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Sample records for bisphenyl isocyanate mdi

  1. In vivo skin decontamination of methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI): soap and water ineffective compared to polypropylene glycol, polyglycol-based cleanser, and corn oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, R C; Hui, X; Landry, T; Maibach, H I

    1999-03-01

    In the home and workplace, decontamination of a chemical from skin is traditionally done with a soap-and-water wash, although some workplaces may have emergency showers. It has been assumed that these procedures are effective, yet workplace illness and even death occur from chemical contamination. Water, or soap and water, may not be the most effective means of skin decontamination, particularly for fat-soluble materials. This study was undertaken to help determine whether there are more effective means of removing methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI), a potent contact sensitizer, from the skin. MDI is an industrial chemical for which skin decontamination, using traditional soap and water and nontraditional polypropylene glycol, a polyglycol-based cleanser (PG-C), and corn oil were all tried in vivo on the rhesus monkey, over 8 h. Water, alone and with soap (5% and 50% soap), were partially effective in the first h after exposure, removing 51-69% of the applied dose. However, decontamination fell to 40-52% at 4 h and 29-46% by 8 h. Thus, the majority of MDI was not removed by the traditional soap-and-water wash; skin tape stripping after washing confirmed that MDI was still on the skin. In contrast, polypropylene glycol, PG-C, and corn oil all removed 68-86% of the MDI in the first h, 74-79% at 4 h, and 72-86% at 8 h. Statistically, polypropylene glycol, PG-C, and corn oil were all better (p soap and water at 4 and 8 h after dose application. These results indicate that a traditional soap-and-water wash and the emergency water shower are relatively ineffective at removing MDI from the skin. More effective decontamination procedures, as shown here, are available. These procedures are consistent with the partial miscibility of MDI in corn oil and polyglycols.

  2. Effect of pMDI isocyanate additive on mechanical and thermal properties of Kenaf fibre reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y A El-Shekeil; S M Sapuan; K Abdan; E S Zainudin; O M Al-Shuja’a

    2012-12-01

    The effect of polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) on mechanical and thermal properties of Kenaf fibre (KF) reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites was studied. Various percentages viz. 2%, 4% and 6%, were studied. The composites were characterized by using tensile testing, thermogravimetric analysis (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was noticed that the addition of pMDI 2%, 4%and 6% did not induce a better tensile nor thermal properties.

  3. Adhesion of nitrile rubber (NBR) to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric. Part 1: PET surface modification by methylenediphenyl di-isocyanate (MDI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavizadeh, Mahmoud; Jamshidi, Masoud, E-mail: mjamshidi@iust.ac.ir

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Glutaric anhydride peroxide (GAP) was grafted on PET surface by UV irradiation method. Then MDI was attached to GAP on PET surface. • The fabric was vulcanized by nitrile rubber. • Peet test was performed after each stage of surface modification. • Curing temperature was increased and the tests were repeated. • Effect of MDI coating on PET without carboxylation was evaluated. Effect of vulcanizing temperature on this product was also studied. - Abstract: Fiber to rubber adhesion is an important subject in rubber composite industry. It is well known that surface physical, mechanical and chemical treatments are effective methods to improve interfacial bonding. Ultra violet (UV) light irradiation is an efficient method which is used to increase interfacial interactions. In this research UV assisted chemical modification of PET fabric was used to increase its bonding to nitrile rubber (NBR). NBR is perfect selection to produce fuel and oil resistant rubber parts but it has weak bonding to fabrics. For this purpose at first, the PET fabric was carboxylated under UV irradiation and then methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was reacted and grafted to carboxylated PET. T-peel test was used to evaluate PET fabric to NBR bonding strength. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-AT) was used to assess surface modifications of the PET fabrics. The chemical composition of the PET surfaces before and after carboxylation and MDI grafting was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that at vulcanizing temperature of 150 °C, carboxylation in contrary to MDI grafting, improved considerably PET to NBR adhesion. Finally effect of curing temperature on PET to NBR bonding strength was determined. It was found that increasing vulcanizing temperature to 170 °C caused considerable improvement (about 134%) in bonding strength.

  4. Residual Isocyanates in Medical Devices and Products: A Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Gillian; Harari, Homero; Ahsan, Samavi; Bello, Dhimiter; Sterling, David A.; Nedrelow, Jonathan; Raynaud, Scott; Biswas, Swati; Liu, Youcheng

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a pilot qualitative and quantitative assessment of residual isocyanates and their potential initial exposures in neonates, as little is known about their contact effect. After a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stockroom inventory, polyurethane (PU) and PU foam (PUF) devices and products were qualitatively evaluated for residual isocyanates using Surface SWYPE™. Those containing isocyanates were quantitatively tested for methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) species, using UPLC-UV-MS/MS method. Ten of 37 products and devices tested, indicated both free and bound residual surface isocyanates; PU/PUF pieces contained aromatic isocyanates; one product contained aliphatic isocyanates. Overall, quantified mean MDI concentrations were low (4,4′-MDI = 0.52 to 140.1 pg/mg) and (2,4′-MDI = 0.01 to 4.48 pg/mg). The 4,4′-MDI species had the highest measured concentration (280 pg/mg). Commonly used medical devices/products contain low, but measurable concentrations of residual isocyanates. Quantifying other isocyanate species and neonatal skin exposure to isocyanates from these devices and products requires further investigation.

  5. MDI Consumption Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhaobao

    2007-01-01

    @@ The consumption of MDI (diphenylmethane diisocyanate) in China was 631 thousand tons in 2006, an increase of 36.6% over 2005. The consumption of pure MDI was 231 thousand tons, an increase of 38.3% and the consumption of polymerized MDI was 400 thousand tons, an increase of 35.6%.

  6. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of MDI and TDI polyurethane polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquhart, S.G.; Smith, A.P.; Ade, H.W. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hitchcock, A.P. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Brockhouse Inst. for Materials Research; Rightor, E.G. [Dow Chemical USA, Midland, MI (United States); Lidy, W. [Dow Chemical USA, Freeport, TX (United States)

    1999-06-03

    The sensitivity of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) to differences in key chemical components of polyurethane polymers is presented. Carbon is NEXAFS spectra of polyurethane polymers made from 4,4{prime}-methylene di-p-phenylene isocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) isocyanate monomers illustrate that there is an unambiguous spectroscopic fingerprint for distinguishing between MDI-based and TDI-based polyurethane polymers. NEXAFS spectra of MDI and TDI polyurea and polyurethane models show that the urea and carbamate (urethane) linkages in these polymers can be distinguished. The NEXAFS spectroscopy of the polyether component of these polymers is discussed, and the differences between the spectra of MDI and TDI polyurethanes synthesized with polyether polyols of different molecular composition and different molecular weight are presented. These polymer spectra reported herein provide appropriate model spectra to represent the pure components for quantitative microanalysis.

  7. Occupational exposure to selected isocyanates in Polish industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Brzeźnicki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isocyanates constitute a group of highly reactive, low molecular weight chemicals used worldwide for polyurethane manufacturing. The occupational exposure to these compounds is a major cause of occupational asthma, thus it is very important to monitor their concentration in the workplace atmosphere. The aim of the study was to measure the concentration of 4,4’-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI; CAS 101-68-8, toluene-2,4-di-isocyanate (2,4-TDI; CAS 584-84-9, toluene-2,6-di-isocyanate (2,6-TDI; CAS 91-08-7 and hexamethylene di-isocyanate (HDI; CAS 822-06-0 in the work environment for evaluation of the occupational exposure to these compounds. Material and Methods: Determination of concentrations of selected isocyanates was carried out in 21 manufacturing plants, during different industrial processes. The collected air samples (personal samples were analyzed by means of the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results: The presented results represent the 1st data on the occupational exposure to isocyanates in Poland. This set of data is generally indicative of concentrations of analyzed isocyanates that are low and do not exceed the maximum admissible concentration (MAC values in Poland. Elevated concentrations (above the MAC value were found only for the TDI in the course of manufacturing of polyurethane foam blocks. Conclusions: Results of many studies show that low concentrations of isocyanates (particularly of low volatility like for example MDI in the air cannot exclude the possibility of additional absorption of these compounds through skin. Taking into consideration all the uncertainties associated with the evaluation of the risk of exposure to isocyanates based solely on measurement of their levels in the air, it would seem that the simultaneous application of environmental and biological monitoring would only facilitate a reliable assessment of the occupational exposure risk. Med Pr 2015;66(3:291–301

  8. Rheology and microstructure of MDI PEG reactive prepolymer-modified bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, F. J.; Partal, P.; Martínez-Boza, F.; Gallegos, C.; Bordado, J. C. M.; Diogo, A. C.

    2006-12-01

    This paper deals with the use of a new bitumen modifier, a reactive prepolymer, based on the reaction of 4,4‧-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and a low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG). The rheological and thermal behaviours of modified bitumen containing a low MDI PEG concentration, as well as its morphology, have been studied. A relatively low amount of MDI PEG (0.5 to 1.5% wt.) yields a significant improvement in the modified bitumen rheological properties, mainly in the high in-service temperature region. In this range of temperature, the rheological properties are clearly affected by curing time at room temperature. These results indicate that chemical changes, due to the reaction of MDI isocyanate groups with the most polar groups ( OH; NH) of asphaltenes and resins, are produced. Thus, new chemical structures, non-visible by optical microscopy, slowly develop in MDI PEG modified bitumen when samples are cured at room temperature.

  9. Automotive Refinishing Industry: Isocyanates Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    The isocyanates profile document is part of the DfE Auto Refinishing Shop Project and is intended to provide information on refinishing, control technologies, and regulatory status regarding isocyanate compounds

  10. Isocyanate Exposure Assessment Combining Industrial Hygiene Methods with Biomonitoring for End Users of Orthopedic Casting Products

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a potential risk to healthcare workers applying isocyanate-containing casts, but the authors reached their conclusions based on immunological or clinical pulmonology test results alone. We designed a study to assess potential exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among medical personnel applying orthopedic casts using two different application methods. Air, dermal, surface, and glove permeation sampling methods were combined with urinary biomonitori...

  11. Isocyanate exposure assessment combining industrial hygiene methods with biomonitoring for end users of orthopedic casting products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Ronald L; Logan, Perry W; Kore, Anita M; Strom, Constance M; Brosseau, Lisa M; Kingston, Richard L

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested a potential risk to healthcare workers applying isocyanate-containing casts, but the authors reached their conclusions based on immunological or clinical pulmonology test results alone. We designed a study to assess potential exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among medical personnel applying orthopedic casts using two different application methods. Air, dermal, surface, and glove permeation sampling methods were combined with urinary biomonitoring to assess the overall risk of occupational asthma to workers handling these materials. No MDI was detected in any of the personal and area air samples obtained. No glove permeation of MDI was detected. A small proportion of surface (3/45) and dermal wipe (1/60) samples were positive for MDI, but were all from inexperienced technicians. Urinary metabolites of MDI [methylenedianiline (MDA)] were detected in three of six study participants prior to both a 'dry' and 'wet' application method, five of six after the dry method, and three of six after the wet method. All MDA results were below levels noted in worker or general populations. Our conclusion is that the risk of MDI exposure is small, but unquantifiable. Because there is some potential risk of dermal exposure, medical personnel are instructed to wear a minimum of 5-mil-thick (5 mil = 0.005 inches) nitrile gloves and avoid contact to unprotected skin. This could include gauntlets, long sleeves, and/or a laboratory coat.

  12. Bisphenyl-Polymer/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite Compared to Titanium Alloy Bone Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Petersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerospace/aeronautical thermoset bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites are considered as new advanced materials to replace metal bone implants. In addition to well-recognized nonpolar chemistry with related bisphenol-polymer estrogenic factors, carbon-fiber-reinforced composites can offer densities and electrical conductivity/resistivity properties close to bone with strengths much higher than metals on a per-weight basis. In vivo bone-marrow tests with Sprague-Dawley rats revealed far-reaching significant osseoconductivity increases from bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber composites when compared to state-of-the-art titanium-6-4 alloy controls. Midtibial percent bone area measured from the implant surface increased when comparing the titanium alloy to the polymer composite from 10.5% to 41.6% at 0.8 mm, P<10−4, and 19.3% to 77.7% at 0.1 mm, P<10−8. Carbon-fiber fragments planned to occur in the test designs, instead of producing an inflammation, stimulated bone formation and increased bone integration to the implant. In addition, low-thermal polymer processing allows incorporation of minerals and pharmaceuticals for future major tissue-engineering potential.

  13. The role of isocyanates in determining the viscoelastic properties of polyurethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    AqilahHamuzan, Hawa; Badri, Khairiah Haji

    2016-11-01

    Polyurethane (PU) has a unique structure that is dependent on the structure of the starting material used. This research focused on investigating the role of isocyanate groups (NCO) in the determination of the viscoelastic properties of the polymer. Monoester polyol was reacted with three different diisocyanates separately by prepolymerization method. The diisocyanates used were 2,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate (MDI), toluene 2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and isophoronediisocyanate (IPDI). Acetone was used as a solvent. IPDI, MDI and TDI were reacted with monoester polyol at ratios of 10:9, 10:10, 10:12 and 10:14 (polyol:diisocyanate). Then, the PU foams produced by the curing process were analyzed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR spectra showed the presence of the amide peak (-NH) and the absence of hydroxyl peak (-OH) indicated that the reaction between polyol and diisocyanate has occurred. However, the soxhlet extraction showed that only MDI-based PUs contain crosslinking bond. These cross-linking bond at the ratio of 10:10, 10:12 and 10:14 were 41.3 %,61.1 % and 74.1 % respectively. Thermal properties of the PU foams were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA) techniques. MDI-based PUs and TDI-based PUs show two values of Tg while IPDI-based PUs only show one Tg value. The tensile strains of PU foams decreased with increasing ratio of isocyanate. Meanwhile, PU foams with ratio of polyol to isocyanate at 10:12 showed the highest tensile stress and modulus compared to at 10:10 and 10:14.

  14. Exposure to airborne isocyanates and other thermal degradation products at polyurethane-processing workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Välimaa, Jarmo; Rosenberg, Christina; Peltonen, Kimmo; Engström, Kerstin

    2002-10-01

    The thermal degradation products of polyurethanes (PURs) and exposure to isocyanates were studied by stationary and personal measurements in five different occupational environments. Isocyanates were collected on glass fibre filters impregnated with 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (2MP) and in impingers containing n-dibutylamine (DBA) in toluene. connected to a glass fibre postfilter. The derivatives formed were analysed by liquid chromatography: 2MP derivatives with UV and electrochemical detection and DBA derivatives with mass spectrometric detection. The release of aldehydes and other volatile organic compounds into the air was also studied. In a comparison of the two sampling methods, the 2MP method yielded about 20% lower concentrations for 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) than did the DBA method. In car repair shops, the median concentration of diisocyanates (given as NCO groups) in the breathing zone was 1.1 microg NCO m(-3) during grinding and 0.3 microg NCO m(-3) during welding, with highest concentrations of 1.7 and 16 pg NCO m(-3), respectively. High concentrations of MDI, up to 25 and 19 microg NCO m(-3), respectively, were also measured in the breathing zone during welding of district heating pipes and turning of a PUR-coated metal cylinder. During installation of PUR-coated floor covering, small amounts of aliphatic diisocyanates were detected in the air. A small-molecular monoisocyanate, methyl isocyanate, and isocyanic acid were detected only during welding and turning operations. The diisocyanate concentrations were in general higher near the emission source than in the workers' breathing zone. A sampling strategy to evaluate the risk of exposure to isocyanates is presented.

  15. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by isocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, A; Detienne, T; Bruze, M

    2002-11-01

    Between 1978 and 2001, 22 patients were diagnosed with occupation-related allergic contact dermatitis from isocyanates and/or polyurethanes in our clinic. 13 had a positive reaction to the isocyanates, of whom 10 also reacted to diaminodiphenylmethane (MDA), which is used in the production or processing of isocyanates and polyurethanes; 9 reacted only to MDA. The object of the present study was to identify the trades and industries responsible for the development of contact allergy to these resins. Such patients must be patch tested with the isocyanates contacted at work, and account must be taken of positive reactions to MDA as a marker for isocyanate sensitivity.

  16. MDI: Mathematica database interface for the MFEDB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, J.C.; Miner, W.H. Jr.; Ross, D.W.

    1992-04-01

    We describe a new interface for the Magnetic Fusion Energy Database, MFEDB, which uses Mathematica{reg_sign} as a front end. MDI is a Mathematica package that defines a basic set of MFEDB access functions. The package will also accept standard SQL queries. Each function returns Mathematica-style lists, which can then be manipulated with any of the Mathematica functions. MDI also provides some utility functions for plotting and analyzing the data. The MDI package essentially makes the MFEDB an extension of Mathematica. The user may use any of the many Mathematica front-ends including telnet, X-Windows, or a notebook. The mdi.m package may be obtained by anonymous FTP from the MFEDB site or by use of netmfe, and E-mail database interface. MDI is a example of distributed computing. Behind the user interface, MDI calls an RPC client program that communicates with an RPC server on the MFEDB computer. It relies on the network communication capabilities of Mathematica to connect the user to a workstation running the Mathematica kernel. The Mathematica kernel is then connected to the MFEDB host workstation by a client/server pair of RPC processes. If the Mathematica kernel is to be run on the users` machine, the RPC client program must also be obtained and installed. The MDI RPC server is also available for users who would like to provide their own client software. The server returns ASCII tables from standards queries and may be accessed and processed by any program on the internet that has access to RPC services.

  17. MDI: Mathematica database interface for the MFEDB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, J.C.; Miner, W.H. Jr.; Ross, D.W.

    1992-04-01

    We describe a new interface for the Magnetic Fusion Energy Database, MFEDB, which uses Mathematica{reg sign} as a front end. MDI is a Mathematica package that defines a basic set of MFEDB access functions. The package will also accept standard SQL queries. Each function returns Mathematica-style lists, which can then be manipulated with any of the Mathematica functions. MDI also provides some utility functions for plotting and analyzing the data. The MDI package essentially makes the MFEDB an extension of Mathematica. The user may use any of the many Mathematica front-ends including telnet, X-Windows, or a notebook. The mdi.m package may be obtained by anonymous FTP from the MFEDB site or by use of netmfe, and E-mail database interface. MDI is a example of distributed computing. Behind the user interface, MDI calls an RPC client program that communicates with an RPC server on the MFEDB computer. It relies on the network communication capabilities of Mathematica to connect the user to a workstation running the Mathematica kernel. The Mathematica kernel is then connected to the MFEDB host workstation by a client/server pair of RPC processes. If the Mathematica kernel is to be run on the users' machine, the RPC client program must also be obtained and installed. The MDI RPC server is also available for users who would like to provide their own client software. The server returns ASCII tables from standards queries and may be accessed and processed by any program on the internet that has access to RPC services.

  18. An OOP Approach to Simplify MDI Application Development An OOP Approach to Simplify MDI Application Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Hernández Fusilier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Multiple Document Interface (MDI is a Microsoft Windows specification that allows managing multiple documents using a single graphic interface application. An MDI application allows opening several documents simultaneously. Only one document is active at a particular time. MDI applications can be deployed using Win32 or Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC. Programs developed using Win32 are faster than those using MFC. However, Win32applications are difficult to implement and prone to errors. It should be mentioned that, learning how to properly use MFC to deploy MDI applications is not simple, and performance is typically worse than that of Win32 applications. A method to simplify the development of MDI applications using Object-Oriented Programming (OOP is proposed. Subsequently, it is shown that this method generates compact code that is easier to read and maintain than other methods (i.e., MFC. Finally, it is demonstrated that the proposed method allowsthe rapid development of MDI applications without sacrificing application performance.La Interfase para Múltiples Documentos (MDI es una especificación del sistema operativo Microsoft Windows que permite manipular varios documentos usando un sólo programa. Un programa del tipo MDI permite abrir varios documentos simultáneamente. En un instante dado, sólo un documento es activo. Los programas del tipo MDI pueden desarrollarseu sando Win32 o las clases fundamentales de Microsoft (MFC. Los programas desarrollados usando Win32 son más rápidos que los programas que usan MFC. Sin embargo, éstos son difíciles de implementar promoviendo la existencia de errores. Cabe mencionar que el desarrollo de programas del tipo MDI usando MFC no es sencillo, y que su desempeño estípicamente peor que el de un programa del tipo Win32. Se propone un método que drásticamente simplifica el desarrollo de programas del tipo MDI por medio de la Programación Orientada a Objetos (POO. Se demuestra que el m

  19. Assessment of exposure to TDI and MDI during polyurethane foam production in Poland using integrated theoretical and experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Czerczak, Sławomir; Brzeźnicki, Sławomir

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an optimal strategy for the assessment of inhalation exposure to isocyanates such as TDI and MDI in the production of polyurethane foam by integration of theoretical and experimental data. ECETOC TRA and EASE predictive models were used to determine the estimated levels of exposure to isocyanates. The results of our study suggest that both applications EASE and ECETOC TRA can be used as a screening 1st Tier tool in this case study. PROC12 ECETOC TRA category can be linked to exposure on TDI during polyurethane foam manufacturing because it is working properly and exceeds 90th percentile measured concentration with factor 3 and the maximum measured value with factor 1, 5. The value estimated by using category PROC2 is underestimated so this category should not be linked to this scenario. At the same time, the applications of EASE overstate the expected concentrations although the scenario "Use in closed process" seems to underestimate the exposure at the "lower end". For MDI the both models estimate exposure in a conservative manner.

  20. Effect of processing temperature on the bitumen/MDI-PEG reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Alfonso, M.J.; Partal, P.; Navarro, F.J.; Garcia-Morales, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Campus de ' El Carmen' , Universidad de Huelva, 21071, Huelva (Spain); Bordado, J.C.M. [Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, IBB, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Diogo, A.C. [Materials Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2009-04-15

    Reactive polymers are lately gaining acceptance to give added value to a residue of the crude oil refining process such as bitumen. The resulting material should display enhanced mechanical properties to be considered for advanced applications in construction. In the present paper, we report the effect of processing temperature on the reaction between bitumen compounds and an isocyanate-based reactive polymer, synthesized by reaction of polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate) with a low molecular weight polyethylene-glycol (PEG). Rheokinetics experiments, viscosity measurements at 60 C, atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization, thin layer chromatography (TLC-FID) analysis and thermogravimetric studies (TGA) were performed on the reactive polymer and on samples of MDI-PEG modified bitumen containing 2 wt.% of the polymer. Results showed the existence of an optimum processing temperature arisen as a consequence of opposite effects: microstructural availability for the formation of a polymer-bitumen network, reaction ability and polymer thermal degradation. Consequently, this study aims to serve as a guideline for the refining and asphalt industries facing the stage of selecting the optimum processing parameters. (author)

  1. Isocyanate-functional adhesives for biomedical applications. Biocompatibility and feasibility study for vascular closure applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadba, Ahmad R; Belcheva, Nadya; Jones, Fatima; Abuzaina, Ferass; Calabrese, Allison; Kapiamba, Mbiya; Skalla, Walter; Taylor, Jack L; Rodeheaver, George; Kennedy, John

    2011-10-01

    Biodegradable isocyanate-functional adhesives based on poly(ethylene glycol)-adipic acid esters were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Two types of formulations, P2TT and P2MT, were developed by functionalization with 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) or 4,4'-methylene-bis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI), respectively, and branching with 1,1,1-trimethylolpropane (TMP). The biocompatibility of the synthesized adhesive formulations was evaluated as per ISO 10993. Cytotoxicity, systemic toxicity, pyrogenicity, genotoxicity (reverse mutation of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli), hemolysis, intracutaneous reactivity, and delayed-type hypersensitivity were evaluated. All formulations met the requirements of the conducted standard tests. The biological behavior and ability of the adhesive formulations to close an arteriotomy and withstand arterial pressure following partial approximation with a single suture were evaluated in a rat abdominal aorta model. Animals were evaluated at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after surgery. Macroscopic and histopathologic evaluation of explanted arteries suggested that the P2TT formulation had better in vivo performance than the P2MT formulation. Additionally, the P2TT formulation resulted in less tissue reaction than P2MT formulation. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the potential of this new class of isocyanate-functional degradable adhesives for vascular applications. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Study on the Synthetic Technology of Isocyanate Prepolymer%异氰酸酯预聚体合成工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文瑾; 王颖倩; 苏雨; 岳智帅; 廖有为

    2016-01-01

    采用H12MDI和IPDI为异氰酸酯单体,聚四氢呋喃为聚醚多元醇,醋酸丁酯为溶剂,配制成异氰酸酯预聚体。讨论了反应原材料、反应温度以及溶剂含水量对反应过程和异氰酸酯预聚体性能的影响。分析了原材料配比与异氰酸酯基含量(—NCO%)和体系黏度的关系,最终确定了异氰酸酯预聚体的最佳合成工艺条件。%An isocyanate prepolymer was prepared by using the H12MDI and IPDI as isocyanate monomers, polytetrahydrofuran as polyether polyol and butyl acetate as solvent. The influences of reaction raw materials, reaction temperature and water content of solvent on the reaction process and properties of isocyanate prepolymer were discussed. The relationship among the ratio of raw materials,isocyanate group content and system viscosity was analyzed,and finally the optimum synthetic conditions of isocyanate prepolymer were determined.

  3. Chemical structure-optical property understanding in bisphenyls and substituted polycarbonates by molecular simulations: Role of polarizabilities and conformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Upendra; Sulatha, M. S.

    2005-03-01

    We present calculations of polarizability tensors, optical anisotropy of organic molecules, repeating units and polymer chains of several bisphenyls, bisphenol carbonates and polycarbonates with a variety of chemical substitutions.^1,2 Theoretical calculations of polarizabilities and optical birefringence of several newer structures having specific side-group substitutions which render low birefringence, not previously reported, is also shown here. Our method combines VOSRIS scheme^3, molecular geometry and conformations from force-field simulations and accurate anisotropic polarizability tensors. Aliphatic, aliphatic aromatic and cycloaliphatic substitutions reduce optical anisotropy in relation to bisphenol A polycarbonate. Calculated /x of these structurally modified polycarbonates^2 follows linear behavior with respect to experimentally observed melt stress-optical coefficient (Cm). *J. Phys. Chem. A, 107, 97 (2003) *Macromolecules, 36, 2944 (2003) *P.J. Flory, Statistical Mechanics of Chain Molecules, Wiley Interscience, New York (1969)

  4. Nanoencapsulation of blocked isocyanates through aqueous emulsion polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Blocked isocyanates were successfully encapsulated into polystyrene and hydroxyl and amine functionalized polymeric nanospheres via emulsion polymerization. The nanocapsules were characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electronic microscopy. The blocked isocyanates generated free isocyanate functionality upon thermal annealing of nanocapsules. This research establishes a novel encapsulating method for release and retention of free isocyanates in aqueous media. These nanocapsules can provide active isocyanates in coatings and adhesive applications, and represent a novel application of nanoencapsulated materials for controlled or delayed active material utilization.

  5. The antibody response to methyl isocyanate: experimental and clinical findings.

    OpenAIRE

    Karol, M H; Taskar, S; Gangal, S.; Rubanoff, B F; Kamat, S. R.

    1987-01-01

    As a result of the industrial accident in Bhopal, India (December 1984) in which thousands of people were exposed to methyl isocyanate (MIC), concern was raised for possible long-term health effects. The well-recognized immunologic consequences of exposure to other industrial isocyanates prompted investigation of an antibody response to MIC. Using procedures which had been developed in this laboratory to evaluate isocyanate immunotoxicity, animal studies were undertaken to develop and test re...

  6. Study on the Comfortability of MDI-Based Viscoelastic Polyurethane Mattress Foam%MDI基聚氨酯慢回弹床垫泡沫的舒适性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林瑞; 林芳茜; 李鹏敏; 张谦和; 赵怡; 杜中杰

    2013-01-01

    通过对不同泡沫密度、不同异氰酸酯指数的MDI基聚氨酯慢回弹泡沫进行舒适因子、温度敏感性、透气性、压力分布等测试,研究了MDI基聚氨酯慢回弹床垫泡沫的舒适性.结果表明,增加泡沫密度有利于提高慢回弹泡沫的舒适因子,也有利于减小慢回弹泡沫的温度敏感性;MDI基聚氨酯慢回弹泡沫在较宽的密度及异氰酸酯指数范围内具有良好的透气性,且压力分布均匀,舒适性较高.%The comfortability of MDI-based viscoelastic PU foam by SAG, temperature sensitivity, breathability and pressure distribution measurement in different densities and isocyanate indexes was studied. The result showed that increasing density was conducive to increase the SAG of viscoelastic foam. Increasing density or reducing isocyanate index was conducive to reduce the temperature sensibility of viscoelastic foam. The MDI-based viscoelastic PU foam which had good breathability could be used in wide density and index range. This kind of foam had uniformity pressure distribution and good comfortability.

  7. Determination of isocyanic acid in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, D; Dalene, M; Skarping, G; Marand, A

    2001-08-01

    A method is presented for the determination of isocyanic acid (ICA), HNCO, in air samples as a di-n-butylamine (DBA) derivative. The method is based on sampling in midget impinger flasks containing 10 ml of 0.01 mol l-1 DBA in toluene. Quantification was made using liquid chromatography (LC) and electrospray mass spectrometry (MS) monitoring positive ions. The instrumental detection limit for the LC-MS was 10 fmol of ICA-DBA. ICA was generated by thermal decomposition of urea. A standard solution containing the DBA derivatives of ICA was prepared by collecting the emitted ICA in an impinger flask containing DBA. ICA in the reference solution was characterised by LC and time-of-flight (TOF) MS and quantified by LC chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (LC-CLND). The instrumental detection limit for the LC-CLND was 1 ng of nitrogen. ICA was emitted during thermal degradation of PFU resins and polyurethane (PUR) lacquers, from car metal sheets. ICA was the most dominant isocyanate and in PUR coating up to 8% of the total weight was emitted as ICA and for PFU resins up to 14% was emitted as ICA. When air samples were collected in an iron foundry during casting in sand moulds with furan resins, concentrations of ICA in the range 50-700 micrograms m-3 were found in the working atmosphere.

  8. Isocyanate toughened pCBT: Reactive blending and tensile properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Abt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic butylene terephthalate oligomers (CBT were reacted in a ring-opening polymerization with three types of isocyanates: a bifunctional aromatic type, a bifunctional aliphatic type and a polymeric aromatic isocyanate. All reactions took place in a batch mixer. The use of 0.5 to 1 wt% isocyanate led to a dramatic increase in elongation at break of polymerized cyclic butylene terephthalate (pCBT, from 8 to above 100%. The stiffness and strength of the modified pCBT, however, were found to slightly decrease. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis shows that the formation of thermally stable amide groups is the dominant chain extension reaction mechanism. Gel content measurements suggest a linear structure for samples containing bifunctional isocyanates while pCBT modified with polyfunctional isocyanate exhibited some gel formation at higher isocyanate content. Melting and crystallization temperatures as well as degree of crystallinity were found to decrease with increasing isocyanate content. No phase separation was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Moreover, a high degree of polymerization is deduced due to the absence of CBT oligomer crystals.

  9. Adhesive application method in MDI-UF particleboard manufacture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Weihong; Zhang Xianquan; Lu Renshu

    2006-01-01

    Chinese wood-based composite manufacturers,are plagued with serious formaldehyde emission (F-emisslon)problems.In this study,we investigated the use of an emulsifiable diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI) -urea formaldehyde (UF) mixture adhesive in particleboard manufacture,in order to decrease F-emission to below 9 mg per 100 g board.We paid close attention to the effect of NH4C1 on MDI-UF curing and the method of adhesive application by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC)analysis and compared mechanical properties.Both results showed that the acidic agent NH4C1 did hinder EMDI-UF curing and it also affected the adhesive application method.We are of the opinion that when EMDI and UF are mixed first,without adding NH4C1 and then sprayed onto particles,mechanical properties will be improved and F-emissions will meet E1 grade requirements.

  10. TARPs: Tracked Active Region Patches from SoHO/MDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmon, M.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Bobra, M.

    2013-12-01

    We describe progress toward creating a retrospective MDI data product consisting of tracked magnetic features on the scale of solar active regions, abbreviated TARPs (Tracked Active Region Patches). The TARPs are being developed as a backward-looking extension (covering approximately 3500 regions spanning 1996-2010) to the HARP (HMI Active Region Patch) data product that has already been released for HMI (2010-present). Like the HARPs, the MDI TARP data set is designed to be a catalog of active regions (ARs), indexed by a region ID number, analogous to a NOAA AR number, and time. TARPs from MDI are computed based on the 96-minute synoptic magnetograms and pseudo-continuum intensitygrams. As with the related HARP data product, the approximate threshold for significance is 100G. Use of both image types together allows faculae and sunspots to be separated out as sub-classes of activity, in addition to identifying the overall active region that the faculae/sunspots are part of. After being identified in single images, the magnetically-active patches are grouped and tracked from image to image. Merges among growing active regions, as well as faint active regions hovering at the threshold of detection, are handled automatically. Regions are tracked from their inception until they decay within view, or transit off the visible disk. The final data product is indexed by a nominal AR number and time. For each active region and for each time, a bitmap image is stored containing the precise outline of the active region. Additionaly, metadata such as areas and integrated fluxes are stored for each AR and for each time. Because there is a calibration between the HMI and MDI magnetograms (Liu, Hoeksema et al. 2012), it is straightforward to use the same classification and tracking rules for the HARPs (from HMI) and the MDI TARPs. We anticipate that this will allow a consistent catalog spanning both instruments. We envision several uses for the TARP data product, which will be

  11. MDI Synoptic Charts of Magnetic Field: Interpolation of Polar Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Hoeksema, J. T.; Zhao, X.; Larson, R. M.

    2007-05-01

    In this poster, we compare various methods for interpolation of polar field for the MDI synoptic charts of magnetic field. By examining the coronal and heliospheric magnetic field computed from the synoptic charts based on a Potential Field Source Surface model (PFSS), and by comparing the heliospheric current sheets and footpoints of open fields with the observations, we conclude that the coronal and heliospheric fields calculated from the synoptic charts are sensitive to the polar field interpolation, and a time-dependent interpolation method using the observed polar fields is the best among the seven methods investigated.

  12. The Density of Coronal Null Points from Hinode and MDI

    CERN Document Server

    Longcope, Dana; DeForest, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic null points can be located numerically in a potential field extrapolation or their average density can be estimated from the Fourier spectrum of a magnetogram. We use both methods to compute the null point density from a quiet Sun magnetogram made with Hinode's NFI and from magnetograms from SOHO's MDI in both its high-resolution and low-resolution modes. All estimates of the super-chromospheric column density (z>1.5 Mm) agree with one another and with the previous measurements: 0.003 null points per square Mm of solar surface.

  13. Respiratory symptoms, sensitization, and exposure-response relationships in spray painters exposed to isocyanates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.; Preller, L.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Jonkers, I.C.L.; Lammers, J.-W.; Wouters, I.M.; Doekes, G.; Wisnewski, A.V.; Heederik, D.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Associations between oligomeric isocyanate exposure, sensitization, and respiratory disease have received little attention, despite the extensive use of isocyanate oligomers. Objectives: To investigate exposure-response relationships of respiratory symptoms and sensitization in a large po

  14. Characterization the Reaction of Isocyanate and Cellulose by XPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOZhenhua; GUJiyou; LIZhiguo

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique was used to study the reaction of phenyl isocyanate and cellulose with different moisture contents (MC). The C1S XPS peak of cellulose is only one symmetrical contribution at 285.95 eV. While the C1S XPS peaks of N,N-dibenzylurea, the reaction resultant of phenyl isocyanate and water, have two contributions at 288.6±9.1 eV and 284.7±0.1 eV corresponding to the carbonyl group and phenyl ring group, respectively. Their area ratio is between 11.88 and 11,98 that is quite neat to the theoretical value of 12.0. With the moisture content (MC) of cellulose increased, the proportion of isocyanate reacted with water increased. When the MC reaches 9.78%, 92.98% of all consumed isocyanate will react with water. By spattering analysis, it reveals that the reaction resultants of benzyl isocyanate distribute mainly on the surface of cellulose.

  15. Laboratory study of methyl isocyanate ices under astrophysical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maté, B.; Molpeceres, G.; Timón, V.; Tanarro, I.; Escribano, R.; Guillemin, J. C.; Cernicharo, J.; Herrero, V. J.

    2017-10-01

    Methyl isocyanate has been recently detected in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/CG) and in the interstellar medium. New physicochemical studies on this species are now necessary as tools for subsequent studies in astrophysics. In this work, infrared spectra of solid CH3NCO have been obtained at temperatures of relevance for astronomical environments. The spectra are dominated by a strong, characteristic multiplet feature at 2350-2250 cm-1, which can be attributed to the asymmetric stretching of the NCO group. A phase transition from amorphous to crystalline methyl isocyanate is observed at ˜90 K. The band strengths for the absorptions of CH3NCO in ice at 20 K have been measured. Deuterated methyl isocyanate is used to help with the spectral assignment. No X-ray structure has been reported for crystalline CH3NCO. Here we advance a tentative theoretical structure, based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations, derived taking the crystal of isocyanic acid as a starting point. A harmonic theoretical spectrum is then calculated for the proposed structure and compared with the experimental data. A mixed ice of H2O and CH3NCO was formed by simultaneous deposition of water and methyl isocyanate at 20 K. The absence of new spectral features indicates that methyl isocyanate and water do not react appreciably at 20 K, but form a stable mixture. The high CH3NCO/H2O ratio reported for comet 67P/CG, and the characteristic structure of the 2350-2250 cm-1 band, makes it a very good candidate for future astronomical searches.

  16. Adhesion of nitrile rubber to UV-assisted surface chemical modified PET fabric, part II: Interfacial characterization of MDI grafted PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavizadeh, Mahmoud; Jamshidi, Masoud, E-mail: mjamshidi@iust.ac.ir

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • In this research UV-irradiated PET fabric was chemically modified. • The fabric at first carboxylated under UV irradiation using glutaric anhydride, then it was grafted using isocyanate (i.e. MDI). • The surface of the fabric was characterized before and after each treating satge. • The composite samples were prepared and tested for T-Peel test. The surfaces of the fabrics were surface characterized to understand. - Abstract: Fiber to rubber adhesion is an important subject in rubber industry. It is well known that surface treatment (i.e. physical, mechanical and chemical) is an effective method to improve interfacial bonding of fibers and/or fabrics to rubbers. UV irradiation is an effective method which has been used to increase fabric-rubber interfacial interactions. In this research UV assisted chemical modification of PET fabrics was used to increase PET to nitrile rubber (NBR) adhesion. Nitrile rubber is a perfect selection as fuel and oil resistant rubber. However it has weak bonding to PET fabric. For this purpose PET fabric was carboxylated under UV irradiation and then methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was grafted on carboxylated PET. The chemical composition of the fabric before and after surface treatment was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sectional morphology of the experimental PET fibers and the interface between rubber compound and PET fabric was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphology and structure of the product were analyzed by an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). FTIR-ATR and H NMR analysis were used to assess surface modifications on the PET irradiated fabrics.

  17. Space-weather MDI Active Region Patches (SMARPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobra, Monica

    2017-08-01

    We are developing a new data product from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO) called Space-weather MDI Active Region Patches (SMARPs). The SMARP data series provide maps of the photospheric line-of-sight magnetic field in patches that encompass automatically tracked magnetic concentrations, or active regions, for their entire lifetime. These concentrations are automatically detected in the photospheric line-of-sight magnetic field data using a method described in Turmon et al. (2010) and, thus, are necessarily different from NOAA's definition of an active region. As such, these regions are assigned their own identification number, or SMARP number, which is also linked to a NOAA active region number should it exist. In addition, keywords in the SMARP data series include parameters that concisely characterize the magnetic field distribution. These parameters may be useful for active region event forecasting and for identifying regions of interest. These parameters are calculated per patch and are available on a 96 minute cadence.The SMARP data product is designed to provide seamless coverage with its counterpart, the Space-weather HMI Active Region Patches (SHARPs), described in Bobra et al. (2014). Together, the SMARP and SHARP data series provide continuous coverage of tracked active regions for two solar cycles from 1996 to the present day. The SMARP data series, which runs from April 1996 to October 2010, contains 9496 unique active regions tracked throughout their lifetime. The SHARP data series, which runs from May 2010 to the present day, contains (as of May 30, 2017) 3883 unique active regions tracked throughout their lifetime. In addition, the two series contain 118 unique active regions during the overlap period between May and October 2010. SMARP data will be available at jsoc.stanford.edu and the photospheric line-of-sight magnetic field maps will be available in either of two different coordinate

  18. Isocyanate exposure and respiratory symptoms in Dutch car spray painters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heederik, D.; Pronk, A.; Doekes, G.; Bobbeldijk, I.; Preller, L.

    2005-01-01

    Isocyanate allergy and asthma is an important respiratory disease in most industrialized countries. Little information about its importance is available for the Netherlands. A baseline survey, part of a larger longitudinal epidemiological survey, shows that exposure to mainly HDI monomers and oligom

  19. Isocyanate emissions from pyrolysis of mattresses containing polyurethane foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, María A; Gerecke, Andreas C; Heeb, Norbert; Font, Rafael; Conesa, Juan A

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the emissions of powerful asthmatic agents called isocyanates from small-scale pyrolysis experiments of two common foams employed in mattress production such as flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) and viscoelastic memory foam (VMF). A nitrogen atmosphere and five different temperatures, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 850 °C, were selected to carry out the experiments in order to evaluate the worst possible conditions for thermal degradation. A similar trend for both materials was found. At lower temperatures, diisocyanates were the most important products whereas at 850 °C monoisocyanates, and mainly isocyanic acid released mainly from the thermal cracking of diisocyanates evolved directly from the polymer chains. The total yields of isocyanates were in the range of 1.43-11.95 mg/m(3) for FPUF at 300-850 °C and 0.05-6.13 mg/m(3) for VMF, 300-850 °C. This difference could be a consequence of the lower amount of isocyanates employed in the VMF production which was confirmed by the nitrogen content of the foams, 5.95% FPUF vs. 3.34% in VMF. Additionally, a qualitative search for so far unknown isocyanates was performed in samples from the pyrolysis of FPUF at 300, 400 and 850 °C. It was confirmed that six different aminoisocyanates at 300 °C were evolved, whereas at 400 and 850 °C only five of them were detected. The general trend observed was a decrease of the aminoisocyanate levels with increasing pyrolysis temperature.

  20. Workers exposed to thermal degradation products of TDI- and MDI-based polyurethane: biomonitoring of 2,4-TDA, 2,6-TDA, and 4,4'-MDA in hydrolyzed urine and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalene, M; Skarping, G; Lind, P

    1997-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate biomarkers of exposure to thermal degradation products of 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI)- and 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI)-based polyurethane and the toxicokinetics of these products. Blood and urine were collected from 15 factory workers exposed to thermal degradation products of MDI-based polyurethane glue and TDI-based flexible foam. Four of these workers were also studied during an exposure-free period. Urine and plasma were analyzed after acidic hydrolysis and the concentrations of the isocyanates' corresponding amines, 2,4-, 2,6-toluenediamine (TDA), and 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA), were determined as derivatives of pentafluoropropionic anhydride by gas chromatography using chemical ionization mass spectrometry monitoring negative ions. Urinary elimination rates were in the range of TDA per hour, TDA per hour, and TDA per mL, TDA per mL, and TDA, 2,6-TDA, and 4,4'-MDA in urine varied during and between workdays. The individual variation in plasma concentrations of 2,4-TDA, 2,6-TDA, and 4,4'-MDA with time was small, but between individuals the variation was great.

  1. Potential energy surface of the photolysis of isocyanic acid HNCO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The dissociation curves of the photolysis of the isocyanic acidHNCOHN+CO corresponding to the ground state (S0), the first triplet excited state (T1) and the first singlet excited state (S1) have been studied respectively at the UHF/6-311G** and CIS/6-311G** levels using ab initio method. The energy surface crossing points, S1/T1, T1/S0 and S1/S0, have been found and the characteristics of the energy minimum crossing point were given, based on which, the changes of the crossing points' geometries along the lower electronic energy surface and its end-result have been located according to the steepest descent principle. The computational result indicates that the photolysis of the isocyanic acid HNCOHN+CO has three competitive reaction channels ((A)-(C)), and from the kinetic piont of view, channel (A) is the most advantageous.

  2. The phosphinoboration of carbodiimides, isocyanates, isothiocyanates and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Stephen J; LaFortune, James H W; Zhu, Diya; Kosnik, Stephanie C; Macdonald, Charles L B; Stephan, Douglas W; Westcott, Stephen A

    2017-08-22

    The transition metal-free addition of phosphinoboronate ester Ph2PBpin (pin = 1,2-O2C2Me4) to heterocumulenes including carbodiimides, isocyanates, isothiocyanates and carbon dioxide has been investigated. The corresponding 1,2-addition products were readily prepared at room temperature without the need of a catalyst or added base. Addition of methanol to the compounds derived from addition of Ph2PBpin to carbodiimides, isocyanates, and isothiocyanates resulted in traditional hydrophosphination products. The methodology developed in this study provides a simple and elegant route for the generation of a wide range of functionalized phosphines. The phosphinoboronate ester Ph2PBpin also selectively and reversibly adds to CO2 at room temperature in a 1,2-manner.

  3. Reliability of the MDi Psoriasis(®) Application to Aid Therapeutic Decision-Making in Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ramírez, D; Herrerías-Esteban, J M; Ojeda-Vila, T; Carrascosa, J M; Carretero, G; de la Cueva, P; Ferrándiz, C; Galán, M; Rivera, R; Rodríguez-Fernández, L; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Ferrándiz, L

    2017-09-01

    Therapeutic decisions in psoriasis are influenced by disease factors (e.g., severity or location), comorbidity, and demographic and clinical features. We aimed to assess the reliability of a mobile telephone application (MDi-Psoriasis) designed to help the dermatologist make decisions on how to treat patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. We analyzed interobserver agreement between the advice given by an expert panel and the recommendations of the MDi-Psoriasis application in 10 complex cases of moderate to severe psoriasis. The experts were asked their opinion on which treatments were most appropriate, possible, or inappropriate. Data from the same 10 cases were entered into the MDi-Psoriasis application. Agreement was analyzed in 3 ways: paired interobserver concordance (Cohen's κ), multiple interobserver concordance (Fleiss's κ), and percent agreement between recommendations. The mean percent agreement between the total of 1210 observations was 51.3% (95% CI, 48.5-54.1%). Cohen's κ statistic was 0.29 and Fleiss's κ was 0.28. Mean agreement between pairs of human observers only, excluding the MDi-Psoriasis recommendations, was 50.5% (95% CI, 47.6-53.5%). Paired agreement between the recommendations of the MDi-Psoriasis tool and the majority opinion of the expert panel (Cohen's κ) was 0.44 (68.2% agreement). The MDi-Psoriasis tool can generate recommendations that are comparable to those of experts in psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. A new penetration test method: protection efficiency of glove and clothing materials against diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Mäkelä, Erja

    2015-03-01

    Reported cases of allergic contact dermatitis caused by methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) have increased and thereby increased the need for adequate skin protection. Current standardized permeation and penetration test methods give information about efficacy of protective materials against individual components of the polyurethane systems. They do not give information of what kind of clothing materials workers should wear against splashes when handling mixed MDI-polyurethane formulations, which contain MDI, its oligomers, and polyols. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a sensitive penetration test method that can be used to select clothing that is protective enough against uncured splashes of MDI-polyurethane, still easy to use, and also, to find affordable glove materials that provide adequate protection during a short contact. The penetration of MDI through eight representative glove or clothing materials was studied with the developed test procedure. One MDI hardener and two polymeric MDI (PMDI)-polyol formulations representing different curing times were used as test substances. The materials tested included work clothing (woven) fabric, arm shields (nonwoven fabric), old T-shirt, winter gloves, and gloves of nitrile rubber, leather, vinyl (PVC), and natural rubber. A drop (50 µl) of test substance was added to the outer surface of the glove/clothing material, which had Tape Fixomull attached to the inner surface as a collection medium. After penetration times of 5 or 20min, the collecting material was removed and immediately immersed into acetonitrile containing 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazine for derivatization. The formed urea derivatives of 2,4'-MDI and 4,4'-MDI were analysed using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric and UV detection. The precision of the test method was good for the material with high penetration (work clothing fabric) of MDI, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 14 and 20%. For the arm shield with a low

  5. Lymphocyte Gene Expression Characteristic of Immediate Airway Responses (IAR) and Methacholine (MCH) Hyperresponsiveness in Mice Sensitized and Challenged with Isocyanates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to isocyanates has been associated with occupational airway diseases, including asthma. Previously we reported on respiratory and immune responses following dermal sensitization and intranasal challenge of BALB/c mice with 6 different isocyanates. The purpose of this st...

  6. Mass spectrometric identification of isocyanate-induced modifications of keratins in human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, A.G.; Verstappen, D.R.W.; Riet-van Oeveren, D. van der; Vermeulen, N.P.E.; Noort, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the current paper we show that exposure of human callus to isocyanates leads to covalent modifications within keratin proteins. Mass spectrometric analyses of pronase digests of keratin isolated from exposed callus show that both mono- and di-adducts (for di-isocyanates) are predominantly formed

  7. A new general pathway for synthesis of reference compounds of N-terminal valine-isocyanate adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ronnie; Rydberg, Per; Westberg, Emelie; Motwani, Hitesh V; Johnstone, Erik; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2010-03-15

    Adducts to Hb could be used as biomarkers to monitor exposure to isocyanates. Particularly useful is the measurement of carbamoylation of N-terminal valines in Hb, after detachment as hydantoins. The synthesis of references from the reactive isocyanates, especially diisocyanates, has been problematic due to side reactions and polymerization of the isocyanate starting material. A simpler, safer, and more general method for the synthesis of valine adducts of isocyanates has been developed using N-[(4-nitrophenyl)carbamate]valine methylamide (NPCVMA) as the key precursor to adducts of various mono- and diisocyanates of interest. By reacting NPCVMA with a range of isocyanate-related amines, carbamoylated valines are formed without the use of the reactive isocyanates. The carbamoylated products synthesized here were cyclized with good yields of the formed hydantoins. The carbamoylated derivative from phenyl isocyanate also showed quantitative yield in a test with cyclization under the conditions used in blood. This new pathway for the preparation of N-carbamoylated model compounds overcomes the above-mentioned problems in the synthesis and is a general and simplified approach, which could make such reference compounds of adducts to N-terminal valine from isocyanates accessible for biomonitoring purposes. The synthesized hydantoins corresponding to adducts from isocyanic acid, methyl isocyanate, phenyl isocyanate, and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate were characterized by LC-MS analysis. The background level of the hydantoin from isocyanic acid in human blood was analyzed with the LC-MS conditions developed.

  8. Liquid chromatographic determination of residual isocyanate monomers in plastics intended for food contact use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damant, A P; Jickells, S M; Castle, L

    1995-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for the analysis of 10 isocyanates in polyurethane articles and laminates intended for food use. Residual isocyanates are extracted by dichloromethane with concurrent derivatization by 9-(methylaminomethyl)anthracene. The resultant derivatives are analyzed by reversed-phase LC with fluorescence detection. Separation of the isocyanates was studied and optimized. Quantitation uses 1-naphthyl isocyanate as internal standard and standard addition to the food package. Validation demonstrated the method to have good precision (+/- 2-5%) and recovery (83-95%) for samples spiked with isocyanates at 0.1 mg/kg. The limit of detection was 0.03 mg/kg. Analysis of 19 commercial polyurethane or laminate food packages demonstrated that the method was not prone to interferences. Residues of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate were detected in 5 packages and ranged from 0.14 to 1.08 mg/kg.

  9. Synthesis and properties of MDI-50 type polyurethane elastomer%MDI-50型聚氨酯弹性体的合成及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李万捷; 林殷雷; 郑玉刚

    2011-01-01

    以聚醚多元醇和MDI-50为原料,采用预聚物法合成预聚体,再和扩链剂MOCA进行扩链合成聚氨酯弹性体。研究了预聚体中不同异氰酸酯基(-NCO)质量分数对MDI-50型聚氨酯弹性体性能的影响。采用差示扫描量热分析(DSC)、热重分析(TG)、红外光谱(FTIR)及力学性能等测试方法对聚氨酯弹性体的结构与性能进行了表征和分析。结果表明:预聚体反应体系中NCO/OH摩尔比增大,预聚体中-NCO质量分数增加,预聚体的黏度降低,相应的聚氨酯弹性体的硬度和玻璃化转变温度提高,断裂伸长率降低,而拉伸强度和撕裂强度先增加后下降;当NCO/OH摩尔比为2.22时,聚氨酯弹性体力学性能较好;-NCO质量分数对聚氨酯弹性体的热稳定性影响不大。%MDI-50 type polyurethane elastomer was prepared from a prepolymer system based on MDI-50, polyol and MOCA chain extender. The effects of mass fraction of -NCO in prepolymer on properties of the elastomer were studied. The structure and performance were analyzed by means of DSC, TG, FTIR and mechanical properties test. The results showed that hardness and glass transition temperature of MDI-50 type polyurethane elastomer increased with increasing molar ratio of NCO/OH in prepolymer reactive system. The tearing strength and tensile intensity increased at first and then declined with increasing mass content of -NCO. However, elongation at break of the elastomer and viscosity of prepolymer decreased with increasing -NCO mass content. It showed that better properties were obtained at 2.22 of the molar ratios of NCO/OH. -NCO mass content had little influence on thermal stability of the elastomer .The result provided data for the application of formula design of MDI-50 type polyurethane elastomer.

  10. A comparison of glycaemic variability in CSII vs. MDI treated type 1 diabetic patients using CGMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, B; Treat, V; Marco, C; Rosenberg, D; Joseph, J; Hipszer, B; Li, Y; Chervoneva, I; Padron-Massara, L; Jabbour, S

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate and compare glucose variability, hypoglycaemic events and daily glycaemic control in well-controlled (HbA1c meals. A total of 16 patients with type 1 diabetes receiving treatment with either CSII (eight patients) or MDI (eight patients), all with HbA1c levels or= 180 mg/dl] and hypoglycaemic (BG average amount of time spent within the glucose range of 80-140 mg/dl was marginally significantly better for the MDI than for the CSII group. Although the CSII group had significantly more hypoglycaemic episodes below 60 mg/dl, the average duration of hypoglycaemia was not significantly different for the two groups. Similar percentages of nocturnal hypoglycaemia were seen. There were no reported major adverse events throughout the duration of the study. Well-controlled type 1 diabetic patients treated with MDI had fewer hyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic excursions than patients treated with CSII.

  11. A comparison of the major depression inventory (MDI) and the beck depression inventory (BDI) in severely depressed patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konstantinidis, Anastasios; Martiny, Klaus; Bech, Per

    2011-01-01

    We set out to examine the psychometric properties of the MDI in comparison to the BDI in a mixed group of patients with primary depression.......We set out to examine the psychometric properties of the MDI in comparison to the BDI in a mixed group of patients with primary depression....

  12. Salbutamol pMDI gives less protection to methacholine induced airway obstruction than salbutamol via spacer or DPI.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, M.E.A.C.; Molema, J.; Hop, W.C.J.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhalation device and inhalation technique influence the deposition of drug in the lung. This study evaluated the efficacy of salbutamol as a bronchoprotective agent administered via Diskus, Turbuhaler, pMDI or pMDI + Volumatic against methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. METHODS: T

  13. Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Sequential and Simultaneous Thiol-Ene-Isocyanate Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Olivia; Brent, Davis; Savin, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Ternary networks containing having stoichiometrically balanced thiol /(ene+isocyanate) ranging from 0 to 20 mol% isocyanate were synthesized via sequential or simultaneous thiol/ene and thiol/isocyanate click reactions. The effects of cross-link density were studied using three thiols, GDMP (difunctional), 3T (trifunctional) and 4T (tetrafunctional) respectively. TEA catalyzes the isocyanate-thiol coupling and chain extension, while the photoinitiator DMPA initiates a radical thiol-ene crosslinking process. Real-time FTIR was used to study kinetics of both light and dark reactions utilizing thiol, ene and isocyanate peaks which appear independently. It was found that difunctional thiols and isocyanates reacted initially, forming chain extended prepolymers end-capped with thiol functionalities. Upon UV irradiation, thiol functionalized prepolymers reacted with TTT, a trifunctional ene, forming networks containing incorporated thiourethane linkages. Initial DSC results indicated higher Tgs for higher cross-linked networks; however, isocyanate content has significant effects on each system. Films were also be thermally characterized via DMA and mechanical properties measured using MTS.

  14. Methyl diamantane index (MDI) as a maturity parameter for Lower Palaeozoic carbonate rocks at high maturity and overmaturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinggui, Li; Mingzhong, Cui [Academia Sinica, Lanzhou (China). Inst. of Geology; Philp, Paul [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    2000-07-01

    Diamantanes were identified in extracts from the Lower Ordovician Majiagou Formations (O{sub 1}m{sub 5}) of the central gas field, Shanganning Basin, China. At 3100-3800 m, corresponding to R{sub o} 1.9-3.9%, the MDI [methyl diamantine index = 4 - MD/(1-MD+3-MD+4-MD)] ranges from 40 to 65% for the source rock extracts. Changes in the MDI index in the very mature sections (R{sub o} > 2.0%) are relatively small and no linear correlation between MDI and R{sub o}, or MDI and depth, is noted, as previously reported, suggesting the possibility that the MDI may have limited applicability in maturity determinations. (Author)

  15. Phosgene free route to methyl diphenyl diisocynate (MDI): A technical and economical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Gutierrez, H.; Odu, S.O.; Roelofs, T.; Weerdt, de J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective is to design an alternative production process for Methyl Diphenyl Diisocyanate (MDI) in which no toxic phosgene is used. The plant should use 4,4′-Methylenedianiline (MDA) as a raw material. Seven routes found in the open literature were investigated and compared on process conditions

  16. Thermolysis of Semicarbazones to the Corresponding Azines Through Reactive N-Substituted Isocyanate Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Chudgar

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermolysis of semicarbazones (I to azines (II occurs through reactive N-substituted isocyanate intermediates (Ia which can be converted in situ to carbamates and Nsubstituted ureas.

  17. Developing an Efficient and General Strategy for Immobilization of Small Molecules onto Microarrays Using Isocyanate Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Small-molecule microarray (SMM is an effective platform for identifying lead compounds from large collections of small molecules in drug discovery, and efficient immobilization of molecular compounds is a pre-requisite for the success of such a platform. On an isocyanate functionalized surface, we studied the dependence of immobilization efficiency on chemical residues on molecular compounds, terminal residues on isocyanate functionalized surface, lengths of spacer molecules, and post-printing treatment conditions, and we identified a set of optimized conditions that enable us to immobilize small molecules with significantly improved efficiencies, particularly for those molecules with carboxylic acid residues that are known to have low isocyanate reactivity. We fabricated microarrays of 3375 bioactive compounds on isocyanate functionalized glass slides under these optimized conditions and confirmed that immobilization percentage is over 73%.

  18. Developing an Efficient and General Strategy for Immobilization of Small Molecules onto Microarrays Using Isocyanate Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenggang; Zhu, Xiangdong; Landry, James P; Cui, Zhaomeng; Li, Quanfu; Dang, Yongjun; Mi, Lan; Zheng, Fengyun; Fei, Yiyan

    2016-03-16

    Small-molecule microarray (SMM) is an effective platform for identifying lead compounds from large collections of small molecules in drug discovery, and efficient immobilization of molecular compounds is a pre-requisite for the success of such a platform. On an isocyanate functionalized surface, we studied the dependence of immobilization efficiency on chemical residues on molecular compounds, terminal residues on isocyanate functionalized surface, lengths of spacer molecules, and post-printing treatment conditions, and we identified a set of optimized conditions that enable us to immobilize small molecules with significantly improved efficiencies, particularly for those molecules with carboxylic acid residues that are known to have low isocyanate reactivity. We fabricated microarrays of 3375 bioactive compounds on isocyanate functionalized glass slides under these optimized conditions and confirmed that immobilization percentage is over 73%.

  19. Developing an Efficient and General Strategy for Immobilization of Small Molecules onto Microarrays Using Isocyanate Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenggang; Zhu, Xiangdong; Landry, James P.; Cui, Zhaomeng; Li, Quanfu; Dang, Yongjun; Mi, Lan; Zheng, Fengyun; Fei, Yiyan

    2016-01-01

    Small-molecule microarray (SMM) is an effective platform for identifying lead compounds from large collections of small molecules in drug discovery, and efficient immobilization of molecular compounds is a pre-requisite for the success of such a platform. On an isocyanate functionalized surface, we studied the dependence of immobilization efficiency on chemical residues on molecular compounds, terminal residues on isocyanate functionalized surface, lengths of spacer molecules, and post-printing treatment conditions, and we identified a set of optimized conditions that enable us to immobilize small molecules with significantly improved efficiencies, particularly for those molecules with carboxylic acid residues that are known to have low isocyanate reactivity. We fabricated microarrays of 3375 bioactive compounds on isocyanate functionalized glass slides under these optimized conditions and confirmed that immobilization percentage is over 73%. PMID:26999137

  20. Personnel Exposure to Airborne Isocyanates and Solvents During Shipboard Painting With 2-Pack Polyurethane Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    contain low volatility isocyanate prepolymers in addition to small quantities of volatile isocyanate monomers [2,3]. The monomers may become airborne as...vapour whilst the non-volatile prepolymers and partially cured oligomers may form aerosols during spray painting and sanding of the painted surface...JL (1992) “ Prepolymers of hexamethylene diisocyanate as a cause of occupational asthma” J. Allergy Clinical Immunol. 91 850-61. 5. Redlich CA, Bello

  1. Barriers and supports to implementation of MDI/spacer use in nine Canadian pediatric emergency departments: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ian D

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite recent research supporting the use of metered dose inhalers with spacer devices (MDI/spacers in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs for acute exacerbations of asthma, uptake of this practice has been slow. The objectives of this study were to determine the barriers and supports to implementing MDI/spacer research and to identify factors associated with early and late adoption of MDI/spacers in Canadian PEDs. Methods Using a comparative case study design, we classified nine tertiary care pediatric hospital PEDs based on their stage of implementation. Data were collected using focus group interviews with physicians, registered nurses (RNs, and respiratory therapists (RTs, and individual interviews with both patient care and medical directors at each site. Initial coding was based on the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU categories of elements known to influence the uptake of innovations. Results One hundred and fifty healthcare professionals from nine different healthcare institutions participated in this study. Lack of leadership in the form of a research champion, a lack of consensus about the benefits of MDI/spacers among staff, perceived resistance from patients/parents, and perceived increased cost and workload associated with MDI/spacer use were the most prevalent barriers to the adoption of the MDI/spacer. Common strategies used by early-adopting sites included the active participation of all professional groups in the adoption process in addition to a well-planned and executed educational component for staff, patients, and families. Early adopter sites were also more likely to have the MDI/spacer included in a clinical protocol/pathway. Conclusion Potential barriers and supports to implementation have been identified that will help EDs adopt MDI/spacer use. Future interventions intended to increase MDI/spacer use in PEDs will need to be sensitive to the barriers identified in this study.

  2. Identification of photospheric activity features from SOHO/MDI data using the ASAP tool

    CERN Document Server

    Ashamari, Omar; Ipson, Stan; Scholl, Micha; Nibouche, Omar; Haberreiter, Margit

    2015-01-01

    The variation of solar irradiance is one of the natural forcing mechanisms of the terrestrial climate. Hence, the time-dependent solar irradiance is an important input parameter for climate modelling. The solar surface magnetic field is a powerful proxy for solar irradiance reconstruction. The analyses of data obtained with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on board the SOHO mission are therefore useful for the identification of solar surface magnetic features to be used in solar irradiance reconstruction models. However, there is still a need for automated technologies that would enable the identification of solar activity features from large databases. To achieve this we present a series of enhanced segmentation algorithms developed to detect and calculate the area coverages of specific magnetic features from MDI intensitygrams and magnetograms. These algorithms are part of the Automated Solar Activity Prediction (ASAP) tool. The segmentation algorithms allow us to identify the areas on the solar disk cove...

  3. Synthesis of Polyurethanes Membranes from Rubber Seed Oil and Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanates (MDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlina; Nurman, S.; Saleha, S.; Fitriani; Thanthawi, I.

    2017-03-01

    Rubber seed oil and methylene diphenyl diisocyanates (MDI) based polyurethane membrane has been prepared in this study. The main objective of this research is manufacture of polyurethane membranes from avocado seed oil, as a filter of this membrane use as a filter of metals from water such as mercury (Hg). In this study, the polyurethane membrane had been synthesized by varying compositions of rubber seed oil and MDI, with ratios of 10:0.2; 10:0.4; 10:0.6; 10:0.8; 10:1.0; 10:1.2; 10:1.4; 10:1.6; 10:1.8 and 10:2.0 (v/w) at 80°C and 170°C as polymerization and curing temperatures, respectively. Optimum polyurethane membrane was obtained at rubber seed oil: MDI 10: 0.8 v/w, it was dry, non-sticky, smooth and blackish brown. The membrane flux was 5,8307 L / m2.h.bar and rejection factor was 35,3015 %. The results of characterization indicated the formation of urethane bonds (NH at 3480 cm-1, C=O at 1620 cm-1, CN at 1374 cm-1, -OC-NH- at 1096 cm-1 and no -NCO at 2270 cm-1), the value of Tg was 55°C. The polyurethane membrane which treated at the optimum treatment conditions were used to the filter of metals from water such as mercury (Hg).

  4. Imbalance of mitochondrial-nuclear cross talk in isocyanate mediated pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariom Panwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanistic investigations coupled with epidemiology, case-control, cohort and observational studies have increasingly linked isocyanate exposure (both chronic and acute with pulmonary morbidity and mortality. Though ascribed for impairment in endothelial cell function, molecular mechanisms of these significant adverse pulmonary outcomes remains poorly understood. As preliminary studies conducted in past have failed to demonstrate a cause-effect relationship between isocyanate toxicity and compromised pulmonary endothelial cell function, we hypothesized that direct exposure to isocyanate may disrupt endothelial structural lining, resulting in cellular damage. Based on this premise, we comprehensively evaluated the molecular repercussions of methyl isocyanate (MIC exposure on human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (HPAE-26. We examined MIC-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine response, oxidative DNA damage response and apoptotic index. Our results demonstrate that exposure to MIC, augment mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, depletion in antioxidant defense enzymes, elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine response and induced endothelial cell apoptosis via affecting the balance of mitochondrial-nuclear cross talk. We herein delineate the first and direct molecular cascade of isocyanate-induced pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction. The results of our study might portray a connective link between associated respiratory morbidities with isocyanate exposure, and indeed facilitate to discern the exposure-phenotype relationship in observed deficits of pulmonary endothelial cell function. Further, understanding of inter- and intra-cellular signaling pathways involved in isocyanate-induced endothelial damage would not only aid in biomarker identification but also provide potential new avenues to target specific therapeutic interventions.

  5. Accidental exposure to isocyanate fumes in a group of firemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axford, A T; McKerrow, C B; Jones, A P; Le Quesne, P M

    1976-05-01

    A total of 35 firemen involved in fighting a fire in a factory in which polyurethane foam was made were exposed to fumes of toluene di-isocyanate from two large storage tanks which were damaged during the fire, resulting in massive spillage. Most of the men experienced symptoms during the fire or during the three weeks after it. The symptoms were mainly gastrointestinal, respiratory, or neurological. Altogether 15 men described gastrointestinal symptoms which subsided within two days of onset. Respiratory symptoms were described by 31 men and were most pronounced during the three days after the fire, thereafter tending to improve. The neurological findings are described separately. When the men were reviewed at six months there was a suggestion that some of them might have sustained long-term damage to the respiratory tract, and almost four years later 20 men had persistent respiratory symptoms. Serial measurements of ventilatory capacity revealed a marked decline in the first six months although this was not sustained.

  6. The addition of organotin hydrides to isocyanates and isothiocyanates: synthesis and structure of some organotin-substituted amides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noltes, J.G.; Janssen, M.J.

    Organotin hydrides add across the carbon---nitrogen double bond of aryl isocyanates (tin---nitrogen bond formation) and hexyl isocyanate (tin---carbon bond formation) and across the carbon---sulfur double bond of phenyl isothiocyanate (tin---sulfur bond formation) to afford in excellent yield 1:1

  7. Comparison of acoustic travel-time measurement of solar meridional circulation from SDO/HMI and SOHO/MDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Thomas L.; Liang, Zhi-Chao; Birch, Aaron; Gizon, Laurent; Schou, Jesper

    2017-08-01

    Time-distance helioseismology is one of the primary tools for studying the solar meridional circulation. However, travel-time measurements of the subsurface meridional flow suffer from a variety of systematic errors, such as a center-to-limb variation and an offset due to the P-angle uncertainty of solar images. Here we apply the time-distance technique to contemporaneous medium-degree Dopplergrams produced by SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI to obtain the travel-time difference caused by meridional circulation throughout the solar convection zone. The P-angle offset in MDI images is measured by cross-correlating MDI and HMI images. The travel-time measurements in the south-north and east-west directions are averaged over the same observation period for the two data sets and then compared to examine the consistency of MDI and HMI travel times after correcting the systematic errors.The offsets in the south-north travel-time difference from MDI data induced by the P-angle error gradually diminish with increasing travel distance. However, these offsets become noisy for travel distances corresponding to waves that reach the base of the convection zone. This suggests that a careful treatment of the P-angle problem is required when studying a deep meridional flow. After correcting the P-angle and the removal of the center-to-limb effect, the travel-time measurements from MDI and HMI are consistent within the error bars for meridional circulation covering the entire convection zone. The fluctuations observed in both data sets are highly correlated and thus indicate their solar origin rather than an instrumental origin. Although our results demonstrate that the ad hoc correction is capable of reducing the wide discrepancy in the travel-time measurements from MDI and HMI, we cannot exclude the possibility that there exist other systematic effects acting on the two data sets in the same way.

  8. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF STARCH-BASED BIOPOLYMERS MODIFIED WITH DIFUNCTIONAL ISOCYANATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Belhassen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports on the preparation of thermoplastic starch (TPS modified in situ with a diisocyanate derivative. Evidence of the condensation reaction between the hydroxyl groups of starch and glycerol with the isocyanate function (NCO was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The evolution of the properties of the ensuing TPS, in term of mechanical properties, microstructure, and water sensitivity, was investigated using tensile mechanical, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and water uptake. The results showed that the addition of isocyanate did not affect the crystallinity of the TPS and slightly reduced the water uptake of the material. The evolution of the mechanical properties with ageing became less pronounced by the addition of the isocyanate as their amount exceeded 4 to 6wt%.

  9. Preparation and characterization of 3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl isocyanate self-assembled monolayer on surface of chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yao; GENG LiNa; QU Feng; LUO AiQin; QU Feng; DENG YuLin

    2009-01-01

    Monolayer of 3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl isocyanate was prepared on the slide by self-assembled tech-nique. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to analyze the elementary composition of the film. Contact angle of distilled water was measured to characterize the surface state. It was shown that 3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl isocyanate had been successfully assembled on the slide. The in-crease of contact angle to 80 demonstrated that the hydrophobicity of the surface of chip was in-creased significantly. Moreover, further self-assembly of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on 3-(trietho-xysilyl) propyl isocyanate was also carried out with the advantages such as simple and convenient preparation. Therefore, the potential of broader applications in the modification of micro-channel in the μ-TAS system, the immobilization of protein or peptide and the surface modification of materials are all expectative.

  10. Room temperature polymerization of alkyl isocyanates catalyzed by rare earth Schiff base complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiongFa; NI XuFeng; SHEN ZhiQuan

    2009-01-01

    The polymerization of alkyl isocyanates catalyzed by rare earth chloride salen complexes/triisobutyl aluminum (Ln(H_2salen)_2Cl_3·2C_2H_7OH/Al(i-Bu)_3) at room temperature was investigated.The influences of ligand structure,catalyst composition,polymerization temperature,polymerization time,the concentration of catalyst and monomer,and the polymerization solvent on the polymerization of isocyanates were studied.It was found that under the polymerization conditions,examined La(H_2salen_A)_2Cl_3·2C_(2-)H_7OH/Al(i-Bu)_3 (H_2salen_A=N,N'-disalicylideneethylene diamine) is a fairly high efficient catalyst for the polymerization of n-hexyl isocyanate (n-HexNCO) to prepare high molecular weight poly(n-hexyl isocyanate) (PHNCO) with narrower molecular weight distribution at room temperature.PHNCO could be prepared with yield of 74.0%,number-average molecular weight (M_n) of 40.20×10~4 and MWD of 1.79 under the following optimum conditions:[Al]/[La]=30 (molar ratio),[n-HexNCO]/[La]=100 (molar ratio),[n-HexNCO]=3.43 mol/L polymerization at 20℃ for 12 h in toluene.In the same polymerization conditions,poly (n-octyl isocyanate) (PONCO) with yield of 67.3%,and poly(n-butyl isocyanate) (PBNCO) with yield of 45.5%,could be prepared respectively.The kinetics of the polymerization of n-HexNCO was also investigated and found to be first-order with respect to both monomer and catalyst concentrations.

  11. Identification of photospheric activity features from SOHO/MDI data using the ASAP tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashamari Omar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The variation of solar irradiance is one of the natural forcing mechanisms of the terrestrial climate. Hence, the time-dependent solar irradiance is an important input parameter for climate modelling. The solar surface magnetic field is a powerful proxy for solar irradiance reconstruction. The analyses of data obtained with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI on board the SOHO mission are therefore useful for the identification of solar surface magnetic features to be used in solar irradiance reconstruction models. However, there is still a need for automated technologies that would enable the identification of solar activity features from large databases. To achieve this we present a series of enhanced segmentation algorithms developed to detect and calculate the area coverages of specific magnetic features from MDI intensitygrams and magnetograms. These algorithms are part of the Automated Solar Activity Prediction (ASAP tool. The segmentation algorithms allow us to identify the areas on the solar disk covered by magnetic elements inside and outside boundaries of active regions. Depending on their contrast properties, magnetic features within an active region boundary are classified as sunspot umbra and penumbra, or faculae. Outside an active region boundary magnetic elements are identified as network. We present the detailed steps involved in the segmentation process and provide the area coverages of the segmented MDI intensitygrams and magnetograms. The feature segmentation was carried out on daily intensitygrams and magnetograms from April 21, 1996 to April 11, 2011. This offers an exciting opportunity to undertake further investigations that benefit from solar features segmentations, such as solar irradiance reconstruction, which we plan to investigate in the future.

  12. Ruthenium(II)-Catalyzed Regioselective Ortho Amidation of Imidazo Heterocycles with Isocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, S M Abdul; Kumari, Santosh; Khullar, Sadhika; Mandal, Sanjay K; Kumar, Anil; Sakhuja, Rajeev

    2016-12-16

    Direct ortho amidation at the phenyl ring of 2-phenylimidazo heterocycles with aryl isocyanates has been achieved via a chelation-assisted cationic ruthenium(II) complex catalyzed mechanism. The methodology provides a straightforward, high-yielding regioselective approach toward the synthesis of an array of ortho-amidated phenylimidazo heterocycles without prior activation of C(sp(2))-H. This also reports the first method for coupling of aryl isocyanates with the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine system via a pentacyclometalated intermediate. The methodology is found to be easily scalable and could be applied toward the selective ortho amidation of 2-heteroarylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine frameworks.

  13. Development and Validation of the Middle Years Development Instrument (MDI): Assessing Children's Well-Being and Assets across Multiple Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A; Guhn, Martin; Gadermann, Anne M; Hymel, Shelley; Sweiss, Lina; Hertzman, Clyde

    2013-01-01

    Few instruments provide reliable and valid data on child well-being and contextual assets during middle childhood, using children as informants. The authors developed a population-level, self-report measure of school-aged children's well-being and assets-the Middle Years Development Instrument (MDI)-and examined its reliability and validity. The MDI was designed to assess child well-being inside and outside of school on five dimensions: (1) Social and emotional development, (2) Connectedness to peers and to adults at school, at home, and in the neighborhood, (3) School experiences, (4) Physical health and well-being, and (5) Constructive use of time after school. This paper describes the theoretical framework, selection of items and scales for the survey, and four studies that were conducted to revise the MDI and examine its psychometric properties. The findings indicate a theoretically predicted factor structure, high internal consistency, and document the convergent and discriminant validity of the MDI scales. The discussion delineates a plan for future validation studies that address further validity questions, such as predictive validity, measurement invariance, and fairness/bias, and provides a brief outlook of how the MDI may be used by practitioners, educators, and decision makers in schools and communities to motivate and inform action in support children's well-being.

  14. 亲水性封闭型芳香族异氰酸酯交联剂的合成及性能研究%Synthesis and Performance Research of Waterborne Blocked Aromatic Isocyanate Crosslinking Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱峻; 韦军; 王宝总; 郑小娟

    2011-01-01

    以4,4 '-二苯基甲烷二异氰酸酯(MDI)和三羟甲基丙烷(TMP)为原料,在催化剂作用下反应制得NCO封端的预聚物,再以2,2-二羟甲基丙酸(DMPA)和聚醚二元醇(PEG)对预聚物进行扩链,最后以3,5-二甲基吡唑(DMP)来封闭活性的NCO基团得到亲水性封闭型芳香族异氰酸酯交联剂,并用红外光谱表征了交联剂的结构.讨论了加料工艺对聚合反应影响,以及nDMPA/nPEG对交联剂性能的影响.研究表明,将TMP连续缓慢加入MDI体系有利于聚合反应的控制,当DMPA与PEG的摩尔比在2:1时,交联剂的综合性能较好.%The NCO-terminated prepolymer was prepared by the reaction of 4,4'-diphenyl-methane-diisocya-nate (MDI) and trimethylolpropane (TMP), which was further reacted with 2,2-dimethylolpropionic acid (DM-PA) and polyether glycol (PEG) to obtain chain-extending intermediate. The active NCO groups of the intermediate were blocked by 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (DMP) to achieve hydrophilic blocked aromatic isocyanate crosslinking agent. FT-IR spectra confirmed the active NCO groups were successfully blocked. The effect of feeding process on the control of polymerization and the molar ration of DMPA and PEG on the properties of crosslinking agent were discussed, respectively. The results indicated that dropping TMP continuously and slowly into MDI system favored the control of polymerization, and the crosslinking agent had better comprehensive properties while the molar ration of DMPA and PEG was kept at 2:1.

  15. Rh(III-catalyzed directed C–H bond amidation of ferrocenes with isocyanates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Takebayashi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available [RhCp*(OAc2(H2O] [Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl] catalyzed the C–H bond amidation of ferrocenes possessing directing groups with isocyanates in the presence of 2 equiv/Rh of HBF4·OEt2. A variety of disubstituted ferrocenes were prepared in high yields, or excellent diastereoselectivities.

  16. The formation of poly(ester–urea) networks in the absence of isocyanate monomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, Jörg; Loontjens, Ton; Scholtens, B.J.R.; Mülhaupt, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    The polymerization of N,N' carbonylbis (caprolactam) (CBC) and polyol in the presence of alcoholate as catalyst produced cross-linked poly(ester–urea)s via ring opening addition reaction. In contrast to conventional synthetic routes, the use of non-toxic CBC eliminates the need for toxic isocyanate-

  17. Size-separated sampling and analysis of isocyanates in workplace aerosols. Part I. Denuder--cascade impactor sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Jakob; Spanne, Mårten; Karlsson, Daniel; Dalene, Marianne; Skarping, Gunnar

    2008-07-01

    Isocyanates in the workplace atmosphere are typically present both in gas and particle phase. The health effects of exposure to isocyanates in gas phase and different particle size fractions are likely to be different due to their ability to reach different parts in the respiratory system. To reveal more details regarding the exposure to isocyanate aerosols, a denuder-impactor (DI) sampler for airborne isocyanates was designed. The sampler consists of a channel-plate denuder for collection of gaseous isocyanates, in series with three-cascade impactor stages with cut-off diameters (d(50)) of 2.5, 1.0 and 0.5 mum. An end filter was connected in series after the impactor for collection of particles smaller than 0.5 mum. The denuder, impactor plates and the end filter were impregnated with a mixture of di-n-butylamine (DBA) and acetic acid for derivatization of the isocyanates. During sampling, the reagent on the impactor plates and the end filter is continuously refreshed, due to the DBA release from the impregnated denuder plates. This secures efficient derivatization of all isocyanate particles. The airflow through the sampler was 5 l min(-1). After sampling, the samples containing the different size fractions were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS. The DBA impregnation was stable in the sampler for at least 1 week. After sampling, the DBA derivatives were stable for at least 3 weeks. Air sampling was performed in a test chamber (300 l). Isocyanate aerosols studied were thermal degradation products of different polyurethane polymers, spraying of isocyanate coating compounds and pure gas-phase isocyanates. Sampling with impinger flasks, containing DBA in toluene, with a glass fiber filter in series was used as a reference method. The DI sampler showed good compliance with the reference method, regarding total air levels. For the different aerosols studied, vast differences were revealed in the distribution of isocyanate in gas and

  18. Psychometric evaluation of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) as depression severity scale using the LEAD (Longitudinal Expert Assessment of All Data) as index of validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Timmerby, N; Martiny, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) was developed to cover the universe of depressive symptoms in DSM-IV major depression as well as in ICD-10 mild, moderate, and severe depression. The objective of this study was to evaluate the standardization of the MDI as a depression severity......-IV major depression. The conventional VAS scores for no, mild, moderate, and severe depression were used for the standardization of the MDI. RESULTS: The inter-correlation for the MDI with the clinician ratings (VAS, MES, HAM-D17 and HAM-D6) increased over the rating weeks in terms of Pearson coefficients....... After nine weeks of therapy the coefficient ranged from 0.74 to 0.83. Using the clinician-rated VAS depression severity scale, the conventional MDI cut-off scores for no or doubtful depression, and for mild, moderate and severe depression were confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Using the VAS as index of external...

  19. Test of Convective Frequency Effects with SOI/MDI High-Degree Data

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenthal, C S; Kosovichev, A G; Nordlund, A A; Reiter, J; Rhodes, E J; Schou, J; Stein, R F; Trampedach, R

    1998-01-01

    Advances in hydrodynamical simulations have provided new insights into the effects of convection on the frequencies of solar oscillations. As more accurate observations become available, this may lead to an improved understanding of the dynamics of convection and the interaction between convection and pulsation (\\cite{Rosenthal+99}) . Recent high-resolution observations from the SOI/MDI instrument on the SOHO spacecraft have provided the so-far most-detailed observations of high-degree modes of solar oscillations, which are particularly sensitive to the near-surface properties of the Sun. Here we present preliminary results of a comparison between these observations and frequencies computed for models based on realistic simulations of near-surface convection. Such comparisons may be expected to help in identifying the causes of the remaining differences between the observed frequencies and those of solar models.

  20. Detailed Image Comparison using MDI, HMI and GONG Co-Eval Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzennik, Sylvain G.

    2017-08-01

    I present preliminary results from detailed image comparison using MDI, HMI and GONG co-eval observations taken in 2014, when all three instruments were operational. This comparison allows me to estimate both the instrumental image distortion and the instrument PSF, with respect to HMI. Both intensity and velocity images are compared when available. The precise observing perspective of each instrument had to be accounted since it affects the projected image on the instrument detector at the required level of precision (i.e., a fraction of an HMI pixel). In the process, it was discovered that the meta data generated by the respective projects were not accurate enough. While the inclusion of the image distortion and the instrument PSF in the spatial decomposition will improve the determination of high degree modes, it may also benefit other local helioseismic analysis.

  1. Flare Occurrence Prediction based on Convolution Neural Network using SOHO MDI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kangwoo; Moon, Yong-Jae; Park, Eunsu; Shin, Seulki

    2017-08-01

    In this study we apply Convolution Neural Network(CNN) to solar flare occurrence prediction with various parameter options using the 00:00 UT MDI images from 1996 to 2010 (total 4962 images). We assume that only X, M and C class flares correspond to “flare occurrence” and the others to “non-flare”. We have attempted to look for the best options for the models with two CNN pre-trained models (AlexNet and GoogLeNet), by modifying training images and changing hyper parameters. Our major results from this study are as follows. First, the flare occurrence predictions are relatively good with about 80 % accuracies. Second, both flare prediction models based on AlexNet and GoogLeNet have similar results but AlexNet is faster than GoogLeNet. Third, modifying the training images to reduce the projection effect is not effective.

  2. Investigating the reactivity of pMDI with wood cell walls using high-resolution solution-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph; Charles R. Frihart

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study are the following: (1) Use solution-state NMR to assign contours in HSQC spectra of the reaction products between pMDI model compounds and: (a) lignin model compounds, (b) milled-wood lignin, (c) ball-milled wood, (d) microtomed loblolly pine; (2) Determine where and to what degree urethane formation occurs with loblolly pine cell wall...

  3. Concepts, Models and Implementation of the Marine Spatial Data Infrastructure in Germany Mdi-De

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüh, C.; Bill, R.

    2012-07-01

    In Germany currently the development of a marine data infrastructure takes place with the aim of merging information concerning the fields coastal engineering, hydrography and surveying, protection of the marine environment, maritime conservation, regional planning and coastal research. This undertaking is embedded in a series of regulations and developments on many administrative levels from which specifications and courses of action derive. To set up a conceptual framework for the marine data infrastructure (MDI-DE) scientists at the Professorship for Geodesy and Geoinformatics at Rostock University are building a reference model, evaluating meta-information systems and developing models to support common workflows in marine applications. The reference model for the marine spatial data infrastructure of Germany (MDI-DE) is the guideline for all developments inside this infrastructure. Because the undertaking is embedded in a series of regulations and developments this paper illustrates an approach on modelling a scenario for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) using the Unified Modelling Language (UML). Evaluating how other countries built their marine spatial infrastructures is of main importance, to learn where obstacles are and errors are likely to occur. To be able to look at other initiatives from a neutral point of view it is necessary to construct a framework for evaluation of marine spatial data infrastructures. Spatial data infrastructure assessment approaches were used as bases and were expanded to meet the requirements of the marine domain. As an international case-study this paper will look at Canada's Marine Geospatial Data Infrastructure (MGDI), COINAtlantic and GeoPortal.

  4. CONCEPTS, MODELS AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MARINE SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE IN GERMANY (MDI-DE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rüh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In Germany currently the development of a marine data infrastructure takes place with the aim of merging information concerning the fields coastal engineering, hydrography and surveying, protection of the marine environment, maritime conservation, regional planning and coastal research. This undertaking is embedded in a series of regulations and developments on many administrative levels from which specifications and courses of action derive. To set up a conceptual framework for the marine data infrastructure (MDI-DE scientists at the Professorship for Geodesy and Geoinformatics at Rostock University are building a reference model, evaluating meta-information systems and developing models to support common workflows in marine applications. The reference model for the marine spatial data infrastructure of Germany (MDI-DE is the guideline for all developments inside this infrastructure. Because the undertaking is embedded in a series of regulations and developments this paper illustrates an approach on modelling a scenario for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD using the Unified Modelling Language (UML. Evaluating how other countries built their marine spatial infrastructures is of main importance, to learn where obstacles are and errors are likely to occur. To be able to look at other initiatives from a neutral point of view it is necessary to construct a framework for evaluation of marine spatial data infrastructures. Spatial data infrastructure assessment approaches were used as bases and were expanded to meet the requirements of the marine domain. As an international case-study this paper will look at Canada's Marine Geospatial Data Infrastructure (MGDI, COINAtlantic and GeoPortal.

  5. Cyclic tetramers of a five-membered palladacycle based on a head-to-tail-linked isocyanate dimer and their reactivity in cyclotrimerization of isocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Gye; Choi, Keun-Young; Kim, Yong-Joo; Park, SuJin; Lee, Soon W

    2015-04-14

    Reactions of [Pd(styrene)(PR3)2], generated from trans-[PdEt2(PR3)2] and styrene, with 2 equiv. of benzyl isocyanate in THF at room-temperature afforded unusual cyclic Pd-tetramers of five-membered rings consisting of organic isocyanate dimers and palladium, [Pd(PR3){-C(O)N(R)C(O)N(R)-}]4 (PR3 = PMe3, ; PR3 = PMe2Ph, ). Additionally, a cyclic trimer, (RNCO)3, (R = benzyl) was produced as a catalytic product. Treatment of the cyclic tetramer () with 4 equiv. of chelated phosphine, such as (1,2-bis(diethylphosphino)ethane) (DEPE) or (1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane) (DMPE), readily caused conversion to a metallacyclic cis-form, [Pd{N(R)C(O)N(R)C(O)}(P ∼ P)] (P ∼ P = DEPE, ; P ∼ P = DMPE, ) in quantitative yields. In contrast, reactions of Pd(0)-PR3 with 2 equiv. of Ar-NCO (Ar = Ph, p-tolyl, p-ClC6H4) afforded metallacyclic complexes having a dimeric isocyanato moiety, cis-[Pd{C(O)N(Ar)-C(O)N(Ar)}(PR3)2] (PR3 = PMe3 Ar = C6H5, ; p-MeC6H4, ; p-Cl-C6H4, ; PR3 = PMe2Ph, Ar = p-Cl-C6H4, ). Treatment of the palladacyclic complex () with an equimolar amount of chelated phosphine such as DEPE readily caused conversion to a palladacyclic cis-form, [Pd{N(Ar)C(O)N(Ar)C(O)}(DEPE)], in quantitative yield. The catalytic cyclotrimerization of benzyl isocyanate to [Pd(styrene)(PMe3)2] was achieved by varying the molar ratio of R-NCO (R = benzyl). In addition, catalytic cyclotrimerization was performed from the five-membered palladacyclic complexes or the Pd(0)-PR3 complex with excess Ar-NCO.

  6. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists block the noxious effects of toxic industrial isocyanates and tear gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessac, Bret F; Sivula, Michael; von Hehn, Christian A; Caceres, Ana I; Escalera, Jasmine; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2009-04-01

    The release of methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India, caused the worst industrial accident in history. Exposures to industrial isocyanates induce lacrimation, pain, airway irritation, and edema. Similar responses are elicited by chemicals used as tear gases. Despite frequent exposures, the biological targets of isocyanates and tear gases in vivo have not been identified, precluding the development of effective countermeasures. We use Ca(2+) imaging and electrophysiology to show that the noxious effects of isocyanates and those of all major tear gas agents are caused by activation of Ca(2+) influx and membrane currents in mustard oil-sensitive sensory neurons. These responses are mediated by transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an ion channel serving as a detector for reactive chemicals. In mice, genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1 dramatically reduces isocyanate- and tear gas-induced nocifensive behavior after both ocular and cutaneous exposures. We conclude that isocyanates and tear gas agents target the same neuronal receptor, TRPA1. Treatment with TRPA1 antagonists may prevent and alleviate chemical irritation of the eyes, skin, and airways and reduce the adverse health effects of exposures to a wide range of toxic noxious chemicals.

  7. Sensory and pulmonary irritation of methyl isocyanate in mice and pulmonary irritation and possible cyanidelike effects of methyl isocyanate in guinea pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Alarie, Y.; Ferguson, J S; Stock, M. F.; Weyel, D A; Schaper, M.

    1987-01-01

    Methyl isocyanate (MIC) was evaluated for sensory and pulmonary irritation in mice. MIC was found to be both a potent sensory and pulmonary irritant in this species. From these results, a safe level of exposure for a period of 8 hr was estimated to be about 0.02 ppm for humans. Guinea pigs were also exposed to MIC for a single 3-hr exposure at a concentration of 37 ppm. During exposure to MIC, coughing was observed in all animals. Pulmonary function was evaluated immediately following exposur...

  8. Vibrational Spectra, Assignments and Ab initio/DFT Analysis for 2-Methyl-3-nitrophenyl isocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasannakumar, Sushanti; Yenagi, Jayashree; Tonannavar, J.

    2008-11-01

    The FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and Raman (3200-100 cm-1) spectral measurements have been made for 2-Methyl-3-nitrophenyl isocyanate. Electronic energy, optimized geometry and harmonic vibrational spectra have been computed using ab initio and DFT methods, namely, at RHF/6-311G* and B3LYP/6-311G* levels of theory. The methyl, nitro and isocyanate vibrations observed in their characteristic regions, have been accurately computed by the B3LYP/6-311G* level. Computed low frequencies have been assigned to out-of-plane, wagging and torsional vibrations of these groups. A complete assignment of the observed as well as computed spectra has been proposed.

  9. Isocyanates and human health: Multi-stakeholder information needs and research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockey, JE; Redlich, CA; Streicher, R; Pfahles-Hutchens, A; Hakkinen, PJ; Ellison, GL; Harber, P; Utell, M; Holland, J; Comai, A; White, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Objective Outline the knowledge gaps and research priorities identified by a broad-base of stakeholders involved in the planning and participation of an international conference and research agenda workshop on isocyanates and human health held in Potomac, Maryland in April 2013. Methods A multi-modal iterative approach was employed for data collection including pre-conference surveys, review of a 2001 consensus conference on isocyanates, oral and poster presentations, focused break-out sessions, panel discussions and post-conference research agenda workshop. Results Participants included representatives of consumer and worker health, health professionals, regulatory agencies, academic and industry scientists, labor, and trade associations. Conclusions Recommendations were summarized regarding knowledge gaps and research priorities in the following areas: worker and consumer exposures; toxicology, animal models, and biomarkers; human cancer risk; environmental exposure and monitoring; and respiratory epidemiology and disease, and occupational health surveillance. PMID:25563538

  10. Isocyanate exposure in bathtub refinishing: à propos a case of occupational asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldén, Anders I; Andersson, Lennart; Barlas, Georgios; Westberg, Håkan

    2007-01-01

    Work-related asthma in a bathtub refinishing technician prompted measurements of isocyanate exposure in this operation. Very high levels of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) oligomer, up to 8500 microg/m3 NCO, were found during top varnish spray-painting, whereas the levels of HDI monomer were substantially lower. The results suggest that only full-piece, self-contained respirators would suffice to protect technicians from serious pulmonary disease.

  11. Swelling and Creep of Isocyanate-Bonded Oriented-Particle Board

    OpenAIRE

    SEKINO, Noboru; Suzuki, Masaharu

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports swelling, bending strength, and creep of Isocyanate(ls)bonded oriented-particleboard(face: orlented, core: random), which is compared with Phenol-formaldehyde(PF) bonded and Urea-formaldehyde(UF) bonded oriented-particleboards.Test results are summarized as follows:1) The orientation of flakes greatly reduces linear expansion along the oriented dlreCtion, but the thickness swelling of oriented board is almost equal to that of random-orientedboard.2) ls-bonded particleboard...

  12. Comprehensive mechanistic study of ion pair SN2 reactions of lithium isocyanate and methyl halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying-Xin; Ren, Yi; Wong, Ning-Bew; Chu, San-Yan; Xue, Ying

    The anionic SN2 reactions NCO- + CH3X and ion pair SN2 reactions LiNCO + CH3X (X = F, Cl, Br, and I) at saturated carbon with inversion and retention mechanisms were investigated at the level of MP2/6-311+G(d,p). There are two possible reaction pathways in the anionic SN2 reactions, but eight in the ion pair SN2 reactions. Calculated results suggest that the previously reported T-shaped isomer of lithium isocyanate does not exist. All the retention pathways are not favorable based on the analysis of transition structures. Two possible competitive reaction pathways proceed via two six-member ring inversion transition structures. It is found that there are two steps in the most favorable pathway, in which less stable lithium cyanate should be formed through the isomerization of lithium isocyanate and nucleophilic site (N) subsequently attacks methyl halides from the backside. The thermodynamically and kinetically favorable methyl isocyanate is predicted as major product both in the gas phase anionic and the ion pair SN2 reactions. In addition, good correlations between the overall barriers relative to separated reactants, ?H?ovr , with geometrical looseness parameter %L? and the heterolytic cleavage energies of the C bond X and Li bond N (or Li bond O) bonds are observed for the anionic and ion pair SN2 reactions. The trend of variation of the overall barriers predicts the leaving ability of X increase in the order: F reactions of LiNCO + CH3X. The calculations in solution indicate that solvent effects will retard the rate of reactions and the predicted product, methyl isocyanate, is same as the one in the gas phase.

  13. Non-Isocyanate Polyurethane Soft Nanoparticles Obtained by Surfactant-Assisted Interfacial Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossion, Amaury; Jones, Gavin O; Taton, Daniel; Mecerreyes, David; Hedrick, James L; Ong, Zhan Yuin; Yang, Yi Yan; Sardon, Haritz

    2017-02-28

    Polyurethanes (PUs) are considered ideal candidates for drug delivery applications due to their easy synthesis, excellent mechanical properties, and biodegradability. Unfortunately, methods for preparing well-defined PU nanoparticles required miniemulsion polymerization techniques with a nontrivial control of the polymerization conditions due to the inherent incompatibility of isocyanate-containing monomers and water. In this work, we report the preparation of soft PU nanoparticles in a one-pot process using interfacial polymerization that employs a non-isocyanate polymerization route that minimizes side reactions with water. Activated pentafluorophenyl dicarbonates were polymerized with diamines and/or triamines by interfacial polymerization in the presence of an anionic emulsifier, which afforded non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) nanoparticles with sizes in the range of 200-300 nm. Notably, 5 wt % of emulsifier was required in combination with a trifunctional amine to achieve stable PU dispersions and avoid particle aggregation. The versatility of this polymerization process allows for incorporation of functional groups into the PU nanoparticles, such as carboxylic acids, which can encapsulate the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin through ionic interactions. Altogether, this waterborne synthetic method for functionalized NIPU soft nanoparticles holds great promise for the preparation of drug delivery nanocarriers.

  14. Environmental Isocyanate-Induced Asthma: Morphologic and Pathogenetic Aspects of an Increasing Occupational Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Schirren

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Occupational diseases affect more and more people every year. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO, in 2000 an estimated amount of at least 160 million people became ill as a result of occupational-related hazards or injuries. Globally, occupational deaths, diseases and injuries account for an estimated loss of 4% of the Gross Domestic Product. Important substances that are related to occupational diseases are isocyanates and their products. These substances, which are used in a lot of different industrial processes, are not only toxic and irritant, but also allergenic. Although the exposure to higher concentrations could be monitored and restricted by technical means, very low concentrations are difficult to monitor and may, over time, lead to allergic reactions in some workers, ending in an occupational disease. In order to prevent the people from sickening, the mechanisms underlying the disease, by patho-physiological and genetical means, have to be known and understood so that high risk groups and early signs in the development of an allergic reaction could be detected before the exposure to isocyanates leads to an occupational disease. Therefore, this paper reviews the so far known facts concerning the patho-physiologic appearance and mechanisms of isocyanate-associated toxic reactions and possible genetic involvement that might trigger the allergic reactions.

  15. Adsorption and hydrolysis of isocyanic acid on TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piazzesi, Gaia; Kroecher, Oliver; Elsener, Martin; Wokaun, Alexander [Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2006-05-15

    The interaction of isocyanic acid (HNCO) with titania in the anatase modification has been investigated by means of DRIFT spectroscopy and TPD experiments. HNCO adsorbs dissociatively on TiO{sub 2} to yield isocyanate (NCO) groups, bound to Ti{sup 4+} sites, and hydroxyl (OH) groups. The stability of these NCO groups decreases with increasing temperatures, and at T>200{sup o}C they are very easily removed from the surface. In the presence of water, the hydrolysis of the NCO species to ammonia is also fostered by elevating the temperature. Moreover, HNCO adsorption on a sample previously exposed to ammonia revealed that competitive adsorption occurs on the surface. The catalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} for the hydrolyis of HNCO was investigated in a micro plug-flow reactor and correlated with the stability and reactivity of the isocyanate species found by DRIFT spectroscopy. The results are discussed in view of the role of the HNCO hydrolysis in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of diesel NO{sub x} emissions with urea (urea-SCR process). (author)

  16. 'MDI Wind' machine diagnostic interface. The online condition monitoring system that's not just for wind turbines; Machine Diagnostic Interface 'MDI-Wind'. Online Condition Monitoring System nicht nur fuer Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicke, Andreas [ThyssenKrupp System Engineering GmbH, Langenhagen (Germany). Messtechnik

    2012-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to be able to implement condition monitoring to protect high-grade investments such as wind turbines and other major industrial plant and installations. ThyssenKrupp System Engineering has developed a Machine Diagnostic Interface (MDI) for this purpose that is based on proven and reliable standard components in terms of the hardware used. As regards the software, the measuring and automation system used is based on mature technology, was developed in-house and has proved its worth over many years on testing and assembly lines in the automotive and supply industry. The basic concept of the Condition Monitoring System (CMS) and the essential technical elements of the MDI are introduced here. The development was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi). (orig.)

  17. Bipolar Magnetic Regions on the Sun: Global Analysis of the SOHO/MDI Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenflo, J. O.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2012-02-01

    The magnetic flux that is generated by dynamo processes inside the Sun emerges in the form of bipolar magnetic regions. The properties of these directly observable signatures of the dynamo can be extracted from full-disk solar magnetograms. The most homogeneous, high-quality synoptic data set of solar magnetograms has been obtained with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft during 1995-2011. We have developed an IDL program that has, when applied to the 73,838 magnetograms of the MDI data set, automatically identified 160,079 bipolar magnetic regions that span a range of scale sizes across nearly four orders of magnitude. The properties of each region have been extracted and statistically analyzed, in particular with respect to the polarity orientations of the bipolar regions, including their tilt-angle distributions and their violations of Hale's polarity law. The latitude variation of the average tilt angles (with respect to the E-W direction), which is known as Joy's law, is found to closely follow the relation 32fdg1 × sin (latitude). There is no indication of a dependence on region size that one may expect if the tilts were produced by the Coriolis force during the buoyant rise of flux loops from the tachocline region. A few percent of all regions have orientations that violate Hale's polarity law. We show explicit examples, from different phases of the solar cycle, where well-defined medium-size bipolar regions with opposite polarity orientations occur side by side in the same latitude zone in the same magnetogram. Such oppositely oriented large bipolar regions cannot be part of the same toroidal flux system, but different flux systems must coexist at any given time in the same latitude zones. These examples are incompatible with the paradigm of coherent, subsurface toroidal flux ropes as the source of sunspots, and instead show that fluctuations must play a major role at all scales for the

  18. Angular dependence of the facular-sunspot coverage relation as derived by MDI magnetograms

    CERN Document Server

    Criscuoli, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the variation over the solar magnetic activity cycle of the area of facular/network features identified on broad band and narrow band imagery is positively correlated with the sunspot area and number, the relation between the area coverages being described as either linear or quadratic. On the other hand, the temporal variation of the spatial distributions of faculae, network and sunspots follows patterns that are less obviously correlated, so that we expect the relation that describes variation of the area coverage of different types of magnetic features to vary with the position over the disk. In this work we employ MDI full-disk magnetograms acquired during Cycle 23 and at the beginning of Cycle 24 to investigate the relation between the coverage of magnetic elements characterized by different amounts of magnetic flux and located at different angular distances from disk center with the sunspot number. In agreement with some previous studies we find that daily data are best ...

  19. Sub-surface Meridional Flow Results from MWO, GONG, and MDI during Solar Cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Stephen; Rhodes, Edward J.; Bogart, Richard S.

    2014-06-01

    Time series of full-disk Dopplergrams were acquired at the 60-Foot Solar tower of the Mount Wilson Observatory every year between 1987 and 2009. Analysis of this archive revealed that the focal plane of the Tower did experience a small amount of systematic rotation, which suggested that the alignment of the optics had changed slightly over the years since its construction in 1907. This has caused some of the initial daily flow maps to possess a so-called “washing machine” effect similar to the pattern that was seen in raw GONG flow maps. We have incorporated a systematic program of ring-diagram analysis in which we have tracked the raw solar images using five differing assumed instrumental rotation rates. We have then gone on to compute synoptic maps of the horizontal flow vectors at several different depths over much of Solar Cycle 23 in order to study how such an instrumental rotation might affect both the zonal and meridional flows as functions of latitude, depth, and time. We compare these results with GONG and MDI flow measurements to empirically determine the regime within which the MWO results are reliable and extend our analysis into Solar Cycle 22.

  20. Bipolar Magnetic Regions on the Sun: Global Analysis of the SOHO/MDI Data Set

    CERN Document Server

    Stenflo, J O

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic flux that is generated by dynamo inside the Sun emerges in the form of bipolar magnetic regions. We have analyzed the whole set of solar magnetograms obtained with the SOHO/MDI instrument in 1995-2011, and automatically identified 160,079 bipolar magnetic regions that span a range of scale sizes across nearly four orders of magnitude. Their properties have been statistically analyzed, in particular with respect to the polarity orientations of the bipolar regions, including their tilt angle distributions. The latitude variation of the average tilt angles (with respect to the E-W direction), known as Joy's law, is found to closely follow the relation 32.1*sin(latitude)[deg]. There is no indication of a dependence on region size that one may expect if the tilts were produced by the Coriolis force during the buoyant rise of flux loops from the tachocline region. A few percent of all regions have orientations that violate Hale's polarity law. We show examples, from different phases of the solar cycle,...

  1. The formation of a penumbra as observed with the German VTT and SoHO/MDI

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichenmaier, Rolf; Rezaei, Reza

    2010-01-01

    The generation of magnetic flux in the solar interior and its transport to the outer solar atmosphere will be in the focus of solar physics research for the next decades. One key-ingredient is the process of magnetic flux emergence into the solar photosphere, and the reorganization to form the magnetic phenomena of active regions like sunspots and pores. On July 4, 2009, we observed a region of emerging magnetic flux, in which a proto-spot without penumbra forms a penumbra within some 4.5 hours. This process is documented by multi-wavelength observations at the German VTT: (a) imaging, (b) data with high resolution and temporal cadence acquired in Fe I 617.3 nm with the 2D imaging spectropolarimter GFPI, and (c) scans with the slit based spectropolarimeter TIP in Fe I 1089.6 nm. MDI contiuum maps and magnetograms are used to follow the formation of the proto-spot, and the subsequent evolution of the entire active region. During the formation of the penumbra, the area and the magnetic flux of the spot increase...

  2. Simulating the formation of a sigmoidal flux rope in AR10977 from SOHO/MDI magnetograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibb, G. P. S.; Mackay, D. H.; Meyer, K. A. [University of St Andrews, School of Mathematics and Statistics, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Green, L. M. [University College London, Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-20

    The modeling technique of Mackay et al. is applied to simulate the coronal magnetic field of NOAA active region AR10977 over a seven day period (2007 December 2-10). The simulation is driven with a sequence of line-of-sight component magnetograms from SOHO/MDI and evolves the coronal magnetic field though a continuous series of non-linear force-free states. Upon comparison with Hinode/XRT observations, results show that the simulation reproduces many features of the active region's evolution. In particular, it describes the formation of a flux rope across the polarity inversion line during flux cancellation. The flux rope forms at the same location as an observed X-ray sigmoid. After five days of evolution, the free magnetic energy contained within the flux rope was found to be 3.9 × 10{sup 30} erg. This value is more than sufficient to account for the B1.4 GOES flare observed from the active region on 2007 December 7. At the time of the observed eruption, the flux rope was found to contain 20% of the active region flux. We conclude that the modeling technique proposed in Mackay et al.—which directly uses observed magnetograms to energize the coronal field—is a viable method to simulate the evolution of the coronal magnetic field.

  3. Angular Dependence of the Facular-Sunspot Coverage Relation as Derived by MDI Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuoli, S.

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that the variation over the solar magnetic activity cycle of the area of facular/network features identified from broad-band and narrow-band imagery is positively correlated with the sunspot area and number, the relation being described as either linear or quadratic. On the other hand, the temporal variation of the spatial distributions of faculae, network and sunspots follows patterns that are less obviously correlated, so that we expect the relation that describes variation of the area coverage of different types of magnetic features to vary with the position over the disk. In this work we employ Michelson Doppler Interferometer (MDI) full-disk magnetograms acquired during solar cycle 23 and at the beginning of cycle 24 to investigate the relation between the coverage of magnetic elements characterized by different amounts of magnetic flux and located at different angular distances from disk center with the sunspot number. In agreement with some previous studies we find that daily data are best described by a quadratic function while data averaged over six months are best described by a linear function. In both cases the coefficients of the fits show large dependence on the position over the disk and the magnetic flux. We also find that toward disk center six-month averaged data show asymmetries between the ascending and the descending phases. The implications for solar irradiance modeling are discussed.

  4. How are Emerging Flux, Flares and CMEs Related to Magnetic Polarity Imbalance in MDI Data?

    CERN Document Server

    Green, L M; Mandrini, C H; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L

    2003-01-01

    In order to understand whether major flares or coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can be related to changes in the longitudinal photospheric magnetic field, we study 4 young active regions during seven days of their disc passage. This time period precludes any biases which may be introduced in studies that look at the field evolution during the short-term flare or CME period only. Data from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) with a time cadence of 96 minutes are used. Corrections are made to the data to account for area foreshortening and angle between line of sight and field direction, and also the underestimation of the flux densities. We make a systematic study of the evolution of the longitudinal magnetic field, and analyze flare and CME occurrence in the magnetic evolution. We find that the majority of CMEs and flares occur during or after new flux emergence. The flux in all four active regions is observed to have deviations from polarity balance both on the long-term (solar rotation) and on the short term (f...

  5. Higher lung deposition with Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler than HFA-MDI in COPD patients with poor technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brand

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Peter Brand1, Bettina Hederer2, George Austen3, Helen Dewberry3, Thomas Meyer41RWTH, Aachen, Germany; 2Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany; 3Boehringer Ingelheim, Bracknell, UK; 4Inamed Research, Gauting, GermanyAbstract: Aerosols delivered by Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler (SMI are slower-moving and longer-lasting than those from pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs, improving the efficiency of pulmonary drug delivery to patients. In this four-way cross-over study, adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and with poor pMDI technique received radiolabelled Berodual® (fenoterol hydrobromide 50 µg/ipratropium bromide 20 µg via Respimat® SMI or hydrofluoroalkane (HFA-MDI (randomized order on test days 1 and 2, with no inhaler technique training. The procedure was repeated on test days 3 and 4 after training. Deposition was measured by gamma scintigraphy. All 13 patients entered (9 males, mean age 62 years; FEV1 46% of predicted inhaled too fast at screening (peak inspiratory flow rate [IF]: 69–161 L/min. Whole lung deposition was higher with Respimat® SMI than with pMDI for untrained (37% of delivered dose vs 21% of metered dose and trained patients (53% of delivered vs 21% of metered dose (pSign-Test = 0.15; pANOVA< 0.05. Training also improved inhalation profiles (slower average and peak IF as well as longer breath-hold time. Drug delivery to the lungs with Respimat® SMI is more efficient than with pMDI, even with poor inhaler technique. Teaching patients to hold their breath as well as to inhale slowly and deeply increased further lung deposition using Respimat® SMI.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, drug delivery, inhalation, metered-dose inhaler, poor inhalation technique, training

  6. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CLINICAL EFFICACY AND SA FETY OF SALBUTAMOL AND LEVOSALBUTAMOL MDI IN PATIENTS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitender

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Salbutamol is the most common β2-agonist being cur rently used in the treatment of asthma. It was only available as a racemate, a 50:5 0 mixture of the dextro [(S-salbutamol] and levo [(R-salbutamol] rotatory forms. Regular and e xcessive use of racemate can induce paradoxical reactions in some subjects with asthma. The present study, compared MDI Salbutamol with levo [(R-salbutamol] isomer over 8 weeks in terms of clinical efficacy and safety. METHODS: A prospective, parallel design, comparative study last ing eight weeks, involving 80 patient of either sex after taking thei r informed consent. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups, A and B of 40 patients each. P atients in Group A and Group B were administered Salbutamol MDI two puffs 100 mcg per puf f four times daily and Levosalbutamol MDI two puffs each containing 50 mcg four times dail y respectively. Rescue dose two or more puffs was allowed as required and the number of addi tional doses were counted by patients. Observations were made and analyzed at 0, 4 and 8 w eeks for FEV1, FVC, and PEFR and side effects. RESULTS: Highly significant (p < 0.001 mean percent change in FEV1, FVC and PEFR at 4 and 8 weeks of Group B (Levosalbutamol patients as compared to mean percent change in FEV1 of Group A (Salbutamol patients at 4 weeks and 8 weeks. CONCLUSION: High therapeutic efficacy was observed with the use of the Levosalbu tamol MDI with lesser side effects.

  7. MDI型水性聚氨酯涂料的研究进展%Research Progress of MDI-Based Waterborne Polyurethanes Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亭亭; 杨建军; 吴庆云; 吴明元; 张建安

    2011-01-01

    综述了二苯基甲烷二异氰酸酯(MDI)与聚醚型、聚酯型或聚醚-聚酯共混型多元醇反应制备的水性聚氨酯(WPU)涂料的研究进展,简单介绍了MDI型WPU涂料在不同领域的应用,并对MDI型WPU涂料的未来发展前景作了展望.%The MDI-based waterborne polyurethanes coatings including polyether-based waterborne polyurethanes, polyester-based waterborne polyurethanes and polyether-polyester waterborne polyurethanes were summaried. The research progress of MDI-based waterborne polyurethane coatings applied in various fields were intruduced. Finally, the future development of MDI-based waterborne polyurethanes coatings was prospected.

  8. BIPOLAR MAGNETIC REGIONS ON THE SUN: GLOBAL ANALYSIS OF THE SOHO/MDI DATA SET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenflo, J. O. [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Kosovichev, A. G., E-mail: stenflo@astro.phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: AKosovichev@solar.stanford.edu [W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The magnetic flux that is generated by dynamo processes inside the Sun emerges in the form of bipolar magnetic regions. The properties of these directly observable signatures of the dynamo can be extracted from full-disk solar magnetograms. The most homogeneous, high-quality synoptic data set of solar magnetograms has been obtained with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft during 1995-2011. We have developed an IDL program that has, when applied to the 73,838 magnetograms of the MDI data set, automatically identified 160,079 bipolar magnetic regions that span a range of scale sizes across nearly four orders of magnitude. The properties of each region have been extracted and statistically analyzed, in particular with respect to the polarity orientations of the bipolar regions, including their tilt-angle distributions and their violations of Hale's polarity law. The latitude variation of the average tilt angles (with respect to the E-W direction), which is known as Joy's law, is found to closely follow the relation 32.{sup 0}1 Multiplication-Sign sin (latitude). There is no indication of a dependence on region size that one may expect if the tilts were produced by the Coriolis force during the buoyant rise of flux loops from the tachocline region. A few percent of all regions have orientations that violate Hale's polarity law. We show explicit examples, from different phases of the solar cycle, where well-defined medium-size bipolar regions with opposite polarity orientations occur side by side in the same latitude zone in the same magnetogram. Such oppositely oriented large bipolar regions cannot be part of the same toroidal flux system, but different flux systems must coexist at any given time in the same latitude zones. These examples are incompatible with the paradigm of coherent, subsurface toroidal flux ropes as the source of sunspots, and instead show that fluctuations must play a

  9. MDI Biological Laboratory Arsenic Summit: Approaches to Limiting Human Exposure to Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Bruce A; Caldwell, Kathleen; Congdon, Clare Bates; Disney, Jane; Donahue, Maria; Ferguson, Elizabeth; Flemings, Elsie; Golden, Meredith; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Highman, Jay; James, Karen; Kim, Carol; Lantz, R Clark; Marvinney, Robert G; Mayer, Greg; Miller, David; Navas-Acien, Ana; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Postema, Sonia; Rardin, Laurie; Rosen, Barry; SenGupta, Arup; Shaw, Joseph; Stanton, Elizabeth; Susca, Paul

    2015-09-01

    This report is the outcome of the meeting "Environmental and Human Health Consequences of Arsenic" held at the MDI Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine, August 13-15, 2014. Human exposure to arsenic represents a significant health problem worldwide that requires immediate attention according to the World Health Organization (WHO). One billion people are exposed to arsenic in food, and more than 200 million people ingest arsenic via drinking water at concentrations greater than international standards. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a limit of 10 μg/L in public water supplies and the WHO has recommended an upper limit of 10 μg/L, recent studies indicate that these limits are not protective enough. In addition, there are currently few standards for arsenic in food. Those who participated in the Summit support citizens, scientists, policymakers, industry, and educators at the local, state, national, and international levels to (1) establish science-based evidence for setting standards at the local, state, national, and global levels for arsenic in water and food; (2) work with government agencies to set regulations for arsenic in water and food, to establish and strengthen non-regulatory programs, and to strengthen collaboration among government agencies, NGOs, academia, the private sector, industry, and others; (3) develop novel and cost-effective technologies for identification and reduction of exposure to arsenic in water; (4) develop novel and cost-effective approaches to reduce arsenic exposure in juice, rice, and other relevant foods; and (5) develop an Arsenic Education Plan to guide the development of science curricula as well as community outreach and education programs that serve to inform students and consumers about arsenic exposure and engage them in well water testing and development of remediation strategies.

  10. The Electrical Properties for Phenolic Isocyanate-Modified Bisphenol-Based Epoxy Resins Comprising Benzoate Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Yong; Chae, Il Seok; Park, Dongkyung; Suh, Hongsuk; Kang, Sang Wook

    2016-03-01

    Epoxy resin has been required to have a low dielectric constant (D(k)), low dissipation factor (Df), low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), low water absorption, high mechanical, and high adhesion properties for various applications. A series of novel phenolic isocyanate-modified bisphenol-based epoxy resins comprising benzoate group were prepared for practical electronic packaging applications. The developed epoxy resins showed highly reduced dielectric constants (D(k)-3.00 at 1 GHz) and low dissipation values (Df-0.014 at 1 GHz) as well as enhanced thermal properties.

  11. Ultrathin coatings from isocyanate-terminated star PEG prepolymers: layer formation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Juergen; Ameringer, Thomas; Spatz, Joachim P; Moeller, Martin

    2005-03-01

    In this study we present the preparation of thin and ultrathin coatings from six-arm star-shaped isocyanate-terminated prepolymers on amino-functionalized silicon wafers. The backbone of the stars is a statistical copolymer of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide in the ratio 80:20 (Star PEG). Film preparation by spin coating from aqueous THF resulted in a variety of film morphologies that are determined by the water content of the solvent. Water is indispensable for activation of the isocyanate-terminated stars in solution and for proper cross-linking of the coatings on the substrate. This cross-linking results in a dense network of PEG chains on the substrate linked via urea groups with a mesh size of the network that corresponds to the arm length of the stars. Layer thickness variations between 3 and 500 nm revealed a strong dependence of the contact angle with water on the layer thickness which is explained by the chemical composition of the coatings. Due to the high functionality of the star-shaped prepolymers, free amino groups remain in the films that were detected by fluorescence microscopy after reaction with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBF). To test the system for the ability to prevent unspecific interaction with proteins, adsorption of fluorescence-labeled avidin was examined with fluorescence microscopy. For layer thicknesses between 3 and 50 nm, no protein adsorption could be detected.

  12. Ultrathin coatings from isocyanate terminated star PEG prepolymers: patterning of proteins on the layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Juergen; Haubensak, Wulf; Ameringer, Thomas; Moeller, Martin

    2005-03-29

    This study presents the easy and fast patterning of low molecular weight molecules that act as binding partners for proteins on Star PEG coatings. These coatings are prepared from isocyanate terminated star shaped prepolymers and form a highly cross-linked network on the substrate in which the stars are connected via urea groups and free amino groups are present. Streptavidin has been patterned on these layers by microcontact printing (muCP) of an amino reactive biotin derivative and consecutive binding of streptavidin to the biotin. Patterns of Ni(2+)-nitriltriacetic acid (NTA) receptors have been prepared by printing amino functional NTA molecules in freshly prepared Star PEG layers that still contain amino reactive isocyanate groups. Complexation of the NTA groups with Ni(II) ions enabled the binding of His-tag enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the desired pattern on the substrates. Since the unmodified Star PEG layers prevent unspecific protein adsorption, His-EGFP could selectively be bound to the sample by immersion into crude, nonpurified His-tag EGFP containing cell lysate.

  13. Well-defined biobased segmented polyureas synthesis via a TBD-catalyzed isocyanate-free route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Donglin; Mulder, Dirk-Jan; Noordover, Bart A J; Koning, Cor E

    2011-09-01

    Via an isocyanate-free route, a series of segmented polyureas (PUs) were synthesized from (potentially) renewable resources. To the best of our knowledge, the present work shows for the first time that the organic superbase guanidine 1,5,7-triazabicyclododecene (TBD) which was originally developed as a catalyst for the ring-opening polymerization of lactones, lactides or cyclic carbonates, is also a promising catalyst for the transurethanization between dicarbamates and diamino-terminated poly(propylene glycol) (PPGda) providing PUs via an isocyanate-free strategy. The renewable segmented PUs contain monodisperse hard segments (HSs). This well-defined structure was verified by the DMTA plots of the PUs, showing a sharp glass transition, a sharp flow transition and a flat rubbery plateau. The flow and maximum use temperature (Tfl ) of the PUs increases with the increasing number of urea groups in the corresponding dicarbamates. In addition, at constant HS length, the length of the soft-segment (SS) can be changed to adjust the properties of the PU materials, enabling their application as adhesives, soft elastomers, or rigid plastics.

  14. Isocyanic acid in the atmosphere and its possible link to smoke-related health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James M; Veres, Patrick R; Cochran, Anthony K; Warneke, Carsten; Burling, Ian R; Yokelson, Robert J; Lerner, Brian; Gilman, Jessica B; Kuster, William C; Fall, Ray; de Gouw, Joost

    2011-05-31

    We measured isocyanic acid (HNCO) in laboratory biomass fires at levels up to 600 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), demonstrating that it has a significant source from pyrolysis/combustion of biomass. We also measured HNCO at mixing ratios up to 200 pptv (parts-per-trillion by volume) in ambient air in urban Los Angeles, CA, and in Boulder, CO, during the recent 2010 Fourmile Canyon fire. Further, our measurements of aqueous solubility show that HNCO is highly soluble, as it dissociates at physiological pH. Exposure levels > 1 ppbv provide a direct source of isocyanic acid and cyanate ion (NCO(-)) to humans at levels that have recognized health effects: atherosclerosis, cataracts, and rheumatoid arthritis, through the mechanism of protein carbamylation. In addition to the wildland fire and urban sources, we observed HNCO in tobacco smoke, HNCO has been reported from the low-temperature combustion of coal, and as a by-product of urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems that are being phased-in to control on-road diesel NO(x) emissions in the United States and the European Union. Given the current levels of exposure in populations that burn biomass or use tobacco, the expected growth in biomass burning emissions with warmer, drier regional climates, and planned increase in diesel SCR controls, it is imperative that we understand the extent and effects of this HNCO exposure.

  15. Di-Isocyanate Crosslinked Aerogels with 1, 6-Bis (Trimethoxysilyl) Hexane Incorporated in Silica Backbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivod, Stephanie L.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Nguyen, Baochau N.; Quade, Derek; Randall, Jason; Perry, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Silica aerogels are desirable materials for many applications that take advantage of their light weight and low thermal conductivity. Addition of a conformal polymer coating which bonds with the amine decorated surface of the silica network improves the strength of the aerogels by as much as 200 times. Even with vast improvement in strength they still tend to undergo brittle failure due to the rigid silica backbone. We hope to increase the flexibility and elastic recovery of the silica based aerogel by altering the silica back-bone by incorporation of more flexible hexane links. To this end, we investigated the use of 1,6-bis(trimethoxysilyl)hexane (BTMSH), a polysilsesquioxane precursor3, as an additional co-reactant to prepare silica gels which were subsequently cross-linked with di-isocyanate. Previously, this approach of adding flexibility by BTMSH incorporation was demonstrated with styrene cross-linked aerogels. In our study, we varied silane concentration, mol % of silicon from BTMSH and di-isocyanate concentration by weight percent to attempt to optimize both the flexibility and the strength of the aerogels.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of A Polynuclear Yttrium Trifluoroethoxide and Its Activity for Oligomerization of Phenyl Isocyanate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A polynuclear yttrium trifluoroethoxide was synthesized and its activity for the oligomerization of phenyl isocyanate was tested. Reaction of anhydrous YCl3 with CF3CH2ONa in a 1:3 molar ratio in THF at room temperature, after workup, gave complex 1 as colorless crystals. The composition of complex 1 is [Y(OCH2CF3)3]6ONa2(THF)12, which was identified by elemental analysis and 1H NMR. Further X-ray structure determination reveals that complex 1 is a polynuclear ion pair compound, [Y6(μ6-O)(OCH2CF3)18]2-[Na(THF)6]+2 (1). The crystal data of complex 1 are trigonal, P-3 space group, a=1.78440(14) nm, b=1.78440(14) nm, c=1.27395(12) nm, γ=120°, V=3.5129(5) nm3, Z=1, Dc=1.607 mg·m-3, μ=2.591 mm-1 (Mo Kα), F(000)=1710, R=0.067, wR=0.182. Preliminary results demonstrated that complex 1 is a highly effective catalyst for the oligomerization of phenyl isocyanate.

  17. Detection of Subsurface Supergranulation Structure and Flows from MDI High-Resolution Data using Time-Distance Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Scherrer, P. H.; Milford, P. N.

    1996-05-01

    The supergranulation is seen at the surface of the sun in the doppler shift of spectrum lines as an apparent cellular convection pattern with a scale of about 4% of the solar radius. This scale is about 30 times larger than the granulation, seen in white light. Why these distinct scales would be present (and possibly a third intermediate scale mesogranulation) is somewhat of a mystery. Also unknown is the depth structure of the convection. We have used acoustic wave measurements from the MDI experiment on SOHO to address these questions. By crosscorrelating the signal at one location with that on annuli centered on the location, it is possible to measure times for waves to travel over known subsurface ray paths. With some variations on this theme, it is possible to measure horizontal and vertical flows and sound speed variations. Of course, the resulting measurements refer to quantities integrated along these ray paths. An inversion technique based on Fermat's principle has been developed and used to map the flow velocities and sound speed variations as a function of horizontal position and depth. The MDI experiment on SOHO makes doppler shift maps with 1Kx1K points in two choices of image scale, 2 and 0.6 arcsec/pixel. For the present study, we have used the higher resolution mode to observe 8.5 hours of doppler maps sampled once per minute. In order to average enough crosscorrelations to see time-distance effects, the resultant time-distance maps are reduced in resolution by a factor of 10 from the initial data. This still yields about 7 samples across a single supergranulation cell, or 49 over the area of a square cell. Our initial inversions based on the ray theory suggest that the supergranulation flow extends at least to 0.5% of the solar radius below the surface. This research is supported by the SOI-MDI NASA contract NAG5-3077 at Stanford University.

  18. The influence of actuator materials and nozzle designs on electrostatic charge of pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Young, Paul M; Fletcher, David F; Chan, Hak Kim; Long, Edward; Lewis, David; Church, Tanya; Traini, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the influence of different actuator materials and nozzle designs on the electrostatic charge properties of a series of solution metered dose inhaler (pMDI) aerosols. Actuators were manufactured with flat and cone nozzle designs using five different materials from the triboelectric series (Nylon, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polyethylene-High density, Polypropylene copolymer and Polytetrafluoroethylene). The electrostatic charge profiles of pMDI containing beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) as model drug in HFA-134a propellant, with different concentrations of ethanol were studied. Electrostatic measurements were taken using a modified electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) and the deposited drug mass assayed chemically using HPLC. The charge profiles of HFA 134a alone have shown strong electronegativity with all actuator materials and nozzle designs, at an average of -1531.34 pC ± 377.34. The presence of co-solvent ethanol significantly reduced the negative charge magnitude. BDP reduced the suppressing effect of ethanol on the negative charging of the propellant. For all tested formulations, the flat nozzle design showed no significant differences in net charge between different actuator materials, whereas the charge profiles of cone designs followed the triboelectric series. The electrostatic charging profiles from a solution pMDI containing BDP and ethanol can be significantly influenced by the actuator material, nozzle design and formulation components. Ethanol concentration appears to have the most significant impact. Furthermore, BDP interactions with ethanol and HFA have an influence on the electrostatic charge of aerosols. By choosing different combinations of actuator materials and orifice design, the fine particle fractions of formulations can be altered.

  19. Current Status of Monocyte Differentiation-Inducing (MDI Factors Derived from Human Fetal Membrane Chorion Cells Undergoing Apoptosis after Infl uenza Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Uchide

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus infection induces apoptosis and the expression of a set of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, such as interleukin (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interferon (IFN-β and IFN-γ, in cultured human fetal membrane chorion cells. Monocyte differentiation-inducing (MDI activity in culture supernatants is simultaneously increased by the virus infection. The MDI activity is predominantly influenced by IL-6 molecule in culture supernatants, and partly by TNF-α and IFN-β, but not IFN-γ, molecules. The MDI factors are able to induce the mRNA expression of macrophage class A scavenger receptor (SR-A, which is one of adhesion and apoptotic cell-recognizing molecules, and gp91phox, which is a catalytic subunit of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase enzyme complex, on monocytic cells. As a result, monocytes are initiated to differentiate into well-matured macrophages capable of adhering and producing superoxide through NADPH oxidase. The matured macrophages, obtained from human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells by the treatment with MDI factors, phagocytose apoptotic chorion cell debris resulting from the virus infection. Subsequent to phagocytosis, an abrupt increase of superoxide production by macrophages may occur. In this article, we summarize recent knowledge about the MDI factors derived from human fetal membrane chorion cells undergoing apoptosis after influenza virus infection, and discuss their possible pathological roles during pregnancy.

  20. Validation of transferability of DBA derivatization and LC-MS/MS determination method for isocyanates via an interlaboratory comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobeldijk, I.; Karlsson, D.; Pronk, A.; Gonsalves, J.; Hekman, M.; Lagemaat, D. van de; Preller, L.; Heederik, D.; Skarping, G.

    2008-01-01

    An adapted method for the quantitative determination of isocyanates in air was implemented and validated in-house. The method was based on air sampling using an impinger flask containing di-n-butylamine (DBA) in toluene and a glass fibre filter in series. The DBA derivatives were determined using li

  1. Interfacial thiol-isocyanate reactions for functional nanocarriers: a facile route towards tunable morphologies and hydrophilic payload encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuypers, Sören; Pramanik, Sumit Kumar; D'Olieslaeger, Lien; Reekmans, Gunter; Peters, Martijn; D'Haen, Jan; Vanderzande, Dirk; Junkers, Thomas; Adriaensens, Peter; Ethirajan, Anitha

    2015-11-11

    Functional nanocarriers were synthesized using an in situ inverse miniemulsion polymerization employing thiol-isocyanate reactions at the droplet interface to encapsulate hydrophilic payloads. The morphology of the nanocarriers is conveniently tunable by varying the reaction conditions and the dispersions are easily transferable to the aqueous phase.

  2. The MDI-Mediated Lateral Crosslinking of Polyurethane Copolymer and the Impact on Tensile Properties and Shape Memory Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Chan; Chung, Hyang Mi [The University of Suwon, Hwasung (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Won; Chun, Byoung Chul [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    The maximum stress and strain at break remained high and stable after MDI-mediated crosslinking. Similarly, shape recovery and shape retention tests also showed excellent and reproducible results. The MDI-mediated crosslinking was responsible for the interesting tensile and shape memory results. Therefore, it was demonstrated in this investigation that the allophanate type crosslinking, unlike previous misleading information, was possible under the mild reaction conditions. Polyurethane (PU) has long been investigated due to its excellent mechanical properties, shape memory effect, and biocompatibility, and was grafted with pendant functional groups to tailor the polymer characteristics without affecting their basic structure. Actually, polyethyleneglycol has been grafted to polyurethane to improve biocompatibility in biomedical applications, and low temperature flexibility could be improved by the pendant naphthol group grafted to PU. In the field of shape memory polyurethane, mechanical and shape memory properties could be improved by terminal crosslinking with glycerol, pentaerythritol, and dextrin. Alternatively, a flexible crosslinking method was devised to demonstrate both high mechanical strength and shape recovery.

  3. The systemic exposure to inhaled beclometasone/formoterol pMDI with valved holding chamber is independent of age and body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govoni, Mirco; Piccinno, Annalisa; Lucci, Germano

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma guidelines recommend prescription of inhaled corticosteroids at a reduced dosage in children compared to older patients in order to minimize the systemic exposure and risk of unwanted side effects. In children, pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) are recommended in combina......BACKGROUND: Asthma guidelines recommend prescription of inhaled corticosteroids at a reduced dosage in children compared to older patients in order to minimize the systemic exposure and risk of unwanted side effects. In children, pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) are recommended...

  4. Size selective isocyanate aerosols personal air sampling using porous plastic foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong Khanh Huynh; Trinh Vu Duc, E-mail: chuynh@hospvd.c [Institut Universitaire Romand de Sante au Travail (IST), 21 rue du Bugnon - CH-1011 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-02-01

    As part of a European project (SMT4-CT96-2137), various European institutions specialized in occupational hygiene (BGIA, HSL, IOM, INRS, IST, Ambiente e Lavoro) have established a program of scientific collaboration to develop one or more prototypes of European personal samplers for the collection of simultaneous three dust fractions: inhalable, thoracic and respirable. These samplers based on existing sampling heads (IOM, GSP and cassettes) use Polyurethane Plastic Foam (PUF) according to their porosity to support sampling and separator size of the particles. In this study, the authors present an original application of size selective personal air sampling using chemical impregnated PUF to perform isocyanate aerosols capturing and derivatizing in industrial spray-painting shops.

  5. Zinc catalyzed Guanylation reaction of Amines with Carbodiimides/ Isocyanate leading to Guanidines/Urea derivatives formation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JAYEETA BHATTACHARJEE; MITALI SACHDEVA; INDRANI BANERJEE; TARUN K PANDA

    2016-06-01

    We report the highly chemo-selective catalytic addition of N–H bonds from various aromaticamines to carbodiimides and isocyanates using (Ar-BIAO)ZnCl2 complexes [Ar-BIAO = N-(aryl)iminoacenapthenone,Ar = 2,6-$Me_{2}C_{6}H_{3}$ (1), 2,4,6 $Me_{3}C_{6}H_{2}$ (2), $2,6-^{i}$ $Pr_{2}C_{6}_H{3} (3)] as the pre-catalyst to prepareguanidine and urea derivatives in 55-90% yield. The complex 3 showed higher catalytic activity than analogouscomplexes 1 and 2 under similar reaction conditions. The catalytic guanylation of N–H bonds with heterocumulenesdisplays a broad substrate scope. The amines having electron donating groups underwent higher conversionthan the amines having electron withdrawing groups to afford corresponding guanidine or urea derivatives.A possible mechanism involving penta-coordinated zinc transition state for the catalytic reaction is presented.

  6. Inhalation exposure system used for acute and repeated-dose methyl isocyanate exposures of laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, B; O'Connor, R W; Dement, J M

    1987-06-01

    Laboratory animals were exposed by inhalation for 2 hr/day (acute) or 6 hr/day (four consecutive days, repeated dose) to methyl isocyanate (MIC). Exposures were conducted in stainless steel and glass inhalation exposure chambers placed in stainless steel, wire mesh cages. MIC was delivered with nitrogen via stainless steel and Teflon supply lines. Chamber concentrations ranged from 0 to 60 ppm and were monitored continuously with infrared spectrophotometers to 1 ppm and at 2-hr intervals to 20 ppb with a high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a fluorescence detector. Other operational parameters monitored on a continuous basis included chamber temperature (20-27 degrees C), relative humidity (31-64%), static (transmural) pressure (-0.3 in.), and flow (300-500 L/min). The computer-assistance system interfaced with the inhalation exposure laboratory is described in detail, including the analytical instrumentation calibration system used throughout this investigation.

  7. THE ROTATIONAL SPECTRUM OF THE UREA\\cdot\\cdot\\cdotISOCYANIC ACID COMPLEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, John C.; Medcraft, Chris; Walker, Nick; Legon, Anthony; Lewis-Borrell, Luke; Golding, Bernard T.

    2016-06-01

    A dimer of urea and isocyanic acid has been generated and observed in the gas phase. The complex was generated by laser vaporisation of a rod target containing urea and copper in a 1:1 ratio, then cooled in a supersonic expansion. Six isotopologues of the complex have been characterised using a chirped pulse Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer in the frequency range 6.5-18.5 GHz. The spectra have been fitted to the Hamiltonian for an asymmetric rotor using PGOPHER. Data obtained from the 13C and 15N isotopologues confirms that all nitrogen atoms are close to the a intertial axis while the carbon atoms are not. A tentative structure will be presented.

  8. Real-time emission factor measurements of isocyanic acid from light duty gasoline vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, James M; Crisp, Timia A; Collier, Sonya; Kuwayama, Toshihiro; Forestieri, Sara D; Perraud, Véronique; Zhang, Qi; Kleeman, Michael J; Cappa, Christopher D; Bertram, Timothy H

    2014-10-07

    Exposure to gas-phase isocyanic acid (HNCO) has been previously shown to be associated with the development of atherosclerosis, cataracts and rheumatoid arthritis. As such, accurate emission inventories for HNCO are critical for modeling the spatial and temporal distribution of HNCO on a regional and global scale. To date, HNCO emission rates from light duty gasoline vehicles, operated under driving conditions, have not been determined. Here, we present the first measurements of real-time emission factors of isocyanic acid from a fleet of eight light duty gasoline-powered vehicles (LDGVs) tested on a chassis dynamometer using the Unified Driving Cycle (UC) at the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Haagen-Smit test facility, all of which were equipped with three-way catalytic converters. HNCO emissions were observed from all vehicles, in contrast to the idealized laboratory measurements. We report the tested fleet averaged HNCO emission factors, which depend strongly on the phase of the drive cycle; ranging from 0.46 ± 0.13 mg kg fuel(-1) during engine start to 1.70 ± 1.77 mg kg fuel(-1) during hard acceleration after the engine and catalytic converter were warm. The tested eight-car fleet average fuel based HNCO emission factor was 0.91 ± 0.58 mg kg fuel(-1), within the range previously estimated for light duty diesel-powered vehicles (0.21-3.96 mg kg fuel(-1)). Our results suggest that HNCO emissions from LDGVs represent a significant emission source in urban areas that should be accounted for in global and regional models.

  9. Phase Transition and Thermal Decomposition of Silver Isocyanate (AgNCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.; Dinnebier, R; Jansen, M

    2009-01-01

    The thermal behavior of AgNCO (silver isocyanate) has been studied via thermal analysis, optical spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Upon quenching the high temperature polymorph (HT-AgNCO) to room temperature, a new modification has been obtained (q-AgNCO). Its crystal structure was solved from X-ray powder diffraction data and refined by the Rietveld method (Pmmn (no. 59), a = 3.579(3) A, b = 5.777(4) A, c = 5.807(2) A, V = 120.08(3) A3, Z = 2, T = 295 K). The structure consists of chains of Ag+ ions bridged by isocyanate units. HT-AgNCO exists between T = 135 C and the melting/decomposition point and exhibits virtually free rotation of the complex anions. According to preliminary single-crystal studies, HT-AgNCO (C2/m, a = 5.87 A, b = 3.51 A, c = 5.81 A, B = 105.953 degrees, Z = 2, T = 373 K) is structurally related to ?-NaN3. The crystal structures of both, HT-AgNCO and q-AgNCO have been compared with that of the room temperature modification (RT-AgNCO). The thermal behavior and the ionic conductivity of AgNCO are discussed with respect to the related compounds AgN3 and KSCN. Decomposition of AgNCO proceeds in distinct steps, as seen from TGA, and results in the formation of nanoparticles of elemental silver and an amorphous polymer consisting of C, N and O, only.

  10. A case of isocyanate-induced asthma possibly complicated by food allergy after peanut consumption: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhixha Fatmira

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isocyanates are extensively used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams, plastics, coatings or adhesives. They are a major cause of occupational asthma in a proportion of exposed workers. Recent findings in animal models have demonstrated that isocyanate-induced asthma does not always represent an IgE-mediated sensitization, but still a mixed profile of CD4+ Th1 and TH2, as well as a CD8+ immune response. Despite immunologic similarities between this pathology and IgE-mediated food allergies, this co-morbidity is rarely reported. Case presentation A 50-year old man employed as vehicle body painter, for 8 years complained about breathlessness, wheezing, sneezing, nasal obstruction and excessive production of mucus during the use of DuPont Refinish Centari Tintings – an acrylic enamel tint. Symptoms occurred 15–20 minutes after workplace exposure and usually persisted until evening, or at times, up to two consecutive days. The above mentioned symptoms were associated with a decrease of lung functions parameters. The use of inhaled adrenergic bronchio-dilatators and steroids relived the symptoms. In addition, three years ago he developed an anaphylactic reaction due to peanut consumption, experiencing urticaria, angioedema and airway obstruction. He was successfully treated in the hospital. Later, the subject exhibited labial itching, as well as orbital and perioral angioedema, 20 minutes after stationary performance of challenge test with peanuts. Evaluating the reported data, this process might be developed rather due to induction of a TH2 profile, because in both cases have occurred IgE-mediated symptoms. A less plausible mechanism could be the presence of isocyanates in peanuts due to a probable contamination by pesticides resulting in an allergic reaction after "consumption" of di-isocyanate as long as the isocyanate contamination of peanuts has not been proven. Conclusion Despite the lack of relevant laboratory

  11. Comparison of Optimised MDI versus Pumps with or without Sensors in Severe Hypoglycaemia (the Hypo COMPaSS trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Little Stuart

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe hypoglycaemia (SH is one of the most feared complications of type 1 diabetes (T1DM with a reported prevalence of nearly 40%. In randomized trials of Multiple Daily Injections (MDI and Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII therapy there is a possible benefit of CSII in reducing SH. However few trials have used basal insulin analogues as the basal insulin in the MDI group and individuals with established SH have often been excluded from prospective studies. In published studies investigating the effect of Real Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring (RT-CGM benefit in terms of reduced SH has not yet been demonstrated. The primary objective of this study is to elucidate whether in people with T1DM complicated by impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia (IAH, rigorous prevention of biochemical hypoglycaemia using optimized existing self-management technology and educational support will restore awareness and reduce risk of recurrent SH. Methods/design This is a multicentre prospective RCT comparing hypoglycaemia avoidance with optimized MDI and CSII with or without RT-CGM in a 2×2 factorial design in people with type 1 diabetes who have IAH. The primary outcome measure for this study is the difference in IAH (Gold score at 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes include biomedical measures such as HbA1c, SH incidence, blinded CGM analysis, self monitored blood glucose (SMBG and response to hypoglycaemia in gold standard clamp studies. Psychosocial measures including well-being and quality of life will also be assessed using several validated and novel measures. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion Most existing RCTs using this study’s interventions have been powered for change in HbA1c rather than IAH or SH. This trial will demonstrate whether IAH can be reversed and SH prevented in people with T1DM in even those at highest risk by using optimized conventional management and existing technology. Trial

  12. Study of Reactive Melt Processing Behavior of Externally Plasticized Cellulose Acetate in Presence of Isocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Erdmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two types of externally plasticized cellulose acetate (CA were chemically modified using 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI as crosslinking agent. Crosslinking was performed in the molten state by means of melt mixing in an internal mixer. The viscoelastic properties of the non-crosslinked, externally plasticized CA show typical temperature dependence, similar to conventional thermoplastics. A strong increase in storage modulus is observed with increasing crosslink density indicating that the crosslinked compounds exhibit predominately elastic response. The complex viscosity also increases considerably with increasing crosslink density and does not reach the typical Newtonian plateau at low radial frequencies any more. The viscoelastic properties correlate well with the data recorded online during reactive melt processing in the internal mixer. In comparison to the non-crosslinked CA, the crosslinked compounds show higher glass transition temperature, higher VICAT softening temperatures, improved thermal stability and lower plasticizer evaporation at evaluated temperatures.

  13. Delineating pMDI model reactions with loblolly pine via solution-state NMR spectroscopy. Part 1, Catalyzed reactions with wood models and wood polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph; Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    To better understand adhesive interactions with wood, reactions between model compounds of wood and a model compound of polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) were characterized by solution-state NMR spectroscopy. For comparison, finely ground loblolly pine sapwood, milled-wood lignin and holocellulose from the same wood were isolated and derivatized with...

  14. Time-Series Analyses of Supergranule Characteristics Compared Between SDO/HMI, SOHO/MDI and Simulated Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter E.; Pesnell, William Dean

    2012-01-01

    Supergranulation is a well-observed solar phenomenon despite its underlying mechanisms remaining a mystery. Originally considered to arise due to convective motions, alternative mechanisms have been suggested such as the cumulative downdrafts of granules as well as displaying wave-like properties. Supergranule characteristics are well documented, however. Supergranule cells are approximately 35 Mm across, have lifetimes on the order of a day and have divergent horizontal velocities of around 300 mis, a factor of 10 higher than their central radial components. While they have been observed using Doppler methods for more than half a century, their existence is also observed in other datasets such as magneto grams and Ca II K images. These datasets clearly show the influence of supergranulation on solar magnetism and how the local field is organized by the flows of supergranule cells. The Heliospheric and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) continues to produce Doppler images enabling the continuation of supergranulation studies made with SOHO/MDI, but with superior temporal and spatial resolution. The size-distribution of divergent cellular flows observed on the photosphere now reaches down to granular scales, allowing contemporaneous comparisons between the two flow components. SOHO/MDI Doppler observations made during the minima of cycles 22/23 and 23/24 exhibit fluctuations of supergranule characteristics (global averages of the supergranule size, size-range and horizontal velocity) with periods of 3-5 days. Similar fluctuations have been observed in SDO/HMI Dopplergrams and the high correlation between co-temporal HMI & MOl suggest a solar origin. Their nature has been probed by invoking data simulations that produce realistic Dopplergrams based on MOl data.

  15. Activation of dinitrogen-derived hafnium nitrides for nucleophilic N-C bond formation with a terminal isocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semproni, Scott P; Chirik, Paul J

    2013-12-02

    Better by Hf: Anion coordination to a bridging hafnocene nitride complex, prepared from CO-induced N2 cleavage, increases the nucleophilicity of the nitrogen atom, thus promoting additional NC bond formation with a typically inert terminal isocyanate ligand. This cascade sequence allows synthesis of otherwise challenging mono-substituted ureas using N2 , CO, and an appropriate electrophile. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. I. Study objectives and inhalation exposure design.

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, D E; Frank, F R; Fowler, E H; Troup, C M; Milton, R M

    1987-01-01

    Early reports from India indicated that humans were dying within minutes to a few hours from exposure to methyl isocyanate (MIC). Attempts to explain the cause(s) of these rapid mortalities is where Union Carbide Corporation concentrated its post-Bhopal toxicologic investigations. The MIC studies involving rats and guinea pigs focused primarily on the consequences of acute pulmonary damage. All MIC inhalation exposures were acute, of short duration (mainly 15 min), and high in concentration (...

  17. Functional evidence of persistent airway obstruction in rats following a two-hour inhalation exposure to methyl isocyanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M.A.; Fitzgerald, S.; Menache, M.G.; Costa, D.L.; Bucher, J.R.

    1987-06-01

    Pulmonary function was assessed in male, F344 rats 1,2,4,7 and 13 weeks after a single 2-hr exposure to 0, 3, 10, or 30 ppm methyl isocyanate. No significant changes were observed in the rats exposed to 3 ppm through 13 weeks. Diffusing capacity (DL/sub co/), quasistatic lung compliance, and homogeneity of ventilation, as determined by multibreath nitrogen washout, were depressed in the rats exposed to 10 and 30 ppm by 1 week after exposure. None of the rats exposed to 30 ppm survived beyond 1 week. By 13 weeks, dramatic increases in lung volumes were observed in the rats exposed to 10 ppm, while DL/sub co/ and lung compliance were only mildly affected. However, volume-specific DL/sub co/ and compliance were depressed in the rats exposed to 10 ppm, suggesting that lung hyperinflation or other compensatory means of increasing lung size occurred in response to the methyl isocyanate-induced lung lesion. This group also exhibited increased expiratory times during tidal breathing and severely impaired distribution of ventilated air. Collectively, these results suggest the development and likely progression of a severe, obstructive airway lesion with associated gas trapping, and the existence of a pronounced concentration-response relationship between 3 and 10 ppm methyl isocyanate exposures.

  18. Acid-promoted chemoselective introduction of amide functionality onto aromatic compounds mediated by an isocyanate cation generated from carbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumita, Akinari; Kurouchi, Hiroaki; Otani, Yuko; Ohwada, Tomohiko

    2014-10-01

    Carbamates have been used as precursors of isocyanates, but heating in the presence of strong acids is required because cleavage of the C-O bond in carbamates is energy-demanding even in acid media. Direct amidation of aromatic compounds by isocyanate cations generated at room temperature from carbamoyl salicylates in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH) was examined. Carbamates with ortho-salicylate as an ether group (carbamoyl salicylates) showed dramatically accelerated O-C bond dissociation in TfOH, which resulted in facile generation of the isocyanate cation. These chemoselective intermolecular aromatic amidation reactions proceeded even at room temperature and showed good compatibility with other electrophilic functionalities and high discrimination between N-monosubstituted carbamate and N,N-disubstituted carbamate. The reaction rates of secondary and tertiary amide formation were markedly different, and this difference was utilized to achieve successive (tandem) amidation reactions of molecules with an N-monosubstituted carbamate and an N,N-disubstituted carbamate with two kinds of aromatic compounds. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Protonation switching to the least-basic heteroatom of carbamate through cationic hydrogen bonding promotes the formation of isocyanate cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurouchi, Hiroaki; Sumita, Akinari; Otani, Yuko; Ohwada, Tomohiko

    2014-07-07

    We found that phenethylcarbamates that bear ortho-salicylate as an ether group (carbamoyl salicylates) dramatically accelerate OC bond dissociation in strong acid to facilitate generation of isocyanate cation (N-protonated isocyanates), which undergo subsequent intramolecular aromatic electrophilic cyclization to give dihydroisoquinolones. To generate isocyanate cations from carbamates in acidic media as electrophiles for aromatic substitution, protonation at the ether oxygen, the least basic heteroatom, is essential to promote CO bond cleavage. However, the carbonyl oxygen of carbamates, the most basic site, is protonated exclusively in strong acids. We found that the protonation site can be shifted to an alternative basic atom by linking methyl salicylate to the ether oxygen of carbamate. The methyl ester oxygen ortho to the phenolic (ether) oxygen of salicylate is as basic as the carbamate carbonyl oxygen, and we found that monoprotonation at the methyl ester oxygen in strong acid resulted in the formation of an intramolecular cationic hydrogen bond (>CO(+) H⋅⋅⋅Ocarbamate afforded a rather stable dication, which did not readily undergo CO bond dissociation. This is an unprecedented and unknown case in which the monocation has greater reactivity than the dication. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Associations of symptoms related to isocyanate, ureaformol, and formophenolic exposures with respiratory symptoms and lung function in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J.P.; Simon, V.; Chau, N. [Houilleres Bassin Lorraine, Freyming Merlebach (France)

    2007-04-15

    The respiratory effects of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)-based resins and ureaformol- and formophenolic-based resins, used in coal mining, are unknown. This cross-sectional study of 354 miners evaluated respiratory health in miners with MDI-related symptoms (IS) and ureaformol/formophenolic-related symptoms (UFS). The protocol included clinical examination, chest radiograph, questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, smoking habit, job history, resin handling, and spirometry. Resin handling concerned 27.7% of the miners. IS affected 5.6%, and 1.4% also after work. UFS affected 22.6%, and 2.3% also after work. Wheezing affected 35.6%; chronic cough, expectoration, or bronchitis about 10%; dyspnea 5.4%; and asthma 2.8%. The miners with UFS had significantly more frequent chronic cough, expectoration, chronic bronchitis, dyspnea, and wheezing, whereas those with IS at and after work had markedly lower FVC, FEV1, MMEF, FEF50% and FEF25%. These findings raise the possibility of deleterious effects of exposures to MDI and ureaformol/ ormophenolic resins on respiratory health and lung function in coal miners during their working life.

  1. Organic-rich hybrid O/I systems based on isocyanate chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuney, S. [INSA, Villeurbanne (France). Lab. des Materiaux Macromoleculaires]|[BSN, Givors (France); Gerard, J.F.; Pascault, J.P.Vigier, G. [INSA, Villeurbanne (France)

    1996-12-31

    The isocyanate chemistry has been used to prepare, without adding any solvent, organic-rich hybrid O/I systems, {alpha}-{omega} hydroxy-terminated prepolymers (soft segments, denoted SS) can be end-capped with {gamma}-isocyanato propyl triethoxy silane ({gamma}-IPS), or previously reacted with a diisocyanate (DI) and then end-capped with {gamma}-amino propyl triethoxy silane ({gamma}-APS), or with {gamma}-amino propyl methyl diethoxy silane ({gamma}-APMDES). With this second pathway, a double distribution of molecules is present. The aim of this work is to investigate the morphologies and structural properties of different organic-rich hybrid organic/inorganic materials. Two types of {alpha}-{Omega} hydroxy prepolymers have been used: hydrogenated polybutadiene, HPBD, and polycaprolactone, PCL. The inorganic phase is obtained through the hydrolysis and condensation of the silane groups under acidic conditions and with [H{sub 2}O]/Si = 3. The nanometric silica-rich particles in the final morphologies, after a post-cure at 150 C, were also studied by means of SAXS measurements. Viscoelastic measurements show one or two main relaxation peaks depending on the phase separation process during reaction and the polarity of the initial SS. However for full crosslinked SS/{gamma}-IPS hybrid networks, the relaxed modulus does not depend on SS nature and it is well described by the affine network theory.

  2. Isocyanate-Functionalized Chitin and Chitosan as Gelling Agents of Castor Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Franco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was the incorporation of reactive isocyanate groups into chitin and chitosan in order to effectively use the products as reactive thickening agents in castor oil. The resulting gel-like dispersions could be potentially used as biodegradable lubricating greases. Three different NCO–functionalized polymers were obtained: two of them by promoting the reaction of chitosan with 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI, and the other by using chitin instead of chitosan. These polymers were characterized through 1H-NMR, FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Thermal and rheological behaviours of the oleogels prepared by dispersing these polymers in castor oil were studied by means of TGA and small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS measurements. The evolution and values of the linear viscoelasticity functions with frequency for –NCO–functionalized chitosan- and chitin-based oleogels are quite similar to those found for standard lubricating greases. In relation to long-term stability of these oleogels, no phase separation was observed and the values of viscoelastic functions increase significantly during the first seven days of ageing, and then remain almost constant. TGA analysis showed that the degradation temperature of the resulting oleogels is higher than that found for traditional lubricating greases.

  3. Structure-property-glass transition relationships in non-isocyanate polyurethanes investigated by dynamic nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyand, Stephan; Blattmann, Hannes; Schimpf, Vitalij; Mülhaupt, Rolf; Schwaiger, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Newly developed green-chemistry approaches towards the synthesis of non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) systems represent a promising alternative to polyurethanes (PU) eliminating the need for harmful ingredients. A series of NIPU systems were studied using different nanoindentation techniques in order to understand the influence of molecular parameters on the mechanical behavior. Nanoindentation revealed a unique characteristic feature of those materials, i.e. stiffening with increasing deformation. It is argued that the origin of this observed stiffening is a consequence of the thermodynamic state of the polymer network, the molecular characteristics of the chemical building blocks and resulting anisotropic elastic response of the network structure. Flat-punch nanoindentation was applied in order to characterize the constitutive viscoelastic nature of the materials. The complex modulus shows distinct changes as a function of the NIPU network topology illustrating the influence of the chemical building blocks. The reproducibility of the data indicates that the materials are homogeneous over the volumes sampled by nanoindentation. Our study demonstrates that nanoindentation is very well-suited to investigate the molecular characteristics of NIPU materials that cannot be quantified in conventional experiments. Moreover, the technique provides insight into the functional significance of complex molecular architectures thereby supporting the development of NIPU materials with tailored properties.

  4. Highly efficient isocyanate-free microwave-assisted synthesis of [6]-oligourea

    KAUST Repository

    Qaroush, Abdussalam K.

    2013-01-01

    A new eco-friendly, isocyanate-free, energy-saving method for the production of [6]-oligourea, utilizing a green carbonylating agent, viz. propylene carbonate, is reported. It comprises an organocatalyzed, microwave-assisted, solvent-free synthesis. Two modes of microwave-assisted synthesis, viz. dynamic and fixed energy modes, were applied. Upon optimization, the dynamic mode gave 79% yields of [6]-oligourea. On the other hand, almost quantitative yields were obtained using the fixed mode, within 20 min, at 10 W and with the same catalyst loading. Combination of both organocatalysis and microwave energy input appears to be a key issue for the efficiency of the reaction, with the fixed energy mode being best suited. It should be noted that all data reported are reproducible (due to the homogeneous microwave technology used by CEM Discover S-Class of microwave reactors). To the best of our knowledge, this is the best eco-friendly synthetic approach for the preparation of the title oligomers. It paves the way for using more of the biorenewable and sustainable chemicals as a feedstock for the production of polyureas. The oligomer produced was analyzed by EA, ATR-FTIR, XRD, 1H and 13CNMR. Furthermore, thermal properties of the resulting [6]-oligourea were analyzed using TGA and DSC. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  5. Isocyanate-functionalized chitin and chitosan as gelling agents of castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Rocío; Arteaga, Jesús F; Valencia, Concepción; Franco, José M

    2013-06-03

    The main objective of this work was the incorporation of reactive isocyanate groups into chitin and chitosan in order to effectively use the products as reactive thickening agents in castor oil. The resulting gel-like dispersions could be potentially used as biodegradable lubricating greases. Three different NCO-functionalized polymers were obtained: two of them by promoting the reaction of chitosan with 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI), and the other by using chitin instead of chitosan. These polymers were characterized through 1H-NMR, FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Thermal and rheological behaviours of the oleogels prepared by dispersing these polymers in castor oil were studied by means of TGA and small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) measurements. The evolution and values of the linear viscoelasticity functions with frequency for -NCO-functionalized chitosan- and chitin-based oleogels are quite similar to those found for standard lubricating greases. In relation to long-term stability of these oleogels, no phase separation was observed and the values of viscoelastic functions increase significantly during the first seven days of ageing, and then remain almost constant. TGA analysis showed that the degradation temperature of the resulting oleogels is higher than that found for traditional lubricating greases.

  6. Ytterbium triflate as a new catalyst on the curing of epoxy-isocyanate based thermosets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Marjorie; Fernandez-Francos, Xavier [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Morancho, Josep M. [Laboratori de Termodinamica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Serra, Angels [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Ramis, Xavier, E-mail: ramis@mmt.upc.es [Laboratori de Termodinamica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-09-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ytterbium triflate is an active catalyst for diepoxides/diisocyanate formulations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ytterbium triflate promotes the formation of oxazolidone, isocyanurate, urethane and allophanate groups and the polyetherification of epoxides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diepoxides/diisocyanate formulations catalyzed by ytterbium triflate show higher pot-life than equivalent formulations catalyzed by benzyldimethylamine. - Abstract: Networks containing oxazolidone, isocyanurate, urethane, allophanate and ether groups were prepared by copolymerization of mixtures of diglycidylether of bisphenol A and toluene-2,4-diisocyanate in presence of ytterbium triflate. It has been demonstrated that ytterbium triflate promotes six elemental reactions that coexist during curing and yield the aforementioned groups. Changes during curing, fraction of different groups present in the network and final properties of the cured materials were investigated by thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The influence of the molar ratio of isocyanate to epoxide groups on the properties and curing has been studied. The curing kinetics were analyzed by means of an integral isoconversional non-isothermal procedure. The results obtained were compared with those obtained by using a common catalyst such as the benzyldimethylamine. The structure and the properties of the resulting thermosets are controlled by the initial composition of the formulation and the catalyst used.

  7. Penetration and performance of isocyanate wood binders on selected wood species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruver, T. M., and

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The penetration and performance of polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (pMDI wood binder was investigated according to three factors: substrate species (aspen, yellow-poplar, or southern yellow pine; anatomical bonding plane (radial or tangential; and moisture content (0%, 5%, or 12%. Compression shear block tests and fluorescence microscopy were used to examine bond performance and resin penetration. Statistically, each of the aforementioned factors impacted results. As moisture content increased, observed bond strengths and wood failure increased. Bond formation did not occur when the substrates were equilibrated to 0% moisture content, except for the radial bonding surfaces of pine, which did adhere. At 5 and 12% moisture contents, tangential bonding surfaces out-performed radial bonding surfaces. In terms of resin penetration, moisture content was clearly the most important variable. Little penetration was observed at 0% moisture content, while extensive resin penetration was observed at elevated moisture contents. Pine was the only wood species to exhibit resin flow through radial cells, possibly explaining the enhanced resin penetration depths observed in pine samples.

  8. Bitumen modification with a low-molecular-weight reactive isocyanate-terminated polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.J. Navarro; P. Partal; M. Garcia-Morales; F.J. Martinez-Boza; C. Gallegos [Universidad de Huelva, Huelva (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales

    2007-10-15

    A low-molecular-weight polyethyleneglycol functionalized with a polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocynate) was used as a modifying agent for a 60/70 penetration grade bitumen. The rheological properties of the resulting modified binder, at both low and intermediate temperatures, before and after curing at room temperature were studied and compared with those corresponding to a SBS modified bitumen. The analysis showed that the addition of a small quantity of this reactive polymer leads to enhanced rheological properties mainly at high in-service temperature (50{sup o}C). However, modification was found to be rather slow during binder curing at room temperature. Moreover, storage stability analysis showed that phase separation did not take place after bitumen storage at 163{sup o}C, though storage at high temperature affects the modification capability of the reactive polymer. Atomic force microscopy measurements showed that the reactive polymer addition leads to asphaltene-rich regions with lower thermal susceptibility, which are present even at high temperature, yielding an improved bitumen viscosity in this range of in-service temperatures. 38 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. On the Formation of Penumbrae as Observed with the German VTT, SOHO/MDI, and SDO/HMI

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichenmaier, Rolf; Gonzalez, Nazaret Bello

    2011-01-01

    Solar magnetic fields are generated in the solar interior and pop up at the solar surface to form active regions. As the magnetic field appears on the surface, it forms various structures like small magnetic elements, pores, and sunspots. The nature of these formation processes is largely unknown. In this contribution we elaborate on the formation of sunspots and particularly on the formation of penumbrae. We report on observations that we obtained at the German VTT on July 4, 2009 on the formation of the spot in AR 11024. This data set is accomplished with data from SOHO/MDI which offers an entire time coverage. Moreover, the evolution of AR 11024 is compared with a particular event of penumbra formation in AR 11124 around November 13, 2010, using intensity images from SDO/HMI. We conclude that two processes contribute to the increase of the magnetic flux of a sunspot: (1) merging pores, and (2) emerging bipoles of which the spot polarity migrates towards and merges with the spot. As the penumbra forms the a...

  10. Application of Convolution Neural Network to the forecasts of flare classification and occurrence using SOHO MDI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunsu; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2017-08-01

    A Convolutional Neural Network(CNN) is one of the well-known deep-learning methods in image processing and computer vision area. In this study, we apply CNN to two kinds of flare forecasting models: flare classification and occurrence. For this, we consider several pre-trained models (e.g., AlexNet, GoogLeNet, and ResNet) and customize them by changing several options such as the number of layers, activation function, and optimizer. Our inputs are the same number of SOHO)/MDI images for each flare class (None, C, M and X) at 00:00 UT from Jan 1996 to Dec 2010 (total 1600 images). Outputs are the results of daily flare forecasting for flare class and occurrence. We build, train, and test the models on TensorFlow, which is well-known machine learning software library developed by Google. Our major results from this study are as follows. First, most of the models have accuracies more than 0.7. Second, ResNet developed by Microsoft has the best accuracies : 0.86 for flare classification and 0.84 for flare occurrence. Third, the accuracies of these models vary greatly with changing parameters. We discuss several possibilities to improve the models.

  11. On the Formation of Penumbrae as Observed with the German VTT SOHO/MDI, and SDO/HMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichenmaier, R.; Rezaei, R.; González, N. B.

    2012-05-01

    Solar magnetic fields are generated in the solar interior and pop up at the solar surface to form active regions. As the magnetic field appears on the surface, it forms various structures like small magnetic elements, pores, and sunspots. The nature of these formation processes is largely unknown. In this contribution we elaborate on the formation of sunspots and particularly on the formation of penumbrae. We report on observations that we obtained at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) on July 4, 2009 on the formation of the spot in AR 11024. This data set is complemented with data from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) aboard SOHO, which offers an entire time coverage. Moreover, the evolution of AR 11024 is compared with a particular event of penumbra formation in AR 11124 around November 13, 2010, using intensity images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard SDO. We conclude that two processes contribute to the increase of the magnetic flux of a sunspot: (1) merging pores, and (2) emerging bipoles of which the spot polarity migrates towards and merges with the spot. As the penumbra forms, the area, magnetic flux, and maximum field strength in the umbra stay constant or increase slightly, i.e., the formation of the penumbra is associated with flux emergence and flux increase of the proto-spot. If two pores merge or if a pore merges with a proto-spot a light bridge is created. This initial light bridge dissolves in the further evolution.

  12. Application of ASPEN PLUS in Methanol Distillation Column in MDI Plant%ASPEN PLUS在MDI装置的甲醇除去塔中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宝学

    2008-01-01

    基于作者多年的工程技术开发经验介绍了ASPEN PLUS软件在MDI(二苯基甲烷二异氰酸酯)装置的甲醇除去塔设计中的应用,模拟与设计结果成功用于公司的16万t/a MDI的建设.

  13. Investigating diesel engines as an atmospheric source of isocyanic acid in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jathar, Shantanu H.; Heppding, Christopher; Link, Michael F.; Farmer, Delphine K.; Akherati, Ali; Kleeman, Michael J.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Veres, Patrick R.; Roberts, James M.

    2017-07-01

    Isocyanic acid (HNCO), an acidic gas found in tobacco smoke, urban environments, and biomass-burning-affected regions, has been linked to adverse health outcomes. Gasoline- and diesel-powered engines and biomass burning are known to emit HNCO and hypothesized to emit precursors such as amides that can photochemically react to produce HNCO in the atmosphere. Increasingly, diesel engines in developed countries like the United States are required to use selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems to reduce tailpipe emissions of oxides of nitrogen. SCR chemistry is known to produce HNCO as an intermediate product, and SCR systems have been implicated as an atmospheric source of HNCO. In this work, we measure HNCO emissions from an SCR system-equipped diesel engine and, in combination with earlier data, use a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) to simulate the ambient concentrations and source/pathway contributions to HNCO in an urban environment. Engine tests were conducted at three different engine loads, using two different fuels and at multiple operating points. HNCO was measured using an acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The diesel engine was found to emit primary HNCO (3-90 mg kg fuel-1) but we did not find any evidence that the SCR system or other aftertreatment devices (i.e., oxidation catalyst and particle filter) produced or enhanced HNCO emissions. The CTM predictions compared well with the only available observational datasets for HNCO in urban areas but underpredicted the contribution from secondary processes. The comparison implied that diesel-powered engines were the largest source of HNCO in urban areas. The CTM also predicted that daily-averaged concentrations of HNCO reached a maximum of ˜ 110 pptv but were an order of magnitude lower than the 1 ppbv level that could be associated with physiological effects in humans. Precursor contributions from other combustion sources (gasoline and biomass burning) and wintertime

  14. Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. II. Blood chemistry and hematologic evaluations.

    OpenAIRE

    Troup, C M; Dodd, D E; Fowler, E H; Frank, F R

    1987-01-01

    Human, rat, and guinea pig packed erythrocytes exposed to 100, 500, or 1000 ppm of methyl isocyanate (MIC) vapor in vitro showed a concentration-related inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity. Rat and guinea pig packed erythrocytes showed an almost complete inhibition of ChE activity at 2000 ppm. In vitro exposures of human and guinea pig blood to 1000 or 2000 ppm of MIC vapor resulted in qualitative alterations in the electrophoretic mobility of hemoglobin (Hb) as measured by citrated a...

  15. Investigation Of The Hydrolysis Of Isocyanic Acid In Urea SCR: Catalyst Screening And Low-Temperature Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piazzesi, G.; Elsener, M.; Kroecher, O.; Wokaun, A.

    2005-03-01

    Several oxide catalysts were tested for the hydrolysis of isocyanic acid under typical diesel exhaust conditions. Among the tested catalysts, TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} have been shown to be the most active catalysts. The kinetics of the HNCO hydrolysis over TiO{sub 2} at low temperatures was studied and reaction orders and the activation energy were determined. The effect of NO{sub 2} on the catalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} was also investigated, revealing that, at low temperatures, the formation of ammonium nitrate inhibits the reaction. (author)

  16. Metathesis of carbon dioxide and phenyl isocyanate catalysed by group(IV) metal alkoxides: An experimental and computational study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akshai Kumar; Ashoka G Samuelson

    2011-01-01

    The insertion reactions of zirconium(IV) -butoxide and titanium(IV) -butoxide with a heterocumulene like carbodiimide, carbon dioxide or phenyl isocyanate are compared. Both give an intermediate which carries out metathesis at elevated temperatures by inserting a second heterocumulene in a head-to-head fashion. The intermediate metallacycle extrudes a new heterocumulene, different from the two that have inserted leading to metathesis. As the reaction is reversible, catalytic metathesis is feasible. In stoichiometric reactions heterocumulene insertion, metathesis and metathesis cum insertion products are observed. However, catalytic amounts of the metal alkoxide primarily led to metathesis products. It is shown that zirconium alkoxides promote catalytic metathesis (isocyanates, carbon dioxide) more efficiently than the corresponding titanium alkoxide. The difference in the metathetic activity of these alkoxides has been explained by a computational study using model complexes Ti(OMe)4 (1bTi) and Zr(OMe)4 (1bZr). The computation was carried out at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory.

  17. Tris-[8]annulenyl Isocyanurate Trianion Triradical and Hexa-anion from the Alkali Metal Reduction of [8]Annulenyl Isocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Steven J; Klen, Joseph R

    2015-06-05

    The solution phase alkali metal reduction of [8]annulenyl isocyanate (C8H7NCO) yields an EPR spectrum, which reveals electron couplings to seven protons and only one nitrogen. Although this strongly suggested that the C8H7NCO anion radical was generated, experiments on the oxidized product reveal the actual reduced species to be tris-[8]annulenyl isocyanurate. Unlike the previously studied phenyl isocyanurate anion radical, the unpaired electron(s) is now localized within an [8]annulenyl moiety. Further exposure to metal results in the formation of an equilibrium mixture of trianion triradical and trianion radical species. The cyclotrimerization to form the isocyanurate is proposed to be driven by a reactive C8H7NCO dianion, which is produced from the large equilibrium disproportionation of the anion radical. Exhaustive reduction of the tris-[8]annulenyl isocyanurate with potassium in THF generates the first-ever observed hexa-anion of an isocyanurate. NMR analysis reveals that the polarity of the carbonyl bonds within this hexa-anion is augmented and is caused by the close proximity of K(+) ions, which are tightly ion paired to the three [8]annulenyl dianion rings. These preliminary studies on the reduction of C8H7NCO suggest that polymeric materials (e.g., polyisocyanates) made from this isocyanate might exhibit unique properties.

  18. Investigating diesel engines as an atmospheric source of isocyanic acid in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Jathar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Isocyanic acid (HNCO, an acidic gas found in tobacco smoke, urban environments, and biomass-burning-affected regions, has been linked to adverse health outcomes. Gasoline- and diesel-powered engines and biomass burning are known to emit HNCO and hypothesized to emit precursors such as amides that can photochemically react to produce HNCO in the atmosphere. Increasingly, diesel engines in developed countries like the United States are required to use selective catalytic reduction (SCR systems to reduce tailpipe emissions of oxides of nitrogen. SCR chemistry is known to produce HNCO as an intermediate product, and SCR systems have been implicated as an atmospheric source of HNCO. In this work, we measure HNCO emissions from an SCR system-equipped diesel engine and, in combination with earlier data, use a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM to simulate the ambient concentrations and source/pathway contributions to HNCO in an urban environment. Engine tests were conducted at three different engine loads, using two different fuels and at multiple operating points. HNCO was measured using an acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The diesel engine was found to emit primary HNCO (3–90 mg kg fuel−1 but we did not find any evidence that the SCR system or other aftertreatment devices (i.e., oxidation catalyst and particle filter produced or enhanced HNCO emissions. The CTM predictions compared well with the only available observational datasets for HNCO in urban areas but underpredicted the contribution from secondary processes. The comparison implied that diesel-powered engines were the largest source of HNCO in urban areas. The CTM also predicted that daily-averaged concentrations of HNCO reached a maximum of ∼ 110 pptv but were an order of magnitude lower than the 1 ppbv level that could be associated with physiological effects in humans. Precursor contributions from other combustion sources (gasoline and biomass

  19. Ferrocenoyl piperazide as derivatizing agent for the analysis of isocyanates and related compounds using liquid chromatography/electrochemistry/mass spectrometry (LC/EC/MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiwert, Bettina; Henneken, Hartmut; Karst, Uwe

    2004-01-01

    Ferrocenoyl piperazide is introduced as a new pre-column derivatizing agent for the analysis of various isocyanates in air samples using reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation, electrochemical oxidation/ionization, and mass spectrometry. The nonpolar derivatives can be separated well using

  20. Ferrocenoyl piperazide as derivatizing agent for the analysis of isocyanates and related compounds using liquid chromatography/electrochemistry/mass spectrometry (LC/EC/MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiwert, Bettina; Seiwert, B.; Henneken, H.; Karst, U.

    2004-01-01

    Ferrocenoyl piperazide is introduced as a new pre-column derivatizing agent for the analysis of various isocyanates in air samples using reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation, electrochemical oxidation/ionization, and mass spectrometry. The nonpolar derivatives can be separated well using

  1. CLIC MDI Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Gatignon, Lau

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to the layout of the CLIC Machine Detector Interface as it has been defined for the CLIC Conceptual Design Report. We concentrate on the specific case of the CLIC_SiD detector, although the push-pull concept for two detectors has been included in the design. Some recent work and developments are described as well. However, for the details we refer to the detailed technical talks at this conference.

  2. Respiratory tract changes in guinea pigs, rats, and mice following a single six-hour exposure to methyl isocyanate vapor.

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, E H; Dodd, D E

    1987-01-01

    Groups of male and female Fischer 344 rats, B6C3F1 mice, and Hartley guinea pigs were exposed once for 6 hr to mean concentrations of 10.5, 5.4, 2.4, 1.0, or 0 (control) ppm of methyl isocyanate (MIC) vapor. Rats and mice were also exposed to 20.4 ppm of MIC. The majority of deaths occurred during postexposure days 1 through 3. The 6-hr LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) were 6.1 (4.6 to 8.2) ppm for rats, 12.2 (8.4 to 17.5) ppm for mice, and 5.4 (4.4 to 6.7) ppm for guinea pigs. Notabl...

  3. A multi-dimensional microcanonical Monte Carlo study of S0→T1 intersystem crossing of isocyanic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A general formula for the multi-dimensional Monte Carlo microcanonical nonadiabatic rate constant expressed in configuration space is applied to calculate the rate of intersystem crossing(ISC) between the ground(S0) and first excited triplet(T1) states for isocyanic acid.One-,two-and three-dimensional potential energy surfaces are constructed by coupled-cluster single-double CCSD calculations,which are used for Monte Carlo sampling.The calculated S0→T1 ISC rate is in good agreement with experimental findings,which gives us a reason to believe that the multi-dimensional Monte Carlo microcanonical nonadiabatic rate theory is a very effective method for calculating nonadiabatic transition rate of a polyatomic molecule.

  4. A multi-dimensional microcanonical Monte Carlo study of S_0→T_1 intersystem crossing of isocyanic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; FANG WeiHai; LUO Yi; LIU RuoZhuang

    2009-01-01

    A general formula for the multi-dimensional Monte Carlo microcanonical nonadiabatic rate constant expressed in configuration space is applied to calculate the rate of intersystem crossing (ISC) between the ground (S_0) and first excited triplet (T_1) states for isocyanic acid.One-,two-and three-dimensional potential energy surfaces are constructed by coupled-cluster single-double CCSD calculations,which are used for Monte Carlo sampling.The calculated S_0→T_1 ISC rate is in good agreement with experimental findings,which gives us a reason to believe that the multi-dimensional Monte Carlo microcanonical nonadiabatic rate theory is a very effective method for calculating nonadiabatic transition rate of a polyatomic molecule.

  5. Effect of dosage of expandable graphite, dimethyl methylphosphonate, triethanolamine, and isocyanate on fluidity, mechanical, and flame retardant properties of polyurethane materials in coal reinforcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Xiangming; Wang Deming; Cheng Weimin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, orthogonal experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of expandable graphite (EG), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), triethanolamine (TEA), and isocyanate content on the com-pressive and bonding strengths, oxygen index, and fluidity of rigid polyurethane foam (RPUF). The results revealed that EG significantly increased the oxygen index of RPUF, enlarged the diameter of foam cells, and decreased the cell-closed content in foam;thus, leading to a pressure drop in RPUF. However, exces-sive EG was capable of reducing the fluidity of polyurethane slurry. TEA exhibited significant influence on the compressive strength of RPUF, which dropped initially, and then increased. DMMP had a remarkable effect on the flame retardant property and compressive strength of RPUF. Compressive strength of RPUF initially displayed an increase followed by a decrease with increasing dosage of DMMP, and achieved the maximum value at DMMP dosage of 4%. DMMP could effectively reduce the diameter of RPUF cells lead-ing to an increase in the percentage of close area in foam. DMMP displayed the flame-retardation effects mainly in the gas phase leading to a significant enhancement in the oxygen index of RPUF. Moreover, the compressive strength and bonding strength of RPUF decrease significantly with the increase of isocyanate content due to the increased blowing efficiency by the CO2. The oxygen index and flowing length of foam increased with the increase in isocyanate dosage.

  6. Structural and spectroscopic characterization of methyl isocyanate, methyl cyanate, methyl fulminate, and acetonitrile N-oxide using highly correlated ab initio methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbouha, S.; Senent, M. L.; Komiha, N.; Domínguez-Gómez, R.

    2016-09-01

    Various astrophysical relevant molecules obeying the empirical formula C2H3NO are characterized using explicitly correlated coupled cluster methods (CCSD(T)-F12). Rotational and rovibrational parameters are provided for four isomers: methyl isocyanate (CH3NCO), methyl cyanate (CH3OCN), methyl fulminate (CH3ONC), and acetonitrile N-oxide (CH3CNO). A CH3CON transition state is inspected. A variational procedure is employed to explore the far infrared region because some species present non-rigidity. Second order perturbation theory is used for the determination of anharmonic frequencies, rovibrational constants, and to predict Fermi resonances. Three species, methyl cyanate, methyl fulminate, and CH3CON, show a unique methyl torsion hindered by energy barriers. In methyl isocyanate, the methyl group barrier is so low that the internal top can be considered a free rotor. On the other hand, acetonitrile N-oxide presents a linear skeleton, C3v symmetry, and free internal rotation. Its equilibrium geometry depends strongly on electron correlation. The remaining isomers present a bend skeleton. Divergences between theoretical rotational constants and previous parameters fitted from observed lines for methyl isocyanate are discussed on the basis of the relevant rovibrational interaction and the quasi-linearity of the molecular skeleton.

  7. Increased micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes contributes to cancer risk in the methyl isocyanate-affected population of Bhopal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Chinnu Sugavanam; Akhter, Sameena; Malla, Tahir Mohiuddin; Sah, Nand Kishore; Ganesh, Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    The Bhopal gas tragedy involving methyl isocyanate (MIC) is one of the most horrific industrial accidents in recent decades. We investigated the genotoxic effects of MIC in long-term survivors and their offspring born after the 1984 occurrence. There are a few cytogenetic reports showing genetic damage in the MIC-exposed survivors, but there is no information about the associated cancer risk. The same is true about offspring. For the first time, we here assessed the micronucleus (MN) frequency using cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay to predict cancer risk in the MIC-affected population of Bhopal. A total of 92 healthy volunteers (46 MIC- affected and 46 controls) from Bhopal and various regions of India were studied taking gender and age into consideration. Binucleated lymphocytes with micronuclei (BNMN), total number of micronuclei in lymphocytes (MNL), and nuclear division index (NDI) frequencies and their relationship to age, gender and several lifestyle variabilities (smoking, alcohol consumption and tobacco-chewing) were investigated. Our observations showed relatively higher BNMN and MNL (Pexposure to MIC. Briefly, the observed cytogenetic damage to the MIC-affected could contribute to cancer risk, especially in the EF and FOE.

  8. Polyurethane-Keratin Membranes: Structural Changes by Isocyanate and pH, and the Repercussion on Cr(VI Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María D. Manrique-Juárez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratin has the capacity to interact with metal ions. In order to take advantage of this potential, a novel membrane with polyurethane and keratin has been developed and studied for removal of Cr(VI from aqueous solution. Physicochemical and morphological properties of these hybrid membranes were studied, varying synthesis parameters such as the type of isocyanate and pH in keratin solution. The effects of using diphenyl-methane-diisocyanate or toluene-diisocyanate and modifying the pH in keratin solutions were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamical mechanical analysis. Results show that pH has a strong influence on morphology and on Cr(VI removal efficiency. When pH in keratin solution is low (2.5, the protein separates from water, and a more closed cell in the membrane is obtained affecting its mechanical properties. The removal efficiency of Cr(VI was also assessed at different pH values of chromium solutions. These results show that when pH of the Cr solution is acidic (at 1.5, the Cr(VI removal percentages increase significantly, reaching up to a 58%. Thus this paper demonstrates the successful combination of synthetic and natural polymers depending on the process parameters to be applied in the critical purpose of remediation of Cr(VI contamination.

  9. Interstellar Detection of Methyl Isocyanate CH$_3$NCO in Sgr B2(N): A Link from Molecular Clouds to Comets

    CERN Document Server

    Halfen, DeWayne T; Ziurys, Lucy M

    2015-01-01

    A new interstellar molecule, CH$_3$NCO (methyl isocyanate), has been detected using the 12 m telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). CH$_3$NCO was identified in spectra covering 48 GHz (68-116 GHz) in the 3 mm segment of a broadband survey of Sgr B2(N). Thirty very favorable rotational lines (K$_a$ = 0 and K$_a$ = 1 only; E$_u$ < 60 K) originating in five consecutive transitions (J = 8 $\\rightarrow$ 7, 9 $\\rightarrow$ 8, 10 $\\rightarrow$ 9, 11 $\\rightarrow$ 10, and 12 $\\rightarrow$ 11) in both the A and E internal rotation species are present in this frequency range. Emission was observed at all of the predicted frequencies, with seventeen lines appearing as distinct, uncontaminated spectral features, clearly showing the classic a-type, asymmetric top pattern, with T$_R$* ~ 20-70 mK. The CH$_3$NCO spectra also appear to exhibit two velocities components near V$_{LSR}$ ~ 62 and 73 km s$^{-1}$, both with $\\Delta$V$_{1/2}$ ~ 10 km s$^{-1}$ - typical of molecules such as CH$_2$CHCN, HNCO, and HCOOCH$...

  10. Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. I. Study objectives and inhalation exposure design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, D.E.; Frank, F.R.; Fowler, E.H.; Troup, C.M.; Milton, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    Early reports from India indicated that humans were dying within minutes to a few hours from exposure to methyl isocyanate (MIC). Attempts to explain the cause(s) of these rapid mortalities is where Union Carbide Corporation concentrated its post-Bhopal toxicologic investigations. The MIC studies involving rats and guinea pigs focused primarily on the consequences of acute pulmonary damage. All MIC inhalation exposures were acute, of short duration (mainly 15 min), and high in concentration. MIC vapors were statically generated in a double chamber exposure design. Precautionary measures taken during exposures are discussed. Guinea pigs were more susceptible than rats to MIC exposure-related early mortality. A greater than one order of magnitude difference was observed between an MIC concentration that caused no early mortality in rats (3506 ppm) and an MIC concentration that caused partial (6%) early mortality in guinea pigs (225 ppm) for exposures of 10 to 15 min duration. For both species, the most noteworthy clinical signs during exposure were lacrimation, blepharospasm, and mouth breathing. Fifteen minute LC/sub 50/ tests with 14-day postexposure follow-up were conducted, and the LC/sub 50/ (95% confidence limit) values were 171 (114-256) ppm for rats and 112 (61-204) ppm for guinea pigs. Target exposure concentrations for the toxicologic investigations of MIC-induced early mortality were established. A short summary of pertinent results of Union Carbide Corporation's post-Bhopal toxicologic investigations is presented.

  11. In silico interaction of methyl isocyanate with immune protein responsible for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection using molecular docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Rahul; Yasir, Mohammad; Tripathi, Manish; Singh, Pushpendra

    2016-01-01

    This article reports in silico analysis of methyl isocyanate (MIC) on different key immune proteins against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The analysis shows that MIC is released in the Bhopal gas tragedy in 1984, which is highly toxic and extremely hazardous to human health. In this study, we have selected immune proteins to perform molecular docking with the help of Autodock 4.0. Results show that the CD40 ligand and alpha5beta1 integrin have higher inhibition compared to plasminogen activator urokinase, human glutathione synthetase, mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38 MAPK 14), surfactant protein-B, -D (SP-D), and pulmonary SP-D. MIC interacted with His-125, Try-146 residue of CD40 ligand and Ala-149, and Arg-152 residue of alpha5beta1 integrin and affects the proteins functioning by binding on their active sites. These inhibitory conformations were energetically and statistically favored and supported the evidence from wet laboratory experiments reported in the literature. We can conclude that MIC directly or indirectly affects these proteins, which shows that survivals of the disaster suffer from the diseases like tuberculosis infection and lung cancer.

  12. Effect of spatial distribution of wax and PEG-isocyanate on the morphology and hydrophobicity of starch films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Delina; Adhikari, Raju; Tobin, Mark J; McKnight, Stafford; Wakeling, Lara; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-10-13

    This study proposes a novel method for improving surface hydrophobicity of glycerol plasticized high amylose (HAG) films. We used polyethylene glycol isocyanate (PEG-iso) crosslinker to link HAG and three natural waxes (beeswax, candelilla wax and carnauba wax) to produce HAG+wax+PEG-iso films. The spatial distributions of wax and PEG-iso across the thickness of these films were determined using Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The hydrophobicity and surface morphology of the films were determined using contact angle (CA) and scanning electron microscopic measurements, respectively. The distribution patterns of wax and the PEG-iso across the thickness of the film, and the nature of crystalline patterns formed on the surface of these films were found to be the key factors affecting surface hydrophobicity. The highest hydrophobicity (CA >90°) was created when the PEG-iso was primarily distributed in the interior of the films and a hierarchical circular pinnacle structure of solidified wax was formed on the surface.

  13. A New Methodology for Assessing Macromolecular Click Reactions and Its Application to Amine--Tertiary Isocyanate Coupling for Polymer Ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gody, Guillaume; Roberts, Derrick A; Maschmeyer, Thomas; Perrier, Sébastien

    2016-03-30

    Click reactions have provided access to an array of remarkably complex polymer architectures. However, the term "click" is often applied inaccurately to polymer ligation reactions that fail to respect the criteria that typify a true "click" reaction. With the purpose of providing a universal way to benchmark polymer-polymer coupling efficiency at equimolarity and thus evaluate the fulfilment of click criteria, we report a simple one-pot methodology involving the homodicoupling of α-end-functionalized polymers using a small-molecule bifunctional linker. A combination of SEC analysis and chromatogram deconvolution enables straightforward quantification of the coupling efficiency. We subsequently employ this methodology to evaluate an overlooked candidate for the click reaction family: the addition of primary amines to α-tertiary isocyanates (α-(t)NCO). Using our bifunctional linker coupling strategy, we show that the amine-(t)NCO reaction fulfills the criteria for a polymer-polymer click reaction, achieving rapid, chemoselective, and quantitative coupling at room temperature without generating any byproducts. We demonstrate that amine-(t)NCO coupling is faster and more efficient than the more common amine-tertiary active ester coupling under equivalent conditions. Additionally, we show that the α-(t)NCO end group is unprecedentedly stable in aqueous media. Thus, we propose that the amine-(t)NCO ligation is a powerful new click reaction for efficient macromolecular coupling.

  14. 封端异氰酸酯的制备及其解封研究%Synthesis of blocked isocyanate and study of unblocking reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建明; 王小妹; 陈为都

    2011-01-01

    The isocyanate terminated prepolymer was blocked with methyl ethyl ketoximel (MEKO),the effect of different blocking percentage on the prepolymer viscosity was studied. The unblocking reaction was characterized by TGA,DSC and TG-IR.Experiment results showed that when the NCO% is less than 0.1% the blocked isocyanate has good stability for overed year. The H1 NMR. analysis showed that the prepolymer was successfully blocked and the unblocking temperature was 105 ℃.The blocked isocyanate was used in PET/VMCPP laminating when mixing with polyether amine,the PET/VMCPP laminate was activate at 110 ℃ for 1 hour,and the peeling strength reached 2.0 N/15mm.%用甲乙酮肟(MEKO)对端NCO预聚体进行封端,考查了不同的封端率对端NCO预聚体黏度的影响.用TGA、DSC、TG-IR等对封端聚氨酯解封过程进行研究.实验结果表明,当封端聚氨酯中残余NCO%低于0.1%时,贮存期可达1年以上.H'NMR分析表明,端异氰酸酯封闭成功.MEKO封端的聚氧酯在105℃解封,与聚醚胺混合后用于PET/VMCPP覆膜,其复合膜在110℃时活化固化1h,T-剥离强度达2.0N/15mm.

  15. p-Tolyl isocyanate derivatization for analysis of CWC-related polar degradation products by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikraj, R; Sridhar, L; Murty, M R V S; Raju, N P; Vairamani, M; Prabhakar, S

    2014-08-01

    Most of the precursors and/or degradation products related to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) are polar. Identification of these molecules in environmental samples provides clues regarding the alleged usage and/or synthesis of the parent toxic chemicals. Such polar compounds need to be derivatized in order to analyze them by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this study, we developed a new derivatizing reagent, para-tolyl isocyanate (PTI), for derivatization of polar CWC-related compounds. The PTI reagent selectively derivatizes the -OH and/or-SH functional groups with high efficiency, but does not react with carboxylic acid (-COOH) or phosphonic acid (-(O)P(OH)2) groups. The PTI derivatives of dialkyl aminoethanols, dialkyl aminoethanol-N-oxides, and 3-quinuclidinol were successfully eluted through GC, and their electron ionization (EI) mass spectra were distinct and provided the structure information by which the isomeric compounds can be easily distinguished. We also calculated the GC-retention index values that can be used for further confirmation of the target compounds. All the studied PTI derivatives can be analyzed by EI-MS with direct insertion probe and/or by direct electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) together with the MS-MS data; both sets of data provide full structure information. The PTI reagent was found to be better in some respects than the conventional bistrimethylsilyl trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), a trimethyl silylating reagent. The PTI reagent is commercially available, and the PTI derivatives are highly stable for months and are not sensitive to moisture. The applicability of the PTI derivatization for trace-level determination of the target CWC-related polar compounds in environmental matrices and in human plasma samples is also evaluated.

  16. Respiratory tract changes in guinea pigs, rats, and mice following a single six-hour exposure to methyl isocyanate vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, E.H.; Dodd, D.E.

    1987-06-01

    Groups of male and female Fischer 344 rats, B6C3F1 mice, and Hartley guinea pigs were exposed once for 6 hr to mean concentrations of 10.5, 5.4, 2.4, 1.0, or 0 (control) ppm of methyl isocyanate (MIC) vapor. Rats and mice were also exposed to 20.4 ppm of MIC. The majority of deaths occurred during postexposure days 1 through 3. The 6-hr LC/sub 50/ values were 6.1 ppm for rats, 12.2 ppm for mice, and 5.4 ppm for guinea pigs. Notable clinical observations during and immediately following MIC exposure were lacrimation, perinasal/perioral wetness, respiratory difficulty (e.g., mouth breathing), decreased activity, ataxia, and hypothermia. Body weight losses were common in all species following MIC exposures of 2.4 ppm or greater. Microscopic lesions included acute necrosis of the epithelial lining throughout the respiratory tract in animals that died shortly after exposure, coupled with congestion, edema, and inflammation. A microscopic lesion that appeared unique to guinea pigs was bronchiolitis obliterans. Additional microscopic lesions observed in some animals that died or were sacrificed at the end of the study (postexposure day 14) consisted of squamous metaplasia of respiratory epithelium in the nasal cavity, which extended into the larynx, trachea, and in some cases, the bronchi. In addition, epithelial regeneration throughout the tract and submucosal fibroplasia in the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles were observed, the latter lesion being primarily confined to rodents. Only in guinea pigs were there lesions in the 1.0 ppm group attributed to MIC exposure. In conclusion, guinea pigs were more sensitive to the MIC vapor than were rats, which were in turn more sensitive than mice.

  17. Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. IV. Influence on the oxygen-binding properties of guinea pig blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Maginniss, L A; Szewczak, J M; Troup, C M

    1987-01-01

    Whole blood oxygen equilibrium curves (O2 ECs), blood buffer lines, and several hematologic properties were determined for adult guinea pigs exposed to 700 ppm methyl isocyanate (MIC) for 15 min. MIC inhalation effected a significant reduction of blood O2 affinity; the half-saturation pressure (P50) at 38 degrees C increased from the control (untreated) level of 22.8 +/- 0.1 mm Hg to values ranging from 28.5 to 43.7 mm Hg for experimental animals. MIC exposure had no apparent influence on O2 ...

  18. Safe and Efficacious Use of Automated Bolus Advisors in Individuals Treated With Multiple Daily Insulin Injection (MDI) Therapy: Lessons Learned From the Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Christopher G; Barnard, Katharine; Hinnen, Deborah A

    2015-03-20

    Numerous studies have shown that use of integrated automated bolus advisors (BAs) provides significant benefits to individuals using insulin pump devices, including improved glycemic control and greater treatment satisfaction. Within the past few years, BA devices have been developed specifically for individuals treated with multiple daily insulin injection (MDI) therapy; however, many clinicians who treat these individuals may be unfamiliar with insulin pump therapy and, thus, BA use. Findings from the Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS) revealed that BA use can be efficacious and clinically meaningful in MDI therapy, and that most patients are willing and able to use this technology appropriately when adequate clinical support is provided. The purpose of this article is to review key learnings from ABACUS and provide practical advice for initiating BA use and monitoring therapy.

  19. Adhesion of nitrile rubber to UV-assisted surface chemical modified PET fabric, part II: Interfacial characterization of MDI grafted PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavizadeh, Mahmoud; Jamshidi, Masoud

    2016-08-01

    Fiber to rubber adhesion is an important subject in rubber industry. It is well known that surface treatment (i.e. physical, mechanical and chemical) is an effective method to improve interfacial bonding of fibers and/or fabrics to rubbers. UV irradiation is an effective method which has been used to increase fabric-rubber interfacial interactions. In this research UV assisted chemical modification of PET fabrics was used to increase PET to nitrile rubber (NBR) adhesion. Nitrile rubber is a perfect selection as fuel and oil resistant rubber. However it has weak bonding to PET fabric. For this purpose PET fabric was carboxylated under UV irradiation and then methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was grafted on carboxylated PET. The chemical composition of the fabric before and after surface treatment was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sectional morphology of the experimental PET fibers and the interface between rubber compound and PET fabric was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphology and structure of the product were analyzed by an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). FTIR-ATR and H NMR analysis were used to assess surface modifications on the PET irradiated fabrics.

  20. Preparation and characterization of cross-linking PEG/MDI/PE copolymer as solid-solid phase change heat storage material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei-Dong [Key Laboratory of Cellulose and Lignocellulosics Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ding, En-Yong [Key Laboratory of Cellulose and Lignocellulosics Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China)

    2007-05-23

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are a series of functional materials with storing and releasing energy properties. PCMs can impact small environment around them through storing and releasing energy during phase change process. Phase change latent heat of PCMs has two main characters: one is high enthalpy and capacity of per unit volume and the other is that the temperature over phase change process keeps constant or changes slightly. PCMs have been widely used in lots of fields such as solar energy storing, smart housing, thermo-regulated fibers and agricultural greenhouse. In this article, a novel solid-solid phase change heat storage material was synthesized via the two-step condensation reaction of high molecule weight polyethylene glycol (PEG10000) with pentaerythritol (PE) and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). To characterize the resulting product in comparison with pristine PEG10000, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), polarization optical microscopy (POM) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements were employed to investigate their ingredients, thermal properties and crystalline behaviors. The results indicated that the cross-linking PCM showed typical solid-solid phase transition property, and its phase change enthalpy and crystallinity reached 152.97 kJ/kg and 81.76%, respectively. (author)

  1. Reconstruction of total and spectral solar irradiance from 1974 to 2013 based on KPVT, SoHO/MDI and SDO/HMI observations

    CERN Document Server

    Yeo, K L; Solanki, S K; Glassmeier, K H

    2014-01-01

    Total and spectral solar irradiance are key parameters in the assessment of solar influence on changes in the Earth's climate. We present a reconstruction of daily solar irradiance obtained using the SATIRE-S model spanning 1974 to 2013 based on full-disc observations from the KPVT, SoHO/MDI and SDO/HMI. SATIRE-S ascribes variation in solar irradiance on timescales greater than a day to photospheric magnetism. The solar spectrum is reconstructed from the apparent surface coverage of bright magnetic features and sunspots in the daily data using the modelled intensity spectra of these magnetic structures. We cross-calibrated the various data sets, harmonizing the model input so as to yield a single consistent time series as the output. The model replicates $92\\%$ of the variability in the PMOD TSI composite including the secular decline between the 1996 and 2008 solar cycle minima. The model also reproduces most of the variability in observed Lyman-alpha irradiance and the Mg II index. The UV solar irradiance m...

  2. Aberrant signature patterns of ATM, γ-H2AX and p53 proteins in the patients exposed to methyl isocyanate diagnosed with gallbladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURESH K. JATAWA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer of gallbladder is a hidden phenomenon and highly malignant with underprivileged diagnosis and poor survival. Study of cancer patterns amongst victims of Bhopal gas tragedy exposed to methyl isocyanate revealed higher incidence of gallbladder cancer that necessitated a more objective elucidation of the disease at its molecular level. Tissues of 92 cases of gallbladder cancer patients were taken in the study (31 men and 61 women, age range 16–85 years, mean age 45.8±1.50 years. Mutations of ATM, γ-H2AX and p53 were predominantly seen in the methyl isocyanate exposed cohort diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, with 61.4% (43/70, 54.3% (38/70 and 73% (51/70 respectively, involving infiltration into the papillary and mucinous region/cell types of the gallbladder. Out of these, the expression frequency of all the above three genes was higher in moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma in comparison to poorly and well-differentiated ones. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that ATM and p53 mutations provide fundamental genetic signatures influencing tumor behavior across patient subsets and invasiveness of the disease, while γ-H2AX is apparently an ordinary pathway involved in the genesis of tumors.

  3. Advances of Research on the Nonphosgenated Process for Isocyanates%异氰酸酯的非光气工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任天瑞; 汪永生; 李鹏鸽

    2003-01-01

      Isocyanates are important chemicals, widely used in medical and agricultural fields, and they are mostly produced by phosgenation, which, however, has severe environmental disadvantages. This paper reviews non-phosgenation methods for synthesis of isocyanates, including oxidative carbonization, reductive carbonization, CO2 method, dimethylcarbonate method and amide pyrolysis, which are considered as green processes.%  异氰酸酯是一类重要的化合物,在医药和农药等领域有广泛的用途。这类化合物常用的生产工艺是光气法,该工艺路线存在严重的环境缺陷。本文介绍和评价了近年来几种异氰酸酯的非光气合成方法及研究进展,其中两步氧化羰化法、还原羰化法,CO2法和碳酸二甲酯法是较有工业化前景的方法。

  4. Contribution of post-harvest agricultural paddy residue fires in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain to ambient carcinogenic benzenoids, toxic isocyanic acid and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praphulla Chandra, Boggarapu; Sinha, Vinayak

    2016-04-01

    In the North West Indo-Gangetic Plain (N.W.IGP), large scale post-harvest paddy residue fires occur every year during the months of October-November. This anthropogenic perturbation causes contamination of the atmospheric environment with adverse impacts on regional air quality posing health risks for the population exposed to high concentrations of carcinogens such as benzene and toxic VOCs such as isocyanic acid. These gases and carbon monoxide are known to be emitted from biomass fires along with acetonitrile. Yet no long-term in-situ measurements quantifying the impact of this activity have been carried out in the N.W. IGP. Using high quality continuous online in-situ measurements of these gases at a strategic downwind site over a three year period from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the strong impact of this anthropogenic emission activity on ambient concentrations of these gases. In contrast to the pre-paddy harvest period, excellent correlation of benzenoids, isocyanic acid and CO with acetonitrile (a biomass burning chemical tracer); (r ≥ 0.82) and distinct VOC/acetonitrile emission ratios were observed for the post-paddy harvest period which was also characterized by high ambient concentrations of these species. The average concentrations of acetonitrile (1.62 ± 0.18 ppb), benzene (2.51 ± 0.28 ppb), toluene (3.72 ± 0.41 ppb), C8-aromatics (2.88 ± 0.30 ppb), C9-aromatics (1.55 ± 0.19 ppb) and CO (552 ± 113 ppb) in the post-paddy harvest periods were about 1.5 times higher than the annual average concentrations. For isocyanic acid, a compound with both primary and secondary sources, the concentration in the post-paddy harvest period was 0.97 ± 0.17 ppb. The annual average concentrations of benzene, a class A carcinogen, exceeded the annual exposure limit of 1.6 ppb at NTP mandated by the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of India (NAAQS). We show that mitigating the post-harvest paddy residue fires can lower the annual average concentration of

  5. Durability of Aqueous Polymer Isocyanate Wood Adhesive%水性异氰酸酯木材胶黏剂耐久性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑敏; 时君友

    2015-01-01

    通过红外、热重和压剪强度分析,对水性异氰酸酯( API)木材胶黏剂在加速老化处理1~7个周期( A1~A7)和湿热老化处理1~7个周期( H1~H7)的耐久性进行了研究。红外分析表明:未处理的API胶膜( S)含有大量的异氰酸酯基团,A1~A7的API胶膜中异氰酸酯基团全部消失,H1~H3的API胶膜中仍有异氰酸酯吸收峰存在,但强度减弱, H4~H7的异氰酸酯基团消失。热重分析结果表明:A1~A4胶膜的初期热稳定性优于H1~H4,5~7个周期热稳定性几乎相同。在相同质量损失下,加速老化处理API胶膜更稳定, A1~A7降解活化能不完全相同,即降解速度不同;而H1~H7胶膜的活化能几乎相同。2种处理方法胶合制品的压剪强度随时间延长逐渐降低,加速老化处理到第3个周期压剪强度仅为5.32MPa,湿热老化处理到第5个周期压剪强度降为6.92 MPa,均达不到国家标准。%The durability of aqueous polymer isocyanate ( API) wood adhesive was studied under accelerated aging process for 1-7 cycles (A1-A7) and hydrothermal aging for 1 -7 cycles (H1 -H7) by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FT-IR) , thermogravimetric analysis( TGA) , and compressive shear strength analysis. FT-IR analysis showed that the untreated API film( S) contained a considerable amount of isocyanate group, whereas the isocyanate groups of API films for A1 -A7 disappeared. Absorption peaks of isocyanate group of API films for H1 - H3 still existed, but the intensity weakened. The isocyanate groups of API films for H4 -H7 also disappeared. TGA analysis showed that thermal stabilities of A1 -A4 in the initial stage were superior to those of H1-H4, but they were almost the same in the 5-7 cycles. Under the same weight loss, the API films with accelerated aging process were more stable, and the degradation activation energies of A1 -A7 were not exactly the same, namely, the degradation rates were different. However, the activation energies of H1

  6. 提高MDI型聚氨酯抗紫外光老化性能的研究%Enhancing UV- aging Resistance Properties of MDI - based Polyurethane Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟宗波; 王全杰

    2012-01-01

    通过向MDI型聚氨酯中添加不同抗老化助剂对其改性,利用色差、力学性能、光失重、红外光谱、热性能等测试方法,研究了改性前后聚氨酯的抗紫外光老化性能。结果表明:添加组合抗老化剂(HS-770+UV—P)可以有效抑制聚氨酯的光降解反应和交联反应,表现为能提高聚氨酯的色泽稳定性和力学性能保持率,减少光降解的产物,降低玻璃化转变温度(Tg)的变化程度。%MDI - based polyurethane coating was improved with several kinds of additives alone or in combination to enhance the resistance of this coating to UV light. An accelerated aging test was conducted with the aim of comparing the coatings contai ning different additives with blank coating. Color changes, mechanical properties and thermal properties of coatings were studied using various techniques. The results reveales that synergistic mixture (HS -770 + UV -P) is the most effective to suppress photo - degradation and cross - linking of PU, which could be expressed in the improvement of color stability and mechanical proper ties, as well as the decrement of the photolysis production and the change of Tg after UV -aging.

  7. An evaluation of the respiratory health status of automotive spray-painters exposed to paints containing hexamethylene di-isocyanates in the greater Durban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, B W; Lalloo, U G; Gouws, E; Colvin, M S

    1997-03-01

    A survey of automotive spray-painting establishments was undertaken to evaluate the respiratory health status of spray-painters exposed to paints containing hexamethylene di-isocyanates (HDIs). This was a cross-sectional study. Spray-painting establishments in the Durban municipal area. Spray-painters from a random sample of 40 (25%) of the registered spray-painting establishments were studied. Responses to an Interviewer-administered standardised respiratory health questionnaire and a cross-shift spirometric lung function test were obtained for each spray-painter, questionnaires assessing the firm's compliance with the spray-painting safety requirements were also obtained. The mean cross-shift decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was 130.5 ml (SD 203.19) (P = 0.0002). The lung function data indicated that of the 40 spray-painters examined, 10 (25%) showed clinically significant cross-shift decreases in FEV1, viz, decreases > 250 ml. Only 2 subjects had a diagnosis of asthma. Chronic respiratory symptoms of cough, wheeze and wheeze with breathlessness were similar to those noted in community-based studies. A high proportion had eye irritation (55%) and dermatitis of the hand (32%). The potential determinants of FEV1 were examined in a multiple linear regression analysis and only the isocyanate concentration levels approached statistical significance (P = 0.082), suggesting that other factors such as duration of exposure, spray-paint 'bounce-back' phenomenon, and 'healthy worker' effect may be more important. ('Bounce back' refers to the phenomenon whereby some of the mist from the spray-gun, after striking the surface being painted, is deflected back into the operator's breathing zone in the form of fine droplets or aerosols.) Forty per cent of the 40 spray booths had ventilation standards substantially below that specified in current South African legislation. Only 21 (55%) spray-painters were provided with the regulation respiratory protective

  8. Gas-grain Modeling of Isocyanic Acid (HNCO), Cyanic Acid (HOCN), Fulminic Acid (HCNO), and Isofulminic Acid (HONC) in Assorted Interstellar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Donghui; Herbst, Eric; Osamura, Yoshihiro; Roueff, Evelyne

    2010-12-01

    Isocyanic acid (HNCO) is a well-known interstellar molecule. Evidence also exists for the presence of two of its metastable isomers in the interstellar medium: HCNO (fulminic acid) and HOCN (cyanic acid). Fulminic acid has been detected toward cold and lukewarm sources, while cyanic acid has been detected both in these sources and in warm sources in the Galactic Center. Gas-phase models can reproduce the abundances of the isomers in cold sources, but overproduce HCNO in the Galactic Center. Here we present a detailed study of a gas-grain model that contains these three isomers, plus a fourth isomer, isofulminic acid (HONC), for four types of sources: hot cores, the warm envelopes of hot cores, lukewarm corinos, and cold cores. The current model is partially able to rationalize the abundances of HNCO, HOCN, and HCNO in cold and warm sources. Predictions for HONC in all environments are also made.

  9. Improved thermal stability of poly(vinyl chloride) by nanoscale layered double hydroxide particles grafted with toluene-2,4-di-isocyanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jun [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Laboratory of New Materials, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen Guangming, E-mail: chengm@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Laboratory of New Materials, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang Jiping, E-mail: jyang@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ding Liping [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Center for Physiochemical Analysis and Measurement (CPAM), Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A novel interlamellar surface modification of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) via covalent bonding by toluene-2,4-di-isocyanate (TDI) has been successfully obtained, and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/TDI-modified LDH nanocomposites have been prepared via solution intercalation process. After the interlamellar modification, TDI was grafted to the surface hydroxyl groups of LDHs with nitrate, dodecyl sulfate or stearate anion as counterion anion. The structures of the TDI-modified LDHs and the nanocomposites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The enhanced thermal stability of PVC/TDI-modified LDH nanocomposites was confirmed by means of conventional Congo Red test and dynamic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, the thermal degradation mechanism was briefly discussed on the basis of the above experimental results.

  10. Automated bolus advisor control and usability study (ABACUS: does use of an insulin bolus advisor improve glycaemic control in patients failing multiple daily insulin injection (MDI therapy? [NCT01460446

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavan David A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with T1DM and insulin-treated T2DM often do not follow and/or adjust their insulin regimens as needed. Key contributors to treatment non-adherence are fear of hypoglycaemia, difficulty and lack of self-efficacy associated with insulin dose determination. Because manual calculation of insulin boluses is both complex and time consuming, people may rely on empirical estimates, which can result in persistent hypoglycaemia and/or hyperglycaemia. Use of automated bolus advisors (BA has been shown to help insulin pump users to more accurately meet prandial insulin dosage requirements, improve postprandial glycaemic excursions, and achieve optimal glycaemic control with an increased time within optimal range. Use of a BA containing an early algorithm based on sliding scales for insulin dosing has also been shown to improve HbA1c levels in people treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI. We designed a study to determine if use of an automated BA can improve clinical and psychosocial outcomes in people treated with MDI. Methods/design The Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS is a 6-month, prospective, randomised, multi-centre, multi-national trial to determine if automated BA use improves glycaemic control as measured by a change in HbA1c in people using MDI with elevated HbA1c levels (#62;7.5%. A total of 226 T1DM and T2DM participants will be recruited. Anticipated attrition of 20% will yield a sample size of 90 participants, which will provide #62;80% power to detect a mean difference of 0.5%, with SD of 0.9%, using a one-sided 5% t-test, with 5% significance level. Other measures of glycaemic control, self-care behaviours and psychosocial issues will also be assessed. Discussion It is critical that healthcare providers utilise available technologies that both facilitate effective glucose management and address concerns about safety and lifestyle. Automated BAs may help people using MDI to

  11. Novel metallomesogenic polyurethanes: Synthesis, characterization and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthilkumar, Natarajan, E-mail: nskumar77@yahoo.com [Production Technology Research Center, Samsung Cheil Industries, 62 Pyeongyeo-dong, Yeosu-si, JeonNam 555-210 (Korea, Republic of); Narasimhaswamy, Tanneru [Polymer Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai 600 020 (India); Kim, Il-Jin [Production Technology Research Center, Samsung Cheil Industries, 62 Pyeongyeo-dong, Yeosu-si, JeonNam 555-210 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-01

    A series of tetradentate Schiff base metallomesogenic diols were synthesized from two simple dihydroxy benzenes. The metallomesogenic diol was constructed from three ring containing mesogen linked through ester and azomethine with terminal hydroxy group. This upon complexation with copper(II) formed metallomesogenic diol with varying terminal chain length. A series of metallomesogenic polyurethanes were synthesized using these metallomesogenic diols as chain extenders for the prepolymers based on polytetramethylene glycol (PTMG) of varying molecular weight (M{sub n} = 650, 2000) and 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI), or 4,4 Prime -methylene bis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI). The molar ratio of metallomesogenic diol and PTMG were varied in the polyurethane to find their role in liquid crystalline and mechanical properties. Extensive characterization of all metallomesogenic compounds and intermediates were carried out by FT-IR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, EPR, VSM, Mass (EI and FAB) and UV-visible spectroscopy. Hot stage polarizing microscope and differential scanning calorimetry were used to ensure the phase characteristics such as nature of phase, melting and clearing temperatures and phase range. The appearance of enantiotropic smectic A phases indicated high molecular polarizability of the core due to the metal ion. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design and synthesis of metallomesogenic diols. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metallomesogenic polyurethanes were prepared using these diols as chain extenders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Liquid crystalline and mechanical properties were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A square pyramidal structure for the copper(II) complexes have been proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyurethanes exhibited enantiotropic smectic A phases.

  12. Facile synthesis of 1,3,4-benzotriazepines and 1-arylamide-1H-indazoles via palladium-catalyzed cyclization of aryl isocyanates and aryl hydrazones under microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chune; Xie, Lingli; Mou, Xiaohong; Zhong, Yashan; Su, Wei

    2010-11-07

    A strategy involving palladium-catalyzed cyclization of halo-phenyl hydrazones and aryl isocyanates provides a convenient approach to the synthesis of 1,3,4-benzotriazepines (4) or 1-arylamide-1H-indazoles (5) in good isolated yields. Microwave irradiation was found to afford high reaction efficiency, while the choice of halophenyl hydrazone had an effect on the pathway of the reaction.

  13. Bioactivation of a dihydropyrazole-1-carboxylic acid-(4-chlorophenyl amide) scaffold to a putative p-chlorophenyl isocyanate in rat liver microsomes and in vivo in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Yanhua; Edmunds, Jeremy; Bigge, Christopher; Mutlib, Abdul

    2008-05-01

    Compound I (4,5-dihydropyrazole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid-1-[(4-chlorophenyl)-amide] 5-[(2-oxo-2 H-[1,3']bipyridinyl-6'-yl)-amide] was found to undergo metabolic activation in rat liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH. A reactive intermediate, postulated to be p-chlorophenyl isocyanate (CPIC), was trapped by GSH in vitro and characterized by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Subsequently, the structure of the GSH conjugate was confirmed by a comparison with a synthetic standard. The GSH conjugate was also found in the bile of rats that received an oral dose (10 mg/kg) of compound I. Further analyses of rat bile and urine using online electrochemical derivatization coupled to LC/MS demonstrated the presence of p-chlorophenyl aniline (CPA), a hydrolytic product of the intermediate isocyanate. This provided further evidence for the potential existence of CPIC. Approximately 7% of the dose was accounted by the products of CPIC, which included the GSH conjugate and CPA excreted in bile and urine. Multiple rat cytochrome P450 enzymes, including P450 1A, P450 2C, and P450 3A, appeared to be responsible for the activation of compound I to CPIC. The activation kinetics of compound I to CPIC in male rat liver microsomes exhibited a biphasic profile, indicative of at least two contributing P450 enzymes. One enzyme showed a small value of K m at 42 microM and a low V max of 66 pmol min (-1) mg (-1), while the other exhibited a large value of K m at 148 microM and a high V max of 1200 pmol min (-1) mg (-1). The formation of a putative CPIC intermediate, a carbamoylating species known to be capable of covalent binding to macromolecules, suggests a potential liability associated with the compound, particularly the dihydropyrazole-1-carboxylic acid-(4-chlorophenyl amide) scaffold, which appears to be responsible for the generation of CPIC. The mechanism of bioactivation to the putative CPIC is postulated to involve an initial P450-mediated hydroxylation of

  14. 异氰酸酯改性纳米粒子的制备方法与应用%The Preparation and Applications of Isocyanates Modified Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜爱军; 王雅丽; 李会宁; 曹德榕

    2014-01-01

    综述了异氰酸酯改性纳米粒子的制备方法、分散稳定性及其接枝聚合物形成纳米复合材料的性能特征。概括了经接枝改性后形成的有机/无机杂化纳米复合材料在涂料、生物医疗等领域广泛的应用前景和研究价值,提出了今后纳米复合材料研究的重点和方向。%The preparation methods, advantages, dispersing stability and the performance characteristics of nanocomposites formed by isocyanates modified nanoparticles were reviewed. The organic/inorganic hybrid nano-composite prepared by grafting and modification were proposed,their widespread application prospect and research value in coatings,biomedical and other fields were also summarized,furthermore,the future research orientation and focus of nanocomposites were proposed.

  15. Research progress in preparation of polyimide via isocyanate method%异氰酸酯法制备聚酰亚胺的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周成飞

    2015-01-01

    Polyimide is an extremely important high temperature resistant polymer with excellent heat resist-ance and oxidation resistance, and also has excellent physical and mechanical properties, flame retardant proper-ties, dielectric properties, insulation and radiation resistance. In this paper, the preparation of polyimide using iso-cyanate method was summarized, and the applications of the polyimide in foams, nanocomposites, aerogels, aero-gels and membranes were introduced in detail.%聚酰亚胺是一种极其重要的耐高温聚合物,具有优异的耐热性和抗热氧化性能,同时还具有优异的物理机械性能、阻燃性能、介电性能、绝缘性能及耐辐射性能。笔者介绍了利用异氰酸酯来制备聚酰亚胺的方法,并详细介绍了用该法制备聚酰亚胺在泡沫材料、纳米复合材料、气凝胶、膜材料等方面的应用。

  16. Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. III. Influence on gas exchange in the guinea pig lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedde, M.R.; Dodd, D.E.; Troup, C.M.; Fowler, E.H.

    1987-06-01

    The influence of methyl isocyanate (MIC) inhalation on the gas exchange function of the lungs in guinea pigs was studied by measuring arterial blood gases, pH, and tracheal pressure during constant-volume, artificial ventilation with air or 100% O/sub 2/ at 40 and 120 min after exposure. A 15 min exposure to MIC at concentrations of 240 to 628 ppm caused a marked reduction in PaO/sub 2/ and pH/sub a/ and an elevated tracheal pressure during artificial ventilation. The low PaO/sub 2/ was only slightly elevated when the animals were ventilated with 100% O/sub 2/. Although the dry-wet lung weight ratio was reduced at the highest exposure concentration, the effect was not severe and no significant increase in lung water was found at the lower concentrations. MIC inhalation caused severe pulmonary blood shunting and ventilation/perfusion imbalance. This, in turn, led to hypoxemia, metabolic acidosis, and tissue hypoxia, which could produce death. The pulmonary gas exchange deficit likely resulted from bronchial and bronchiolar obstruction caused by sloughed epithelium and other debris from intra- and extrapulmonary airways.

  17. Influence of Functionalization Degree on the Rheological Properties of Isocyanate-Functionalized Chitin- and Chitosan-Based Chemical Oleogels for Lubricant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Gallego

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the influence of functionalization degree on the thermogravimetric and rheological behaviour of NCO-functionalized chitosan- and chitin-based oleogels. Chitosan and chitin were functionalized using different proportions of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI and subsequently dispersed in castor oil to promote the chemical reaction between the –NCO group of the modified biopolymer and the –OH group located in the ricinoleic fatty acid chain of castor oil, thus resulting in different oleogels with specific thermogravimetric and rheological characteristics. Biopolymers and oleogels were characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS measurements were performed on the oleogels. Oleogels presented suitable thermal resistance, despite the fact that the inclusion of HMDI moieties in the polymer structure led to a reduction in the onset temperature of thermal degradation. The insertion of low amounts of HMDI in both chitin and chitosan produces a drastic reduction in the values of oleogel viscoelastic functions but, above a critical threshold, they increase with the functionalization degree so that isocyanate functionalization results in a chemical tool to modulate oleogel rheological response. Several NCO-functionalized chitosan- and chitin-based oleogel formulations present suitable thermal resistance and rheological characteristics to be proposed as bio-based alternatives to traditional lubricating greases.

  18. Activation of electrophilicity of stable Y-delocalized carbamate cations in intramolecular aromatic substitution reaction: evidence for formation of diprotonated carbamates leading to generation of isocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurouchi, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Hiromichi; Nakamura, Satoshi; Otani, Yuko; Ohwada, Tomohiko

    2012-10-19

    Although cations with three heteroatoms, such as monoprotonated guanidine and urea, are stabilized by Y-shaped conjugation and such Y-conjugated cations are sufficiently basic to be further protonated (or protosolvated) to dications in strongly acid media, only O-monoprotonated species have been detected in the case of carbamates even in magic acid. We found that the trifluoromethanesulfonic acid-catalyzed cyclization of arylethylcarbamates proceeds to afford dihydroisoquinolones in high yield. In strong acids, methyl carbamates are fully O-monoprotonated, and these monocations do not undergo cyclization even under heating. But, as the acidity of the reaction medium is further increased, the cyclization reaction of methyl phenethylcarbamates starts to proceed as a first-order reaction, with a linear relationship between rate and acidity. The sign and magnitude of the entropy of activation ΔS(‡) were found to be similar to those of other A(Ac)1 reactions. These results strongly support the idea that further protonation of the O-protonated carbamates is involved in the cyclization, but the concentration of the dications is very low and suggests that the rate-determining step is dissociation of methanol from the diprotonated carbamate to generate protonated isocyanate, which reacts with the aromatic ring. Therefore, O-protonated carbamates are weak bases in sharp contrast to other Y-shaped monocations.

  19. On improving of filter paper water resistance with water based blocked isocyanate%用封端型水性聚氨酯固化剂提高滤纸耐水性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞佳; 贺江平; 白蕊

    2012-01-01

    采用甲苯二异氰酸酯( TDI)、聚丙二醇-400( PPG -400)为原料,丙酮为溶剂,亚硫酸氢钠为封端剂,借助外乳化法,合成了一种封端型水性聚氨酯固化剂.将这种固化剂与一定比例的淀粉糊化液混合后,对汽车工业用滤纸进行耐水性能整理.实验结果表明,在一定温度下封端型水性聚氨酯固化剂解封出异氰酸酯基与吸附在滤纸上的淀粉及滤纸自身的羟基反应生成氨基甲酸酯,能够有效地提高滤纸的耐水性;同时也赋予滤纸良好的硬挺度、强度、透气性.合成成本低廉、方法简单.%Using toluene disocyanate (TDI) and polypropylene glycol-400 (PPG-400) as the raw materials and sodium bisulfite as the blocking agent,the water-soluble blocked isocyanate was prepared in acetone by external emulsion method.The mixture of the blocked isocyanate and starch paste in proper proportion was used to carry out the water resistance finishing of the filter paper used in auto industry.The results showed that at a certain temperature the blocked isocyanate deblocked to release the isocyanate groups which were able to react with the hydroxyl groups of starch adsorped on the filter paper and paper itself and form the urethane linkages, which can effectively increase the water resistance of filter paper and give the filter paper with a good stiffness,strength,permeability.Further more,this synthetic method was simple and cost-effective.

  20. Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Two Formulations ofIpratropium Bromide (IB) HFA pMDI in Patients withChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajendra Mehta[1; Salil Bhargava[2; Santhalingam Balamurugan[3; Nazma Morde[4; Juliet Rebello[4; Jaideep Gogtay[4; Geena Malhotra[4; Shrinivas Purandare[4

    2014-01-01

    Ipratropium bromide (IB) is an effective treatment for reversible bronchospasm associated with COPD. Cipla Ltd. hasdeveloped a formulation of lpratropium bromide pMDI (Test IB) which is designed to be equivalent to the originator product Atrovent HFA pMDI (Reference IB) as a cost effective alternative for the treatment of COPD. The objective of the study was to establishnon-inferiority of the Test 1B to Reference 1B in patients with stable COPD. In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, doubledummy, parallel group study, patients aged 〉 40 years were randomized to receive 2 puffs three times daily (TID) of either the Test IBor Reference IB for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change from pre dose to post dose FEVj at 90 min at the end of 12 weeks.Secondary endpoints included FVC, symptom score, rescue medication use and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ).Safety and tolerability included evaluation of adverse events (AEs), vital signs assessments, physical examination and any change inconcomitant medications. A total of 395 patients were randomized to either the Test IB (n = 199) or the Reference IB (n = 196); themajority of patients were male with a mean pre-bronchodilator FEV1 (% predicted) of 60%. The per protocol set comprised of 258patients (n = 129 in each treatment group). The mean treatment difference between the Test IB and Reference 1B for the primaryendpoint (mean change in FEV1 from pre-dose to 90 rain post dose at 12 weeks) was -0.003 L and the lower limit of the 95% confidenceinterval (CI) for the difference between the two products was -0.041 Lwhich is greater than the predefined non inferiority limit of-0.100 L. No significant difference was seen between the Test IB and Reference IB for any secondary efficacy variables. The AEprofile was also comparable between the two treatments. The results indicate that the Test 1B (Ipratropium Bromide HFA pMD1, CiplaLtd.) is non

  1. The abbreviated impactor measurement (AIM) concept: part 1--Influence of particle bounce and re-entrainment-evaluation with a "dry" pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI)-based formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J P; Nagel, M W; Avvakoumova, V; MacKay, H; Ali, R

    2009-01-01

    The abbreviated impactor measurement concept is a potential improvement to the labor-intensive full-resolution cascade impactor methodology for inhaler aerosol aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) measurement by virtue of being simpler and therefore quicker to execute. At the same time, improved measurement precision should be possible by eliminating stages upon which little or no drug mass is collected. Although several designs of abbreviated impactor systems have been developed in recent years, experimental work is lacking to validate the technique with aerosols produced by currently available inhalers. In part 1 of this two-part article that focuses on aerosols produced by pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs), the evaluation of two abbreviated impactor systems (Copley fast screening Andersen impactor and Trudell fast screening Andersen impactor), based on the full-resolution eight-stage Andersen nonviable cascade impactor (ACI) operating principle, is reported with a formulation producing dry particles. The purpose was to investigate the potential for non-ideal collection behavior associated with particle bounce in relation to internal losses to surfaces from which particles containing active pharmaceutical ingredient are not normally recovered. Both abbreviated impactors were found to be substantially equivalent to the full-resolution ACI in terms of extra-fine and fine particle and coarse mass fractions used as metrics to characterize the APSD of these pMDI-produced aerosols when sampled at 28.3 L/min, provided that precautions are taken to coat collection plates to minimize bounce and entrainment.

  2. Ultraviolet Aging Resistance of MDI-based Polyurethane Coatings Containing ZnO Nanoparticles%纳米ZnO提高MDI型聚氨酯抗紫外光老化性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟宗波; 王全杰; 武文玲

    2013-01-01

    Nano - filled MDI - based polyurethane coatings were prepared by incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles treated by γ - aminopropyltriethoxysilane, and accelerated aging test was conducted. Grain - size analysis, TGA and TEM show that treated ZnO nanoparticles has better dispersion and smaller agglomeration, compared with untreated counterparts. SEM micrographs show that nano ZnO has good dispersion in the PU matrix. Colourimetry measurements, mechanical properties and thermal properties of coatings exposed to a QUV chamber for 72h were studied. The results indicate that PU/ZnO nano - composites has better UV resistance : lower color changes and degradation degree, and higher mechanical properties. However ATR - FT - IR analysis shows that changes of chain groups of PU/ZnO nano - composites are in agreement with pure PU after aging.%向MDI型PU中添加偶联剂γ-氨丙基三乙氧基硅烷(KH-550)处理的纳米ZnO进行共混改性,并利用加速老化试验测试其抗UV光老化性能.粒度分析、TGA、TEM等表明,KH-550有效提高了纳米ZnO的分散性能.SEM表明,经改性后的纳米粒子在PU膜中的分散性能比未改性纳米粒子明显提高.色差、力学性能、DSC等表明,PU/ZnO纳米复合材料受UV光照射72h后,颜色变化减少,链段降解程度降低,力学性能保持率提高.但ATR-FT-IR表明UV光老化后,PU/ZnO纳米复合材料表面的基团变化与PU表面的基团变化一致.

  3. Ultraviolet Aging Resistance of MDI-based Polyurethane Coatings Containing ZnO Nanoparticles%纳米ZnO提高MDI型聚氨酯抗紫外光老化性能研究(续)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟宗波; 王全杰; 武文玲

    2013-01-01

    Nano - filled MDI - based polyurethane coatings were prepared by incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles treated by γ - aminopropyltriethoxysilane, and accelerated aging test was conducted. Grain - size analysis, TGA and TEM show that treated ZnO nanoparticles has better dispersion and smaller agglomeration, compared with untreated counterparts. SEM micrographs show that nano ZnO has good dispersion in the PU matrix. Colourimetry measurements, mechanical properties and thermal properties of coatings exposed to a QUV chamber for 72h were studied. The results indicate that PU/ZnO nano - composites has better UV resistance : lower color changes and degradation degree, and higher mechanical properties. However ATR - FT - IR analysis shows that changes of chain groups of PU/ZnO nano - composites are in agreement with pure PU after aging.%向MDI型PU中添加偶联剂γ-氨丙基三乙氧基硅烷(KH-550)处理的纳米ZnO进行共混改性,并利用加速老化试验测试其抗UV光老化性能.粒度分析、TGA、TEM等表明,KH-550有效提高了纳米ZnO的分散性能.SEM表明,经改性后的纳米粒子在PU膜中的分散性能比未改性纳米粒子明显提高.色差、力学性能、DSC等表明,PU/ZnO纳米复合材料受UV光照射72h后,颜色变化减少,链段降解程度降低,力学性能保持率提高.但ATR-FT-IR表明UV光老化后,PU/ZnO纳米复合材料表面的基团变化与PU表面的基团变化一致.

  4. Improvement of the Test Method of Isocyanate Group Content in Polyurethane Prepolymer%聚氨酯合成革浆料预聚过程NCO测定方法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建福; 黄慧珍; 林洵

    2012-01-01

    The dimethylformamide-dibutylamine method for testing isocyanate group content in polyurethane prepolymer is developed.The results indicated that the new test method was similar to the traditional method in the accuracy,but had the higher precision.This new method is accurate,simple and effective,and reduces the test cost.%以二甲基甲酰胺作溶剂,采用二正丁胺滴定法测定聚氨酯合成革预聚体中的异氰酸酯基含量,发现用二甲基甲酰胺—二正丁胺法测定值与传统方法相比准确度相差不大,但精确度较高,本方法精确、简便,有效降低了实验成本。

  5. 端胺基非异氰酸酯预聚体嵌段共聚聚醚型聚氨酯%Prepolymers of Amino-terminal Non-isocyanate Block Copolymerized with Polyether-based Polyurethane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋赫; 邓新华; 孙元

    2012-01-01

    Modified polyether polyurethane and its film were prepared from prepolymer of amino- terminal non-isocyanate polyurethane and prepolymer of polyether-based polyurethane via block copolymerization. Synthesis condition of non-isocyanate prepolymer was analyzed; The impact of film-forming temperature and value of NCO and NH2 ratio on mechanical properties of membrane were investigated; Mechanical properties of different polyurethane materials were compared; Degree of phase separation was studied using differential scanning calorimetry(DSC). It showed that carbamate group was introduced into the amino-terminal non-isocyanate prepolymer; The best film-forming temperature was 140 ℃; When NCO/NH2 of prepolymer was 1/0. 9, the best performance was obtained, tensile strength of 25.1 MPa, modulus of 100% elongation of 5 MPa. Compared with regular polyurethane, polyurethane block with amino-terminal non-isocyanate polyurethane prepolymer had higher mechanical properties; DSC curves showed two different glass transition temperatures indicating phase separation.%用端胺基非异氰酸酯基聚氨酯预聚体与聚醚型聚氨酯预聚体嵌段共聚制备了改性聚醚型聚氨酯及其膜,分析了端胺基非异氰酸酯基聚氨酯预聚体,考查了聚醚型聚氨脂树脂成膜温度和预聚体的NCO/NH2配比对膜力学性能的影响,同时对比了聚氨酯材料的力学性能,采用差示扫描量热法(DSC)研究了相分离程度。结果表明,合成的端胺基非异氰酸酯基聚氨酯预聚体中成功地引入了氨基甲酸酯基团;最佳成膜温度为140℃;当预聚体的NCO/NH2=1/0.9(摩尔比,下同)时膜的性能最好,拉伸强度为25.1MPa,伸长100%模量为5MPa;与普通聚氨酯相比,端胺基非异氰酸酯基聚氨酯预聚体嵌段的聚氨酯力学性能更高;DSC曲线显示其有2个不同的玻璃化转变温度,相分离明昂。

  6. Overview of VOC emissions and chemistry from PTR-TOF-MS measurements during the SusKat-ABC campaign: high acetaldehyde, isoprene and isocyanic acid in wintertime air of the Kathmandu Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Sinha, Vinayak; Kumar, Vinod; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Panday, Arnico; Mahata, Khadak S.; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Kathayat, Bhogendra; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-03-01

    = 60.051), which can photochemically produce isocyanic acid in the atmosphere, are reported in this study along with nitromethane (a tracer for diesel exhaust), which has only recently been detected in ambient studies. Two distinct periods were selected during the campaign for detailed analysis: the first was associated with high wintertime emissions of biogenic isoprene and the second with elevated levels of ambient acetonitrile, benzene and isocyanic acid from biomass burning activities. Emissions from biomass burning and biomass co-fired brick kilns were found to be the dominant sources for compounds such as propyne, propene, benzene and propanenitrile, which correlated strongly with acetonitrile (r2 > 0.7), a chemical tracer for biomass burning. The calculated total VOC OH reactivity was dominated by acetaldehyde (24.0 %), isoprene (20.2 %) and propene (18.7 %), while oxygenated VOCs and isoprene collectively contributed to more than 68 % of the total ozone production potential. Based on known secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields and measured ambient concentrations in the Kathmandu Valley, the relative SOA production potential of VOCs were benzene > naphthalene > toluene > xylenes > monoterpenes > trimethylbenzenes > styrene > isoprene. The first ambient measurements from any site in South Asia of compounds with significant health effects such as isocyanic acid, formamide, acetamide, naphthalene and nitromethane have been reported in this study. Our results suggest that mitigation of intense wintertime biomass burning activities, in particular point sources such biomass co-fired brick kilns, would be important to reduce the emission and formation of toxic VOCs (such as benzene and isocyanic acid) in the Kathmandu Valley.

  7. Effect of Soft Segment Structure on Mechanical Properties and Dynamic Viscoelastic Properties of MDI Based TPU%软段结构对MDI型TPU力学性能和动态黏弹性能的影响∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗景; 易玉华

    2016-01-01

    分别以聚己二酸乙二醇酯二醇( PEA)、聚四氢呋喃醚二醇( PTMG)、聚己内酯二醇( PCL)及聚碳酸己二醇酯二醇( PCDL)作为软段,以二苯基甲烷二异氰酸酯( MDI)和扩链剂1,4⁃丁二醇( BDO)作为硬段,采用预聚体法制备了4种不同软段结构的热塑性聚氨酯弹性体( TPU)。研究了不同的软段结构对弹性体的力学性能和动态黏弹性能的影响。结果表明,PTMG由于分子间作用力小,由其制备的TPU力学性能较低,但动态黏弹性能较好,内生热低;PCDL由于极性大、结晶性强,由其制备的TP U力学性能好,但内生热较大。%With the prepolymerization method, a series of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer(TPU) were syn⁃thesized using polyethylene adipate diol(PEA), polytetramethylene glycol(PTMG), polycaprolactone diol(PCL) and poly⁃carbonate⁃hexane diol(PCDL) as the soft segments, 4,4′⁃diphenylmethane diisocyanate(MDI) and 1,4⁃butane⁃diol(BDO) as the hard segments. The effect of soft segment structure on mechanical properties and dynamic perform⁃ance of TPUs was discussed. The results showed that the PTMG⁃TPU with small intermolecular force had a low me⁃chanical properties, better dynamic viscoelastic properties and low endogenous heat. Due to the higher polar and crys⁃tallinity, the TPU prepared by PCDL had a good mechanical property and larger endogenous heat.

  8. Preparation and Properties of PCDL/MDI Type Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomer%PCDL/MDI型热塑性聚氨酯弹性体的制备与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉龙; 李振中; 白静静

    2014-01-01

    以聚碳酸酯二醇(PCDL)、4,4’-二苯基甲烷二异氰酸酯(MDI)和1,4-丁二醇(BDO)为原料,通过两步法制备了硬段含量分别为31%,38%,44%的PCDL/MDI型热塑性聚氨酯(PUR-T)弹性体,并利用拉力试验机,邵氏硬度计,X射线衍射仪,维卡软化点测定仪,动态流变仪和偏光显微镜等测试表征手段,对PUR-T弹性体的力学性能、耐热变形性能、动态流变性能以及结晶等进行了研究。结果表明,随着硬段含量的增加,PUR-T弹性体的硬度、拉伸强度和定伸应力均逐渐增大,而断裂伸长率呈下降趋势,其中当硬段含量为44%时,PUR-T弹性体的邵氏A硬度为91,拉伸强度达到24.78 MPa,300%定伸应力为12.40 MPa,而断裂伸长率为558.62%;X射线衍射图中只有宽的漫散射峰,没有锐的结晶峰,表明PUR-T弹性体呈无定形状态;PUR-T弹性体的硬段含量为31%时,维卡软化温度为83℃,而PUR-T弹性体的硬段含量为44%时,维卡软化温度达到128℃,抗热变形能力显著提高;PUR-T弹性体的熔体复数黏度均随着角频率的增加而下降,表现为剪切变稀现象,材料为假塑性流体,并且PUR-T弹性体的储能模量均随着温度的升高而降低;经过热处理后,PUR-T弹性体均有球晶生成,且结晶能力随硬段含量的增加而提高。%Using polycarbonate diol(PCDL),4,4’-two phenyl methane diisocyanate(MDI) and 1,4-butane diol(BDO) as raw materials,a series of novel thermoplastic polyurethane(PUR-T) elastomer containing 33%,38%,44% hard segment were prepared by two-type method. The PUR-T elastomer properties such as mechanical properties,thermal deformation resistance, dynamic rheological properties and crystallization properties were tested by tensile testing machine,shore hardness tester,X-ray diffractometer,thermal deformation vicat point tester,dynamic rheometer,polarizing microscope,etc.. The results show that the hardness

  9. Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis Induced by Suction Isocyanate:A Case Report and Literature Review%吸入异氰酸酯致外源性变应性肺泡炎报告并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晋渊; 韩锋锋; 黄雁西; 管雯斌; 李惠民; 郭雪君

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨外源性变应性肺泡炎( extrinsic allergic alveolitis,EAA)的临床特点及诊疗思路。方法回顾分析1例吸入异氰酸酯所致 EAA的诊治经过,并复习相关文献。结果患者表现为反复咳嗽、发热及活动后气促。外院胸部高分辨率 CT( HRCT)检查示双肺弥漫性间质病变,诊断为间质性肺炎,予相应治疗病情无好转。入我科后追问病史,发现有异氰酸酯吸入史。支气管肺泡灌洗液( BALF)细胞分类淋巴细胞增多。转胸外科行右下肺楔形切除术,术后病理检查确诊 EAA。予甲泼尼龙治疗14个月,临床症状及胸部 HRCT 表现均得到明显改善。结论胸部HRCT检查对 EAA的诊断和鉴别诊断有较大价值,肺活组织病理检查是其确诊手段。随着工业发展,临床医师应警惕吸入异氰酸酯等小分子化合物所致 EAA。%Objective To explore the clinical features and treatment of extrinsic allergic alveolitis( EAA). Methods The diagnosis and treatment of one patient with EAA induced by isocyanate suction was reviewed,and the relevant literature was also reviewed. Results The patient suffered chronic cough,fever and accelerated breathing after activities. In other hos-pitals,the chest high-resolution computed tomography( HRCT)showed diffuse interstitial substance pathological changes in hibateral pulmones,and the patient was diagnosed as having interstitial pneumonia,but the patient′s condition did not improve after corresponding treatment. In our department,the patient was found to have a history of isocyanate suction after history en-quiry. Lymphocytosis was found after bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF)cell classification. After the thoracic surgery,right pulmonary wedge resection was performed,and then the diagnosis of EAA was confirmed by postoperative pathological exami-nation. The patient′s manifestations and chest HRCT symptoms significantly improved after methylprednisolone

  10. Optimal designing of phosgene recovery system for 3-chloro-4-methyl phenyl isocyanate process units%3-氯-4-甲基苯基异氰酸酯装置光气回收系统优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕荣山; 李明

    2014-01-01

    传统冷凝回收3-氯-4-甲基苯基异氰酸酯(CMPI)生产装置尾气的方法具有以下不足:不能保证光气完全回收,而一旦光气进入尾气破坏系统,不仅会增加产品的成本,而且还会降低系统安全性、增加碱液消耗和废水排放;文献中研究的甲苯二异氰酸酯装置的尾气回收系统,由于反应条件的不同,不能适用于常压CMPI装置。本文以年产2000 t CMPI常压反应装置为例,对其光气回收系统进行了模拟分析和优化设计,确定了满足工艺要求的最佳理论塔板数为12,最佳吸收剂甲苯用量为780 kg/h。对常压装置与高压装置光气回收系统进行了比较,认为常压装置的光气回收系统需要更多的吸收剂用量,但是不需要在塔中增加中间冷却器,并给出了理论上的解释。考虑异氰酸酯生产工艺的共性,本文研究结论可以推广应用于其他类似异氰酸酯装置。%The traditional method of phosgene recovery for 3-chloro-4-methyl phenyl isocyanate (CMPI) equipments has following disadvantages:The phosgene cannot be recovered completely. Once the phosgene goes to the off-gas,there would be some bad consequence such as:the security of system is decrease;the security of system,the cost of production,the consumption of sodium hydroxide and the discharge of waste water are increase. The research in references which studied the phosgene recovery for producing toluene diisocyanate cannot be used in CMPI system for the difference of reactive conditions. An equipment of 2000 t/a for producing CMPI was taken for example,the phosgene recovery system was simulated and optimally designed:Under the condition of meeting the technological requirements,the number of theoretical plates was identified as 12 and the optimal feeding rate was defined as 780 kg/h. We as compared the phosgene recovery systems of normal pressure reactive system and that of high pressure. The results showed that

  11. Synthesis and anticorrosive properties of waterborne isocyanate functionalized graphene/polyurethane nanocomposite emulsion%水性异氰酸酯改性石墨烯/聚氨酯复合乳液防腐性能研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱科; 李小瑞; 李菁熠; 费贵强; 王佼

    2016-01-01

    通过逐步聚合反应将异氰酸酯功能化石墨烯(IGN)接枝到水性聚氨酯(WPU)链段中,制备得到水性异氰酸酯改性石墨烯/聚氨酯纳米复合乳液(IGN/WPU).通过傅里叶变换红外的光谱(红外光谱)、原子力显微镜(AFM)、扫描电镜(SEM)对氧化石墨烯(GO)、IGN、WPU 及 IGN/WPU 复合材料的结构进行表征,并研究了IGN含量对复合乳液作为金属防腐涂层性能的影响.结果表明,随IGN含量增加,涂层硬度提高,水蒸气透过率下降,防腐效率增大.当m(IGN)=1%(质量分数)时,涂层硬度达到了2H,水蒸气透过率降低到51.98 g/m2. h,与空白样相比防腐效率提高了94.70%.%Waterborne isocyanate functionalized graphene/polyurethane nanocomposite emulsion has been pre-pared through step by step polymerization reaction,which isocyanate functionalization of graphene is grafted to the water-borne polyurethane chain section.Fourier transform infared spectrometer (FT-IR),atomic force mi-croscope (AFM)and scanning electron microscope (SEM)were used to characterize the structures of GO,IGN, WPU and IGN/WPU;the effect of IGN content on the properties of composite emulsion as metal anti-corrosion coating was systematically studied.The results show that hardness,barrier property to vapor and anticorrosive efficiency of the composite coating increases as IGN content is increasing.When m(IGN)=1wt%,the coating hardness up to 2 h,water vapor transmittance decreased to 51.98 g/(m2 .h),anticorrosive efficiency increased by 94.70% compared with blank sample.

  12. PROPERTIES OF POLYURETHANE ELASTOMERS BASED ON POLY (OXYETHYLENE-co-OXYTETRAMETHYLENE) DIOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-yu Su; Guang-li Zhang; Hong-zhi Zhang

    2001-01-01

    Polyurethane elastomers derived from 4,4′-methylene bis(phenyl isocyanate), butylene glycol and the low oxyethylene moiety content copolyether of tetrahydrofuran and ethylene oxide, obtained by copolymerization using heteropolyacid-ethylene oxide initiator system, were prepared. The polyurethanes exhibited an increased water absorption and much better low temperature resilience, which remained high even at a temperature of-3℃, while that of polyurethane based upon poly(tetramethylene ether) glycol of the same molecular weight, I.e. Being 2000, and molecular weight distribution, I.e. In the range of 1.4-1.5, starts to decrease dramatically at 5℃.``

  13. Stabilizing interface layer of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 cathode materials under high voltage using p-toluenesulfonyl isocyanate as film forming additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Peng; Wang, Ding; Yao, Yao; Li, Xue; Zhang, Yingjie; Ru, Juanjian; Ren, Ting

    2017-03-01

    p-Toluenesulfonyl isocyanate (PTSI) is introduced as electrolyte additive in a bid to enhance the electrochemical performances of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 cathode materials under high voltage. A less resistive and stable film on the cathode surface derived from PTSI oxidation which taken place prior to the carbonate solvents is formed. As a result, the discharge capacity retention of Li/LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 cell is elevated from 71.4% to 86.2% after 100 cycles at room temperature, and from 32.3% to 54.5% after 100 cycles at 55 °C. In addition, the Li/LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 half cell with PTSI exhibits superior rate capability compared to that in baseline electrolyte. The improved performance is not only ascribed to the thin protective layer originated from PTSI decomposition which prevent the successive breakdown of the electrolyte on cathode surface, but it is also attributed to the sbnd Sdbnd O group in PTSI serves as the weak base site to restrain the reactivity of PF5, resulting in the suppression of LiF formation and HF generation.

  14. 异氰酸酯指数对蓖麻油聚氨酯胶粘剂性能的影响%Influence of Isocyanate Index on the Properties of Castor Oil Based Polyurethane Adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾金荣; 黄志雄; 秦岩; 王富忠; 张慧

    2012-01-01

    A solventless castor oil based polyurethane adhesive was prepared by TDI and castor oil.The structure, damping property and morphology were investigated by FT-IR, DMA and SEM.The influence of isocyanate index (nNCO/nOH) on the damping and adhesion mechanical property and morphology were also examined.The results showed that the adhesive exhibited excellent damping property, the glass transition temperature, damping temperature range and maximum loss factor were - 18.4 ℃,48.3 ℃ and 1.262 when nNCO/nOH was 1.4 in prepolymer. The adhesive with nNCO/nOH 1.6 showed the optimal mechanical property.%以甲苯-2,4-二异氰酸酯(TDI)及蓖麻油为原料制备了一种无溶剂蓖麻油聚氨酯胶粘剂,用FT-IR、DMA及SEM分析了胶粘剂结构、阻尼性能及断口形貌,考察了异氰酸酯指数(nNco/noH)对胶粘剂阻尼、粘接的力学性能及断面形貌的影响.结果表明,当预聚体中nNCO/nOH为1.4时,该胶粘剂阻尼性能优异,玻璃化转变温度Tg为-18.4℃,阻尼温域为48.3℃,(tanδ)max为1.262;胶粘剂的力学性能在nNCO/noH为1.6时达到最佳.

  15. Postpolymerization modification of a hydroxy monolith precursor. Part I. Epoxy alkane and octadecyl isocyanate modified poly (hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-pentaerythritol triacrylate) monolithic capillary columns for reversed-phase capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Shantipriya; El Rassi, Ziad

    2016-12-01

    A novel precursor monolithic capillary column referred to as "hydroxy monolith" or OHM was prepared by the in situ copolymerization of hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) with pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) yielding the neutral poly(HEMA-co-PETA) monolith. The neutral precursor OHM capillary thus obtained was subjected to postpolymerization modifications of the hydroxyl functional groups present on its surface with 1,2-epoxyalkanes catalyzed by boron trifluoride (BF3 ) ultimately providing Epoxy OHM C-m capillary column at varying alkyl chain lengths where m = 8, 12, 14, and 16 for RP-CEC. Also, the same precursor OHM was grafted with octadecyl isocyanate yielding Isocyanato OHM C-18 column to provide an insight into the effect of the nature of the linkage to the surface hydroxyl groups of the OHM precursor. While the epoxide reaction leaves on the surface of the OHM precursor hydroxy-ether linkages, the isocyanato reaction leaves carbamate linkages on the same surface of the OHM precursor. This study revealed that changing the alkyl chain length resulted in changing the column phase ratio (ϕ) and also the solute distribution constant (K). While increasing the surface alkyl chain length increased steeply the solute hydrophobic selectivity, i.e. methylene group selectivity, the nature of the ligand linkage produced different retention for the same solutes and affected the selectivity of slightly polar solutes. The various monoliths proved very useful for RP-CEC of different small solutes at varying polarity over a wide range of mobile phase composition. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. 全生物基非异氰酸酯聚氨酯的制备与性能%Preparation and properties of all-bio-based non-isocyanate polyurethane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝; 张星; 陈佳佳; 母雅丹; 黄兆辉; 周舟; 张立群

    2012-01-01

    Carbonated soybean oil ( CSBO) was prepared by catalytic addition reaction of epoxidized soybean oil and carbon dioxide, then the all-bio-based non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) prepolymers were synthesized with CSBO and 1,10-decanediamine using a ring-opening method. The optimum reaction conditions were investigated, the NIPU elastomer was prepared by directly tabletting according to the conditions, and the properties of NIPU elastomer were studied. The results showed that the best reaction temperature was 120℃ and the best mole ratio of carbonic ester group to amine group was about l:l. The glass transition temperature of NIPU elastomer was about -5℃ and tensile strength was 1. 8 MPa.%通过环氧大豆油与二氧化碳催化加成反应制得五元环碳酸酯,然后与1,10-癸二胺进行开环反应制备了全生物基非异氰酸酯聚氨酯( NIPU)预聚物,考察了预聚反应条件,并根据该条件直接压片制得NIPU弹性体,研究了NIPU弹性体的性能.结果表明,预聚反应最适宜条件为温度120℃、五元环碳酸酯官能团与胺基的摩尔比约1∶1;NIPU弹性体的玻璃化转变温度为-5℃,拉伸强度为1.8 MPa.

  17. 异氰酸酯作业工人职业性支气管哮喘患病情况及其危险因素研究%The prevalence and risk factors of occupational asthma in workers exposed to isocyanate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安晓琴; 蒋轶文; 孔灵菲; 章敏华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of occupational asthma,airway inflammation and analyze the risk factors for workers exposed to isocyanates.Methods A cross-sectional study was applied.Totally 429 isocyanates exposed workers were surveyed and the prevalence of occupational asthma and airway inflammation situation were examined by questionnaire,physical examination and laboratory tests.Multivariate logistic regression was applied to analyze the possible risk factors of isocyanate-induced occupational asthma.Results (1) A total of 366 patients with complete data were included in the study,and finally 11 cases were diagnosed as isocyanate-induced occupational asthma with a prevalence of 3.0%.(2) Neutrophil percentage in the induced sputum of occupational asthma increased significantly [42.00% (34.00%-55.00%) before work and 59.00% (51.00%-70.00%) after work (Z =-2.940.P < 0.05)].(3) Length of service (OR =3.096,P =0.025) and rhinitis (OR =1.901,P =0.008) were independent dangerous factors,and protective measures (OR =0.074,P =0.015) was protective factors to isocyanateinduced occupational asthma.Conclusions Neutrophilic inflammation can be triggered by isocyanate exposure.Regular health examinations,effective protective measures can reduce the prevalence of isocyanateinduced occupational asthma.%目的 研究异氰酸酯作业工人职业性支气管哮喘患病情况及相关危险因素.方法 采用横断面研究,选2011年3-6月某企业发泡车间429名异氰酸酯暴露工人为研究对象,通过问卷调查、体检、实验室检查调查职业性支气管哮喘患病率,检测受试者诱导痰中炎性细胞计数,多因素logistic回归分析其可能的危险因素.结果 (1)共有366名资料完整者纳入本研究,最终11例诊断为异氰酸酯职业性支气管哮喘,患病率为3.0%.(2)异氰酸酯职业性支气管哮喘工人诱导痰中中性粒细胞计数明显增加[上班前为42.00 (34.00,55.00)%,上班后为59

  18. 非异氰酸酯路线由微藻油与CO2合成聚氨酯%Microalgae oil-based polyurethane prepared from microalgae oil and CO2 via the non-isocyanate route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文杰; 单玉华; 鲁墨弘; 李明时

    2013-01-01

    通过非异氰酸酯合成微藻油基聚氨酯(MOPU).以微藻油(MAO)为原料,经甲酸催化、双氧水环氧化合成环氧化藻油(EMAO),接着与CO2在四丁基溴化铵和碘化钾催化下反应制备碳酯化微藻油(CMAO),再与二元胺反应得到MOPU.用1H-NMR和FT-IR对化合物结构进行表征,用DSC和TG对固化反应进行分析.考察了反应温度与时间、CO2压力以及催化剂质量分数对合成反应的影响,使92.65%的EMAO碳酯化为CMAO.胺类固化生成MOPU的活性顺序是:乙二胺(EDA)>丁二胺(BDA)>异佛尔酮二胺(IPDA).%Through the non-isocyanate route,microalgae oil-based polyurethane (MOPU) is prepared by expoxidation of microalgae oil with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by formic acid to form epoxidized microalgae oil (EMAO),followed by carbonation of EMAO with CO2 catalyzed by tetra-butylammonium bromide and potassium iodide to form carbonated microalgae oil (CMAO),and then by curing CMAO with diamine.The structures of synthesized compounds are characterized by 1H-NMR and FT-IR.The curing reactions with aliphatic amines are monitored by DSC and TG analysis.The influence of reaction temperature and time,CO2 pressure,and catalyst dosage is investigated.The conversion of EMAO into CMAO is 92.65%.The active order of MOPU formation with diamine curing agents is:ethylene diamine (EDA) > butanediamine (BDA) > isophorone diamine (IPDA).

  19. Is specific IgE antibody analysis feasible for the diagnosis of methylenediphenyl diisocyanate-induced occupational asthma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budnik, Lygia Therese; Preisser, Alexandra M.; Permentier, Hjalmar; Baur, Xaver

    2013-01-01

    Early recognition improves the prognosis of isocyanate asthma. A major unanswered question is whether IgE-dependent mechanisms are of diagnostic value? Our objective was to appraise serological methods using various methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI)-albumin conjugates and weigh up the data versus

  20. Polyurethane triblock copolymers with mono-disperse hard segments. Influence of the hard segment length on thermal and thermomechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arun, Araichimani; Baack, Kasper K.J.; Gaymans, Reinoud J.

    2008-01-01

    Polyurethane triblock copolymers were synthesized by reacting 4,4-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI)-endcapped poly(tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO) with mono-amine-amide (MMA) units. Four different MMA units were used, i.e. no-amide (6m), mono-amide (6B), di-amide (6T6m) and tri-amide (6T6B), based

  1. Hydrolysis of isocyanic acid on SCR catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsener, M.; Kleemann, M.; Koebel, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Standard SCR catalysts possess high activity for the hydrolysis of HNCO and thus explain the suitability of urea as a selective reducing agent for NO{sub x}. At high space velocities HNCO-slip can get perceptible over the entire temperature range. This can be attributed to the fact that the temperature dependence is strong for the SCR reaction, but weak for the hydrolysis reaction. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  2. Lanthanide Complexes for Oligomerization of Phenyl Isocyanate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG,Ming-Yu; YAO,Ying-Ming; ZHOU,Yu-Fang; ZHANG,Li-Fen; SHEN,Qi

    2003-01-01

    A series of lanthanide complexes including (Ind)3Sm(THF)(1),[(MeCp)2Sm(μ-SPh)(THF)]2(2),[(MeCp)2Y(μ-O-i-Pr)]2(3),(MeCp)3Sm·THF(4),Sm(SPh)3(hmpa)3(5),[(MeCp)2Y-(μ-OCH2CF3)2(6)and (CF3CH2O)3Y(THF)3(7) were synthesized and they have good activity for the oligomerization of phenylisocyanate.Among them 5 shows the highest activity.The conversion is as high as 96.2%,with 1/2500 of the molar ratio of cat./PhNCO.The main components in oligomer were characterized to be a cycdlodimer and a cyclotrimer.The ratio of cyclodimer to cyclotrimer depends on the lanthanide complexes used.7 gave 85.2%cyclotrimer with 1/300 of the molar ratio of cat./PhNCO at 40℃ for 0.5h,while 5 gave 77.6% cyclodimer with 1/300 of the molar ratio of cat./PhNCO at 40℃ for 4h.

  3. Bitumen modification by reactive isocyanate prepolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Alfonso, María José

    2014-01-01

    Los materiales bituminosos presentan una serie de propiedades, tales como ductilidad, adhesividad, resistencia al efecto de los factores ambientales y químicos, etc. Estas características permiten su utilización en el desarrollo de diversas aplicaciones que incluyen desde su uso en construcción de pavimentos hasta la utilización como impermeabilizantes en la industria de recubrimientos. La eficacia de los betunes ha sido mejorada mediante la modificación física con aditivos poliméricos. Es...

  4. Blocked Isocyanate Functionalized Graphene and Its Polyurethane Composite Materials%封闭异氰酸酯功能化石墨烯及其聚氨酯复合材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓萱; 梁娟; 伍胜利; 王忠娟

    2014-01-01

    The semi-enclosed toluene diisocyanate( b-TDI) was prepaned by the reaction of methyl ethyl ketone oxime( MEKO) and toluene diisocyanate( TDI) ,then,graphene oxide was treated in N,N-dimethyformamide in use of the b-TDI and finally the functionalized graphene( bi-G) whose surface contained blocked isocyanate groups was obtained with hydrazine. Secondly,the above bi-G was added to the polyurethane prepolymer in water to prepare the polyurethane/graphene dispersion,and the polyurethane prepolymer was maked by PBA2000 and IPDI,et al. The X-Ray Diffraction ( XRD ) , the transmission electron microscope ( TEM ) and the thermal gravimetric analyzer ( TG ) were used to characterized the specialities of the composites. The analysis showed that the graphite was successfully oxided to graphene oxide and modified by b-TDI to obtain bi-G after reduction. The bi-G disperation was found dis-persed in the aqueous polyurethane micelles stably. Meanwhile,the TG analysis showed that the composite�s thermal stability had significantly improved, espectionly after heat treatment, the polyuerthane/graphene composite�s heat performance was more prominent.%将甲乙酮肟( MEKO)与甲苯二异氰酸酯( TDI)进行反应,制备了半封闭TDI( b-TDI)单体,利用该b-TDI单体对氧化石墨( GO)进行处理,最后用水合肼还原得到表面含封闭NCO基团的功能化石墨烯(bi-G);将bi-G添加到由聚己二酸丁二醇酯(PBA2000)与异佛尔酮二异氰酸酯(IPDI)等制备的水性聚氨酯( WPU )预聚体中,加水分散后得到bi-G/WPU分散液。并采用红外光谱仪( FT-IR)、X射线衍射仪( XRD)、透射电镜( TEM)和热重分析( TG)对产物进行表征。结果表明,石墨成功地被氧化成氧化石墨烯,并且实现了异氰酸酯的改性,同时也表明,改性后的氧化石墨烯被充分地还原;bi-G被稳定分散到WPU胶束中;bi-G的引入明显改善了聚氨酯材料的

  5. Study on Synthesis and Stability of the Waterborne Blocked Isocyanate Emulsion%水性封闭异氰酸酯乳液的合成及稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阿峰; 樊国栋; 李会宁; 陈华; 赵琪

    2013-01-01

    Waterborne blocked isocyanate emulsion (WBI) was synthesized with toluene 2, 4 -diisocya-nate (TDI) , trimethylolpropane (TMP) , dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA) as the reaetants and 2 -meth-ylimidazole ( 2 - MI) as blocked agents and triethylamine as nentralizer. The influence of neutralizer and Ze-ta potential on stability of WBI emulsion was studied. The hydrolyte resistance and temperature dependence of emulsion and unblocking temperature of WBI and properties of two - component polyurethane film were discussed. The results showed that when triethylamine (TEA) was used as neutralizer, the emulsion provid-ed good stability and storage stability due to the small particle size. When the neutralization was up to 100% , the stability of emulsion was the best. With the increase of DMPA, the stability of the emulsion was improved. The Zeta potential and particle sized were less influenced by temperature. Suitable mole fraction of DMPA is 20%~25%. The unblocking temperature was 125. 6℃ to 137. 8℃ by DSC test. The WBI could be used as curing agent to provide better water resistance, alcohol resistance, hardness and impact proverties of coatings.%采用甲苯二异氰酸酯(TDI)、三羟甲基丙烷(TMP)、二羟甲基丙酸(DMPA)为原料,2-甲基咪唑为封闭剂,三乙胺为中和剂制备了水分散封闭异氰酸酯(WBI)乳液,考察了中和剂和Zeta电位(ξ-电位)对WBI乳液稳定性的影响,探讨了乳液耐电解质能力及其温敏特性对其解封温度及双组分聚氨酯漆膜性能的影响.实验结果表明:用三乙胺作为中和剂时,乳液粒径较小,稳定性及贮存稳定性均较好,最佳中和度为100%.随DMPA用量的增加,乳液的ξ电位绝对值增大,乳液粒径减小、耐电解质能力增强,乳液的稳定性提高.乳液的Zeta电位及粒径受温度影响较小,说明乳液较为稳定.DMPA用量为20% ~ 25%(摩尔分数)较适宜.差示扫描量热法(DSC)分析表征其解封温度为125.6 ~ 138.1

  6. 异氰酸酯基偶联剂改性PAN基碳纤维增强聚三唑复合材料的研究%Modification of PAN-based carbon fiber reinforced polytriazole composites with isocyanate-containing coupling agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛雅琨; 扈艳红; 杜磊; 沈程; 王寒; 李智鹏; 葛宇

    2013-01-01

    采用异氰酸酯基偶联剂(A1)对聚丙烯腈(PAN)基碳纤维表面进行处理,制备了碳纤维增强聚三唑(PTA)复合材料;考察了偶联剂A1改性PAN基碳纤维的工艺;对比了溶剂丙酮中水分的影响.结果表明:工业丙酮为溶剂时,加入偶联剂A1缩短了PTA树脂胶液贮存期,需现配现用;偶联剂A1处理PAN基碳纤维,预处理法使T700碳纤维布/增强复合材料剪切强度提高39.2%,迁移法提高9.5%,相比用分析纯丙酮为溶剂的体系,改性效果降低;偶联剂A1在PAN基碳纤维表面生成脲类等极性化合物,增强了与树脂基体的氢键吸附,改善了复合材料的界面粘结,但工业丙酮中的水分消耗了偶联剂的作用基团,过量的杂质削弱了偶联剂与纤维的化学作用.%A carbon fiber reinforced polytriazole (PTA) composite was prepared by modifiying the surface of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fiber with a coupling agent (A1) containing isocyanate group.The modification process of PAN-based carbon fiber with coupling agent A1 was investigated.The impact of the moisture content in acetone solvent was contrasted.The results showed that the addition of coupling agent A1 shortened the shelf life of PTA resin while using industrial acetone as a solvent,which should be formulated immediately before application; and the shearing strength of T700 carbon fiber cloth reinforced PTA composite can be increased by 39.2% by pretreatment method and 9.5% by migration method when the PAN-based carbon fiber was treated with coupling agent A1,which contributed the lower modification effect than analytically pure acetone; isocyanate group in coupling agent A1 reacted with active sites on PAN-based carbon fiber surface and formed polar ureas groups which enhanced the hydrogen bonding adsorption on resin matrix and improved the interfacial adhesion of the composite,but the excess water in industrial acetone preferentially reacted with isocyanate group and the produced

  7. Summary of the BDS and MDI CLIC08 Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; Ahmed, I; Ambatu, PK; Angal-Kalinin, D; Barlow, R; Baud, J P; Bolzon, B; Braun, H; Burkhardt, H; Burt, GC; Corsini, R; Dalena, B; Dexter, AC; Dolgashev, V; Elsener, K; Fernandez Hernando, JL; Gaillard, G; Geffroy, N; Jackson, F; Jeremie, A; Jones, RM; McIntosh, P; Moffeit, K; Peltier, F; Resta-López, J; Rumolo, G; Schulte, D; Seryi, A; Toader, A; Zimmermann, F

    2008-01-01

    This note summarizes the presentations held within the Beam Delivery System and Machine Detector Interface working group of the CLIC08 workshop. The written contributions have been provided by the presenters on a voluntary basis.

  8. Automated Sunspot Detection and Classification Using SOHO/MDI Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    18 3.3.1 Center and Radius Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.3.2 Flat-Field and Window...20 5. Comparison of results for Canny edge detection method (red) and binary thresholding method (green) determining the solar radius ...devices are therefore sensitive to stray radiation, such as cosmic rays, which can produce signals not associated with the object of interest

  9. Sustainable Intensified Process Retrofit for the Production of MDI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Woodley, John; Gani, Rafiqul

    Process intensification (PI) is a means by which processes can be made more efficient and sustainable at different levels, the unit operations, functional and phenomena levels. Therefore PI can be used for making process improvements at the functional level for the production of an important...

  10. 单组分封闭异氰酸酯胶束/聚乙烯醇复合胶粘剂的制备及性能%Preparation and characterization of one-component blocked isocyanate micelle/PVA composite adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬洪川; 李志国; 白龙; 朱丽滨; 顾继友

    2015-01-01

    采用甲苯二异氰酸酯 TDI 、聚乙二醇(PEG)、二羟甲基丙酸(DMPA)以及封闭剂甲乙酮肟(MEKO)等为主要原料以及聚乙烯醇为复合组分制备了单组分封闭异氰酸酯胶束/聚乙烯醇 BIP/PVA 复合胶粘剂。系统研究了在加热条件下封闭胶束解封闭交联固化反应。考查了封闭异氰酸酯预聚胶束(BIP)对复合乳液稳定性,强度以及耐水性的影响。研究结果表明,复合胶粘剂的固化温度在120~125℃。随着BIP含量增加,复合胶粘剂强度和耐水性提高,但稳定性逐渐下降,当w BIP =15%时,可制得常温(20~30℃)存放3个月以上,干强度超过3.04 MPa,湿强度可达1.29 MPa的单组分BIP/PVA胶粘剂。()()()%The one-component blocked isocyanate micelle/PVA emulsions were prepared from toluene diisocyanate (TDI), polyethylene glycol (PEG), dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), methyl ethyl ketone oxime (MEKO) as the blocking agent and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the composite component. The deblocking and subsequent crosslinking reaction of the blocked emulsions was systematically researched. Furthermore, the effects of blocked isocyanate pre-polymer micelles (BIP) on the stability, water resistance and strength of the emulsions were investigated. The results showed that this composite adhesive was cured at between 120~125℃. With increasing BIP content, the strength and water-resistance of the composite adhesive was improved but its stability was gradually decreased. When the BIP content was 15 wt%, the storage time was over three months under the room temperature (20~30℃), and both the wet and dry strength reached 1.29 MPa and over 3.04 MPa,respectively..

  11. Enantioseparation of Salbutamol on the 3,4-Dichlorophenyl Isocyanate Vancomycin Chiral Stationary Phase%沙丁胺醇在3,4-二氯苯基异氰酸酯万古霉素手性柱上的对映体分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于萍; 苏蕾; 刘光; 李丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish a self-made chiral column for enantiomeric separation of salbutamol. Methods We used different concentrations of acid,alkali additives in the polar phase flow for enantiomers separation of salbutamol by using 3, 4-dichlorophenyl isocyanate vancomycin chiral column, and discussed the chiral recognition mechanism. Results The ratio of acid to alkali additive in the mobile phase was 0.01%:0.01% (V/V), the flow rate was 1ml/min, the column temperature was 25℃, and the best separation of enantiomers of salbutamol was obtained,the selective factor was 1.16, the separation degree reached 1.41. Conclusion Self-made 3, 4-two chlorophenyl isocyanate vancomycin chiral column is effective for salbutamol separation, and it can be as a reference for developing other similar chiral stationary phase.%目的:建立一种在自制手性柱上对沙丁胺醇进行了对映体分离的方法.方法利用极性流动相中不同浓度的酸、碱添加剂在自制的3,4-二氯苯基异氰酸酯万古霉素手性柱对沙丁胺醇对映体分离的研究,初步探讨了手性识别机理.结果流动相中酸、碱添加剂的比例为0.01%:0.01%(V/V),流速为1 mL/min,柱温为25℃时,沙丁胺醇获得了最好的对映体分离,选择因子为1.16,分离度达到1.41.结论自制的3,4-二氯苯基异氰酸酯万古霉素手性柱对沙丁胺醇有一定的分离效果,可以此为参考,开发其他类似的手性固定相.

  12. Isocyanate-Free Elastomers as Replacements for Isocyanate-Cured Polyurethanes (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-20

    position of vinyl groups on polymer chain • Initial investigation with nonanedithiol cure produces elastomeric material • Thiol-terminated polyethylene...Low Tg • High elongation to break • Compatibility with high solids loading • Approach • Nucleobase binding • Thiolene “click” chemistry...distribution is unlimited. 4 Nucleobase Binding • DNA is biologically ubiquitous therefore no current environmental regulation and likely no

  13. Observation of an unusually facile fragmentation pathway of gas-phase peptide ions: a study on the gas-phase fragmentation mechanism and energetics of tryptic peptides modified with 4-sulfophenyl isothiocyanate (SPITC) and 4-chlorosulfophenyl isocyanate (SPC) and their 18-crown-6 complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joong-Won; Lee, Yong Ho; Hwang, Sungu; Lee, Sang-Won

    2007-03-01

    Various peptide modifications have been explored recently to facilitate the acquisition of sequence information. N-terminal sulfonation is an interesting modification because it allows unambiguous de novo sequencing of peptides, especially in conjunction with MALDI-PSD-TOF analysis; such modified peptide ions undergo fragmentation at energies lower than those required conventionally for unmodified peptide ions. In this study, we systematically investigated the fragmentation mechanisms of N-terminal sulfonated peptide ions prepared using two different N-terminal sulfonation reagents: 4-sulfophenyl isothiocyanate (SPITC) and 4-chlorosulfophenyl isocyanate (SPC). Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the SPC-modified peptide ions produced a set of y-series ions that were more evenly distributed relative to those observed for the SPITC-modified peptides; y(n-1) ion peaks were consistently and significantly larger than the signals of the other y-ions. We experimentally investigated the differences between the dissociation energies of the SPITC- and SPC-modified peptide ions by comparing the MS/MS spectra of the complexes formed between the crown ether 18-crown-6 (CE) and the modified peptides. Upon CID, the complexes formed between 18-crown-6 ether and the protonated amino groups of C-terminal lysine residues underwent either peptide backbone fragmentation or complex dissociation. Although the crown ether complexes of the unmodified ([M + CE + 2H]2+) and SPC-modified ([M* + CE + 2H]2+) peptides underwent predominantly noncovalent complex dissociation upon CID, the low-energy dissociations of the crown ether complexes of the SPITC-modified peptides ([M' + CE + 2H]2+) unexpectedly resulted in peptide backbone fragmentations, along with a degree of complex dissociation. We performed quantum mechanical calculations to address the energetics of fragmentations observed for the modified peptides. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Development of segmented polyurethane elastomers with low iodine content exhibiting radiopacity and blood compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawlee, S; Jayabalan, Muthu

    2011-10-01

    Biofunctionally active and inherently radiopaque polymers are the emerging need for biomedical applications. Novel segmented polyurethane elastomer with inherent radiopacity was prepared using aliphatic chain extender 2,3-diiodo-2-butene-1,4-diol, polyol polytetramethylene glycol and 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI) for blood compatible applications. Aliphatic polyurethane was also prepared using hexamethylene diisocyanate for comparison. X-ray analysis of the polyurethanes revealed good radiopacity even at a relatively low concentration of 3% iodine in aromatic polyurethane and 10% in aliphatic polyurethane. The polyurethanes also possessed excellent thermal stability. MDI-based polyurethane showed considerably higher tensile strength than the analogous HDI-based polyurethane. MDI-based aromatic polyurethane exhibited a dynamic surface morphology in aqueous medium, resulting in the segregation of hydrophilic domains which was more conducive to anti-thrombogenic properties. The polyurethane was cytocompatible with L929 fibroblast cells, non-hemolytic, and possessed good blood compatibility.

  15. Non-Isocyanate Polymer Design and Coating Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    Allen - Manager of Coating Operations 3 Problem Statement ● 1.2 million gallons of Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) purchased in 2011  Up...Approach ● Project Management Principles  Frequent sample exchanges to ensure reproducibility and maintain program focus  Monthly team meetings...Maintenance Center (MDMC) Albany and a representative from that organization is included in the projet team. • Final field use will require introducing a

  16. Zein-based polymers formed by modifications with isocyanates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein is a prolamine protein found in corn and a promising industrial bioplastic. However, for zein to reach its full commercial potential, research must find ways to overcome two main problems: its relatively high cost and its poor resistance to water. In this work, we have modified zein with severa...

  17. Relationships Between Indoor Air Pollution and Psychrometric and Effective Factors in the Polyurethane Factories with Emphasis on Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Etemadi Nejad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is determination of the relationship between airborne methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI and selective psychrometric variables. The production of MDI factories were polyurethane adhesives, paints and varnishes and the workers were exposed to MDI in the indoor air. The air samples were collected by midget impinger and multiple regressions model was used to determine the relationship between variables. All of the samplers (midget impinger were connected to mini personal sampler pump fixed toworkstations near the source of pollution based on NIOSH method 5522. The first step in the analysis of a solution is derivatization of isocyanates for the separation through HPLC, for their qualitative as well as quantitative analysis. Air sampling and analysis was performed according to (NIOSH method 5522 for diisocyanate in air. The results revealed that a correlation between MDI concentration and relative humidity, dry bulb temperature, altitude and dimension of polyurethane factories. Dimension of factories yields reasonable negative relationship, the MDI concentration was ranged from 93.8 to 99(μg/m3 and statistically significant at 0.0001 level and the relative humidity was ranged from 42.6 to 45% and dry bulb temperatureranged from 28 to 29°C were statistically significant at 0.035 and 0.0001 level, respectively. A statistical predictive model was obtained from multiple regression modeling for MDI and psychrometric parameters. The result of the current study may be useful for the prediction of diisocyanate pollution for polyurethane factoriesin the same psychrometric condition. This indicates that the MDI concentration is attributed to psychrometric parameters.

  18. Noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes by aromatic diisocyanate molecules: A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goclon, Jakub; Kozlowska, Mariana; Rodziewicz, Pawel

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the noncovalent functionalization of metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) (6,0) by 4,4‧-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) molecules using the density functional theory (DFT) method with van der Waals dispersion correction. The obtained local minima show the dependence between the molecular arrangement of the adsorbates on SWCNT surface and their binding energies. We analyze the interplay between the π-π stacking interactions and isocyanate functional groups. For the analysis of the changes in the electronic structure we calculate the density of states (DOS) and charge density plots.

  19. Method for providing a low density high strength polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.; Goods, Steven H.; Skala, Dawn M.; Henderson, Craig C.; Keifer, Patrick N.

    2013-06-18

    Disclosed is a method for making a polyurethane closed-cell foam material exhibiting a bulk density below 4 lbs/ft.sup.3 and high strength. The present embodiment uses the reaction product of a modified MDI and a sucrose/glycerine based polyether polyol resin wherein a small measured quantity of the polyol resin is "pre-reacted" with a larger quantity of the isocyanate in a defined ratio such that when the necessary remaining quantity of the polyol resin is added to the "pre-reacted" resin together with a tertiary amine catalyst and water as a blowing agent, the polymerization proceeds slowly enough to provide a stable foam body.

  20. Cross-Linked Nanoporous Materials from Reactive and Multifunctional Block Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Myungeun; Amendt, Mark A.; Hillmyer, Marc A. (UMM)

    2012-10-10

    Polylactide-b-poly(styrene-co-2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (PLA-b-P(S-co-HEMA)) and polylactide-b-poly(styrene-co-2-hydroxyethylacrylate) (PLA-b-P(S-co-HEA)) were synthesized by combination of ring-opening polymerization and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography data indicated that the polymerizations were controlled and that hydroxyl groups were successfully incorporated into the block polymers. The polymers were reacted with 4,4{prime}-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI) to form the corresponding cross-linked materials. The materials were annealed at 150 C to complete the coupling reaction. Robust nanoporous materials were obtained from the cross-linked polymers by treatment with aqueous base to hydrolyze the PLA phase. Small-angle X-ray scattering study combined with scanning electron microscopy showed that MDI-cross-linked PLA-b-P(S-co-HEMA)/PLA-b-P(S-co-HEA) can adopt lamellar, hexagonally perforated lamellar, and hexagonally packed cylindrical morphologies after annealing. In particular, the HPL morphology was found to evolve from lamellae due to increase in volume fraction of PS phase as MDI reacted with hydroxyl groups. The reaction also kinetically trapped the morphology by cross-linking. Bicontinuous morphologies were also observed when dibutyltin dilaurate was added to accelerate reaction between the polymer and MDI.

  1. indications of r-mode oscillations in soho/mdi solar radius measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Sturrock, P A; Gough, D O; Scargle, J D

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of solar radius measurements acquired by the Michelson Doppler Imager on the SOHO spacecraft supports previously reported evidence of solar internal r-mode oscillations in Mt Wilson radius data and in nuclear-decay data acquired at the Lomonosov Moscow State University. The frequencies of these oscillations are compatible with oscillations in a putative inner tachocline that separates a slowly rotating core from the radiative envelope.

  2. A SAFER ROUTE TO MDI, An assessment of a phosgene free manufacturing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vetter, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Supervisors: - University of Groningen Prof. dr. F. Picchioni, Drs. W.A. Prins, Prof. ir. M.W.M. Boesten, - Fluor B.V. - Haarlem Mr. G. Smit, Dr. J.C. Göebel. Abstract In this research the technological and economical feasibility of a new technology for the production of methylene diphenyl

  3. Analysis of MDI High-Degree Mode Frequencies and their Rotational Splittings

    CERN Document Server

    Rabello-Soares, M C; Schou, J

    2008-01-01

    Here we present a detailed analysis of solar acoustic mode frequencies and their rotational splittings for modes with degree up to 900. They were obtained by applying spherical harmonic decomposition to full-disk solar images observed by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft. Global helioseismology analysis of high-degree modes is complicated by the fact that the individual modes cannot be isolated, which has limited so far the use of high-degree data for structure inversion of the near-surface layers (r > 0.97 R). In this work, we took great care to recover the actual mode characteristics using a physically motivated model which included a complete leakage matrix. We included in our analysis the following instrumental characteristics: the correct instantaneous image scale, the radial and non-radial image distortions, the effective position angle of the solar rotation axis and a correction to the Carrington elements. We also present variations of the mode frequ...

  4. Use of an automated bolus calculator in MDI-treated type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Meldgaard, Merete; Serifovski, Nermin

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of flexible intensive insulin therapy (FIIT) and an automated bolus calculator (ABC) in a Danish type 1 diabetes population treated with multiple daily injections. Furthermore, to test the feasibility of teaching FIIT in a 3-h structured course....

  5. Novel bio-based epoxy-polyurethane materials from modified vegetable oils – synthesis and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sienkiewicz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Presented research shows the results of a study on mechanical properties of materials obtained in the course of innovatory application of epoxidized vegetable oil in the synthesis of new bio-based epoxy resins, crosslinked with curing agents which are not typical for epoxy materials. The product was obtained via modern and pro-ecological modification of a well-known synthesis method of epoxies, namely the epoxy fusion process, then it was crosslinked using polyisocyanates of different structure: toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI, hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI and 4,4’-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI. The obtained epoxy-polyurethane materials are characterized by various mechanical properties, which depend on the type of chosen isocyanate. Compositions based on HDI exhibit better mechanical characteristics than elastic polyurethane materials based on hydroxylated soybean oil. Materials cured with aromatic isocyanates MDI and TDI are characterized by higher mechanical resistance comparable with cast polyurethane based on petrochemical resources. Epoxy fusion product cured with toluene-2,4-diisocyanate in a presence of Dabco T9 appears to have the best mechanical properties among all tested compositions.

  6. RIM聚氨酯弹性体与玻璃粘接性能的研究%Study on bonding between RIM polyurethane elastomer and glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋聪梅; 陈艳明; 吴卫东; 魏永祥

    2011-01-01

    This experiment is the study of the adhesion between RIM polyurethane elastomer and glass. The effect of polyether molecular weight, chain extender, catalyst and isocyanate on its peel strength was investigated. The results showed that the products which have good adhesion were gained using urethane modified MDI, polyether with a molecular weight of about 6 000, chain extender 1,4BG, delayed amine catalyst and controlling the isocyanate index with 98.%研究了反应注射成型(RIM)聚氨酯弹性体对玻璃的粘接性能,考察了聚醚多元醇相对分子质量、扩链剂、催化剂和异氰酸酯对其粘接性能的影响.结果表明,以氨酯改性二苯基甲烷二异氰酸酯(MDI)做异氰酸酯组分,聚醚多元醇相对分子质量为6 000,1,4-丁二醇做扩链剂,使用自制的延迟胺复合催化剂,异氰酸酯指数为98时弹性体对玻璃具有良好的粘接性能.

  7. The role of nanocrystalline cellulose on the microstructure of foamed castor-oil polyurethane nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Andrés Ignacio; Amalvy, Javier Ignacio; Fortunati, Elena; Kenny, José María; Chiacchiarelli, Leonel Matías

    2015-12-10

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC), obtained by sulphuric acid hydrolysis, was used to synthesize polyurethane foams (PUFs) based on a functionalized castor oil polyol and a Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). Formulations with varying isocyanate index (FI) and NCO number were prepared. At 0.5 wt.%, SEM's of the fractured surface underlined that the CNC acted both as a nucleation agent and as a particulate surfactant with cell geometries and apparent density changing selectively. The chemical structure of the PUF (FTIR) changed after the incorporation of CNC by a relative change of the amount of urea, urethane and isocyanurate groups. A low NCO number and isocyanate index contributed to the migration of the CNC to the Hard Segment (HS), acting as reinforcement and improving substantially the compressive mechanical properties (Ec and σc improvements of 63 and 50%, respectively). For a high NCO number or isocyanate index, the CNC migrated to the Soft Segment (SS), without causing a reinforcement effect. The migration of the CNC was also detected with DSC, TGA and DMA, furtherly supporting the hypothesis that a low NCO number and index contributed both to the formation of a microstructure with a higher content of urethane groups.

  8. Disparate Behavior of Carbonyl and Thiocarbonyl Compounds: Acyl Chlorides vs Thiocarbonyl Chlorides and Isocyanates vs Isothiocyanates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Kenneth B.; Wang, Yi-gui; Miller, Scott J.; Puchlopek, Angela L.A.; Bailey, William F.; Fair, Justin D.

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of benzoyl chloride with methanol catalyzed by pyridine is 9 times more rapid than is the same reaction with thiobenzoyl chloride. The difference in reactivity, as well as the dealkylation reactions that occur when the reaction of thiobenzoyl chloride is catalyzed by bases such as Et3N, can be understood in terms of the charge distributions in the intermediate acylammonium ions. The reaction of PhNCO with ethanol occurs at a much higher rate (4.8 × 104) than that of PhNCS, corresponding to a difference in activation free energies for the additions of 6 kcal/mol. Transition states for each of these reactions were located, and each involves two alcohol molecules in a hydrogen bonded six-membered ring arrangement. Information concerning differences in reactivity was derived from analysis of Hirshfeld atomic charge distributions and calculated hydrogenolysis reaction energies. PMID:19371054

  9. Isocyanate-terminated Polyethers Toughened Epoxy Resin: Chemical Modification, Thermal Properties, and Mechanical Strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Haopeng; WANG Jun; WANG Xiang; XU Renxin

    2007-01-01

    The toughening of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A epoxy resin with isocyanateterminated polyethers (ITPE) was investigated. The progress of the reaction and the structural changes during modification process were studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The studies support the proposition that TDI (tolylene diisocyanate) acts as a coupling agent between the epoxy and polyethers, forming a urethane linkage with the former and the latter, respectively. Me THPA-cured ER/ITPs blends were characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is indicated the glass transition temperature (Tg) of systems was lower than the Tg of pure epoxy resin and overfull ITPE separated from the modified epoxy resin and formed another phase at an ITPE-content of more than 10wt%. The thermal stability was decreased by the introduction of ITPE. The impact strength and the flexural strength of the cured modifiedepoxy increased with increasing the ITPE content and a maximum plateau value of about 24.03 kJ/m2 and 130.56 MPa was measured in 10wt% ITPE. From scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of the fractrue surfaces of ER/ITPE systems, the nature of the micromechanisms responsible for the increases in toughness of the systems was identified.

  10. Biodegradation and anticholinesrerase activity of methyl isocyanate in the aquatic environment of Bhopal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Sarkar, A.; Kureishy, T.W.

    of Bhopal, Puntius ticto was found to be the most susceptible to MIC-poisoning. There is a change in the values of pH, ammonia-nitrogen and urea-nitrogen concentrations in the Lower Lake water. The cholinesterase activities of different tissues of various...

  11. Detection of methyl isocyanate (CH3NCO) in a solar-type protostar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Doménech, R.; Rivilla, V. M.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Quénard, D.; Testi, L.; Martín-Pintado, J.

    2017-08-01

    We report the detection of the pre-biotic molecule CH3NCO in a solar-type protostar, IRAS16293-2422 B. A significant abundance of this species on the surface of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko has been proposed, and it has recently been detected in hot cores around high-mass protostars. We observed IRAS16293-2422 B with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array in the 90 to 265 GHz range, and detected eight unblended transitions of CH3NCO. From our Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium analysis, we derived an excitation temperature of 110 ± 19 K and a column density of (4.0 ± 0.3) × 1015 cm-2, which results in an abundance of ≤(1.4 ± 0.1) × 10-10 with respect to molecular hydrogen. This implies a CH3NCO/HNCO and CH3NCO/NH2CHO column density ratios of ∼0.08. Our modelling of the chemistry of CH3NCO suggests that both ice surface and gas phase formation reactions of this molecule are needed to explain the observations.

  12. Rheology and thermal degradation of isocyanate-functionalized methyl cellulose-based oleogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, R; Arteaga, J F; Valencia, C; Franco, J M

    2013-10-15

    The -NCO-functionalization of methyl cellulose with HMDI and its application to chemically gel the castor oil is explored in this work by analyzing the influence of functionalization degree on the rheological and thermogravimetric behavior of resulting chemical oleogels. With this aim, different methyl cellulose chemical modifications were achieved by limiting the proportion of HMDI and, subsequently, oleogels were obtained by dispersing these polymers in castor oil and promoting the reaction between those biopolymers and the hydroxyl groups located in the ricinoleic fatty acid chain. -NCO-functionalized methyl cellulose-based oleogels were characterized from themogravimetric and rheological points of view. Suitable thermal resistance and rheological characteristics were found in order to propose these oleogels as promising bio-based alternatives to traditional lubricating greases based on non-renewable resources. In general, -NCO-functionalized methyl cellulose thermally decomposed in three main steps whereas resulting oleogels thermal decomposition takes place in one main single stage which comprises the thermal degradation of both the polymer and the castor oil. Temperature range for thermal degradation is broadened when using highly -NCO-functionalized methyl cellulose. A cross-linked viscoelastic gel was obtained with methyl cellulose functionalized in a relatively low degree (around 6% -NCO molar content). The rheological properties of highly functionalized methyl cellulose-based oleogels evolve during several months of aging, but mainly during the first week, due to the progress of the reaction between -NCO functional groups and castor oil -OH groups. SAOS functions analyzed and oleogel relative elasticity increase with the functionalization degree. Oleogel linear viscoelastic response is also extremely dependent on NCO-functionalized methyl cellulose concentration.

  13. Chemical, Physical, and Mechanical Characterization of Isocyanate Cross-linked Amine-Modified Silica Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Atul; Shimpi, Nilesh; Roy, Samit; Lu, Hongbing; Fabrizio, Eve F.; Dass, Amala; Capadona, Lynn A.; Leventis, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    We describe a new mechanically strong lightweight porous composite material obtained by encapsulating the skeletal framework of amine-modified silica aerogels with polyurea. The conformal polymer coating preserves the mesoporous structure of the underlying silica framework and the thermal conductivity remains low at 0.041 plus or minus 0.001 W m(sup -1 K(sup -1). The potential of the new cross-linked silica aerogels for load-carrying applications was determined through characterization of their mechanical behavior under compression, three-point bending, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). A primary glass transition temperature of 130 C was identified through DMA. At room temperature, results indicate a hyperfoam behavior where in compression cross-linked aerogels are linearly elastic under small strains (less than 4%) and then exhibit yield behavior (until 40% strain), followed by densification and inelastic hardening. At room temperature the compressive Young's modulus and the Poisson's ratio were determined to be 129 plus or minus 8 MPa and 0.18, respectively, while the strain at ultimate failure is 77% and the average specific compressive stress at ultimate failure is 3.89 x 10(exp 5) N m kg(sup -1). The specific flexural strength is 2.16 x 10(exp 4) N m kg(sup -1). Effects on the compressive behavior of strain rate and low temperature were also evaluated.

  14. A discussion on producing agro-residue composites with isocyanate resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the urgent shortage of forest resource in China, using agro-residues as raw materials of composite become increasingly important. Agro-residue is the most potential fiber resource, which is helpful to sustainable development of composite industries in China. Based on a great deal of researches, this paper summarized and discussed some problems in using agro-residues as raw materials of composites, including raw material preparation, hot-pressing, bonding technology, preventing composite from going moldy. It is proposed that to manufacture the composite of rice straws or wheat straws, the isocayante resin is a suitable adhesive, and the appropriate technologies, bonding, and treatment measures are also needed.

  15. Study on preparing high-solid content polyurethane adhesive modified by acrylate%高固含量丙烯酸酯改性聚氨酯胶粘剂的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡孝勇; 朱文强; 张泽民; 陈锦凡

    2011-01-01

    以聚醚多元醇、聚酯多元醇和蓖麻油为混合多元醇,以改性MDI(4,4'-二苯基甲烷二异氰酸酯)及PAPI(多亚甲基多苯基多异氰酸酯)为混合异氰酸酯,合成了聚氨酯(PU)胶粘剂预聚体;然后以PA(羟基丙烯酸酯树脂)作为PU预聚体的改性剂,制得高固含量的PUA(聚丙烯酸酯改性聚氨酯)胶粘剂.结果表明:当m(改性MDI):m(PAPI)=1:1、n(-NCO):n(-OH)=2.2:1、ω(PA)=8%(相对于PU质量而言)和ω(丙烯酸羟乙酯)=3%(相对于PU质量而言)时,PuA胶粘剂的综合性能较好.%With polyester polyol, polyether polyol and castor oil as mix polyols, modified MDI(4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate) and PAPI (multimethylene multiphenyl multiisocyanate) as mix isocyanate, so a polyurethane(PU) adhesive prepolymer was prepared. Then a PUA (PU modified by polyacrylate) adhesive with high solid content was prepared when PA(hydroxyl acrylate resin) was used as modifier of PU prepolymer. The results showed that the PUA adhesive had well combination property when mass ratio of m(modified MDI):m(PAPI) was 1:1,molar ratio of n(-NCO):n(-OH) was 2.2:1, mass fractions of PA and hydroxy ethyl acrylate were 8% and 3% in PU respectively.

  16. The relative effectiveness of pumps over MDI and structured education (REPOSE) : study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    White, David; Waugh, Norman; Elliott, Jackie; Lawton, Julia; Barnard, Katharine D.; Campbell, Michael J; Dixon, S.; Heller, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: People with type 1 diabetes (T1DM)\\ud require insulin therapy to sustain life, and need optimal\\ud glycaemic control to prevent diabetic ketoacidosis and\\ud serious long-term complications. Insulin is generally\\ud administered using multiple daily injections but can also\\ud be delivered using an infusion pump (continuous\\ud subcutaneous insulin infusion), a more costly option\\ud with benefits for some patients. The UK National\\ud Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)\\u...

  17. A solution-state NMR approach to elucidating pMDI-wood bonding mechanisms in loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Joseph Yelle

    2009-01-01

    Solution-state NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for unambiguously determining the existence or absence of covalent chemical bonds between wood components and adhesives. Finely ground wood cell wall material dissolves in a solvent system containing DMSO-d6 and NMI-d6, keeping wood component polymers intact and in a near-...

  18. A Comparison of Solar p-Mode Parameters from MDI and Gong: Mode Frequencies and Structure Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Howe, R.; Schou, J.; Thompson, M. J.; Hill, F.; Komm, R.

    2003-01-01

    Helioseismic analysis of solar global oscillations allows investigation of the internal structure of the Sun. One important test of the reliability of the inferences from helioseismology is that the results from independent sets of contemporaneous data are consistent with one another. Here we compare mode frequencies from the Global Oscillation Network Group and Michelson Doppler Imager on board SOHO and resulting inversion results on the Sun's internal structure. The average relative differences between the data sets are typically less than 1 x 10(exp -5) substantially smaller than the formal errors in the differences; however, in some cases the frequency differences show a systematic behavior that might nonetheless influence the inversion results. We find that the differences in frequencies are not a result of instrumental effects but are almost entirely related to the data pipeline software. Inversion of the frequencies shows that their differences do not result in any significant effects on the resulting inferences on solar structure. We have also experimented with fitting asymmetric profiles to the oscillation power spectra and find that, compared with the symmetric fits, this causes no significant change in the inversion results.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Polyureas from Aniline Trimer with TDI, MDI and HDI as pH Sensitive Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Siwei; Zhang Yi; Xu Jiarui

    2011-01-01

    A series of polyureas were synthesized through the reaction of aniline trimer with toluene-diisocyanate, di-phenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate, and hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate, respectively. The chemical structure of these polyureas was characterized and verified by FT-IR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis, UV, XRD and CV. The conductivity of these polyureas ranged from 10-7 to 10-6 S/cm measured by four-point-probe instrument. Com-pared to the standalone aniline trimer, the stability (thermal stability and electrochemical stability), response range and sensitivity of these polyureas are enhanced. The sensitivity of these polyureas DMF solution to pH value is superior to that of the standalone aniline trimer. The color of the polyureas DMF solution is greatly depended on pH value and the color change process is reversible, whenever from base to acid or from acid to base. These enhance-ments may give these polyureas more opportunities in order to be used as sensor materials.

  20. Conditions Within The Nucleus Nadi, Nagi,mdi ,mgiAnd Nuclear Energy Density And The Electric Field Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhenqiang and Huang Yuxiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available By (7.2, charged elementary particles in the fluctuation, the spin track movement in the direction of comprehensive force analysis and calculation results show that charged particle in electric and magnetic field force, nuclear power field force, under the action of centrifugal force is along the wave vector rail inside diameter automatic shrinkage in the center of the trend. From figure 7.1 and figure 7.1 within the nucleus of the high and low particles spiral loop combination structure can also be seen in: each layer low-energy particles spiral ring of the spin track occupied space should be minimal, get recently, and not overlap. 2 ~ 5 layers of each pair of high and low particles spiral ring on the inside of the spin track Rθgi(0, Rθdi(0 in also is such. All high, low-energy particle spiral ring in addition to the first layer, the quantum fluctuations of Nadi, Nagi shall take natural number.Refer to section 7.1 of the nucleus kernel forces forming principle, by figure 9.1 low-energy particles spiralring layer combination that: the bottom low-energy particles spiral ring in excess πd-both in the spin track intersec ting in the formation of ampere force can cover the economical and the upper surplus high and low π± muon solenoid ring particles of the axial electric field force, should be comprehensive comparison a, b, c, d,... each boundary point, internal non-oil imports all the ampere force and comprehensive relationship between the size of the axial electric field force and. That as space limit set of geometric conditions, by figure 9.1, the first a1 a1 > 150°. According to the set position and fluctuation, the relationship between the spin track parameters, low-energy particles spiral ring of n side by side, we

  1. Infrared light actuated shape memory effects in crystalline polyurethane/graphene chemical hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Kim, B. K.

    2014-02-01

    A series of crystalline shape memory polyurethanes (SMPUs) were synthesized from polycaprolactone diols and 4,4‧-methylenedicyclohexyl diisocyanate (H12MDI) with chemical incorporation of allyl isocyanate modified graphene oxide (iGO) into the PU. Actuation of hybrid SMPUs by infrared (IR) absorption of iGO as well as the direct heat actuated SMPUs has been studied in terms of the isothermal crystallization rate, near-IR absorption, and thermal, mechanical, and shape memory properties. It was found that iGO functions as a multifunctional cross-linker at low contents and a nucleating agent at high contents, and as a reinforcing filler, while light absorption by the iGO induced melting of the PU soft segment, giving rise to a shape recovery of over 90% at 1% iGO (G10).

  2. Waterborne polyurethane single-ion electrolyte from aliphatic diisocyanate and various molecular length of polyethylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The waterborne polyurethane (WPU dispersions from the reaction of cycloaliphatic diisocyanates [4,4’-methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate (H12MDI and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI] and polyethylene glycol (PEG with various molecular lengths were synthesized using our modified acetone process. Differetial scanning calorimeter (DSC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were utilized to characterize WPU films for the behavior of their crystallinity and H-bonding of WPU films. The Tg value of WPU increases with increasing the molecular length of PEG, whereas the Tm of WPU decreases with increasing PEG length. Alternating current (AC impedance experiments were performed to determine the ionic conductivities of WPU films. The WPU gel electrolytes exhibits an ionic conductivity as high as ~ 10-5 S/cm at room temperature.

  3. Bio-based polyurethane foams from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzione, M.; Russo, V.; Sorrentino, A.; Tesser, R.; Lavorgna, M.; Oliviero, M.; Di Serio, M.; Iannace, S.; Verdolotti, L.

    2016-05-01

    In the last decades, bio-derived natural materials, such as vegetable oils, polysaccharides and biomass represent a rich source of hydroxyl precursors for the synthesis of polyols which can be potentially used to synthesize "greener" polyurethane foams. Herein a bio-based precursor (obtained from succinic acid) was used as a partial replacement of conventional polyol to synthesize PU foams. A mixture of conventional and bio-based polyol in presence of catalysts, silicone surfactant and diphenylmethane di-isocyanate (MDI) was expanded in a mold and cured for two hours at room temperature. Experimental results highlighted the suitability of this bio-precursor to be used in the production of flexible PU foams. Furthermore the chemo-physical characterization of the resulting foams show an interesting improvement in thermal stability and elastic modulus with respect to the PU foams produced with conventional polyol.

  4. Polyurethanes from the crystalline prepolymers resistant to abrasive wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domańska Agata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at the selection of polyurethanes synthesized from poly(tetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG, as well as from two different isocyanates 4,4′-methylenebis(cyclohexylisocyanate (HMDI and 4.4′-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate (MDI in order to obtain polyurethane with increased resistance to abrasive wear and degradation for bio-medical application. Polyurethanes were fabricated from crystalline prepolymers extended by water. The paper presents preliminary results on polyurethane surface wettability, friction coefficient for different couples of the co-working materials such as polyurethane-polyurethane, polyurethane-titanium alloy, polyurethane-alumina, in comparison to commonly used polyethylene-titanium alloy. Shear strength of polyurethane-alumina joint, as well as viscosity of prepolymers were also measured. The values of friction coefficient were compared to literature data on commercially available polyurethane with the trade name Pellethane. Polyurethanes obtained are characterized by low abrasive wear and low friction coefficient in couple with the titanium alloy, what makes them attractive as possible components of ceramic-polymer endoprosthesis joints.

  5. Cellulose based hybrid hydroxylated adducts for polyurethane foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pisapia, Laura; Verdolotti, Letizia; Di Mauro, Eduardo; Di Maio, Ernesto; Lavorgna, Marino; Iannace, Salvatore

    2012-07-01

    Hybrid flexible polyurethane foams (HPU) were synthesized by using a hybrid hydroxilated adduct (HHA) based on renewable resources. In particular the HHA was obtained by dispersing cellulose wastes in colloidal silica at room temperature, pressure and humidity. The colloidal silica was selected for its ability of modifying the cellulose structure, by inducing a certain "destructurization" of the crystalline phase, in order to allow cellulose to react with di-isocyanate for the final synthesis of the polyurethane foam. In fact, cellulose-polysilicate complexes are engaged in the reaction with the isocyanate groups. This study provides evidence of the effects of the colloidal silica on the cellulose structure, namely, a reduction of the microfiber cellulose diameter and the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polysilicate functional groups and the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose, as assessed by IR spectroscopy and solid state NMR. The HHA was added to a conventional polyol in different percentages (between 5 and 20%) to synthesize HPU in presence of catalysts, silicone surfactant and diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). The mixture was expanded in a mold and cured for two hours at room temperature. Thermal analysis, optical microscopy and mechanical tests were performed on the foams. The results highlighted an improvement of thermal stability and a decrease of the cell size with respect neat polyurethane foam. Mechanical tests showed an improvement of the elastic modulus and of the damping properties with increasing HHA amount.

  6. Effect of charge density in chain extension reactions involving complexes of 4, 4'-diaminodiphenylmethane and various alkali metal salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Subrajeet; Carrasquillo, Katherine; Tsai, Fang Chang; Wu, Lina; Hsu, Shaw Ling; University of Massachusetts Amherst Team

    Controlling the reaction of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI)-terminated polyester prepolymer and 4, 4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (MDA) is extremely important in many large scale applications. The ion-diamine complex has the advantage of blocking the instantaneous reaction between the diamine and isocyanate from taking place until it is released at elevated temperatures. We synthesized complexes of MDA with various alkali metal salts. These complexes create a barrier between the diamine and isocyanate thus preventing the premature reaction. We compared the complexes in terms of their dissociation and the subsequent curing with the prepolymer. Charge density had a tremendous effect. DSC showed that Na complexes dissociated at a lower temperature and needed less energy to dissociate than the Li complexes. The effect of change in cation on complex dissociation was more pronounced compared to the change in anion. Also, the ionic liquid introduced greatly altered the dissociation behavior. Temperature and time resolved IR spectroscopy was used to monitor the urea and NH band. By DSC and IR, we showed that NaCl complex is best suited for the curing of prepolymer with regards to curing temperature and energy.

  7. Occupational allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in workers exposed to polyurethane foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kieć-Świerczyńska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate sensitization to chemicals present in work environment after an outbreak of contact dermatitis in workers of vehicle equipment factory, exposed to polyurethane foam, based on 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI. Material and Methods: From among 300 employees, 21 individuals reporting work-related skin and/or respiratory tract symptoms underwent clinical examination, patch testing, skin prick tests, spirometry and MDI sIgE measurement in serum. Patch tests included isocyanates series, selected rubber additives, metals, fragrances, preservatives, and an antiadhesive agent. Results: Clinical examination revealed current eczema in the area of hands and/or forearms in 10 workers. Positive patch test reactions were found in 10 individuals, the most frequent to diaminodiphenylmethane and 4-phenylenediamine (7 persons. Reactions to an antiadhesive agent were assessed as irritant (5 workers. Except for sensitization to common aeroallergens, no significant abnormalities were found in the remaining tests. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 7 workers, irritant contact dermatitis in 10 and coexisiting allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in 3 workers. Conclusions: In workers manufacturing products from polyurethane foam, attention should be paid to the risk of developing contact dermatitis. Skin problems in our study group were attributable probably to insufficient protection of the skin.

  8. 聚氨酯相变材料的非等温结晶动力学研究%Investigation on the Non-isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Polyurethane Phase Change Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 田春蓉; 芦艾; 王建华; 黄奕刚; 黄玉西

    2012-01-01

    Polyurethane phase change materials(PUPCMs) were synthesized by Polyethylene glycol)(PEG; Mn=6 000), 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate)(MDI) and 1,4-butanediol(BDO), which contained 86% soft segments. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of PUPCMs were studied by means of DSC, Mo ZhiShen equation and Ozawa equation. The results show that there is great difference in the datas from Ozawa equation and MoZhiShen equation, and Ozawa equation is more suitable for the actual crystallization process.%以聚乙二醇-6000(PEG-6000)、4,4′-二苯基甲烷二异氰酸酯(MDI)、1,4-丁二醇(BDO)为原料制备了软段含量为86%的聚氨脂相变材料(PUPCMs).采用DSC测试手段,并且以Ozawa方程和莫志深方程为主要模型,分析研究了聚氨酯相变材料非等温结晶动力学.结果表明:Ozawa方程与莫志深方程的结果差别较大,而Ozawa方程更加符合实际的结晶过程.

  9. Health-hazard evaluation report No. HETA-87-099-1938, Louisiana-Pacific Corporation, Olathe, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, W.J.; Hales, T.; Seligman, P.

    1988-12-01

    An investigation was made at the Louisiana-Pacific Corporation, Olathe, Colorado, of respiratory problems possibly due to exposures at the workplace. The company produced waferboard using a heat- and pressure-cured resin/wax binding material containing 4,4-methylenediphenyl-isocyanate (MDI). Thirteen cases of pulmonary disease (12 cases of asthma and one case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis) were identified by medical testing in three current and 10 former employees. Two of 23 personal air samples contained quantifiable concentrations of MDI, for time-weighted average concentrations of 0.015 and 0.016 mg/cu m, below the NIOSH recommended exposure limit of 0.05 mg/me. The authors conclude that a potential health hazard existed from airborne exposure to diisocyanates. There may be a risk of significant exposure during maintenance activities if proper personal protective equipment is not used. Previously sensitized workers may react at very low concentrations. The authors recommend that engineering controls be maintained at a high level, that good housekeeping practices be adhered to, that a regular program of air monitoring be instituted, that signs warning the danger of exposure to diisocyanate be posted, that employees be instructed in the use of personal protective equipment, and that a program for medical screening be adopted.

  10. The ALMA-PILS survey: First detections of deuterated formamide and deuterated isocyanic acid in the interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Coutens, A; van der Wiel, M H D; Müller, H S P; Lykke, J M; Bjerkeli, P; Bourke, T L; Calcutt, H; Drozdovskaya, M N; Favre, C; Fayolle, E C; Garrod, R T; Jacobsen, S K; Ligterink, N F W; Öberg, K I; Persson, M V; van Dishoeck, E F; Wampfler, S F

    2016-01-01

    Formamide (NH$_2$CHO) has previously been detected in several star-forming regions and is thought to be a precursor for different prebiotic molecules. Its formation mechanism is still debated, however. Observations of formamide, related species and their isopotologues may provide useful clues to the chemical pathways leading to their formation. The Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS) represents an unbiased high angular resolution and sensitivity spectral survey of the low-mass protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We detect for the first time the three singly deuterated forms of NH$_2$CHO (NH$_2$CDO, cis- and trans-NHDCHO) as well as DNCO towards the component B of this binary source. The images reveal that the different isotopologues all are present in the same region. Based on the observations of the $^{13}$C isotopologues of formamide and a standard $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C ratio, the deuterium fractionation is found to be similar for the thr...

  11. Effect of Nanodisperse Carbon Fillers and Isocyanate Chain Extender on Structure and Properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Agabekov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of diisocyanate chain extender (CE on the mechanical, rheological, and relaxation properties, as well as on molecular weight and crystallizability, of starting poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET and its composites containing carbon nanomaterials (CNM such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs and commercial carbon (CC has been studied. The composites were compounded in molten PET using twin-screw extruder (screw diameter 35 mm; L/D=40. To improve the distribution of CNM in the polymeric matrix (before introduction into the melt, they were blended with PET powder and subjected to an ultrasonic treatment in methylene chloride. The salient features of the materials structure were estimated based on DSC and relaxation spectrometry (dynamic mechanical analysis data. It has been found that CNM additives partly suppress the PET-chain extension reactions which take place during interaction between macromolecular end groups and CE. Besides, both CNT and CC favour crystallizability of the modified PET owing to nucleation of the crystallization process. The influence of CNT appears to be more effective than that of CC. Enhancements in true mechanical strength and deformability of PET/CE/CNM composites, as against PET/CE materials, were found to be most clearly exhibited by the CNT-containing composites.

  12. Delineating pMDI model reactions with loblolly pine via solution-state NMR spectroscopy. Part 2, Non-catalyzed reactions with the wood cell wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph; Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    Solution-state NMR provides a powerful tool to observe the presence or absence of covalent bonds between wood and adhesives. Finely ground wood can be dissolved in an NMR compatible solvent system containing dimethylsulfoxide-d6 and N-methylimidazole-d6, in which the wood polymers remain largely intact. High-resolution...

  13. The Research of MDI-type Polyurethane Material Used in Plastic Racetrack%MDI型聚氨酯塑胶跑道铺装材料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓静

    2007-01-01

    以降低成本为目的,提高了预聚体的NCO质量分数,同时对B组分中的原材料进行了选择与调整,研制了MDI型双组分聚氨酯塑胶跑道铺装材料.讨论了几种原材料对B组分及反应生成物性能的影响.结果表明,新的MDI型塑胶跑道铺装材料既满足了性能要求、又降低了生产成本,同时符合环保需求,提高了MDI型产品的市场竞争力.

  14. Criterios de formulación de espumas flexibles de poliuretano MDI basados en la evaluación cualitativa de propiedades finales realizadas a nivel laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Ocampo Gonzalez, Jhon

    2012-01-01

    En este documento se presentan una serie de ensayos realizados con varios polioles, isocianatos, catalizadores, tensoactivos y agentes entrecruzantes, con el fin de evidenciar el cambio en las propiedades finales de una espuma flexible de poliuretano ante el cambio en la concentración de las materias primas. Se midieron propiedades tales como densidad, tiempo de crema, tiempo de secado y dureza entre otras y éstos resultados obtenidos de manera cualitativa fueron utilizados como base en el de...

  15. Preparation of Controlled-Release Polyurethane Coated Urea%聚氨酯包膜尿素的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桂南

    2011-01-01

    Isocyanate and polyethylene oxide propylene glycol (PPG) were used to synthesize polyurethane coating material and polyurethane coated urea was obtained. The controlled-release curves of polyurethane coated urea was obtained by the colorimetry, and the influences of molar ratio of NCO/OH, coating rate, reaction mode, isocyanate and PPG molecular weight on the controlled-release performance of polyurethane coated urea were discussed. It was proved that 5 % polyurethane coated urea met the requirement for controlled-release fertilizer according to Europe Standard, which was prepared by PPG-3000 reacting with MDI for 1 h first and then reacting with urea for 2 h in acetone at 50~60℃ with NCO/OH of 1.1.%用异氰酸酯与聚氧化丙烯二醇(PPG)合成聚氨酯,再以其包裹尿素制成聚氨酯包膜尿素.采用比色法绘制聚氨酯包膜尿素的缓释曲线,讨论了异氰酸酯与羟基摩尔比(NCO/OH)、包膜率、反应方式、异氰酸酯、PPG分子量对包膜尿素缓释性能的影响.结果发现,以丙酮为溶剂,NCO/OH为1.1,在50~60℃的水浴温度下,PPG-3000先与MDI反应1 h、再与尿素反应2 h,得到的包膜率为5%的聚氨酯包膜尿素满足欧洲标准委员会的缓释肥料标准.

  16. SYNTHESIS AND PHASE BEHAVIOR OF POLYURETHANES END-CAPPED WITH FLUORINATED PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE HEAD GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-sheng Tan; Xiao-qing Zhang; Jian-chuan Wang; Jie-hua Li; Hong Tan; Qiang Fu

    2011-01-01

    A series of fluorinated phosphatidylcholine polyurethane macromolecular additives were synthesized by solution polymerization using methylenebis(phylene isocyanates) (MDI) and 1,4-butanediol (BDO) as hard segments,a new phoshporycholine,2-(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9-hexadecafluoro-10-(2-hydroxyethoxy)decyloxy) ethyl phosphorycholine (HDFOPC) as end-capper,and four polydiols,poly(tetramethylene glycol)s (PTMG),polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS),poly(1,6-hexyl-1,5-pentylcarbonate) (PHPC) and poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) as soft segments,respectively.The chemical structures of the synthesized polyurethanes were characterized by 1H-NMR and FTIR.DSC and DMA were employed to study the phase behavior of these novel polyurethanes due to their great influences on the surface properties,and hence their interactions with bio-systems.The results showed that phase separation of the fluorinated phosphatidylcholine end-capped polyurethanes was increased in comparison with that of normal polyurethanes.The effect of fluorinated phosphatidylcholine end-capped groups on the phase behavior was further demonstrated by analyzing the degree of hydrogen-bonding between hard and soft segments.

  17. A strategy to synthesize graphene-incorporated lignin polymer composite materials with uniform graphene dispersion and covalently bonded interface engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Duong, Le Dai; Ma, Yifei; Sun, Yan; Hong, Sung Yong; Kim, Ye Chan; Suhr, Jonghwan; Nam, Jae-Do

    2017-08-01

    Graphene-incorporated polymer composites have been demonstrated to have excellent mechanical and electrical properties. In the field of graphene-incorporated composite material synthesis, there are two main obstacles: Non-uniform dispersion of graphene filler in the matrix and weak interface bonding between the graphene filler and polymer matrix. To overcome these problems, we develop an in-situ polymerization strategy to synthesize uniformly dispersed and covalently bonded graphene/lignin composites. Graphene oxide (GO) was chemically modified by 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) to introduce isocyanate groups and form the urethane bonds with lignin macromonomers. Subsequential polycondensation reactions of lignin groups with caprolactone and sebacoyl chloride bring about a covalent network of modified GO and lignin-based polymers. The flexible and robust lignin polycaprolactone polycondensate/modified GO (Lig-GOm) composite membranes are achieved after vacuum filtration, which have tunable hydrophilicity and electrical resistance according to the contents of GOm. This research transforms lignin from an abundant biomass into film-state composite materials, paving a new way for the utilization of biomass wastes.

  18. Attachment of inorganic moieties onto aliphatic polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ayres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethanes have been used in a series of applications due basically to their versatility in terms of controlling the behavior by altering basically the type of reagents used. However, for more specific and advanced applications, such as in membranes, biomaterials and sensors, well-organized and defined chemical functionalities are necessary. In this work, inorganic functionalities were incorporated into aliphatic polyurethanes (PU having different macromolecular architectures. Polyurethanes were synthesized using a polyether diol and dicyclohexylmethane 4,4' diisocyanate (H12-MDI. Polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups were also produced by introducing 2,2- bis (hydroxymethyl propionic acid in the polymerization process. Inorganic functionalities were inserted into polyurethanes by reacting isocyanate end capped chains with aminopropyltriethoxysilane followed by tetraethoxysilane. PU having carboxylic acid groups yielded transparent samples after the incorporation of inorganic entities, as an evidence of smaller and better dispersed inorganic entities in the polymer network. FTIR and swelling measurements showed that polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups had inorganic domains less packed, condensed and cross-linked when compared to polyurethanes with no carboxylic acid groups. Results also suggested that the progressive incorporation of inorganic moieties in both types of polyurethanes occurred in regions previously activated with inorganic functionalities, instead of by the creation of new domains. The temperatures of thermal decomposition and glass transition were also shifted to higher temperatures when inorganic functionalities were incorporated into polyurethanes.

  19. Occupational exposure to diisocyanates in polyurethane foam factory workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Świerczyńska-Machura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate health effects of occupational exposure to diisocyanates (DIC among polyurethane foam products factory workers. Material and Methods: Thirty workers had a physical examination, skin prick tests with common allergens, allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE antibodies to diisocyanates and pulmonary function tests. Concentrations of selected isocyanates in the workplace air samples as well as concentration of their metabolites in the urine samples collected from the workers of the plant were determined. Results: The most frequent work-related symptoms reported by the examined subjects were rhinitis and skin symptoms. Sensitization to at least 1 common allergen was noted in 26.7% of the subjects. Spirometry changes of bronchial obstruction of a mild degree was observed in 5 workers. The specific IgE antibodies to toluene diisocyanate (TDI and 4,4’-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate (MDI were not detected in any of the patients’ serum. Cellular profiles of the collected induced sputum (ISP did not reveal any abnormalities. Air concentrations of TDI isomers ranged 0.2–58.9 μg/m3 and in 7 cases they exceeded the Combined Exposure Index (CEI value for those compounds. Concentrations of TDI metabolites in post-shift urine samples were significantly higher than in the case of pre-shift urine samples and in 6 cases they exceeded the British Biological Monitoring Guidance Value (BMGV – 1 μmol amine/mol creatinine. We didn’t find a correlation between urinary concentrations of TDI, concentrations in the air and concentrations of toluenediamine (TDA in the post shift urine samples. Lack of such a correlation may be an effect of the respiratory protective equipment use. Conclusions: Determination of specific IgE in serum is not sensitive enough to serve as a biomarker. Estimation of concentrations of diisocyanate metabolites in urine samples and the presence of work-related allergic symptoms seem to be

  20. CPD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (e.g. isocyanate may block beta-2 adrenergic ... Isocyanates (e.g. toluene diisocyanate, diphenylmethane, ... Dyes (e. g. anthraquinone, caimine, paraphenyl diamine, henna .... 2,4 mg salbutamol sulphate equivalem to 2 mg salblmtampl.

  1. Insensitive explosive composition and method of fracturing rock using an extrudable form of the composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Lloyd L.

    2015-07-28

    Insensitive explosive compositions were prepared by reacting di-isocyanate and/or poly-isocyanate monomers with an explosive diamine monomer. Prior to a final cure, the compositions are extrudable. The di-isocyanate monomers tend to produce tough, rubbery materials while polyfunctional monomers (i.e. having more than two isocyanate groups) tend to form rigid products. The extrudable form of the composition may be used in a variety of applications including rock fracturing.

  2. Dispersiones acuosas de poliuretano bloqueado: una alternativa como agente curtiente Aqueous dispersions of blocked polyurethane: an alternative as tanning agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Mata-Mata

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se sintetizaron y se evaluaron como agentes curtientes de pieles vacunas dos tipos de agentes de reticulación base poliuretano bloqueado. Se presentan los resultados de la síntesis de dispersiones acuosas de poliuretano bloqueado (DPU’s, basadas en prepolímeros a partir de la reacción de los diisocianatos alifáticos H12MDI (4,4’ metilenbis-ciclohexilisocianato y HDI (hexametilendiisocianato con polioles base poliéter óxido de etileno de peso molecular 1 y 2 KDa, en una relación molar isocianato/oxhidrilo (NCO/OH de 4:1 y 6:1 a 100 °C por 2 y 4 horas. En una segunda reacción, los grupos isocianato (NCO libres del prepolímero se bloquearon con una solución acuosa de NaHSO3 ó Na2S2O5 al 40%p/p. Los prepolímeros se caracterizaron mediante espectroscopia IR y RMN de ¹H. El tanto por ciento de isocianato libre en el prepolímero, así como el bloqueo de dichos grupos, se determinaron por espectroscopía IR. La evaluación de la capacidad curtiente de las DPU’s se determinó de acuerdo a la estabilidad térmica de la piel (temperatura de desnaturalización, mediante Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC y a la determinación del índice de reticulación de las DPU’s con la colágena de la piel mediante un ensayo con ninhidrina.Two types of crosslinking agents blocked polyurethanes were synthesized and evaluated as tanning agents of bovine skins. The results of the synthesis of aqueous dispersions of blocked polyurethane (DPU’s are presented. They were based on prepolymers from the reaction of the aliphatic diisocyanates H12MDI 4,4’-methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate and HDI (hexamethylene diisocyanate with HO-polyols such as polyethylene oxide of molecular weight 1 and 2 kDa. The molar NCO/OH ratio was fixed in 4:1 or 6:1, at 100 °C and 2 or 4 hours for the reaction time. In a second reaction, the prepolymer containing terminal NCO groups were blocked by reaction with an aqueous NaHSO3 or Na2S2O5 solution to 40% w/w. The

  3. Mechanical Properties of Renewable Polymer with Thermoplastics Endurance to Ultraviolet irradiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Nurul Syamimi M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present the disposal of waste tyre rubber (WTR has become a major waste management problem in the world. Therefore in this study, polymer blended based on Polyethylene which is Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE or High Density Polyethylene (HDPE, with Renewable Polymer (RP and waste tyre rubber (WTR is prepared via injection molding. Blended polymer such as LDPE/RP/WTR and HDPE/RP/WTR is known as LRT and HRT respectively. The preparation of polymer blend steps start with the preparation of RP. The RP is prepared by crosslinking the renewable monomer with Polymethane Polyphenyl Isocyanate (MDI at composition ratio of 1:0.5. The second steps involved by adding 10 gm of liquid RP prepared earlier on with fixed amount of LDPE and HDPE of 100 gm. Then the blended LDPE/RP or HDPE/RP namely as LR or HR respectively is further added with WTR with different percentages ratio of 5 %, 10 % and 15 %. The manually blended polymer mixture and filler is then melt mixing using injection moulding to fabricate the tensile specimen for mechanical tensile test and physical determination such as density, distribution of WTR in polymer blend and surface fracture morphology using scanning electron microscope. The samples were then exposed to UV irradiation exposure in UV Accelerated Weathering for 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000 hours to evaluate the photostability of the polymer blends. The optimum amount of WTR ratio composition is at 5 % for both LRT and HRT blends which indicate the stability of polymer blends towards UV irradiation exposure at 1000 hours.

  4. Future Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilato, Louis

    There are some disturbing signs that appear on the horizon as phenolic resins enter their second century of existence. The large area of wood adhesives application (~60% of the total volume of phenolic resins in North America) is under intense pressure due to many factors that are contributing to continuing reduction in the sales volume of wood adhesives. These factors include the known slow cure speed of phenolic resins compared to Urea Formaldehyde (UF), Melamine Formaldehyde (MF), or Methylene Diphenyl Isocyanate (MDI); installation of new machinery/ equipment with fast continuous lines; continued decrease in plywood consumption at the expense of Oriented Strand Board (OSB) where phenolic resin is the preferred adhesive for plywood; further reduction in formaldehyde emissions through California Air Resources Board (CARB) Phase I and Phase II; uncertainty of whether formaldehyde will be identified as a human carcinogen pending the anticipated 2009 study; and the environmental movement to reduce or eliminate formaldehyde-containing resins in wood and thermal insulation consumer products (U.S. Green Building Council and other Environmental groups like the Sierra Club). Consumers are being urged by environmental organizations to purchase composite wood products with lower formaldehyde emission levels or none at all. This is illustrated by examining the news media reports after the Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The home trailers provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) that were used for Louisiana and Mississippi residents after Katrina hurricane as temporary housing further accelerated concerns over formaldehyde emissions since higher than typical indoor exposure levels of formaldehyde in travel trailers and mobile homes were determined for the FEMA trailers.

  5. Method of neutralizing the corrosive surface of amine-cured epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Y. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    The corrosive alkaline surface layer of an epoxy resin product formed by the curing of the epoxy with an aliphatic amine is eliminated by first applying a non-solvent to remove most or all of the free unreacted amine and then applying a layer of a chemical reagent to neutralize the unused amine or amine functional groups by forming a substituted urea. The surface then may be rinsed with acetone and then with alcohol. The non-solvent may be an alcohol. The neutralizing chemical reagent is a mono-isocyanate or a mono-isothiocyanate. Preferred is an aromatic mono-isocyanate such as phenyl isocyanate, nitrophenyl isocyanate and naplthyl isocyanate.

  6. Study on Property of Castor Oil Based Polyurethane Modified Asphalt%蓖麻油基聚氨酯改性沥青的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏磊; 张海燕; 曹东伟; 郭燕生

    2016-01-01

    To develop a new type of modified asphalt and its preparation process, the castor oil contained asphalt is obtained with green renewable castor oil instead of petroleum based polyols at first, then the second monomer liquefied MDI is slowly dropped into pitch system with shearing and the castor oil based polyurethane ( PU) modified asphalt is prepared. The dosage of castor oil and the second monomer MDI are calculated by isocyanate index R( -NCO/ -OH) =1. 8, and the modified asphalt with 10% -30% content of castor oil based PU are synthesized. The performance of modified asphalt are characterized by conventional experiment. The experiment result shows that the modifier in asphalt dispersed evenly and both the high and low temperature performance of the castor oil based PU modified asphalt are improved, especially the high temperature performance. The high temperature grade of asphalt is determined by the original grade test and thin film oven tests ( TFOT) grade test on the samples. On the basis of high temperature grade, the high temperature performances of different asphalts after aging are analysed and evaluated by multiple stress creep recovery ( MSCR) test. The result shows that the creep compliance of the modified asphalt declined greatly and recovery rate raised obviously compared with base asphalt, which effectively achieved the effect of increasing elasticity and stiffening. With the increase of the modifier dosage, creep compliance declined and recovery rate raised in the same time, the modification effect is better.%为开发一种新型改性沥青及其制备工艺,以绿色可再生的蓖麻油代替石油基多元醇,先制成含油沥青,在沥青体系中再缓慢滴加第二单体液化二苯基甲烷二异氰酸酯(MDI),边剪切边制成蓖麻油基聚氨酯改性沥青.通过异氰酸酯指数R(-NCO/-OH)=1.8,按10%~30%总体改性剂掺量,计算出蓖麻油及第二单体MDI的用量,分别制备10%~30%的蓖麻油基聚氨酯改性沥青.通

  7. Thermally induced structural transformation of polytriazoleimide to polyindoleimide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Peng E; Li Qiang Wan; Yu Jing Li; Fa Rong Huang; Lei Du

    2012-01-01

    A new kind of polytriazoleimide containing bisphenyl-1,2,3-triazole (BPT) was synthesized by copper-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and alkynes (CuAAC) and polycondensation.The thermal stability and degradation mechanism of the polytriazoleimide were investigated.The results show that the structure of BPT in polytriazoleimide transforms to phenylindole after thermal treatment,accompanying the release of N2.

  8. 二硝酰胺铵与异氰酸酯化合物的红外光谱研究%The Study on FTIR Spectra of Ammonium Dinitramide with Compounds of Isocyanate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟进贤; 杨荣杰; 李建民

    2006-01-01

    通过将ADN、ADN/N-100、ADN/TDI、ADN/IPDI分别在室温和45 ℃下处理后进行FTIR谱图分析,研究了二硝酰胺铵(ADN)与三种异氰酸酯化合物(TDI、N-100、IPDI)的相容性.研究表明,在室温和45 ℃下,ADN与N-100、TDI不相容而与IPDI相容.

  9. Inhaled corticosteroid metered-dose inhalers: how do variations in technique for solutions versus suspensions affect drug distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Christie A; Tsourounis, Candy

    2013-03-01

    To assess the literature that evaluates how variations in metered-dose inhaler (MDI) technique affect lung distribution for inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) formulated as MDI suspensions and solutions. PubMed (up to November 2012) and Cochrane Library (up to November 2012) were searched using the terms metered-dose inhalers, HFA 134a, Asthma/*drug therapy, and inhaled corticosteroids. In addition, reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. All articles in English from the data sources that assessed MDI technique comparing total lung distribution (TLD) of MDI solutions or suspensions formulated with ICSs were included in the review. Five relevant studies were identified. Five controlled studies compared how variations in MDI technique affect TLD for ICS MDI solutions with suspensions. MDI solutions resulted in greater TLD compared with larger particle MDI suspensions. Delayed or early inspiration upon device actuation of MDI solutions resulted in less TLD than coordinated actuation, but with a 3- to 4-times greater TLD than MDI suspensions inhaled using a standard technique. A sixth study evaluated inspiratory flow rates (IFR) for small, medium, and large particles. Rapid and slow IFRs resulted in similar TLD for small particles, while far fewer particles reached the airways with medium and large particles at rapid, rather than slow, IFRs. Based on the literature evaluated, standard MDI technique should be used for ICS suspensions. ICS MDI solutions can provide a higher average TLD than larger-particle ICS suspensions using standard technique, discoordinated inspiration and medication actuation timing, or rapid and slow IFRs. ICS MDI solutions allow for a more forgiving technique, which makes them uniquely suitable options for patients with asthma who have difficultly with MDI technique.

  10. Quantitation of 4,4′-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate human serum albumin adducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah G. Luna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 4,4′-Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (herein 4,4′-MDI is used in the production of polyurethane foams, elastomers, coatings, adhesives and the like for a wide range of commercial products. Occupational exposure to MDI levels above current airborne exposure limits can elicit immune mediated hypersensitivity reactions such as occupational asthma in sensitive individuals. To accurately determine exposure, there has been increasing interest in developing analytical methods to measure internal biomarkers of exposure to MDI. Previous investigators have reported methodologies for measuring MDI diamine metabolites and MDI-Lysine (4,4′-MDI-Lys adducts. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an ultra performance liquid chromatography isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ID/MS/MS quantitation method via a signature peptide approach to enable biomonitoring of 4,4′-MDI adducted to human serum albumin (HSA in plasma. A murine, anti-4,4′-MDI monoclonal IgM antibody was bound to magnetic beads and utilized for enrichment of the MDI adducted HSA. Following enrichment, trypsin digestion was performed to generate the expected 414 site (primary site of adduction 4,4′-MDI-adducted HSA signature peptide that was quantified by UPLC-ID/MS/MS. An Agilent 6530 UPLC/quadrupole time of flight MS (QTOF system was utilized for intact adducted protein analysis and an Agilent 6490 UPLC/MS/MS system operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM mode was utilized for quantification of the adducted signature peptide biomarker both for in chemico and worker serum samples. Worker serum samples were initially screened utilizing the previously developed 4,4′-MDI-Lys amino acid method and results showed that 12 samples were identified as quantifiable for 4,4′-MDI-Lys adducts. The signature peptide adduct approach was applied to the 12 worker samples identified as quantifiable for 4,4′-MDI-Lys adducts. Results indicated no positive results

  11. Collaborative Core Research Program for Chemical-Biological Warfare Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-04

    collaborators at the University of Cincinnati’s Metabolic Diseases Institute (UC-MDI) and the Battelle Memorial Institute’s Biomedical Research Center...at the University of Cincinnati’s Metabolic Diseases Institute (UC-MDI) and the Battelle Memorial Institute’s Biomedical Research Center (BBRC) is...Research Center (UC-DDRC, part of UC-MDI). Using an EvoTec robot, single point (10 μM final solution test chemical concentration) 2 measurements

  12. Relative lung and systemic bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate inhaled products using urinary drug excretion post inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswania, Osama; Chrystyn, Henry

    2002-05-01

    The relative lung and systemic bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate following inhalation by different methods have been determined using a urinary excretion pharmacokinetic method. On three separate randomised study days, 7 days apart, subjects inhaled (i) 4x5 mg from an Intal metered dose inhaler (MDI), (ii) 4x5 mg from an MDI attached to a large volume spacer (MDI+SP) and (iii) 20 mg from an Intal Spinhaler (DPI). Urine samples were provided at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 24 h post dose. The mean (S.D.) amount of sodium cromoglycate excreted in the urine during the first 30 min post inhalation was 38.1 (27.5), 222.3 (120.3) and 133.1 (92.2) microg following MDI, MDI+SP and DPI, respectively. The mean ratio (90% confidence interval) of these amounts excreted in the urine over the first 30 min for MDI+SP vs. MDI, DPI vs. MDI and MDI+SP vs. DPI was 801.0 (358.0, 1244; psodium cromoglycate excreted over the 24 h post inhalation the ratios were 375.4 (232.9, 517.9; psodium cromoglycate from a metered dose inhaler attached to a large volume spacer.

  13. Structural features and relaxation properties of PET/PC blends containing impact strength modifier and chain extender

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pesetskii, S. S; Filimonov, O. V; Koval, V. N; Golubovich, V. V

    2009-01-01

    It has been investigated how methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) influences the morphology, rheological, mechanical and relaxation properties, as well as PET crystallizability, of PET/PC/(PP/EPDM...

  14. 78 FR 66107 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Residual Risk and Technology Review for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... desired shape and size. Molded foam is typically used in automotive seats, packaging and a range of... isocyanate and water. The polyol is either a polyether or polyester polymer with hydroxyl end groups. Other... foam where the gases produced by the isocyanate-water reaction are insufficient to achieve the...

  15. 77 FR 5091 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ...) Waterproofing inorganic (G) Silane quats. substrates. trade name zycosil; asphalt binder modifier. Trade name...) Component of coatings.... (G) Isocyanate polymer, alcohol- blocked. P-12-0057 11/18/2011 02/15/2012 CBI (G) Component of coatings.... (G) Hydroxyalkenoate, polymer with isocyanate and diglycol, alcohol- blocked....

  16. Flexible fire retardant polyisocyanate modified neoprene foam. [for thermal protective devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Lightweight, fire resistant foams have been developed through the modification of conventional neoprene-isocyanate foams by the addition of an alkyl halide polymer. Extensive tests have shown that the modified/neoprene-isocyanate foams are much superior in heat protection properties than the foams heretofore employed both for ballistic and ablative purposes.

  17. Protic Cationic Oligomeric Ionic Liquids of the Urethane Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevchenko, V. V.; Stryutsky, A. V.; Klymenko, N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Protic oligomeric cationic ionic liquids of the oligo(ether urethane) type are synthesized via the reaction of an isocyanate prepolymer based on oligo(oxy ethylene)glycol with M = 1000 with hexamethylene-diisocyanate followed by blocking of the terminal isocyanate groups with the use of amine...

  18. New cation-exchange membranes for hyperfiltration processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van der P.M.; Smolders, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    A new route for the preparation of cation exchange membranes from polystyrene-polyisoprene-polystyrene (SIS) block copolymers has been studied, using N-chlorosulfonyl isocyanate. At temperatures of 0° to 20°C, N-chlorosulfonyl isocyanate reacts readily with the olefin group in polyisoprenes, resulti

  19. Polymer Claw: Instant Underwater Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    surface. The amine reacts with the sticky, isocyanate putty to form a tough polyurea. The catalyzed isocyanates likewise bond with alcohols, amines, acids...the metal bristles and displaces the gel to make way for the adhesive. The entire system will be sealed in disposable packaging for safe storage and

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(ether amide)s Containing Bisphthalazinone and Ether Linkages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng LIU; Shou Hai ZHANG; Ming Jing WANG; Qi Zhen LIANG; Xi Gao JIAN

    2005-01-01

    A novel aromatic diacid, 4, 4'-bis[2-(4-carboxyphenyl)phthalazin-1-one-4-yl]-bisphenyl ether Ⅲ, containing bisphthalazinone and ether linkages was prepared from nucleophilic substitution of p-chlorobenzonitrile with the bisphenol-like monomer Ⅰ, followed by alkaline hydrolysis of the intermediate dinitrile Ⅱ. A series of poly(ether amide)s containing bisphthalazinone and ether linkages derived from diacid Ⅲ and aromatic diamines were synthesized by one-step solution condensation polymerization using triphenyl phosphite and pyridine as condensing agents. Moreover, the properties of poly(ether amide)s including thermal stability,solubility and crystallinity were also studied.

  1. Organic Electroluminescent Device Based on TPP%基于TPP的有机电致发光器件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A kind of pyrazoline derivative 1,3-bis(phenyl)-5-(2-phenanthrene)-2-pyrazoline(TPp) was synthesized in order to obtain stable film and applied to organic electroluminecsent diode as hole transporting material. Two devices with structures as indium-tin-oxide(ITO) TPP (50 nm)/tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum(Alq3) (50 nm)/Al (150 nm) and ITO /TPP (50 nm)/lithium tera-(8-hydroxy-uinolinato)boron(LiBq4 (50 nm)/Alq3 (5 nm)/Al (150 nm) were fabricated, they showed good electroluminescent(EL) performance and TPP was proved to be a good hole transporting material.

  2. Organic Electroluminescent Device Based on TPP%基于TPP的有机电致发光器件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A kind of pyrazoline derivative 1,3-bis(phenyl)-5-(2-phenanthrene)-2-pyrazoline(TPp) was synthesized in order to obtain stable film and applied to organic electroluminecsent diode as hole transporting material. Two devices with structures as indium-tin-oxide(ITO) TPP (50 nm)/tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum(Alq3) (50 nm)/Al (150 nm) and ITO /TPP (50 nm)/lithium tera-(8-hydroxy-uinolinato)boron(LiBq4 (50 nm)/Alq3 (5 nm)/Al (150 nm) were fabricated, they showed good electroluminescent(EL) performance and TPP was proved to be a good hole transporting material.

  3. Lignans from Schisandra propinqua var. propinqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chun; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Chen, Ji-Jun; Pu, Jian-Xin; Yang, Li-Bin; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Jin-Ping; Gao, Xue-Mei; Xiao, Wei-Lie; Sun, Han-Dong

    2007-08-01

    Two new dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans angeloyl-(+)-gomisin K(3) (1) and methylisogomisin O (2), together with six known ones, isogomisin O, angeloylisogomisin O, gomisin O, angeloygomisin O, benzoylgomisin O, epigomisin O, and four 1,4-bis(phenyl)-2,3-dimethylbutane type lignans, pregomisin, meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid, isoanwulignan, and sphenanlignan were isolated from the aerial parts of Schisandra propinqua var. propinqua. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques.

  4. Psychopathology and Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion in Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rotella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII is used as an option in patients with diabetes failing to multiple daily injections (MDI. Psychological factors may play a relevant role in the failure to attain therapeutic goals in patients on MDI. This could lead to an overrepresentation of psychopathology in patients treated with CSII. Methods. A consecutive series of 100 patients with type 1 diabetes was studied, collecting main clinical parameters and assessing psychopathology with the self-reported questionnaire Symptom Checklist 90-revised. Patients on CSII were then compared with those on MDI. Results. Of the 100 enrolled patients, 44 and 56 were on CSII and MDI, respectively. Among men, those on CSII were younger than those on MDI; conversely, no difference in age was observed in women. Women on CSII showed higher scores on most Symptom Checklist 90 subscales than those on MDI, whereas no differences were observed in men. Conclusion. Women with type 1 diabetes treated with CSII display higher levels of psychopathology than those on MDI. This is probably the consequence of the fact that patients selected for CSII are those failing to MDI. Higher levels of psychopathology could represent a limit for the attainment and maintenance of therapeutic goals with CSII.

  5. Compatibility of melt-processed zein blends with methylenediphenyl 4,4'-diisocyanate-thermal, mechanical and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn zein was melt-processed with methylenediphenyl 4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI) using triethylamine (TEA) as catalyst. The objective is to construct a melt-processed, compatible blend of zein with MDI that can be used as a building block for generating bio-based thermoplastics. The impact of cross-linki...

  6. Variability of aerosol delivery via spacer devices in young asthmatic children in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. Janssens (Hettie); S.G. Devadason; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); P.N. LeSouef; J.C. de Jongste (Johan); H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) are widely used together with spacers for the treatment of asthma in children. However, the variability of daily medication dose for pMDI/spacer combinations is not known. Electrostatic charge is a potential source of

  7. Sensitivity and specificity of the Major Depression Inventory in outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noteboom Annemieke

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Major Depression Inventory (MDI is a new, brief, self-report measure for depression based on the DSM-system, which allows clinicians to assess the presence of a depressive disorder according to the DSM-IV, but also to assess the severity of the depressive symptoms. Methods We examined the sensitivity, specificity, and psychometric qualities of the MDI in a consecutive sample of 258 psychiatric outpatients. Of these patients, 120 had a mood disorder (70 major depression, 49 dysthymia. A total of 139 subjects had a comorbid axis-I diagnosis, and 91 subjects had a comorbid personality disorder. Results Crohnbach's alpha of the MDI was a satisfactory 0.89, and the correlation between the MDI and the depression subscale of the SCL-90 was 0.79 (p Conclusion The MDI is an attractive, brief depression inventory, which seems to be a reliable tool for assessing depression in psychiatric outpatients.

  8. Forecasting Safe or Dangerous Space Weather from HMI Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, David; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor; Moore, Ron

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a space-weather forecasting tool using an active-region free-energy proxy that was measured from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms. To develop this forecasting tool (Falconer et al 2011, Space Weather Journal, in press), we used a database of 40,000 MDI magnetograms of 1300 active regions observed by MDI during the previous solar cycle (cycle 23). From each magnetogram we measured our free-energy proxy and for each active region we determined its history of major flare, CME and Solar Particle Event (SPE) production. This database determines from the value of an active region s free-energy proxy the active region s expected rate of production of 1) major flares, 2) CMEs, 3) fast CMEs, and 4) SPEs during the next few days. This tool was delivered to NASA/SRAG in 2010. With MDI observations ending, we have to be able to use HMI magnetograms instead of MDI magnetograms. One of the difficulties is that the measured value of the free-energy proxy is sensitive to the spatial resolution of the measured magnetogram: the 0.5 /pixel resolution of HMI gives a different value for the free-energy proxy than the 2 /pixels resolution of MDI. To use our MDI-database forecasting curves until a comparably large HMI database is accumulated, we smooth HMI line-of-sight magnetograms to MDI resolution, so that we can use HMI to find the value of the free-energy proxy that MDI would have measured, and then use the forecasting curves given by the MDI database. The new version for use with HMI magnetograms was delivered to NASA/SRAG (March 2011). It can also use GONG magnetograms, as a backup.

  9. 聚乙烯醇-g-异氰酸酯-脂肪醇梳状接枝共聚物的合成、结构及热性能%Synthesis, Structure and Thermal Properties of Poly ( vinyl alcohol)-g-isocyanate-fatty Alcohol Comb Copolymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石海峰; 李剑华; 尹亿平; 张兴祥; 王笃金

    2012-01-01

    通过甲苯-2,4-二异氰酸酯(TDI)的连接作用,利用接枝共聚法将具有储热功能的长链脂肪醇[如十八醇(C18OH)、十六醇(C16OH)和十四醇(C14OH)]接枝到聚乙烯醇(PVA)主链上,制备出储热能力不同的聚乙烯醇-g-TDI -脂肪醇[PVA-g-TDI-C (n)]梳状接枝共聚物.通过傅里叶变换红外光谱(FTIR)、差示扫描量热分析(DSC)、热重分析(TGA)和X射线衍射(XRD)等方法研究了PVA-g-TDI-C (n)共聚物的热行为和结晶结构.结果表明,PVA-g-TDI-C(n)共聚物具有良好的储热能力,储热能力随侧链碳原子数目和侧链接枝度的增加而增大,但明显低于长链脂肪醇的储热能力.PVA-g-TDI-C(n)共聚物具有良好的热稳定性,失重温度在324~330℃之间.从侧链受限运动角度探讨了影响PVA-g-TDI-C(n)共聚物热性能和有序堆砌结构的原因.%Using the bridging role of tolylene diisocyanate ( TDI) , poly ( vinyl alcohol) -g-tolylene diisocya-nate-fatty alcohol[ PVA-g-TDI-C( n) , re = 14,16,18] copolymers were synthesized with the fatty alcohols as the thermal storage units along the PVA backbone via the "grafting to" method. The thermal storage behavior, thermal stability and crystalline structure of PVA-g-TDI-C(n) copolymers were detailed investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC ) , thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) , X-ray diffraction(XRD). The results show that PVA-g-TDI-C(re) eopolymers exhibit the better thermal storage ability, and the value of enthalpy increases with the side-chain length and the grafting ratio. Compared with the pure fatty alcohols, the grafted ones show the decreased thermal storage efficiency due to the confined mobility of longer methylene groups. Besides the confined mobility of methylene groups, the effect of PVA backbones and the bridging units of TDI also contribute to the decrement of thermal storage ability of PVA-g-TDI-C(re) copolymers. Additionally, PVA-g-TDI-C(n) copolymers exhibit the higher thermal stability than that of pure re-fatty alcohol, and the thermal degradation temperature is located at 324 330 ℃ , proving that it can be used as the solid-solid phase change materials in the aspects of buildings, fiber and textiles, thermal fluids, etc. So, the packing manner and thermal behavior of PVA-g-TDI-C (re) copolymers were further discussed and analyzed from the viewpoints of microstructural mobility.

  10. Influence of chemical treatment on the tensile properties of kenaf fiber reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. El-Shekeil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of polymeric Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate (pMDI chemical treatment on kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU/KF was examined using two different procedures. The first consisted of treating the fibers with 4% pMDI, and the second involved 2% NaOH + 4% pMDI. The composites were characterized according to their tensile properties, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The treatment of the composite with 4% pMDI did not significantly affect its tensile properties, but the treatment with 2% NaOH + 4% pMDI significantly increased the tensile properties of the composite (i.e., 30 and 42% increases in the tensile strength and modulus, respectively. FTIR also showed that treatment with 2% NaOH + 4% pMDI led to the strongest H-bonding. Additionally, the surface morphology of specimens after tensile fracture confirmed that the composite treated with 2% NaOH + 4% pMDI had the best adhesion and wettability.

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of the active components from the roots of Cosmos bipinnatus in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sang-Hyun; Yun, Bong-Sik; Kim, So-Young; Choi, Wahn-Soo; Jeon, Hyun-Soo; Yoo, Jun-Sik; Kim, Si-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    We isolated a sesquiterpene lactone from the methanol extract of the roots of Cosmos bipinnatus, namely, MDI (a mixture of dihydrocallitrisin and isohelenin). The anti-inflammatory activity of MDI was evaluated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. MDI significantly inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Consistent with these results, the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was suggested to be suppressed by MDI in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 value was 0.94 and 2.88 µg mL(-1) for NO and PGE2, respectively). In addition, MDI significantly inhibited the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α. Furthermore, MDI attenuated DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκB. These results indicate that MDI isolated from the roots of C. bipinnatus shows anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages by modulating the NF-κB pathway.

  12. Development of the 2007 Chemical Decontaminant Source Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    steels (vehicle, munitions substrate surface). (k) Brass/ bronze /copper and nickel alloys (munitions substrate surface). (I) Composite and laminate...Ethyleneimine Tungsten hexafluoride Methyl hydrazine Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Methyl isocyanate Hydrogen iodide Methyl mercaptan Iron pentacarbonyl

  13. T3P as an efficient cyclodehydration reagent for the one-pot synthesis of 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andivelu Ilangovan; Shanmugasundar Saravanakumar; Siddappa Umesh

    2015-05-01

    A scalable and environmentally friendly one-pot method for the synthesis of 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazoles from acylhydrazides and isocyanates has been achieved with propane phosponic anhydride (T3P) acting as cyclodehydrating reagent.

  14. Solid-state Synthesis of 1-Ethoxycarbonyl-4-substituted-semicarbazides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayat A. Taghizadeh

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and simple method for the preparation of 1-ethoxycarbonyl-4-substituted-semicarbazides has been developed. As examples the reaction of six different isocyanates with ethyl carbazate under solvent-free conditions are reported.

  15. Yantai Wanhua Targets for Polyurethane Leader

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Yantai Wanhua Polyurethane Co., Ltd. (Yantai Wanhua, SZ: 000309) is mainly engaged in the research, development, production and sales of isocyanate series products (mainly diphenylmethane diisocyanate), aromatic polyamide series products and thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer series products.

  16. Efficient Regioselective Synthesis of 3-1odoindole N-Carboximidamides and N-Carboximidoates by a Sequential Aza-Wittig/Iodine Induced Cyclization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂熠博; 段专; 丁明武

    2012-01-01

    3-Iodoindole N-carboximidamides and N-carboximidoates 4 were prepared regioselectively via a sequential aza-Wittig/iodine induced cyclization, starting from easily accessible 2-alkynylphenyl iminophosphorane, isocyanates, various nucleophiles and iodine.

  17. Health Concerns about Spray Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposures to SPF's key ingredient, isocyanates and other SPF chemicals in vapors, aerosols, and dust created during and after installation, can cause: asthma, sensitization, lung damage, other respiratory and breathing problems, skin and eye irritation.

  18. 29 CFR 1910.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Examples of such conditions might include: (A) Procedures using chemically-impregnated test media such as... which affect the reproductive capabilities including chromosomal damage (mutations) and effects on... and Embryotoxins (a) Allergens (examples: diazomethane, isocyanates, bichromates): Wear...

  19. Making the decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution practically useful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Heng; Yu, Zong-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The relatively low key rate seems to be the major barrier to its practical use for the decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD). We present a four-intensity protocol for the decoy-state MDI-QKD that hugely raises the key rate, especially in the case in which the total data size is not large. Also, calculations show that our method makes it possible for secure private communication with fresh keys generated from MDI-QKD with a delay time of only a few seconds.

  20. Physical Exercise and Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Ulrik

    af knæekstensorernes muskel styrke (KE MVC), funktionel kapacitet (FS), træthed (FSS), humør (MDI) og helbredsrelateret livskvalitet (SF-36). Muskelbiopsier fra vastus lateralis blev kun udtaget ved Pre og Post testen. Resultater: KE MVC, FS, FSS, MDI, SF-36 (den fysisk komponent) og muskelfiber...... tværsnitsareal blev signifikant forbedret efter 12 ugers styrketræning i træningsgruppen, og forbedringerne var signifikant bedre end Kontrol gruppens (pFSS, MDI and SF-36 var fortsat til stede i træningsgruppen ved opfølgningstesten 12 uger senere. Konklusion: Tolv ugers...

  1. Study on Homogeneous Particleboard of Wheat Straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In the paper homogeneous particleboard of wheat straw is researched. The result shows the technology of homogeneous particleboard from cost and quality. The moisture content of straw particle is 2.0%~2.5 %. The temperature of hot-pressing is 150℃. The time of hot-pressing is 48 sec/mm ( panel thickness). The ratio between MDI and UF is 0.40. The glue content for surface layer of wheat straw particle is 10% (MDI 2.86%, UF 7.14%). The glue content for core layer of wheat straw particle is 8% (MDI 2.29%, U...

  2. Improved method to label beta-2 agonists in metered-dose inhalers with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, J.R.; Calcutt, L.E.; Hodder, R.V.; Proulx, A.; Gulenchyn, K.Y. (Ottawa Civic Hospital, Ottawa (Canada). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Respiratory Unit)

    1993-01-01

    Labelling beta-2 agonists in a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with technetium-99m allows imaging of the deposition of the aerosol in the respiratory tract. We have developed an improved labeling method in which anhydrous pertechnetate is dissolved in a small volume of ethanol, diluted with a fluorocarbon, and introduced into a commercial MDI. Imaging the MDI demonstrated that the [sup 99m]Tc was associated with the active ingredient, not just the propellant. The method has been used successfully with salbutamol and fenoterol MDIs and should be directly applicable to other MDIs which contain hydrophilic drugs. (Author).

  3. Design of Active Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-30

    long chain diol (either a polyether or polyester) with excess isocyanate to form a prepolymer , followed by the addition of a short chain diol that...acts as a chain extender to link the prepolymers together. Due to the thermodynamic imicisibility of segments of PU, phase separation into a flexible...during the initial prepolymer reactions the NCO:OH ratio is always greater than 2 due to use of excess isocyanate to used to cap the ends of the

  4. Spark Plasma Sintering for Nanostructured Smart Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-02

    polyester) with excess isocyanate to form a prepolymer , followed by the addition of a short chain diol that acts as a chain extender to link the... prepolymers together. Due to the thermodynamic imicisibility of segments of PU, phase separation into a flexible soft segment (long chain diol) and a...other reactions of the isocyanate groups with the other functional groups in the chain. [Hepburn, 1992] However, during the initial prepolymer

  5. Chemically modified bitumens with enhanced rheology and adhesion properties to siliceous aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Partal López, Pedro; Ahmad, Naveed; Grenfell, James; Airey, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Moisture damage is one of the major premature failures that worsens the performance and shortens service life of pavements. This research assesses the effect that two chemical modifiers (thiourea and an isocyanate-functionalized castor oil prepolymer) exerts on the bitumen rheology and on the resistance to potential moisture damage of asphalt mixtures based on siliceous aggregates. Both thiourea and the isocyanate-based prepolymer improve the viscous and viscoelastic behaviours of bitumen at ...

  6. Investigations of Novel Energetic Materials to Stabilize Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-30

    and various additives were developed in the second half of the 20th Century. The earliest such propellants were asphalt -based developed at GALCIT with...Decomposition of Energetic Materials 74. Volatile Metal Isocyanates from Flash Pyrolysis of Metal-NTO and Metal-Picrate Salts and an Application Hypothesis...B. Brill, T. L. Zhang and B. C. Tappan, Thermal Decomposition of Energetic Materials 74. Volatile Metal Isocyanates from Flash Pyrolysis of Metal-NTO

  7. Development of a Lightweight, High Strength, Collapsible Hose

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    to protect them somewhat during the weaving process. Two coatings, an isocyanate nnd a polyure- thane, were evaluated. The polyurethane was selected...40, 55D) Cyclohexane A ASTM Reference Fuel C (70C) [158°F] A (63, 72D) Dibutyl Phthatate A Asphalt T Diethyl Sebacate A Barium Hydroxide Solutions T...absorption characteristics of polyester and nylon yarns. The first coating reviewed was Esterweld ( Isocyanate ) on the yarn from Bibb Corporation. The second

  8. Paint Removal from Composites and Protective Coating Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    very effective in removing many types of surface contaminants including: grease, tars, dirt, asphalts , and various chemical residue. In this approach...above location. PRECAUTIONS: This material contains high vapor pressure, low flash point organic solvents and adducts cf isocyanates . It is flammable and...should be kept away from heat, sparks and open flames. Inhalation of isocyanates can cause allergic sensitization. Skin sensiti- zation is also

  9. Laboratory and Field Investigations of Small Crater Repair Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Sustainment repairs currently employed include stone and grout, concrete cap, rapid set cementitious cap, AM2 mat, and asphalt repair methods. Lessons...upon the chemical reaction of component A (polymeric isocyanate ) with component B (a polyol blend containing certain additives). Each component is...polymeric isocyanate ) with component B (a polyol blend containing certain additives). Products selected include FOAM-iT! in 5, 10 and 15 lb/ft3

  10. Implementation of Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) at US Army Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Chemical Conversion Materials for Coating Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys MIL-C-83286 Coating, Urethane, Aliphatic Isocyanate . For Aerospace Application...Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys MIL-C-83286 - Coating, Urethane, Aliphatic Isocyanate , For Aerospace Application STANDARDS MILITARY MIL-STD-104 Limit For...For nasuring &V filmn thicktness of any non. ie interiel on a ferrou bees. including Peint. electoplating, porcelain enamel. rmer, plastic. aSphalt

  11. Dendritic polyurea polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuerp, David; Bruchmann, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic polymers, subsuming dendrimers as well as hyperbranched or highly branched polymers are well established in the field of polymer chemistry. This review article focuses on urea based dendritic polymers and summarizes their synthetic routes through both isocyanate and isocyanate-free processes. Furthermore, this article highlights applications where dendritic polyureas show their specific chemical and physical potential. For these purposes scientific publications as well as patent literature are investigated to generate a comprehensive overview on this topic.

  12. Chemically modified bitumens with enhanced rheology and adhesion properties to siliceous aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Partal López, Pedro; Ahmad, Naveed; Grenfell, James; Airey, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Moisture damage is one of the major premature failures that worsens the performance and shortens service life of pavements. This research assesses the effect that two chemical modifiers (thiourea and an isocyanate-functionalized castor oil prepolymer) exerts on the bitumen rheology and on the resistance to potential moisture damage of asphalt mixtures based on siliceous aggregates. Both thiourea and the isocyanate-based prepolymer improve the viscous and viscoelastic behaviours of bitumen at ...

  13. Mitral E wave deceleration time to peak E velocity ratio and cardiovascular outcome in hypertensive patients during antihypertensive treatment (from the LIFE echo-substudy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinali, Marcello; Aurigemma, Gerard P; de Simone, Giovanni;

    2009-01-01

    The early mitral flow deceleration time (DTE) is a prognostically validated marker of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. It has been reported that the DTE is influenced by the loading conditions, which can vary during antihypertensive treatment. We hypothesized that normalization of the DTE....... We examined the utility of the MDI at baseline and as a time-varying predictor of incident CV events. Of the 770 patients, 70 (9%) had CV events. The baseline MDI was positively associated with age and relative wall thickness and negatively associated with gender and heart rate (all p ....01). Unadjusted Cox regression analysis showed a positive association between the baseline MDI and CV events (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.37, p = 0.002). In the time-varied Cox models, a greater in-treatment MDI was associated with a greater rate of CV events (hazard ratio 1.43, 95...

  14. Turuanalüüs - eduka turunduse juhtimise üks võtmetegur / Mait Miljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Miljan, Mait

    2002-01-01

    Ettevõtte turunägemuse kujundamisel puutub kokku selliste mõistetega nagu turu definitsioon, turu arenguindeks (Market - MDI), turupotentsiaal, turunõudlus, turuosa arenguindeks (Share Development Index - SDI). Diagrammid

  15. Evaluation of depression as a risk factor for treatment failure in chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leutscher, Peter Derek Christian; Lagging, Martin; Buhl, Mads Rauning

    2010-01-01

    and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), 19 patients (6%) had major depression at baseline. An additional 114 (37%) developed depression while on HCV combination therapy, with baseline MDI score and female sex independently predicting the emergence of major depression during treatment......The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) was used to estimate the value of routine medical interviews in diagnosing major depression among patients receiving peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (n = 325). According to criteria from the MDI...... in a multivariate analysis. Only 36 (32%) of the 114 patients developing major depression according to MDI/DSM-IV criteria were correctly diagnosed during routine medical interviews. The emergence of major depression frequently led to premature discontinuation of peginterferon/ribavirin therapy, and an on...

  16. Turuanalüüs - eduka turunduse juhtimise üks võtmetegur / Mait Miljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Miljan, Mait

    2002-01-01

    Ettevõtte turunägemuse kujundamisel puutub kokku selliste mõistetega nagu turu definitsioon, turu arenguindeks (Market - MDI), turupotentsiaal, turunõudlus, turuosa arenguindeks (Share Development Index - SDI). Diagrammid

  17. W-state Analyzer and Multi-party Measurement-device-independent Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changhua; Xu, Feihu; Pei, Changxing

    2015-12-01

    W-state is an important resource for many quantum information processing tasks. In this paper, we for the first time propose a multi-party measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol based on W-state. With linear optics, we design a W-state analyzer in order to distinguish the four-qubit W-state. This analyzer constructs the measurement device for four-party MDI-QKD. Moreover, we derived a complete security proof of the four-party MDI-QKD, and performed a numerical simulation to study its performance. The results show that four-party MDI-QKD is feasible over 150 km standard telecom fiber with off-the-shelf single photon detectors. This work takes an important step towards multi-party quantum communication and a quantum network.

  18. Key-rate enhancement using qutrit states for quantum key distribution with askew aligned sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yonggi; Son, Wonmin

    2016-11-01

    It is known that measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) provides ultimate security from all types of side-channel attack on detectors at the expense of low key rate. In the present study, we propose MDI-QKD using three-dimensional quantum states and show that the protocol improves the secret key rate under the analysis of mismatched-basis statistics. Specifically, we analyze security of the 3 d -MDI-QKD protocol with askew aligned sources, meaning that the original sources contain unwanted states instead of the expected one. We evaluate the secret key rate of the protocol and identify the regime in which the key rate is higher than the protocol with the qubit MDI-QKD.

  19. Development of an intelligent adapter for metered dose inhalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Mingrong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To better coordinate the interaction of inhalation and aerosol release, an intelligent adapter (IA was developed for metered dose inhalers (MDIs. The adapter included three main units: a signal acquisition device, a micro-control-unit (MCU, and an actuation mechanism. To fully study the effectiveness of the intelligent adapter, an inhalation simulation experiment was done, and two bands of MDI were used for the experiment. The results indicated that, when inhalation, the intelligent adapter can press down the MDI automatically; moreover, this intelligent adapter could achieve an aerosol-release time Tr of 0.4 s for MDI A and 0.60 s for MDI B, which compares very well with the existing pure mechanical systems at 0.8 s and 1.0 s.

  20. Dicty_cDB: VHO142 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Amino Acid sequence xiinni*yfhiyryyilniinnikinfnyll*YYYFIYISYILIYKSKMLKLVLNNTINS VASKNTSSISNGLLKEFSKLSIYKNNN...nslated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: xiinni*yfhiyryyilniinnikinfnyll*YYYFIYISYILIYKSKMLKLVLNNTI...mdy*knsqnyqyikitiikk*iivnaqivyaivnvqrkpippptpiyiit *iiiikdiixxkk--- ---s**ini*yfhiyryyilniinnikinfnyll*yyyfi

  1. Calculating Minimum Detectable Impacts in Teen Pregnancy Prevention Impact Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Moreno; Russell Cole

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of how researchers can calculate the minimum detectable impacts (MDIs), which are related to power calculations, for Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) evaluations. It describes a tool that evaluators can use for their own MDI calculations, and includes examples that highlight how to use the tool. A technical appendix provides more details on the formulae in the tool that inform MDI calculations.

  2. The inositols and polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti Kalra; Sanjay Kalra; Sharma, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the rationale, biochemical, and clinical data related to the use of inositols in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It covers studies related to the mechanism of action of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol (MDI), with randomized controlled trials conducted in women with PCOS, and utilizes these data to suggest pragmatic indications and methods for using MDI combination in PCOS. Rationally crafted inositol combinations have a potential role to play in maintaining metabolic...

  3. Calculating Minimum Detectable Impacts in Teen Pregnancy Prevention Impact Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Moreno; Russell Cole

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of how researchers can calculate the minimum detectable impacts (MDIs), which are related to power calculations, for Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) evaluations. It describes a tool that evaluators can use for their own MDI calculations, and includes examples that highlight how to use the tool. A technical appendix provides more details on the formulae in the tool that inform MDI calculations.

  4. Integration of Attributes from Non-Linear Characterization of Cardiovascular Time-Series for Prediction of Defibrillation Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Shandilya

    Full Text Available The timing of defibrillation is mostly at arbitrary intervals during cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR, rather than during intervals when the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOH-CA patient is physiologically primed for successful countershock. Interruptions to CPR may negatively impact defibrillation success. Multiple defibrillations can be associated with decreased post-resuscitation myocardial function. We hypothesize that a more complete picture of the cardiovascular system can be gained through non-linear dynamics and integration of multiple physiologic measures from biomedical signals.Retrospective analysis of 153 anonymized OOH-CA patients who received at least one defibrillation for ventricular fibrillation (VF was undertaken. A machine learning model, termed Multiple Domain Integrative (MDI model, was developed to predict defibrillation success. We explore the rationale for non-linear dynamics and statistically validate heuristics involved in feature extraction for model development. Performance of MDI is then compared to the amplitude spectrum area (AMSA technique.358 defibrillations were evaluated (218 unsuccessful and 140 successful. Non-linear properties (Lyapunov exponent > 0 of the ECG signals indicate a chaotic nature and validate the use of novel non-linear dynamic methods for feature extraction. Classification using MDI yielded ROC-AUC of 83.2% and accuracy of 78.8%, for the model built with ECG data only. Utilizing 10-fold cross-validation, at 80% specificity level, MDI (74% sensitivity outperformed AMSA (53.6% sensitivity. At 90% specificity level, MDI had 68.4% sensitivity while AMSA had 43.3% sensitivity. Integrating available end-tidal carbon dioxide features into MDI, for the available 48 defibrillations, boosted ROC-AUC to 93.8% and accuracy to 83.3% at 80% sensitivity.At clinically relevant sensitivity thresholds, the MDI provides improved performance as compared to AMSA, yielding fewer unsuccessful defibrillations

  5. Muscle development in healthy children evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Tomoka; Nakayama, Takahiro; Kuru, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to use bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to generate a new muscle density index (MDI), the MDI_BIA, to evaluate muscle development, and to demonstrate the changes that occur in the BIA-based muscle cross-sectional area index (MCAI_BIA) that accompany growth. We also sought to determine the traceability of chronological changes in the MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA. Healthy children (n=112) aged 8.68±3.16years (0.33-14.00years) underwent bioelectrical impedance (BI) measurements of their upper arms, thighs, and lower legs. The MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA were calculated, and cross-sectional investigations were conducted into the changes in these indices that accompanied growth. Data collected after 1.10±0.08years from 45 participants determined the traceability of the chronological changes in the MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA. The MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA were significantly positively correlated with age and height at all locations (Pmuscles from different perspectives. Except for the upper arm MDI_BIA, both indices at all locations regardless of age, showed significant chronological increases after an average period of 1.10years. The MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA were significantly correlated with age and height in healthy children, and they showed significant chronological increases. Hence, these indices could be used to represent muscle development and muscle mass increases. BIA is non-invasive, convenient, and economical and it may be useful in evaluating muscle development and muscle cross-sectional areas in children. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnetic Flux Emergence on Different Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenaar, M.; Cheung, M.

    2009-12-01

    Magnetic flux emerges on the Sun on many different scales, from weak intranetwork to network concentrations and (ephemeral) active regions. Methods previously developed to recognize regions of magnetic emergence on MDI Full Disk magnetograms fail when applied to Hinode/SOT Stokes maps: the resolution is so much higher that simple bipoles on MDI are observed as collections of fragments. We present a new method for the automatic detection and characterization of flux emergence on a range of scales.

  7. Improving Continuous-Variable Measurement-Device-Independent Multipartite Quantum Communication with Optical Amplifiers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Zhao, Wei; Li, Fei; Huang, Duan; Liao, Qin; Xie, Cai-Lang

    2017-08-01

    The developing tendency of continuous-variable (CV) measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum cryptography is to cope with the practical issue of implementing scalable quantum networks. Up to now, most theoretical and experimental researches on CV-MDI QKD are focused on two-party protocols. However, we suggest a CV-MDI multipartite quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocol use the EPR states coupled with optical amplifiers. More remarkable, QSS is the real application in multipartite CV-MDI QKD, in other words, is the concrete implementation method of multipartite CV-MDI QKD. It can implement a practical quantum network scheme, under which the legal participants create the secret correlations by using EPR states connecting to an untrusted relay via insecure links and applying the multi-entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state analysis at relay station. Even if there is a possibility that the relay may be completely tampered, the legal participants are still able to extract a secret key from network communication. The numerical simulation indicates that the quantum network communication can be achieved in an asymmetric scenario, fulfilling the demands of a practical quantum network. Additionally, we illustrate that the use of optical amplifiers can compensate the partial inherent imperfections of detectors and increase the transmission distance of the CV-MDI quantum system.

  8. Synthesis and Characterisation of Diaryl Furoxans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Krishnamurthy

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the synthesis, characterisation, and performance evaluation of diarylfuroxans namely, bis-phenyl-3,4-furoxan (5 and bis-(4’-nitrophenyl-3,4-furoxan (6. Themolecules have been synthesised on the lines of reported method by cyclodimerisation of thenitrile oxides generated from benzaldoxime and p-nitro benzaldoxime, respectively. The synthesisedfuroxans (5 and (6 were characterised by the elemental analysis, UV, IR, and 1H NMRspectroscopy. The hazard characteristics (impact and friction sensitivity confirm that thecompounds are safe to handle. The oxygen balance, velocity of detonation and detonationpressure have been computed. The detonation velocity and pressure along with oxygen balanceincreased with the substitution of nitro group in the benzene ring, as expected. Thethermogravimetric studies on promising compound (6 brings out that maximum weight lossoccurs at decomposition temperature of 259–260 °C.

  9. TETRAHYDROFURAN POLYMERIZATION INITIATED WITH HETEROPOLYACID Ⅷ. 1,1,1-TRIHYDROXYMETHYLENEPROPANE AS MOLECULAR WEIGHT CONTROLLER%杂多酸引发四氢呋喃开环聚合反应 Ⅷ. 以1,1,1-三羟甲基丙烷为分子量调节剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇; 张广利; 张鸿志

    2001-01-01

    Polyether triol with molecular weight distribution index being 1.3~1.5 was prepared in yield around 50% by tetrahydrofuran polymerization using heteropolyacid-H-3PW12O40 and ethylene oxide as initiator system and 1,1,1-trihydroxymethylenepropane(TMP) as molecular weight controller.The average hydroxyl functionality was estimated by end-group analysis and VPO to be close or equal to 3. The 1H-NMR spectra showed that about 1/3 hydroxyl of TMP did not react with the propagating chains in the THF polymerization.Each of the unreacted hydroxyl groups of TMP attached to the middle or to the end of a diol chain as a pendent primary hydroxyl group forming the obtained polyether triol. All the hydroxyls of polyether triol were verified to be active enough towards 4,4′-methylene bis(phenyl isocynate) in the preparation of polyurethanes.

  10. COPD patient satisfaction with ipratropium bromide/albuterol delivered via Respimat: a randomized, controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson GT

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gary T Ferguson,1 Mo Ghafouri,2 Luyan Dai,2 Leonard J Dunn31Pulmonary Research Institute of Southeast Michigan, Livonia, MI, USA; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Ridgefield, CT, USA; 3Clinical Research of West Florida, Inc, Clearwater, FL, USABackground: Ipratropium bromide/albuterol Respimat inhaler (CVT-R was developed as an environmentally friendly alternative to ipratropium bromide/albuterol metered-dose inhaler (CVT-MDI, which uses a chlorofluorocarbon propellant.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate patient satisfaction, device usage, and long-term safety of CVT-R compared to CVT-MDI, and to the simultaneous administration of ipratropium bromide hydrofluoroalkane (HFA; I and albuterol HFA (A metered-dose inhalers as dual monotherapies (I + A.Design: This is a 48-week, open-label, randomized, active-controlled, parallel-group study (n = 470 comparing CVT-R to CVT-MDI and to I + A.Participants: Patients were at least 40 years of age, diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and current or exsmokers.Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive: (1 CVT-R, one inhalation four times daily (QID; or (2 CVT-MDI, two inhalations QID; or (3 I + A two inhalations of each inhaler QID.Main measures: Patient Satisfaction and Preference Questionnaire (PASAPQ performance score (primary endpoint and adverse events.Key results: PASAPQ performance score was significantly higher (CVT-R versus CVT-MDI, 9.6; and CVT-R versus I + A, 6.2; both P < 0.001 when using CVT-R compared to CVT-MDI or I + A at all visits starting from week 3, while CVT-MDI and I + A treatment groups were similar. Time to first COPD exacerbation was slightly longer in the CVT-R group compared to the other treatment groups, although it did not reach statistical significance (CVT-R versus CVT-MDI, P = 0.57; CVT-R versus I + A, P = 0.22. Rates of withdrawal and patient refusal to continue treatment were lower in CVT-R compared with CVT-MDI

  11. An evaluation of impact of educational interventions on the technique of use of metered-dose inhaler by patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Avadhi Nirajkumar; Patel, P P; Gandhi, A M; Desai, M K

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of two educational interventions that are demonstration versus pictorial Leaflet in patients using metered-dose inhaler (MDI). This interventional study was done in patients who were prescribed drugs through MDI at Tuberculosis and Chest Department. The patients were enrolled in Group A or Group B as per random number table method. The method of use of MDI was assessed using a checklist based on the technique described in the WHO Guide to good prescribing. Patients in Group A were taught the use of MDI by demonstration of the technique by the investigator. Patients in Group B were educated about the technique by a pictorial leaflet based on the technique. Patients were followed up after 15 days and assessed for correct technique for use of the MDI. A total 100 patients were included in the study and were allotted to Group A (47) and Group B (53). Ninety-five percent of the patients had been taught by the treating physician about the method of use of MDI. All the patients at the baseline placed the lips tightly around the mouthpiece and held the aerosol as indicated in the manufacturer's instructions while the step least followed was coughing up the sputum before inhalation. The average steps correctly followed by the patients in Group A and B at baseline were 5.17 ± 2.07 and 5.11 ± 2.04, respectively. These improved significantly to 9.19 ± 0.67 and 6.67 ± 0.63 in Group A and B, respectively, postintervention. The five essential steps of using MDI were followed by 25.53% and 26.41% patients preintervention. An improvement in the technique of use of MDI was observed in 85.11% and 49.06% patients (P = 0.003) postintervention. All the ten steps of the technique were followed by 34.04% patients from Group A and none from Group B at postintervention evaluation (P = 0.0001). The inhalation technique for the use of MDI used by the patients is inappropriate. Educational interventions such as demonstration or

  12. Ring expansion reactions of pentaphenylborole with dipolar molecules as a route to seven-membered boron heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kexuan; Martin, Caleb D

    2015-02-16

    Reactions of pentaphenylborole with isocyanates, benzophenone, and benzaldehyde produced new seven-membered heterocycles in high yields. For 1-adamantyl isocyanate, a BNC5 heterocycle was obtained from the insertion of the C-N moiety into the five-membered borole, whereas for 4-methoxyphenyl isocyanate, a BOC5 heterocycle was generated from the insertion of the C-O unit. These reactions are believed to occur via a mechanism wherein coordination of the nucleophile to the borole (1-adamantyl, N-coordination or O-coordination for 4-methoxyphenyl) is followed by ring expansion to afford the observed seven-membered heterocycles. The selectivity to form B-O- or B-N-containing heterocycles is based on the polarization of the isocyanate implying tunable reactivity for the system. Having observed that isocyanates react as 1,2-dipoles with pentaphenylborole, we examined benzophenone and benzaldehyde, which both reacted to insert C-O units into the ring. This represents a new efficient method for preparing rare seven-membered boracycles.

  13. Improved wettability and adhesion of polylactic acid/chitosan coating for bio-based multilayer film development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartner, Hunter [School of Packaging, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Li, Yana [Mechanical Engineering College, Wuhan Polytechnic University (China); Almenar, Eva, E-mail: ealmenar@msu.edu [School of Packaging, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Surface tension between PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film modified by MDI. • Better wettability between PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film by increasing MDI. • Increased breaking strength by increasing MDI due to the increased H-bonding. • Increased number of physical entanglements between PLA/CS coating and PLA film. • Development of a suitable bio-based multilayer film for food packaging applications. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of methyldiphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) concentration (0, 0.2, 1, 2, and 3%) on the wettability and adhesion of blend solutions of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and chitosan (CS) when coated on PLA film for development of a bio-based multi-layer film suitable for food packaging and other applications. Characterization was carried out by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR), contact angle (θ), mechanical adhesion pull-off testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The θ of the PLA/CS blend shifted to a lower value (41–35°) with increasing MDI concentration showing that the surface tension was modified between the PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film and better wettability was achieved. The increase in MDI also resulted in an increased breaking strength (228–303 kPa) due to the increased H-bonding resulting from the more urethane groups formed within the PLA/CS blend as shown by ATR-FTIR. The improved adhesion was also shown by the increased number of physical entanglements observed by SEM. It can be concluded that MDI can be used to improve wettability and adhesion between PLA/CS coating and PLA film.

  14. Treatment with budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler in patients with asthma: a focus on patient-reported outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D O'Connor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Richard D O'ConnorSharp Rees-Stealy Medical Group, San Diego, CA, USAAbstract: In the United States, budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI is approved for treatment of asthma in patients aged ≥12 years whose asthma is not adequately controlled with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS or whose disease severity clearly warrants treatment with an ICS and a long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist. This article reviews studies of budesonide/formoterol pMDI in patients with persistent asthma, with a particular focus on patient-reported outcomes (eg, perceived onset of effect, patient satisfaction with treatment, health-related quality of life [HRQL], global assessments, sleep quality and quantity, as these measures reflect patient perceptions of asthma control and disease burden. A search of PubMed and respiratory meetings was performed to identify relevant studies. In two pivotal budesonide/formoterol pMDI studies in adolescents and adults, greater efficacy and similar tolerability were shown with budesonide/formoterol pMDI 160/9 µg and 320/9 µg twice daily versus its monocomponents or placebo. In those studies, improvements in HRQL, patient satisfaction, global assessments of asthma control, and quality of sleep also favored budesonide/formoterol pMDI compared with one or both of its monocomponents or placebo. Budesonide/formoterol pMDI has a rapid onset of effect (within 15 minutes that patients can feel, an attribute that may have benefits for treatment adherence. In summary, budesonide/formoterol pMDI is effective and well tolerated and has additional therapeutic benefits that may be important from the patient’s perspective.Keywords: budesonide, formoterol, patient-reported outcomes, efficacy, tolerability, onset of effect

  15. Sustained efficacy of insulin pump therapy compared with multiple daily injections in type 2 diabetes: 12-month data from the OpT2mise randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, R; Reznik, Y; Conget, I; Castañeda, J A; Runzis, S; Lee, S W; Cohen, O

    2016-05-01

    To compare insulin pump therapy and multiple daily injections (MDI) in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving basal and prandial insulin analogues. After a 2-month dose-optimization period, 331 patients with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels ≥8.0% and ≤12% were randomized to pump therapy or continued MDI for 6 months [randomization phase (RP)]. The MDI group was subsequently switched to pump therapy during a 6-month continuation phase (CP). The primary endpoint was the between-group difference in change in mean HbA1c from baseline to the end of the RP. The mean HbA1c at baseline was 9% in both groups. At the end of the RP, the reduction in HbA1c was significantly greater with pump therapy than with MDI (-1.1 ± 1.2% vs -0.4 ± 1.1%; p pump therapy group maintained this improvement to 12 months while the MDI group, which was switched to pump therapy, showed a 0.8% reduction: the final HbA1c level was identical in both arms. In the RP, total daily insulin dose (TDD) was 20.4% lower with pump therapy than with MDI and remained stable in the CP. The MDI-pump group showed a 19% decline in TDD, such that by 12 months TDD was equivalent in both groups. There were no differences in weight gain or ketoacidosis between groups. In the CP, one patient in each group experienced severe hypoglycaemia. Pump therapy has a sustained durable effect on glycaemic control in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. © 2016 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Quality of life in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or multiple daily injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkebaek, N H; Kristensen, L J; Mose, A H; Thastum, M

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the study were to compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a National Danish population of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) treated with either continuous subcutaneous insulin injection (CSII) or multiple daily insulin injections (MDI), and to investigate whether HRQoL assessments were influenced by treatment duration. Participants were recruited through the Danish Registry for Diabetes in Childhood and Adolescence. A total of 700 children and adolescents (360 girls), 8-17 years, were included. Of these, 295 were treated with CSII (160 for more than one year) and 405 with MDI (238 for more than one year). Participants and their parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Diabetes and Generic Module. HbA1c was analyzed centrally. Parents reported children and adolescents on CSII for more than one year to have less diabetes-related symptoms and worry, less problems in communicating diabetes, and better generic functioning compared with those on MDI. Children and adolescents on CSII for more than one year reported less diabetes-related symptoms, but more treatment problems, and better generic functioning in all subscales except social functioning compared with those on MDI for more than one year. Comparing those on CSII and MDI for less than one year, no differences in HRQoL ratings were found, apart from better rating of treatment barriers in the MDI group. This Danish national study on HRQoL in children and adolescents on CSII or MDI showed better HRQoL in children and adolescents on long time CSII, particularly concerning generic HRQoL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New approach towards mini dental implants and small-diameter implants: an option for long-term prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiznys, Alvydas; Skirbutis, Gediminas; Harb, Ali; Barzdziukaite, Ingrida; Grinyte, Ieva

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Mini dental implants (MDI) and small diameter implants (SDI) have been extensively used as temporary or orthodontic anchorage; however there have been studies that proved their availability as a mean for long term prosthodontics. Our aim was to review the indications, advantages of MDI and SDI, and their long-term survival. METHODS. Computerized searches were conducted for clinical studies between year 2000 and 2011 that involved either implants with 3.3 mm diameter or less, used in prosthodontics; or provided a follow up of MDI or SDI duration of at least 4 months following implant placement including survival rate data. All studies about implants used in orthodontics were excluded. The range of available MDI and SDI has been found in cataloges of the companies: 3M ESPE IMTEC, Bicon Dental, Zimmer, Implant Direct, Intra lock, Hiossen, Simpler Implant, KAT Implants, OCO Biomedical, American Dental Implant. RESULTS. 41 studies meeting the above criteria were selected, 22 out of them reviewed survival rates of MDI and SDI. The follow up duration varried from 4 months to 8 years with survival rates between 91.17 and 100%. Nevertheless, the companies showed a big variety of MDI and SDI provided in the market for long term prostheses. CONCLUSIONS. Implants with small diameters can be used successfully in a variety of clinical situations. Less surgical time, less postoperative pain, ability of direct loading after surgery with no harm to bone and cost effectiveness are the advantages. The reduced surface implants require correct treatment planning so that the loading force would not cause bone loss or implant failure. MDI and SDI show high survival rates, but special cautions for bone quality and good oral hygiene should be maintained.

  18. In vitro evaluation of the effect of metered-dose inhaler administration technique on aerosolized drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalansky, K F; Htan, E Y; Lyster, D M; Mouat, B; Tweeddale, M G

    1993-01-01

    The administration of aerosolized metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) to mechanically ventilated patients is labor intensive due to the large number of activations required and the currently recommended 30- to 60-second "wait and shake" between each puff. No studies have been published that assess the relationship between this delay between puffs and drug delivery. To address this issue, we conducted an in vitro, randomized, single-blind study using fenoterol MDI containing technetium-99m pertechnetate. Four modes of MDI administration were tested in triplicate by random sequence. Eight activations of the MDI were performed for each mode according to the following procedures: rapid succession (5 sec apart); 30-second intervals and shaking MDI between two rapid activations; 30-second intervals and shaking between each activation; and 60-second intervals and shaking between each activation. Two closed in vitro systems were designed to collect and measure the radiolabeled aerosol. In the first system, the MDI was activated into a plastic collection container; with the second system, the MDI was administered through an aerosol holding chamber with attached circuit filter positioned on the inspiratory line of the ventilator circuit. Sixty-second intervals between each activation were not tested with the second system. Radioactivity was measured before and after each mode of testing. No difference was found between the various modes of administration other than a 14% decrease in the amount of radioactivity released with the 60-second waiting period between puffs, compared with their rapid succession when using the plastic collection container system. Our results support the hypothesis that the delay after each activation of a MDI may not be necessary.

  19. 一种新型TPE的合成与表征%Synthesis and characterization of a new type of thermoplastic elastomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李羿; 彭治汉

    2011-01-01

    采用己内酰胺、4,4'-二苯基甲烷二异氰酸酯(MDI)、四氢呋喃聚醚(PTMC)和己二酸合成聚酰胺(PA)6-MDI/PTMG热甥性弹性体.通过红外光谱、差示扫描量热法、热重分析等表征聚合物的化学结构和物理性能.随着软段PTMG含量的增加,聚合物的硬度、拉伸强度下降,拉伸断裂应变和韧性提高.从扫描电子显微镜照片中发现,PA 6-MDI/PTMG弹性体没有明显的相分离.%Polyamide (PA) 6-4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)/Poly (tetramethylene glycol)(PTMG)thermoplastic elastomer were synthesized by three-step melt polymerization from ε-caprolactam, MDI, PTMG and adipic acid. The chemical structure and physical properties of the polymers were characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy(IR), differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis(TGA), etc.The rigidity and tensile strength of PA 6-MDI/PTMG decreased as the content of PTMG soft segment augmented, while the tensile strain at break and flexibility increased. No obvious phase separation occurred in PA 6-MDI/PTMG elastomer as revealed by the observation of scanning electron microscope(SEM).

  20. A composition for insulation operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dymant, A.N.; Oborin, Iu.A.

    1979-11-15

    A thermohydroinsulation composition is being patented, and it includes bitumen, an emulsifier, and water, into which, for the purpose of decreasing hydroscopicity and increasing thermotechnical properties and strength, an organic isocyanate, caoutchouc, and an organic solvent are added. The composition has the following properites, in %: bitumen, 21 to 31.8; an emulsifier, 15.8 to 23.8; water, 15.8 to 23.8; organic isocyanate, 9.7 to 18.9; caoutchouc, 6.9 to 13.5; organic solvent, 4 to 15. In order to produce the composition, the organic isocyanate and the caoutchouc are diluted in the organic solvent, and with mixing, it is added into the asphalt mastic (bitumen + emulsifier + water).

  1. Insulating Materials Comprising Polysilazane, Methods of Forming Such Insulating Materials, and Precursor Formulations Comprising Polysilazane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert S. (Inventor); Fuller, Michael E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods of forming an insulating material comprising combining a polysilazane, a cross-linking compound, and a gas-generating compound to form a reaction mixture, and curing the reaction mixture to form a modified polysilazane. The gas-generating compound may be water, an alcohol, an amine, or combinations thereof. The cross-linking compound may be an isocyanate, an epoxy resin, or combinations thereof. The insulating material may include a matrix comprising one of a reaction product of a polysilazane and an isocyanate and a reaction product of a polysilazane and an epoxy resin. The matrix also comprises a plurality of interconnected pores produced from one of reaction of the polysilazane and the isocyanate and from reaction of the polysilazane and the epoxy resin. A precursor formulation that comprises a polysilazane, a cross-linking compound, and a gas-generating compound is also disclosed.

  2. Occupational obstructive airway diseases in Germany: Frequency and causes in an international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latza, U.; Baur, X. [University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    Occupational inhalative exposures contribute to a significant proportion of obstructive airway diseases (OAD), namely chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. The number of occupational OAD in the German industrial sector for the year 2003 are presented. Other analyses of surveillance data were retrieved from Medline. Most confirmed reports of OAD are cases of sensitizer induced occupational asthma (625 confirmed cases) followed by COPD in coal miners (414 cases), irritant induced occupational asthma (156 cases), and isocyanate asthma (54 cases). Main causes of occupational asthma in Germany comprise flour/flour constituents (35.9%), food/feed dust (9.0%), and isocyanates (6.5%). Flour and grain dust is a frequent cause of occupational asthma in most European countries and South Africa. Isocyanates are still a problem worldwide. Although wide differences in the estimated incidences between countries exist due to deficits in the coverage of occupational OAD, the high numbers necessitate improvement of preventive measures.

  3. Photochemical activation of extremely weak nucleophiles: highly fluorinated urethanes and polyurethanes from polyfluoro alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Marc; Sebastián, Rosa María; Marquet, Jordi

    2014-06-06

    An efficient and environmentally friendly photoreaction between phenyl isocyanate or pentafluorophenyl isocyanate and polyfluorinated alcohols and diols is described for the first time. New highly fluorinated urethanes and diurethanes, derived from aromatic isocyanates, are produced in good yields in a photoreaction that is apparently governed by the acidic properties of the polyfluoro alcohols and diols. The wettability properties of the new polyfluorinated diurethanes have been tested, some of them showing significantly high values of hydrophobicity and oleophobicity. This new photoreaction has also been tested in the production of a model polyfluorinated polyurethane, establishing the influence of the irradiation power in the outcome of the process, and directly achieving a molecular weight distribution corresponding to a number-average DP(n) = 12 and a highest DP(n) = 20 after 4 h of irradiation (DP(n): "number-average degree of polymerization").

  4. Relative lung bioavailability of generic sodium cromoglycate inhalers used with and without a spacer device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswania, O; Chrystyn, H

    2001-01-01

    The relative lung bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate following inhalation has been evaluated using urinary drug excretion in nine healthly volunteers. Each inhaled four 5 mg sodium cromoglycate doses from a generic metered dose inhaler (MDI) and when it was attached to large volume spacer (MDI + VOL). A breath-actuated MDI was also evaluated either used on its own (EB) or attached to a small volume spacer tube (EBO). The mean (SD) urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate in the first 30 min post-inhalation was 34.1 (20.2), 211.7 (123.5), 29.3 (19.5) and 52.8 (36.0) microg following MDI, MDI+VOL, EB and EBO, respectively. The cumulative mean (SD) urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate over the 24 h post-inhalation was 364.7 (266.2), 1227.1 (459.0), 280.2 (155.4) and 429.5 (176.7) microg. A metered dose inhaler attached to a large volume spacer delivers more sodium cromoglycate to the lungs than any other inhalation method.

  5. Effects of sub-domain structure on initial magnetization curve and domain size distribution of stacked media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S., E-mail: 231504@gmail.com; Kumagai, S.; Sugita, R.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, in order to confirm the sub-domain structure in stacked media demagnetized with in-plane field, initial magnetization curves and magnetic domain size distribution were investigated. Both experimental and simulation results showed that an initial magnetization curve for the medium demagnetized with in-plane field (MDI) initially rose faster than that for the medium demagnetized with perpendicular field (MDP). It is inferred that this is because the MDI has a larger number of domain walls than the MDP due to the existence of the sub-domains, resulting in an increase in the probability of domain wall motion. Dispersion of domain size for the MDI was larger than that for the MDP. This is because sub-domains are formed not only inside the domain but also at the domain boundary region, and they change the position of the domain boundary to affect the domain size. - Highlights: • An initial magnetization curve for MDI initially rose faster than that for MDP. • Dispersion of domain size for the MDI was larger than that for the MDP. • Experimental and simulation results can be explained by existence of sub-domains.

  6. Structural features and relaxation properties of PET/PC blends containing impact strength modifier and chain extender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been investigated how methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI influences the morphology, rheological, mechanical and relaxation properties, as well as PET crystallizability, of PET/PC/(PP/EPDM ternary blends produced by the reactive extrusion process. It appears that irrespective of phase structure of the blends, MDI causes a rise in melt viscosity (decreased MFI-values of the material which is the result of an increased molecular weight of the macromolecules; PET crystallization becomes retarded. MDI improves compatibility between PET and PC in PET/PC/(PP/EPDM ternary blends. Addition of MDI leads to higher values of the dynamic shear modulus for PET high elastic state (in the temperature range between Tg PET and cool crystallization temperature of PET; the PET cool crystallization and melt crystallization processes become retarded; the PET and PC glass transition temperatures approach one another. MDI has been shown not to influence significantly the blend morphology or the character of interaction between the PP/EPDM disperse phase and PET/PC blend matrix.

  7. Multispectral and Texture Feature Application in Image-Object Analysis of Summer Vegetation in Eastern Tajikistan Pamirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Ariel L. Salas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the Moment Distance Index (MDI in combination with texture features for the summer vegetation mapping in the eastern Pamir Mountains, Tajikistan using the 2014 Landsat OLI (Operational Land Imager image. The five major classes identified were sparse vegetation, medium-dense vegetation, dense vegetation, barren land, and water bodies. By utilizing object features in a random forest (RF classifier, the overall classification accuracy of the land cover maps were 92% using a set of variables including texture features and MDI, and 84% using a set of variables including texture but without MDI. A decrease of the Kappa statistics, from 0.89 to 0.79, was observed when MDI was removed from the set of predictor variables. McNemar’s test showed that the increase in the classification accuracy due to the addition of MDI was statistically significant (p < 0.05. The proposed method provides an effective way of discriminating sparse vegetation from barren land in an arid environment, such as the Pamir Mountains.

  8. "It was only harmless banter!" The development and preliminary validation of the moral disengagement in sexual harassment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Thomas E; Pina, Afroditi; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Sexual harassment represents aggressive behavior that is often enacted instrumentally, in response to a threatened sense of masculinity and male identity. To date, however, theoretical attention to the social cognitive processes that regulate workplace harassment is scant. This article presents the development and preliminary validation of the Moral Disengagement in Sexual Harassment Scale (MDiSH); a self-report measure of moral disengagement in the context of hostile work environment harassment. Three studies (total n = 797) document the excellent psychometric properties of this new scale. Male U.K. university students (Study 1: n = 322) and U.S. working males (Studies 2 and 3: n = 475) completed the MDiSH and an array of measures for construct validation. The MDiSH exhibited positive correlations with sexual harassment myth acceptance, male gender identification, and hostile sexism. In Study 3, participants were exposed to a fictitious case of hostile work environment harassment. The MDiSH attenuated moral judgment, negative emotions (guilt, shame, and anger), sympathy, and endorsement of prosocial behavioral intentions (support for restitution) associated with the harassment case. Conversely, the MDiSH increased positive affect (happiness) about the harassment and attribution of blame to the female complainant. Implications for practice and future research avenues are discussed.

  9. Associations between parental deployment, relocation, and risky sexual behaviors among a clinic-based sample of military-dependent youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Belinda F; Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Burr, Jean; Roberts, Timothy; Tortolero, Susan

    2015-10-01

    Although sexual behaviors have been extensively studied among youth in general, they have been relatively understudied among military-dependent youth (MDY). Furthermore, the impact of unique military stressors, such as parental deployment and multiple relocations, on the sexual behaviors of MDY has not been assessed. In this pilot study, we estimated the prevalence of sexual behaviors among MDY, and examined the association between these behaviors and parental deployment and multiple relocations. Between June and September 2011, we recruited youth (N = 208; aged 15-19 years) who attended a military treatment facility in the southern United States, to complete a short, paper-based survey. We computed prevalence estimates and conducted Chi-square analyses, as well as logistic regression analyses, while adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. More than half (53.7 %) of the youth reported being sexually experienced, and many of these youth reported engaging in risky sexual behaviors. Parental deployment and multiple relocations were significantly associated only with having had sex in the past 3 months. Although with most sexual behaviors there was no significant association between parental deployment and multiple relocations, many MDY are sexually experienced and engage in risky sexual behaviors. MDY should thus be exposed to evidence-based strategies for sexually transmitted infection and pregnancy prevention, as well as provided with teen-friendly health care services and comprehensive sexual/reproductive health counseling.

  10. Size aspects of metered-dose inhaler aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C S; Trujillo, D; Sackner, M A

    1985-07-01

    The aerodynamic size distribution of several bronchodilator and corticosteroid metered-dose inhaler (MDI) aerosols was estimated in both dry and humid (90% RH) air environments with a six-stage cascade impactor. The distribution of aerosol size that penetrated into a simulated lung model were also measured. The size distributions were approximately log-normal and ranged from 2.4 to 5.5 micron in mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.7 to 2.5 in a dry environment. In humid air, MMAD increased from 1 to 26% above the dry air state, but GSD remained unchanged. The size of aerosol delivered by MDI that penetrated into a simulated lung model fell to 2.4 to 2.8 micron in MMAD (GSD, 1.9 to 2.2). In contrast to aerosols produced by MDI, MMAD of an aerosol of cromolyn sodium powder dispersed by a Spinhaler increased rapidly with increasing humidity, 5.6 +/- 0.3 micron in dry air and 10.1 +/- 0.8 micron in 90% RH air. Finally, the factors influencing size of MDI-delivered aerosols, including formulation, canister pressure, physicochemical properties of propellants, and design of the valve and actuator orifices are discussed. Effective delivery of MDI-generated aerosols into the lung is highly dependent on particle dynamics and jet flow, and no single parameter can produce a unique particle size and jet pattern.

  11. A Rationale for Going Back to the Future: Use of Disposable Spacers for Pressurised Metered Dose Inhalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of pressurised metered dose inhalers (MDIs in the mid-1950s completely transformed respiratory treatment. Despite decades of availability and healthcare support and development of teaching aids and devices to promote better use, poor pMDI user technique remains a persistent issue. The main pMDI user aid is the spacer/valved holding chamber (VHC device. Spacer/chamber features (size, shape, configuration, construction material, and hygiene considerations can vie with clinical effectiveness (to deliver the same dose as a correctly used pMDI, user convenience, cost, and accessibility. Unsurprisingly, improvised, low-cost alternatives (plastic drink bottles, paper cups, and paper towel rolls have been pressed into seemingly effective service. A UK law change permitting schools to hold emergency inhalers and spacers has prompted a development project to design a low-cost, user-friendly, disposable, and recyclable spacer. This paper spacer requires neither preuse priming nor washing, and has demonstrated reproducible lung delivery of salbutamol sulphate pMDI, comparable to an industry-standard VHC, an alternative paperboard VHC, and pMDI alone. This new device appears to perform better than these other VHC devices at the low flow rates thought achievable by paediatric patients. The data suggest that this disposable spacer may have a place in the single-use emergency setting.

  12. A novel surface modification of carbon fiber for high-performance thermoplastic polyurethane composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yizhen; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Xinling; Yang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Properties of carbon fiber (CF) reinforced composites depend largely on the interfacial bonding strength between fiber and the matrix. In the present work, CF was grafted by 4,4‧-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) molecules after electrochemical oxidation treatment. The existence of functional groups introduced to the fiber surface and the changes of surface roughness were confirmed by FTIR, AFM, XPS, SEM and Raman spectroscopy. To evaluate the possible applications of this surface modification of carbon fiber, we examined the mechanical properties as well as the friction and wear performance of pristine CF and MDI-CF reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites with 5-30 wt.% fiber contents, and found that the mechanical properties of TPU composites were all significantly improved. It is remarkable that when fiber content was 30 wt.%, the tensile strength of TPU/MDI-CF was increased by 99.3%, which was greater than TPU/CF (53.2%), and the friction loss of TPU/MDI-CF was decreased by 49.09%. The results of DMA and SEM analysis indicated the positive effects of MDI modification on the interfacial bonding between fibers and matrix. We believed that this simple and effective method could be used to the development of surface modified carbon fiber for high-performance TPU.

  13. Casting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhry, Anil R. (Xenia, OH); Dzugan, Robert (Cincinnati, OH); Harrington, Richard M. (Cincinnati, OH); Neece, Faurice D. (Lyndurst, OH); Singh, Nipendra P. (Pepper Pike, OH)

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  14. Grafted, cross-linked carbon black as a double-layer capacitor electrode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richner, R.; Mueller, S.; Wokaun, A.

    2001-03-01

    Isocyanate prepolymers readily react with oxidic functional groups on carbon black. On carbon black grafted with diisocyanates, reactive isocyanate groups are available for cross-linking to a polyurethane system. This cross-linked carbon black was considered as a new active material for electrochemical electrodes. Active material for electric double-layer capacitor electrodes was produced which had values of specific capacitance of up to 200 F/g. Cross-linking efficiencies of up to 58 % of the polymers utilised were achieved. (author)

  15. Engineering Design Handbook. Dielectric Embedding of Electrical or Electronic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-06

    Salient Properties of Polyurethanes 4-1 4-2 Hydroxyl Terminated Polymers 4-3 4-3 Isocyanates Used in Polyurethane Elastomers 4-3 4-4 Chain...Extending Agents 4-4 4-5 Some Trade Names/Suppliers of Polyurethane Embedments (Types 4 and 5) .... 4-6 4-6 Typical Isocyanates Used in...encased in dielectric materials. The earliest substances used for such purpose were materials such as waxes and asphaltic materials. These now may

  16. Toughened carbon fibre fabric-reinforced thermoplastic composites

    OpenAIRE

    Abt, Tobias Martin; Sánchez Soto, Miguel; Maspoch Rulduà, Mª Lluïsa; Velasco Perero, José Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Toughened carbon fibre fabric-reinforced composites were obtained by compression moulding of powder prepregs, using a modified cyclic butylene terephthalate (pCBT) matrix and a bi-directional [0°/90°] carbon fibre fabric. Modification of the pCBT matrix was done by adding small amounts of epoxy resin or isocyanates, acting as toughening agents. Homogeneous CBT/epoxy and CBT/isocyanate blends were obtained by melt blending in a lab-scale batch mixer by applying low temperatures and short proce...

  17. Environmental Compliance Assessment Protocol-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (ECAP-CDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    chemicals (29 CFR 1910.1450(b)). o Liquid - any material with a fluidity greater than that of 300 penetration asphalt when tested in accordance with ASTM...Isobutyromnitrile 1000 78-82-0 Isocyanic acid,3,4- 500/10,000 102-36-3 dichlorophenyl ester lsodnn 100/10,000 1 P060 465-73-6 Isophorone 5000 78-59-1 Isophorone...Methacrylic anhydride 500 760-93-0 Methacryloyl chlonde 100 920-46-7 Methacryloyloxyethyl 100 30674-80-7 isocyanate Methacrylonutrle 500 1000 U152 126

  18. Physical chemistry of energetic nitrides. Final report, 1 November 1983-30 April 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombe, R.D.

    1987-05-28

    This program has addressed a number of aspects of the chemistry of energetic nitrogen-based compounds. Topics investigated include the photochemistry of halogen isocyanates and halogen amines, radiative and collisional relaxation processes in electronically excited halogen nitrenes, mechanisms of collisional decomposition of halogen azides, and production of excited metastable nitrogen molecules (in azide-based reactions) for the collisional excitation of laser-candidate species. The data obtained offer insight into the storage of energy in metastable halogen azides, halogen isocyanates, and halogen amines, and the mechanisms by which this energy is released when these molecules are stimulated by photolysis or undergo chemical reactions.

  19. Depressive symptoms are frequent among drug users, but not associated with hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone W; Fabricius, Thilde; Hjerrild, Simon

    2014-01-01

    presenting to the 2 treatment centres. Individuals with chronic hepatitis B virus or HIV infection were excluded. Participants completed the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) questionnaire when presenting at the centres. Patients with MDI scores indicating severe depression (total MDI score ≥ 35) were......AIM: To compare the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms among drug users with and without hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey study carried out at the 2 major drug treatment centres on the island of Funen, Denmark. Participants were drug users...... referred for treatment evaluation. Hepatitis C status was classified by the presence of anti-HCV as a marker of HCV exposure and HCV-RNA as a marker of ongoing infection. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-eight patients were included, of whom 235 (88%) had complete serological testing; 100 (43%, 95...

  20. Experimental asymmetric plug-and-play measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guang-Zhao; Sun, Shi-Hai; Xu, Feihu; Chen, Huan; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2016-09-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to all security loopholes on detection. Previous experiments on MDI-QKD required spatially separated signal lasers and complicated stabilization systems. In this paper, we perform a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of plug-and-play MDI-QKD over an asymmetric channel setting with a single signal laser in which the whole system is automatically stabilized in spectrum, polarization, arrival time, and phase reference. Both the signal laser and the single-photon detectors are in the possession of a common server. A passive timing-calibration technique is applied to ensure the precise and stable overlap of signal pulses. The results pave the way for the realization of a quantum network in which the users only need the encoding devices.

  1. Detector-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Korzh, Boris; Martin, Anthony; Bussières, Félix; Thew, Rob; Zbinden, Hugo [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, Chemin de Pinchat 22, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

    2014-12-01

    Recently, a quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme based on entanglement swapping, called measurement-device-independent QKD (mdiQKD), was proposed to bypass all measurement side-channel attacks. While mdiQKD is conceptually elegant and offers a supreme level of security, the experimental complexity is challenging for practical systems. For instance, it requires interference between two widely separated independent single-photon sources, and the secret key rates are dependent on detecting two photons—one from each source. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-principle experiment of a QKD scheme that removes the need for a two-photon system and instead uses the idea of a two-qubit single-photon to significantly simplify the implementation and improve the efficiency of mdiQKD in several aspects.

  2. 3D FEA Computation of the CLIC Machine Detector Interface Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bartalesi, A

    2012-01-01

    A critical aspect of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) design is represented by the Accelerator/Experiment interface (called Machine Detector Interface or MDI). In the 3 TeV CLIC layout, the final focus QD0 quadrupole will be located inside the end-cap of the detector itself. This complex MDI scenario required to be simulated with a full 3D-FE analysis. This study was critical to check and control the magnetic cross-talk between the detector solenoid and the final focus magnet and therefore to optimize the design of an “antisolenoids” system needed to shield the QD0 and the e-/e+ beams from the detector magnetic field. In this paper the development and evolution of the computational FE model is presented together with the results obtained and their implication on the CLIC MDI design.

  3. Revisiting the Rigidly Rotating Magnetosphere model for $\\sigma$ Ori E - II. Magnetic Doppler imaging, arbitrary field RRM, and light variability

    CERN Document Server

    Oksala, M E; Krticka, J; Townsend, R H D; Wade, G A; Prvak, M; Mikulasek, Z; Silvester, J; Owocki, S P

    2015-01-01

    The initial success of the Rigidly Rotating Magnetosphere (RRM) model application to the B2Vp star sigma OriE by Townsend, Owocki & Groote (2005) triggered a renewed era of observational monitoring of this archetypal object. We utilize high-resolution spectropolarimetry and the magnetic Doppler imaging (MDI) technique to simultaneously determine the magnetic configuration, which is predominately dipolar, with a polar strength Bd = 7.3-7.8 kG and a smaller non-axisymmetric quadrupolar contribution, as well as the surface distribution of abundance of He, Fe, C, and Si. We describe a revised RRM model that now accepts an arbitrary surface magnetic field configuration, with the field topology from the MDI models used as input. The resulting synthetic Ha emission and broadband photometric observations generally agree with observations, however, several features are poorly fit. To explore the possibility of a photospheric contribution to the observed photometric variability, the MDI abundance maps were used to ...

  4. Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum digital signatures over a metropolitan network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Wang, Wei-Long; Tang, Yan-Lin; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Hui; Sun, Xiang-Xiang; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Li, Hao; Puthoor, Ittoop Vergheese; You, Li-Xing; Andersson, Erika; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Qiang; Curty, Marcos; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Quantum digital signatures (QDSs) provide a means for signing electronic communications with information-theoretic security. However, all previous demonstrations of quantum digital signatures assume trusted measurement devices. This renders them vulnerable against detector side-channel attacks, just like quantum key distribution. Here we exploit a measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum network, over a metropolitan area, to perform a field test of a three-party MDI QDS scheme that is secure against any detector side-channel attack. In so doing, we are able to successfully sign a binary message with a security level of about 10-7. Remarkably, our work demonstrates the feasibility of MDI QDSs for practical applications.

  5. NOVEL SULPHONATED POLYSILOXANE POLYUREA-URETHANE IONOMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lei; YU Xuehai; YANG Changzheng

    1996-01-01

    A series of novel polysiloxane polyurea-urethane blockcopolymers based on methylene bis(p-phenylisocyanate (MDI), sodium-s-1,2-dihydroxy propyl sulphonate (SDPS) and aminopropyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (ATPS) was synthesized with varying length of soft segments and neutralizing cation. The effect of the chemical composition and the cation on the morphology and mechanical properties of the samples were studied.It was found that the SDPS chain extender based samples have definite chemical structure (-MDI-SDPS-MDI-ATPS-). As the length of the soft segment increases, an improvement of phase separation was observed. In addition, when SO3Na was translated into SO3H or the sulphonic acid groups were neutralized with different charge cations (Na+, Zn2+ and Al3+), the morphology and mechanical properties changed greatly.

  6. Prevalence of depression, quality of life and antidepressant treatment in the Danish General Suburban Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Kvetny, Jan; Christensen, Kaj Sparle

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS), the objective of which is to facilitate epidemiological and genetic research, has included the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) among the medical health questionnaires. We were thus...... in a position to compare the 2-week prevalence of ICD-10 depression in the period from 2010 to 2012 with our previous Danish general population study from 2003, in which the MDI was also included. Aims: The aim of our analysis was not only to evaluate the point prevalence of ICD-10 depression but also...... analysis. The scalability of the MDI and the WHO-5 was quite acceptable. Results: In total, 14,787 respondents were available from a response rate of 50%. The 2-week prevalence of ICD-10 depression was 2.3%, which is rather similar to the 2.8% in our 2003 study. The rate of people receiving antidepressants...

  7. Insulin pump treatment; increasing prevalence, and predictors for better metabolic outcome in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birthe; Johannesen, J; Fredheim, S

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Few studies have looked at nationwide data for insulin pump treatment. Since 1996 the Danish Childhood Diabetes Registry (DanDiabKids) has collected data on all Danish diabetic patients aged 0-15 yr. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of continuous subcutaneous insulin...... infusion (CSII) use among Danish children with diabetes and to compare metabolic control in CSII-treated children and adolescents to those treated with MDI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Registry collects on a yearly basis data on insulin regimen, central measured hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and demographic data...... on all patients. In the period 2005-2011, 2983 young patients (1721 males) with diabetes were followed in the Registry. Mean observation period was 5.11 yr [standard error (SE) 0.09]. In the total period 1846 patients were treated with MDI and 1493 changed from MDI to CSII. In 2005, less than 5...

  8. Clinical and economic benefits of integrated pump/CGM technology therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ana Maria; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Orozco, John Jairo; Lynch, Peter Matthew; Prieto, Diana; Saunders, Rhodri; Roze, Stephane; Valencia, Juan Esteban

    2016-11-01

    To assess the long-term clinical and economic impact of integrated pump/CGM technology therapy as compared to multiple daily injections (MDI), for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Colombia. The CORE Diabetes Model was used to simulate a hypothetical cohort of patients with T1D. Mean baseline characteristics were taken from a clinical study conducted in Colombia and a healthcare payer perspective was adopted, with a 5% annual discount rate applied to both costs and outcomes. The integrated pump/CGM improved mean life expectancy by 3.51 years compared with MDI. A similar increase occurred in mean quality-adjusted life expectancy with an additional 3.81 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Onset of diabetes-related complications was also delayed as compared to MDI, and mean survival time free of complication increased by 1.74 years with integrated pump/CGM. Although this increased treatment costs of diabetes as compared to MDI, savings were achieved thanks to reduced expenditure on diabetes-related complications. The estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for SAP was Colombian Pesos (COP) 44,893,950 (approximately USD$23,200) per QALY gained. Improved blood glucose control associated to integrated pump/CGM results in a decreased incidence of diabetes-related complications and improves life expectancy as compared to MDI. Using recommended thresholds from the World Health Organization and previous coverage decisions about health technologies in Colombia, it is a cost-effective alternative to MDI for the treatment of type 1 diabetes in Colombia. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Validação da versão em português do Inventário de Depressão Maior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Parcias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Validar, adaptar e aferir a fidedignidade do Inventário de Depressão Maior (Major Depression Inventory - MDI para a língua portuguesa. MÉTODOS: O questionário passou pelo processo de adaptação transcultural. Foi realizado um pré-teste para avaliar sua aplicabilidade. Para avaliação de reprodutibilidade, utilizou-se medida repetida com intervalo de 1 a 2 semanas e coeficiente de correlação intraclasse. O MDI e a escala de Hamilton foram aplicados em 30 pacientes com diagnóstico de depressão, que foram pareados com 90 controles aos quais foi aplicado o MDI. A curva ROC foi realizada com 120 pacientes e escore final do MDI. Para análise da validade interna, utilizou-se o alfa de Cronbach. RESULTADOS: Sensibilidade e especificidade foram 0,86 e 0,75, respectivamente, com escores 16/17. O alfa de Cronbach para a escala total foi 0,91. O coeficiente de Pearson entre o total do MDI e o total da escala de depressão de Hamilton foi 0,56. A análise fatorial revelou dois fatores: o primeiro explicava 53,9% da variação enquanto o segundo explicava somente 13,6%. A confiabilidade teste-reteste foi excelente (com coeficiente de correlação intraclasse variando de 0,50 e 0,93 para itens individuais e 0,90 para o escore total. CONCLUSÃO: As propriedades psicométricas do MDI se mostraram adequadas para aplicação na população brasileira, entretanto outros estudos se fazem necessários.

  10. Sustained efficacy of insulin pump therapy compared with multiple daily injections in type 2 diabetes: 12‐month data from the OpT2mise randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, Y.; Conget, I.; Castañeda, J. A.; Runzis, S.; Lee, S. W.; Cohen, O.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To compare insulin pump therapy and multiple daily injections (MDI) in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving basal and prandial insulin analogues. Methods After a 2‐month dose‐optimization period, 331 patients with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels ≥8.0% and ≤12% were randomized to pump therapy or continued MDI for 6 months [randomization phase (RP)]. The MDI group was subsequently switched to pump therapy during a 6‐month continuation phase (CP). The primary endpoint was the between‐group difference in change in mean HbA1c from baseline to the end of the RP. Results The mean HbA1c at baseline was 9% in both groups. At the end of the RP, the reduction in HbA1c was significantly greater with pump therapy than with MDI (−1.1 ± 1.2% vs −0.4 ± 1.1%; p pump therapy group maintained this improvement to 12 months while the MDI group, which was switched to pump therapy, showed a 0.8% reduction: the final HbA1c level was identical in both arms. In the RP, total daily insulin dose (TDD) was 20.4% lower with pump therapy than with MDI and remained stable in the CP. The MDI–pump group showed a 19% decline in TDD, such that by 12 months TDD was equivalent in both groups. There were no differences in weight gain or ketoacidosis between groups. In the CP, one patient in each group experienced severe hypoglycaemia. Conclusions Pump therapy has a sustained durable effect on glycaemic control in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. PMID:26854123

  11. Comparable long-term safety and efficacy of a novel budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler versus budesonide/formoterol Turbuhaler in adolescents and adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, Alyn H; Hochmuth, Ludĕk; Ekelund, Jan; Thorén, Anders; Puterman, Allan S

    2008-01-01

    Budesonide/formoterol in one inhaler is an established therapy for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The long-term safety and efficacy profile of a novel hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) formulation of budesonide/formoterol was compared with that of budesonide/formoterol in a dry powder inhaler (DPI; Turbuhaler). This multinational, 52-week, randomized, open, parallel-group study included patients aged > or = 12 years with asthma who had a forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1)> or = 50% of predicted normal; all patients used inhaled corticosteroids (400-1200 microg/day) and needed additional short-acting beta 2-agonist therapy. Patients were randomized to receive budesonide/formoterol pMDI or DPI 160/4.5 microg, two inhalations twice daily. Safety endpoints included assessment of adverse events and laboratory parameters. Efficacy endpoints included change from baseline in FEV1 and time to first severe asthma exacerbation. Overall, 673 patients (446pMDI, 227DPI) were included. There were no clinically significant differences between treatment groups in the nature, incidence or severity of adverse events or laboratory parameters. The number of patients experiencing adverse events was comparable in the pMDI (332/446 [74%]) and DPI (175/227 [77%]) groups; the most commonly reported adverse event was upper respiratory tract infection. The proportion of patients discontinuing as a result of adverse events was low in both groups (pMDI 12/446 [3%], DPI 2/227 [1%]). Lung function was improved to a similar extent in both groups and there was no detectable difference in time to first severe asthma exacerbation. The novel HFA pMDI formulation of budesonide/formoterol is an equally well tolerated and effective treatment for adults and adolescents with asthma as the budesonide/formoterol DPI.

  12. The inositols and polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the rationale, biochemical, and clinical data related to the use of inositols in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. It covers studies related to the mechanism of action of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol (MDI, with randomized controlled trials conducted in women with PCOS, and utilizes these data to suggest pragmatic indications and methods for using MDI combination in PCOS. Rationally crafted inositol combinations have a potential role to play in maintaining metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive health in women with PCOS.

  13. Fatigue, mood and quality of life improve in MS patients after progressive resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Petersen, T

    2010-01-01

    . Fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale, FSS), mood (Major Depression Inventory, MDI) and quality of life (physical and mental component scores, PCS and MCS, of SF36) were scored at start, end and follow-up of a randomized controlled clinical trial of 12 weeks of progressive resistance training in moderately...... disabled (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS: 3-5.5) multiple sclerosis patients including a Control group (n = 15) and an Exercise group (n = 16). Fatigue (FSS > 4) was present in all patients. Scores of FSS, MDI, PCS-SF36 and MCS-SF36 were comparable at start of study in the two groups. Fatigue...

  14. Comparison of the systemic bioavailability of mometasone furoate after oral inhalation from a mometasone furoate/formoterol fumarate metered-dose inhaler versus a mometasone furoate dry-powder inhaler in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosoglou T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Teddy Kosoglou,1 James Hubbell,2 Fengjuan Xuan,3 David L Cutler,1 Alan G Meehan,4 Bhavna Kantesaria,5 Bret A Wittmer6,† 1Clinical Pharmacology, 2Exploratory Drug Metabolism, 3Early Development Statistics, 4Medical Communications, 5Drug Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA; 6Commonwealth Biomedical Research, LLC, Madisonville, KY, USA†Dr Bret A Wittmer passed away on May 9, 2012.Background: Coadministration of mometasone furoate (MF and formoterol fumarate (F produces additive effects for improving symptoms and lung function and reduces exacerbations in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The present study assessed the relative systemic exposure to MF and characterized the pharmacokinetics of MF and formoterol in patients with COPD.Methods: This was a single-center, randomized, open-label, multiple-dose, three-period, three-treatment crossover study. The following three treatments were self-administered by patients (n = 14 with moderate-to-severe COPD: MF 400 µg/F 10 µg via a metered-dose inhaler (MF/F MDI; DULERA®/ZENHALE® without a spacer device, MF/F MDI with a spacer, or MF 400 µg via a dry-powder inhaler (DPI; ASMANEX® TWISTHALER® twice daily for 5 days. Plasma samples for MF and formoterol assay were obtained predose and at prespecified time points after the last (morning dose on day 5 of each period of the crossover. The geometric mean ratio (GMR as a percent and the corresponding 90% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for treatment comparisons.Results: Systemic MF exposure was lower (GMR 77%; 90% CI 58, 102 following administration by MF/F MDI compared to MF DPI. Additionally, least squares geometric mean systemic exposures of MF and formoterol were lower (GMR 72%; 90% CI 61, 84 and (GMR 62%; 90% CI 52, 74, respectively, following administration by MF/F MDI in conjunction with a spacer compared to MF/F MDI without a spacer. MF/F MDI had a

  15. The validity of self-rating depression scales in patients with chronic widespread pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, Kirstine; Omerovic, Emina; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of depression in chronic pain patients by self-rating questionnaires developed and validated for use in normal and/or psychiatric populations is common. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) in a sample...... of females with chronic widespread pain (CWP). METHOD: A total of 263 females diagnosed with CWP and referred for rehabilitation completed the MDI as part of the baseline evaluation. Rasch analysis was applied to this dataset. Rasch measurement models allow detailed analyses of an instrument's rating scale...

  16. Gaussian-modulated coherent-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiang-Chun; Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Gui, Ming; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-04-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD), leaving the detection procedure to the third partner and thus being immune to all detector side-channel attacks, is very promising for the construction of high-security quantum information networks. We propose a scheme to implement MDI-QKD, but with continuous variables instead of discrete ones, i.e., with the source of Gaussian-modulated coherent states, based on the principle of continuous-variable entanglement swapping. This protocol not only can be implemented with current telecom components but also has high key rates compared to its discrete counterpart; thus it will be highly compatible with quantum networks.

  17. The inositols and polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Bharti; Kalra, Sanjay; Sharma, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the rationale, biochemical, and clinical data related to the use of inositols in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It covers studies related to the mechanism of action of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol (MDI), with randomized controlled trials conducted in women with PCOS, and utilizes these data to suggest pragmatic indications and methods for using MDI combination in PCOS. Rationally crafted inositol combinations have a potential role to play in maintaining metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive health in women with PCOS. PMID:27730087

  18. Quality of life in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or multiple daily injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkebæk, Niels; Kristensen, Lene Juel; Mose, Anne

    2014-01-01

    for more than one year) and 405 with MDI (238 for more than one year). Participants and their parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Diabetes and Generic Module. HbA1c was analyzed centrally. RESULTS: Parents reported children and adolescents on CSII for more than one year to have less......AIMS: The aims of the study were to compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a National Danish population of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) treated with either continuous subcutaneous insulin injection (CSII) or multiple daily insulin injections (MDI...

  19. Towards Green Cyclic Carbonate Synthesis : Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Catalyst Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    This PhD research serves to implement both known and novel catalytic systems for the purpose of cyclic carbonate synthesis from biomass-derived substrates. Such products have been earmarked as potential monomers for non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs), amongst other uses. Particular attention has b

  20. Comparison of Coatings from Reactive Star Shaped PEG-stat-PPG Prepolymers and Grafted Linear PEG for Biological and Medical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groll, J.; Ademovic, Z.; Klee, D.;

    2005-01-01

    ). In an alternative approach, surfaces were modified with layers prepared from isocyanate terminated, star shaped poly(ethylene glycol-stat-propylene glycol) prepolymers (80% ethylene glycol, six arms, M. = 3000, 12 000, and 18 000; this compound will be referred to as "Star PEG" in the text). Due to the highly...

  1. 75 FR 71688 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... primes and lacquers. aliphatic polyurethane dispersion. P-11-0011 10/05/10 01/02/11 Dic International (G.../21/10 CBI (G) Polyurethane (G) Thermoplastic (open, polyurethane. nondispersive). P-10-0574 09/23/10.../26/10 CBI (G) Moisture curing (G) Isocyanate polyurethane terminated urethane adhesive. The...

  2. 78 FR 11871 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    .... glycol, aliphatic ester, aliphatic acid and aromatic isocyanate P-13-0147 12/5/2012 3/4/2013 Sika...) Fatty acid promoter for use amide in aphalt applications; emulsifier for use in asphalt applications. P... applications; emulsifier for use in asphalt applications. P-13-0182 12/19/2012 3/18/2013 CBI (S) Adhesion...

  3. Synthesis of a base-free hafnium nitride from N2 cleavage: a versatile platform for dinitrogen functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semproni, Scott P; Chirik, Paul J

    2013-07-31

    The synthesis and characterization of a metastable, base-free isocyanato dihafnocene μ-nitrido complex from CO-induced dinitrogen cleavage is described. The open coordination site at hafnium suggested the possibility of functionalization of the nitrogen atom by cycloaddition and insertion chemistry. Addition of the strained, activated alkyne, cyclooctyne, resulted in N-C bond formation by cycloaddition. The alkyne product is kinetically unstable engaging the terminal hafnocene isocyanate and promoting deoxygenation and additional N-C bond formation resulting in a substituted cyanamide ligand. Group transfer between hafnium centers was observed upon treatment with Me3SiCl resulting in bridging carbodiimidyl ligands. Amidinato-type ligands, [NC(R)N](3-) were prepared by addition of either cyclohexyl or isobutyronitrile to the base free dihafnocene μ-nitrido complex, which also engages in additional N-C bond formation with the terminal isocyanate to form bridging ureate-type ligands. Heterocummulenes also proved reactive as exposure of the nitride complex to CO2 resulted in deoxygenation and N-C bond formation to form isocyanate ligands. With substituted isocyanates, cycloaddition to the dihafnocene μ-nitrido was observed forming ureate ligands, which upon thermolysis isomerize to bridging carbodiimides. Taken together, these results establish the base free dihafnocene μ-nitrido as a versatile platform to synthesize organic molecules from N2 and carbon monoxide.

  4. Homogeneous and heterogenised masked N-heterocyclic carbenes for bio-based cyclic carbonate synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, Joseph A.; Drexel, Roland; Arstad, Bjornar; Reubsaet, Erik; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.

    2016-01-01

    (Multifunctional) cyclic carbonates are generating much interest, with bio-based bis-cyclic compounds attracting attention from the polymer sector as potential renewable monomers for systems such as non-isocyanate polyurethanes. Here, the efficient synthesis of one such substrate, diglycerol dicarbo

  5. Alkane-Based Urethane Potting Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    New low viscosity urethanes easily mixed, molded, and outgassed. Alkane-based urethanes resist hydrolysis and oxidation and have excellent dielectric properties. Low-viscosity alkane-based urethane prepolymer prepared by one-step reaction of either isophorone diisocyanate or methyl-bis (4-cyclohexyl isocyanate) with hydrogenated, hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPBD).

  6. Federal Aviation Administration Small Business Innovation Research 5- Year Project Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    to avoid diluents, etc., that attack asphalt . One part systems such as amine-blocked, moisture-cure silicones, isocyanates , hot melts, UV cure, and... Asphalt Stripping from Aggregates ..... ............... 53 viii Sinnar Associates Infrared Ice Accretion Measurement System ...... 54 Springborn...Methods to Determine the Degree of Asphalt Stripping from Aggregates ....... ............... 80 x OPHIR Corporation An Ice Accumulation Sensor for

  7. Nerve Agent Sensing Biopolymer Wipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    minutes. Polymer synthesis is complete in less than 10 minutes. The CO2 evolved during the reaction of water and isocyanate lifts the foam to a...concrete, stone and asphalt . Excessive dirt or any material that significantly masks clear viewing of the sensor polymer may invalidate sensor

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union KOMMUNIST No 8, May 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    rest rooms, food stands and shower stalls. Asphalted roads lead to the farms and the entire territory within them is also asphalted . A medical...reaction which was accompanied by a fast increase in temperature and pressure in the methyl isocyanate . In Chernobyl it was introducing a positive

  9. RAILCAR4 Toxic Industrial Chemical Source Characterization Program (Software User’s Manual)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    of the release trench.3 Even the over 2,000 deaths in Bhopal, India that resulted from the December 3, 1984 release of 40 tons of methyl isocyanate ... asphalt or even ballast stone will evaporate before the responders are likely to arrive and don protective gear. The final significant observation was

  10. Design Analysis, Basin F Liquid Waste Disposal Facility, Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado, FY81.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    proposed will probably destroy or reduce the integrity of the existing asphalt liner. If this integrity needs to be maintained then alternate construction...1robnzee u.4STrchlorophenoxypropionic acid (2.4.-5 lodomethanei Pentachloroethane TPI (Silvex) Isocyanic acid, methyl aster Peafchlortmiftobenzene W=CN) ’T

  11. Surface Protection Study for Navy Projectiles,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cavity Paint ( asphalt ), MIL-C-450, with Comp A-3 explosive filler. Alkyd Primer, TT-P-664, with PBXN-type explosive filler. Zn Phosphate only; MIL-G...reactive materials such as the isocyanates and plasticizers should not enter into unwanted side reactions with an interior coating. After the explosive

  12. Plastic Coatings and Wraps for New Marine Timber Piling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    all fresh asphalt , resin-base curing compounds, or loose paint. Use compressed air to remove dust and dirt prior to applying the waterproofing...nonyellowing) isocyanate with a polycaprolactone backbone. The system is available in colors which are unaffected by solar radiation. Mechanical

  13. Monomers, polymers and articles containing the same from sugar derived compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, James; Reineke, Theresa; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2016-11-29

    Disclosed herein are monomers formed by reacting a sugar derived compound(s) comprising a lactone and two hydroxyls with a compound(s) comprising an isocyanate and an acrylate or methacrylate. Polymers formed from such monomers, and articles formed from the polymers are also disclosed.

  14. Facile Synthesis of Ureas in Ionic Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xing QIAN; Feng Yang JU; Yong Min ZHANG; Wei Liang BAO

    2004-01-01

    The reaction of isocyanates with aliphatic and aromatic amines in the 1-n-butyl-3- methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4) ionic liquid in good to excellent yields is described. Due to its insolubility, the desired urea solids could be recovered by simple filtration from the ionic liquid after reaction.

  15. Impact of cold temperatures on the shear strength of Norway spruce joints glued with different adhesives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2015-01-01

    × 20 mm × 10 mm) were bonded with seven commercially available adhesives: polyurethane (PUR), polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), emulsion-polymer-isocyanate (EPI), melamine-formaldehyde (MF), phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde (PRF), melamine-urea-formaldehyde1 (MUF1), and melamine-urea-formaldehyde2 (MUF2). Each...

  16. Stewart Air National Guard Base, NY, C-5M Painting Refurbishment Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    isocyanate paints can adequately be mitigated through the continued practice of wearing cotton or Tyvek® coveralls and nitrile or neoprene gloves...cotton or Tyvek® coveralls and nitrile or neoprene gloves. 5 Batten, Timothy W. Base Level

  17. A multistep continuous-flow system for rapid on-demand synthesis of receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Trine P; Ritzén, Andreas; Ulven, Trond

    2009-01-01

    A multistep continuous-flow system for synthesis of receptor ligands by assembly of three variable building blocks in a single unbroken flow is described. The sequence consists of three reactions and two scavenger steps, where a Cbz-protected diamine is reacted with an isocyanate, deprotected, an...

  18. Potato Sprout Inhibitor chlorpropham

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The title compound chlorpropham (CAS number: 101-21-3, C10H12ClNO2, Mr = 213.66) was prepared by the addition reaction of 3-chlorophenyl isocyanate with isopropanol. Spectral data, IR, NMR and MS, were reported. This paper provides some related information about Regulatory Status, Toxicological Effects, Ecological Effects and Environmental Fate also.

  19. New crosslinking method of polyamide-imide membranes for potential application in harsh polar aprotic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutczak, S.M.; Cuperus, F.P.; Cuperus, F.P.; Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    We report for the first time successful crosslinking of polyamide–imide (Torlon®) based membranes using di-isocyanates. The crosslinked membranes are resistant to N-methyl pyrrolidone (which is solvent of the non-crosslinked membranes) and have very good mechanical properties. In contrast to the

  20. Preparation and Post-Functionalization of Hyperbranched Polyurea Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiang, Fei; Asri, Lia; Ivashenko, Oleksii; Rudolf, Petra; Loontjens, Ton

    2015-01-01

    Postfunctionalizable hyperbranched polyurea coatings were prepared by the bulk polycondensation of AB(2) monomers on preactivated silicon substrates. As previously shown, AB(2) monomers were prepared, comprising a secondary amino group (A) and two blocked isocyanates (B) connected by hexyl spacers,

  1. [Carbamylation of proteins--mechanism, causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniążek, Anna; Gwoździński, Krzysztof

    2016-05-16

    Carbamylation (carbamoylation) is a post-translational modification resulting from the nonenzymatic reaction between isocyanic acid and free functional groups of proteins, in particular with the free amino groups. This reaction alters structural and functional properties of proteins and results in faster aging of proteins. Urea present in the body can be transformed into cyanate and its more reactive form, isocyanic acid. High concentration of urea is associated with some diseases, especially with chronic renal failure and atherosclerosis. In human tissues, urea and cyanate are in equilibrium in aqueous solutions. Surprisingly, concentration of isocyanate in the body is much lower than it would appear from the kinetic parameters of urea decomposition. The low concentration of isocyanic acid results from its high reactivity and short half-life. In this review we describe the biochemical mechanism of carbamylation of proteins and free amino acids. We summarize the literature data for carbamylation of hemoglobin, lipoproteins, albumin, membrane proteins and erythropoietin in chronic renal failure. In summary, the carbamylation of proteins may have a negative impact on their biological activity and may contribute to the deterioration of patients with chronic renal failure.

  2. Ocular irritation from product of pesticide degradation among workers in a seed warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Itoh, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Four workers at a seed supply warehouse in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, complained of ocular irritation on the job. Pesticide-coated seeds were stored in the warehouse but no significant amount of pesticide was detected in the air inside the warehouse. To identify the cause of the ocular irritation and to determine an appropriate solution to the problem, the authors used thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze the profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air of the two warehouses at the site-warehouse A, where the four workers experienced ocular irritation, and warehouse B, where no workers experienced ocular irritation. Comparing the profiles of VOCs in these warehouses indicated that n-butyl isocyanate, a hydrolyzed product of the fungicide benomyl, was the cause of the workers' ocular irritation. n-Butyl isocyanate is known to be a contact irritant and if the benomyl-coated seeds were not properly dried before storage in the warehouse n-butyl isocyanate would have been produced. The results of the study suggest that more attention should be paid both to the pesticide itself and to the products of pesticide degradation. In this study, n-butyl isocyanate was identified as a product of pesticide degradation and a causative chemical affecting occupational health.

  3. The effect of tissue surface modification with collagenase and addition of TGF-beta 3 on the healing potential of meniscal tears repaired with tissue glues in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochynska, Agnieszka Izabela; Hannink, Gerjon; Verhoeven, Renate; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Buma, Pieter

    The aim of the current in vitro study was to investigate if tissue surface modification with collagenase and addition of the TGF-beta 3 can increase the number of cells present in meniscus tears repaired with the use of newly developed tissue adhesives based on isocyanate-terminated block

  4. Plastic Models Designed to Produce Large Height-to-Length Ratio Steady-State Planar and Axisymmetric (Radial) Viscous Liquid Laminar Flow Gravity Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, Harvey F.

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring gravity currents include events such as air flowing through an open front door, a volcanic eruption's pyroclastic flow down a mountainside, and the spread of the Bhopal disaster's methyl isocyanate gas. Gravity currents typically have a small height-to-distance ratio. Plastic models were designed and constructed with a…

  5. Efficient Synthesis of 2-(8-Quinolinoxy)-4H-imidazolin-4-ones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Ming-wu; SHU Ya-li; LIU Zhao-jie

    2003-01-01

    The title compounds 2-(8-quinolinoxy)-4H-imidazolin-4-ones(4) were synthesized by means of base catalytic reactions of 8-hydroxyquinoline with each of carbodiimides 2, which were obtained via aza-Wittig reactions of iminophosphoranes 1 with the corresponding aromatic isocyanates.

  6. Monomers, polymers and articles containing the same from sugar derived compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, James; Reineke, Theresa; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2016-11-29

    Disclosed herein are monomers formed by reacting a sugar derived compound(s) comprising a lactone and two hydroxyls with a compound(s) comprising an isocyanate and an acrylate or methacrylate. Polymers formed from such monomers, and articles formed from the polymers are also disclosed.

  7. 77 FR 5096 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    .... producing packaging films. P-12-0089 12/06/2011 03/04/2012 Brueggemann (G) Zinc is a (S) Process Chemical U...) Isocyanate crosslinker P-11-0591 12/02/2011 11/23/2011 (G) Ipdi modified polyester resin P-11-0622 12/16/2011...

  8. C-14 and C-13 labelling of 4-terbutylanilinochlorethylurea. Marquage par [sup 14]C et [sup 3]C du terbutylanilino-4 chloroethyluree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azim, M.; Madelmont, J.C.; Cussac, C.; Rapp, M. Maurizis, J.C.; Godeneche, D. (INSERM U 71, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France)); Gaudreault, R.G. (Hopital Saint-Francois d' Assise, Quebec (Canada). Centre de Recherche); Veyre, A. (INSERM U 71, 63 -Clermont-Ferrand (France) Clermont-Ferrand Univ., 63 -Clermont-Ferrand (France). Lab. de Biophysique Medicale)

    1993-11-01

    The labelling of 2-chloroethylisocyanate with [sup 14]C and [sup 13]C on the carbonyl group from 3-chloropropionic acid [sup 14]C and [sup 13]C is described. This isocyanate was used to synthesize 4-tert butyl [3-(2-chloro ethyl) ureido] (benzene). (Author).

  9. BETA-GLUCURONYL CARBAMATE BASED PRO-MOIETIES DESIGNED FOR PRODRUGS IN ADEPT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEENDERS, RGG; GERRITS, KAA; RUIJTENBEEK, R; SCHEEREN, HW; Haisma, Hidde; BOVEN, E

    1995-01-01

    A number of pro-moieties 8a - e designed for prodrug preparation have been synthesized (chart 2). The pro-moieties, containing a glucuronyl carbamate group linked to a spacer possessing a terminal carboxylic acid group, have been synthesized from isocyanates 6 and anomerically unprotected glucuronic

  10. Poly(hydroxy urethane)s based on renewable diglycerol dicarbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthoven, van Juliën L.J.; Gootjes, Linda; Es, van Daan S.; Noordover, Bart A.J.; Meuldijk, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we present a series of amorphous non-isocyanate poly(hydroxy urethane)s (PHU) synthesized from diglycerol dicarbonate in bulk conditions at mild temperatures, without using a catalyst. Diglycerol dicarbonate has been synthesized from diglycerol and dimethyl carbonate and w

  11. One-Pot Synthesis for Biocompatible Amphiphilic Hyperbranched Polyurea Micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiang, Fei; Stuart, Marc; Vorenkamp, Joop; Roest, Steven; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Fokkink, Remco; Loontjens, Ton

    2013-01-01

    Here we report, for the first time to our knowledge, a method to synthesize AB(2) monomers, the corresponding hyperbranched and the corresponding amphiphilic hyperbranched polymers in a one-pot procedure, starting from two commercial available compounds. Since the B groups were blocked isocyanates

  12. Understanding factors that influence protective glove use among automotive spray painters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Glazer, Patricia; Murphy-Robinson, Helen; Yost, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Dermal contact with isocyanate-based coatings may lead to systemic respiratory sensitization. The most common isocyanates found in sprayed automotive coatings are monomeric and oligomeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). Most spray painters use thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves that are not effective at preventing dermal exposures when spraying isocyanate paints. Personal interviews with collision repair industry personnel and focus groups with spray painters were held to characterize risk awareness, to examine perceptions and challenges concerning protective glove use and selection, and to generate ideas for protective glove use interventions. The most popular gloves among spray painters were thin (4-5 mil) and thick (14 mil) latex. We found that medium to thick (6-8 mil) nitrile were not always perceived as comfortable and were expected to be more expensive than thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves. Of concern is the user's difficulty in distinguishing between nitrile and latex gloves; latex gloves are now sold in different colors including blue, which has traditionally been associated with nitrile gloves. Even though spray painters were familiar with the health hazards related to working with isocyanate paints, most were not always aware that dermal exposure to isocyanates could contribute to the development of occupational asthma. There is a need for more research to identify dermal materials that are protective against sprayed automotive coatings. Automotive spray painters and their employers need to be educated in the selection and use of protective gloves, specifically on attributes such as glove material, color, and thickness.

  13. Synthesis of graphene oxide grafted poly(lactic acid) with palladium nanoparticles and its application to serotonin sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyoung Soon; You, Jung-Min; Jeong, Haesang; Jeon, Seungwon, E-mail: swjeon3380@naver.com

    2013-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has treated with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and subsequent 1,4-butanediol (BD) to create an anchoring OH site on the surface of GO (GO-MDI-OH). The OH groups of GO-MDI-OH were the initiators of the polymerization of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). The subsequent GO-g-PLA was synthesized by the polymerization reaction in the presence of GO-MDI-OH and PLA. The synthesized materials were characterized via {sup 1}H-NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)). The surface morphologies and degree of dispersions at G-g-PLA-metals were observed using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and a transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrical conductivity of G-g-PLA-Pd was largely enhanced compared with those of GO and GO-g-PLA. G-g-PLA-Pd was used for the electrochemical detection of serotonin. Electrocatalytic activities were verified from the cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric response in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS). A significantly higher concentration range (0.1–100.0 μM) and a lower detection limit (8.0 × 10{sup −8} M, where s/n = 3) were found at the G-g-PLA-Pd modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE).

  14. Qualitative assessment of user experiences of a novel smart phone application designed to support flexible intensive insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Brigid A; McIntyre, H David; Hickman, Ingrid J; Noud, Marina

    2016-09-15

    Modern flexible multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy requires people with diabetes to manage complex mathematical calculations to determine insulin doses on a day to day basis. Automated bolus calculators assist with these calculations, add additional functionality to protect against hypoglycaemia and enhance the record keeping process, however uptake and use depends on the devices meeting the needs of the user. We aimed to obtain user feedback on the usability of a mobile phone bolus calculator application in adults with T1DM to inform future development of mobile phone diabetes support applications. Adults with T1DM who had previously received education in flexible MDI therapy were invited to participate. Eligible respondents attended app education and one month later participated in a focus group to provide feedback on the features of the app in relation to usability for patient-based flexible MDI and future app development. Seven adults participated in the app training and follow up interview. App features that support dose adjustment to reduce hypoglycaemia risk and features that enable greater efficiency in dose calculation, record keeping and report generation were highly valued. Adults who are self managing flexible MDI found the Rapidcalc mobile phone app to be a useful self-management tool and additional features to further improve usability, such as connectivity with BG meter and food databases, shortcut options to economise data entry and web based storage of data, were identified. Further work is needed to ascertain specific features and benefit for those with lower health literacy.

  15. Intergenerational Pattern of Interference and Internally-Motivated Changes in Cajun French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Sylvie; Noetzel, Sibylle

    2005-01-01

    We examine the variable use of locative prepositions in Cajun French, adding two dimensions to existing studies: real-time evidence, adding a diachronic descriptive perspective, and a methodological tool, measuring the degree of exposure to French (MDI). The goal of this paper is to determine the origins and the directions of language change…

  16. Measurement-device-independent quantum digital signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthoor, Ittoop Vergheese; Amiri, Ryan; Wallden, Petros; Curty, Marcos; Andersson, Erika

    2016-08-01

    Digital signatures play an important role in software distribution, modern communication, and financial transactions, where it is important to detect forgery and tampering. Signatures are a cryptographic technique for validating the authenticity and integrity of messages, software, or digital documents. The security of currently used classical schemes relies on computational assumptions. Quantum digital signatures (QDS), on the other hand, provide information-theoretic security based on the laws of quantum physics. Recent work on QDS Amiri et al., Phys. Rev. A 93, 032325 (2016);, 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.032325 Yin, Fu, and Zeng-Bing, Phys. Rev. A 93, 032316 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.032316 shows that such schemes do not require trusted quantum channels and are unconditionally secure against general coherent attacks. However, in practical QDS, just as in quantum key distribution (QKD), the detectors can be subjected to side-channel attacks, which can make the actual implementations insecure. Motivated by the idea of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD), we present a measurement-device-independent QDS (MDI-QDS) scheme, which is secure against all detector side-channel attacks. Based on the rapid development of practical MDI-QKD, our MDI-QDS protocol could also be experimentally implemented, since it requires a similar experimental setup.

  17. Inhaled medication for asthma management: evaluation of how asthma patients, medical students, and doctors use the different devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniz Janaína Barbosa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma results from a combination of three essential features: airflow obstruction, hyperresponsiveness of airways to endogenous or exogenous stimuli and inflammation. Inadequacy of the techniques to use different inhalation devices is one of the causes of therapeutic failure. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate how 20 medical students, 36 resident physicians of Internal Medicine/Pediatrics, and 40 asthma patients used three devices for inhalation therapy containing placebo. All patients were followed at the Pulmonary Outpatient Service of Botucatu Medical School and had been using inhaled medication for at least six months. The following devices were evaluated: metered dose inhalers (MDI, dry powder inhalers (DPI, and MDI attached to a spacer device. A single observer applied a protocol containing the main steps necessary to obtain a good inhaler technique to follow and grade the use of different devices. Health care professionals tested all three devices and patients tested only the device being used on their management. MDI was the device best known by doctors and patients. MDI use was associated with errors related to the coordination between inspiration and device activation. Failure to exhale completely before inhalation of the powder was the most frequent error observed with DPI use. In summary, patients did not receive precise instruction on how to use inhaled medication and health care professionals were not well prepared to adequately teach their patients.

  18. Temporal Variation of Large Scale Flows in the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sarbani Basu; H. M. Antia

    2000-09-01

    We attempt to detect short-term temporal variations in the rotation rate and other large scale velocity fields in the outer part of the solar convection zone using the ring diagram technique applied to Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) data. The measured velocity field shows variations by about 10 m/s on the scale of few days.

  19. The use of sodium carboxymethylcellulose in the preparation of spray-dried proteins for pulmonary drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao-Ying; Song, Xiaosong; Seville, Peter C

    2010-04-16

    The use of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) as a spray-drying excipient in the preparation of inhalable formulations of proteins was investigated, using alkaline phosphatase as a model functional protein. Two spray-dried powders were investigated: a control powder comprising 100% (w/w) alkaline phosphatase and a test powder comprising 67% (w/w) NaCMC and 33% (w/w) alkaline phosphatase. Following physicochemical characterisation, the powders were prepared as both dry powder inhaler (DPI) and pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) formulations. The aerosolisation performance of the formulations was assessed using a Multi-Stage Liquid Impinger, both immediately after preparation and over a 16-week storage period. Formulating the control powder as a DPI resulted in a poor fine particle fraction (FPF: 10%), whereas the FPF of the NaCMC-modified DPI formulation was significantly greater (47%). When the powders were formulated as pMDI systems, the control and NaCMC-modified powders demonstrated FPFs of 52% and 55%, respectively. Following storage, reduced FPF was observed for all formulations except the NaCMC-modified pMDI system; the performance of this formulation following storage was statistically equivalent to that immediately following preparation. Co-spray-drying proteins and peptides with NaCMC may therefore offer an alternative method for the preparation of stable and respirable pMDI formulations for pulmonary delivery.

  20. Electrospun Polyurethane Fibers for Absorption of Volatile Organic Compounds from Air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.; Bromberg, L.; Rutledge, G.C.; Hatton, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Electrospun polyurethane fibers for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from air with rapid VOC absorption and desorption have been developed. Polyurethanes based on 4,4-methylenebis(phenylisocyanate) (MDI) and aliphatic isophorone diisocyanate as the hard segments and butanediol and

  1. Knowledge of carbohydrate counting and insulin dose calculations in paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Finner

    2015-12-01

    General significance: This study demonstrates that in a representative Irish regional paediatric T1DM clinic, knowledge of carbohydrates and insulin is poorer than in a US based sample, although this knowledge is better among patients treated with CSII compared with MDI. This highlights the need for improved resources for diabetes and carbohydrate counting education for patients with T1DM.

  2. A New Approach for the Analysis of Hyperspectral Data: Theory and Sensitivity Analysis of the Moment Distance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Ariel L. Salas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the Moment Distance (MD method to advance spectral analysis in vegetation studies. It was developed to take advantage of the information latent in the shape of the reflectance curve that is not available from other spectral indices. Being mathematically simple but powerful, the approach does not require any curve transformation, such as smoothing or derivatives. Here, we show the formulation of the MD index (MDI and demonstrate its potential for vegetation studies. We simulated leaf and canopy reflectance samples derived from the combination of the PROSPECT and SAIL models to understand the sensitivity of the new method to leaf and canopy parameters. We observed reasonable agreements between vegetation parameters and the MDI when using the 600 to 750 nm wavelength range, and we saw stronger agreements in the narrow red-edge region 720 to 730 nm. Results suggest that the MDI is more sensitive to the Chl content, especially at higher amounts (Chl > 40 mg/cm2 compared to other indices such as NDVI, EVI, and WDRVI. Finally, we found an indirect relationship of MDI against the changes of the magnitude of the reflectance around the red trough with differing values of LAI.

  3. MR arthrography including abduction and external rotation images in the assessment of atraumatic multidirectional instability of the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffeler, Christoph [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kantonsspital Graubuenden, Musculoskeletal Imaging, Chur (Switzerland); Waldt, Simone; Bauer, Jan S.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kirchhoff, Chlodwig [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Traumatology, Munich (Germany); Haller, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany); Schroeder, Michael [Center for Sports Orthopedics and Medicine, Orthosportiv, Munich (Germany); Imhoff, Andreas B. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    To evaluate diagnostic signs and measurements in the assessment of capsular redundancy in atraumatic multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder on MR arthrography (MR-A) including abduction/external rotation (ABER) images. Twenty-one MR-A including ABER position of 20 patients with clinically diagnosed MDI and 17 patients without instability were assessed by three radiologists. On ABER images, presence of a layer of contrast between the humeral head (HH) and the anteroinferior glenohumeral ligament (AIGHL) (crescent sign) and a triangular-shaped space between the HH, AIGHL and glenoid (triangle sign) were evaluated; centring of the HH was measured. Anterosuperior herniation of the rotator interval (RI) capsule and glenoid version were determined on standard imaging planes. The crescent sign had a sensitivity of 57 %/62 %/48 % (observers 1/2/3) and specificity of 100 %/100 %/94 % in the diagnosis of MDI. The triangle sign had a sensitivity of 48 %/57 %/48 % and specificity of 94 %/94 %/100 %. The combination of both signs had a sensitivity of 86 %/90 %/81 % and specificity of 94 %/94 %/94 %. A positive triangle sign was significantly associated with decentring of the HH. Measurements of RI herniation, RI width and glenoid were not significantly different between both groups. Combined assessment of redundancy signs on ABER position MR-A allows for accurate differentiation between patients with atraumatic MDI and patients with clinically stable shoulders; measurements on standard imaging planes appear inappropriate. (orig.)

  4. Improved wettability and adhesion of polylactic acid/chitosan coating for bio-based multilayer film development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Hunter; Li, Yana; Almenar, Eva

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of methyldiphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) concentration (0, 0.2, 1, 2, and 3%) on the wettability and adhesion of blend solutions of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and chitosan (CS) when coated on PLA film for development of a bio-based multi-layer film suitable for food packaging and other applications. Characterization was carried out by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR), contact angle (θ), mechanical adhesion pull-off testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The θ of the PLA/CS blend shifted to a lower value (41-35°) with increasing MDI concentration showing that the surface tension was modified between the PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film and better wettability was achieved. The increase in MDI also resulted in an increased breaking strength (228-303 kPa) due to the increased H-bonding resulting from the more urethane groups formed within the PLA/CS blend as shown by ATR-FTIR. The improved adhesion was also shown by the increased number of physical entanglements observed by SEM. It can be concluded that MDI can be used to improve wettability and adhesion between PLA/CS coating and PLA film.

  5. Design and Development of a Salbutamol Intake Detector for Low Respiratory Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vui Hin, Tsen; Ilyani Ramli, Nur

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposed a new salbutamol intake detector design using asthma spacer and gas sensor. The device enable real time monitoring of propellant level inhaled by the infant which will decrease the recovery time of the asthma attack. Microcontroller Arduino UNO is program to control the input and output of the system. MQ6 gas sensor detecting the propellant Hydrofluoroalkane from the metered dose inhaler (MDI) canister and demonstrated the level of propellant inhaled on the LCD in real time. MQ6 gas sensor suitable used to detect concentration of propellant inside the asthma spacer due to it is low sensitive to natural gas where include the carbon dioxide exhaled by the infant. Besides this, MQ6 gas sensor also highly sensitive to propane and the preview aerosol inventor mentioned propane as propellant which used for MDI to push the salbutamol out from MDI canister. Therefore, MQ6 gas sensor is suitable to detect propellant inside asthma spacer. The output voltage of MQ6 in initial state where no propellant inside asthma spacer is between 0.55V and 0.65V. Furthermore, when the MDI canister is been pressed, the concentration of propellant is increased and the output voltage of MQ6 gas sensor also increased in ranged between 1.1V and 1.2V.

  6. 40 CFR 86.1243-96 - Calculations; evaporative emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... testing, g. (iii) For variable-volume enclosures, defined in § 86.1207(a)(1)(i), the following simplified... adjusted total mass emissions for each test segment. ER06OC93.136 where MDI=mass emissions from the...

  7. 40 CFR 86.143-96 - Calculations; evaporative emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (iii) For variable-volume enclosures, defined in § 86.107(a)(1)(i), the following simplified form of... each test segment. ER06OC93.033 where MDI=mass emissions from the diurnal emission test (see §...

  8. Electrospun Polyurethane Fibers for Absorption of Volatile Organic Compounds from Air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.; Bromberg, L.; Rutledge, G.C.; Hatton, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Electrospun polyurethane fibers for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from air with rapid VOC absorption and desorption have been developed. Polyurethanes based on 4,4-methylenebis(phenylisocyanate) (MDI) and aliphatic isophorone diisocyanate as the hard segments and butanediol and tetrame

  9. 纳米片层石墨填充聚氨酯泡沫塑料的制备和电学性能%Preparation and Electrical properties of Polyurethane/graphite Nanosheet Foam Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dan-qing; CAI Jin-chao; CHEN Guo-hua

    2008-01-01

    Using polyester polyol and diphenylmethane diisocyanate(MDI)as basic component,and using graphite as conduct.ive filler,polyurethane/graphite nanosheet foam plastics is produced by filling mould curing reaction.Also the electrical properties of the foam plastics are studied.

  10. Elucidating How Wood Adhesives Bond to Wood Cell Walls using High-Resolution Solution-State NMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle

    2013-01-01

    Some extensively used wood adhesives, such as pMDI (polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate) and PF (phenol formaldehyde) have shown excellent adhesion properties with wood. However, distinguishing whether the strength is due to physical bonds (i.e., van der Waals, London, or hydrogen bond forces) or covalent bonds between the adherend and the adhesive is not fully...

  11. Formulation and evaluation of CFC free inhalers for beclomethasone dipropionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopala Krishna Murthy Talasila

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Beclomethasone dipropionate CFC free inhalation formulations were developed with a view to treat asthma prophylactically. Dry powder inhalers (DPI for beclomethasone dipropionate were prepared with different grades of lactose monohydrate. The influence of carrier and overages on performance of DPI was studied. Metered dose inhalers (MDI with HFA based propellants were formulated with various doses, overages and different concentrations of alcohol. Formulated DPI and MDI were evaluated for various official and unofficial quality control tests. The influence of over doses on valve delivery, effect of overages on emitted dose and influence of alcohol on spray pattern from MDI were studied. The better fine particle fraction and emitted dose were obtained from the DPI formulated with 10:90 ratio of fine lactose: coarse lactose and with 20% w/w overages. The studies on MDI revealed that the 15% of overdoses are required for effective valve delivery and 20% overages are required for 100% drug delivery. 5-10%v/v alcohol was found to be preferable to get optimum emitted dose and fine particle fraction.

  12. Aerosol delivery from spacers in wheezy infants: a daily life study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. Janssens (Hettie); E.M. Heijnen; V.M. de Jong; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); W.P. Holland (Wim); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe aims of this study were to assess and compare dose delivery and dose variability of pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI)/spacers in wheezy infants in daily life and to investigate factors influencing aerosol delivery. In an open randomized crossover

  13. Intergenerational Pattern of Interference and Internally-Motivated Changes in Cajun French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Sylvie; Noetzel, Sibylle

    2005-01-01

    We examine the variable use of locative prepositions in Cajun French, adding two dimensions to existing studies: real-time evidence, adding a diachronic descriptive perspective, and a methodological tool, measuring the degree of exposure to French (MDI). The goal of this paper is to determine the origins and the directions of language change…

  14. Using hyperspectral imagery to predict post-wildfire soil water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah A. Lewis; Peter R. Robichaud; Bruce E. Frazier; Joan Q. Wu; Denise Y. M. Laes

    2008-01-01

    A principal task of evaluating large wildfires is to assess fire's effect on the soil in order to predict the potential watershed response. Two types of soil water repellency tests, the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test and the mini-disk infiltrometer (MDI) test, were performed after the Hayman Fire in Colorado, in the summer of 2002 to assess the...

  15. Early Developmental Assessment of Children with Major Non-Cardiac Congenital Anomalies Predicts Development at the Age of 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Petra; Gischler, Saskia J.; van der Cammen-van Zijp, Monique H. M.; Tibboel, Dick; Bax, Nicolaas M. A.; Ijsselstijn, Hanneke; van Dijk, Monique; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive and motor development in children with major congenital anomalies and the predictability of development at age 5 years. Method: A prospective, longitudinal follow-up study was undertaken. The Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development--Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and…

  16. Durable Wood Composites for Naval Low-Rise Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Inc. Robert L. Plummer, President 514 E Vandalia St Edwardsville, IL 62025-1855 618 656-1514 R Raymond Building Supply Corp. Don Treise...that have improved moisture resistance properties and better mechanical properties. pMDI adhesive was obtained from Bayer (Monodur® 541

  17. Evaluation of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate as an indoor air pollutant and biological assessment of methylene dianiline in the polyurethane factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirmohammadi Mirtaghi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Today many raw materials used in factories may have a dangerous effect on the physiological system of workers. One of them, which is widely used in the polyurethane factories, is diisocyanates. These compounds are widely used in surface coatings, polyurethane foams, adhesives, resins, elastomers, binders, and sealants. Exposure to diisocyanates causes irritation to the skin, mucous membranes, eyes, and respiratory tract. Methylene dianiline (MDA is a metabolite of methylene diphenyle diisocyanate (MDI, an excretory material of worker′s urine who are exposed to MDI. Around 100 air samples were collected among five factories by the Midget Impinger, which contained DMSO absorbent as a solvent and Tryptamine as a reagent. Samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with an ECUV detector using the NIOSH 5522 method of sampling and analysis. Also, fifty urine samples were collected from workers by using William′s biological analysis method. The concentration of MDI in all air samples was more than 88 µg/m³, showing a high concentration of the pollutant in the workplaces in comparison with the NIOSH standard, and all the worker′s urine was contaminated by MDA. The correlation and regression tests were used to obtain statistical model for MDI and MDA that is useful for prediction of diisocyanates pollution situation in the polyurethane factories.

  18. Aerosol delivery from spacers in wheezy infants: a daily life study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. Janssens (Hettie); E.M. Heijnen; V.M. de Jong; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); W.P. Holland (Wim); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe aims of this study were to assess and compare dose delivery and dose variability of pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI)/spacers in wheezy infants in daily life and to investigate factors influencing aerosol delivery. In an open randomized crossover

  19. M e Multidr enriche rug-res ed for sistant CD133 of TG t hepa 3 subp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    The existence of CSCs was first proven in acute myeloid leukemia (Lapidot et al., 1994), and more recently in .... treatment was initiated, and the resistant phenotype developed. For ... Epics XL flow cytometer and WinMDI 2.9 software. WB.

  20. Switching from multiple daily injections to CSII pump therapy: insulin expenditures in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Guy; Gill, Max; Gunnarsson, Candace; Shafiroff, Jeff; Edelman, Steven

    2014-11-01

    To identify variations in expenditures and utilization of insulin and other antidiabetes medications by comparing patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) pump therapy versus multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy. Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database and Medicare Supplemental Database for 2006 to 2010 were used in a difference-in-differences approach that took advantage of variation in the timing of the switch from MDI therapy to CSII pump therapy. Continuous users of MDI therapy throughout the study period were compared with those who switched to the CSII pump therapy during this period. Specifications included: coefficient estimates from cross-sectional ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions with: 1) no additional controls, 2) controls for patient demographics and comorbidities, and 3) patient fixed effects. Propensity score matching at baseline mitigated concerns regarding patient selection bias. While insulin expenditures rose during the study period, switching to CSII pump therapy led to sizable reductions in insulin expenditures. This reduction in insulin expenditures due to switching varied between $657 (standard error [SE] $126; Pinsulin expenditures among MDI patients who switched to CSII pump therapy at various times throughout the study period.

  1. A hybrid smartphone indoor positioning solution for mobile LBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Pei, Ling; Guinness, Robert; Kuusniemi, Heidi

    2012-12-12

    Smartphone positioning is an enabling technology used to create new business in the navigation and mobile location-based services (LBS) industries. This paper presents a smartphone indoor positioning engine named HIPE that can be easily integrated with mobile LBS. HIPE is a hybrid solution that fuses measurements of smartphone sensors with wireless signals. The smartphone sensors are used to measure the user's motion dynamics information (MDI), which represent the spatial correlation of various locations. Two algorithms based on hidden Markov model (HMM) problems, the grid-based filter and the Viterbi algorithm, are used in this paper as the central processor for data fusion to resolve the position estimates, and these algorithms are applicable for different applications, e.g., real-time navigation and location tracking, respectively. HIPE is more widely applicable for various motion scenarios than solutions proposed in previous studies because it uses no deterministic motion models, which have been commonly used in previous works. The experimental results showed that HIPE can provide adequate positioning accuracy and robustness for different scenarios of MDI combinations. HIPE is a cost-efficient solution, and it can work flexibly with different smartphone platforms, which may have different types of sensors available for the measurement of MDI data. The reliability of the positioning solution was found to increase with increasing precision of the MDI data.

  2. Synthesis of graphene oxide grafted poly(lactic acid) with palladium nanoparticles and its application to serotonin sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyoung Soon; You, Jung-Min; Jeong, Haesang; Jeon, Seungwon

    2013-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has treated with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and subsequent 1,4-butanediol (BD) to create an anchoring OH site on the surface of GO (GO-MDI-OH). The OH groups of GO-MDI-OH were the initiators of the polymerization of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). The subsequent GO-g-PLA was synthesized by the polymerization reaction in the presence of GO-MDI-OH and PLA. The synthesized materials were characterized via 1H-NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)). The surface morphologies and degree of dispersions at G-g-PLA-metals were observed using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and a transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrical conductivity of G-g-PLA-Pd was largely enhanced compared with those of GO and GO-g-PLA. G-g-PLA-Pd was used for the electrochemical detection of serotonin. Electrocatalytic activities were verified from the cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric response in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS). A significantly higher concentration range (0.1-100.0 μM) and a lower detection limit (8.0 × 10-8 M, where s/n = 3) were found at the G-g-PLA-Pd modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE).

  3. Applying the Moment Distance Framework to LiDAR Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, E. L.; Aguilar-Amuchastegui, N.; Henebry, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    In the past decade or so, there have only been limited approaches formulated for the analysis of waveform LiDAR data. We illustrate how the Moment Distance (MD) framework can characterize the shape of the LiDAR waveforms using simple, computationally fast, geometric operations. We assess the relationship of the MD metrics to some key waveform landmarks - such as locations of peaks, power of returns, and pseudo-heights - using LVIS datasets acquired over a tropical forest in La Selva, Costa Rica in 1998 and 2005. We also apply the MD framework to 2003 LVIS data from Howland Forest, Maine. We also explore the effects of noise on the MD Index (MDI). Our results reveal that the MDI can capture important dynamics in canopy structure. Movement in the location of the peaks is detected by shifts in the MDI. Because this new approach responds to waveform shape, it is more sensitive to changes of location of peak returns than to the power of the return. Results also suggest a positive relationship between the MDI and the canopy pseudo-height.

  4. Features of free software packages in flow cytometry: a comparison between four non-commercial software sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraneshin Samani, Fazel; Moore, Jodene K; Khosravani, Pardis; Ebrahimi, Marzieh

    2014-08-01

    Flow cytometers designed to analyze large particles are enabling new applications in biology. Data analysis is a critical component of the process FCM. In this article we compare features of four free software packages including WinMDI, Cyflogic, Flowing software, and Cytobank.

  5. Hypoxia induces adipogenic differentitation of myoblastic cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoigawa, Yoshiaki [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kishimoto, Koshi N., E-mail: kishimoto@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Okuno, Hiroshi; Sano, Hirotaka [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Kaneko, Kazuo [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Itoi, Eiji [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} C2C12 and G8 myogenic cell lines treated by hypoxia differentiate into adipocytes. {yields} The expression of C/EBP{beta}, {alpha} and PPAR{gamma} were increased under hypoxia. {yields} Myogenic differentiation of C2C12 was inhibited under hypoxia. -- Abstract: Muscle atrophy usually accompanies fat accumulation in the muscle. In such atrophic conditions as back muscles of kyphotic spine and the rotator cuff muscles with torn tendons, blood flow might be diminished. It is known that hypoxia causes trans-differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow into adipocytes. However, it has not been elucidated yet if hypoxia turned myoblasts into adipocytes. We investigated adipogenesis in C2C12 and G8 murine myogenic cell line treated by hypoxia. Cells were also treated with the cocktail of insulin, dexamethasone and IBMX (MDI), which has been known to inhibit Wnt signaling and promote adipogenesis. Adipogenic differentiation was seen in both hypoxia and MDI. Adipogenic marker gene expression was assessed in C2C12. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) {beta}, {alpha} and peroxisome proliferator activating receptor (PPAR) {gamma} were increased by both hypoxia and MDI. The expression profile of Wnt10b was different between hypoxia and MDI. The mechanism for adipogenesis of myoblasts in hypoxia might be regulated by different mechanism than the modification of Wnt signaling.

  6. 75 FR 42747 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Applications for Essential Use Allowances for 2012...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ....'' Information covered by a claim of business confidentiality will be treated in accordance with the procedures... pertaining to the research and development of alternative CFC MDI products per Decision VIII/10, para. 1 as... export markets and transitioning those markets away from its CFC products. The accounting framework...

  7. Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum random-number generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, You-Qi; Guan, Jian-Yu; Zhou, Hongyi; Zhang, Qiang; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-12-01

    The randomness from a quantum random-number generator (QRNG) relies on the accurate characterization of its devices. However, device imperfections and inaccurate characterizations can result in wrong entropy estimation and bias in practice, which highly affects the genuine randomness generation and may even induce the disappearance of quantum randomness in an extreme case. Here we experimentally demonstrate a measurement-device-independent (MDI) QRNG based on time-bin encoding to achieve certified quantum randomness even when the measurement devices are uncharacterized and untrusted. The MDI-QRNG is randomly switched between the regular randomness generation mode and a test mode, in which four quantum states are randomly prepared to perform measurement tomography in real time. With a clock rate of 25 MHz, the MDI-QRNG generates a final random bit rate of 5.7 kbps. Such implementation with an all-fiber setup provides an approach to construct a fully integrated MDI-QRNG with trusted but error-prone devices in practice.

  8. Evaluation of Network Failure induced IPTV degradation in Metro Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert; Yu, Hao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate future network services and classify them according to their network requirements. IPTV is used as candidate service to evaluate the performance of Carrier Ethernet OAM update mechanisms and requirements. The latter is done through quality measurements using MDI...

  9. A Hybrid Smartphone Indoor Positioning Solution for Mobile LBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Kuusniemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone positioning is an enabling technology used to create new business in the navigation and mobile location-based services (LBS industries. This paper presents a smartphone indoor positioning engine named HIPE that can be easily integrated with mobile LBS. HIPE is a hybrid solution that fuses measurements of smartphone sensors with wireless signals. The smartphone sensors are used to measure the user’s motion dynamics information (MDI, which represent the spatial correlation of various locations. Two algorithms based on hidden Markov model (HMM problems, the grid-based filter and the Viterbi algorithm, are used in this paper as the central processor for data fusion to resolve the position estimates, and these algorithms are applicable for different applications, e.g., real-time navigation and location tracking, respectively. HIPE is more widely applicable for various motion scenarios than solutions proposed in previous studies because it uses no deterministic motion models, which have been commonly used in previous works. The experimental results showed that HIPE can provide adequate positioning accuracy and robustness for different scenarios of MDI combinations. HIPE is a cost-efficient solution, and it can work flexibly with different smartphone platforms, which may have different types of sensors available for the measurement of MDI data. The reliability of the positioning solution was found to increase with increasing precision of the MDI data.

  10. Molecular mechanism of fatty degeneration in rotator cuff muscle with tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoigawa, Yoshiaki; Kishimoto, Koshi N; Sano, Hirotaka; Kaneko, Kazuo; Itoi, Eiji

    2011-06-01

    Fatty degeneration often occurs in rotator cuff muscle with tendon rupture. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this change has not been fully clarified yet. We investigated the gene expression of Wnt10b and adipogenic marker gene, PPARγ and C/EBPα in C2C12 myogenic cell line under inhibition of Wnt10b by adipogenic induction medium, isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI). The role of Wnt-signal was confirmed by adding Lithium chloride (LiCl), which mimics Wnt signaling to the cultured cell with MDI. We also assessed the expression profiles of same genes in the rat rotator cuff tear model in vivo. MDI induced Oil red-O staining positive adipocytes and upregulated PPARγ and C/EBPα expression. LiCl inhibited adipogenic induction of MDI. Rotator cuff muscle with tendon rupture showed positive staining for Oil red-O. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed decreased expression of Wnt10b followed by increased PPARγ and C/EBPα gene expression in the supraspinatus muscle. Fatty degeneration and its molecular events were remarkably seen in the distal one-third of the detached supraspinatus muscle versus control. Wnt signaling may regulate adipogenic differentiation both in the myoblasts in vitro and the muscle in vivo. Our results indicate that the reduction of Wnt10b in muscle with a rotator cuff tear is a key signal in fatty degeneration of the muscle.

  11. Drought assessment using a multivariate drought index in the Huaihe River basin of Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Zeng, M.; Wang, H.; Li, P.; Wang, K.; Yu, M.

    2015-06-01

    The Huaihe River Basin having China's highest population density (662 persons per km2) lies in a transition zone between the climates of North and South China, and is thus prone to drought. Therefore, the paper aims to develop an appropriate drought assessment approach for drought assessment in the Huaihe River basin, China. Based on the Principal Component Analysis of precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture and runoff, the three latter variables of which were obtained by use of the Xin'anjiang model, a new multivariate drought index (MDI) was formulated, and its thresholds were determined by use of cumulative distribution function. The MDI, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI) time series on a monthly scale were computed and compared during 1988, 1999/2000 and 2001 drought events. The results show that the MDI exhibited certain advantages over the sc-PDSI and the SPI in monitoring drought evolution. The MDI formulated by this paper could provide a scientific basis for drought mitigation and management, and references for drought assessment elsewhere in China.

  12. Treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion is associated with lower arterial stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Rosenlund, Signe; Theilade, Simone; Hansen, Tine Willum;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the relationship between arterial stiffness and insulin treatment mode [continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) versus multiple daily injections (MDI)] in type 1 diabetes patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, from 2009 to 2011, including 601 Caucasian type 1...

  13. 77 FR 10512 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...-12-0161 01/23/2012 04/21/2012 CBI (G) Resin used (G) MDI in production modified of synthetic... homopolymer instruments. with cyclic ether. P-12-0167 01/24/2012 04/22/2012 Dakota (S) dispersive (S) Tar...-, N-[2- alkyloxy-, N-[2-alkyloxy)-1- (hydroxymethyl)ethyl] derivates, benzoates (salts) P-11-0501...

  14. Insulin Therapy with Personal Insulin Pumps and Early Angiopathy in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Tołwińska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assessment of the effect of a treatment method change from multiple daily insulin injection (MDI to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII on the development of early angiopathy in children with T1DM with or without retinopathy. Methods. The study pump group involved 32 diabetic children aged 14.8, with the initial HbA1c level of 8.3%, previously treated by MDI. The patients were examined before pump insertion and after 3 and 6 months of CSII. We assessed HbA1c level, carotid artery intima-media thickness (c-IMT, and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD of the brachial artery. The pump group was compared to a group of eight teenagers with diagnosed nonproliferative retinopathy, treated with MDI. Results. HbA1c in the entire group was found to improve in the second and in the third examination. During 6 months of CSII, FMD increased and IMT decreased. Retinopathic adolescents had significantly thicker IMT and lower FMD compared to baseline results of the pump group. Treatment intensification in the retinopathy-free children enhanced these differences. Conclusions. CSII is associated with lower IMT and higher FMD. Whether on the long-run CSII is superior to MDI to delay the occurrence of diabetes late complications remains to be explained.

  15. Effects of magnetic resonance imaging and developmental scale to predict gross motor outcomes in infants at high risk for cerebral palsy%磁共振成像及发育量表对脑瘫高危儿粗大运动发育的预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓科; 高修成; 肖农; 张跃; 吕静

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore and compare the predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) and developmental scales for gross motor outcomes in infants at high risk for cerebral palsy.Method: Seventy-three high-risk preterm infants were examined with MRI to evaluate white matter abnormality (WMA) qualitatively at 3 months' corrected age, and had psychomotor development index(PDI) and mental development index(MDI) measures to assess global motor performance and intelligence level at the same time. The time of performing sitting balance and standing balance were followed up, and the associations between early assessments of WMA,PDI,MDI and measurements of sitting balance time as well as standing balance time were analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for WMA, PDI, MDI to predict sitting balance time and standing balance time.Result: Significant associations between WMA, PDI, MDI and sitting balance time, standing balance time were noted, precedence ordering of correlation coefficient were WMA, PDI, MDI from higher to lower level, and the combination of WMA, PDI and MDI led to greater correlation with sitting balance time and standing balance time. WMA demonstrated the greatest specificity and sensitivity in predicting sitting and standing development delay than PDI and MDI.Conclusion: The severity of WMA and level of early global motor performance and intelligence correlated with performed time of gross motor significantly. The combination of predictor assessments (MRI and developmental scales) could improve predictive validity for gross motor outcomes in infants at high risk for cerebral palsy.%目的:分析并比较磁共振成像及发育量表对脑瘫高危儿粗大运动发育的预测作用.方法:73例有早产背景的脑瘫高危儿,在纠正胎龄3月时行头颅MRI检查,定性评价脑白质异常(WMA)程度,并同期应用婴幼儿发育量表中的精神运动发育指数(PDI)分值评定整体运动情况,智力发育指数(MDI)分值

  16. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

    2007-10-03

    Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI) or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI). We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone). The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the colony.

  17. Reliability, validity and psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the Major Depression Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiptsios I

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Major Depression Inventory (MDI is a brief self-rating scale for the assessment of depression. It is reported to be valid because it is based on the universe of symptoms of DSM-IV and ICD-10 depression. The aim of the current preliminary study was to assess the reliability, validity and psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the MDI. Methods 30 depressed patients of mean age 23.41 (± 5.77 years, and 68 controls patients of mean age 25.08 (± 11.42 years, entered the study. In 18 of them, the instrument was re-applied 1–2 days later and the Translation and Back Translation made. Clinical diagnosis was reached with the use of the SCAN v.2.0 and the International Personality Disorders Examination (IPDE. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D and the Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS were applied for cross-validation purposes. Statistical analysis included ANOVA, the Spearman Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, Principal Components Analysis and the calculation of Cronbach's α. Results Sensitivity and specificity were 0.86 and 0.94, respectively, at 26/27. Cronbach's α for the total scale was equal to 0.89. The Spearman's rho between MDI and CES-D was 0.86 and between MDI and ZDRS was 0.76. The factor analysis revealed two factors but the first accounted for 54% of variance while the second only for 9%. The test-retest reliability was excellent (Spearman's rho between 0.53 and 0.96 for individual items and 0.89 for total score. Conclusion The current study provided preliminary evidence concerning the reliability and validity of the Greek translation of the MDI. Its properties are similar to those reported in the international literature, but further research is necessary.

  18. A coupled model of soil water-heat-solute movement under the mulched drip irrigation condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Gao, L.; Hu, H.

    2010-12-01

    : The mulched drip irrigation (MDI), first developed in northwestern part of China (Xinjiang Province) in the cotton field in 1996, can obtain higher yield while at the lower cost of water consumption and thus becomes popular rapidly. However, it has the potential risk of salinizing the arable soil. Also, plastic film can alter the energy balance at the ground surface and invoke the regime shifting of soil heat transfer. It is, therefore, necessary to simulate the inter-related movement of water, heat, and dissolvable solute in the soil under the MDI condition for the purpose of sustainable agricultural production as well as of climate change issue. With the different boundary condition and irrigation rate, the transportation and distribution features of water-heat-salt under the MDI condition are significantly different from those under the other irrigation methods. The existing tools such as HYDRUS and VS2DH(T) could not set up the special boundary condition relevant to MDI, e.g., the moving ponded area. A new two-dimensional numerical model of Richard’s equation and Convection-Dispersion equations was developed which coupled soil water, solute, and heat together. For the homogenous and isotropic porous media, the soil water-heat-solute movement under the MDI condition is considered as 2D problem. The Richards and solute convection-diffusive equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations (ODEs) through spatial semi-discretization, and so do the corresponding boundary conditions. The resultant ODEs are solved using a state-of-the-art solver, CVODE developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The model is validated against the numerical examples as well as the field data. The results show the high numerical efficiency, the high simulation accuracy, and the flexibility of the model to mimic changing boundary conditions. Key words: numerical model, Richard’s equation, Convection-Diffusive equation, CVODE

  19. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie-Jeanne Richard

    Full Text Available Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI. We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone. The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the

  20. Comparison of optical particle sizing and cascade impaction for measuring the particle size of a suspension metered dose inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yu; Kline, Lukeysha C; Khawaja, Nazia; Van Liew, Melissa; Berry, Julianne

    2015-05-01

    Optical techniques for the particle size characterization of metered dose inhaler (MDI) suspensions have been developed as an alternative to the labor-intensive and time-consuming impaction method. In this study, a laser diffraction (LD) apparatus with a liquid cell ("wet cell" method) and a "time-of-flight" apparatus named aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) were utilized to assess MDI suspensions with varied formulation compositions and storage conditions. The results were compared with the conventional Anderson cascade impaction (ACI) data. The two optical methods were able to detect the changes in particle size distributions between formulations, yet to a lesser extent than those observed using the cascade impaction methodology. The median aerodynamic particle size measured by the APS method and the median geometric particle size obtained from the LD method were linearly correlated with the corresponding ACI results in the range of 2-5 µm. It was also found that the APS measurement was biased towards the finer particle size region and resulted in overestimated fine particle fraction (FPF) values which were 2-3 times folds of the ACI results. In conclusion, the optical particle sizing techniques may, under some circumstances, be viable techniques for the rapid assessment of MDI suspensions. The "wet cell" LD method, in particular, is found to be a valuable means of detecting active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particle size changes in an MDI suspension. Using both the LD and the APS methods in early formulation screening followed by a final assessment with cascade impaction analysis can improve the efficiency of MDI formulation development.

  1. Comparison of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple daily insulin injections in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Honghong; Heng, Xueyuan; Liang, Cuige; Liu, Xiaomeng; Du, Wenhua; Li, Shoujie; Wang, Yueli; Dong, Qingyu; Li, Wenxia; Pan, Zhenyu; Gong, Qian; Gao, Guanqi

    2014-08-01

    To investigate prospectively the insulin dose requirements of Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with either multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy during a 2-week therapeutic intervention. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to MDI or CSII therapy. The effects of the two treatment methods were determined based on blood glucose parameters, total daily insulin dose and rates of hypoglycaemia. A total of 609 patients were enrolled in the study. Glycaemic goals were achieved after a mean ± SD of 6.90 ± 2.10 and 5.44 ± 2.22 days' treatment in the MDI and CSII groups, respectively. Once stabilized, the mean ± SD total daily insulin doses were 37.12 ± 10.19 IU and 32.58 ± 8.78 IU for the MDI and CSII groups, respectively. Once stabilized, the mean ± SD total basal and bolus doses were 19.46 ± 7.95 IU/day and 17.66 ± 3.53 IU/day for the MDI group, and 22.79 ± 7.55 IU/day and 9.81 ± 2.64 IU/day for the CSII group, respectively. There were significant differences in the total, basal and bolus insulin doses between the two groups. CSII therapy may be considered as an effective method to achieve good glycaemic control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. The association between workplace bullying and depressive symptoms: the role of the perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Eszter; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Garde, Anne Helene; Høgh, Annie; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2016-09-17

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the depressive symptoms of the bullied respondents differed according to who the perpetrator was. We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from two representative cohorts: the Danish Working Environment Cohort Study (DWECS 2010) and the Work and Health Study (WH 2012). After excluding respondents not having a leader, or being self-employed, assisting spouses, and those reporting multiple perpetrators in WH 2012, the statistical analysis included 2478 bullied individuals. We compared respondents reporting being bullied by their (1) leader, (2) subordinates, (3) clients / customers / patients / students, or (4) colleagues, respectively. The occurrence of depressive symptoms was measured by the Major Depression Inventory (MDI). The most frequent perpetrator of bullying was clients (41.5 %) in DWECS 2010 and colleagues (60.3 %) in WH 2012. In DWECS 2010, the MDI score of those being bullied by clients were significantly lower than the MDI scores of the other groups. In WH 2012, respondents who reported bullying from leaders had a significantly higher mean MDI score than participants being bullied by colleagues. Also in WH 2012, our results indicated that those who were bullied by leaders had a higher MDI score than those bullied by clients, although this difference was not statistically significant at conventional levels. Our findings indicated a similar pattern in the two cohorts, with a tendency of more severe depressive symptoms among employees who are exposed to bullying by their leaders, and the least severe symptoms among those who are bullied by clients.

  3. Multivariate drought index: An information theory based approach for integrated drought assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsekhar, Deepthi; Singh, Vijay. P.; Mishra, Ashok. K.

    2015-07-01

    Most of the existing drought indices are based on a single variable (e.g. precipitation) or a combination of two variables (e.g., precipitation and streamflow). This may not be sufficient for reliable quantification of the existing drought condition. It is possible that a region might be experiencing only a single type of drought at times, but multiple drought types affecting a region is quite common too. To have a comprehensive representation, it is better to consider all the variables that lead to different physical forms of drought, such as meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural droughts. Therefore, we propose to develop a multivariate drought index (MDI) that will utilize information from hydroclimatic variables, including precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil moisture as indicator variables, thus accounting for all the physical forms of drought. The entropy theory was utilized to develop this proposed index, that led to the smallest set of features maximally preserving the information of the input data set. MDI was then compared with the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) for all climate regions within Texas for the time period 1950-2012, with particular attention to the two major drought occurrences in Texas, viz. the droughts which occurred in 1950-1957, and 2010-2011. The proposed MDI was found to represent drought conditions well, due to its multivariate, multi scalar, and nonlinear properties. To help the user choose the right time scale for further analysis, entropy maps of MDI at different time scales were used as a guideline. The MDI time scale that has the highest entropy value may be chosen, since a higher entropy indicates a higher information content.

  4. Solid-state thermochromism and phase transitions of charge transfer 1,3-diamino-4,6-dinitrobenzene dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hoon; Naumov, Pance; Chung, Ihn Hee; Lee, Sang Cheol

    2011-09-01

    The lower 1,3-bis(hydroxyalkylamino) homologues of the strong intramolecular X-type charge transfer (CT) system 1,3-diamino-4,6-dinitrobenzene (DADNB) exhibit reversible color change in the solid state from yellow at room temperature (RT) to orange and red at high temperature (HT). To investigate the structural prerequisites for occurrence of this phenomenon, we prepared 10 new derivatives of DADNB where the hydroxyalkyl arms at the amino groups were replaced with substituents having different electronic and steric profiles. Two of the new materials exhibit sharp and reversible thermochromic change in the solid state: when heated, the bis(aminoethyl) derivative (DADNB-1) undergoes color change from orange-red to brown, while one of the three polymorphs of the bisphenyl product (DADNB-2) changes its color from red to yellow. The physicochemical analysis and the crystal structures of seven of these compounds, one of which is trimorphic, confirmed that both phenomena are due to solid-solid phase transitions. The brown high-temperature phase of DADNB-1 presents the first example where the absorption is shifted beyond the red region. Form C of DADNB-2 is the first material of this group that exhibits "negative" thermochromism, where the high-temperature phase absorbs at lower wavelength than the low-temperature one. The results demonstrate the potentials of these simple and easily accessible organic molecular materials for thermal switching of the optical properties by utility of intermolecular interactions to modulate the intramolecular CT.

  5. Evaluating the length of stay and value of time in a pediatric emergency department with two models by comparing two different albuterol delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staggs, Lauren; Peek, Meagan; Southard, Gary; Gracely, Ed; Baxendale, Sidney; Cross, Keith P; Kim, In K

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common childhood illnesses and accounts for a substantial amount of pediatric emergency department visits. Historically, acute exacerbations are treated with a beta agonist via nebulizer therapy (NEB). However, with the advent of the spacer, the medication can be delivered via a metered dose inhaler (MDI+S) with the same efficacy for mild-to-moderate asthma exacerbations. To date, no study has been done to evaluate emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS) and opportunity cost between nebulized vs MDI+S. The objective of this study was to compare ED LOS and associated opportunity cost among children who present with a mild asthma exacerbation according to the delivery mode of albuterol: MDI+S vs NEB. A structured, retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted. Medical records were reviewed from children aged 1-18 years treated at an urban pediatric ED from July 2007 to June 2008 with a discharge diagnosis International Classification of Disease-9 of asthma. Length of stay was defined: time from initial triage until the time of the guardian signature on the discharge instructions. An operational definition was used to define a mild asthma exacerbation; those patients requiring only one standard weight based albuterol treatment. Emergency department throughput time points, demographic data, treatment course, and delivery method of albuterol were recorded. Three hundred and four patients were analyzed: 94 in the MDI+S group and 209 in the NEB group. Mean age in years for the MDI+S group was 9.57 vs 5.07 for the NEB group (p<0.001). The percentage of patients that received oral corticosteroids was 39.4% in the MDI+S group vs 61.7% in the NEB group (p<0.001). There was no difference between groups in: race, insurance status, gender, or chest radiographs. The mean ED LOS for patients in the MDI+S group was 170 minutes compared to 205 minutes in the NEB group. On average, there was a 25.1 minute time savings per patient in ED treatment

  6. Influence of prepolymer composition on polyurethane morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Jayaraman; Jeong, Young Gyu; Hashida, Tomoko; Hsu, Shaw Ling

    2004-03-01

    Polyurethane chemistry is one of the most studied subjects. Yet many aspects remain unexplained. Polyurethanes are synthesized by the reaction of diisocyanate with diol in the presence of nucleophilic catalysts. Polyurethane prepolymers are obtained by reacting the polyester diol / polyether diol with diisocyanate, with [NCO] / [OH] > 1, resulting in isocyanate-terminated polyester/polyether mixture. Prepolymers thus synthesized can be cured at a later stage to realize various morphologies and structures. Though the initial composition and the final morphology are known, little is known about the intermediate prepolymer mixture. Due to the different reactivity of primary and secondary hydroxyl groups in the polyester and polyether towards isocyanate, prepolymer has a non-random distribution in terms of composition as blends and copolymers. Our aim is to characterize the prepolymer by different techniques and study how the different prepolymer composition, with varying polyester and polyether ratio, affects the morphology and phase separation kinetics of the final product.

  7. Hydrolyzable polyureas bearing hindered urea bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hanze; Cheng, Jianjun

    2014-12-10

    Hydrolyzable polymers are widely used materials that have found numerous applications in biomedical, agricultural, plastic, and packaging industrials. They usually contain ester and other hydrolyzable bonds, such as anhydride, acetal, ketal, or imine, in their backbone structures. Here, we report the first design of hydrolyzable polyureas bearing dynamic hindered urea bonds (HUBs) that can reversibly dissociate to bulky amines and isocyanates, the latter of which can be further hydrolyzed by water, driving the equilibrium to facilitate the degradation of polyureas. Polyureas bearing 1-tert-butyl-1-ethylurea bonds that show high dynamicity (high bond dissociation rate), in the form of either linear polymers or cross-linked gels, can be completely degraded by water under mild conditions. Given the simplicity and low cost for the production of polyureas by simply mixing multifunctional bulky amines and isocyanates, the versatility of the structures, and the tunability of the degradation profiles of HUB-bearing polyureas, these materials are potentially of very broad applications.

  8. Polyurethane synthesis reactions in asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukowski, A.; Gretkiewicz, J.

    1982-04-01

    A series of asphalt-polyurethane composites was prepared by means of polyurethane synthesis in asphalt and carried out in melt. The applied materials were asphalts of differentiated group components content, polyester polyols of chain structure from linear to strongly branched, 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate, 4,4-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate), and tinorganic catalyst. The asphalt components react with isocyanates to a minimal degree. The influence of the applied substrates, temperature, and polyurethane content in the system on the basic kinetic relations characterizing the process is presented. Polyurethane synthesis in asphalts does not differ in a fundamental way from the obtaining of polyurethanes, especially when their content in the composition is significant, 20 wt% and more.

  9. Convenient Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Novel Amino Acid Coupled Triazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. El Rayes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a promising one-pot synthesis of [2-(5-benzyl-4-phenyl-4H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-thio-acetyl]-amino acid methyl esters 6a-h and dipeptides 10a-e, which were successfully synthesized starting from amino acid esters 5a-h, 9a-e and azides 4, 8a,b, respectively. On the other hand, azide 4 underwent Curtius rearrangement to the corresponding isocyanate, which subsequently reacted with selected aliphatic amine and/or aniline derivatives to give the corresponding urea derivatives 11 and 12a,b. Reactions of the isocyanate with secondary amines gave amide derivatives 13a,b. The structural elucidation of products is reported and some of the products were also screened for their antimicrobial activity.

  10. Synthesis and Performance of Polyurethane Coated Urea as Slow/controlled Release Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qingshan; WU Shu; RU Tiejun; WANG Limin; XING Guangzhong; WANG Jinming

    2012-01-01

    Polyurethane coated urea slow/controlled release fertilizer was prepared based on urea granules,isocyanate,polyols and paraffin.Isocyanate reacted with polyols to synthesize the polyurethane skin layer on urea granules surface.Paraffin serves as a lubricant during syntheses of polyurethane skin layers.The structure and nutrient release characteristics of the polyurethane skin layers were investigated by FTIR,SEM and TG.Urea nitrogen slow-release behavior of the polyurethane coated urea was tested.The experimental results indicated that compact and dense polyurethane skin layers with a thickness of 10-15 μm were formed on urea surface,the urea nitrogen slow-release time can reach 40-50 days.Paraffin proves to play a key role in inhibiting water to penetrate into urea,but excessive addition would decrease the polyurethane crosslinking density.

  11. Physical Properties of Soy-Phosphate Polyol-Based Rigid Polyurethane Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Fan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-blown rigid polyurethane (PU foams were made from 0–50% soy-phosphate polyol (SPP and 2–4% water as the blowing agent. The mechanical and thermal properties of these SPP-based PU foams (SPP PU foams were investigated. SPP PU foams with higher water content had greater volume, lower density, and compressive strength. SPP PU foams with 3% water content and 20% SPP had the lowest thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of SPP PU foams decreased and then increased with increasing SPP percentage, resulting from the combined effects of thermal properties of the gas and solid polymer phases. Higher isocyanate density led to higher compressive strength. At the same isocyanate index, the compressive strength of some 20% SPP foams was close or similar to the control foams made from VORANOL 490.

  12. Oscillatory thermal instability - the Bhopal disaster and liquid bombs

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Rowena

    2011-01-01

    Thermal runaway reactions were involved in the Bhopal disaster of 1984, in which methyl isocyanate was vented from a storage tank of the liquid, and occur in liquid peroxide explosions, yet to date there have been few investigations into the mechanism of thermal runaway in such liquid thermoreactive systems. Consequently protocols for storing thermally unstable liquids and deactivating liquid bombs may be suboptimal. In this work the hydrolysis of methyl isocyanate and the thermal decomposition of triacetone triperoxide were simulated using a gradientless, continuous-flow reactor paradigm. This approximation enabled stability analyses on the steady state solutions of the dynamical mass and enthalpy equations. The results indicate that thermal runaway in both systems is due to the onset of a large amplitude, hard thermal oscillation initiated at a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. This type of thermal misbehaviour cannot be predicted using classical ignition theory, and may be typical of liquid thermoreactive syst...

  13. High performance of N-alkoxycarbonyl-imines in triethylborane-mediated tin-free radical addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ken-ichi; Konishi, Takehito; Nakano, Mayu; Fujii, Shintaro; Cadou, Romain; Yamamoto, Yasutomo; Tomioka, Kiyoshi

    2012-02-03

    Triethylborane-mediated tin-free radical alkylation of N-alkoxycarbonyl-imines, such as N-Boc-, N-Cbz-, and N-Teoc-imines, proceeded smoothly at a low temperature (-78 to -20 °C) to give the corresponding adducts in high yield. Although the formation of isocyanate was the major unfavorable reaction at room temperature, a one-pot conversion of N-Boc-imine to N-ethoxycarbonyl-adduct was possible through the corresponding isocyanate generated in situ. The higher performance of N-alkoxycarbonyl-imine than those of N-Ts- and N-PMP-imines is rationalized by a moderate electron-withdrawing character of an alkoxycarbonyl group that makes both addition of alkyl radical and trapping of the resulting aminyl radical by triethylborane efficiently fast.

  14. Synthesis and antifungal activities of 3-alkyl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. M.; Deng, S. H.; Zheng, A. H.; Zhang, Q. Y.; Chen, X. B.; Zeng, X. H.; Hu, Y. G.

    2016-08-01

    The 3-aryl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinones 3 by sequential reaction of iminophosphorane 1, aromatic isocyanates and various nucleophiles (HY), found some compounds showed good antitumor and antibacterial activities. Meanwhile, aliphatic isocyanates were applied in the reaction to prepare 3-alkyl substituted thieno[2,3- d]pyrimidinones, but there are no reports of their antifungal activities. As a continuation of our research for new biologically active heterocycles, we herein wish to report a facile synthesis and antifungal activities of 3-alkyl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinones 6 via easily accessible iminophosphorane 1. The growth inhibitory effect of one concentration (50mg/L) of compounds 6 against five fungus(Fusarium oxysporium, Rhizoctonia solani, Colletotrichum gossypii, Gibberella zeae and Dothiorella gregaria) in vitro was tested by the method of toxic medium. Compound 6d showed the best inhibition rate against Gibberella zeae with 85.68%.

  15. Development of a Polyuretbane Binder System Giving a 'Knottable' Composite Solid Propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Devadoss

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane propellants, which constitute one of the 'work-horse' binder systems in modern solid rocketry are easily amenable for tailoring the mechanical properties in terms of variations in the molecular structure of the backbone polyols, the isocyanates and stoichiometry of the reactants. The paper deals with studies in developing an advanced binder system based on poly (oxy propylene glycol and toluene-di-isocyanate, which is capable of accommodating high solids loading and conceding elongatlon at maximum stress, of more than 125 per cent. The gum-stock properties of the binder are related with those of a low molecular weight version and the results are explained based on the network theory of condensation polymers.

  16. [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements of fluorinated allyl (Thio)cyanates - a tool for the synthesis of fluorinated (Thio)ureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramb, Daniel C; Kost, Lisa; Haufe, Günter

    2014-01-01

    The first (thio)cyanate to iso(thio)cyanate rearrangements based on 2-fluoroallylic alcohols are presented. Long-chain 2-fluoroallylic alcohols were converted to corresponding N-unsubstituted carbamates by treatment with trichloroacetyl isocyanate. Dehydration using trifluoroacetic anhydride in the presence of triethylamine formed intermediate allylic cyanates, which immediately underwent sigmatropic rearrangement to fluorinated allyl isocyanates. Without isolation the latter delivered fluorinated ureas by addition of amines. The thiocyanate to isothiocyanate rearrangements started from the same fluorinated allylic alcohols, which were first converted to mesylates. Heating in THF with potassium thiocyanate led to fluorinated allyl isothiocyanates, via [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of intermediate allyl thiocyanates. The formed products were further reacted with amines to fluorinated thioureas.

  17. Preparation of polyamide 6/silica nanocomposites from silica surface initiated ring-opening anionic polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyamide 6/silica nanocomposites were synthesized by in situ ring-opening anionic polymerization of ε-caprolactam in the presence of sodium caprolactamate as a catalyst and caprolactam-functionalized silica as an initiator. The initiator precursor, isocyanate-functionalized silica, was prepared by directly reacting commercial silica with excess toluene 2,4-diisocyanate. This polymerization was found to occur in a highly efficient manner at relatively low reaction temperature (170°C and short reaction times (6 h. FTIR spectroscopy was utilized to follow the introduction and consumption of isocyanate groups on the silica surface. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the polyamide 6 was successfully grown from the silica surface. Transmission electron microscopy was utilized to image polymer-functionalized silica, showing fine dispersion of silica particles and their size ranging from 20 to 40 nm.

  18. Evaluating Dimethyldiethoxysilane for use in Polyurethane Crosslinked Silica Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Jason P.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Jana, Sadhan C.

    2008-01-01

    Silica aerogels are highly porous materials which exhibit exceptionally low density and thermal conductivity. Their "pearl necklace" nanostructure, however, is inherently weak; most silica aerogels are brittle and fragile. The strength of aerogels can be improved by employing an additional crosslinking step using isocyanates. In this work, dimethyldiethoxysilane (DMDES) is evaluated for use in the silane backbone of polyurethane crosslinked aerogels. Approximately half of the resulting aerogels exhibited a core/shell morphology of hard crosslinked aerogel surrounding a softer, uncrosslinked center. Solid state NMR and scanning electron microscopy results indicate the DMDES incorporated itself as a conformal coating around the outside of the secondary silica particles, in much the same manner as isocyanate crosslinking. Response surface curves were generated from compression data, indicating levels of reinforcement comparable to that in previous literature, despite the core/shell morphology.

  19. Efficient Synthesis of Single-Chain Polymer Nanoparticles via Amide Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sanchez-Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-chain technology (SCT allows the transformation of individual polymer chains to folded/collapsed unimolecular soft nanoparticles. In this work we contribute to the enlargement of the SCT toolbox by demonstrating the efficient synthesis of single-chain polymer nanoparticles (SCNPs via intrachain amide formation. In particular, we exploit cross-linking between active methylene groups and isocyanate moieties as powerful “click” chemistry driving force for SCNP construction. By employing poly(methyl methacrylate- (PMMA- based copolymers bearing β-ketoester units distributed randomly along the copolymer chains and bifunctional isocyanate cross-linkers, SCNPs were successfully synthesized at r.t. under appropriate reaction conditions. Characterization of the resulting SCNPs was carried out by means of a combination of techniques including size exclusion chromatography (SEC, infrared (IR spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS, and elemental analysis (EA.

  20. Insulin pump treatment; increasing prevalence, and predictors for better metabolic outcome in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, B; Johannesen, J; Fredheim, S; Svensson, J

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have looked at nationwide data for insulin pump treatment. Since 1996 the Danish Childhood Diabetes Registry (DanDiabKids) has collected data on all Danish diabetic patients aged 0-15 yr. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) use among Danish children with diabetes and to compare metabolic control in CSII-treated children and adolescents to those treated with MDI. The Registry collects on a yearly basis data on insulin regimen, central measured hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and demographic data on all patients. In the period 2005-2011, 2983 young patients (1721 males) with diabetes were followed in the Registry. Mean observation period was 5.11 yr [standard error (SE) 0.09]. In the total period 1846 patients were treated with MDI and 1493 changed from MDI to CSII. In 2005, less than 5% of children were treated with CSII whereas the percentage of children on CSII increased to approximately 50% in 2011. The patients were divided into age groups, 15 yr. HbA1c was significantly higher in MDI-treated children, +5.29 (CI 95% 4.29; 6.29 mmol/mol). HbA1c in all age groups was significantly lower in CSII-treated patients, and longitudinally HbA1c continued to be lower in all age groups. In multivariate analysis, a low HbA1c at CSII start, centers with more than 100 pump patients, a more recent year of diabetes onset, a higher number of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) measurements, a higher number of daily boluses, and a higher percentage of bolus insulin were all related to a lower HbA1c. The percentage of children on pumps (CSII) is CSII treatment is associated with a significantly lower Hba1c, achieved just after treatment initiation. In the following years there is a parallel rise in HbA1c in both MDI as well as in MDI treated patients. Patients coming from larger clinics, and patients measuring more blood glucose values and taking more boluses have a better metabolic control. © 2014 John