to central New Guinea followed by subduction polarity reversal in the west. East of 149°E, the Solomon plate is being subducted both to the north and south; bringing the New Britain and Trobriand forearcs toward collision. West of 149°E the forearcs have collided, and together they override a fold in the doubly subducted Solomon plate lithosphere, which has an axis that is parallel to the strike of the Ramu-Markham suture and that plunges westward at an angle of 5° beneath the coast ranges of northern New Guinea. Active volcanism off the north coast of New Guinea is related to subduction of the Solomon plate beneath the Bismarck plate. Active volcanism of the Papuan peninsula and Quaternary volcanism of the New Guinea highlands are related to slow subduction of the Solomon plate beneath the Indo-Australian plate along the Trobriand Trough and the trough's former extension to the west, respectively. From 144°-148°E, seismicity and focal mechanisms reveal that convergence between the sutured Bismarck and Indo-Australian plates is accommodated by thrusting within the Finisterre and Adelbert ranges and compression of the New Guinea orogenic belt, together with basement-involved foreland folding and thrusting to the south. The Finisterre block overthrusts the New Guinea orogenic belt, whereas the Adelbert block is sutured to New Guinea and overthrusts the oceanic lithosphere of the Bismarck Sea. Along the New Guinea Trench, west of 144°E, seismicity defines a southward dipping Wadati-Benioif zone, and focal mechanisms indicate oblique

  12. The seasonal upwellings in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, Jean-Marc

    Observational as well as numerical experiments show that Ekman divergence neither at the equator nor at the coast can explain a significant part of the annual upwelling in the Gulf of Guinea. The remote forcing theory is tested by analyzing both historical data and the FOCAL hydrographic stations (1982-1984). The meteorological data base is analysed as well. Analyses of the thermostad show that waters with the same characteristics as those of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) are carried by the equatorial under current (EUC) and the South Equatorial Undercurrent (SEUC) from the western-central equatorial Atlantic at 35° - 29°W towards the thermostad regions in the Gulf of Guinea. The thermostad water is then carried back westward in the two geostrophic compensation flows flanking the EUC at 2° - 3°N and 2° - 3°S. The cooling of the subthermoclinal waters off Abidjan (5°N) and Pointe-Noire (5°S) is related to the advection and vertical spreading of SACW between 500m and 50m in May-June-July. An exceptional warm event occurred in early 1984 in the Gulf of Guinea. The winds collapsed nearly completely all along the equator in January-April 1984. The onset of the African monsoon was late (in July-August 1984), then the monsoon was weaker than climatology in August-October 1984. The equatorial thermocline was observed 50m deeper than climatology in February 1984, then near the surface in July 1984. Sea levels rose over the equatorial Atlantic, the surge reaching about 13cm at 6°E in February 1984, when the western-central equatorial Atlantic was nearly flat. Minimum sea levels occurred in June-July 1984 at 6°E, before the African monsoon. During this event, the maximum speed in the shallow core of the equatorial undercurrent at 4°W and 6°E was nearly insensitive to large changes in the thermal structure (downwelling or upwelling situations). In February-May 1984, we have observed distinct increasing eastward flows at the equator below 250m and minimum

  13. Growth characteristics of pearl gray guinea fowl as predicted by the Richards, Gompertz, and logistic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahashon, S N; Aggrey, S E; Adefope, N A; Amenyenu, A; Wright, D

    2006-02-01

    This study was undertaken to describe the growth pattern of the pearl gray Guinea fowl. Using BW data from hatch to 22 wk, 3 nonlinear mathematical functions (Richards, Gompertz, and logistic) were used to estimate growth patterns of the pearl gray guinea fowl. The logistic and Gompertz models are a special case of the Richards model, which has a variable point of inflection defined by the shape or growth trajectory parameter, m. The shape parameter m was 1.08 and 0.98 in males and females, respectively, suggesting that the growth pattern of the pearl gray female guinea fowl is Gompertz. The pearl gray guinea fowl exhibited sexual dimorphism for their growth characteristics. From the Gompertz model, the asymptotic BW, growth rate, and age at maximum growth were 1.62 kg, 0.22 kg/wk, and 6.65 wk in males, respectively, and 1.70 kg, 0.19 kg/wk, and 6.70 wk in females, respectively. The ages at maximum growth were 6.65, 6.47, and 8.12 wk for the Richards, Gompertz, and logistic models, respectively. The pearl gray guinea fowl females have a higher asymptotic BW compared with the males. The average asymptotic BW of about 1.57 kg for both sexes predicted by the logistic model was below the average predicted BW from the Richards (1.66 kg) and Gompertz (1.67 kg) models, respectively, at 22 wk of age. The inverse relationship between the asymptotic weight and both relative growth and age at maximum growth of the pearl gray guinea fowl is similar to that of chickens, quail, and ducks. Success in studying the growth characteristics of guinea fowl will contribute to the efforts of genetically improving this least-studied avian species.

  14. "Training by Papua New Guinea Women, for Papua New Guinea Women": Lessons from the Development of a Co-Constructed Course for Women Smallholder Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamphilon, Barbara; Mikhailovich, Katja; Chambers, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the lessons from a collaborative project that worked with women agricultural leaders in Papua New Guinea. The project sought to build the capacity of these leaders as trainers in a way that would enable the development of a sustainable community of practice and worked within a critical and place-based pedagogy underpinned by…

  15. Acute and subchronic dermal toxicity of nanosilver in guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbabi Bidgoli S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available M Korani1, SM Rezayat1,2,4, K Gilani3, S Arbabi Bidgoli4, S Adeli11Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 2Department of Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 4Department of Toxicology & Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAUPS, Tehran, IranAbstract: Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for a long time in different forms, but silver nanoparticles (nanosilver have recently been recognized as potent antimicrobial agents. Although nanosilver is finding diverse medical applications such as silver-based dressings and silver-coated medical devices, its dermal and systemic toxicity via dermal use has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the potential toxicity of colloidal nanosilver in acute and subchronic guinea pigs. Before toxicity assessments, the size of colloidal nanosilver was recorded in sizes <100 nm by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. For toxicological assessments, male guinea pigs weighing 350 to 400 g were exposed to two different concentrations of nanosilver (1000 and 10,000 µg/mL in an acute study and three concentrations of nanosilver (100, 1000, and 10,000 µg/mL in a subchronic study. Toxic responses were assessed by clinical and histopathologic parameters. In all experimental animals the sites of exposure were scored for any type of dermal toxicity and compared with negative control and positive control groups. In autopsy studies during the acute test, no significant changes in organ weight or major macroscopic changes were detected, but dose-dependent histopathologic abnormalities were seen in skin, liver, and spleen of all test groups. In addition, experimental animals subjected to subchronic tests showed greater

  16. Early Identification and Prevention of the Spread of Ebola in High-Risk African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, Lucy; Gerber, A Russell; Greiner, Ashley L; Hastings, Deborah L; Mirkovic, Kelsey; Paczkowski, Magdalena M; Sidibe, Sekou; Banaski, James; Walker, Chastity L; Brooks, Jennifer C; Caceres, Victor M; Arthur, Ray R; Angulo, Frederick J

    2016-07-08

    In the late summer of 2014, it became apparent that improved preparedness was needed for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in at-risk countries surrounding the three highly affected West African countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia). The World Health Organization (WHO) identified 14 nearby African countries as high priority to receive technical assistance for Ebola preparedness; two additional African countries were identified at high risk for Ebola introduction because of travel and trade connections. To enhance the capacity of these countries to rapidly detect and contain Ebola, CDC established the High-Risk Countries Team (HRCT) to work with ministries of health, CDC country offices, WHO, and other international organizations. From August 2014 until the team was deactivated in May 2015, a total of 128 team members supported 15 countries in Ebola response and preparedness. In four instances during 2014, Ebola was introduced from a heavily affected country to a previously unaffected country, and CDC rapidly deployed personnel to help contain Ebola. The first introduction, in Nigeria, resulted in 20 cases and was contained within three generations of transmission; the second and third introductions, in Senegal and Mali, respectively, resulted in no further transmission; the fourth, also in Mali, resulted in seven cases and was contained within two generations of transmission. Preparedness activities included training, developing guidelines, assessing Ebola preparedness, facilitating Emergency Operations Center establishment in seven countries, and developing a standardized protocol for contact tracing. CDC's Field Epidemiology Training Program Branch also partnered with the HRCT to provide surveillance training to 188 field epidemiologists in Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, and Senegal to support Ebola preparedness. Imported cases of Ebola were successfully contained, and all 15 priority countries now have a stronger capacity to rapidly detect and contain

  17. West Africa Extreme Rainfall Events and Large-Scale Ocean Surface and Atmospheric Conditions in the Tropical Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on daily precipitation from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP data during April–October of the 1997–2014 period, the daily extreme rainfall trends and variability over West Africa are characterized using 90th-percentile threshold at each grid point. The contribution of the extreme rainfall amount reaches ~50–90% in the northern region while it is ~30–50% in the south. The yearly cumulated extreme rainfall amount indicates significant and negative trends in the 6°N–12°N; 6°N–12°N; 17°W–10°W and 4°N–7°N; 4°N–7°N; 6°E–10°E 4°N–7°N; 6°E–10°E 4°N–7°N; 6°E–10°E domains, while the number of days exhibits nonsignificant trends over West Africa. The empirical orthogonal functions performed on the standardized anomalies show four variability modes that include all West Africa with a focus on the Sahelian region, the eastern region including the south of Nigeria, the western part including Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea-Bissau, and finally a small region at the coast of Ghana and Togo. These four modes are influenced differently by the large-scale ocean surface and atmospheric conditions in the tropical Atlantic. The results are applicable in planning the risks associated with these climate hazards, particularly on water resource management and civil defense.

  18. Early Identification and Prevention of the Spread of Ebola in High-Risk African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, Lucy; Gerber, A Russell; Greiner, Ashley L; Hastings, Deborah L; Mirkovic, Kelsey; Paczkowski, Magdalena M; Sidibe, Sekou; Banaski, James; Walker, Chastity L; Brooks, Jennifer C; Caceres, Victor M; Arthur, Ray R; Angulo, Frederick J

    2016-01-01

    In the late summer of 2014, it became apparent that improved preparedness was needed for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in at-risk countries surrounding the three highly affected West African countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia). The World Health Organization (WHO) identified 14 nearby African countries as high priority to receive technical assistance for Ebola preparedness; two additional African countries were identified at high risk for Ebola introduction because of travel and trade connections. To enhance the capacity of these countries to rapidly detect and contain Ebola, CDC established the High-Risk Countries Team (HRCT) to work with ministries of health, CDC country offices, WHO, and other international organizations. From August 2014 until the team was deactivated in May 2015, a total of 128 team members supported 15 countries in Ebola response and preparedness. In four instances during 2014, Ebola was introduced from a heavily affected country to a previously unaffected country, and CDC rapidly deployed personnel to help contain Ebola. The first introduction, in Nigeria, resulted in 20 cases and was contained within three generations of transmission; the second and third introductions, in Senegal and Mali, respectively, resulted in no further transmission; the fourth, also in Mali, resulted in seven cases and was contained within two generations of transmission. Preparedness activities included training, developing guidelines, assessing Ebola preparedness, facilitating Emergency Operations Center establishment in seven countries, and developing a standardized protocol for contact tracing. CDC's Field Epidemiology Training Program Branch also partnered with the HRCT to provide surveillance training to 188 field epidemiologists in Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, and Senegal to support Ebola preparedness. Imported cases of Ebola were successfully contained, and all 15 priority countries now have a stronger capacity to rapidly detect and contain

  19. Cholera in 1994. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-14

    In 1994, Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor, the agent responsible for the seventh cholera pandemic which began in 1961, continued to spread in all regions of the world (Map 1). In all, 384,403 cholera cases were officially reported to WHO in 1994 (a 2% increase over 1993), reversing the downward trend which started in 1992. A total of 10,692 deaths were reported in 1994, increasing the reported global case-fatality ratio (CFR) to 2.8% from 1.8% in 1993. Cholera cases were notified from 94 countries/areas, the highest number ever reporting in one year. (Table 1 and Fig. 1). The year was marked by the dramatic cholera outbreak that devastated the Rwandan refugee camps in Goma, Zaire in July. Major outbreaks also affected Afghanistan, Brazil, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau and Somalia. Africa reported a rise in the number of cholera cases, and was the continent accounting for the largest proportion of all reported cases. The incidence of cholera cases in the Americas continued to fall and reported CFR was the lowest recorded since the disease reached Latin America in 1991. Asia reported a 17% increase in cholera cases compared with 1993. Europe, which usually reports only imported cases, registered a significant increase in the number of indigenous cholera cases. Oceania reported 6 cases, 5 of which were imported, and no deaths (Figs. 2 and 3). The new V. cholerae strain O139 (Bengal) has affected 10 countries in Asia since it was first detected in India at PMID:7544150

  20. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachser Norbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all

  1. Epidermal cell proliferation in guinea pigs with experimental dermatophytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the self-healing process of experimental dermatophytosis produced in guinea pigs by an occlusive method with Trichophyton mentagrophytes, epidermal proliferative activity was evaluated by the in vivo tritiated thymidine-labeling technique performed at various intervals after the first and second infections. Determination of labeling indices disclosed that an increased epidermal proliferation correlated well with the severity of inflammatory changes, i.e., a peak activity was noted after 10 days in primary infection and at 2 days in reinfection, respectively, and was followed by subsequent spontaneous lesion clearance after 10 days. Application of a heat-killed spore suspension produced inflammatory changes with enhanced epidermopoiesis, similar to those induced by reinoculation of living spores, only in immune animals. The present results indicate that the dermatitic changes occurring in experimental dermatophytosis increase epidermopoiesis which facilitates elimination of the fungus from the stratum corneum and that host immune activity, particularly contact sensitivity to fungal antigen, exerts a crucial role to induce these changes

  2. Antitussive activity of iodo-resiniferatoxin in guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, M; Milan, A; Gatti, R; Zanasi, A; Harrison, S; Fontana, G; Morice, A; Geppetti, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: Iodo-resiniferatoxin (I-RTX) has recently been described as an ultra potent antagonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). Methods: The ability of I-RTX to inhibit cough induced by inhalation of two putative TRPV1 stimulants (capsaicin and citric acid) was tested in non-anaesthetised guinea pigs. Results: Pretreatment with I-RTX either intraperitoneally (0.03–0.3 µmol/kg) or by aerosol (0.1–3 µM) reduced the number of coughs produced by inhalation of citric acid (0.25 M) and capsaicin (30 µM) in a dose dependent manner. Capsazepine (CPZ) also reduced citric acid and capsaicin induced cough, but the activity of I-RTX was 10–100 times more potent than CPZ in all the experimental conditions tested. Conclusions: I-RTX is a novel and potent antitussive drug which inhibits cough mediated by agents possibly acting via TRPV1 activation. PMID:15333853

  3. Placentophagy in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Michiko; Hockings, Kimberley J; Soumah, Aly Gaspard; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2016-04-01

    Despite intensive observation of nonhuman great apes during long-term field studies, observations of great ape births in the wild are rare. Research on wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou in the Republic of Guinea has been ongoing for 35 years, yet chimpanzee parturitions have been observed on only two occasions. Here we provide information regarding both chimpanzee births, with detailed information from the close observation of one. During this birth, the mother built a day nest in a tree before parturition. After giving birth, the mother consumed the placenta, and the other chimpanzees in her party gathered near her and her neonate. However, she did not share the placenta, and consumed it all herself. In the second observation, the mother also built a nest in a tree and subsequently gave birth. Thereafter, she shared the placenta with some individuals and consumed part of the placenta herself. Although maternal placentophagy is a ubiquitous behavior among the majority of non-human primates, observations of placenta sharing by wild primates are infrequent, and the proximate and ultimate explanations for the behavior remain unclear. PMID:26769192

  4. Sustainability of Land Groups in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepani Karigawa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a review of existing literature relating to Incorporated Land Groups in Papua New Guinea (PNG, followed by a case study of two urban incorporated land groups (ILGs in the city of Lae. The paper is an attempt at assessing the sustainability of ILGs in the country. The challenges facing the ILGs have heightened public fears that the land groups may not be sustainable. Based on the argument in previous studies that the ILGs are not sustainable, the paper used primary data from two separate questionnaire surveys of randomly selected ILG landowners (including legal settlers and ILG stakeholders to investigate the problem. The combined sample size of 129 respondents (32.7% was representative of the total ILG population, while a total of 25 indicators were used to test the respondents’ perceptions regarding ILG sustainability. Findings reveal that only one of the indicators received the positive support of the stakeholders, while no indicator was supported by the landowners. This suggests that the ILGs in PNG are not sustainable legal entities. This dilemma is a consequence of the challenges facing the ILGs, including the issues of corruption in the Lands Department, illiteracy among landowners, poor publicity given to ILGs’ functions, and the dysfunctional ILG legal framework.

  5. Gene Targeting to the Uteroplacental Circulation of Pregnant Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vedanta; Ofir, Keren; Swanson, Anna; Kloczko, Ewa; Boyd, Michael; Barker, Hannah; Avdic-Belltheus, Adnan; Martin, John; Zachary, Ian; Peebles, Donald; David, Anna L

    2016-08-01

    Our study aimed to target adenoviral gene therapy to the uteroplacental circulation of pregnant guinea pigs in order to develop a novel therapy for fetal growth restriction. Four methods of delivery of an adenovirus encoding β-galactosidase (Ad.LacZ) were evaluated: intravascular injection using phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) into (1) uterine artery (UtA) or (2) internal iliac artery or external administration in (3) PBS or (4) pluronic F-127 gel (Sigma Aldrich). Postmortem examination was performed 4 to 7 days after gene transfer. Tissue transduction was assessed by X-gal histochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. External vascular application of the adenovirus vector in combination with pluronic gel had 91.7% success rate in terms of administration (85% maternal survival) and gave the best results for maternal/fetal survival and local transduction efficiency without any spread to maternal or fetal tissues. This study suggests an optimal method of gene delivery to the UtAs of a small rodent for preclinical studies. PMID:26865541

  6. Unique human immune signature of Ebola virus disease in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal, Paula; Oestereich, Lisa; Lüdtke, Anja; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Wozniak, David M; Kerber, Romy; Korva, Miša; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Bore, Joseph A; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Duraffour, Sophie; Weller, Romy; Thorenz, Anja; Cimini, Eleonora; Viola, Domenico; Agrati, Chiara; Repits, Johanna; Afrough, Babak; Cowley, Lauren A; Ngabo, Didier; Hinzmann, Julia; Mertens, Marc; Vitoriano, Inês; Logue, Christopher H; Boettcher, Jan Peter; Pallasch, Elisa; Sachse, Andreas; Bah, Amadou; Nitzsche, Katja; Kuisma, Eeva; Michel, Janine; Holm, Tobias; Zekeng, Elsa-Gayle; García-Dorival, Isabel; Wölfel, Roman; Stoecker, Kilian; Fleischmann, Erna; Strecker, Thomas; Di Caro, Antonino; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Kurth, Andreas; Meschi, Silvia; Mély, Stephane; Newman, Edmund; Bocquin, Anne; Kis, Zoltan; Kelterbaum, Anne; Molkenthin, Peter; Carletti, Fabrizio; Portmann, Jasmine; Wolff, Svenja; Castilletti, Concetta; Schudt, Gordian; Fizet, Alexandra; Ottowell, Lisa J; Herker, Eva; Jacobs, Thomas; Kretschmer, Birte; Severi, Ettore; Ouedraogo, Nobila; Lago, Mar; Negredo, Anabel; Franco, Leticia; Anda, Pedro; Schmiedel, Stefan; Kreuels, Benno; Wichmann, Dominic; Addo, Marylyn M; Lohse, Ansgar W; De Clerck, Hilde; Nanclares, Carolina; Jonckheere, Sylvie; Van Herp, Michel; Sprecher, Armand; Xiaojiang, Gao; Carrington, Mary; Miranda, Osvaldo; Castro, Carlos M; Gabriel, Martin; Drury, Patrick; Formenty, Pierre; Diallo, Boubacar; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N'Faly; Carroll, Miles W; Günther, Stephan; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-05-01

    Despite the magnitude of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the pathophysiology of EVD. In particular, very little is known about human immune responses to Ebola virus. Here we evaluate the physiology of the human T cell immune response in EVD patients at the time of admission to the Ebola Treatment Center in Guinea, and longitudinally until discharge or death. Through the use of multiparametric flow cytometry established by the European Mobile Laboratory in the field, we identify an immune signature that is unique in EVD fatalities. Fatal EVD was characterized by a high percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressing the inhibitory molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1, which correlated with elevated inflammatory markers and high virus load. Conversely, surviving individuals showed significantly lower expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1 as well as lower inflammation, despite comparable overall T cell activation. Concomitant with virus clearance, survivors mounted a robust Ebola-virus-specific T cell response. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of the T cell response is a key component of EVD pathophysiology.

  7. Unique human immune signature of Ebola virus disease in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal, Paula; Oestereich, Lisa; Lüdtke, Anja; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Wozniak, David M; Kerber, Romy; Korva, Miša; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Bore, Joseph A; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Duraffour, Sophie; Weller, Romy; Thorenz, Anja; Cimini, Eleonora; Viola, Domenico; Agrati, Chiara; Repits, Johanna; Afrough, Babak; Cowley, Lauren A; Ngabo, Didier; Hinzmann, Julia; Mertens, Marc; Vitoriano, Inês; Logue, Christopher H; Boettcher, Jan Peter; Pallasch, Elisa; Sachse, Andreas; Bah, Amadou; Nitzsche, Katja; Kuisma, Eeva; Michel, Janine; Holm, Tobias; Zekeng, Elsa-Gayle; García-Dorival, Isabel; Wölfel, Roman; Stoecker, Kilian; Fleischmann, Erna; Strecker, Thomas; Di Caro, Antonino; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Kurth, Andreas; Meschi, Silvia; Mély, Stephane; Newman, Edmund; Bocquin, Anne; Kis, Zoltan; Kelterbaum, Anne; Molkenthin, Peter; Carletti, Fabrizio; Portmann, Jasmine; Wolff, Svenja; Castilletti, Concetta; Schudt, Gordian; Fizet, Alexandra; Ottowell, Lisa J; Herker, Eva; Jacobs, Thomas; Kretschmer, Birte; Severi, Ettore; Ouedraogo, Nobila; Lago, Mar; Negredo, Anabel; Franco, Leticia; Anda, Pedro; Schmiedel, Stefan; Kreuels, Benno; Wichmann, Dominic; Addo, Marylyn M; Lohse, Ansgar W; De Clerck, Hilde; Nanclares, Carolina; Jonckheere, Sylvie; Van Herp, Michel; Sprecher, Armand; Xiaojiang, Gao; Carrington, Mary; Miranda, Osvaldo; Castro, Carlos M; Gabriel, Martin; Drury, Patrick; Formenty, Pierre; Diallo, Boubacar; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N'Faly; Carroll, Miles W; Günther, Stephan; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-05-01

    Despite the magnitude of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the pathophysiology of EVD. In particular, very little is known about human immune responses to Ebola virus. Here we evaluate the physiology of the human T cell immune response in EVD patients at the time of admission to the Ebola Treatment Center in Guinea, and longitudinally until discharge or death. Through the use of multiparametric flow cytometry established by the European Mobile Laboratory in the field, we identify an immune signature that is unique in EVD fatalities. Fatal EVD was characterized by a high percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressing the inhibitory molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1, which correlated with elevated inflammatory markers and high virus load. Conversely, surviving individuals showed significantly lower expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1 as well as lower inflammation, despite comparable overall T cell activation. Concomitant with virus clearance, survivors mounted a robust Ebola-virus-specific T cell response. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of the T cell response is a key component of EVD pathophysiology. PMID:27147028

  8. Ouabain uptake by endocytosis in isolated guinea pig atria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammalian cells specifically internalize some molecular species through receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME). The authors have used four different experimental protocols to investigate whether ouabain enters cardiac cells of guinea pig atrium through this pathway. First, by electron microscope morphometry the authors found that ouabain increased endocytic vesicles in atrial cells. Second, by scintillation counting they found that [3H]ouabain uptake by the tissue is decreased by three treatments that decrease RME, i.e., NH4Cl, trifluoperazine, and 16 mM [K+]0. Third, by radioautography at the electron microscope level, they checked that in preceding experiments [3H]ouabain was washed out of plasma membrane after 60-min rinse and interiorized into the cardiac cells. Fourth, isometric tension recordings showed that the positive inotropic effect of ouabain was diminished in the presence of inhibitors, whereas that of a hydrophobic analogue, ouabagenin, was not affected. These results suggest that ouabain enters cardiac cells through RME and also that an intracellular site may, at least in part, be responsible for its inotropic effect

  9. Sources and management of hazardous waste in Papua New Guinea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K. [Univ. of Papua New Guinea (Papua New Guinea)

    1996-12-31

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) has considerable mineral wealth, especially in gold and copper. Large-scale mining takes place, and these activities are the source of most of PNG`s hazardous waste. Most people live in small farming communities throughout the region. Those living adjacent to mining areas have experienced some negative impacts from river ecosystem damage and erosion of their lands. Industry is centered mainly in urban areas and Generates waste composed of various products. Agricultural products, pesticide residues, and chemicals used for preserving timber and other forestry products also produce hazardous waste. Most municipal waste comes from domestic and commercial premises; it consists mainly of combustibles, noncombustibles, and other wastes. Hospitals generate pathogenic organisms, radioactive materials, and chemical and pharmaceutical laboratory waste. Little is known about the actual treatment of waste before disposal in PNG. Traditional low-cost waste disposal methods are usually practiced, such as use of landfills; storage in surface impoundments; and disposal in public sewers, rivers, and the sea. Indiscriminate burning of domestic waste in backyards is also commonly practiced in urban and rural areas. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Increasing Guinea Fowl Eggs Availability and Hatchability in the Dry Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Konlan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to identify the possibility of making guinea fowls (Numida meleagris to lay fertile eggs throughout the year and was investigated for nine months. Fifty guinea fowls (growers consisting of ten males and forty females were purchased and raised to laying stage. At the laying stage, they were fed with commercial layer diet, confined in the day time and opened at 3:00 p.m. to go out and forage until 6:00 p.m. when they were driven back into the pen. Their supplementary feed intake and egg laying performance were monitored during the period. The eggs were artificially incubated to determine hatching rate. The results showed that the fowls’ mean supplementary feed intake was 84.5g/fowl/day and laid a total of 3,920 eggs in nine months investigation period by an average of 39 guinea hens. The hatching rate of the eggs was mostly found to be in the range of 66% to 69% but fell sharply to 18% in December at the peak of the harmattan season. It was concluded that good feeding and provision of water ad lib to the guinea fowls were effective means of making them lay eggs even in the dry season. The North – East dry winds (harmattan which occur annually from November to February, was suspected to have negative influence on guinea fowl egg production and hatchability.

  11. Congenital malformations caused by Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Leg. Mimosoideae) in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Josenaldo S; Rocha, Brena P; Colodel, Edson M; Freitas, Sílvio H; Dória, Renata G S; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Evêncio-Neto, Joaquim; Mendonça, Fábio S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Stryphnodendron fissuratum pods in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and test the hypothesis that this plant has teratogenic effects. Thus, sixteen guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups of four animals each. Groups 10, 20 and 40 consisted of guinea pigs that received commercial food that contained crushed pods of S. fissuratum at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 g/kg, respectively, during the period of organogenesis. Control group consisted of guinea pigs under the same management conditions that did not receive crushed pods of S. fissuratum in their food. In all experimental groups, the main clinical signs of poisoning consisted of anorexia, prostration, absence of vocalizations, alopecia, diarrhea, and abortions within the adult guinea pigs. Those that did not abort gave birth to weak, malnourished pups, some of which had fetal malformations. The main teratogenic changes consisted of eventration, arthrogryposis, amelia of the forelimbs, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, anotia and agnathia. The reductions in the number of offspring and the malformations observed in the experimental groups suggest that S. fissuratum affects fetal development and is teratogenic. PMID:26363291

  12. THE GENETIC-INDUCED HEARING lOSS CAN BLOCK THE EFFECT OF NOISE TRAUMA IN WAlTZING GUINEA PIG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Busheng; Duan Maoli

    2013-01-01

    The waltzing guinea pig may be a good model to investigate if genetic factor can change the sensitivity in noise-induced hearing loss. A total of 34 waltzig guinea pigs were studied and we found that there is no any significant increased sensitivity to noise trauma if the age-induced hearing loss was considered in waltz-ing guinea pig.

  13. Effects of long term feeding of raw soya bean flour on virus- induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in guinea fowl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirev, T.; Woutersen, R.A.; Kiril, A.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of a diet enriched with 25% raw soya bean flour (RSF) on the pancreas and on the avian retrovirus Pts 56-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in guinea fowl were studied. It has been shown that prolonged RSF feeding of new-hatched virus-infected and uninfected guinea fowl-poults induced enl

  14. Gender Differences in the Anatomy of the Perineal Glands in Guinea Pigs and the Effect of Castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, T. M.; Arnbjerg, J.; Ruelokke, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Perineal glands in guinea pigs are part of the sebaceous glandular complex. Their secretions are used for scent marking. This is important for social status and can be seen in both sexes and castrated males. Discrepancy exits about the existence of these glands in female guinea pigs and knowledge...

  15. Oxidative DNA damage in vitamin C-supplemented guinea pigs after intratracheal instillation of diesel exhaust particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Daneshvar, B.; Loft, S.;

    2003-01-01

    . The concentrations of ascorbate in liver, lung, and plasma were unaltered by the DEP exposure. The results indicate that in guinea pigs DEP causes oxidative DNA damage rather than bulky DNA adducts in the lung. Guinea pigs, which are similar to humans with respect to vitamin C metabolism, may serve as a new model...

  16. 76 FR 50284 - Request for Public Comments on Interim Review of Eligibility of Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, and Niger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ..., Guinea, and Niger for Benefits Under the African Growth and Opportunity Act AGENCY: Office of the United... Niger to receive the benefits of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). The Subcommittee will... considered under the AGOA. Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, and Niger are currently ineligible for AGOA benefits....

  17. Human Recombinant PLD2 Can Repress p65 Activity of Guinea Pigs of Chronic Asthma in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Zhu; Weibin Zou; Chuanxing Yu; Junjin Lin; Xiaoli He

    2006-01-01

    This article is to investigate the effect of human recombinant phospholipase D2 (rhPLD2) in vivo on the expression of nuclear transcription factor p65 in chronic asthma of guinea pigs. After treating the guinea pigs with chronic asthma by rhPLD2, the crude nuclear extraction was assayed with TransAM Transcription Factor Assay Kit for the activity of pulmo tissue nuclear transcription factor p65. Compared with the healthy guinea pigs, the activity of nuclear transcription factor p65 in guinea pigs of chronic asthma is much higher than that of control groups. Our results showed that rhPLD2 markedly depressed the activity of p65 when the guinea pigs were attacked by chronic asthma. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2006;3(4):307-310.

  18. Improved laboratory capacity is required to respond better to future cholera outbreaks in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Horwood

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholera was first detected in Papua New Guinea in July 2009, caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor serotype Ogawa. By late 2011, 15 500 cases had been reported throughout lowland Papua New Guinea with a case fatality rate of 3.2%. The epidemic has since slowed, with only sporadic cases reported in Western Province and the Autonomous Region of Bougainville (ARB. Accurate and timely diagnosis is a critical element of the public health response to cholera, yet in low-income countries where the burden of cholera is the greatest, diagnostic services are often limited. Here we report on the diagnostic challenges and the logistical factors that impacted on diagnosis during the first reported outbreak of cholera in Papua New Guinea.

  19. Effect of Cerium on Cardiac Muscle of Rat and Guinea Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The effect of Ce3+ on cardiac muscle of rat and guinea pig was studied. In vitro, 0.05 mmol.L-1 solution of Ce3+ inhibited the contraction of guinea pig atria. The change of action potential duration(APD) of guinea pig papillary muscle exposed to 0.4 mmol·L-1 Ce3+ was significant, and those exposed to 0.1 and 0.2 mmol·L-1 Ce3+ were not significant. In vivo, compared with the control group, the APD for rat cardiac muscle after long-term feed on Ce3+ was significantly delayed in high dose, and that was not significantly delayed in low dose. The results suggest that Ce3+ with long-term high dose intake might affect the influx of Ca2+, Na+ and outflow of K+ for rat cardiac muscle.

  20. Disodium cromoglycate prevents ileum hyperreactivity to histamine in Toxocara canis-infected guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Nunes, A; Corrado, A P; Baruffi, M D; Faccioli, L H

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Toxocara canis infection in guinea pigs provokes changes in ileum responsiveness to histamine. Ileum segments from control and T. canis-infected groups were placed at isometric conditions and submitted to various doses of histamine. No changes were observed between controls and T. canis-infected groups at days 3, 6 and 12 after infection. However, at days 18 and 24 after infection, there was a significant increase in ileum responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected group. Pre-incubation of ileum segments with 1mgml(-1) disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) prevented the increased responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected guinea pigs and did not affect ileum contractility in non-infected animals. These results indicate that T. canis-infected guinea pigs develop increased intestinal responsiveness to histamine and that DSCG prevents alterations in smooth-muscle contractility. PMID:12967589

  1. A Survey on the Gastrointestinal Parasites of Rabbit and Guinea Pig in a Laboratory Animal House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motamedi, G.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is documented evidence that infection in laboratory animals can often influence the outcome of experiments. All infections, apparent or inapparent, are likely to increase biological variability. As a research project concerning the diversity and distribution of parasites of rabbit and guinea pig in a conventional laboratory animal house, about 87 rabbits (from 700 and 105 guinea pigs (from 1500 were selected randomly from a Research, Production & Breeding of Laboratory Animals Department. Samples were collected between 19.02.2010 and 20.05.2011. The samples and animals were examined by dissection and flotation methods. In this study only one species of nematodes (Passalorus ambiguus: 6.9%; one species of protozoa (Eimeria spp.: 21.8% in rabbits and one species of nematodes (Paraspidodera Uncinata: 24.7%; one species of protozoa (Balantidium coli: 11.4% in guinea pigs were identified. However, there was not any cestodes or trematodes identified from this group of laboratory animals.

  2. GABAB Receptor Antagonist CGP46381 Inhibits Form-Deprivation Myopia Development in Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Ying Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to investigate the effects of the GABAB receptor antagonist, CGP46381, on form-deprivation myopia (FDM in guinea pigs. Twenty-four guinea pigs had monocular visual deprivation induced using a diffuser for 11 days (day 14 to 25. The deprived eyes were treated with daily subconjunctival injections (100 μl of either 2% CGP46381, 0.2% CGP46381, or saline or received no injection. The fellow eyes were left untreated. Another six animals received no treatment. At the start and end of the treatment period, ocular refractions were measured using retinoscopy and vitreous chamber depth (VCD and axial length (AL using A-scan ultrasound. All of the deprived eyes developed relative myopia (treated versus untreated eyes, P0.05. Subconjunctival injections of CGP46381 inhibit FDM development in guinea pigs in a dose-dependent manner.

  3. A step forward for understanding the morbidity burden in Guinea: a national descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Guoqing

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little evidence on the burden of disease has been reported about Guinea. This study was conducted to demonstrate the morbidity burden in Guinea and provide basic evidence for setting health priorities. Methods A retrospective descriptive study was designed to present the morbidity burden of Guinea. Morbidity data were extracted from the National Health Statistics Report of Guinea of 2008. The data are collected based on a pyramid of facilities which includes two national hospitals (teaching hospitals, seven regional hospitals, 26 prefectural hospitals, 8 communal medical centers, 390 health centers, and 628 health posts. Morbidity rates were calculated to measure the burden of non-fatal diseases. The contributions of the 10 leading diseases were presented by sex and age group. Results In 2008, a total of 3,936,599 cases occurred. The morbidity rate for males was higher than for females, 461 versus 332 per 1,000 population. Malaria, respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, helminthiases, and malnutrition ranked in the first 5 places and accounted for 74% of the total burden, respectively having a rate of 148, 64, 33, 32, and 14 per 1,000 population. The elderly aged 65+ had the highest morbidity rate (611 per 1,000 population followed by working-age population (458 per 1,000 population and children (396 per 1,000 population while the working-age population aged 25-64 contributed the largest part (39% to total cases. The sex- and age-specific spectrum of morbidity burden showed a similar profile except for small variations. Conclusion Guinea has its unique morbidity burden. The ten leading causes of morbidity burden, especially for malaria, respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, helminthiases, and malnutrition, need to be prioritized in Guinea.

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid mitigates testosterone-related changes in body composition in male guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Susan Q; DeGuire, Jason R; Lavery, Paula; Mak, Ivy L; Weiler, Hope A; Santosa, Sylvia

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may be effective in preventing the changes in total and regional body composition and increases in interleukin (IL) 6 that occur as a result of hypogonadism. Male guinea pigs (n = 40, 70- to 72-week retired breeders) were block randomized by weight into 4 groups: (1) sham surgery (SHAM)/control (CTRL) diet, (2) SHAM/conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) diet (1%), (3) orchidectomy (ORX)/CTRL diet, and (4) ORX/CLA diet. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at baseline and week 16 to assess body composition. Serum IL-6 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. Fatty acids (FAs) from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed using gas chromatography. In ORX/CTRL guinea pigs, percent total body fat increased by 6.1%, and percent lean mass decreased by 6.7% over the 16-week treatment period, whereas no changes were observed for either parameter in ORX/CLA guinea pigs. Guinea pigs fed the CLA diet gained less percent total, upper, and lower body fat than those fed the CTRL diet regardless of surgical treatment. Regional adipose tissue FA composition was reflective of dietary FAs. Serum IL-6 concentrations were not different among groups. In this study, we observed that, in male guinea pigs, hypogonadism resulted in increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. In addition, CLA was effective in reducing gains in body fat and maintaining lean mass in both hypogonadal and intact guinea pigs. PMID:27101759

  5. Eradicating guinea worm without wells: unrealized hopes of the Water Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, W R; Otusanya, S; Adeniyi, J D; Tijani, J; Banjoko, M

    1997-12-01

    At the start of the United Nations International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in the 1980s, guinea worm disease was targeted as the major indicator of the success of the Decade's efforts to promote safe water. By the late 1980s, most of the guinea worm endemic countries in Africa and South Asia had established guinea worm eradication programmes that included water supply as one of their main technical strategies. By surveying the water supply situation in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) in Oyo State, Nigeria, in June 1996, as a case study, it was possible to determine the role that water supply has played in the eradication effort. Although two major agencies, the former Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure and UNICEF, provided hand dug and bore-hole wells respectively in many parts of the LGA, coverage of the smaller farm hamlets has been minor compared to efforts in the larger towns. This is ironic because the farm hamlets served as a reservoir for the disease in the 1980s, such that when the piped water system in the towns broke down, guinea worm was easily reintroduced into the towns. The survey of 188 ever-endemic hamlets with an estimated population of 23,556 found that 74.3% of the people still drink only pond water. Another 11.3% have wells that have become dysfunctional. Only 14.4% of this rural population has access' to functioning wells. Guinea worm was eliminated from 107 of the hamlets mainly by the use of cloth filters and chemical treatment of ponds. While this proves that it is possible to eradicate guinea worm, it fails to leave behind the legacy of reliable, safe water supplies that was the hope of the Water Decade.

  6. Foreign Direct Investment Effect on Economic Growth: Evidence from Guinea Republic in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Keita Mohamed Lamine; Dakai Yang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to understand the contribution of Foreign Direct Investment on Guinea Republic¡¯s Economic growth. The Granger Causality Test is used to study the relationship between FDI and Economic Growth proxies. Our results show that the level of FDI is still low in order to promote economic growth for the Guinea Republic. Indeed, the Granger Causality Test demonstrated that the GDP can promote the level of foreign direct investment, which means that if the level of GDP increase...

  7. Chamber-specific effects of hypokalaemia on ventricular arrhythmogenicity in isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchii, Oleg E; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2009-01-01

    of hypokalaemic perfusion (2.5 mm K(+) for 30 min) were assessed in isolated guinea-pig heart preparations using simultaneous recordings of volume-conducted electrocardiogram and monophasic action potentials from six ventricular epicardial sites. Effective refractory periods, ventricular fibrillation thresholds...... by extrastimulus application at earlier time points during LV repolarization. Increased prematurity of extrastimulus-evoked propagating responses was associated with exaggerated local inhomogeneities in intraventricular conduction and action potential duration in hypokalaemic LV, thus creating a favourable stage...... for re-entrant tachyarrhythmias. Taken together, these findings suggest that proarrhythmic effects of hypokalaemia are mostly attributed to increased LV arrhythmogenicity in the guinea-pig heart....

  8. Adenosine triphosphate-dependent calcium pump in the plasma membrane of guinea pig and human neutrophils.

    OpenAIRE

    Lagast, H; Lew, P D; Waldvogel, F A

    1984-01-01

    Changes in cytosolic free Ca may function as a second messenger in neutrophils. Since the plasma membrane seems to be a major regulator of intracellular Ca in many cells, we characterized an energy-dependent Ca transport system in plasma membrane-enriched fractions ("podosomes") from phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated guinea pig and human neutrophils. The active Ca transport system in guinea pig podosomes exhibited a high affinity for Ca (Michaelis constant [Km]Ca 280 +/- 120 nM) and a maxi...

  9. Guinea pig maximization tests with formaldehyde releasers. Results from two laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Boman, A; Hamann, K;

    1984-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test was used to evaluate the sensitizing potential of formaldehyde and 6 formaldehyde releasers (Forcide 78, Germall 115, Grotan BK, Grotan OX, KM 200 and Preventol D2). The tests were carried out in 2 laboratories (Copenhagen and Stockholm), and although we intended...... the procedures to be the same, discrepancies were observed, possibly due to the use of different animal strains, test concentrations and vehicles. The sensitizing potential was in general found to be stronger in Stockholm compared to Copenhagen: formaldehyde sensitized 50% of the guinea pigs in...

  10. La3+ Transmembrane Research in Guinea Pig Ventricular Cells by Fura-2 Fluorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Binding of La3+ to Fura-2 can change 340/380 nm fluorescence intensity ratio. Whether La3+ cross ventricular cell membrane was detected by this fluorescent probe technique. Fura-2 loaded isolated guinea pig ventricular cells were exposed to 0.01-0.1mM extracellular Lanthanum ion concentration, 340nm/380 nm fluorescence ratio was not changed. Using calcium channel agonist BAY K8644, KCL (35mM) depolarization to open the voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC); Adrenoceptor agonist to excite adrenoceptor, 340/380 ratio was not changed, suggesting that La3+can not enter guinea pig ventricular cells in this case.

  11. Digesta retention and fibre digestion in maras (Dolichotis patagonum) and guinea-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, E; Nippashi, K; Endoh, G

    1992-04-01

    1. Digestibilities of feed and turnover time (1/k), transit time (TT) and mean retention time (MRT: 1/k+TT) of fluid and particle markers were measured in maras (Dolichotis patagonum) and guinea-pigs (Cavia procellus) fed a diet containing 50% alfalfa. 2. The digestibility of fibre was similar in both animals, however, the digestibilities of crude protein (nitrogen x 6.25) and crude ash were lower in the mara than in the guinea-pig. 3. 1/k of the digesta markers were similar in both animals, suggesting that the two animals possess similar dilution and retention time of digesta in their caecum and proximal colon. PMID:1351463

  12. Papua New Guinea; Staff Report for the 2004 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This 2004 Article IV Consultation highlights that Papua New Guinea’s macroeconomic performance has improved from mid-2003, helped importantly by the favorable temporary factors that boosted the mineral and agricultural sectors. In 2003, real GDP is estimated to have grown by 2.7 percent, following three years of decline. Coffee and cocoa production benefited from better weather conditions, and production of palm oil, rubber, tea, and copra oil also increased. Papua New Guinea’s medium-ter...

  13. Effect of cinitapride in isolated ileum obtained from guinea-pigs treated with morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colado, M I; Alfaro, M J; del Val, V L; Martín, M I

    1991-01-01

    1. Cinitapride enhanced the contractile response induced by electrical stimulation in the guinea-pig myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle strip preparations. 2. The contractile force was significantly increased in strips pretreated with morphine "in vitro" and in tolerant strips. 3. However when tissues were obtained from tolerant guinea-pigs and morphine was not added to the organ bath (morphine-abstinence), the cinitapride effect was significantly decreased. 4. Although further work is required to explain the changes in the effect of cinitapride after acute morphine treatment and in morphine tolerant tissues, the changes observed suggest that some of the cinitapride effects could be linked with the peripheral opioid system. PMID:1662171

  14. Argyrophilic cells in the larynx of the guinea-pig demonstrated by the method of Grimelius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Romert, P

    1977-01-01

    Argyrophilic cells with branching processes are shown in both the surface epithelium and in the glands in the larynx of adult guinea-pigs using the Grimelius silver technique after GPA fixation. When Bouin's fixative or neutral formalin were used as fixatives argrophilic cells could not be identi......Argyrophilic cells with branching processes are shown in both the surface epithelium and in the glands in the larynx of adult guinea-pigs using the Grimelius silver technique after GPA fixation. When Bouin's fixative or neutral formalin were used as fixatives argrophilic cells could...

  15. Computed tomography analysis of guinea pig bone: architecture, bone thickness and dimensions throughout development.

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Witkowska; Aziza Alibhai; Chloe Hughes; Jennifer Price; Karl Klisch; Sturrock, Craig J.; Rutland, Catrin S.

    2014-01-01

    The domestic guinea pig, Cavia aperea f. porcellus, belongs to the Caviidae family of rodents. It is an important species as a pet, a source of food and in medical research. Adult weight is achieved at 8–12 months and life expectancy is ∼5–6 years. Our aim was to map bone local thickness, structure and dimensions across developmental stages in the normal animal. Guinea pigs (n = 23) that had died of natural causes were collected and the bones manually extracted and cleaned. Institutional ethi...

  16. In vitro metabolism of cannabinol in rat, mouse, rabbit, guinea pig, hamster, gerbil and cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N K; Harvey, D J

    1990-01-01

    Metabolism of cannabinol (CBN) was studied in hepatic microsomal incubates from mouse, rat, rabbit, guinea pig, cat, hamster and gerbil. Metabolites were extracted with ethyl acetate, concentrated by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and identified by GC/MS as TMS derivatives. Six monohydroxy metabolites were identified. These had hydroxy groups at C-11 and at all positions of the pentyl side-chain. Metabolism varied considerably between the species. 11-Hydroxylation was the most prominent route in the majority of species, but in the hamster and cat the major metabolic pathway was 4'-hydroxylation. Metabolites hydroxylated in the pentyl chain were generally more abundant in guinea pig, hamster and cat. PMID:2253656

  17. Patterns of Y-chromosome diversity intersect with the Trans-New Guinea hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Stefano; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila; Brauer, Silke; Sudoyo, Herawati; Marzuki, Sangkot; Kayser, Manfred

    2007-11-01

    The island of New Guinea received part of the first human expansion out of Africa (>40,000 years ago), but its human genetic history remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined Y-chromosome diversity in 162 samples from the Bird's Head region of northwest New Guinea (NWNG) and compared the results with previously obtained data from other parts of the island. NWNG harbors a high level of cultural and linguistic diversity and is inhabited by non-Austronesian (i.e., Papuan)-speaking groups as well as harboring most of West New Guinea's (WNG) Austronesian-speaking groups. However, 97.5% of its Y-chromosomes belong to 5 haplogroups that originated in Melanesia; hence, the Y-chromosome diversity of NWNG (and, according to available data, of New Guinea as a whole) essentially reflects a local history. The remaining 2.5% belong to 2 haplogroups (O-M119 and O-M122) of East Asian origin, which were brought to New Guinea by Austronesian-speaking migrants around 3,500 years ago. Thus, the Austronesian expansion had only a small impact on shaping Y-chromosome diversity in NWNG, although the linguistic impact of this expansion to this region was much higher. In contrast, the expansion of Trans-New Guinea (TNG) speakers (non-Austronesian) starting about 6,000-10,000 years ago from the central highlands of what is now Papua New Guinea, presumably in combination with the expansion of agriculture, played a more important role in determining the Y-chromosome diversity of New Guinea. In particular, we identified 2 haplogroups (M-P34 and K-M254) as suggestive markers for the TNG expansion, whereas 2 other haplogroups (C-M38 and K-M9) most likely reflect the earlier local Y-chromosome diversity. We propose that sex-biased differences in the social structure and cultural heritage of the people involved in the Austronesian and the TNG expansions played an important role (among other factors) in shaping the New Guinean Y-chromosome landscape.

  18. Adrenaline activation of prejunctional beta-adrenoceptors in guinea-pig atria.

    OpenAIRE

    Majewski, H.; McCulloch, M. W.; Rand, M J; Story, D. F.

    1980-01-01

    1. Adrenaline in a concentration of 1.0 microM depressed the stimulation-induced efflux of tritium from the guinea-pig atria incubated with [3H]-noradrenaline, whereas adrenaline in a concentration of 0.5 nM significantly enhanced the stimulation-induced efflux of tritium. This enhancement was blocked by metoprolol (0.1 microM) and thus appears to be mediated by beta-adrenoceptors. 2. In guinea-pig atria incubated with unlabelled adrenaline and then with [3H]-noradrenaline, both catecholamine...

  19. Seeking treatment for symptomatic malaria in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siba Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria places a significant burden on the limited resources of many low income countries. Knowing more about why and where people seek treatment will enable policy makers to better allocate the limited resources. This study aims to better understand what influences treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria in one such low-income country context, Papua New Guinea (PNG. Methods Two culturally, linguistically and demographically different regions in PNG were selected as study sites. A cross sectional household survey was undertaken in both sites resulting in the collection of data on 928 individuals who reported suffering from malaria in the previous four weeks. A probit model was then used to identify the factors determining whether or not people sought treatment for presumptive malaria. Multinomial logit models also assisted in identifying the factors that determined where people sought treatments. Results Results in this study build upon findings from other studies. For example, while distance in PNG has previously been seen as the primary factor in influencing whether any sort of treatment will be sought, in this study cultural influences and whether it was the first, second or even third treatment for a particular episode of malaria were also important. In addition, although formal health care facilities were the most popular treatment sources, it was also found that traditional healers were a common choice. In turn, the reasons why participants chose a particular type of treatment differed according to the whether they were seeking an initial or subsequent treatments. Conclusions Simply bringing health services closer to where people live may not always result in a greater use of formal health care facilities. Policy makers in PNG need to consider within-country variation in treatment-seeking behaviour, the important role of traditional healers and also ensure that the community fully understands the potential implications

  20. Maternal Health Phone Line: Saving Women in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda H.A. Watson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a research project which has involved the establishment of a maternal health phone line in Milne Bay Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG. Mobile phones and landline phones are key information and communication technologies (ICTs. This research study uses the “ICTs for healthcare development” model to ascertain benefits and barriers to the successful implementation of the Childbirth Emergency Phone. PNG has a very high maternal mortality rate. The “three stages of delay” typology was developed by Thaddeus and Maine to determine factors that might delay provision of appropriate medical treatment and hence increase risk of maternal death. The “three stages of delay” typology has been utilised in various developing countries and also in the present study. Research undertaken has involved semi-structured interviews with health workers, both in rural settings and in the labour ward in Alotau. Additional data has been gathered through focus groups with health workers, analysis of notes made during phone calls, interviews with women and community leaders, observations and field visits. One hundred percent of interviewees (n = 42 said the project helped to solve communication barriers between rural health workers and Alotau Provincial Hospital. Specific examples in which the phone line has helped to create positive health outcomes will be outlined in the paper, drawn from research interviews. The Childbirth Emergency Phone project has shown itself to play a critical role in enabling healthcare workers to address life-threatening childbirth complications. The project shows potential for rollout across PNG; potentially reducing maternal morbidity and maternal mortality rates by overcoming communication challenges.

  1. Endogenous opiate analgesia induced by tonic immobility in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R.A. Leite-Panissi

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A function of the endogenous analgesic system is to prevent recuperative behaviors generated by tissue damage, thus preventing the emission of species-specific defensive behaviors. Activation of intrinsic nociception is fundamental for the maintenance of the behavioral strategy adopted. Tonic immobility (TI is an inborn defensive behavior characterized by a temporary state of profound and reversible motor inhibition elicited by some forms of physical restraint. We studied the effect of TI behavior on nociception produced by the formalin and hot-plate tests in guinea pigs. The induction of TI produced a significant decrease in the number of flinches (18 ± 6 and 2 ± 1 in phases 1 and 2 and lickings (6 ± 2 and 1 ± 1 in phases 1 and 2 in the formalin test when compared with control (75 ± 13 and 22 ± 6 flinches in phases 1 and 2; 28 ± 7 and 17 ± 7 lickings in phases 1 and 2. In the hot-plate test our results also showed antinociceptive effects of TI, with an increase in the index of analgesia 30 and 45 min after the induction of TI (0.67 ± 0.1 and 0.53 ± 0.13, respectively when compared with control (-0.10 ± 0.08 at 30 min and -0.09 ± 0.09 at 45 min. These effects were reversed by pretreatment with naloxone (1 mg/kg, ip, suggesting that the hypoalgesia observed after induction of TI behavior, as evaluated by the algesimetric formalin and hot-plate tests, is due to activation of endogenous analgesic mechanisms involving opioid synapses.

  2. Categorization does not promote symmetry in Guinea baboons (Papio papio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medam, Tiphaine; Marzouki, Yousri; Montant, Marie; Fagot, Joël

    2016-09-01

    Humans have the capacity to use stimuli interchangeably by forming equivalence classes, and this ability seems to be supported by our language system. According to Sidman and Tailby (Conditional discrimination vs. matching to sample: an expansion of the testing paradigm. J Exp Anal Behav 37:5-22, 1982), the formation of equivalence classes require that three relations are derived among the class members, and past experiments have shown that one of these relations, i.e., symmetry, corresponding to the ability to reverse a relation (if A → B, then B → A), is extremely difficult to obtain in non-human animals. Because language development and the ability to form equivalence classes both co-occur in children with an increased ability to form categories, the current study tested the idea that category learning might promote symmetry in a nonhuman primate species. In Experiment 1, twelve Guinea baboons (Papio papio) were trained to associate 60 pictures of bears and 60 pictures of cars to two category labels, before being tested in symmetry trials. In Experiment 2, symmetry was trained and tested by reversing the association order between labels and pictures, using a new set of stimuli. In both experiments, the baboons successfully demonstrated category discrimination, but had only a weak (though significant) tendency to respond in accordance with symmetry during test trials. Altogether, our results confirm that symmetry is inherently difficult in non-human animals. We discuss possible explanations for such a limitation and give reasons for thinking that the effects of categorization on symmetry should be further investigated. PMID:27278368

  3. Prevalencia de infección tuberculosa en la población de inmigrantes en Ceuta, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Sanfrancisco María Teresa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La tuberculosis es la enfermedad infecciosa más extendida en el mundo. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron conocer la prevalencia de infección tuberculosa en los inmigrantes que durante 1998 estuvieron en el campamento de Calamocarro en Ceuta y analizar si existen diferencias según país o región geográfica de procedencia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal sobre la población total de inmigrantes en el campamento de Calamocarro en 1998. Se practicó la intradermorreacc ión según la técnica de Mantoux según protocolo ya establecido, a los 2.223 inmigrantes (1979 varones y 244 mujeres procedentes de distintos países africanos (Nigeria, Mali, Guinea Bissau, Camerún, Ghana, Sierra Leona, Rep Dem Congo, y Liberia, principalmente en el campamento de refugiados de Calamocarro de Ceuta. Los resultados se presentan para tres puntos de corte de la induración: <5mm; entre 5 y 10mm; e igual o superior a 10mm. Resultados: Los inmigrantes procedían de 36 países africanos, el 89,0% eran varones y el 11,0% mujeres (p < 0,001 con una edad media de 24,9 ± 4,3 y 23,4 ± 4,1 años respectivamente. El 32,6% presentaron una respuesta al test de Mantoux igual o superior a 10 mm, 33,2% en varones y 27,9% en mujeres (p = 0,09. Sólo hubo un 1,1% con induración 5-10 mm de probable origen vacunal. Por zonas geográficas, las tasas más altas se presentaron en inmigrantes procedentes de la República Democrática del Congo (65,1% y de Camerún (48,4%, seguidos a distancia por Nigeria (34,0%, Liberia (32,7%, Mauritania (29,1%, Sierra Leona (28,8%, Costa de Marfil (27,8%, Guinea Bissau (27,4%, Ghana (26,3%, Argelia (25,6%, Mali (24,1% y R.Guinea (20,9% (p<0,0001. Conclusiones: La población inmigrante procedente de países centroafricanos presenta una alta prevalencia de infección tuberculosa, constituyendo un grupo de riesgo de padecer la enfermedad. Por tanto, es fundamental la implantación de programas específicos de b

  4. The Validity of Osteoarthritis Model Induced by Bilateral Ovariectomy in Guinea Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the validity of osteoarthritis model induced by bilateral ovariectomy in guinea pig, 32-month-old female guinea pigs were randomly divided into two groups: a sham operation group (control group) and an ovariectomized group (OVX group). The animals were killed 6 or 12 weeks after the operation and the degeneration of the knees were assessed microscopically and histologically by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and light microscope. The serum levels of estrogen and gestone were detected by immune contest assay.The scoring of articular cartilage histopathology of tibial plateau was performed by histopathological examination. The blood serum levels of estrogen and gestone were decreased significantly in the OVX group as compared with the control group 6 or 12 weeks after the operation. Joint cartilage degeneration as detected by SEM and TEM could be found at the 6th week, but severe degenerative lesions were observed at the 12th week in the OVX group as compared with the control group (P<0.01).The histopathological score of articular cartilage in tibial plateau in OVX group was higher than that of control group, which was coincident with the changes of estrogen and the ultrastructure (P<0.01).The findings suggested that bilateral ovariectomy in guinea pig can induce the severe osteoarthritis that is similar to the aging-induced OA in human. Therefore, the model of the osteoarthritis by bilateral ovariectomy in guinea pig in this study is valid.

  5. Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : Equatorial Guinea Country Report

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, Babacar

    2007-01-01

    This short country report, a result of a larger Information for Development Program (infoDev)-supported survey of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. In Equatorial Guinea, there is no specific policy concerning ICT, although attempts to impro...

  6. The invasive shrub Piper aduncum in Papua New Guinea: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    HARTEMINK AE. 2010. The invasive shrub Piper aduneum in Papua New Guinea: a review. Piper aduncum is a shrub native to Central America. It is found in most Central and South American countries and also in the Caribbean and southern Florida (USA). In Asia and the Pacific, P aduncum occurs in Indonesi

  7. Surveillance of mortality during a refugee crisis--Guinea, January-May 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-23

    Since 1990, the republic of Guinea (2000 population: 7.5 million) has accepted 390,000-450,000 refugees from Sierra Leone and Liberia. During this 10-year period, refugees have lived in small villages scattered throughout rural southeastern Guinea. During September-December 2000, attacks by armed factions in Guinea led to the widespread displacement of refugees living in the southeastern camps; the refugees subsequently were transferred to safer camps in the northwest. Approximately 280,000 refugees initially were estimated to have been displaced. After the attacks, the number of refugees relocated was approximately 58,000. This report demonstrates methods used to calculate mortality rates when large populations are displaced. The findings indicate that the number of refugees in Guinea before the relocation probably was overestimated. The mortality rates calculated using conservative denominator numbers did not meet the definition of an emergency phase of a complex emergency, and mortality rates were lower for refugees compared with baseline rates for the local population. Accurate methods are needed to estimate population size in complex emergencies to provide resources to vulnerable groups.

  8. HORMONAL INFLUENCES ON THE OVARIAN FUNCTION AND THE IMPLANTATION PROCESS IN GUINEA PIGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUCheng-Quan; DAIMao-Zheng; SHENShu-Ren; WANGZhong-Xing

    1989-01-01

    The influence of peptides and steroid hormones on ovarian function and implantation was studied in guinea pigs. Results show that injections of 5ng LHRH in pulses of onc-hour interval 10 times per day, starting from 20-30 days of age, could induce the first vaginal

  9. The effect of changes in perilymphatic K+ on the vestibular evoked potential in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, C. M.; Wit, H. P.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect on the functioning of the vestibular system of a rupture of Reissner's membrane, artificial endolymph was injected in scala media of ten guinea pigs and vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs), evoked by vertical acceleration pulses, were measured. Directly after injection of

  10. Acute endolymphatic hydrops has no direct effect on the vestibular evoked potential in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, C. M.; Wit, H. P.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of an acute endolymphatic hydrops on the functioning of the vestibular system a hydrops was created by microinjection of artificial endolymph through the basilar membrane into scala media in 10 guinea pigs. To control for the effect of perforation of the basilar membrane, t

  11. Evidence for a role of CCK as neurotransmitter in the guinea-pig enteric nervous system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, I.W.M.; Hollestein, K.B.C.W.; Akkermans, L.M.A.; Kroese, A.B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Intracellular recordings were made of neurons in the myenteric plexus of the guinea-pig distal ileum. Slow excitatory post-synaptic potentials (sEPSPs) were evoked by electrical stimulation of an interganglionic fibre tract. The effect of cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor antagonists on the sEPSPs was

  12. Contractility of the guinea pig bladder measured in situ and in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Groen (Jan); R. van Mastrigt (Ron); J.L.H.R. Bosch (Ruud)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractTo study the relative importance of neurogenic factors in detrusor contractility and to relate a total bladder in vitro contractility model to a previously described bladder wall strip model, active intravesical pressure values were compared in situ and in vitro in eight male guinea pigs

  13. Community response to intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) in Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Pell; L. Straus; S. Phuanukoonnon; S. Lupiwa; I. Mueller; N. Senn; P. Siba; M.H. Gysels; R. Pool

    2010-01-01

    Background Building on previous acceptability research undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa this article aims to investigate the acceptability of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Methods A questionnaire was administered to mothers whose infants pa

  14. Specific activities of antioxidative enzymes in the cochlea of guinea pigs at different stages of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelck, U; Nowak, R; Karnstedt, U; Koitschev, A; Käcker, N

    1993-01-01

    Significant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were found in the cochleas of guinea pigs of different ages. The specific activities of SOD and GSH-Px (expressed as units/mg protein) increased significantly from fetal animals to animals 2 days old and then to 6-month-old animals. PMID:8369116

  15. Observations on Australian Humpback Dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) in Waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Isabel; Jedensjö, Maria; Wijaya, Gede Mahendra; Anamiato, Jim; Kahn, Benjamin; Kreb, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The Australian humpback dolphin, Sousa sahulensis, has recently been described to occur in northern Australian coastal waters. However, its distribution in adjacent waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea remains largely unknown. Although there have been few studies conducted on inshore dolphins in these regions, the available information records humpback dolphins primarily from the Kikori Delta in Papua New Guinea, and Bird's Head Seascape in West Papua. Research in southern Papua New Guinea indicates that humpback dolphins are indeed S. sahulensis, based on cranial and external morphometrics, external colouration and the preliminary genetic analysis presented here. A similar situation exists for the Australian snubfin dolphin, Orcaella heinsohni, where it is assumed that the species also occurs along the Sahul Shelf coastal waters of northern Australia and New Guinea. There are anecdotal reports of direct catch of Australian humpback dolphins for use as shark bait, coastal development is increasing, and anthropogenic impacts will continue to escalate as human populations expand into previously uninhabited regions. Future research and management priorities for the Governments of the Pacific Islands and Indonesia will need to focus on inshore dolphins in known regional hotspots, as current bycatch levels appear unsustainable.

  16. Four new subspecies of birds from the Moluccas and New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1964-01-01

    Routine examination of the bird collections of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie reveals, from time to time, the presence of unnamed subspecies. Four of these, from the Moluccas and from New Guinea, are described here. I am well aware that the detached description of some new subspecies is no

  17. Cholera in Papua New Guinea and the importance of safe water sources and sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Greenhill

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent outbreak of cholera in Papua New Guinea (PNG has resulted in a large number of illnesses with a relatively high case fatality ratio (3.2%. Access to adequate sanitation and safe water is very low in PNG and has undoubtedly contributed to the spread of cholera within the country.

  18. Explaining Mathematics Achievement of Mature Internal and External Students at the University of Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeley, Gurcham S.

    1993-01-01

    Develops a causal model that explains over 40% of the variance in matriculation mathematics achievement of mature internal and external students at the University of Papua New Guinea. Background variables seem more important in the learning of mathematics compared to mediating variables for external students than for internal students. (MDH)

  19. Post-Ebola Measles Outbreak in Lola, Guinea, January–June 20151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Adela Paez; Kourouma, Mamadou; Derrough, Tarik; Baldé, Mamadou; Honomou, Patric; Kolie, Nestor; Mamadi, Oularé; Tamba, Kaduono; Lamah, Kalaya; Loua, Angelo; Mollet, Thomas; Lamah, Molou; Camara, Amara Nana; Prikazsky, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    During public health crises such as the recent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in West Africa, breakdowns in public health systems can lead to epidemics of vaccine-preventable diseases. We report here on an outbreak of measles in the prefecture of Lola, Guinea, which started in January 2015. PMID:27191621

  20. Rigidin E, a New Pyrrolopyrimidine Alkaloid from a Papua New Guinea Tunicate Eudistoma Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan A. Davis

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A new pyrrolopyrimidine alkaloid, rigidin E (1 and the known metabolites rigidin (2 and 1-methylherbipoline (3 have been isolated from a Papua New Guinea tunicate Eudistoma sp. A combination of spectroscopic data were used to determine the structures of these metabolites.

  1. Rigidin E, a New Pyrrolopyrimidine Alkaloid from a Papua New Guinea Tunicate Eudistoma Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rohan A.; Christensen, Lane V.; Richardson, Adam D.; da Rocha, Rosana Moreira; Ireland, Chris M.

    2003-01-01

    A new pyrrolopyrimidine alkaloid, rigidin E (1) and the known metabolites rigidin (2) and 1-methylherbipoline (3) have been isolated from a Papua New Guinea tunicate Eudistoma sp. A combination of spectroscopic data were used to determine the structures of these metabolites.

  2. Organizational analysis of the seed sector of rice in Guinea: stakeholders, perception and institutional linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okry, F.; Mele, van P.; Nuijten, H.A.C.P.; Struik, P.C.; Mongbo, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the organization of the rice seed sector in Guinea with the overall objectives to assess how organizational settings affect seed supply to small-scale farmers and to suggest institutional changes that would favour seed service and uptake of varieties. Data were collected in Guine

  3. Revision of Homalomena (Araceae-Homalomeneae) in New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago and Solomon Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hay, A.

    1999-01-01

    The genus Homalomena Schott is revised for New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago and Solomon Islands. 19 species are recognised, of which 10 are new to science. Three are rheophytes. Homalomena novoguineensis Engl., H. klossii Ridl., H. ledermannii Engl. & K. Krause, H. moskowskii Engl. & K. Krause a

  4. Josephine's journey: Gender-based violence and Marian devotion in urban Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermkens, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with how, in the urban setting of Madang, Papua New Guinea, Marian devotion is deployed in response to domestic and gender-based violence. While providing insight into the lived religious experiences of Catholic women living in Madang, this article shows how Mary empowers her foll

  5. Sparing effects of selenium and ascorbic acid on vitamin C and E in guinea pig tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayward Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium (Se, vitamin C and vitamin E function as antioxidants within the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of reduced dietary Se and L-ascorbic acid (AA on vitamin C and α-tocopherol (AT status in guinea pig tissues. Methods Male Hartley guinea pigs were orally dosed with a marginal amount of AA and fed a diet deficient (Se-D/MC, marginal (Se-M/MC or normal (Se-N/MC in Se. An additional diet group (Se-N/NC was fed normal Se and dosed with a normal amount of AA. Guinea pigs were killed after 5 or 12 weeks on the experimental diets at 24 and 48 hours post AA dosing. Results Liver Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased (P P > 0.05 by reduction in dietary Se or AA. All tissues examined showed a decrease (P P P Conclusion Together, these data demonstrate sparing effects of Se and AA on vitamin C and AT in guinea pig tissues.

  6. Gold--Its Extraction and the Environment: Experiences in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mike; Owens, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how the mining of gold has impacted the development of both Australia and Papua, New Guinea. Outlines the essential chemistry of small scale mining, the impact of gold on the economy, and the environmental effect of mercury on both the miners and the environment. (Author/CCM)

  7. The genera Embelia Burm. f. and Grenacheria MEZ (Myrsinaceae) in New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1987-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the genera Embelia Burm. f. and Grenacheria Mez in New Guinea incl. the Solomon Islands, comprising 12 species, of which 5 are new to science. A key to the species, full descriptions of all taxa, and an enumeration of the collections are given.

  8. Short-term toxicity studies with triphenyltin compounds in rats and guinea-pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, H.G.; Kroes, R.; Vink, H.H.; Esch, G.J. van

    1966-01-01

    Short-term toxicity studies have been carried out in rats and guinea-pigs fed diets containing triphenyltin acetate (TPTA), triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) or triethyltin hydroxide (TETH) for 90 days at levels ranging from 0 to 50 ppm. The lowest dietary levels found to retard growth in rats and guin

  9. Integrated nutrient management research with sweet potato in Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes a series of field experiments that investigated the effects of organic and inorganic nutrients on sweet potato tuber yield in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea. In the first experiment, plots were planted with Piper aduncum, Gliricidia sepium and Imperata cylindrica, which

  10. Nickel-sulphate-induced contact dermatitis in the guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohold, A E; Nielsen, G D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1991-01-01

    Nickel sulphate is a sensitizer in guinea pigs, but the frequency of sensitization varies from study to study. The dose-response relationship for NiSO4.6H2O was evaluated in the guinea pig maximization test in this study. 6 intradermal (0.01%-3.0% aq.) and 6 topical (0.25%-10.0% pet.) concentrati......Nickel sulphate is a sensitizer in guinea pigs, but the frequency of sensitization varies from study to study. The dose-response relationship for NiSO4.6H2O was evaluated in the guinea pig maximization test in this study. 6 intradermal (0.01%-3.0% aq.) and 6 topical (0.25%-10.0% pet.......) concentrations were chosen for induction and NiSO4.6H2O 1% pet. was used for challenge, based on the absence of skin irritation in a pilot study. Blind reading was performed. A logistic dose-response model was applied to the challenge results. At 48 h, a linear relationship was obtained between the intradermal...

  11. Effects of dietary fat on virus-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in guinea fowl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirev, T.; Woutersen, R.A.; Kril, A.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the effects of diets supplemented with low (5%) and high (20%) corn oil on a Pts 56 retrovirus-induced model of pancreatic carcinogenesis in guinea fowl. The early microscopic lesions appear after 3 mo after virus treatment and progress over time. Eight to 1

  12. Earliest Pottery on New Guinea Mainland Reveals Austronesian Influences in Highland Environments 3000 Years Ago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Gaffney

    Full Text Available Austronesian speaking peoples left Southeast Asia and entered the Western Pacific c.4000-3000 years ago, continuing on to colonise Remote Oceania for the first time, where they became the ancestral populations of Polynesians. Understanding the impact of these peoples on the mainland of New Guinea before they entered Remote Oceania has eluded archaeologists. New research from the archaeological site of Wañelek in the New Guinea Highlands has broken this silence. Petrographic and geochemical data from pottery and new radiocarbon dating demonstrates that Austronesian influences penetrated into the highland interior by 3000 years ago. One potsherd was manufactured along the northeast coast of New Guinea, whereas others were manufactured from inland materials. These findings represent the oldest securely dated pottery from an archaeological context on the island of New Guinea. Additionally, the pottery comes from the interior, suggesting the movements of people and technological practices, as well as objects at this time. The antiquity of the Wañelek pottery is coincident with the expansion of Lapita pottery in the Western Pacific. Such occupation also occurs at the same time that changes have been identified in subsistence strategies in the archaeological record at Kuk Swamp suggesting a possible link between the two.

  13. Certain dietary carbohydrates promote Listeria infection in a guinea pig model, while others prevent it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, Tine; Jørgensen, Julie Boeck; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;

    2010-01-01

    of five non-digestible carbohydrates on the resistance of guinea pigs to Listeria monocytogenes infections. Animals were fed a diet supplemented with 10% xylooligosaccharides (XOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), inulin, apple pectin or polydextrose for three weeks before oral infection with a mixture...

  14. Nannophlebia leoboppi sp nov., a new dragonfly species from New Guinea (Odonata: Anisoptera: Libellulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Albert G; Kalkman, Vincent J

    2015-01-01

    Nannophlebia leoboppi sp. nov. is described and figured based on a male specimen collected in the Star Mountains of Central New Guinea. This relatively large representative of its genus is compared with its probable nearest relative, N. antiacantha Lieftinck, 1963, which is also partially figured. The new species brings the total number of Nannophlebia species to 25. PMID:26249449

  15. Two Species of Sargassum (Fucales, Phaeophyceae), Collected from Motupore Island, Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    AJISAKA, Tetsuro; アジサカ, テツロウ; 鰺坂, 哲朗

    1990-01-01

    Two species of Sargassum (Fucales, Phaeophyceae), S.peronii (MERTENS) C.AGARDH (subgenus Phyllotrichia) and S.polyporum MONTAGNE (subgenus Sargassum) were collected and described from Motupore Island, Papua New Guinea. The latter species was reported for the first time.

  16. The value and limitations of rechallenge in the guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankild, S; Basketter, D A; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1996-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) has played a primary rôle in the evaluation of potential skin contact sensitizers for 25 years. In the OECD Guideline 406 from 1993, it is specifically suggested that equivocal results from the initial challenge in the GPMT should be evaluated further...

  17. [The effection of obstructing OCB with strychnine on the guinea pig's DPOAE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K; Wang, Z; Ni, D

    1998-08-01

    The strychnine was used to obstruct the oliver cochlear bundle (OCB) in order to explore the effect of the efferent system on distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) of guinea pig. The result showed that the DPOAE were not changed after strychnine were administrated. It is concluded that the efferent pulses of the CNS does not affect on DPOAE in silent circumstance. PMID:11263161

  18. Maternal vitamin C deficiency during pregnancy persistently impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in offspring of guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Vogt, Lucile; Schjoldager, Janne Gram;

    2012-01-01

    While having the highest vitamin C (VitC) concentrations in the body, specific functions of VitC in the brain have only recently been acknowledged. We have shown that postnatal VitC deficiency in guinea pigs causes impairment of hippocampal memory function and leads to 30% less neurons. This stud...

  19. Secondary Infections with Ebola Virus in Rural Communities, Liberia and Guinea, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenswah, Tolbert; Keita, Sakoba; Diallo, Boubakar; Kateh, Francis; Amoah, Aurora; Nagbe, Thomas K.; Raghunathan, Pratima; Neatherlin, John C.; Kinzer, Mike; Pillai, Satish K.; Attfield, Kathleen R.; Hajjeh, Rana; Dweh, Emmanuel; Painter, John; Barradas, Danielle T.; Williams, Seymour G.; Blackley, David J.; Kirking, Hannah L.; Patel, Monita R.; Dea, Monica; Massoudi, Mehran S.; Barskey, Albert E.; Zarecki, Shauna L. Mettee; Fomba, Moses; Grube, Steven; Belcher, Lisa; Broyles, Laura N.; Maxwell, T. Nikki; Hagan, Jose E.; Yeoman, Kristin; Westercamp, Matthew; Mott, Joshua; Mahoney, Frank; Slutsker, Laurence; DeCock, Kevin M.; Marston, Barbara; Dahl, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Persons who died of Ebola virus disease at home in rural communities in Liberia and Guinea resulted in more secondary infections than persons admitted to Ebola treatment units. Intensified monitoring of contacts of persons who died of this disease in the community is an evidence-based approach to reduce virus transmission in rural communities. PMID:27268508

  20. The Portable Sawmill and Other Challenges to REDD+ in Papua New Guinea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Steffen; Pedersen, Marianne

    The future for REDD+ in Papua New Guinea (PNG) seems uncertain in these days. Logging companies are accessing much land via a controversial legal framework (Special Agricultural Business Lease), while conservation-oriented NGOs are struggling to find schemes to stop the deforestation. After...