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Sample records for bispectral index-guided protocol

  1. Protocol for the BAG-RECALL clinical trial: a prospective, multi-center, randomized, controlled trial to determine whether a bispectral index-guided protocol is superior to an anesthesia gas-guided protocol in reducing intraoperative awareness with explicit recall in high risk surgical patients

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    Villafranca Alex

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness with explicit recall of intra-operative events is a rare and distressing complication that may lead to severe psychological symptoms. Candidate depth of anesthesia monitors have been developed, partly with the aim of preventing this complication. Despite conflicting results from clinical trials and the lack of incisive validation, such monitors have enjoyed widespread clinical adoption, in particular the bispectral index. The American Society of Anesthesiologists has called for adequately powered and rigorously designed clinical trials to determine whether the use of such monitors decreases the incidence of awareness in various settings. The aim of this study is to determine with increased precision whether incorporating the bispectral index into a structured general anesthesia protocol decreases the incidence of awareness with explicit recall among a subset of surgical patients at increased risk for awareness and scheduled to receive an inhalation gas-based general anesthetic. Methods/Design BAG-RECALL is a multi-center, randomized, controlled clinical trial, in which 6,000 patients are being assigned to bispectral index-guided anesthesia (target range, 40 to 60 or end-tidal anesthetic gas-guided anesthesia (target range, 0.7 to 1.3 age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentration. Postoperatively, patients are being assessed for explicit recall at two intervals (0 to 72 hours, and 30 days after extubation. The primary outcome of the trial is awareness with explicit recall. Secondary outcomes include postoperative mortality, psychological symptoms, intensive care and hospital length of stay, average anesthetic gas administration, postoperative pain and nausea and vomiting, duration of stay in the recovery area, intra-operative dreaming, and postoperative delirium. Discussion This trial has been designed to complement two other clinical trials: B-Unaware and MACS (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00281489 and NCT00689091

  2. Bispectral index-guided anaesthesia for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Muralidhar Kanchi; Banakal Sanjay; Murthy Keshav; Garg Rajneesh; Rani G; Dinesh R

    2008-01-01

    Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring may assist reduction in utilisation of anaesthetic agents during general surgical procedures. This study was designed to test whether the use of BIS monitoring reduces the anaesthetic requirements during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This prospective - clinical trial was conducted on 40 adult patients undergoing elective off-pump CABG. Patients received either isoflurane or propofol anaesthesia. BIS monitoring, which guided the dose of anae...

  3. Feasibility of bispectral index-guided propofol infusion for flexible bronchoscopy sedation: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Yu-Lun Lo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There are safety issues associated with propofol use for flexible bronchoscopy (FB. The bispectral index (BIS correlates well with the level of consciousness. The aim of this study was to show that BIS-guided propofol infusion is safe and may provide better sedation, benefiting the patients and bronchoscopists. METHODS: After administering alfentanil bolus, 500 patients were randomized to either propofol infusion titrated to a BIS level of 65-75 (study group or incremental midazolam bolus based on clinical judgment to achieve moderate sedation. The primary endpoint was safety, while the secondary endpoints were recovery time, patient tolerance, and cooperation. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with hypoxemia or hypotensive events were not different in the 2 groups (study vs. control groups: 39.9% vs. 35.7%, p = 0.340; 7.4% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.159, respectively. The mean lowest blood pressure was lower in the study group. Logistic regression revealed male gender, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, and electrocautery were associated with hypoxemia, whereas lower propofol dose for induction was associated with hypotension in the study group. The study group had better global tolerance (p<0.001, less procedural interference by movement or cough (13.6% vs. 36.1%, p<0.001; 30.0% vs. 44.2%, p = 0.001, respectively, and shorter time to orientation and ambulation (11.7±10.2 min vs. 29.7±26.8 min, p<0.001; 30.0±18.2 min vs. 55.7±40.6 min, p<0.001, respectively compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: BIS-guided propofol infusion combined with alfentanil for FB sedation provides excellent patient tolerance, with fast recovery and less procedure interference. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials. gov NCT00789815.

  4. Bispectral index-guided anaesthesia for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar Kanchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bispectral index (BIS monitoring may assist reduction in utilisation of anaesthetic agents during general surgical procedures. This study was designed to test whether the use of BIS monitoring reduces the anaesthetic requirements during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. This prospective - clinical trial was conducted on 40 adult patients undergoing elective off-pump CABG. Patients received either isoflurane or propofol anaesthesia. BIS monitoring, which guided the dose of anaesthetic, was carried out in 50 percent of the patients. The amount of anaesthetic agent (isoflurane or propofol administered from the start of anaesthesia to the end of surgical procedure was calculated and were compared in four groups of patients - namely Group A (I-no BIS received isoflurane; end tidal concentration was maintained at 1-1.2% in a low flow technique throughout the procedure, Group B (I-BIS received isoflurane in a low flow technique; inspired concentration was dictated by BIS value maintained at 50; Group C (P-no BIS received propofol at a dose range of 4-8 mg/kg/hr and in Group D(P-BIS the propofol infusion rate was dictated by BIS value maintained at 50. The quantity of isoflurane was significantly less for Group B (I-BIS as compared with Group A (I-no BIS (37 ± 4 vs. 24 ± 4 ml; p< 0.05 and similarly the amount of propofol infused was significantly less in Group D (P-BIS as compared with Group C (P-no BIS (176 ± 9 vs. 120 ± 6 ml; p< 0.05. BIS guided anaesthesia reduces the anaesthetic agent required for the performance of off-pump CABG. This can be extrapolated in terms of saving agent and reduced cardiac depression during off-pump CABG.

  5. Clinical vs. bispectral index-guided propofol induction of anesthesia: A comparative study

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    Snehdeep Arya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinically optimized focusing of drug administration to specific need of patient with bispectral index (BIS monitoring results in reduced dose and faster recovery of consciousness. This study was planned with an aim to study and compare the conventional clinical end point or BIS on the requirement of dosage of propofol, hemodynamic effects, and BIS alterations following propofol induction. Methods: 70 patients, ASA I and II, 20-60 years undergoing elective surgical procedure under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were selected and divided into two groups. Group A received (inj. fentanyl (2 μg/kg, followed 3 min later by inj. propofol at the rate of 30 mg/kg/hr infusion till the loss of response to verbal command while group B received inj. fentanyl (2 μg/kg, followed 3 min later by inj. propofol at the rate of 30 mg/kg/hr infusion. The end point of hypnosis was when the BIS value was sustained for 1 min at 48±2. The patients were intubated. Total induction dose of propofol was noted in each group. The value of BIS and hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, systolic/diastolic blood pressure were noted at the time of loss of consciousness, at the time of intubation, and 1 min after intubation, thereafter every minute for first 10 min and thereafter every 10 min till end of surgery. Any involuntary muscle activity such as jerky movements, dystonic posturing, and opisthotonos were also recorded. Results: The mean dose of propofol used in groups A and B were 1.85±0.48 mg/kg and 1.79±0.41 mg/kg, respectively. The dosage used in group B were less but not clinically significant (P=0.575. On comparing the dosage of propofol in males among the groups there was a significantly lower dosage of propofol required in group B (2.06±0.45 mg/kg and 1.83±0.32 mg/kg, respectively, P=0.016. This decrease however was not seen in female patients dosage being 1.65±0.44 mg/kg and 1.75±0.49 mg/kg, respectively (P=0.372. The hemodynamic

  6. Dow's chemical exposure index guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of events in the 1970's and 1980's impacted the course of process safety. Incidents such as Flixborough, Seveso, Three-Mile Island, and Bhopal are well known throughout industry and are recognized as examples of major disasters. Even though events leading up to these disasters were completely different they had one common element between them: a substance was released from a manufacturing unit, became airborne and presented a hazard of such magnitude as to place the safety of both employees and the surrounding public in jeopardy. As a result, industry became increasingly concerned regarding potential loss, in human and economic terms, as plants and equipment grew in size. The Flixborough incident raised the level of concern for process safety, particularly in terms of the hazards presented by fire and explosion. Seveso and Three-Mile Island emphasized the need to consider far-field exposure. The Bhopal incident created an urgent need to recognize and understand the expected downwind impact of potential releases of acutely toxic substances to the air. In order to meet this need, the Dow Chemical Company, a recognized leader in the area of safety and loss prevention, presented a Chemical Exposure Index in 1986. AIChE has recently published an updated version entitled Dow's Chemical Exposure Index Guide. 7 refs., 5 figs

  7. General methods for constructing bispectral operators

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalov, B N; Yakimov, M T

    1996-01-01

    We present methods for obtaining new solutions to the bispectral problem. We achieve this by giving its abstract algebraic version suitable for generalizations. All methods are illustrated by new classes of bispectral operators.

  8. Bispectral algebras of commuting ordinary differential operators

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalov, B N; Yakimov, M T

    1997-01-01

    We develop a systematic way for constructing bispectral algebras of commuting ordinary differential operators of any rank N. It enables us to obtain all previously known classes or examples of bispectral operators. The suggested method is completely algorithmic, which allows us to present explicitly new examples. We conjecture that the class built in the present paper exhausts all bispectral scalar operators. This paper is the third of a series of papers (hep-th/9510211, q-alg/9602010, q-alg/9602012) on the bispectral problem.

  9. MONITORING DEPTH OF ANAESTHESIA USING PRST SCORE AND BISPECTRAL INDEX

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    Rahul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Intraoperative awareness is a frightening experience for any patient for it has long term psychological consequences. Among the various tools available for monitoring depth of anaesthesia, Bispectral index monitoring (BIS is one of the recent and widely accepted techniques. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : The present study was carried out to evaluate and correlate the efficacy of BIS monitoring along with PRST score in assessment of depth of anaesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A prospective clinical study was conducted on 160 patients undergoing surgery in various specialties, in the department of Anaesthesiology at Rajarajeswari Medical College and Hospital which included adult patients between the ages of 18 and 65 years and of ASA I/II posted for elective surgeries under general anaesthesia. Conditions and drugs likely to interfere with BIS values were excluded. Anaesthesia protocol was kept uniform. These patients were divided into two groups of 80 patients each by consecutive selection. In Group 1 - depth of anaesthesia was assessed by PRST score, in Group 2 - by BIS monitoring and PRST score. Statistical analysis was performed by descriptive statistics to calculate the mean and standard deviation, the t - test, χ² test s for calculating the materiality for establishing the results. RESULTS: We saw that the Bispectral index varied with various stages of anaesthesia, almost simultaneous changes in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures occurred in both groups in T1 and T2. On intubation, both blood pressure and heart rate increased but BIS showed a very minimal increase, which was because of adequate depth of anaesthesia and analgesia . There was a statistically significant difference in PRST scores between the two groups. There was no incidence of awareness among our study population. CONCLUSION : Evaluation of intraoperative depth of anaesthesia is one of the major tasks of anaesthesiologist. In patients with higher

  10. Highest weight modules of W$_{1+\\infty}$, Darboux transformations and the bispectral problem

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalov, B N; Yakimov, M T

    1996-01-01

    We announce a systematic way for constructing bispectral algebras of commuting differential operators of any rank N. It enables us to obtain all previously known classes and examples of bispectral operators. Moreover, we give a representation-theoretic explanation of the results including those of Duistermaat and Gr\\"unbaum. The manifold of bispectral operators of any order is preserved by an hierarchy of symmetries. We point out that our methods provide a completely algorithmic procedure for obtaining bispectral algebras. We conjecture that the class built in the present paper exhausts all bispectral scalar operators. The proofs and details will appear in our subsequent papers.

  11. On the Performance and Estimation of Spectral and Bispectral Analysis of Time Series Data

    OpenAIRE

    J.F. Ojo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, discrete spectral and bi-spectral analysis of time series data were considered to determine which of them perform better. The parameters of the spectral and bi-spectral models were estimated using Modified Newton Raphson Iterative method. Since the order of a model cannot be increased indiscriminately because of the closeness of some parameters to zero; discrete spectral and bi-spectral analysis model of orders one to five were fitted to the real series. Akaike Informatio...

  12. Bispectral Index Monitoring in Guillain Barre Syndrome with Dysautonomia

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Sharma; Virendra Jain; Rath, Girija P; Parmod K Bithal

    2008-01-01

    Bispectral index (BIS) is commonly used as an index of depth of anaesthesia and sedation. BIS can provide an additional benefit in detecting a critical neurological event, especially if the change of neurological status is caused by the critical illness itself. We encountered such an incident where the BIS value was decreased in a patient with Guillain Barre Syndrome, possibly due to cerebral hypoperfusion. The present report emphasises that BIS can be used not only as an indicator of cerebra...

  13. Designing of Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibre by Finite Element Method Simulation

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    S. S. Mishra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Different structures of Index-guiding Photonic crystal fibre are designed. The attractive vectorial Finite Element Method simulation technique is used to analyse such PCFs by taking suitable fibre parameter i.e. air hole diameter (d, pitch (Λ and air core diameter (d¥.Few important properties such as variation of refractive index with wavelength and nice confinement modal field pattern were studied. Index-guided photonic crystal fibre having inner core of radius 0.2µm, pitch 2.4µm and identical air hole of diameter d=1.38µm is suggested for which leakage of signal is almost zero at wavelength 1.55µm.

  14. Improved analytical model for the field of index-guiding microstructured optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dinesh Kumar; Sharma, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    We present an improved version of our earlier developed analytical field model for the fundamental mode of index-guiding microstructured optical fibers (MOFs), to obtain better accuracy in the simulated results. Using this improved field model, we have studied the splice losses between an MOF and a traditional step-index single-mode fiber (SMF). Comparisons with available experimental and numerical simulation results have also been included.

  15. The Utility of Bispectral Index for Titration of Propofol Dosages and Recovery from Anaesthesia

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    Heena Parikh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of clinical signs may not be reliable to measure the hypnotic component of anaesthesia. Bispectral Index monitoring provides a direct measurement of the hypnotic effect of the anaesthetic agent used and it may have certain clinical advantages over clinical signs. Objective: This study consists of dose requirement of propofol with bispectral Index monitoring and without bispectral Index monitoring. Material and Methods: In the present study, 100 patients were randomly divided into two groups (50 in each group, one group received Standard dose of propofol while the other received propofol infusion with BIS monitoring. Results: Mean amount of propofol for induction used was 1.6 vs 2.24 mg/kg in bispectral index group and standard group respectively. The inference was that the induction dose of propofol by Bispectral index and by standard practice was statistically highly significant with P<0.001. Similarly mean amount of propofol for maintenance used was 5.70 vs 8.88 mg/kg/hr in bispectral index group and standard group respectively. The inference was that the maintenance dose of propofol by Bispectral index and by standard practice was statistically highly significant with P<0.001. Conclusion: Dose requirement of propofol was less and early recovery from anesthesia with bispectral Index monitoring. [Natl J of Med Res 2012; 2(4.000: 484-487

  16. Bi-spectral extraction through elliptic neutron guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Henrik, E-mail: hjacobse@fys.ku.dk [Nanoscience center and eScience center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); ESS design update program (Denmark); Lieutenant, Klaus; Zendler, Carolin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); ESS design update program (Germany); Lefmann, Kim [Nanoscience center and eScience center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); ESS design update program (Denmark)

    2013-07-21

    In this paper we present the results of investigating a suggested guide extraction system utilizing both a thermal and a cold moderator at the same time, the so-called bi-spectral extraction. Here, the thermal moderator has line of sight to the sample position, and the neutrons from the cold source are reflected by a supermirror towards the sample. The work is motivated by the construction of the European Spallation Source (ESS) but the results are general and can be used at any neutron source. Due to the long pulse structure, most instruments at ESS will be long, often exceeding 50 m from moderator to detector. We therefore investigate the performance of bi-spectral extraction for instrument lengths of 30 m, 56 m, 81 m and 156 m. In all these cases, our results show that we can utilize both moderators (and thus high intensity in a wide wavelength band) in the same instrument at a cost of flux of 5–30% for neutrons with wavelength larger than 1 Å. In general, the divergence distribution is smooth at the sample position for all wavelengths. -- Highlights: • We simulate bi-spectral neutron beam extraction through elliptic guides. • Two independent ray-tracing tools (McStas and VITESS) give similar results. • Brilliance transfers of 70–95% for λ>1Å are achieved for guide lengths of 30–156 m. • The beam profile is smooth at the sample position. • The simulations are performed with ESS in mind, but have general validity.

  17. Bispectral Index Monitoring in Guillain Barre Syndrome with Dysautonomia

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    Deepak Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bispectral index (BIS is commonly used as an index of depth of anaesthesia and sedation. BIS can provide an additional benefit in detecting a critical neurological event, especially if the change of neurological status is caused by the critical illness itself. We encountered such an incident where the BIS value was decreased in a patient with Guillain Barre Syndrome, possibly due to cerebral hypoperfusion. The present report emphasises that BIS can be used not only as an indicator of cerebral ischaemia, but also as a tool to judge adequacy and efficacy of interventions targeted to restore the same.

  18. Highest weight modules over W$_{1+\\infty}$ algebra and the bispectral problem

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalov, B N; Yakimov, M T

    1996-01-01

    The present paper establishes a connection between the Lie algebra W_{1+infty} and the bispectral problem. We show that the manifolds of bispectral operators obtained by Darboux transformations on powers of Bessel operators are in one to one correspondence with the manifolds of tau-functions lying in the W_{1+infty}-modules M_beta introduced in our previous paper hep-th/9510211. An immediate corollary is that they are preserved by hierarchies of symmetries generated by subalgebras of W_{1+infty}. This paper is the last of a series of papers (hep-th/9510211, q-alg/9602010, q-alg/9602011) on the bispectral problem.

  19. Auditory information processing during adequate propofol anesthesia monitored by electroencephalogram bispectral index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kerssens (Chantal); J. Klein (Jan); A. van der Woerd; B. Bonke (Benno)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMemory for intraoperative events may arise from inadequate anesthesia when the hypnotic state is not continuously monitored. Electroencephalogram bispectral index (BIS) enables monitoring of the hypnotic state and titration of anesthesia to an adequate level

  20. Bispectral index monitoring to facilitate early extubation following cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer; Henry, Linda; Hunt, Sharon; Ad, Niv

    2010-01-01

    Frequently, intensive care nurses assume responsibility for extubating patients after undergoing cardiac surgery. Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring assesses level of mental arousal and awareness when sedated. This study was to determine if the BIS might facilitate earlier extubation of patients following cardiac surgery. A study was conducted comparing 25 stable patients returning to the intensive care unit with a BIS with 25 patients managed without the BIS (N = 50). Data collected included age, sex, surgery, pH, CO2, and temperature on arrival/extubation, total intravenous propofol and pain medication, and BIS scores. Student t tests determined that there were no differences between groups for age, amount of propofol and pain medication received, or time to extubation (P > .05). Regression analysis determined that total propofol, total hydromorphone, and age were significant predictors of time to extubation. In this study, the BIS monitor did not facilitate earlier extubation in the stable patient after cardiac surgery. PMID:20404622

  1. Bispectral index monitoring of sedation depth in pediatric dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, Christel M; Baker, Suher; Liu, Haibei

    2011-01-01

    The bispectral index (BIS) monitor records electroencephalogram waveforms and provides an objective measure of the hypnotic effect of a sedative drug on brain activity. The aim of this pilot study was to use the BIS monitor to evaluate the depth of procedural sedation in pediatric dental patients and to assess if the BIS monitor readings correlate with a validated pediatric sedation scale, the University of Michigan Sedation Scale (UMSS), in determining the level of sedation in these patients. Thirty-five pediatric dental patients requiring sedation were studied prospectively. A baseline BIS reading was obtained and during the procedure an independent observer recorded the BIS every 5 minutes. The operator, who was blinded to the BIS results, determined the UMSS scale at the same 5-minute interval. The patients were monitored postoperatively for 1 hour. There was a significant but moderate correlation between BIS values and UMSS scores (Spearman's rank correlation r  =  -0.574, P < .0001). Percentage of agreement and kappa coefficient using all the observations were also calculated. The percentage of agreement was 37.8%, the kappa coefficient was 0.18 (P < .0001), and the weighted kappa coefficient 0.26 (P < .0001). A lack of correlation was noted between the deeper levels of UMSS sedation scores and BIS values. This study demonstrated a significant correlation between BIS values and the UMSS score in pediatric dental patients undergoing mild to moderate sedation. Based on our results, it appears that the BIS monitor may be useful during mild or moderate sedations to establish the level of sedation objectively without the need to stimulate the patient. PMID:21679042

  2. Bispectral methods of signal processing applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Totsky, Alexander V; Kravchenko, Victor F

    2015-01-01

    By studying applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration, this monograph discusses signal processing techniques based on bispectral methods. Improved robustness against different forms of noise as well as preservation of phase information render this method a valuable alternative to common power-spectrum analysis used in radar object recognition, digital wireless communications, and jitter removal in images.

  3. Entropy and bispectral index for assessment of sedation, analgesia and the effects of unpleasant stimuli in critically ill patients: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenggi, Matthias; Ypparila-Wolters, Heidi; Bieri, Christine; Steiner, Carola; Takala, Jukka; Korhonen, Ilkka; Jakob, Stephan M

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Sedative and analgesic drugs are frequently used in critically ill patients. Their overuse may prolong mechanical ventilation and length of stay in the intensive care unit. Guidelines recommend use of sedation protocols that include sedation scores and trials of sedation cessation to minimize drug use. We evaluated processed electroencephalography (response and state entropy and bispectral index) as an adjunct to monitoring effects of commonly used sedative and analgesic drugs and intratracheal suctioning. Methods Electrodes for monitoring bispectral index and entropy were placed on the foreheads of 44 critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation and who previously had no brain dysfunction. Sedation was targeted individually using the Ramsay Sedation Scale, recorded every 2 hours or more frequently. Use of and indications for sedative and analgesic drugs and intratracheal suctioning were recorded manually and using a camera. At the end of the study, processed electroencephalographical and haemodynamic variables collected before and after each drug application and tracheal suctioning were analyzed. Ramsay score was used for comparison with processed electroencephalography when assessed within 15 minutes of an intervention. Results The indications for boli of sedative drugs exhibited statistically significant, albeit clinically irrelevant, differences in terms of their association with processed electroencephalographical parameters. Electroencephalographical variables decreased significantly after bolus, but a specific pattern in electroencephalographical variables before drug administration was not identified. The same was true for opiate administration. At both 30 minutes and 2 minutes before intratracheal suctioning, there was no difference in electroencephalographical or clinical signs in patients who had or had not received drugs 10 minutes before suctioning. Among patients who received drugs, electroencephalographical parameters

  4. Usefulness of the bispectral index during cardiopulmonary resuscitation -A case report-

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jin Yong; Kim, Yeonbaek; Kim, Jung-Eun

    2013-01-01

    The usefulness of using the bispectral index (BIS) for monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is not clearly understood. However, BIS has been a popular anesthetic monitoring device used during operations. The case presented is of a pregnant woman going into cardiac arrest due to an amniotic fluid embolism during a Cesarean section. CPR was performed, but neither the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) nor the return of consciousness was achieved, despite 50 min of effecti...

  5. Evaluation of the Adequacy of General Anesthesia in Cesarean Section by Bispectral Index

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Mohammad Reza Hadavi; Elaheh Allahyary; Saman Asadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Awareness and recall, though not common, are the major hazards of general anesthesia, especially in Cesarean section (C/S) because of the absence of benzodiazepine and opioids for a significant time during anesthesia. In this study, the Bispectral Index (BIS), end-tidal isoflurane, and hemodynamic parameters were examined to evaluate the depth of the routine general anesthetic technique in C/S. Methods: This study was carried out on 60 parturient patients undergoing elective C/...

  6. Bispectral index reveals death-feigning behavior in a red kite (Milvus milvus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Jurado, Olga; Simova-Curd, Stefka; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2011-06-01

    Red kites (Milvus milvus) are birds of prey known to feign death in the presence of humans. An adult wild red kite was anesthetized with isoflurane for coelioscopy. During surgery, heart rate and respiratory rate ranged from 240 to 260 beats per minute and from 16 to 28 breaths rates per minute, respectively. Pupil and corneal reflexes remained present, and body temperature was maintained at 40.4 degrees C (104.7 degrees F). Suppression ratio was 0 during the anesthetic episode. The bispectral index was 44 immediately after intubation, ranged from 44 to 57 during maintenance of anesthesia, and was 59 at the moment of extubation. The index increased to 85 while the kite remained immobile, which was suggestive of feigning death in sternal recumbency. Once the bird was perched upright, it immediately kept the upright position, which confirmed the correspondence of the bispectral index value (85) with a fully conscious patient. Although behavioral or cardiorespiratory variables remained unchanged, the degree of hypnosis was indicated by the bispectral index, which anticipated a possible sudden awakening episode of this bird. PMID:21877451

  7. Quando o índice bispectral (BIS) pode fornecer valores espúrios Cuando el índice bispectral (BIS) puede suministrar valores falsos When the bispectral index (Bis) can give false results

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Teixeira Domingues Duarte; Renato Ângelo Saraiva

    2009-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O índice bispectral (BIS) é um parâmetro multifatorial derivado do eletroencefalograma (EEG) que permite a monitorização do componente hipnótico da anestesia. Foi obtido a partir de algoritmo derivado da análise de grande número de EEGs de voluntários e pacientes submetidos a sedações e anestesia geral com diferentes agentes anestésicos. Além de outros benefícios, o uso do BIS para monitorização da profundidade da anestesia reduz a ocorrência de despertar e memória ...

  8. The effect of aging on bispectral index before and after sedation: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoori A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The Bispectral Index (BIS is an EEG-derived value that measures the sedative and hypnotic component of the anesthetic state. The effects of age on the bispectral index have not been well documented. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of age on hypnotic requirement and bispectral index in awake and in patients with sedation induced by midazolam. "n"nMethods: Eighty patients were enrolled in this prospective observational study. The patients in study group were aged more than 70 years, and the age in control group ranged 20-40 years. Baseline recording of BIS was taken in awake patients in two groups for few minutes. Five minutes after administration of 0.02 mg/kg IV midazolam the BIS value also was taken and recorded. "n"nResults: In the study group, patients had a mean base BIS 94±3 compared with 97.3±1 in the control group (p< 0.0001. Five minutes after administration of 0.02 mg/kg midazolam the value were 80.9±6 and 90.4±3 respectively (p< 0.0001. "n"nConclusion: When BIS is used as a monitor of hypnosis in the elderly, we recommend that a baseline recording be taken before induction for a few minutes to alert the anesthesia provider to the possibility of low initial values. Further studies are needed to verify if the recommended range of 50-60 of BIS during clinical anesthesia is also adequate in the elderly with low initial baseline BIS or if this range needs adjusting in view of reduced initial BIS value.

  9. Bispectral experimental estimation of the nonlinear energy transfer in two-dimensional plasma turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manz, P.; Ramisch, M.; Stroth, U.;

    2008-01-01

    -wave turbulence. The density fluctuations, which at the realistic collisionality are advected as a passive scalar with the vorticity, show power transfer from large to small scales, while the spectral power in potential fluctuations, which represents the energy, is transferred as an inverse cascade to larger......Experimental density and potential fluctuation data from a 2D probe array have been analysed to study the turbulent cascade in a toroidally confined magnetized plasma. The bispectral analysis technique used is from Ritz et al ( 1989 Phys. Fluids B 1 153) and Kim et al ( 1996 Phys. Plasmas 3 3998...

  10. Quando o índice bispectral (BIS pode fornecer valores espúrios Cuando el índice bispectral (BIS puede suministrar valores falsos When the bispectral index (Bis can give false results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Teixeira Domingues Duarte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O índice bispectral (BIS é um parâmetro multifatorial derivado do eletroencefalograma (EEG que permite a monitorização do componente hipnótico da anestesia. Foi obtido a partir de algoritmo derivado da análise de grande número de EEGs de voluntários e pacientes submetidos a sedações e anestesia geral com diferentes agentes anestésicos. Além de outros benefícios, o uso do BIS para monitorização da profundidade da anestesia reduz a ocorrência de despertar e memória intra-operatória. Esta revisão teve o objetivo de apresentar situações clínicas em que o BIS aponta valores espúrios, falsamente elevados ou reduzidos, em decorrência de condições do paciente ou ações de anestésicos não-previstos quando da elaboração do seu algoritmo. CONTEÚDO: Os valores do BIS podem sofrer alteração e influência em variadas situações clínicas em que há padrões anormais do EEG; efeito de diferentes anestésicos e outros fármacos não-incluídos na elaboração de seu algoritmo; interferência de equipamentos elétricos; bem como decorrentes de peculiaridades do monitor. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de o algoritmo do BIS ter sofrido diversas alterações desde a sua primeira versão, essas situações que determinam variações espúrias dos valores do BIS devem ser reconhecidas pelo anestesiologista a fim de evitar complicações, sejam conseqüentes à sobredose anestésica, sejam por subdoses que poderão causar despertar e memória intra-operatória.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El índice bispectral (BIS es un parámetro multifactorial derivado del electroencefalograma (EEG, que permite la monitorización del componente hipnótico de la anestesia. Fue obtenido a partir de algoritmo derivado del análisis de un gran número de EEG de voluntarios y pacientes sometidos a sedaciones y anestesia general con diferentes agentes anestésicos. Además de otros beneficios, el uso del BIS para la monitorización de la

  11. Neutronic analysis of the bi-spectral moderator such as that proposed for ESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magán, M., E-mail: miguel.magan@essbilbao.org [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear – UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Sordo, F. [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear – UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Zanini, L. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Box 176, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Terrón, S.; Ghiglino, A.; Martínez, F.; Vicente, J.P. de; Vivanco, R. [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear – UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Perlado, J.M. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear – UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Bermejo, F.J. [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Mezei, F. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Box 176, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Muhrer, G. [Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, LANSCE Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-11-21

    This paper reports on design studies concerning a moderator concept which aims to maximize the time averaged flux. The idea is to provide neutron spectra showing two clear maxima, with peaks at (∼1Å) and (∼2.5Å) arising from leakage from both cryogenic and thermal moderators. Such a concept known as a bi-spectral moderator (Mezei, 2006 [1]) while proven on a reactor source has only been examined for the ESS 2003 proposal. Filges et al. (2003 [2]), which featured a different design than the current ESS. This paper thus reports on a baseline design for such a moderator concept and shows that it can provide substantial gains in count rates for those applications not requiring high resolution in time-of-flight.

  12. Capnography and the Bispectral Index—Their Role in Pediatric Sedation: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sammartino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedation in children is increasingly emerging as a minimally invasive technique that may be associated with local anaesthesia or diagnostic and therapeutic procedures which do not necessarily require general anaesthesia. Standard monitoring requirements are not sufficient to ensure an effective control of pulmonary ventilation and deep sedation. Capnography in pediatric sedation assesses the effect of different drugs on the occurrence of respiratory failure and records early indicators of respiratory impairment. The Bispectral index (BIS allows the reduction of dose requirements of anaesthetic drugs, the reduction in the time to extubation and eye opening, and the reduction in the time to discharge. In the field of pediatric sedation, capnography should be recommended to prevent respiratory complications, particularly in spontaneous ventilation. The use of the BIS index, however, needs further investigation due to a lack of evidence, especially in infants. In this paper, we will investigate the role of capnography and the BIS index in improving monitoring standards in pediatric sedation.

  13. Changes in bilateral bispectral index VISTA monitoring system during Wada test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacreu, S; Vila, E; Rodríguez, C; Arroyo, R; Fernández, S; Fernández, J L

    2014-12-01

    The Wada test is a procedure used in the preoperative assessment before epilepsy surgery in order to determine language lateralization, to assess the post-operative risk of an amnesia syndrome, and to evaluate the risk of material-specific memory deficits, in particular verbal memory deficits. This test involves inserting a cannula into the internal carotid artery via the femoral artery, and then to inject amobarbital to shut down brain function, usually in one of the brain hemispheres. The bilateral bispectral index (BIS) VISTA™ monitoring system (BVMS) was used to detect changes in EEG, and in the power spectrum distribution using the density spectral array (DSA) of both hemispheres. We describe a patient with an agenesis of the A1 segment of the right anterior cerebral artery, scheduled for a Wada test, in whom the BVMS demonstrated its potential value. PMID:24657004

  14. Effect of different doses of dezocine on degree of emergence agitation under bispectral index monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-Bao Liang; Zong-Rong Guo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of different doses of dezocine on degree of emergence agitation under bispectral index monitoring. Methods:A total of 196 cases who received general anesthesia in our hospital from September 2012 to December 2014 were selected as research subjects, bispectral index (BIS) monitoring was continuously conducted during anesthesia induction and extubation anesthesia recovery, and according to different methods of dezocine intervention, they were randomly divided into control group, D1 group, D2 group and D3 group, each group with 49 cases. Differences in levels of recovery time-related indexes, BIS values before dezocine administration (T0), sputum suction before extubation (T1), extubation time (T2) and 10 min after extubation (T3), hemodynamic indexes and stress indexes of all groups were compared. Results:Recovery time and extubation time of D2 group were shorter than those of control group, D1 group and D3 group, restlessness scale after extubation and VAS were lower than those of control group and D1 group, and Ramsay sedation scale was higher than that of control group and D1 group (P0.05);cortisol and blood glucose levels at T1, T2 and T3 points in time of D2 and D3 group were lower than those of other two groups (P0.05). Conclusions:0.1 mg/kg dezocine administration before end of operation can reduce emergence agitation without causing excessive sedation or prolonged extubation time, and it has active significance in stabilizing patients’ hemodynamic and stress levels in extubation period.

  15. Bispectral index monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation repeated twice within 8 days in the same patient: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlik, Michael T.; Seyfried, Timo F.; Riegger, Christian; Klingler, Werner; Selig, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Research on cardiac resuscitation has led to various changes in the techniques and drug administration involved in modern advanced life support. Besides improving primary cardiac survival, interest is increasingly focused on a favourable neurological outcome. However, until now there has been no on-site equipment to support the clinical observations of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) team. Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring has been used for avoiding awareness during anaesthesia for ma...

  16. Effect of bispectral index monitoring on desflurane consumption and recovery time in morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Tamer H.; Yousef, Gamal T.; Hasan, Ali M. Ali; Eldesuky, Hossam I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Morbid obesity magnifies the importance of the fat–blood solubility coefficient of the anesthetic in its relation to emergence and recovery. Using bispectral index (BIS) monitoring for the titration of the administration of inhaled anesthetics such as desflurane may permit a less consumption and more rapid recovery from desflurane anesthesia in morbidly obese patients, which enables earlier maintenance of a patent airway, better protection against aspiration, and better oxygenatio...

  17. Effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on propofol pharmacokinetics and bispectral index during coronary surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio G. Barbosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Cardiopulmonary bypass is known to alter propofol pharmacokinetics in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, few studies have evaluated the impact of these alterations on postoperative pharmacodynamics. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that changes in propofol pharmacokinetics increase hypnotic effects after cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: Twenty patients scheduled for on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (group, n=10 or off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (group, n=10 coronary artery bypass grafts were anesthetized with sufentanil and a propofol target controlled infusion (2.0 µg/mL. Depth of hypnosis was monitored using the bispectral index. Blood samples were collected from the induction of anesthesia up to 12 hours after the end of propofol infusion, at predetermined intervals. Plasma propofol concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography, followed by a non-compartmental propofol pharmacokinetic analysis. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, considering p<0.05 as significant. RESULTS: After cardiopulmonary bypass, despite similar plasma propofol concentrations in both groups, bispectral index values were lower in the on-pump coronary artery bypass graft group. Time to extubation after the end of propofol infusion was greater in the on-pump coronary artery bypass graft group (334 ± 117 vs. 216 ± 85 min, p = 0.04. Patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass had shorter biological (1.82 ± 0.5 vs. 3.67 ± 1.15h, p < 0.01 and terminal elimination (6.27 ± 1.29 vs. 10.5h ± 2.18, p < 0.01 half-life values, as well as higher total plasma clearance (28.36 ± 11.40 vs.18.29 ± 7.67 mL/kg/min, p = 0.03, compared to patients in the off-pump coronary artery bypass graft group. CONCLUSION: Aside from the increased sensitivity of the brain to anesthetics after cardiopulmonary bypass, changes in propofol pharmacokinetics may contribute to its central nervous system effects.

  18. The effect of music on preoperative sedation and the bispectral index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganidagli, Suleyman; Cengiz, Mustafa; Yanik, Medaim; Becerik, Cevdet; Unal, Bahriye

    2005-07-01

    We assessed the effect of music on the level of sedation and the electroencephalograph bispectral index (BIS) during the preoperative period. Fifty-four ASA physical status I-II patients, scheduled for elective septo-rhinoplastic surgery, were included in the study. Subjects were assigned to receive either music (music group; n = 28) or no music (control group; n = 26) during the preoperative period. Sedative premedication was provided with midazolam 0.08 mg/kg IM. Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scales (OAAS) scores and BIS values were recorded at specific time intervals. In the control group, there were more patients with an OAAS score of 1 than in the music group at 30 min after midazolam injection. In addition, there were more patients with an OAAS score of 2 in the control group than in the music group at 30-50 min. However, there were significantly more patients with an OAAS score of 3 in the music group than in the control group at 20-50 min. BIS values of the music group were also smaller than the control group at 30 and 40 min. BIS values were significantly decreased from baseline values at 10-50 min in the music group, whereas BIS values decreased at 30-50 min in the control group. In conclusion, listening to music during midazolam premedication is associated with an increase in sedation level in the preoperative period as reflected by a lower BIS value. PMID:15976214

  19. Bi-spectral beam extraction in combination with a focusing feeder

    CERN Document Server

    Zendler, C; Nekrassov, D; Cussen, L D; Strobl, M

    2013-01-01

    Bi-spectral beam extraction combines neutrons from two different kind of moderators into one beamline, expanding the spectral range and thereby the utilization of an instrument. This idea can be realized by a mirror that reflects long wavelength neutrons from an off-axis colder moderator into a neutron guide aligned with another moderator emitting neutrons with shorter wavelengths which will be transmitted through the mirror. The mirror used in such systems is typically several meters long, which is a severe disadvantage because it reduces the possible length of a focusing device in design concepts requiring a narrow beam at a short distance from the source, as used in many instruments under development for the planned European Spallation Source (ESS). We propose a shortened extraction system consisting of several mirrors, and show that such an extraction system is better suited for combination with a feeder in an eye of the needle design, illustrated here in the context of a possible ESS imaging beamline.

  20. Bi-spectral beam extraction in combination with a focusing feeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zendler, C., E-mail: carolin.zendler@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); ESS Design Update Programme (Germany); Lieutenant, K.; Nekrassov, D.; Cussen, L.D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); ESS Design Update Programme (Germany); Strobl, M. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Box 176, 22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2013-03-11

    Bi-spectral beam extraction combines neutrons from two different kinds of moderators into one beamline, expanding the spectral range and thereby the utilization of an instrument. This idea can be realized by a mirror that reflects long wavelength neutrons from an off-axis colder moderator into a neutron guide aligned with another moderator emitting neutrons with shorter wavelengths which will be transmitted through the mirror. The mirror used in such systems is typically several meters long, which is a severe disadvantage because it reduces the possible length of a focusing device in design concepts requiring a narrow beam at a short distance from the source, as used in many instruments under development for the planned European Spallation Source (ESS). We propose a shortened extraction system consisting of several mirrors and show that such an extraction system is better suited for combination with a feeder in an eye of the needle design, illustrated here in the context of a possible ESS imaging beamline.

  1. BISPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF SCALP ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAMS: QUADRATIC PHASECOUPLING PHENOMENON IN DETECTING BRAIN TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Salai Selvam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the power spectral analysis of a non-Gaussian process generated by a nonlinear mechanism e.g., EEG, does not provide much information on the underlying nonlinear dynamics due to the lack of phase information, the higher-order statistics such as the bispectra are used to better understand the underlying nonlinear dynamics e.g., the quadratic phase coupling phenomena. The quadratic phase couplings have been observed in the EEG by the researchers over a decade for many diagnostic applications such as epilepsy, sleep, mental states. This study discusses the use of bispectral analysis of the EEG recorded from the posterior region of the head of the brain tumor patient in quantifying the quadratic phase couplings to indicate the presence of the tumor. The Bicoherence Index (BCI or simply the Bicoherence (BIC has been used for the purpose. Self-couplings (around 27-52% in the [8-13] Hz (alpha band and phase couplings (around 23-42% in the [1-8] Hz (delta-theta band have been observed for the normal subjects while only self-couplings (around 0.05 to the BIC in discriminating the brain tumor case from the normal one.

  2. Effect of a single dose of esmolol on the bispectral index to endotracheal intubation during desflurane anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun Mi; Min, Kyeong Tae; Lee, Jeong Rim; Lee, Tai Kyung; Choi, Seung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Background In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of a single dose of esmolol on the bispectral index (BIS) to endotracheal intubation during desflurane anesthesia. Methods After induction of anesthesia, 60 patients were mask-ventilated with desflurane (end-tidal 1 minimum alveolar concentration) for 5 min and then received either normal saline, esmolol 0.5 or 1 mg/kg, 1 min prior to intubation (control, esmolol-0.5 and esmolol-1 gr...

  3. Bispectral index monitoring for conscious sedation in intervention: better, safer, faster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.K.; Laasch, H.-U.; Wilbraham, L.; England, R.E.; Morris, J.A.; Martin, D.F. E-mail: derrick.martin@smtr.nhs.uk

    2004-12-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to compare subjective (Ramsay sedation score, RSS) with objective electroencephalogram-based bispectral index (BIS) assessment, and to validate the appropriate BIS range for measurement of conscious sedation in interventional procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred patients undergoing sedo-analgesia (midazolam and fentanyl) for interventional gastrointestinal procedures were divided into two groups. In group A (n=30) sedation was guided by the RSS with the operator blinded to the BIS recording. In group B (n=70) the operator titrated intravenous sedation to maintain an optimal BIS, predetermined from the results in group A. Recovery time, procedure duration, physiological parameters and unplanned events were recorded in both groups. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the BIS and RSS (p<0.001). BIS values of 87.2 and 80.9 corresponded to an RSS of 3 and 4, respectively. The optimal BIS level was defined as 80-85. Fifty-seven point five percent of readings were within this range in group B compared with 26.5% in group A (p<0.001). Sedation approaching general anaesthesia (BIS<60) occurred in 5.5% of patients in group A but not in group B. Mean recovery time, duration of procedure, midazolam and fentanyl doses were significantly reduced in group B. Unplanned events were reduced from 27 to 17%, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.29). CONCLUSION: BIS monitoring enables more effective titration of sedatives to maintain a suitable level of consciousness, whilst reducing procedure time. The BIS offers an objective, safe and reliable measure of sedation, without disturbing either patient or operator. BIS monitoring raises the standard of patient care, and in our view, should be used to augment standard assessment.

  4. Bispectral index monitoring for conscious sedation in intervention: better, safer, faster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: The aim of this study was to compare subjective (Ramsay sedation score, RSS) with objective electroencephalogram-based bispectral index (BIS) assessment, and to validate the appropriate BIS range for measurement of conscious sedation in interventional procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred patients undergoing sedo-analgesia (midazolam and fentanyl) for interventional gastrointestinal procedures were divided into two groups. In group A (n=30) sedation was guided by the RSS with the operator blinded to the BIS recording. In group B (n=70) the operator titrated intravenous sedation to maintain an optimal BIS, predetermined from the results in group A. Recovery time, procedure duration, physiological parameters and unplanned events were recorded in both groups. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the BIS and RSS (p<0.001). BIS values of 87.2 and 80.9 corresponded to an RSS of 3 and 4, respectively. The optimal BIS level was defined as 80-85. Fifty-seven point five percent of readings were within this range in group B compared with 26.5% in group A (p<0.001). Sedation approaching general anaesthesia (BIS<60) occurred in 5.5% of patients in group A but not in group B. Mean recovery time, duration of procedure, midazolam and fentanyl doses were significantly reduced in group B. Unplanned events were reduced from 27 to 17%, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.29). CONCLUSION: BIS monitoring enables more effective titration of sedatives to maintain a suitable level of consciousness, whilst reducing procedure time. The BIS offers an objective, safe and reliable measure of sedation, without disturbing either patient or operator. BIS monitoring raises the standard of patient care, and in our view, should be used to augment standard assessment

  5. Evaluation of the Adequacy of General Anesthesia in Cesarean Section by Bispectral Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Reza Hadavi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Awareness and recall, though not common, are the major hazards of general anesthesia, especially in Cesarean section (C/S because of the absence of benzodiazepine and opioids for a significant time during anesthesia. In this study, the Bispectral Index (BIS, end-tidal isoflurane, and hemodynamic parameters were examined to evaluate the depth of the routine general anesthetic technique in C/S. Methods: This study was carried out on 60 parturient patients undergoing elective C/S. A standardized anesthetic technique was applied: induction with Thiopental (4-5 mg/kg and Succinylcholine (1.5-2 mg/kg as well as maintenance with O2, N2O, and isoflurane. Electrocardiogram, heart rate, blood pressure, Spo2, end-tidal isoflurane concentration, BIS, and any clinical signs of inadequate depth of anesthesia such as movement, sweating, lacrimation, coughing, and jerking were continuously monitored and recorded at 16 fixed time points during anesthesia. Results: A median BIS of less than 70 (range: 42-68 was obtained on all occasions during surgery; however, at each milestone, at least 20% of the patients had BIS values above 60. Hemodynamic parameters increased significantly in some patients, especially during laryngoscopy and intubation. No patient experienced recall or awareness. Conclusion: The currently used general anesthetic technique in our center appears inadequate in some milestones to reliably produce BIS values less than 60, which are associated with lower risk of awareness. Therefore, with respect to such desirable outcomes as good Apgar and clinical status in neonates, we would recommend the application of this method (if confirmed by further studies through larger dosages of anesthetic agents.

  6. Closed-loop control of anesthesia using bispectral index - Performance assessment in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgey under combined general and regional anesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Absalom, AR; Sutcliffe, N; Kenny, GN

    2002-01-01

    Background: The Bispectral Index (BIS) is an electroencephalogram-derived measure of anesthetic depth. A closed-loop anesthesia system was built using BIS as the control variable, a proportional-integral-differential control algorithm, and a propofol target-controlled infusion system as (lie control

  7. The accuracy and clinical feasibility of a new Bayesian-based closed-loop control system for propofol administration using the bispectral index as a controlled variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Tom; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Neckebroek, Martine M.; Van den Hauwe, Kristof; Bonte, Sjoert; Mortier, Eric P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Closed-loop control of the hypnotic component of anesthesia has been proposed in an attempt to optimize drug delivery. Here, we introduce a newly developed Bayesian-based, patient-individualized, model-based, adaptive control method for bispectral index (BIS) guided propofol infusion int

  8. Effects of Phenytoin Therapy on Bispectral Index and Haemodynamic Changes Following Induction and Tracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmod P Bithal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation (LTI increase blood pressure and heart rate (HR. Intensity of these changes is influenced by the anaesthetic depth assessed by the bispectral index (BIS. We determined the effect of phenytoin on anaesthetic depth and its influence on haemodynamics following LTI. Fifty patients of ASA grades I and II on oral phenytoin 200 to 300mg per day for more than one week were compared with 48 control patients. Standard anaesthesia technique was followed. BIS, non invasive mean blood pressure (MBP and HR were recorded 30, 60, 90 and 120 sec after LTI. Phenytoin group needed lesser thiopentone for induction, 5 mg (1.1 vs. 4.3 mg (0.7 [p=0.036]. BIS was significantly lower in the phenytoin group vs. the control 30, 60, 90 and 120 sec after LTI [43.1 (16.0 vs. 48.9 (14.9, p=0.068, 56.3 (16.7 vs. 64.3 (14.4, p=0.013, 59.8 (15.8 vs. 67.5 (12.1, p=0.008, 62.6 (14 vs. 68.9 (11.2, p=0.017, and 64.2 (11.3 vs. 69 (11.7, p=0.033], respectively. MBP was also lower in the phenytoin group 30, 60, 90 and 120 sec after LTI [112.8 mmHg (13.8, vs. 117.9 mmHg (18 p=0.013, 108.6 (12.8 vs. 117.5 (16 p=0.003, 106.1 mmHg (14.1 vs. 113.2 mmHg (14.9, p=0.017, 101.8 mmHg (13.8 vs. 109.5 mmHg (14.1, p=0.007], respectively. HR was lower in phenytoin group at 30 sec. (p=0.027, 60 sec (p=0.219, and again at 120 sec (p=0.022. Oral phenytoin therapy for over a week results in greater anaesthetic depth as observed using BIS, which also attenuated haemodynamic response of LTI.

  9. Bispectral index monitoring as an adjunct to nurse-administered combined sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Se Young Jang; Hyun Gu Park; Min Kyu Jung; Chang Min Cho; Soo Young Park; Seong Woo Jeon; Won Young Tak

    2012-01-01

    AIM:TO determine whether bispectral index (BIS)monitoring is useful for propofol administration for deep sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).METHODS:Fifty-nine consecutive patients with a variety of reasons for ERCP who underwent the procedure at least twice between 1 July 2010 and 30 November 2010.This was a randomized cross-over study,in which each patient underwent ERCP twice,once with BIS monitoring and once with control monitoring.Whether BIS monitoring was done during the first or second ERCP procedure was random.Patients were intermittently administered a mixed regimen including midazolam,pethidine,and propofol by trained nurses.The nurse used a routine practice to monitor sedation using the Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (MOAA/S) scale or the BIS monitoring.The total amount of midazolam and propofol used and serious side effects were compared between the BIS and control groups.RESULTS:The mean total propofol dose administered was 53.1 ± 32.2 mg in the BIS group and 54.9± 30.8 mg in the control group (P =0.673).The individual propofol dose received per minute during the ERCP procedure was 2.90 ± 1.83 mg/min in the BIS group and 3.44 ± 2.04 mg in the control group (P =0.103).The median value of the MOAA/S score during the maintenance phase of sedation was comparable for the two groups.The mean BIS values throughout the procedure (from insertion to removal of the endoscope) were 76.5 ± 8.7 for all 59 patients in using the BIS monitor.No significant differences in the frequency of < 80% oxygen saturation,hypotension (< 80 mmHg),or bradycardia (< 50 beats/min) were observed between the two study groups.Four cases of poor cooperation occurred,in which the procedure should be stopped to add the propofol dose.After adding the propofol,the procedure could be conducted successfully (one case in the BIS group,three cases in the control group).The endoscopist rated patient sedation as excellent for

  10. Comparison of equi-minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane and isoflurane on bispectral index values during both wash in and wash out phases: A prospective randomised study

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu Gupta; Iti Shri; Prashant Sakia; Deepika Govil

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: At equal minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), volatile agents may produce different bispectral index (BIS) values especially at low BIS levels when the effect is volatile agent specific. The present study was performed to compare the BIS values produced by sevoflurane and isoflurane at equal MAC and thereby assessing which is a better hypnotic agent. Methods: Sixty American Society of Anaesthesiologists I and II patients undergoing elective mastoidectomy were divided int...

  11. The effect of different doses of esmolol on hemodynamic, bispectral index and movement response during orotracheal intubation: prospective, randomized, double-blind study

    OpenAIRE

    Mensure Yılmaz Çakırgöz; Aydın Taşdöğen; Çimen Olguner; Hülya Korkmaz; Ertuğrul Öğün; Burak Küçükebe; Esra Duran

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A prospective, randomized and double-blind study was planned to identify the optimum dose of esmolol infusion to suppress the increase in bispectral index values and the movement and hemodynamic responses to tracheal intubation. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups in a double-blind fashion. 2.5 mg kg-1 propofol was administered for anesthesia induction. After loss of consciousness, and before administration of 0.6 ...

  12. [Application of bispectral index (BIS) monitoring to anesthetic management of posterior spinal fusion in a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Maiko; Hayashi, Hideaki; Hayashi, Yukio; Mashimo, Takashi

    2002-07-01

    A 12-year-old boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy underwent posterior spinal fusion for progressive scoliosis. Preoperative evaluation was focused on respiratory function as well as cardiac function, which revealed markedly reduced respiratory reserve (FVC 0.77 l, %FVC 25.9%, FEV1.0 0.48 l, %FEV1.0 62%) and well-preserved biventricular function. A possible association between malignant hyperthermia and Duchenne muscular dystrophy has been documented. Thus anesthesia was administered without triggering agents. Propofol and fentanyl were used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia, and the patient was ventilated with O2-nitrous oxide mixture. The anesthesia machine, prepared by using a disposable circuit and fresh CO2-absorbent and disconnecting the vaporizers, was flushed with O2 at a rate of 10 l.min-1 for 20 minutes before use. A small dose of vecuronium was administered while monitoring the train-of-four ratio. The bispectral index (BIS) was utilized to optimize the depth of anesthesia so that the wake-up test could be performed promptly on surgeon's request while avoiding the intraoperative awareness. The BIS was helpful in continuously assessing the wakening process. BIS increased from 40's to 80's in 15 minutes after discontinuation of propofol and nitrous oxide during the test. The patient was kept under close observation postoperatively without any sign of malignant hyperthermia. PMID:12166284

  13. Bispectral index correlates with regional cerebral blood flow during sleep in distinct cortical and subcortical structures in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirhomme, Q; Boly, M; Bonhomme, V; Boveroux, P; Phillips, C; Peigneux, P; Soddu, A; Luxen, A; Moonen, G; Maquet, P; Laureys, S

    2009-03-01

    The relationship between the Bispectral Index (BIS), an EEG-based monitor of anesthesia, and brain activity is still unclear. This study aimed at investigating the relationship between changes in BIS values during natural sleep and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) variations, as measured by Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Data were obtained from six young, healthy, right-handed, male volunteers (20-30 years old) using the H2(15)O infusion method. PET scans were performed both during waking and various stages of sleep. BIS values were monitored continuously and recorded during each PET scan. Positive correlations were detected between BIS and rCBF values in dorsolateral prefontal, parietal, anterior and posterior cingulate, precuneal, mesiofrontal, mesiotemporal and insular cortices. These areas belong to a frontoparietal network known to be related to awareness of self conscious sensory perception, attention and memory. BIS values also positively correlated with activity in brainstem and thalami, both structures known to be involved in arousal and wakefulness. These results show that BIS changes associated with physiological sleep depth co-vary with the activity of specific cortical and subcortical areas. The latter are known to modulate arousal, which in turn allows sustained thalamo-cortical enhancement of activity in a specific frontoparietal network known to be related to the content of consciousness. Thus, although mainly derived from frontal EEG, BIS could represent a wider index of cerebral activity. PMID:19678596

  14. Awareness of bispectral index monitoring system among the critical care nursing personnel in a tertiary care hospital of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bispectral index monitoring system (BIS is one of the several systems used to measure the effects of anaesthetic and sedative drugs on the brain and to track changes in the patient′s level of sedation and hypnosis. BIS monitoring provides information clinically relevant to the adjustment of dosages of sedating medication. It can help the nursing personnel in preventing under- and over sedation among intensive care unit (ICU patients. Objective: The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge of nursing personnel working in the ICU regarding BIS. Methods: Fifty-four subjects participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was developed to assess the knowledge of the nursing personnel regarding BIS. Focus group discussions were held among the nursing personnel to know their views regarding BIS. Results: Mean age (years of the subjects was 30.7΁7.19 (21-47 years, with a female preponderance. Although the use of BIS in ICU is not common, majority (94.44% were aware of BIS and its purpose. 79.62% of the subjects knew about its implication in patient care. The mean knowledge score of the subjects was 11.87΁2.43 (maximum score being 15. Conclusion: There exists an awareness among the critical care nursing staff in our institution regarding BIS and its clinical implications. Its use in the critical care setting may benefit the patients in terms of providing optimal sedation.

  15. Comparative study among acepromazine, chlorpromazine and methotrimeprazine in different doses, through bispectral index, term and pressure algimetry, in dogs / Estudo comparativo entre a acepromazina, clorpromazina e levomepromazina em diferentes doses, através do exame bispectral, termo e pressoalgimetria, em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mitsuko Matsubara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study’s objective was to realize comparisons among different acepromazine, chlorpromazine and methotrimeprazine doses, evaluate parametric changes, test analgesia using press and term algimetry, and evaluate bispectral condition. 90 mongrel dogs were used, male and female, adult, weighting 10 to 15 Kg as a rule, distributed in 9 groups with 10 animals each. At first, second and third groups acepromazine was used at 0,1; 0,05 e 0,025 mg/Kg, respectively. At forth, fifth and sixth groups, chlorpromazine was used at 1,0; 0,5 and 0,25 mg/Kg, respectively. At seventh, eighth and ninth groups, methotrimeprazine at 1,0; 0,5 and 0,25 mg/Kg was used, respectively. All drugs were administered intravenously. Objects of study: heart rate (HR, non invasive blood pressure (SAP, MAP, DAP, respiratory rate (f, capnography (ETCO2, pulse oxymetry (SatO2, mouth and rectal temperature, bispectral index (BIS, electromyography (EMG%, press and term algimetry. Somatic analgesia was evaluated by animal’s response to nociceptives stimulus. We concluded that chlorpromazine had more hypotension. Dogs showed higher hypnosis level at chlorpromazine group, with evident myorelaxation. All groups showed analgesia to thermic and mechanic stimulus. Acepromazine group showed high duration to both pain stimuli. Bispectral index was shorten at chlorpromazine group at 1,0 mg/kg doses, showing higher hypnosis index, and acepromazine was the less depressing considering the bispectral index.Objetivou-se comparar, em diferentes doses, a acepromazina, a clorpromazina e a levomepromazina com relação às alterações paramétricas, à analgesia avaliada através da presso e termoalgimetria e a condição bispectral em 90 cães sem raça definida alocados em nove grupos. No primeiro, segundo e terceiro grupo foi empregada a acepromazina nas doses de 0,1; 0,05 e 0,025 mg/kg, respectivamente. No quarto, quinto e sexto grupo foi empregada a clorpromazina nas doses de 1,0; 0,5 e 0

  16. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    in Chapter 2. Comparisons play a key role in many systems such as online auctions and benchmarks — it is not unreasonable to say that when parties come together for a multiparty computation, it is because they want to make decisions that depend on private information. Decisions depend on comparisons....... We have implemented the comparison protocol in Java and benchmarks show that is it highly competitive and practical. The biggest contribution of this dissertation is a general framework for secure multiparty computation. Instead of making new ad hoc implementations for each protocol, we want a single......; benchmarks show that the approach is practical....

  17. Bispectral pairwise interacting source analysis for identifying systems of cross-frequency interacting brain sources from electroencephalographic or magnetoencephalographic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chella, Federico; Pizzella, Vittorio; Zappasodi, Filippo; Nolte, Guido; Marzetti, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Brain cognitive functions arise through the coordinated activity of several brain regions, which actually form complex dynamical systems operating at multiple frequencies. These systems often consist of interacting subsystems, whose characterization is of importance for a complete understanding of the brain interaction processes. To address this issue, we present a technique, namely the bispectral pairwise interacting source analysis (biPISA), for analyzing systems of cross-frequency interacting brain sources when multichannel electroencephalographic (EEG) or magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data are available. Specifically, the biPISA makes it possible to identify one or many subsystems of cross-frequency interacting sources by decomposing the antisymmetric components of the cross-bispectra between EEG or MEG signals, based on the assumption that interactions are pairwise. Thanks to the properties of the antisymmetric components of the cross-bispectra, biPISA is also robust to spurious interactions arising from mixing artifacts, i.e., volume conduction or field spread, which always affect EEG or MEG functional connectivity estimates. This method is an extension of the pairwise interacting source analysis (PISA), which was originally introduced for investigating interactions at the same frequency, to the study of cross-frequency interactions. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated in simulations for up to three interacting source pairs and for real MEG recordings of spontaneous brain activity. Simulations show that the performances of biPISA in estimating the phase difference between the interacting sources are affected by the increasing level of noise rather than by the number of the interacting subsystems. The analysis of real MEG data reveals an interaction between two pairs of sources of central mu and beta rhythms, localizing in the proximity of the left and right central sulci.

  18. Comparison of the ability of wavelet index and bispectral index for reflecting regain of consciousness in patients undergone surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-tong; CHENG Hao; XIONG Wei; WANG Bao-guo

    2010-01-01

    Background Wavelet index (WLI) is a new parameter for monitoring depth of anesthesia based on Wavelet analysis.We observed the change of WLI and bispectral index (BIS) in patients regain of consciousness (ROC) in the absence of frontalis electromyographic (EMG) interference. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of WLI and BIS for reflecting ROC in patients undergone surgery.Methods Twelve patients who were scheduled for maxillofacial surgeries were enrolled in the study. BIS and WLI values were monitored continually. After being given midazolam and remifentanil, patients were asked to squeeze the investigator's hand ever 30 seconds. Patients were continuously given propofol until loss of consciousness (LOC1).Tunstall's isolated forearm technique was used to test the surgical consciousness in patients. After total muscle relaxation,endotracheal intubations were performed, and the patients were connected to a ventilator. Then, propofol was withdrawn until the patients showed regain of consciousness (ROC1) and an awareness reaction. After the command test, patients were readministered with propofol until loss of consciousness (LOC2). After surgery, all of the sedatives were withdrawn,and the patients were let to regain consciousness (ROC2).Results The BIS values of twelve patients at ROC1 after using muscle relaxant were much lower than those at LOC1 and ROC2 without using muscle relaxant, showing statistical significance (P <0.05). Meanwhile, the WLI values of twelve patients at ROC1 after using muscle relaxant were much higher than those at LOC1 and equal to ROC2 without using muscle relaxant, showing statistical significances (P <0.05) between ROC1 and LOC1.Conclusions This study showed that under muscle relaxation or facial paralysis, when there is no EMG signal, BIS can not accurately reflect regain of consciousness in surgical patients, but WLI can reflect it accurately. So WLI may have advantages for reflecting state of consciousness in surgical

  19. Rational Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachin, Christian

    Security research continues to provide a plethora of new protocols and mechanisms; these solutions patch either existing vulnerabilities found in practical systems or solve hypothetical security problems in the sense that the problem is often conceived at the same time when the first solution is proposed. Yet only a very small fraction of this research is relevant to ordinary users in the sense that they are willing to actually deploy the technology.

  20. Observation of anesthesia depth in severe burn patients with target controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil by bispectral index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-gang GUO

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the feasibility and efficiency of bispectral index (BIS for monitoring the anesthesia depth of severe burn patients with target controlled infusion (TCI of propofol and remifentanil. Methods A total of 80 severe burns patients undergoing eschar excision ( < 1week were randomly divided into BIS group (group A and control group (group B, with 40 cases assigned in each group. These patients were 18 years to 65 years old, ASAⅡ-Ⅲ. Their total burn surface areas (TBSA were from 31% to 50%, or 11% to 20% with three-degree burns. All patients received remifentanil and propofol for TCI intravenous anesthesia. The mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR were determined at following time points, namely, entrance to the operation room, loss of consciousness, 2min after intubation, before surgery, 2, 15, and 30min after the start of surgery, end of surgery, eye opening, and period when Aldrete score reaching 9 points, as well as the target concentrations of remifentanil and propofol. The time frames from stoppage of drug infusion to eye opening and the period when Aldrete score reaching 9 points were also recorded. Results Compared with group B, the target concentrations of remifentanil (2.12±0.35ng/ml vs. 2.50±0.21ng/ml and propofol (2.54±0.22μg/ml vs. 2.86±0.31μg/ml were significantly lower in group A during anesthetic maintenance (P < 0.01. The time interval from stoppage of drug infusion to eye opening (7.90±0.58min vs. 8.35±0.66min and period when Aldrete score reaching 9 points (9.15±0.69min vs. 11.13±0.96min were significantly reduced in group A. The MAP of both groups from loss of consciousness at all time points, except 2min after intubation, was significantly lower than the basic values upon entrance into the operation room (P < 0.05. The HR at all time points were significantly lower compared with the basic data (P < 0.05. Conclusion BIS for monitoring the anesthetic depth of severe burns patients

  1. Comparison of the EEG-based SNAP index and the Bispectral (BIS) index during sevoflurane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gimeno, P; Soro, M; Pérez-Solaz, A; Carrau, M; Belda, F J; Jover, J L; Aguilar, G

    2005-12-01

    The BIS monitor (Aspect Medical Inc, Newton, USA) was the first electroencephalogram (EEG)-based monitor of the hypnotic effect reflected by a dimensionless figure ranging from 100 (awake state) to 0 (flat line EEG). Its widespread use makes it the most-studied and the best-known among same intended devices. Its algorithm processes low-frequency EEG oscillations in order to provide the Bispectral index. A BIS index ranging from 40 to 60 has been established as the proper for surgical performance. The BIS monitor permits a closer approach to the hypnotic component of anaesthesia beyond clinical signs and may reduce the probability of intraoperative awareness; therefore, it has become a recommended monitoring tool in routine practice. The SNAP monitor (Nicolet Biomedical, Madison WI, USA) is also intended for monitoring the hypnotic effect of anaesthetics, which is in turn displayed as an index ranging from 100 to 0, with 100 meaning a fully awake state and 0 meaning no brain activity. The algorithm of the SNAP monitor is featured by its additional processing of ultra-high EEG frequencies, which seem to be involved in the formation of consciousness. The use of these frequencies would theoretically improve responsiveness during increased brain activity. We studied its behaviour patterns and capability to monitor the hypnotic effect induced by sevoflurane-nitrous oxide by comparison with the BIS index. Seventy patients ASA I-III were induced with propofol, fentanyl and rocuronium, and maintained with sevoflurane-N(2)O. BIS and SNAP indices were simultaneously recorded before induction, after intubation, after incision, at the following 10, 30 and 50 minutes, awakening and extubation time points, together with heart rate and blood pressure. The Pearson correlation was R(2) = 0.68 (p < .05). The Bland and Altman test showed a bias of 14.3 for SNAP index values with respect to BIS index values. We concluded that the SNAP index correlates with variations in the hypnotic

  2. Changes to the bispectral index and regional cerebral blood flow in a sedative state, caused by midazolam administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psychosedation, as used in the field of dentistry, is intended to provide trouble-free dental care while maintaining a proper level of sedation. One drug used in psychosedation is midazolam, which is known to have a strong amnestic effect. In the current research, I sought to clarify whether the bispectral index (BIS) using electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis can be used for assessment of optimal sedation in psychosedation, and what effects midazolam has on the cerebrum's mechanism of memory. The subjects were 17 healthy adult volunteers. Intravenous sedation involved a single administration of 0.06 mg/kg midazolam, or 6 mg/kg/h propofol, administered for 5 minutes and then continuously administered for 25 minutes at 3 mg/kg/h. For nitrous oxide inhalation sedation, 10-30% nitrous oxide was used. Clinical sedation and the BIS were measured in a variety of circumstances. To examine the effects of midazolam on the central nervous system, changes in brain oxygen consumption in visual memory tasks were assessed through observing changes in areas of brain activation using 3T fMRI. With intravenous sedation using midazolam or propofol, the BIS decreased immediately after drug administration, and the BIS at which optimal sedation was clinically determined was about 65. In contrast, no decrease in the BIS was noted with nitrous oxide inhalation sedation. In observing areas of brain activation by fMRI, the oxygen consumption mainly of visual cortices in the occipital lobe increased as a result of stimulation by visual memory tasks. Regardless of the amnestic effect midazolam produced in subjects, it did not suppress activation of the visual cortices in the occipital lobe. In intravenous sedation using midazolam or propofol, the BIS is effective in determining optimal sedation, and appropriate perioperative management can be performed using the BIS. However, in nitrous oxide inhalation sedation it appears that the BIS cannot be used to monitor levels of sedation. Amnestic

  3. Histology protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tim D. Hewitson & Ian A. Darby (Eds Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA Series: Springer Protocols Methods in Molecular Biology, Volume 611, 2010 Pages: 230; € 83.15 ISBN: 978-1-60327-344-2 Impressive as it can sounds in the era that Biology see a clear dominance of reductionism with the idea that complexity can be disentagled more and more thanks to the use of molecular tools, the reader will remain fascinated by this slim and agile volume devoted to bring together what apparently are two separeted words: molecular biology and histology. Simply remembering to the youngest scientists.....

  4. Hemodynamics and bispectral index (BIS) of dogs anesthetized with midazolam and ketamine associated with medetomidine or dexmedetomidine and submitted to ovariohysterectomy Avaliação hemodinâmica e do índice bispectral (BIS) de cadelas anestesiadas com midazolam e cetamina associados à medetomidina ou dexmedetomidina e submetidas a ovário-salpingo-histerectomia

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando do Carmo Silva; Eduardo Hatschbach; Yuri Karaccas de Carvalho; Bruno Watanabe Minto; Flávio Massone; Paulo do Nascimento Junior

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate hemodynamics and bispectral index (BIS) in bitches anesthetized with ketamine and midazolam in combination with dexmedetomidine or medetomidine and submitted to ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Twenty bitches pretreated with levomedetomidine and buprenorphine were anesthetized with 5 mg.kg-1 ketamine and 0.2 mg.kg-1 midazolam i.v. Continuous infusion of 0.4 mg.kg-1.h-1 midazolam and 20 mg.kg-1.h-1 ketamine was initiated in combination with DEX (n=10): 20 µg.kg-1.h-1 dexmedeto...

  5. Comparative study among acepromazine, chlorpromazine and methotrimeprazine in different doses, through bispectral index, term and pressure algimetry, in dogs /
    Estudo comparativo entre a acepromazina, clorpromazina e levomepromazina em diferentes doses, através do exame bispectral, termo e pressoalgimetria, em cães

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Mitsuko Matsubara; Flávio Massone; Raquel Cristina Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    The study’s objective was to realize comparisons among different acepromazine, chlorpromazine and methotrimeprazine doses, evaluate parametric changes, test analgesia using press and term algimetry, and evaluate bispectral condition. 90 mongrel dogs were used, male and female, adult, weighting 10 to 15 Kg as a rule, distributed in 9 groups with 10 animals each. At first, second and third groups acepromazine was used at 0,1; 0,05 e 0,025 mg/Kg, respectively. At forth, fifth and sixth groups, c...

  6. Cloud cover over the equatorial eastern Pacific derived from July 1983 International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data using a hybrid bispectral threshold method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.

    1987-01-01

    A set of visible and IR data obtained with GOES from July 17-31, 1983 is analyzed using a modified version of the hybrid bispectral threshold method developed by Minnis and Harrison (1984). This methodology can be divided into a set of procedures or optional techniques to determine the proper contaminate clear-sky temperature or IR threshold. The various optional techniques are described; the options are: standard, low-temperature limit, high-reflectance limit, low-reflectance limit, coldest pixel and thermal adjustment limit, IR-only low-cloud temperature limit, IR clear-sky limit, and IR overcast limit. Variations in the cloud parameters and the characteristics and diurnal cycles of trade cumulus and stratocumulus clouds over the eastern equatorial Pacific are examined. It is noted that the new method produces substantial changes in about one third of the cloud amount retrieval; and low cloud retrievals are affected most by the new constraints.

  7. BiSpectral Index (BIS) monitoring may detect critical hypotension before automated non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurement during general anaesthesia; a case report. [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2oi

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Matthew M. J.

    2014-01-01

    A patient undergoing general anaesthesia for neurosurgery exhibited an unexpected sudden decrease in the BiSpectral Index (BIS) value to near-zero. This prompted the detection of profound hypotension using non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurement and expedited urgent assessment and treatment, with the patient making a full recovery. Widely regarded as a ‘depth of anaesthesia’ monitor, this case demonstrates the potential extra clinical benefit BIS may have in the detection of critical i...

  8. Mobile internet protocol analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brachfeld, Lawrence J.

    1999-01-01

    Mobile Internet Protocol (IP) is a proposed standard that builds on the current Internet Protocol by making the fact that a user is mobile transparent to applications and higher level protocols such as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet while maintaining any current conne...

  9. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  10. Bispectral index in dogs with high intracranial pressure, anesthetized with propofol and submitted to two levels of FiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C.F. Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inspired oxygen fractions (FiO2 of 1 and 0.6 on bispectral index (BIS in dogs with high intracranial pressure, submitted to a continuous rate infusion of propofol were evaluated. Eight dogs were anesthetized on two occasions, receiving, during controlled ventilation, an FiO2 = 1 (G100 or an FiO2 = 0.6 (G60. Propofol was used for induction (10mg.kg-1, IV, followed by a continuous rate infusion (0.6mg.kg-1.minute-1. After 20 minutes, a fiber-optic catheter was implanted on the surface of the right cerebral cortex to monitor the intracranial pressure, the baseline measurements of BIS values, signal quality index, suppression ratio number, electromyogram indicator, end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure, mean arterial pressure, intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure were taken. Then, the blood flow from the right jugular vein was interrupted in order to increase intracranial pressure and after 20 minutes additional recordings were performed at 15-minute intervals (T0, T15, T30, T45 and T60. The arterial oxygen partial pressure varied according to the changes in oxygen. For the other parameters, no significant differences were recorded. The BIS monitoring was not influenced by different FiO2.

  11. Comparative evaluation of the cerebral state index/sup TM/ and bispectral index/sup TM/ monitoring during propofol-remifentanil anesthesia for open heart surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cerebral State index (CSI) is a new index based on electroencephalogram to monitor depth of anesthesia. Transferring guidelines for titration of the Bispectral index (BIS) to the CSI depends on their compatibility. We compared the relationship between BIS and CSI values during propofol-remifentanil anesthesia. Forty one adult patients about to have open heart surgeries were enrolled. The skin was prepped and electrodes of both monitors were applied according to the manufacturers recommendations. The anesthesia was induced by midazolam, propofol, remifentanil and pancuronium and maintained by propofol and remifentanil and 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen. The BIS and CSI values were recorded in 37 pre-determined milestones during the operation and the anesthetic drugs were adjusted according to clinical signs of light anesthesia regardless of the CSI or BIS values. The BIS and CSI values decreased progressively from pre induction values of 93.15 (55-100) and 88.86 (52-100) to post induction values of 38.72 (16-71) and 40.27 (5-69), respectively. These values showed good linear correlation during laryngoscopy, before and after surgical incision and during CPB; R=0.695 with determination coefficient of 0.483. We found a good correlation between BIS and CSI values. Our results might serve as a blue print for a rational translation of BIS into CSI values. (author)

  12. Comparison of equi-minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane and isoflurane on bispectral index values during both wash in and wash out phases: A prospective randomised study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: At equal minimum alveolar concentration (MAC, volatile agents may produce different bispectral index (BIS values especially at low BIS levels when the effect is volatile agent specific. The present study was performed to compare the BIS values produced by sevoflurane and isoflurane at equal MAC and thereby assessing which is a better hypnotic agent. Methods: Sixty American Society of Anaesthesiologists I and II patients undergoing elective mastoidectomy were divided into groups receiving either isoflurane or sevoflurane, and at equi-MAC. BIS value was measured during both wash in and wash out phase, keeping other parameters same. Statistical analysis was performed using the Friedman two-way analysis and Mann-Whitney U-test. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: BIS value was significantly lower with sevoflurane at all MAC values as compared to isoflurane, except in the beginning and at MAC awake. However, both the drugs proved to be cardiostable. Conclusion: At equi-MAC sevoflurane produces lower BIS values during wash in as well as wash out phase as compared to isoflurane, reflecting probably an agent specific effect and a deficiency in BIS algorithm for certain agents and their interplay.

  13. Research on Protocol Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪芸; 顾冠群; 等

    1996-01-01

    This paper elaborates the concept and model of protocol migration in network interconnection.Migration strategies and principles are discussed and several cases are studied in detail which show the basic procedure and techniques used in protocol migration.

  14. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Users expect communication systems to guarantee, amongst others, privacy and integrity of their data. These can be ensured by using well-established protocols; the best protocol, however, is useless if not all parties involved in a communication have a correct implementation of the protocol and a...

  15. Adaptation of TURN protocol to SIP protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Guezouri, Mustapha; Keche, Mokhtar

    2010-01-01

    Today, SIP is a protocol par Excellence in the field of communication over Internet. But, the fact that it belongs to the application layer constitutes a weakness vis-a-vis the NAT traversal. This weakness is due to the way in which the server replies to the requests of clients on the one hand. On the other, it is caused by the dynamic allocation of UDP ports for emission and reception of packets RTP/RTCP. The TURN Protocol may face this weakness. However, its use requires a certain number of exchanges between the clients and a TURN server before establishing the multimedia sessions and this increase the latent time. In this article, we propose to adapt TURN protocol for applications based on SIP protocol such as telephony over Internet, conference video, etc. This adaptation optimises the establishment of multimedia sessions by integrating a manager of TCP connections and multimedia flow controller into SIP Proxy server.

  16. Blind Collective Signature Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Moldovyan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the digital signature (DS scheme specified by Belarusian DS standard there are designed the collective and blind collective DS protocols. Signature formation is performed simultaneously by all of the assigned signers, therefore the proposed protocols can be used also as protocols for simultaneous signing a contract. The proposed blind collective DS protocol represents a particular implementation of the blind multisignature schemes that is a novel type of the signature schemes. The proposed protocols are the first implementations of the multisignature schemes based on Belarusian signature standard.

  17. Efficient decentralized consensus protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, T. V.; Agrawala, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Decentralized consensus protocols are characterized by successive rounds of message interchanges. Protocols which achieve a consensus in one round of message interchange require O(N-squared) messages, where N is the number of participants. In this paper, a communication scheme, based on finite projective planes, which requires only O(N sq rt N) messages for each round is presented. Using this communication scheme, decentralized consensus protocols which achieve a consensus within two rounds of message interchange are developed. The protocols are symmetric, and the communication scheme does not impose any hierarchical structure. The scheme is illustrated using blocking and nonblocking commit protocols, decentralized extrema finding, and computation of the sum function.

  18. Relação entre a infusão contínua de dexmedetomidina e a fração expirada de sevoflurano monitorizada pelo índice bispectral

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães Edno; Govêia Cátia Sousa; Ladeira Luís Cláudio de Araújo; Espíndola Beatriz Vieira

    2004-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A associação de agentes venosos à anestesia geral inalatória proporciona melhor qualidade de analgesia e hipnose. A dexmedetomidina é um agonista específico alfa2-adrenérgico com estas características e reconhecida por proporcionar estabilidade hemodinâmica. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito da infusão contínua de dexmedetomidina na fração expirada de sevoflurano (FEsevo) em anestesia geral, monitorizada pela análise bispectral do EEG (BIS). MÉTODO: Estudou-...

  19. BiSpectral Index (BIS monitoring may detect critical hypotension before automated non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP measurement during general anaesthesia; a case report. [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2oi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient undergoing general anaesthesia for neurosurgery exhibited an unexpected sudden decrease in the BiSpectral Index (BIS value to near-zero. This prompted the detection of profound hypotension using non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP measurement and expedited urgent assessment and treatment, with the patient making a full recovery. Widely regarded as a ‘depth of anaesthesia’ monitor, this case demonstrates the potential extra clinical benefit BIS may have in the detection of critical incidents such as anaphylaxis during general anaesthesia.

  20. The effect of different doses of esmolol on hemodynamic, bispectral index and movement response during orotracheal intubation: prospective, randomized, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensure Yılmaz Çakırgöz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A prospective, randomized and double-blind study was planned to identify the optimum dose of esmolol infusion to suppress the increase in bispectral index values and the movement and hemodynamic responses to tracheal intubation. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups in a double-blind fashion. 2.5 mg kg-1 propofol was administered for anesthesia induction. After loss of consciousness, and before administration of 0.6 mg kg-1 rocuronium, a tourniquet was applied to one arm and inflated to 50 mm Hg greater than systolic pressure. The patients were divided into 3 groups; 1 mg kg-1 h-1 esmolol was given as the loading dose and in Group Es50 50 μg kg-1 min-1, in Group Es150 150 μg kg-1 min-1, and in Group Es250 250 μg kg-1 min-1 esmolol infusion was started. Five minutes after the esmolol has been begun, the trachea was intubated; gross movement within the first minute after orotracheal intubation was recorded. Results: Incidence of movement response and the ΔBIS max values were comparable in Group Es250 and Group Es150, but these values were significantly higher in Group Es50 than in the other two groups. In all three groups in the 1st minute after tracheal intubation heart rate and mean arterial pressure were significantly higher compared to values from before intubation (p < 0.05. In the study period there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of heart rate and mean arterial pressure. Conclusion: In clinical practise we believe that after 1 mg kg-1 loading dose, 150 μg kg-1 min-1 iv esmolol dose is sufficient to suppress responses to tracheal intubation without increasing side effects.

  1. Hemodynamics and bispectral index (BIS of dogs anesthetized with midazolam and ketamine associated with medetomidine or dexmedetomidine and submitted to ovariohysterectomy Avaliação hemodinâmica e do índice bispectral (BIS de cadelas anestesiadas com midazolam e cetamina associados à medetomidina ou dexmedetomidina e submetidas a ovário-salpingo-histerectomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando do Carmo Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate hemodynamics and bispectral index (BIS in bitches anesthetized with ketamine and midazolam in combination with dexmedetomidine or medetomidine and submitted to ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Twenty bitches pretreated with levomedetomidine and buprenorphine were anesthetized with 5 mg.kg-1 ketamine and 0.2 mg.kg-1 midazolam i.v. Continuous infusion of 0.4 mg.kg-1.h-1 midazolam and 20 mg.kg-1.h-1 ketamine was initiated in combination with DEX (n=10: 20 µg.kg-1.h-1 dexmedetomidine or MED (n=10: 30 µg.kg-1.h-1 medetomidine over 30 minutes. A pharmacokinetic study provided dexmedetomidine plasma concentration, set to be 3.0 ng.mL-1. RESULTS: BIS decreased in both groups (P0.05, but heart rate decreased in both groups, as compared to control values (POBJETIVO: Verificar o comportamento hemodinâmico e o índice bispectral de cadelas anestesiadas com cetamina e midazolam associados à dexmedetomidina ou medetomidina. MÉTODOS: Vinte cadelas receberam pré-tratamento com levomepromazina e buprenorfina e foram anestesiadas com cetamina, 5 mg.kg-1 i.v., e midazolam, 0,2 mg.kg-1 i.v., seguidos da administração contínua de midazolam, 0,4 mg.kg-1.h-1, e cetamina, 20 mg.kg-1.h-1, associados, conforme o grupo, à: DEX (n=10: dexmedetomidina 20 µg.kg-1.h-1 ou MED (n=10: medetomidina 30 µg.kg-1.h-1, mantidos por 30 minutos. A dose de dexmedetomidina foi obtida por meio de estudo farmacocinético planejando-se concentração plasmática de 3,0 ng.mL-1. RESULTADOS: Os valores do BIS diminuíram em ambos os grupos (P0,05, sem a presença de efeitos adversos. CONCLUSÃO: A administração contínua de dexmedetomidina em concentração plasmática calculada de 3 ng.mL-1, em combinação com midazolam e cetamina, resulta em plano anestésico adequado para castração de cadelas, estabilidade hemodinâmica e despertar tranquilo, sem efeitos adversos.

  2. Block Advertisement Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Nemirovsky, Danil

    2015-01-01

    Bitcoin, a decentralized cryptocurrency, has attracted a lot of attention from academia, financial service industry and enthusiasts. The trade-off between transaction confirmation throughput and centralization of hash power do not allow Bitcoin to perform at the same level as modern payment systems. Block Advertisement Protocol is proposed as a step to resolve this issue. The protocol allows block mining and block relaying to happen in parallel. The protocol dictates a miner to advertise the ...

  3. Security of RFID protocols

    OpenAIRE

    van Deursen, Ton

    2011-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is a technology that uses radio waves to exchange data between RFID readers and tags. The low manufacturing costs and small size and the lack of need of a power source make RFID tags useful in many applications, but also impose a strong need for secure RFID protocols. The first part of this thesis considers the analysis of untraceability of RFID protocols. We start by designing a formal syntax and semantics for security protocols. We define untraceab...

  4. "Counterfactual" quantum protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidman, Lev

    2016-01-01

    The counterfactuality of recently proposed protocols is analyzed. A definition of `counterfactuality' is offered and it is argued that an interaction-free measurement of the presence of an opaque object can be named `counterfactual', while proposed "counterfactual" measurements of the absence of such objects are not counterfactual. The quantum key distribution protocols which rely only on measurements of the presence of the object are counterfactual, but quantum direct communication protocols...

  5. Commemoration of Montreal Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    CUCULEANU Georgeta

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the main provisions of the Convention from Vienna for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer and its Amendments. The restricting and banning programmes of these substances, some consequences on the environment of the absence of the Protocol and some alternative substances are also presented.

  6. Nitrous Oxide and Nitrous Oxide-Free Low-Flow Anesthesia Using Bispectral Index Monitoring: Effects on Hemodynamics, Recovery Times, Volatile Anesthetic Consumption and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Gülhan Köksal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of desfluraneN2O and desflurane-fentanyl combinations on hemodynamics, recovery times, volatile anesthetic consumption and costs in low-flow desflurane anesthesia by bispectral index (BIS monitoring of depth of anesthesia. Methods: After approval of ethics committee and obtaining patient consents, 60 patients were divided into two equal groups randomly. Non-invasive blood pressure measurement, ECG, SpO2 and BIS were monitored. All patients received 10 L .min-1 100% oxygen with mask for 5 minute before intubation. 2 mg.kg-1 propofol, 2 μg.kg-1 fentanyl and 0.6 mg.kg-1 rocuronium bromide were administered at induction in both groups. Desfluran 6% was chosen for anesthesia maintenance. Group 1 received 50% O2-N2O mixture in 6 L.min-1 and Group 2 received 50% O2-air mixture in 6 L.min-1 as carrier gas. Low-flow anesthesia (1 L.min-1 was started after a 10-min period of initial high flow (6 L.min-1. In Group 2, infusion of fentanyl was begun in 1 μg.kg.hour-1 rate. Desflurane level was adjusted at a main BIS value of 40-60. Blood pressure, heart rate, FiO2, etO2, FiN22, EtN2O, FiCO2, EtCO2, Fidesfluran and Etdesflurane were recorded. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of heart rate, arterial blood pressure, settings of desfluran and recovery time. BIS values (p<0.001 and anesthetic agent costs (p<0.001 were higher in Group 2. Conclusion: Using fentanyl infusion instead of nitrous oxide in low flow-anesthesia with desflurane did not alter the hemodynamic parameters. Fentanyl infusion with medical air-oxygen as carrier gas is an alternative technique, but increases BIS values and anesthetic agent costs. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2010; 48: 132-8

  7. Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Sigurd Torkel

    the bottleneck of sorting networks. And we show how to utilize this construction for four-player MPC. Another line of work has results about the power of correlated randomness; meaning in a preprocessing phase the participants in a MPC protocol receive samples from some joint distribution to aid them implement......This thesis contains research on the theory of secure multi-party computation (MPC). Especially information theoretically (as opposed to computationally) secure protocols. It contains results from two main lines of work. One line on Information Theoretically Secure Oblivious RAMS, and how...... the secure computation. Especially we look at the communication complexity of protocols in this model, and perfectly secure protocols. We show general protocols for any finite functionality with statistical security and optimal communication complexity (but exponential amount of preprocessing). And for two...

  8. IPv6 Protocol Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the emerging of next generation Intemet protocol (IPv6), it is expected to replace the current version of Internet protocol (IPv4) that will be exhausted in the near future. Besides providing adequate address space, some other new features are included into the new 128 bits of IP such as IP auto configuration, quality of service, simple routing capability, security, mobility and multicasting. The current protocol analyzer will not be able to handle IPv6 packets. This paper will focus on developing protocol analyzer that decodes IPv6 packet. IPv6 protocol analyzer is an application module,which is able to decode the IPv6 packet and provide detail breakdown of the construction of the packet. It has to understand the detail construction of the IPv6, and provide a high level abstraction of bits and bytes of the IPv6 packet.Thus it increases network administrators' understanding of a network protocol,helps he/she in solving protocol related problem in a IPv6 network environment.

  9. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  10. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  11. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification....... In response, we promote linear logic as a high-level language for both specifying and implementing voting protocols. Our linear logical specifications of the single-winner first-past-the-post (SW- FPTP) and single transferable vote (STV) protocols demonstrate that this approach leads to concise...

  12. A Framework Based on 2-D Taylor Expansion for Quantifying the Impacts of Subpixel Reflectance Variance and Covariance on Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius Retrievals Based on the Bispectral Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Werner, F.; Cho, H.-M.; Wind, G.; Platnick, S.; Ackerman, A. S.; Di Girolamo, L.; Marshak, A.; Meyer, K.

    2016-01-01

    The bispectral method retrieves cloud optical thickness (t) and cloud droplet effective radius (re) simultaneously from a pair of cloud reflectance observations, one in a visible or near-infrared (VIS/NIR) band and the other in a shortwave infrared (SWIR) band. A cloudy pixel is usually assumed to be horizontally homogeneous in the retrieval. Ignoring subpixel variations of cloud reflectances can lead to a significant bias in the retrieved t and re. In the literature, the retrievals of t and re are often assumed to be independent and considered separately when investigating the impact of subpixel cloud reflectance variations on the bispectral method. As a result, the impact on t is contributed only by the subpixel variation of VIS/NIR band reflectance and the impact on re only by the subpixel variation of SWIR band reflectance. In our new framework, we use the Taylor expansion of a two-variable function to understand and quantify the impacts of subpixel variances of VIS/NIR and SWIR cloud reflectances and their covariance on the t and re retrievals. This framework takes into account the fact that the retrievals are determined by both VIS/NIR and SWIR band observations in a mutually dependent way. In comparison with previous studies, it provides a more comprehensive understanding of how subpixel cloud reflectance variations impact the t and re retrievals based on the bispectral method. In particular, our framework provides a mathematical explanation of how the subpixel variation in VIS/NIR band influences the re retrieval and why it can sometimes outweigh the influence of variations in the SWIR band and dominate the error in re retrievals, leading to a potential contribution of positive bias to the re retrieval. We test our framework using synthetic cloud fields from a large-eddy simulation and real observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. The predicted results based on our framework agree very well with the numerical simulations. Our

  13. 1996 : Track Count Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge's Track Count Protocol is to provide an index to the population size of game animals inhabiting St. Vincent Island.

  14. Village Level Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Ankur Dumka

    2014-01-01

    Here in this paper we have proposed for a protocol to be implemented at the village level. As at the village level as there are few agencies to be contacted at village level so this uses a local label addressing of 4 bits to support 16 agencies with 3 bits Time to live header which checks weather a packet is reached or not. Thus being small packet size this protocol is faster and able to support fast network service at village level.

  15. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  16. Debunking myths of protocol registration

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Stephanie M; Slutsky Jean

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Developing and registering protocols may seem like an added burden to systematic review investigators. This paper discusses benefits of protocol registration and debunks common misperceptions on the barriers of protocol registration. Protocol registration is easy to do, reduces duplication of effort and benefits the review team by preventing later confusion.

  17. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  18. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    composition, and it is truly commonplace in today’s communication with the diversity of VPNs and secure browser sessions. In fact, it is normal that we have several layers of secure channels: For instance, on top of a VPN-connection, a browser may establish another secure channel (possibly with a different...... end point). Even using the same protocol several times in such a stack of channels is not unusual: An application may very well establish another TLS channel over an established one. We call this selfcomposition. In fact, there is nothing that tells us that all these compositions are sound, i.e., that...... the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and...

  19. Security Protocols in a Nutshell

    OpenAIRE

    Toorani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Security protocols are building blocks in secure communications. They deploy some security mechanisms to provide certain security services. Security protocols are considered abstract when analyzed, but they can have extra vulnerabilities when implemented. This manuscript provides a holistic study on security protocols. It reviews foundations of security protocols, taxonomy of attacks on security protocols and their implementations, and different methods and models for security analysis of pro...

  20. Business protocol in integrated Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelová, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The first chapter devotes to definitions of basic terms such as protocol or business protocol, to differences between protocol and etiquette, and between social etiquette and business etiquette. The second chapter focuses on the factors influencing the European business protocol. The third chapter is devoted to the etiquette of business protocol in the European countries. It touches the topics such as punctuality and planning of business appointment, greeting, business cards, dress and appear...

  1. Impersonation Attack on EKE Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Shirisha Tallapally

    2010-01-01

    The key exchange protocol is one of the most elegant ways of establishing secure communication between pair of users by using a session key. The passwords are of low entropy, hence the protocol should resist all types of password guessing attacks. Recently ECC-3PEKE protocol has been proposed by Chang and Chang. They claimed the protocol is secure, efficient and practical. Unless their claims Yoon and Yoo presented an Undetectable online password guessing attack on the above protocol. A key r...

  2. 光导在折射率引导光纤、多孔光纤、光子带隙光纤和纳米线中的简要定性解释%Simple qualitative explanations for light guidance in index-guiding fibres, holey fibres, photonic band-gap fibres and nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOVE John

    2014-01-01

    本文是一篇教学论文,旨在通过对具体实例中不同物理过程的分析来定性解释光导拓宽固体材料折射率引导光纤光谱、多孔光纤光谱、光子带隙光纤光谱和纳米线光谱的原理。%This is a tutorial-style paper in which simple explanations are presented to provide qualitative in-sight into the different physical processes that account for the guidance of light in the broadening spectrum of fibre types.These types include solid-material index-guiding fibres, holey fibres, photonic band-gap fibres and nano-wires.

  3. Security Protocol Design: A Case Study Using Key Distribution Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Dojen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays security protocols are a key component in providing security services for fixed and mobile networks. These services include data confidentiality, radio link encryption, message integrity, mobile subscriber authentication, electronic payment, certified e-mail, contract signing and nonrepudiation. This paper is concerned with design of effective security protocols. Security protocols are introduced and some common attacks against security protocols are discussed. The vulnerabilities that lead to theattacks are analyzed and guidelines for effective security protocol design are proposed. The presented guidelines are applied to the Andrew Secure RPC protocol and its adapted versions. It is demonstrated that compliance with the guidelines successfully avoidsfreshness and parallel session attacks.

  4. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  5. A family of quantum protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Devetak, I; Winter, A

    2003-01-01

    We introduce two dual, purely quantum protocols: for entanglement distillation assisted by quantum communication (``mother'' protocol) and for entanglement assisted quantum communication (``father'' protocol). We show how a large class of ``children'' protocols (including many previously known ones) can be derived from the two by direct application of teleportation or super-dense coding. Furthermore, the parent may be recovered from most of the children protocols by making them ``coherent''. We also summarize the various resource trade-offs these protocols give rise to.

  6. Phototherapy Modalities and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Ferahbaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, the development of irradiation devices with new emission spectra has led to an expanded role for phototherapy in the treatment of skin diseases. This development is best illustrated by the increasing frequency with which 311 nm UVB phototherapy is used for the treatment of psoriasis and vitiligo, especially. Another example is UVA1 340-400 nm. UVA1 was first used to treat patients with atopic dermatitis, but it has been found to be efficacious in several other skin diseases. This is overview of the protocols for phototherapy with UV in the treatment of skin diseases as currently used according to recent literature review. There are, of course, other protocols in use that are effective.

  7. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  8. Protocols for Microcontrollers Networks

    OpenAIRE

    López, Ricardo A.

    2011-01-01

    The microcontrollers are embedded in our way of life and are found in many devices. The ability of Very High Scale Integration (VLSI) - with almost exponential growth in recent years makes these devices every day contain functions previously unthinkable. Therefore, a grouping of these networked devices creates a very powerful system, which equipped with a standard protocol that allows interconnection to the Internet gives you a virtually unlimited range of scalability. For these reasons, t...

  9. Seismic protocol urges sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a preliminary summary of a protocol manual for conducting seismic surveys in various topographic and geographic situations to minimize environmental impacts. The manual aims at addressing unique issues for six different types of ecological environments in such a way as to enhance contractors' overall awareness of the types of environmental issues they may encounter, along with some common sense methods of dealing with them. Those six environments are marine, coastal, rain forest, arctic, semi-level terrains, and mountainous

  10. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  11. An automatic protocol composition checker

    OpenAIRE

    Kojovic, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Formal analysis is widely used to prove security properties of the protocols. There are tools to check protocols in isolation, but in fact we use many protocols in parallel or even vertically stacked, e.g. running an application protocol (like login) over a secure channel (like TLS) and in general it is unclear if that is safe. There are several works that give sufficient conditions for parallel and vertical composition, but there exists no program to check whether these conditions are actual...

  12. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  13. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  14. Provenance Query Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, S.; Moreau, L; Groth, P; Tan, V.; Munroe, S; Jiang, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    A related document defines schemas to be used for documentation about the execution of a process. It also defines the provenance of a data item as the process that led to that item. A provenance query is a query for the provenance of a data item and the results of such a query is documentation of the process that led to the item. In this document, we specify a protocol by which a querying actor and provenance store can communicate in performing a provenance query. This primarily takes the for...

  15. Transfusion protocol in trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Paramjit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood and blood components are considered drugs because they are used in the treatment of diseases. As with any drug, adverse effects may occur, necessitating careful consideration of therapy. Like any other therapeutic decision, the need for transfusion should be considered on the basis of risks and benefits and alternative treatments available to avoid over- and under-transfusion. This review is focused on the blood transfusion protocol in trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock. Besides, issues related to emergency and massive transfusion have also been elaborated. We conducted a comprehensive MEDLINE search and reviewed the relevant literature, with particular reference to emergency medical care in trauma.

  16. Optimal wavelengths obtained from laws analogous to the Wien's law for monospectral and bispectral methods, and general methodology for multispectral temperature measurements taking into account global transfer function including non-uniform emissivity of surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodiet, Christophe; Remy, Benjamin; Degiovanni, Alain

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, it is shown how to select the optimal wavelengths minimizing the relative error and the standard deviation of the temperature. Furthermore, it is shown that the optimal wavelengths in mono-spectral and bi-spectral methods (for a Planck's law) can be determined by laws analogous to the displacement Wien's law. The simplicity of these laws can thus allow real-time selection of optimal wavelengths for a control/optimization of industrial processes, for example. A more general methodology to obtain the optimal wavelengths selection in a multi-spectral method (taking into account the spectral variations of the global transfer function including the emissivity variations) for temperature measurement of surfaces exhibiting non-uniform emissivity, is also presented. This latter can then find an interest in glass furnaces temperature measurement with spatiotemporal non-uniformities of emissivity, the control of biomass pyrolysis, the surface temperature measurement of buildings or heating devices, for example. The goal consists of minimizing the standard deviation of the estimated temperature (optimal design experiment). For the multi-spectral method, two cases will be treated: optimal global and optimal constrained wavelengths selection (to the spectral range of the detector, for example). The estimated temperature results obtained by different models and for different number of parameters and wavelengths are compared. These different points are treated from theoretical, numerical and experimental points of view.

  17. Cirrus cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals from eMAS during SEAC4RS using bi-spectral reflectance measurements within the 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kerry; Platnick, Steven; Arnold, G. Thomas; Holz, Robert E.; Veglio, Paolo; Yorks, John; Wang, Chenxi

    2016-04-01

    Previous bi-spectral imager retrievals of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) based on the Nakajima and King (1990) approach, such as those of the operational MODIS cloud optical property retrieval product (MOD06), have typically paired a non-absorbing visible or near-infrared wavelength, sensitive to COT, with an absorbing shortwave or mid-wave infrared wavelength sensitive to CER. However, in practice it is only necessary to select two spectral channels that exhibit a strong contrast in cloud particle absorption. Here it is shown, using eMAS observations obtained during NASA's SEAC4RS field campaign, that selecting two absorbing wavelength channels within the broader 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band, namely the 1.83 and 1.93 µm channels that have sufficient differences in ice crystal single scattering albedo, can yield COT and CER retrievals for thin to moderately thick single-layer cirrus that are reasonably consistent with other solar and IR imager-based and lidar-based retrievals. A distinct advantage of this channel selection for cirrus cloud retrievals is that the below-cloud water vapor absorption minimizes the surface contribution to measured cloudy top-of-atmosphere reflectance, in particular compared to the solar window channels used in heritage retrievals such as MOD06. This reduces retrieval uncertainty resulting from errors in the surface reflectance assumption and reduces the frequency of retrieval failures for thin cirrus clouds.

  18. Security and SCADA protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview of security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)

  19. Formal Verification of Quantum Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Nagarajan, R; Nagarajan, Rajagopal; Gay, Simon

    2002-01-01

    We propose to analyse quantum protocols by applying formal verification techniques developed in classical computing for the analysis of communicating concurrent systems. One area of successful application of these techniques is that of classical security protocols, exemplified by Lowe's discovery and fix of a flaw in the well-known Needham-Schroeder authentication protocol. Secure quantum cryptographic protocols are also notoriously difficult to design. Quantum cryptography is therefore an interesting target for formal verification, and provides our first example; we expect the approach to be transferable to more general quantum information processing scenarios. The example we use is the quantum key distribution protocol proposed by Bennett and Brassard, commonly referred to as BB84. We present a model of the protocol in the process calculus CCS and the results of some initial analyses using the Concurrency Workbench of the New Century (CWB-NC).

  20. Stream Control Transmission Protocol Steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Fraczek, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a new transport layer protocol that is due to replace TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) protocols in future IP networks. Currently, it is implemented in such operating systems like BSD, Linux, HP-UX or Sun Solaris. It is also supported in Cisco network devices operating system (Cisco IOS) and may be used in Windows. This paper describes potential steganographic methods that may be applied to SCTP and may pose a threat to network security. Proposed methods utilize new, characteristic SCTP features like multi-homing and multistreaming. Identified new threats and suggested countermeasures may be used as a supplement to RFC 5062, which describes security attacks in SCTP protocol and can induce further standard modifications.

  1. Survey protocol for invasive species

    OpenAIRE

    Menza, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This protocol was developed by the Biogeography Branch of NOAA’s Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment to support invasive species research by the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. The protocol’s objective is to detect Carijoa riisei and Hypnea musciformis in deepwater habitats using visual surveys by technical divers. Note: This protocol is designed to detect the presence or absence of invasive species. A distinct protocol is required to collect information on abundance ...

  2. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe, Alberto; Pepe, Alberto; Yeomans, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should naturally guide authors towards OA publication and CERN wants to help reach a full...

  3. Mobile Multilayer IPsec protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Gayathri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A mobile user moves around and switches between wireless cells, subnets and domains, it needs to maintain the session continuity. At the same time security of signaling and transport media should not be compromised. A multi-layer security framework involving user authentication, packet based encryption and access control mechanism can provide the desired level of security to the mobile users. Supporting streaming traffic in a mobile wireless Internet is faced with several challenges due to continuous handoff experienced by a mobile user. These challenges include dynamic binding, location management, quality of service and end-to-end security for signaling and transport. Mobile users will use heterogeneous radio access networking technologies. Mobile multilayer IPsec protocol (MML IPSec extends ML-IPSec to deal with mobility and make it suitable for wireless networks. MML-IPSec is integration of ML-IPSec and mobile IP.

  4. A PROGRAMMED LABOUR - PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Prospective randomized Clinical study of outcome of labour following. “A Programmed labour. Protocol” was done at Department of OBG, MRMC Gulbarga. The Protocol was aimed with dual. Objective of Providing Pain relief during labour and teaching the goal of safe motherhood by optimizing objective outcome. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Shortening of duration of labour. Effect of labour analgesia. Monitoring of the events during labour. Lowering the incidence of operative deliveries. METHODS: 100 cases primi pregnant women admitted in labour room are randomly selected. It is designed to apply to low risk primi parous, singleton cephalic presentation without evidence of CPD and spontaneous onset of labour. RESULTS: Shortened duration of all the stages of Labour, especially significant reduction in duration of active phase of labour. CONCLUSION: The programmed labour is simple easy and effective method for painless and safe delivery.

  5. Compiling and securing cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, Yannick

    2009-01-01

    Protocol narrations are widely used in security as semi-formal notations to specify conversations between roles. We define a translation from a protocol narration to the sequences of operations to be performed by each role. Unlike previous works, we reduce this compilation process to well-known decision problems in formal protocol analysis. This allows one to define a natural notion of prudent translation and to reuse many known results from the literature in order to cover more crypto-primitives. In particular this work is the first one to show how to compile protocols parameterised by the properties of the available operations.

  6. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  7. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, A.; Yeomans, J.

    2007-10-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should guide authors naturally towards OA publication, and CERN wants to help reach a full open access publishing environment for the particle physics community and related sciences in the next few years.

  8. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Mittal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available IPTV is one of the mostly used technology of Internet and IP application. IPTV is a service for the delivery of broadcast TV, movies on demand and other interactive multimedia services over a secure, end-to-end operator managed broadband IP data network with desired QoS to the public with a broadband Internet connection. IPTV system may also include Internet services such as Web access and VoIP where it may be called Triple Play and is typically supplied by a broadband operator using the same infrastructure. IPTV is not the Internet Video that simply allows users to watch videos, like movie previews and web-cams, over the Internet in a best effort fashion. IPTV technology offers revenue-generating opportunities for the telecom and cable service providers. For traditional telephone service providers, Triple Play is delivered using a combination of optical fiber and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL technologies to its residential base. IPTV is a system where a digital television service is delivered by using Internet Protocol over a network infrastructure, which may include delivery by a broadband connection. A general definition of IPTV is television content that, instead of being delivered through traditional broadcast and cable formats, is received by the viewer through the technologies used for computer networks. In this paper I am trying to discuss this topic as my knowledge, including what is IPTV, how it works, its advantages and its applications

  9. Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Theis Peter; Broeng, Jes; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;

    2001-01-01

    . While extremely high degrees of birefringence may be obtained for the fibers, we demonstrate that careful design with respect to multimode behavior must be performed. We further discuss the cutoff properties of birefringent PCFs and present experimental results in agreement with theoretical predictions......Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) offer new possibilities of realizing highly birefringent fibers due to a higher intrinsic index contrast compared to conventional fibers. In this letter, we analyze theoretically the levels of birefringence that can be expected using relatively simple PCF designs...

  10. AN IMPROVED AUTHENTICATED KEY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, Seo and Sweeney proposed a simple authenticated key agreement protocol that was designed to act as a Diffie-Hellman key agreement protocol with user authentication.Various attacks on this protocol are described and enhanced in the literature. Recently, Ku and Wang proposed an improved authenticated key agreement protocol, where they asserted the protocol could withstand the existing attacks. This paper shows that Ku and Wang's protocol is still vulnerable to the modification attack and presents an improved authenticated key agreement protocol to enhance the security of Ku and Wang's protocol. The protocol has more efficient performance by replacing exponentiation operations with message authentication code operations.

  11. Midazolam por via oral como medicação pré-anestésica em crianças e adolescentes com paralisia cerebral: estudo comparativo das variações do índice bispectral Midazolam por vía oral como medicación preanestésica en niños y adolescentes con parálisis cerebral: estudio comparativo de las variaciones del índice bispectral Oral midazolam as pre-anesthetic medication in children and teenagers with cerebral palsy: a comparative study on the variations of the bispectral index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Vieira da Costa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O midazolam é um derivado benzodiazepínico com ação hipnótica e muito utilizado como medicação pré-anestésica em anestesia pediátrica. As crianças com paralisia cerebral (PC também se beneficiam do uso do midazolam, mas seus efeitos são ainda desconhecidos sobre esse grupo de pacientes que apresentam uma série de particularidades, com alterações inclusive no local de ação do midazolam. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a ação do midazolam utilizado como medicação pré-anestésica sobre o índice bispectral (EEG-BIS dos pacientes com paralisia cerebral. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados dois grupos de pacientes: um com diagnóstico de PC e outro sem doença do sistema nervoso central (SNC e periférico. Foram registrados valores de EEG-BIS na enfermaria na véspera da operação e no dia da operação, 40 minutos depois da administração de 0,6 mg.kg-1 de midazolam via oral. Foram excluídos pacientes com história de reação paradoxal ao midazolam e pacientes do grupo-controle que estivessem em uso de outra medicação. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 77 pacientes de ambos os sexos, entre 4 e 18 anos de idade. Não houve diferença entre os valores de EEG-BIS basal entre os grupos estudados. Após o uso do midazolam houve diminuição dos valores do EEG-BIS nos dois grupos estudados, com diferença estatística significativa em cada grupo. Na comparação entre grupos não houve diferença estatística. CONCLUSÕES: O midazolam administrado como medicação pré-anestésica na dose de 0,6 mg.kg-1 diminui os valores basais do EEG-BIS sem caracterizar hipnose e sem diferença estatística nos grupos estudados.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El midazolam es un derivado benzodiazepínico con acción hipnótica y muy utilizado como medicación preanestésica en anestesia pediátrica. Los niños con parálisis cerebral (PC también se benefician del uso del midazolam, pero sus efectos todavía se desconocen sobre ese

  12. 意识指数和脑电双频谱指数监测在小儿全身麻醉诱导中的应用%Index of consciousness and bispectral index in general anaesthesia induction in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金泉英; 刘珺珺; 顾志清

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨意识指数(index of consciousness,IoC)在小儿全身麻醉诱导时镇静深度监测中的应用价值.方法 25例择期手术患儿,应用丙泊酚等进行麻醉诱导,麻醉诱导期间测试患儿意识反应,镇静深度采用镇静/警觉评分(observers assessment of alertness/sedation scale,OAA/S),记录OAA/S评分即刻的IoC,并与脑电双频谱指数(bispectral index,BIS)进行比较.结果 25例中有效数据17例;OAA/S为0分时IoC值(44.82±8.47)、BIS值(39.00±14.44)均低于OAA/S为5分时(IoC值为96.65±2.64,BIS值为90.24±5.83),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),且以上2个时间点IoC值均大于BIS值(P<0.05);OAA/S与IoC(r=0.871,P=0.000)、BIS(r=0.864,P=0.000)以及IoC与BIS(r=0.805,P=0.002)均呈正相关.结论 IoC值可反映丙泊酚麻醉诱导期间小儿镇静深度.

  13. Ⅱ类超晶格双光谱红外探测器光谱串音的量化分析计算%Quantitative Analysis and Calculation of Spectral Crosstalk of Type Ⅱ Superlattice Bispectral Infrared Detectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忆锋; 余连杰; 田萦

    2011-01-01

    对于起降阶段的各类飞机来说,便携式导弹是主要威胁.以基于Ⅱ类超晶格双光谱红外探测器的机载导弹逼近告警(MAW)系统为应用背景,介绍了光谱串音的定义及计算方法.分别测出两个光谱通道的光谱响应曲线,容易利用MATLAB样条函数积分命令算出两条曲线交叉部分围成的面积,该面积的数值反映了器件光谱串音的大小.给出了所用MATLAB程序,该方法具有实现容易、使用快捷等特点.%The main threats for any type of aircraft are the man portable missiles during taking-off and landing.Under the application background of missile approach warning (MAW) based on type Ⅱ superlatice bispectral infrared detectors, the definition and calculation methods of spectral crosstalk were introduced.After measuring separately the spectral response curves of the two spectral channels, the area of the region bounded by the crossed sections of the two curves reflecting the amount of spectral crosstalk of the device, can be calculated easily with MATLAB spline function integration commands.The MATLAB program was listed in this paper.It is easier to implement and convenient to use.

  14. The impact of cloud vertical profile on liquid water path retrieval based on the bispectral method: A theoretical study based on large-eddy simulations of shallow marine boundary layer clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel J.; Zhang, Zhibo; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Platnick, Steven; Baum, Bryan A.

    2016-04-01

    Passive optical retrievals of cloud liquid water path (LWP), like those implemented for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), rely on cloud vertical profile assumptions to relate optical thickness (τ) and effective radius (re) retrievals to LWP. These techniques typically assume that shallow clouds are vertically homogeneous; however, an adiabatic cloud model is plausibly more realistic for shallow marine boundary layer cloud regimes. In this study a satellite retrieval simulator is used to perform MODIS-like satellite retrievals, which in turn are compared directly to the large-eddy simulation (LES) output. This satellite simulator creates a framework for rigorous quantification of the impact that vertical profile features have on LWP retrievals, and it accomplishes this while also avoiding sources of bias present in previous observational studies. The cloud vertical profiles from the LES are often more complex than either of the two standard assumptions, and the favored assumption was found to be sensitive to cloud regime (cumuliform/stratiform). Confirming previous studies, drizzle and cloud top entrainment of dry air are identified as physical features that bias LWP retrievals away from adiabatic and toward homogeneous assumptions. The mean bias induced by drizzle-influenced profiles was shown to be on the order of 5-10 g/m2. In contrast, the influence of cloud top entrainment was found to be smaller by about a factor of 2. A theoretical framework is developed to explain variability in LWP retrievals by introducing modifications to the adiabatic re profile. In addition to analyzing bispectral retrievals, we also compare results with the vertical profile sensitivity of passive polarimetric retrieval techniques.

  15. Data Link Layer Protocol Simulator User Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Nataf, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    The data link layer protocol simulator allows to write protocol and to see them in execution. This guide describes a step by step approach from simple information communication without any control to windows protocols. A protocol oriented java API is defined to write protocol algorithms.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Security Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Genge, Bela

    2009-01-01

    We propose a comparative performance evaluation of security protocols. The novelty of our approach lies in the use of a polynomial mathematical model that captures the performance of classes of cryptographic algorithms instead of capturing the performance of each algorithm separately, approach that is used in other papers. A major advantage of using such a model is that it does not require implementation-specific information, because the decision is based on comparing the estimated performances of protocols instead of actually evaluating them. The approach is validated by comparatively evaluating the performances of 1000 automatically generated security protocols against the performances of their actual implementations.

  17. Improved Authenticated Multi-Key Agreement Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua; YUAN Zheng; WEN Qiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    Zhou et al give an attack on Harn's modified authenticated multi-key agreement protocol, and give a protocol that can prevent the unknown key-share attack. The paper points out that the protocol is vulnerable to a concatenation attack. This paper proposes an improved authenticated multi-key agreement protocol which shows how to make Harn's protocol more secure by modifying the signature and verification. And this protocol can escape the concatenation attack.

  18. Session Initiation Protocol Attacks and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Keshavarz, Hassan; Sattari, Mohammad Reza Jabbarpour; Noor, Rafidah Md

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) has become widely used in current internet protocols. It is a text-based protocol much like Hyper Text Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). SIP is a strong enough signaling protocol on the internet for establishing, maintaining, and terminating session. In this paper the areas of security and attacks in SIP are discussed. We consider attacks from diverse related perspectives. The authentication schemes are comp...

  19. Assessment of Established Survey Protocols

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A form and instructions for quickly and briefly assessing a previously prior to 2013 reviewed or approved survey protocol for use as a National or Regional survey...

  20. Automatic Sequencing for Experimental Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Paul F.; Stern, Ivan

    We present a paradigm and implementation of a system for the specification of the experimental protocols to be used for the calibration of AXAF mirrors. For the mirror calibration, several thousand individual measurements need to be defined. For each measurement, over one hundred parameters need to be tabulated for the facility test conductor and several hundred instrument parameters need to be set. We provide a high level protocol language which allows for a tractable representation of the measurement protocol. We present a procedure dispatcher which automatically sequences a protocol more accurately and more rapidly than is possible by an unassisted human operator. We also present back-end tools to generate printed procedure manuals and database tables required for review by the AXAF program. This paradigm has been tested and refined in the calibration of detectors to be used in mirror calibration.

  1. Kyoto Protocol one step closer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    The European Union (EU) could soon decide to ratify the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, following a 4 March meeting of the European Commissions environment council to approve the treaty.European Commission President Romani Prodi said the council's move enables the 15 EU member states to take the steps toward simultaneous ratification together with the commission before 1 June."I urge our partners both in the developed and in the developing countries to also ratify the Kyoto Protocol soon," he said.

  2. SNOMED CT® Encoded Cancer Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    van Berkum, Monique M.

    2003-01-01

    SNOMED Clinical Terms® (SNOMED CT®) is being used to encode the Cancer Protocols published by the College of American Pathologists (CAP). As of January 1, 2004, one of the standards set for approved cancer programs by the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer will be that at least 90% of surgical pathology reports contain all essential data elements identified in the CAP Cancer Protocols.

  3. Neonatal euthanasia: The Groningen Protocol*

    OpenAIRE

    Vizcarrondo, Felipe E.

    2014-01-01

    For the past thirty years, voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide of adult patients have been common practice in the Netherlands. Neonatal euthanasia was recently legalized in the Netherlands and the Groningen Protocol (GP) was developed to regulate the practice. Supporters claim compliance with the GP criteria makes neonatal euthanasia ethically permissible. An examination of the criteria used by the Protocol to justify the euthanasia of seriously ill neonates reveals the criter...

  4. Secure E-payment Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattar J Aboud

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The vast spreading of information in the last decade has led to greatdevelopment in e-commerce. For instance, e-trade and e-bank are two mainInternet services that implement e-transaction from anyplace in the world. Thishelps merchant and bank to ease the financial transaction process and to giveuser friendly services at any time. However, the cost of workers andcommunications falls down considerably while the cost of trusted authority andprotecting information is increased. E-payment is now one of the most centralresearch areas in e-commerce, mainly regarding online and offline paymentscenarios. In this paper, we will discuss an important e-payment protocol namelyKim and Lee scheme examine its advantages and delimitations, whichencourages the author to develop more efficient scheme that keeping allcharacteristics intact without concession of the security robustness of theprotocol. The suggest protocol employs the idea of public key encryption schemeusing the thought of hash chain. We will compare the proposed protocol with Kimand Lee protocol and demonstrate that the proposed protocol offers moresecurity and efficiency, which makes the protocol workable for real worldservices.

  5. Monoclonal antibodies technology. Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Immunization. The first step in preparing useful monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is to immunize an animal (Balb/c for example) with an appropriate antigen. Methods (only for soluble antigen): Solubilize selected antigen in Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.2-7.4, ideally at a final concentration per animal between 10 to 50 μg/ml. It is recommended that the antigen under consideration be incorporated into the emulsion adjuvants in 1:1 volumetric relation. We commonly use Frend's adjuvant (FA) to prepared immunized solution. The first immunization should be prepared with complete FA, and the another could be prepared with incomplete FA. It is recommended to inject mice with 0.2 ml intraperitoneal (ip) or subcutaneous (sc). Our experience suggests the sc route is the preferred route. A minimum protocol for immunizing mice to generate cells for preparing hybridomas is s follows: immunize sc on day 0, boost sc on day 21, take a trial bleeding on day 26; if antibody titters are satisfactory, boost ip on day 35 with antigen only, and remove the spleen to obtain cells for fusion on day 38. Fusion protocol. The myeloma cell line we are using is X63 Ag8.653. At the moment of fusion myeloma cells need a good viability (at least a 95%). 1. Remove the spleen cells from immunized mice using sterile conditions. An immune spleen should yield between 7 a 10x107 nucleated cells. 2. Place the spleen in 20 ml of serum-free RPMI 1640 in a Petri dish. Using a needle and syringe, inject the spleen with medium to distend and disrupt the spleen stroma and free the nucleated cells. 3. Flush the cell suspension with a Pasteur pipet to disperse clumps of cells. 4. Centrifuge the spleen cell suspension at 250g for 10 min. Resuspend the pellet in serum-free RPMI 1640. Determine cell concentration using Neuhabuer chamber. 5. Mix the myeloma cells and spleen cells in a conical 50-ml tube in serum-free RPMI 1640, 1 x107 spleen cells to 1x106 myeloma cells (ratio 10:1). Centrifuge

  6. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  7. Superselection rules and quantum protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that superselection rules do not enhance the information-theoretic security of quantum cryptographic protocols. Our analysis employs two quite different methods. The first method uses the concept of a reference system--in a world subject to a superselection rule, unrestricted operations can be simulated by parties who share access to a reference system with suitable properties. By this method, we prove that if an n-party protocol is secure in a world subject to a superselection rule, then the security is maintained even if the superselection rule is relaxed. However, the proof applies only to a limited class of superselection rules, those in which the superselection sectors are labeled by unitary irreducible representations of a compact symmetry group. The second method uses the concept of the format of a message sent between parties--by verifying the format, the recipient of a message can check whether the message could have been sent by a party who performed charge-conserving operations. By this method, we prove that protocols subject to general superselection rules (including those pertaining to non-Abelian anyons in two dimensions) are no more secure than protocols in the unrestricted world. However, the proof applies only to two-party protocols. Our results show in particular that, if no assumptions are made about the computational power of the cheater, then secure quantum bit commitment and strong quantum coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias are impossible in a world subject to superselection rules

  8. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A protocol... security provisions (as proscribed in paragraph (a)(2)(vi) of this section for a research protocol) to, and... be in lieu of a research protocol to the Administration as required in paragraph (a) of this...

  9. Emergency department radiation accident protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, R B; Ricks, R C

    1980-09-01

    Every emergency department faces the potential problem of handling one or more victims of a radiation accident. While emergency departments near nuclear power plants or isotope production laboratories probably have a detailed protocol for such emergencies, a similar protocol is needed for the emergency department that may have to handle an isolated event, such as a vehicular accident that spills radioactive material and contaminates passengers or bystanders. This communication attempts to answer that need, presenting a step-by-step protocol for decontamination of a radiation victim, the rationale on which each step is based, a list of needed supplies, and a short summary of decorporation procedures that should be started in the emergency department. PMID:7425419

  10. Cryptographie Quantique : Protocoles et Graphes

    OpenAIRE

    Javelle, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Je souhaite réaliser un modèle théorique optimal pour les protocoles de partage de secret quantique basé sur l'utilisation des états graphes. Le paramètre représentatif d'un partage de secret à seuil est, entre autres la taille du plus grand ensemble de joueurs qui ne peut pas accéder au secret. Je souhaite donc trouver un famille de protocoles pour laquelle ce paramètre est le plus petit possible. J'étudie également les liens entre les protocoles de partage de secret quantique et des famille...

  11. The Geneva Protocol of 1925

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that when President Gerald Ford signed the instruments of ratification for the Geneva Protocol of 1925 on January 22, 1975, a tortured, half-century-long chapter in U.S. arms control policy was brought to a close. Fifty years earlier, at the Geneva Conference for the Control of the International Trade in Arms, Munitions and Implements of War, the United States had played a key role in drafting and reaching agreement on the Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare. The protocol, signed by thirty nations, including the United States, on June 17, 1925, prohibits the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of all analogous liquids, materials or devices as well as the use of bacteriological methods of warfare

  12. Analysis of the Transport Layer Security protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Firing, Tia Helene

    2010-01-01

    In this master thesis we have presented a security analysis of the TLS protocol with particular emphasis on the recently discovered renegotiation attack. From our security proof we get that the Handshake protocol with renegotiation, including the fix from IETF, is secure, and hence not vulnerable to the renegotiation attack anymore. We have also analysed the Handshake protocol with session resumption, and the Application data protocol together with the Record protocol. Both of these prot...

  13. Analyzing security of Authenticated Routing Protocol (ARAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Mehla; Bhawna Gupta; Preeti Nagrath

    2010-01-01

    Ad hoc network allow nodes to communicate beyond their direct wireless transmission range by introducing cooperation in mobile computer (nodes). Many proposed routing protocol for ad hoc network operate in an ad hoc fashion, as on demand routing protocol often have low overhead and faster reaction time than other type of routingbased on periodic protocol. However variety of attacks targeting routing protocol have been identified. By attacking the routing protocol attacker can absorb network t...

  14. Optimistic Non-repudiation Protocol Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Santiago, Judson; Vigneron, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Non-repudiation protocols with session labels have a number of vulnerabilities. Recently Cederquist, Corin and Dashti have proposed an optimistic non-repudiation protocol that avoids altogether the use of session labels. We have specified and analysed this protocol using an extended version of the AVISPA Tool and one important fault has been discovered. We describe the protocol, the analysis method, show two attack traces that exploit the fault and propose a correction to the protocol.

  15. The Kyoto protocol development; La viabilite du protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R. [Harvard Univ., Barrow, AK (United States); Guesneris, R. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-04-01

    From the author R. Cooper point of view the Kyoto Protocol is a flawed concept. The reasons for dropping Kyoto are presented in this paper insisting that rejecting Kyoto not means to imply that global climate change is not a serious problem. After a presentation of the US policy facing the Climatic Change, some concluding propositions are proposed. (A.L.B.)

  16. Additional protocol experience in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) is the national regulatory body with regulation, authorization and control responsibilities. CNCAN has the right and obligation to ensure that safeguards are applied, in accordance with the terms of the safeguards agreement, on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within the State, under its jurisdiction or carried out under its control anywhere, for the exclusive purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. CNCAN has built a strong primary and secondary legislation in order to have a strong legal framework to fulfill the NPT, Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol requirements. In respect of the non-proliferation issues CNCAN has as a major goal to strengthen the effectiveness and to improve the efficiency of the safeguards system. Also closer co-operation between the IAEA and CNCAN as coordinator of the national system of accounting for and control of nuclear material has been developed by organizing international and national seminars on the implementation of safeguards and the additional protocol. After the entry into force of the Additional Protocol, CNCAN prepared appropriate declarations and answers to the relevant IAEA questions in order to obtain a drawn conclusion of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and nuclear activities within Romania territory. The IAEA evaluated in Romania not only the results of its nuclear material related activities under the Safeguards Agreement but also the results of its broader, more qualitative, evaluation and verification activities under the Additional Protocol. CNCAN assured that the IAEA inspectors have complementary access according to the Additional Protocol as requested in accordance with the provisions of the Safeguards Agreement and the Additional Protocol and cooperated in resolving in a timely manner, any questions or

  17. Effect of intravenous lidocaine on bispectral index and stress reaction in patients undergo tracheal intubation%静脉注射利多卡因对气管插管病人BIS值及应激反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红珠; 陈冯琳; 王明仓

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To observe the relationship between the level of catecholamine with bispec-tral index during endotracheal intubation with propofol anesthesia in order to investigate the mechanism of the preventing of endotracheal intubation response with lidocaine. METHODS: Sixty patients were randomly allocated into two groups:control group (Group C) and lidocaine group (Group L). The patients received lidocaine 1. 5 mg/kg in Group L and saline in Group C before induction of anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (2 mg/kg) and fentanyl (4 jug/kg) and tracheal intubation was facilitated with rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) in all patients. Bispectral index (BIS), systolic pressure ( SP) , diastolic pressure(DP) and heart rate(HR)were continuously monitored and recorded before induced of anesthesia(T0) , preintubation(T!) , immediately and 1,3 min after intubation (T2-4). Arterial blood samples were obtained at To? Tj and T3 for determination of plasma concentration of adrenaline (Ad) and noradrenaline(NA). RE-SULTS :SP, DP,HR were significantly increased after intubation in Group C compared with baseline values at T0 ( P 0. 05). Compared with Group C, BIS value at Ti to T4 decreased significantly in Group L(P<0. 05). Plasma Ad and NA were lower at T3 in Group L than those in Group C and T0(P<0. 05). CONCLUSION: Lidocaine can further reduce BIS value and the plasma concentration of catecholamines during propofol anesthesia, indicating the sedative and anti-nociep-tive effect of intravenous lidocaine. Lidocaine (1. 5 mg/kg) can restrain the changes of BIS and reduce stress reaction caused by tracheal intubation.%目的:观察利多卡因对丙泊酚麻醉诱导气管插管时血浆儿茶酚胺与脑电双频指数(BIS)变化的影响,探讨利多卡因抑制气管插管反应的机制.方法:60例患者随机分为对照组(C组)和利多卡因组(L组).L组先静脉注射利多卡因1.5 mg/kg,C组注入等量生理盐水,然后两组均静脉注射丙泊酚2 mg/kg、芬太尼4

  18. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  19. Symbolic Analysis of Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten

    concrete protocol by Blumberg et al. using one-way functions and commitments for providing various location based vehicle services, and report on our ndings and experience of carrying out its analysis using the ProVerif tool. Third, we make an abstract model of the powerful simulation-based Universally...

  20. A Student Teamwork Induction Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Caroline; Spong, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Faulty group processes have harmful effects on performance but there is little research about intervention protocols to pre-empt them in higher education. This naturalistic experiment compared a control cohort with an inducted cohort. The inducted cohort attended a workshop, consultations, elected a leader and used tools (a group log and group…

  1. About models of security protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Comon-Lundh, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, mostly consisting of definitions, we revisit the models of security protocols: we show that the symbolic and the computational models (as well as others) are instances of a same generic model. Our definitions are also parametrized by the security primitives, the notion of attacker and, to some extent, the process calculus.

  2. Recursive Ping-Pong Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a process calculus with recursion which allows us to express an unbounded number of runs of the ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. We study the decidability issues associated with two common approaches to checking security properties, namely reachability analysis...

  3. The Kyoto Protocol and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘巧云

    2005-01-01

    The kyoto Protocol is an agreement to the United Nations Framework Convention on CLimate Change (UNFCCC)2,an international treaty on global warming .It is a legally binding agreement under which industrialized countries will reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by an average of 5.2% compared to the level of 1990 during the 2008-12 period.

  4. Kyoto protocol on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports a short overview of main points of Kyoto protocol to United Nations Framework Convention on climate Change and of some options still to be defined, evolutions of Italian emissions with respect to other European countries, check of decree by inter ministerial committee on economic planning on national plan to reduce emissions

  5. Performance Evaluation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Curti, Michele;

    2005-01-01

    We use a special operational semantics which drives us in inferring quantitative measures on systems describing cryptographis cryptographic protocols. We assign rates to transitions by only looking at these labels. The rates reflect the distributed architecture running applications and the use of...... possibly different cryptosystems. We then map transition systems to Markov chains and evaluate performance of systems, using standard tools....

  6. Performance Evaluation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Curti, Michele; Degano, Pierpablo; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Priami, Corrado

    We use a special operational semantics which drives us in inferring quantitative measures on systems describing cryptographis cryptographic protocols. We assign rates to transitions by only looking at these labels. The rates reflect the distributed architecture running applications and the use of...

  7. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...

  8. Protocol biopsies for renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rush David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocol biopsies in renal transplantation are those that are procured at predetermined times post renal transplantation, regardless of renal function. These biopsies have been useful to study the natural history of the transplanted kidney as they have detected unexpected - i.e. "subclinical" pathology. The most significant subclinical pathologies that have been detected with protocol biopsies have been acute lesions, such as cellular and antibody mediated rejection, and chronic lesions, such as interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, and transplant glomerulopathy. The potential benefit of early recognition of the above lesions is that their early treatment may result in improved long-term outcomes. Conversely, the identification of normal histology on a protocol biopsy, may inform us about the safety of reduction in overall immunosuppression. Our centre, as well as others, is attempting to develop non-invasive methods of immune monitoring of renal transplant patients. However, we believe that until such methods have been developed and validated, the protocol biopsy will remain an indispensable tool for the complete care of renal transplant patients.

  9. Improved Secure Address Resolution Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Samvedi; Sparsh Owlak; Vijay Kumar Chaurasia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an improved secure address resolution protocol is presented where ARP spoofing attack is prevented. The proposed methodology is a centralised methodology for preventing ARP spoofing attack. In the proposed model there is a central server on a network or subnet which prevents ARP spoofing attack.

  10. Session Initiation Protocol Attacks and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Keshavarz, Hassan; Noor, Rafidah Md

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) has become widely used in current internet protocols. It is a text-based protocol much like Hyper Text Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). SIP is a strong enough signaling protocol on the internet for establishing, maintaining, and terminating session. In this paper the areas of security and attacks in SIP are discussed. We consider attacks from diverse related perspectives. The authentication schemes are compared, the representative existing solutions are highlighted, and several remaining research challenges are identified. Finally, the taxonomy of SIP threat will be presented.

  11. How to write a protocol: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathy; Farrell, Mary Beth

    2015-03-01

    Clinical protocols play an important role in the provision of high-quality care in nuclear medicine. Properly written protocols help to ensure that nuclear medicine procedures are performed in a standardized, reproducible manner so that patients receive high-quality care. The following article is the second in a 2-part series on how to write a protocol. A framework for composing protocols and the components of clinical imaging protocols were detailed in the first article. This article details the framework and components of protocols for cardiac stress testing, therapy, and quality control. PMID:25655345

  12. Novel analysis and improvement of Yahalom protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chun-ling; YU Han; L(U) Heng-shan; WANG Ru-chuan

    2009-01-01

    The modified version of Yahalom protocol improved by Burrows, Abradi, and Needham (BAN) still has security drawbacks. This study analyzed such flaws in a detailed way from the point of strand spaces, which is a novel method of analyzing protocol's security. First, a mathematical model of BAN-Yahalom protocol is constructed. Second, penetrators' abilities are restricted with a rigorous and formalized definition. Moreover, to increase the security of this protocol against potential attackers in practice, a further improvement is made to the protocol. Future application of this re-improved protocol is also discussed.

  13. Improvement In MAODV Protocol Using Location Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Sharnjeet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is difficult in wireless sensor network (WSN due to limited resources. Each node in WSN is constrained by their limited battery power for their energy. The energy is reduced as the time goes off due to the packet transmission and reception. Energy management techniques are necessary to minimize the total power consumption of all the nodes in the network in order to maximize its life span. Our proposed protocol Location based routing (LBR aimed to find a path which utilizes the minimum energy to transmit the packets between the source and the destination. The required energy for the transmission and reception of data is evaluated in MATLAB. LBR is implemented on Multicast Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (MAODV to manage the energy consumption in the transmission and reception of data. Simulation results of LBR show the energy consumption has been reduced.

  14. Neonatal euthanasia: The Groningen Protocol*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarrondo, Felipe E.

    2014-01-01

    For the past thirty years, voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide of adult patients have been common practice in the Netherlands. Neonatal euthanasia was recently legalized in the Netherlands and the Groningen Protocol (GP) was developed to regulate the practice. Supporters claim compliance with the GP criteria makes neonatal euthanasia ethically permissible. An examination of the criteria used by the Protocol to justify the euthanasia of seriously ill neonates reveals the criteria are not based on firm moral principles. The taking of the life of a seriously ill person is not the solution to the pain and suffering of the dying process. It is the role of the medical professional to care for the ailing patient with love and compassion, always preserving the person's dignity. Neonatal euthanasia is not ethically permissible. PMID:25473136

  15. On using Mobile IP Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayza A. Nada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in wireless communication technology and the unprecedented growth of the Internet have paved the way for wireless networking and IP mobility. Mobile Internet protocol has been designed within the IETF to support the mobility of users who wish to connect to the Internet and maintain communications as they move from place to place. This study describes and summarizes the current Internet draft for mobile IP (MIPv4 with its major components: agent discovery, registration and tunneling. In addition, we outline the available encapsulation techniques and route optimization procedure. In the end, we describe the design of the new protocol for transparent routing of IPv6 packets to mobile IPv6 nodes operating in the Internet.

  16. Neonatal euthanasia: The Groningen Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarrondo, Felipe E

    2014-11-01

    For the past thirty years, voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide of adult patients have been common practice in the Netherlands. Neonatal euthanasia was recently legalized in the Netherlands and the Groningen Protocol (GP) was developed to regulate the practice. Supporters claim compliance with the GP criteria makes neonatal euthanasia ethically permissible. An examination of the criteria used by the Protocol to justify the euthanasia of seriously ill neonates reveals the criteria are not based on firm moral principles. The taking of the life of a seriously ill person is not the solution to the pain and suffering of the dying process. It is the role of the medical professional to care for the ailing patient with love and compassion, always preserving the person's dignity. Neonatal euthanasia is not ethically permissible. PMID:25473136

  17. Chapter 14: Chiller Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiessen, A.

    2014-09-01

    This protocol defines a chiller measure as a project that directly impacts equipment within the boundary of a chiller plant. A chiller plant encompasses a chiller--or multiple chillers--and associated auxiliary equipment. This protocol primarily covers electric-driven chillers and chiller plants. It does not include thermal energy storage and absorption chillers fired by natural gas or steam, although a similar methodology may be applicable to these chilled water system components. Chillers provide mechanical cooling for commercial, institutional, multiunit residential, and industrial facilities. Cooling may be required for facility heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or for process cooling loads (e.g., data centers, manufacturing process cooling). The vapor compression cycle, or refrigeration cycle, cools water in the chilled water loop by absorbing heat and rejecting it to either a condensing water loop (water cooled chillers) or to the ambient air (air-cooled chillers).

  18. Kyoto: protocol on climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the 3rd Conference of the Signatory States to the United Nations Climate Framework Convention held in Kyoto, the so-called Kyoto Protocol on the UN Climate Framework Convention was adopted unanimously, after two years of difficult and complex negotiations, on December 11, 1997. The protocol for the first time includes legally binding obligations for the industrialized countries requiring them to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions between 2008 and 2012 by a total of 5.2% relative to the 1990 level. In meeting this obligation, the industrialized countries assumed different levels of reduction and limitation, respectively. Thus, e.g., the EU countries accepted a Communitywide reduction by 8%, while the USA is obliged to reduce by 7% and Japan by 6%. (orig.)

  19. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus;

    2011-01-01

    information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security of...... string model. While our protocol is classical, it is sound against a cheating unbounded quantum prover and computational zero-knowledge even if the verifier is allowed a superposition attack. Finally, we consider multiparty computation and show that for the most general type of attack, simulation based...... several primitives in this model. We show that a secret-sharing scheme that is secure with threshold $t$ in the standard model is secure against superposition attacks if and only if the threshold is lowered to $t/2$. We use this result to give zero-knowledge proofs for all of NP in the common reference...

  20. How to write a protocol: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathy; Farrell, Mary Beth

    2015-03-01

    Clinical imaging protocols play an important role in the provision of high-quality care in nuclear medicine. It is imperative that all nuclear medicine facilities have protocols for every procedure performed. However, creating protocols that are detailed, unambiguous, and consistent is often easier said than done. Properly written protocols help to ensure that nuclear medicine procedures are performed in a standardized, reproducible manner so that patients receive high-quality care. This 2-part article provides technologists with a framework for composing comprehensive protocols. Part 1 discusses the secrets to successfully composing protocols ensuring they are detailed and step-by-step along with the importance of basing protocols on evidence from published guidelines and peer-reviewed literature. The components and important aspects of clinical imaging protocols are detailed. PMID:25613336

  1. DSTC Layering Protocols in Wireless Cooperative Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Elamvazhuthi, P S; Dey, B K

    2008-01-01

    In adhoc wireless relay networks, layers of relays are used to communicate from a source to a destination to achieve better reliability. In this paper, we consider five protocols derived from an earlier proposed protocol, where the relays do a simple processing before transmitting and as a result achieve distributed space-time code. Four of the protocols discussed utilize more complicated relaying schemes than simple layered protocols proposed in earlier literature. We have analyzed the effectiveness of these protocols in various power loss configurations among the paths. Optimum power allocation of the total power among various transmissions have been found by reasonable fine search for all the protocols. Bit error rate plots are compared under optimum power allocation for these protocols. From the simulation results, we draw some guidelines as to which protocol is good for what kind of environment.

  2. Automatic analysis of distance bounding protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Malladi, Sreekanth; Kothapalli, Kishore

    2010-01-01

    Distance bounding protocols are used by nodes in wireless networks to calculate upper bounds on their distances to other nodes. However, dishonest nodes in the network can turn the calculations both illegitimate and inaccurate when they participate in protocol executions. It is important to analyze protocols for the possibility of such violations. Past efforts to analyze distance bounding protocols have only been manual. However, automated approaches are important since they are quite likely to find flaws that manual approaches cannot, as witnessed in literature for analysis pertaining to key establishment protocols. In this paper, we use the constraint solver tool to automatically analyze distance bounding protocols. We first formulate a new trace property called Secure Distance Bounding (SDB) that protocol executions must satisfy. We then classify the scenarios in which these protocols can operate considering the (dis)honesty of nodes and location of the attacker in the network. Finally, we extend the const...

  3. A student teamwork induction protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Kamau, Caroline; Spong, A.

    2015-01-01

    Faulty group processes have harmful effects on performance but there is little research about intervention protocols to pre-empt them in HE. This naturalistic experiment compared a control cohort with an inducted cohort. The inducted cohort attended a workshop, consultations, elected a leader and used tools (a group log and group contract) designed to minimize social loafing, optimize coordination (by boosting good information sampling) and orient group dynamics towards the task. In the absen...

  4. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  5. Heuristic Methods for Security Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Qurat ul Ain Nizamani; Emilio Tuosto

    2009-01-01

    Model checking is an automatic verification technique to verify hardware and software systems. However it suffers from state-space explosion problem. In this paper we address this problem in the context of cryptographic protocols by proposing a security property-dependent heuristic. The heuristic weights the state space by exploiting the security formulae; the weights may then be used to explore the state space when searching for attacks.

  6. Analysing Protocol Stacks for Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We show an approach, CaPiTo, to model service-oriented applications using process algebras such that, on the one hand, we can achieve a certain level of abstraction without being overwhelmed by the underlying implementation details and, on the other hand, we respect the concrete industrial standa...... financial case study taken from Chapter 0-3. Finally, we develop a static analysis to analyse the security properties as they emerge at the level of concrete industrial protocols....

  7. Feasible quantum communication complexity protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I show that a simple multiparty communication task can be performed more efficiently with quantum communication than with classical communication, even with low detection efficiency η. The task is a communication complexity problem in which distant parties need to compute a function of the distributed inputs, while minimizing the amount of communication between them. A realistic quantum optical setup is suggested that can demonstrate a five-party quantum protocol with higher-than-classical performance, provided η>0.33

  8. Power Control Protocols in VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Samara, Ghassan; Salem, Amer O. Abu; Alhmiedat, Tareq

    2013-01-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) is one of the most challenging research area in the field of the Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), Power control is a critical issue in VANETwhere is should be managed carefully to help the channel to have high performance. In this paper a comparative study in the published protocols in the field of safety message dynamic power control will be presented and evaluated.

  9. Bounding Component Behavior via Protocols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plášil, František; Višňovský, Stanislav; Besta, Miloslav

    Los Alamitos : IEEE Computer Society, 1999 - (Firesmith, D.; Riehle, R.; Pour, G.; Meyer, B.), s. 387-398 ISBN 0-7695-0278-4. [TOOLS /30./. Santa Barbara (US), 01.08.1999-05.08.1999] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2030902; GA ČR GA201/99/0244 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : software components * behavior protocols * software architecture Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  10. Security Protocol for Active Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, L.; Galis, A.

    2006-01-01

    Active packets carrying management and control code have a dynamic nature and support dynamic routing. Thus, active packets must be protected in an end-to-end and hop-to-hop fashion. In this paper, we present a novel approach, known as security protocol for active networks (SPAN), which enables an active packet to be securely transmitted during (instead of after) Security Association (SA) and management negotiations along a new execution path

  11. Relação entre a infusão contínua de dexmedetomidina e a fração expirada de sevoflurano monitorizada pelo índice bispectral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Edno

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A associação de agentes venosos à anestesia geral inalatória proporciona melhor qualidade de analgesia e hipnose. A dexmedetomidina é um agonista específico alfa2-adrenérgico com estas características e reconhecida por proporcionar estabilidade hemodinâmica. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito da infusão contínua de dexmedetomidina na fração expirada de sevoflurano (FEsevo em anestesia geral, monitorizada pela análise bispectral do EEG (BIS. MÉTODO: Estudou-se, de modo prospectivo, 24 pacientes adultos, de ambos os sexos, estado físico ASA I e II, submetidos à cirurgias eletivas sob anestesia geral, monitorizados com ECG, PANI, SpO2, P ET CO2, FEsevo e BIS. Procedeu-se a indução venosa com alfentanil (30 µg.kg-1, tiopental (5 mg.kg-1 e vecurônio (0,1 mg.kg-1 e intubação traqueal. Iniciaram-se a administração de sevoflurano (manutenção do BIS entre 40 e 60, a ventilação controlada com volume corrente de 10 ml.kg-1 e a manutenção da P ET CO2 entre 35 e 45 mmHg. Na fase de manutenção da anestesia, após 60 minutos da indução anestésica (M60, foi iniciada a infusão contínua de dexmedetomidina em 2 fases: infusão inicial (1 µg.kg-1 em 20 minutos; e, infusão de manutenção (0,5 µg.kg-1.h-1. A concentração de sevoflurano foi ajustada para manter o valor de BIS entre 40 e 60. As variáveis de PA, FC, FEsevo, SpO2, P ET CO2 e BIS foram avaliadas nos momentos pré-indução (M-15, M15, M45, M75, M105 e M120. RESULTADOS: A associação da dexmedetomidina à anestesia geral com sevoflurano proporcionou redução significativa (p < 0,05 da FEsevo de M45 (1,604 ± 0,485 a M105 (1,073 ± 0,457 e de M45 (1,604 ± 0,485 a M120 (1,159 ± 0,475. As variáveis hemodinâmicas analisadas apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes com p < 0,05, mas sem repercussões clínicas. CONCLUSÕES: A associação de dexmedetomidina em infusão contínua (0,5 µg.kg-1.h-1 à anestesia

  12. ACSEPP On-Line Electronic Payment Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-bin; ZHU Xian; HONG Fan

    2004-01-01

    With analyzing the existing on-line electronic payment protocols, this paper presents a new on-line electronic payment protocol named ACSEPP: Anonymous, Convenient and Secure Electronic Payment Protocol.Its aim is to design a practical electronic payment protocol which is both secure and convenient.Without using PKI_CA frame, it realized the anonymity of consumer and merchant, the convenient of handling, the low cost of maintenance and the security.

  13. A father protocol for quantum broadcast channels

    CERN Document Server

    Dupuis, F; Dupuis, Fr\\'ed\\'eric; Hayden, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    We present a new protocol for quantum broadcast channels based on the fully quantum Slepian-Wolf protocol. The protocol yields an achievable rate region for entanglement-assisted transmission of quantum information through a quantum broadcast channel that can be considered the quantum analogue of Marton's region for classical broadcast channels. The protocol can be adapted to yield achievable rate regions for unassisted quantum communication and for entanglement-assisted classical communication. Regularized versions of all three rate regions are provably optimal.

  14. Component versioning for protocol configuration management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tian-zhou; HE Zhen-jie; HUANG Jiang-wei; DAI Hong-jun

    2005-01-01

    Classical software configuration management which deals with source code versioning becomes insufficient when most components are distributed in binary form. As an important aspect of software configuration, protocol configuration also encounters those problems. This paper focuses on solving protocol component versioning issues for protocol configuration management on embedded system, incorporating the following versioning issues: version identification, version description and protocol component archiving and retrieving based on the version library.

  15. Crypto-Verifying Protocol Implementations in ML

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargavan, K.; Corin, R.J.; Fournet, C.

    2007-01-01

    We intend to narrow the gap between concrete implementations and verified models of cryptographic protocols. We consider protocols implemented in F#, a variant of ML, and verified using CryptoVerif, Blanchet's protocol verifier for computational cryptography. We experiment with compilers from F# code to CryptoVerif processes, and from CryptoVerif declarations to F# code. We present two case studies: an implementation of the Otway-Rees protocol, and an implementation of a simplified password-b...

  16. Simple and Efficient Contract Signing Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Alaraj, Abdullah M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new contract signing protocol is proposed based on the RSA signature scheme. The protocol will allow two parties to sign the same contract and then exchange their digital signatures. The protocol ensures fairness in that it offers parties greater security: either both parties receive each other's signatures or neither does. The protocol is based on offline Trusted Third Party (TTP) that will be brought into play only if one party fails to sign the contract. Otherwise, the TTP...

  17. A father protocol for quantum broadcast channels

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuis, Frédéric; Hayden, Patrick; Li, Ke

    2006-01-01

    A new protocol for quantum broadcast channels based on the fully quantum Slepian-Wolf protocol is presented. The protocol yields an achievable rate region for entanglement-assisted transmission of quantum information through a quantum broadcast channel that can be considered the quantum analogue of Marton's region for classical broadcast channels. The protocol can be adapted to yield achievable rate regions for unassisted quantum communication and for entanglement-assisted classical communica...

  18. Static Validation of a Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Andersen, Esben Heltoft; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    The desired security properties of electronic voting protocols include verifiability, accuracy, democracy and fairness. In this paper we use a static program analysis tool to validate these properties for one of the classical voting protocols under appropriate assumptions. The protocol is...

  19. Cryptanalysis on Cheng et al. protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Tejeshwari

    2016-06-01

    Deployment of new node in any wireless sensor network is a sensitive task. This is the reason why, an Access Control Protocol is required in WSN. In this paper, we demonstrate that Access Control Protocol proposed by Cheng et al.[1] for Wireless Sensor Network is insecure. The reason is that this protocol fails to resist the active attack.

  20. Simple and Efficient Contract Signing Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Alaraj, Abdullah M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new contract signing protocol is proposed based on the RSA signature scheme. The protocol will allow two parties to sign the same contract and then exchange their digital signatures. The protocol ensures fairness in that it offers parties greater security: either both parties receive each other's signatures or neither does. The protocol is based on offline Trusted Third Party (TTP) that will be brought into play only if one party fails to sign the contract. Otherwise, the TTP remains inactive. The protocol consists of only three messages that are exchanged between the two parties.

  1. Sequence Patterns of Identity Authentication Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Hongcai; He Dake

    2006-01-01

    From the viewpoint of protocol sequence, analyses are made of the sequence patterns of possible identity authentication protocol under two cases: with or without the trusted third party (TTP). Ten feasible sequence patterns of authentication protocol with TTP and 5 sequence patterns without TTP are gained. These gained sequence patterns meet the requirements for identity authentication,and basically cover almost all the authentication protocols with TTP and without TTP at present. All of the sequence patterns gained are classified into unilateral or bilateral authentication. Then , according to the sequence symmetry, several good sequence patterns with TTP are evaluated. The accompolished results can provide a reference to design of new identity authentication protocols.

  2. Optimizing One Fair Document Exchange Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Alaraj, Abdullah M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient fair document exchange protocol. The exchange of the documents will be between two parties. The protocol is based on the verifiable and recoverable encryption of a document's key. This verifiable and recoverable encryption of the document's key will allow one party to verify the encrypted key. It will also ensure this party that the Semi Trusted Third Party will be able to recover the key if the other party misbehaves. The protocol also incorporates the concept of enforcing the honesty of one party. The proposed protocol consists of only three messages and is more efficient than related protocols.

  3. Vulnerabilities in Quantum Key Distribution Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, D R

    2003-01-01

    Recently proposed quantum key distribution protocols are shown to be vulnerable to a classic man-in-the-middle attack using entangled pairs created by Eve. It appears that the attack could be applied to any protocol that relies on manipulation and return of entangled qubits to create a shared key. The protocols that are cryptanalyzed in this paper were proven secure with respect to some eavesdropping approaches, and results reported here do not invalidate these proofs. Rather, they suggest that quantum cryptographic protocols, like conventional protocols, may be vulnerable to methods of attack that were not envisaged by their designers.

  4. Novel Ω-protocols for NP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Ω-protocols, introduced by Garay, Mackenzie and Yang, is a variant of S-protocols with online extractor which is a useful tool to overcome the nest effect in concurrent scenario. In this work, we construct an Ω-protocol for Hamiltonian cycle problem, and therefore, it allows us to present Ω-protocol for any NP relation. For most general NP relations, our construction of Ω-protocols is much more efficient than the informal one described by Garay et al. and we believe that the method for our construction may be of independent interest.

  5. Developing security protocols in χ-Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Milicia, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    an implementation of SPL (Security Protocol Language), a formal model for studying security protocols. In this paper we discuss the use of χ-Spaces as a tool for developing robust security protocol implementations. To make the case, we take a family of key-translation protocols due to Woo and Lam and......It is of paramount importance that a security protocol effectively enforces the desired security requirements. The apparent simplicity of informal protocol descriptions hides the inherent complexity of their interactions which, often, invalidate informal correctness arguments and justify the effort...... of formal protocol verification. Verification, however, is usually carried out on an abstract model not at all related with a protocol’s implementation. Experience shows that security breaches introduced in implementations of successfully verified models are rather common. The χ-Spaces framework is...

  6. Desynchronization Attacks on RFID Security Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaolei Deng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of radio frequency identification (RFID systems introduce growing security and privacy concerns. RFID systems need security protocols to provide confidentiality, user privacy, mutual authentication and etc. Many security protocols for the RFID system have been presented. This paper analyze several of the newest RFID security protocols which proposed by Niu et al., Fu et al. and Habibi et al. respectively form the security viewpoint of data desynchronization attack. These lightweight protocols were expected to proposed security protections for the RFID system and safeguard against almost all major attacks. However, we found that these RFID security protocols were vulnerable to the attack of data desynchronization. Based on strand spaces model, data desynchronization attacks on these protocols were analyzed and described. Furthermore, improvements to overcome the security vulnerabilities of two protocols presented by Niu et al. and Fu et al. were given.

  7. Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

    1998-12-01

    This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

  8. Language, Semantics, and Methods for Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico

    Security protocols help in establishing secure channels between communicating systems. Great care needs therefore to be taken in developing and implementing robust protocols. The complexity of security-protocol interactions can hide, however, security weaknesses that only a formal analysis can...... reveal. The last few years have seen the emergence of successful intensional, event-based, formal approaches to reasoning about security protocols. The methods are concerned with reasoning about the events that a security protocol can perform, and make use of a causal dependency that exists between...... representation and do not address how to build up protocol representations in a compositional fashion. This dissertation presents a new, event-based approach to reasoning about security protocols. We seek a broader class of models to show how event-based models can be structured in a compositional way and so...

  9. Authenticating Tripartite Key Agreement Protocol with Pairings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Li Liu; Fang-Guo Zhang; Ke-Fei Chen

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an authenticated tripartite key agreement protocol is proposed, which is an ID-based one with pairings. This protocol involves only one round. The authenticity of the protocol is assured by a special signature scheme, so that messages carrying the information of two ephemeral keys can be broadcasted authentically by an entity. Consequently, one instance of the protocol results in eight session keys for three entities. In other word, one instance of the protocol generates a session key, which is eight times longer than those obtained from traditional key agreement protocols. Security attributes of the protocol are presented, and the computational overhead and bandwidth of the broadcast messages are analyzed as well.

  10. Generalized routing protocols for multihop relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Performance of multihop cooperative networks depends on the routing protocols employed. In this paper we propose the last-n-hop selection protocol, the dual path protocol, the forward-backward last-n-hop selection protocol and the forward-backward dual path protocol for the routing of data through multihop relay networks. The average symbol error probability performance of the schemes is analysed by simulations. It is shown that close to optimal performance can be achieved by using the last-n-hop selection protocol and its forward-backward variant. Furthermore we also compute the complexity of the protocols in terms of number of channel state information required and the number of comparisons required for routing the signal through the network. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Planetary Protection Alternate Protocol Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amy; Barengoltz, Jack; Tisdale, David

    The talk presents a standardized approach for new method certification or alterative testing protocol (ATP) certification against the existing U.S. Planetary Protection Standards. In consideration of new method certification there are two phases of activities that are relevant to the certification process. The first is sample acquisition which typically incorporates swab or wipes sampling on relevant hardware, associated facilities and ground support equipment. The sampling methods introduce considerations of field sampling efficiency as it relates to spore distribution on the spacecraft, spacecraft material influences on the ability of the swab or wipe to remove spores from the hardware, the types of swabs and wipes used (polyester, cotton, macrofoam), and human sampling influences. The second portion of a new protocol certification looks specifically at the lab work-up or analysis of the samples provided to the laboratory. Variables in this process include selection of appropriate biomarkers, extraction efficiencies (removal of spores or constituents of interest from the sampling device), and a method's ability to accurately determine the number of spores present in the sample with a statistically valid level of confidence as described by parameters such as precision, accuracy, robustness, specificity and sensitivity. Considerations for alternative testing protocols such as those which utilize bioburden reduction techniques include selection of appropriate biomarkers for testing, test materials and a defined statistical approach that provides sufficient scientific data to support the modification of an existing NASA specification or the generation of a new NASA specification. Synergies between the U.S. and European Space Agency approaches will also be discussed.

  12. Protocols for calibrating multibeam sonar

    OpenAIRE

    Foote, Kenneth G.; Chu, Dezhang; Hammar, Terence R.; Baldwin, Kenneth C.; Mayer, Larry A.; Hufnagle, Lawrence C. jr.; Jech, J. Michael

    2005-01-01

    Development of protocols for calibrating multibeam sonar by means of the standard-target method is documented. Particular systems used in the development work included three that provide the water-column signals, namely the SIMRAD SM2000/90- and 200-kHz sonars and RESON SeaBat 8101 sonar, with operating frequency of 240 kHz. Two facilities were instrumented specifically for the work: a sea well at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and a large, indoor freshwater tank at the University o...

  13. Optical protocols for terabit networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, P. L.; Lambert, J. L.; Morookian, J. M.; Bergman, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new fiber-optic local area network technology providing 100X improvement over current technology, has full crossbar funtionality, and inherent data security. Based on optical code-division multiple access (CDMA), using spectral phase encoding/decoding of optical pulses, networking protocols are implemented entirely in the optical domain and thus conventional networking bottlenecks are avoided. Component and system issues for a proof-of-concept demonstration are discussed, as well as issues for a more practical and commercially exploitable system. Possible terrestrial and aerospace applications of this technology, and its impact on other technologies are explored. Some initial results toward realization of this concept are also included.

  14. Research on Container Behaviors Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the development of middleware technology, there are some new features to be adopted on demand in middleware platform based on container component. Aiming at the adaptation of middleware platform, from the nature of component container, this paper begins with behaviors features of EJB (Enterprise Java Bean) container, extracts general behaviors protocol of container, and defines its formal behaviors specification. In the end, the interactive relationship of components is described by WRIGHT language, and the configuration of whole system is shown. The method proposed in this paper mines the hidden features of framework of component container, and applies to refactor middleware platform in reflection and aspect-oriented programming technology.

  15. Secure E-Commerce Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Haseeb, Muhammad Arshad, Shoukat Ali, Shazia Yasin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce has presented a new way of doing business all over the world using internet.Organizations have changed their way of doing business from a traditional approach to embrace ecommerceprocesses. As individuals and businesses increase information sharing, a concernregarding the exchange of money securely and conveniently over the internet increases. Therefore,security is a necessity in an e-commerce transaction. The purpose of this paper is to present atoken based Secure E-commerce Protocol. The purpose of this paper is to present a paradigm thatis capable of satisfying security objectives by using token based security mechanism.

  16. NEURAPRO-E study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markulev, Connie; McGorry, Patrick D; Nelson, Barnaby;

    2016-01-01

    response to omega-3 PUFA treatment in the UHR group. CONCLUSION: This is the protocol of the NeuraproE study. Utilizing a large sample, results from this study will be important in informing indicated prevention strategies for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, which may be the strongest avenue...... polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), coupled with the falling transition rate in ultra high-risk (UHR) samples, mean that further study of such benign, potentially neuroprotective interventions is clinically and ethically required. Employing a multicentre approach, enabling a large sample size, this study will...

  17. Trust relationships in exchange protocols

    OpenAIRE

    González-Deleito Collell, Nicolás

    2005-01-01

    Les protocoles d'échange d'informations représentent un des grands domaines actuels de recherche en sécurité informatique, et sont entre autres à la base des mécanismes de commerce électronique. Ils sont par exemple nécessaires à la réalisation d'un achat en ligne, à la signature d'un contrat électronique et au courrier électronique recommandé. Dans ces exemples, les échanges d'informations consistent à échanger respectivement un objet électronique contre un paiement, des signatures digitales...

  18. Trypanosoma spp. ring test protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test material will be chosen by the coordinating lab for incorporation into a proficiency panel after repeated testing by more than one analyst on multiple PCR runs on different days. Test material: suitable test material will be provided. Protocol and laboratory procedures: Each laboratory is allowed to use their own 'in-house' test procedure (SOPs will nevertheless be provided by the respective laboratories for comparison and evaluation). Each PCR should be executed on two separate occasions. Test material used will be coded and sent as a blind panel to the participants. Each participating laboratory will be given a unique set of codes

  19. New Models for Population Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Michail, Othon

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are about to be part of everyday life. Homes and workplaces capable of self-controlling and adapting air-conditioning for different temperature and humidity levels, sleepless forests ready to detect and react in case of a fire, vehicles able to avoid sudden obstacles or possibly able to self-organize routes to avoid congestion, and so on, will probably be commonplace in the very near future. Mobility plays a central role in such systems and so does passive mobility, that is, mobility of the network stemming from the environment itself. The population protocol model was

  20. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C

    2016-10-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. PMID:27600131

  1. Internet protocol television (IPTV) services

    OpenAIRE

    Nuuri, Aminullah

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to know what IPTV is and how the IPTV network architectures work. The role of IPTV is to deliver video, audio and data commonly called triple play services over an IP network. This thesis describes how video on demand (VOD) shows its relation to the IPTV and introduces unicast and multicast services, IPTV protocols such as RTP and RSTP, IPTV set-top box and some other common ways of this particular technology. It also demonstrates how the Sonera IPTV system deliv...

  2. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  3. Latest approaches of Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently EURELECTRIC welcome the proposal of new EC Directive concerning the inclusion in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) of credits from the project mechanisms - Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The proposed Directive is an amendment to the EU Emissions Trading Directive adopted in June 2003. EURELECTRIC calls for unlimited use of credits in ETS. The draft Directive provides for the application of these mechanisms to begin as of 2008, on condition that the Kyoto Protocol does actually enter into force, an event which is still dependent on Russia's ratification. Such ratification has been subject to contradictory statements from the Russian Government, and the question of whether their signature to the Protocol is forthcoming is still fraught with uncertainty. Although it is not anticipated that significant quantities of JI or CDM certified credits will be available in the period 2005-2007, those that do become available would provide some additional liquidity in the emissions trading market. There is a direct relation between the coming ETS and electricity pricing: environmental policy is the driver, based on the need to switch to a low-carbon future and manage the necessary investments in a rational manner - and emissions trading is the best solution available. Romania has good opportunities to be involved in the greenhouse gases market, both in ETS and JI mechanisms. Some JI projects between Romanian and The Netherlands are already done or underway. (author)

  4. Telomerase Repeated Amplification Protocol (TRAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are found at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, and proteins that bind to telomeres protect DNA from being recognized as double-strand breaks thus preventing end-to-end fusions (Griffith et al., 1999). However, due to the end replication problem and other factors such as oxidative damage, the limited life span of cultured cells (Hayflick limit) results in progressive shortening of these protective structures (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex telomerase-consisting of a protein catalytic component hTERT and a functional RNA component hTR or hTERC- counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric repeats to the end of chromosomes in ~90% of primary human tumors and in some transiently proliferating stem-like cells (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). This results in continuous proliferation of cells which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, telomere biology has a central role in aging, cancer progression/metastasis as well as targeted cancer therapies. There are commonly used methods in telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) (Mender and Shay, 2015b), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this detailed protocol we describe Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The TRAP assay is a popular method to determine telomerase activity in mammalian cells and tissue samples (Kim et al., 1994). The TRAP assay includes three steps: extension, amplification, and detection of telomerase products. In the extension step, telomeric repeats are added to the telomerase substrate (which is actually a non telomeric oligonucleotide, TS) by telomerase. In the amplification step, the extension products are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers (TS upstream primer and ACX downstream primer) and in the detection step, the presence or absence of telomerase is

  5. The comparative cost analysis of EAP Re-authentication Protocol and EAP TLS Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mehla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP is a generic framework supporting multiple types of authentication methods. In systems where EAP is used for authentication, it is desirable to not repeat the entire EAP exchange with another authenticator. The EAP reauthentication Protocol provides a consistent, methodindependentand low-latency re-authentication. It is extension to current EAP mechanism to support intradomain handoff authentication. This paper analyzed the performance of the EAP re-authentication protocol, andcompared it with that of the EAP-TLS protocol. The result shows that the authentication delay of EAP reauthentication protocol is only twentieth of that in the EAPTLS protocol.

  6. Novel construction of Secure RFID Authentication Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiqul Abidin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an efficient and secure authentication protocol for secure and low-cost RFID systems in random oracles. Security is one of the prime concerns of RFID system. Proposed protocol relies on Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem (ECDLP to achieve security. The protocol achieves the most important security goals scalability, anonymity and anti-cloning for RFID system. A password based protocol has vulnerability on fixed password. This can be exploited by threats. In the proposed protocol, there is a provision to change the password of the Tags. Hence the vulnerability can be reduced in an acceptable level. Computation cost is very less as compare to the other protocols.

  7. The Simplest Protocol for Oblivious Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chou, Tung; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Oblivious Transfer (OT) is the fundamental building block of cryptographic protocols. In this paper we describe the simplest and most efficient protocol for 1-out-of-n OT to date, which is obtained by tweaking the Diffie-Hellman key-exchange protocol. The protocol achieves UC-security against...... optimizations) is at least one order of magnitude faster than previous work. Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / Oblivious Transfer, UC Security, Elliptic Curves, Efficient Implementation...... active and adaptive corruptions in the random oracle model. Due to its simplicity, the protocol is extremely efficient and it allows to perform m 1-out-of-n OTs using only: - Computation: (n+1)m+2 exponentiations (mn for the receiver, mn+2 for the sender) and - Communication: 32(m+1) bytes (for the group...

  8. Symmetric cryptographic protocols for extended millionaires' problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ShunDong; WANG DaoShun; DAI YiQi

    2009-01-01

    Yao's millionaires' problem is a fundamental problem in secure multiparty computation, and its solutions have become building blocks of many secure multiparty computation solutions. Unfortunately,most protocols for millionaires' problem are constructed based on public cryptography, and thus are inefficient. Furthermore, all protocols are designed to solve the basic millionaires' problem, that is,to privately determine which of two natural numbers is greater. If the numbers are real, existing solutions do not directly work. These features limit the extensive application of the existing protocols. This study introduces and refines the first symmetric cryptographic protocol for the basic millionaires' problem, and then extends the symmetric cryptographic protocol to privately determining which of two real numbers is greater, which are called the extended millionaires' problem, and proposes corresponding Constructed based on symmetric cryptography, these protocols are very efficient.

  9. VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Bijan; Bikas, Md Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is a new technology which has taken enormous attention in the recent years. Due to rapid topology changing and frequent disconnection makes it difficult to design an efficient routing protocol for routing data among vehicles, called V2V or vehicle to vehicle communication and vehicle to road side infrastructure, called V2I. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol has taken significant attention. So, it is very necessary to identify the pros and cons of routing protocols which can be used for further improvement or development of any new routing protocol. This paper presents the pros and cons of VANET routing protocols for inter vehicle communication.

  10. Summary Report on Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Salvail, Louis; Cachin, Christian

    This document describes the state of the art snd some of the main open problems in the area of unconditionally secure cryptographic protocols. The most essential part of a cryptographic protocol is not its being secure. Imagine a cryptographic protocol which is secure, but where we do not know...... that it is secure. Such a protocol would do little in providing security. When all comes to all, cryptographic security is done for the sake of people, and the essential part of security is for people what it has always been, namely to feel secure. To feel secure employing a given cryptographic protocol we need...... to know that is is secure. I.e. we need a proof that it is secure. Today the proof of security of essentially all practically employed cryptographic protocols relies on computational assumptions. To prove that currently employed ways to communicate securely over the Internet are secure we e.g. need...

  11. Training parents to implement pediatric feeding protocols.

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Michael M; Piazza, Cathleen C; Moore, James W; Kelley, Michael E; Bethke, Stephanie A; Pruett, Angela E; Oberdorff, Amanda J; Layer, Stacy A

    2003-01-01

    Four different multicomponent training packages were evaluated to increase the treatment integrity of parents implementing pediatric feeding protocols. In Study 1 we exposed 3 parents to a training package that consisted of written protocols (baseline), verbal instructions, therapist modeling, and rehearsal training. Results suggested that the package was successful in increasing treatment integrity of the feeding protocols to high levels. Study 2 investigated three different parent-training ...

  12. Formal Support for Standardizing Protocols with State

    OpenAIRE

    Guttman, Joshua D.; Liskov, Moses D.; Ramsdell, John D.; Rowe, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Many cryptographic protocols are designed to achieve their goals using only messages passed over an open network. Numerous tools, based on well-understood foundations, exist for the design and analysis of protocols that rely purely on message passing. However, these tools encounter difficulties when faced with protocols that rely on non-local, mutable state to coordinate several local sessions. We adapt one of these tools, {\\cpsa}, to provide automated support for reasoning about state. We us...

  13. Bitcoin-NG: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Eyal, Ittay; Gencer, Adem Efe; Sirer, Emin Gun; van Renesse, Robbert

    2015-01-01

    Cryptocurrencies, based on and led by Bitcoin, have shown promise as infrastructure for pseudonymous online payments, cheap remittance, trustless digital asset exchange, and smart contracts. However, Bitcoin-derived blockchain protocols have inherent scalability limits that trade-off between throughput and latency and withhold the realization of this potential. This paper presents Bitcoin-NG, a new blockchain protocol designed to scale. Based on Bitcoin's blockchain protocol, Bitcoin-NG is By...

  14. Faked states attack and quantum cryptography protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Denny, Travis

    2011-01-01

    Leveraging quantum mechanics, cryptographers have devised provably secure key sharing protocols. Despite proving the security in theory, real-world application falls short of the ideal. Last year, cryptanalysts completed an experiment demonstrating a successful eavesdropping attack on commercial quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. This attack exploits a weakness in the typical real-world implementation of quantum cryptosystems. Cryptanalysts have successfully attacked several protocols. In this paper, we examine the Kak quantum cryptography protocol and how it may perform under such attacks.

  15. Security in network environment-network protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Fessl, Jaromír

    2011-01-01

    Work is focused on network protocols features and security characteristics. Overview of protocols is made through all layers of OSI model and by this design structured. For each layer is made summary of interesting facts. Separate chapter is dedicated for VPN and for implementation possibilities of VPN. In chapter Practical problems are reflected most important problems of actual security (from network protocol point of view) concerned on SSL/TLS, SMTP and DNS. Together with security charact...

  16. Security analysis of session initiation protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Lucas E.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The goal of this thesis is to investigate the security of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). This was accomplished by researching previously discovered protocol and implementation vulnerabilities, evaluating the current state of security tools and using those tools to discover new vulnerabilities in SIP software. The CVSS v2 system was used to score protocol and implementation vulnerabilities to give them a meaning that was us...

  17. VULNERABILITIES OF THE SSL/TLS PROTOCOL

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Ćurguz

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes vulnerabilities of the SSL/TLS Handshake protocol, which is responsible for authentication of the parties in the communication and negotiation of security parameters that will be used to protect confidentiality and integrity of the data. It will be analyzed the attacks against the implementation of Handshake protocol, as well as the attacks against the other elements necessary to SSL/TLS protocol to discover security flaws that were exploited, modes of attac...

  18. Security Aspects of Distance-Bounding Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Onete, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Authentication protocols, run between a so-called prover and a so-called verifier, enable the verifier to decide whether a prover is legitimate or not. Such protocols enable access control, and are used in e.g.~logistics, public transport, or personal identification. An authentication protocol is considered secure if an adversary cannot impersonate a legitimate prover. Such an adversary may eavesdrop authentication attempts between a legitimate prover and a legitimate verifier, interact with ...

  19. SCRUTINY OF BROADCASTING PROTOCOLS IN VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Rohini Nere; Uma Nagaraj

    2015-01-01

    Definitive broadcasting in vehicular ad hoc networks is the key to success for various services and applications on an intelligent transportation system. Many trusted broadcasting protocols have been proposed but none of them has been evaluated in realistic scenario. In this paper, we discuss these reliable broadcasting protocols on VANET. Basic mechanism in broadcasting, and also we are providing collective research of Broadcasting protocols in vanet in that some real time protoc...

  20. Emission trading under the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Holtsmark, Bjart; Hagem, Cathrine

    2003-01-01

    On 11 December 1997, delegates to the third conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed upon the Kyoto Protocol. The protocol sets binding emission targets for developed nations (Annex B countries). The Protocol states that Annex B countries may participate in emission trading. The rules for emission trading are to be discussed at the fourth Conference of the Parties in November 1998. differentiation of targets among countries, but not in any system...

  1. Enhancements to A Lightweight RFID Authentication Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Wei, Xinzhou

    2008-01-01

    Vajda and Buttyan (VB) proposed a set of five lightweight RFID authentication protocols. Defend, Fu, and Juels (DFJ) did cryptanalysis on two of them - XOR and SUBSET. To the XOR protocol, DFJ proposed repeated keys attack and nibble attack. In this paper, we identify the vulnerability existed in the original VB's successive session key permutation algorithm. We propose three enhancements to prevent DFJ's attacks and make XOR protocol stronger without introducing extra resource cost.

  2. Failure of Kak quantum key distribution protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ching-Nung Yang; Su-Hsuan Chu; Bing-Ling Lu

    2005-01-01

    Kak's quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol provides not only the distribution but also the integrity of secret key simultaneously in quantum channel. Consequently the additional exchange of information, used to check whether an eavesdropper exists, is unnecessary. In this comment, we will point out the failure of Kak's protocol and show that Kak's protocol does not have the joint distribution and integration that the author declares in [1].

  3. VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Bijan; Ibrahim, Md.; Bikas, Md. Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is a new technology which has taken enormous attention in the recent years. Due to rapid topology changing and frequent disconnection makes it difficult to design an efficient routing protocol for routing data among vehicles, called V2V or vehicle to vehicle communication and vehicle to road side infrastructure, called V2I. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol h...

  4. Optimizing One Fair Document Exchange Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Alaraj, Abdullah M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient fair document exchange protocol. The exchange of the documents will be between two parties. The protocol is based on the verifiable and recoverable encryption of a document's key. This verifiable and recoverable encryption of the document's key will allow one party to verify the encrypted key. It will also ensure this party that the Semi Trusted Third Party will be able to recover the key if the other party misbehaves. The protocol also incorporates the concep...

  5. An Identity- Based Key- Exchange Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ya-juan; ZHU Yue-fei; HUANG Qiu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    An identity-based key-exchange protocol using a bilinear map is proposed and it is proved SK-secure(session key secure) in the AM (authenticated links adversarial model)provided the BDDH (bilinear Diffie-Hellmen) assumption is correct. Then we apply the signature-based authenticator to our protocol and obtain an identity-Based key-exchange protocol that is SK-secure in the UM (unauthenticated links adversarial model) provided the BDDH assumption is correct.

  6. CIMS Network Protocol and Its Net Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗军舟; 顾冠群

    1997-01-01

    Computer communication network architectures for cims are based on the OSI Reference Model.In this paper,CIMS network protocol model is set up on the basis of the corresqonding service model.Then the authors present a formal specification of transport protocols by using an extended Predicate/Transition net system that is briefly introduced in the third part.Finally,the general methods for the Petri nets based formal specification of CIMS network protocols are outlined.

  7. Vulnerabilities in Quantum Key Distribution Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, D. Richard

    2003-01-01

    Recently proposed quantum key distribution protocols are shown to be vulnerable to a classic man-in-the-middle attack using entangled pairs created by Eve. It appears that the attack could be applied to any protocol that relies on manipulation and return of entangled qubits to create a shared key. The protocols that are cryptanalyzed in this paper were proven secure with respect to some eavesdropping approaches, and results reported here do not invalidate these proofs. Rather, they suggest th...

  8. Security Protocol Verification: Symbolic and Computational Models

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchet, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Security protocol verification has been a very active research area since the 1990s. This paper surveys various approaches in this area, considering the verification in the symbolic model, as well as the more recent approaches that rely on the computational model or that verify protocol implementations rather than specifications. Additionally, we briefly describe our symbolic security protocol verifier ProVerif and situate it among these approaches.

  9. A Formal Approach to Protocol Performance Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Mingwei; WU Jianping

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes a formal approach to protocol performance testing based on the extended concurrent TTCN. To meet the needs of protocol performance testing, concurrent TTCN is extended, and the extended concurrent TTCN's operational semantics is defined in terms of Input-Output Labeled Transition System. An architecture design of protocol performance test system is described, and an example of test cases and its test resultare given.

  10. Universal protocol for alopecia areata clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinkovska, Natasha A; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2013-12-01

    Within the area of alopecia areata research, there is an obvious need for well-designed clinical trials of therapeutic agents. The National Alopecia Areata Foundation (NAAF) has created an initiative for the development of a unified protocol with guidelines for clinical studies. The NAAF universal protocol represents a joint effort of clinicians and investigators with experience in treating alopecia areata. This protocol will serve as a tremendous resource to facilitate future clinical studies. PMID:24326554

  11. Rewriting-Based Verification of Authentication Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Ogata, Kazuhiro; Futatsugi, Kokichi

    2004-01-01

    We propose a method of formally analysing security protocols based on rewriting. The method is roughly as follows. A security protocol is modeled as an observational transition system, which is described in CafeOBJ. Proof scores showing that the protocol has safety (security) properties are then written in CafeOBJ and the proof scores are executed (rewritten) by the CafeOBJ system.

  12. Software for simulating IMRT protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy - IMRT is an advanced technique to cancer treatment widely used on oncology around the world. The present paper describes the SOFT-RT software which is a tool for simulating IMRT protocol. Also, it will be present a cerebral tumor case of studied in which three irradiation windows with distinct orientation were applied. The SOFT-RT collect and export data to MCNP code. This code simulates the photon transport on the voxel model. Later, a out-module from SOFT-RT import the results and express the dose-response superimposing dose and voxel model in a tree-dimensional graphic representation. The present paper address the IMRT software and its function as well a cerebral tumor case of studied is showed. The graphic interface of the SOFT-RT illustrates the example case. (author)

  13. Fetal MRI: techniques and protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of ultrafast sequences has led to a significant improvement in fetal MRI. Imaging protocols have to be adjusted to the rapidly developing fetal central nervous system (CNS) and to the clinical question. Sequence parameters must be changed to cope with the respective developmental stage, to produce images free from motion artefacts and to provide optimum visualization of the region and focus of interest. In contrast to postnatal studies, every suspect fetal CNS abnormality requires examination of the whole fetus and the extrafetal intrauterine structures including the uterus. This approach covers both aspects of fetal CNS disorders: isolated and complex malformations and cerebral lesions arising from the impaired integrity of the feto-placental unit. (orig.)

  14. Fetal MRI: techniques and protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Neuroradiology, University Clinics of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-10, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter Christian [Department of Anatomy, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-09-01

    The development of ultrafast sequences has led to a significant improvement in fetal MRI. Imaging protocols have to be adjusted to the rapidly developing fetal central nervous system (CNS) and to the clinical question. Sequence parameters must be changed to cope with the respective developmental stage, to produce images free from motion artefacts and to provide optimum visualization of the region and focus of interest. In contrast to postnatal studies, every suspect fetal CNS abnormality requires examination of the whole fetus and the extrafetal intrauterine structures including the uterus. This approach covers both aspects of fetal CNS disorders: isolated and complex malformations and cerebral lesions arising from the impaired integrity of the feto-placental unit. (orig.)

  15. E-Cash Payment Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Srivastava

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available E-cash is a payment system designed and implemented for making purchases over open networks such as the Internet. Need of a payment system which enables the electronic transactions are growing at the same time that the use of Internet is growing in our daily life. Present days electronic payment systems have a major problem, they cannot handle the security and the users anonymity and at the same time these systems are secure on the cost of their users anonymity. This paper shows the payment protocols for digital cash and discusses how a digital cash system can be formed by presenting a few of the present days digital cash systems in details. We also provide a comparison and determine them together to see which one of them fulfils the properties for digital cash and the required security level.

  16. Hiro Hirai's BAC-FISH Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Schistosoma Genome Network ### Overview This protocol is a modification of the standard FISH protocol published by Hiro Hirai and Phil LoVerde in Parasitology Today (1995, 11(8) p 310-314) that has been optimised for use with BAC probes and should be read in conjunction with the published protocol. This protocol uses the BIOPRIME reaction kit from GibcoBRL to prepare biotin-labelled BAC DNA which is detected using FITC-Avidin (Vector Labs, DCS grade). Reagents from other ...

  17. Attack strategies on quantum cryptographic protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum authentication (QA) have been a topic of extensive research in the last 20 years. In course of that many attacks on QKD and QA protocols have been studied. Among these, Zhang, Lee and Guo presented an attack on a QKD protocol using entanglement swapping. Based on that strategy we take a look at other protocols to inspect how much information an adversary may get if he shares entanglement with either one or both parties. We will present some protocols where an adversary can even get full information about the key using entanglement. (author)

  18. Mac protocols for cyber-physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a literature review of various wireless MAC protocols and techniques for achieving real-time and reliable communications in the context of cyber-physical systems (CPS). The evaluation analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 for CPS therein will give insights into configuration and optimization of critical design parameters of MAC protocols. In addition, this book also presents the design and evaluation of an adaptive MAC protocol for medical CPS, which exemplifies how to facilitate real-time and reliable communications in CPS by exploiting IEEE 802.15.4 based MAC protocols. This book wil

  19. Efficient secure two-party protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Hazay, Carmit

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive study of efficient protocols and techniques for secure two-party computation -- both general constructions that can be used to securely compute any functionality, and protocols for specific problems of interest. The book focuses on techniques for constructing efficient protocols and proving them secure. In addition, the authors study different definitional paradigms and compare the efficiency of protocols achieved under these different definitions.The book opens with a general introduction to secure computation and then presents definitions of security for a

  20. Equilibria of Generalized Cut and Choose Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Caragiannis, Ioannis; Kurokawa, David; Procaccia, Ariel

    Classic cake cutting protocols — which fairly allocate a divisible good among agents with heterogeneous preferences — are susceptible to manipulation. Do their strategic outcomes still guarantee fairness? To answer this question we adopt a novel algo rithmic approach, proposing a concrete...... computational model and reasoning about the game-theoretic properties of algorithms that operate in this model. Specifically, we show that each protocol in the class of generalized cut and choose (GCC) protocols — which includes the most important discrete cake cutting protocols — is guaranteed to have...

  1. A formal model of fair exchange protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Sihan; LI Gaicheng

    2005-01-01

    Based on the study of existing fair exchange protocols, this paper sets up an accurate formal model by stepwise refinement. In the process of refinement an unreliable channel is employed to simulate an attack behavior. The model provides a novel formal definition of exchanged items, and presents the formal goals for fairness, accountability,etc., reflecting the inherent requirements for fair exchange protocols across-the-board. In order to check, prove, and design fair exchange protocols effectively and efficiently, the model puts forward a novel property of abuse-freeness which applies to all fair exchange protocols, gives a formal definition for trust strand of the third party, and presents general criteria of designing a secure and effective fair exchange protocol. Taking a typical fair exchange protocol as an example, this paper presents the analysis steps of fair exchange protocols appealing to our model. An unknown attack is uncovered. The analysis reveals the process of a complete attack, discovering deeper reasons for causing an attack.Finally, we modify the flawed protocol and the revised protocol ensures the desirable properties.

  2. Search and nonsearch protocols for radiographic consultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six radiologists, acting as film reviewers, used two different consultation protocols to differentiate among 292 ambiguous findings on chest films: 120 simulated nodules and 172 normal findings (previous readers' false-positive reports of nodules). The non-search protocol identified each finding (by location), and reviewers rated its likelihood as a nodule. The search protocol, which asked reviewers to report and rate all locations regarded as possible nodules on each film, assigned a default negative rating to any unreported finding (nodule or normal). Receiver operator characteristic analyses demonstrated a significantly higher accuracy for each reviewer's search- protocol discriminations between these nodules and confusing normal findings

  3. Multimode Communication Protocols Enabling Reconfigurable Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlemann Lars

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the realization and application of a generic protocol stack for reconfigurable wireless communication systems. This focus extends the field of software-defined radios which usually concentrates on the physical layer. The generic protocol stack comprises common protocol functionality and behavior which are extended through specific parts of the targeted radio access technology. This paper considers parameterizable modules of basic protocol functions residing in the data link layer of the ISO/OSI model. System-specific functionality of the protocol software is realized through adequate parameterization and composition of the generic modules. The generic protocol stack allows an efficient realization of reconfigurable protocol software and enables a completely reconfigurable wireless communication system. It is a first step from side-by-side realized, preinstalled modes in a terminal towards a dynamic reconfigurable anymode terminal. The presented modules of the generic protocol stack can also be regarded as a toolbox for the accelerated and cost-efficient development of future communication protocols.

  4. Security Attacks On MANET Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiragkumar V. Patel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives idea about various routing protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network against security issues. MANET is vulnerable to various security attacks due to its dynamically changing topology, self configurable nature and lack of centralized control. Malicious node can significantly degrade the performance and reliability of Ad-hoc Network routing protocols. From the survey it has been made quite clear that basic MANET protocols are vulnerable to various routing attacks. While Secure AODV (SAODV routing protocol performs quite well to improve performance in presence of security attack in MANET.

  5. Tool Supported Analysis of Web Services Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Abinoam P.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Srba, Jiri;

    2011-01-01

    We describe an abstract protocol model suitable for modelling of web services and other protocols communicating via unreliable, asynchronous communication channels. The model is supported by a tool chain where the first step translates tables with state/transition protocol descriptions, often used...... e.g. in the design of web services protocols, into an intermediate XML format. We further translate this format into a network of communicating state machines directly suitable for verification in the model checking tool UPPAAL. We introduce two types of communication media abstractions in order...

  6. A New Watermarking Protocol against Conspiracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; KOU Weidong; FAN Kai; CAO Xuefei

    2006-01-01

    A trusted third party introduced in watermarking protocols would decrease the security and affect the implementation of the protocols. In this paper, a new watermarking protocol with an un-trusted third party (UTTP) was proposed. Based on the idea of all-or-nothing disclosure of secret (ANDOS), all of the buyer, the seller and the third party didn't know the exact watermark, which was embedded in a digital content for tracing piracy. The proposed protocol provided mechanisms to trace piracy and protect customer's right. In addition, the problem that a seller colluded with UTTP to frame the buyer, namely, the conspiracy problem, could be avoided.

  7. Secure Key Management Protocol in WIMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noudjoud Kahya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX /IEEE 802.16, is new technology basedon wireless metropolitan area network. Security of connections access in WIMAX /IEEE 802.16 iscomplete with respect to the Privacy Key Management (PKM protocol. The protocol is responsible forproviding the secure distribution of keying data from Base Station (BS to Subscriber Station (SS. In thispaper we provide the formal analysis of PKMv2 using Scyther tool to verify the security properties. Wefound that PKMv2 is vulnerable to replay, DoS, Man-in-the middle attacks. At last we have proposed asecure protocol (SPKM to prevent the authorization protocol from such attacks.

  8. Quantum three-pass cryptography protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Wu, Ling-An; Liu, Songhao

    2002-09-01

    We present a new kind of quantum cryptography protocol based on Shamir's three-pass protocol of classical cryptography, which allows the transmission of qubits directly and secretly via the aid of an unjammable classical channel. In this protocol we implement the encryption and decryption transformations via rotations on the Poincare sphere of the photons polarization parameters. The key technique is that Bob's encryption rotation must be commutative with Alice s decryption rotation; this means that the axes of these two rotations must be parallel. We also present a security analysis of the protocol under a man-in-the-middle attack.

  9. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FIELD TESTING PROTOCOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is a generic verification protocol by which EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program tests newly developed equipment for distributed generation of electric power, usually micro-turbine generators and internal combustion engine generators. The protocol will ...

  10. Wind power agreement protocol; Protocole d'accord eolien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this protocol of agreement is to propose to wind turbine fitters some models of contracts allowing the setting up of wind turbines on agricultural lots. These documents, which make an indissociable ensemble, apply to both phases of development of a wind power project: the feasibility study phase, for a duration comprised between 2 and 5 years (studies, administrative procedures, precise definition of the project), and the construction, exploitation and dismantling phase. These documents will serve as common guidelines for both the farmers and the wind turbine designers. Both parties agree to meet together in the future to propose some modifications of these texts if necessary. The four models of contracts are attached to the document: contract for the feasibility study phase, first contract between the landlord and the farmer for the cancellation of the rural lease, second contract between the landlord and the wind power exploitation company for the common right lease, and the third contract between the farmer and the wind power company for the indemnification convention. (J.S.)

  11. Specification of a Collision-Free CSMA MAC Protocol for Wireless LANs: the CANlike protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Juanole, Guy; Nguyen, Xuan Hung; Mouney, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Collision-free Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols based on Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) and priorities associated to the frames are interesting solutions in considering real-time traffic in a wireless context.We have already presented such a protocol using priorities represented by the BlackBurst technique [1]. The goal of this paper is, at first and mainly, to specify another such protocol, named CANlike, which is an adaptation of the wired CAN bus protocol to the wireless context...

  12. A Secure Internet Voting Protocol Based on Non-interactive Deniable Authentication Protocol and Proof Protocol that Two Ciphertexts are Encryption of the Same Plaintext

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Meng

    2009-01-01

    Internet voting protocol is the base of the Internet voting systems. Firstly, an improved proof protocol that two ciphertexts are encryption of the same plaintext is introduced. Secondly, a receipt-free and coercion-resistant Internet voting protocol based on the non-interactive deniable authentication protocol and an improved proof protocol that two ciphertexts are encryption of the same plaintext is developed. Thirdly, we analyze the proposed Internet voting protocol. The proposed Internet ...

  13. BIS在氯胺酮联合咪达唑仑小儿麻醉深度中的监测价值评价%Evaluation on monitoring value of bispectral index in pediatric anesthesia depth of ketamine combined with midazolam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡军; 武玉清; 周成华; 周策; 陆富钊; 李鑫; 黄鹂; 李伟; 张永; 陈虎

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of bispectral index (BIS) monitor in pedo-oblique inguinal hernia operation through anesthesia by ketamine combined with midazolam . Methods Forty 2-to 6-year-old child patients undergoing pedo-oblique inguinal hernia surgery in 2011 were randomly divided into 2 groups; BIS group (B, n=20) and control group (C, n=20). In group B , we controlled the dosage of ketamine and midazolam by BIS monitor (78±5). In group C, we controlled the dosage of ketamine and midazolam by observation of haemodynamic reaction , respiratory rate and boby movement. Results Compared to group C , there is less haemodynamic fluctuation and shorter analepsia time and better sedation in group B. Conclusion BIS monitor could control the depth of anesthesia , shorten analepsia time by continuous and objective monitoring in pedo-oblique inguinal hernia operation , which results in better sedation in surgery and enhancementof pedo-patient comfort and safety.%目的 探讨脑电双频指数(bispectral index,BIS)在氯胺酮联合咪达唑仑进行小儿腹股沟斜疝手术麻醉深度监测中的应用价值.方法 选择择期行腹股沟斜疝手术的患儿40例,年龄2~6岁,ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级,随机分成 BIS监测组(B组)和对照组(C组).B组 (20例) 通过术中监测BIS数值,调整氯胺酮和咪达唑仑剂量使其维持在78±5;C组根据术中患儿的血流动力学反应、呼吸频率改变和出现体动反应来调整氯胺酮和咪达唑仑用量大小.结果 同C组相比,B组患儿镇静充分,血流动力学波动较小,术后苏醒时间缩短,有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 应用BIS能连续、客观地监测并控制氯胺酮联合咪达唑仑进行小儿腹股沟斜疝手术的麻醉深度,缩短术后苏醒时间,有利于术中镇静及增强患儿的舒适感和安全性.

  14. MTP: An atomic multicast transport protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freier, Alan O.; Marzullo, Keith

    1990-01-01

    Multicast transport protocol (MTP); a reliable transport protocol that utilizes the multicast strategy of applicable lower layer network architectures is described. In addition to transporting data reliably and efficiently, MTP provides the client synchronization necessary for agreement on the receipt of data and the joining of the group of communicants.

  15. Climate Change And The Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of global warming is addressed. Changes in earth surface temperature, emission of CO2 and other four major green house gases are presented. Effect of global warming on weather, ocean, and ecosystem is discussed. A brief history of the Kyoto protocol starting from the 151 Earth Summit in 1972 is outlined. An overview of the protocol and a brief summary are given

  16. A Study of Voice over Internet Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Gerami

    2010-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol, is an application that enables data packet networks to transport real time voice traffic. VOIP uses the Internet as the transmission network. This paper describes VoIP and its requirements. The paper further discusses various VoIP protocol, security and its market.

  17. Diagrammatization of the Transmission Control Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Al-Fedaghi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the wide spread of Internet services, developers and users need a greater understanding of the technology of networking. Acquiring a clear understanding of communication protocols is an important step in understanding how a network functions; however, many protocols are complicated, and explaining them can be demanding. In addition, protocols are often explained in terms of traffic analysis and oriented toward technical staff and those already familiar with network protocols. This paper aims at proposing a diagrammatic methodology to represent protocols in general, with a focus on the Transmission Control Protocol and Secure Sockets Layer in particular. The purpose is to facilitate understanding of protocols for learning and communication purposes. The methodology is based on the notion of flow of primitive things in a system with six stages: creation, release, transfer, arrival, acceptance, and processing. Though the method presents a basic description of protocols without in-depth analysis of all aspects and mechanisms, the resultant conceptual description is a systematic specification that utilizes a few basic notions that assist in illustrating functionality and support comprehension.

  18. Secure Geographic Routing Protocols: Issues and Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi sookhak; Ramin Karimi; NorafidaIthnin; Mahboobeh Haghparast; Ismail FauziISnin

    2011-01-01

    In the years, routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been substantially investigated by researches Most state-of-the-art surveys have focused on reviewing of wireless sensor network .In this paper we review the existing secure geographic routing protocols for wireless sensor network (WSN) and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

  19. Secure Geographic Routing Protocols: Issues and Approaches

    CERN Document Server

    sookhak, Mehdi; Haghparast, Mahboobeh; ISnin, Ismail Fauzi

    2011-01-01

    In the years, routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been substantially investigated by researches. Most state-of-the-art surveys have focused on reviewing of wireless sensor network .In this paper we review the existing secure geographic routing protocols for wireless sensor network (WSN) and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

  20. Kyoto Protocol: trade versus the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Could the signatories to the Kyoto Protocol find themselves up against the WTO? This paper examines how the climate change agreement could conflict with trade rules, and shows that there are potentially serious conflicts in the interface between the WTO and the Kyoto Protocol. It argues for dialogue and debate before it is too late. (author)

  1. Welfare monitroing system : assessment protocol for horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livestock Research,

    2012-01-01

    This document describes the protocol for horses in more detail. For the development of the protocol the Welfare Quality® framework was used. For each measure there is a description how to assess the measure including the method of classification.

  2. Summary Report on Rational Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alwen, Joël; Cachin, Christian; Pereira, Olivier;

    This report gives an overview of some of the models and techniques in rational cryptography, an emerging research area which in particular uses the methodologies and techniques of game theory to analyze cryptographic protocols and which uses cryptographic protocol theory to implement game theoretic...

  3. Secure Geographic Routing Protocols: Issues and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi sookhak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the years, routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN have been substantially investigated by researches Most state-of-the-art surveys have focused on reviewing of wireless sensor network .In this paper we review the existing secure geographic routing protocols for wireless sensor network (WSN and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

  4. The Formal Specifications for Protocols of Decoders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Meng-ting; WU Guo-qing; SHU Feng-di

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a formal approach, FSPD (Formal Specifications for Protocols of Decoders), to specify decoder communication protocols. Based on axiomatic, FSPD is a precise language with which programmers could use only one suitable driver to handle various types of decoders. FSPD is helpful for programmers to get high adaptability and reusability of decoder-driver software.

  5. VULNERABILITIES OF THE SSL/TLS PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ćurguz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes vulnerabilities of the SSL/TLS Handshake protocol, which is responsible for authentication of the parties in the communication and negotiation of security parameters that will be used to protect confidentiality and integrity of the data. It will be analyzed the attacks against the implementation of Handshake protocol, as well as the attacks against the other elements necessary to SSL/TLS protocol to discover security flaws that were exploited, modes of attack, the potential consequences, but also studying methods of defense. All versions of the protocol are going to be the subject of the research but emphasis will be placed on the critical attack that the most endanger the safety of data. The goal of the research is to point out the danger of existence of at least vulnerability in the SSL/TLS protocol, which can be exploited and endanger the safety of the data that should be protected.

  6. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases...

  7. Cryptanalysis of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fei; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2011-01-01

    As a new model for signing quantum message, arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) has recently received a lot of attention. In this paper we study the cryptanalysis of previous AQS protocols from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. We show that in these protocols the receiver Bob can realize existential forgery of the sender's signature under known message attack. Bob can even achieve universal forgery when the protocols are used to sign a classical message. Furthermore, the sender Alice can successfully disavow any of her signatures by simple attack. The attack strategies are described in detail and some discussions about the potential improvements of the protocols are given. Finally we also present several interesting topics in future study on AQS protocols.

  8. A Rational Approach to Cryptographic Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero-Gil, P; Bruno-Castañeda, C; 10.1016/j.mcm.2006.12.013

    2010-01-01

    This work initiates an analysis of several cryptographic protocols from a rational point of view using a game-theoretical approach, which allows us to represent not only the protocols but also possible misbehaviours of parties. Concretely, several concepts of two-person games and of two-party cryptographic protocols are here combined in order to model the latters as the formers. One of the main advantages of analysing a cryptographic protocol in the game-theory setting is the possibility of describing improved and stronger cryptographic solutions because possible adversarial behaviours may be taken into account directly. With those tools, protocols can be studied in a malicious model in order to find equilibrium conditions that make possible to protect honest parties against all possible strategies of adversaries.

  9. Security Protocols: Specification, Verification, Implementation, and Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almousa, Omar

    need to combine their strengths. Moreover, we need to ensure that the protocol implementation coincides with the formal model that we verify using such tools. This thesis shows that we can simplify the formal verification of protocols in several ways. First, we introduce an Alice and Bob style language...... called SPS (Security Protocol Specification) language, that enables users, without requiring deep expertise in formal models from them, to specify a wide range of real-world protocols in a simple and intuitive way. Thus, SPS allows users to verify their protocols using different tools, and generate...... robust implementations in different languages. Moreover, SPS has the "ultimate” formal semantics for Alice and Bob notation in the presence of an arbitrary set of cryptographic operators and their algebraic theory. Despite its generality, this semantics is mathematically simpler than any previous attempt...

  10. Multicast Protocol for Uni-Directional Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄皓; 陈贵海; 谢立; 孙钟秀

    2000-01-01

    A very inexpensive receive-only satellite receiver can receive high bandwidth traffic from a feeder. Therefore the connection between the feeder and the receiver is uni-directional. The existing routing protocols, such as Link-State and Distance-Vector, are designed on the premise that any links are bidirectional and they cannot handle the uni-directional links. In this paper, a dynamic multicast routing protocol is proposed, which can handle uni-directional networks. This protocol can also adapt to the dynamic change of the topology of the network and has good scalability. A formal description of the protocol by Petri net is given. Liveness,deadlock free and other properties of the protocol are proved.

  11. Bioinspired Security Analysis of Wireless Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrocchi, Marinella; Spognardi, Angelo; Santi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Fraglets represent an execution model for communication protocols that resembles the chemical reactions in living organisms. The strong connection between their way of transforming and reacting and formal rewriting systems makes a fraglet program amenable to automatic verification. Grounded on past...... work, this paper investigates feasibility of adopting fraglets as model for specifying security protocols and analysing their properties. In particular, we give concrete sample analyses over a secure RFID protocol, showing evolution of the protocol run as chemical dynamics and simulating an adversary...... trying to circumvent the intended steps. The results of our analysis confirm the effectiveness of the cryptofraglets framework for the model and analysis of security properties and eventually show its potential to identify and uncover protocol flaws....

  12. Forests and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetze, D.C. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation referred to carbon sinks in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) as specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Policy issues, opportunities and challenges were discussed. The slides summarized the environmental potential of carbon sink projects, the current status of carbon sinks in the CDM, and strategies towards a CDM carbon sink. The Nyakach, Kenya biomass enhancement case study was presented, along with the Colombian Andean biodiversity corridor reforestation project. Potential sink projects were described as those resulting in direct reduction of emissions. These include reducing deforestation by protecting forests from being converted to agriculture, by protecting forests from the impacts of human activities, and by substituting biomass energy sources for fossil fuels. Indirect reduction of emissions via sequestration involves restoring natural forests in deforested or degraded areas and expanding agroforests and plantations. The co-benefits of carbon sink projects are biodiversity and socio-economic benefits. Under the Bonn Agreement, afforestation and reforestation projects are eligible under the CDM. Credits are limited to 1 per cent of Annex 1 party's base year emissions per year. The important elements of the Marrakech Accord are the prompt start of the CDM, as well as modalities and procedures.

  13. STANDARD OPERATING PROTOCOLS FOR DECOMMISSIONING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning projects at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites are conducted under project-specific decision documents, which involve extensive preparation time, public comment periods, and regulatory approvals. Often, the decision documents must be initiated at least one year before commencing the decommissioning project, and they are expensive and time consuming to prepare. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is a former nuclear weapons production plant at which hazardous substances and wastes were released or disposed during operations. As a result of the releases, RFETS was placed on the National Priorities List in 1989, and is conducting cleanup activities under a federal facilities compliance agreement. Working closely with interested stakeholders and state and federal regulatory agencies, RFETS has developed and implemented an improved process for obtaining the approvals. The key to streamlining the approval process has been the development of sitewide decision documents called Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Standard Operating Protocols or ''RSOPs.'' RSOPs have broad applicability, and could be used instead of project-specific documents. Although no two decommissioning projects are exactly the same and they may vary widely in contamination and other hazards, the basic steps taken for cleanup are usually similar. Because of this, using RSOPs is more efficient than preparing a separate project-specific decision documents for each cleanup action. Over the Rocky Flats cleanup life cycle, using RSOPs has the potential to: (1) Save over 5 million dollars and 6 months on the site closure schedule; (2) Eliminate preparing one hundred and twenty project-specific decision documents; and (3) Eliminate writing seventy-five closure description documents for hazardous waste unit closure and corrective actions

  14. A fully efficient secure quantum cryptography protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang Bin Wang

    2001-01-01

    Since Bennett and Brassard suggested their quantum key distribution protocol(BB84 protocol) in 1984, the subject has been extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally. The protocol allows two remote parties Alice and Bob to create and share a secret key using a quantum channel and public authenticated communications. The quantum key created in this way is in principle secure because eavesdroppers have no way to tap the quantum channel without disturb it. In the protocol, two level quantum bits are measured in two basis, $X$ and $Z$ randomly by Bob. So at least half of the measurement results will be discarded because Bob has a half probability taking the measurement in a wrong basis. On the other hand, the security is not the maximum in BB84 protocol. To increase the security, one may straightforwardly increase the number of basis used in the protocol. For example, six state protocol was proposed recently for two level system. However, in this way, it seems to be the case that the higher the secu...

  15. Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Gopinath

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many energy-efficient routing protocols have been proposed. However, very little efforts have been taken in studying the energy consumption of individual node, overhead and route maintaining issues. While not considering the design of energy efficient routing protocol, it may perform very worst than the normal routing protocol. Here, we have proposed On Demand Based Energy Efficient Routing Protocol (ODBEERP. The main aim of proposed protocol is to discover the minimum power-limitation route. The power limitation of a route is decided by the node which has the minimum energy in that route. So compared with the minimum node energy in any other route, the minimum node energy in the minimum power-limitation route has more energy. We have also proposed a more accurate analysis to track the energy consumptions due to various factors, and improve the performance during path discovery and in mobility scenarios. The proposed protocol is evaluated with object oriented discrete event simulator environment. Simulation results shows that the ODBEERP achieves good throughput, less delay, high packet delivery ratio and good energy efficiency than the existing protocol PEER.

  16. A Review of Fair Exchange Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah AlOtaibi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Internet has become an essential business platform, aiding trading, distribution and sales between organisations, consumers and even between consumers themselves. This technology revolution has brought e-commerce to an entirely new level, which therefore has raised some new security issues. Security protocols in e-commerce are required to manage the transactions between buyers and sellers. In order to engage customers in e-commerce, these protocols should be well formulated and secured; they should protect both parties from fraudulent users and subsequently promote the growth of e-commerce. There are some protocols, known as fair exchange protocols, in e-commerce that are designed to guarantee fairness between the customer and the merchant so that neither party gains any advantage over the other. Therefore, in this paper, we review these protocols in detail. In addition, we present a survey of three fair exchange protocols based on online TTP from different application areas. In particular, we review these protocols with regard to certain properties, namely, fairness, correctness of product, customer's anonymity, timeliness and channel requirement.

  17. Efficient Privacy Preserving Protocols for Similarity Join

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Hawashin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the similarity join process, one or more sources may not allow sharing its data with other sources. In this case, a privacy preserving similarity join is required. We showed in our previous work [4] that using long attributes, such as paper abstracts, movie summaries, product descriptions, and user feedbacks, could improve the similarity join accuracy using supervised learning. However, the existing secure protocols for similarity join methods can not be used to join sources using these long attributes. Moreover, the majority of the existing privacy‐preserving protocols do not consider the semantic similarities during the similarity join process. In this paper, we introduce a secure efficient protocol to semantically join sources when the join attributes are long attributes. We provide two secure protocols for both scenarios when a training set exists and when there is no available training set. Furthermore, we introduced the multi‐label supervised secure protocol and the expandable supervised secure protocol. Results show that our protocols can efficiently join sources using the long attributes by considering the semantic relationships among the long string values. Therefore, it improves the overall secure similarity join performance.

  18. Effect of esmolol on bispectral index in patients undergoing orotracheal intubation during induction of anesthesia%艾司洛尔对患者麻醉诱导气管插管时脑电双频谱指数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹德权; 陈艳平; 张燕玲

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of esmolol on bispectral index (BIS) in patients undergoing orotracheal intubation during induction of anesthesia and to investigate the mechanism of inhibiting the cardiovascular responses to tracheal intubation.Methode Forty patients in physical status of ASA Ⅰ or Ⅱ and aged 20-60 years were randomly divided into 2 groups ( n = 20 each): esmolol group (group E) and control group (group C). Anesthesia was induced with midazolam 0.1 mg/kg, fentanyl 5 μg/kg and vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg. In group E, esmolol 1 mg/kg was given intravenously before anesthesia induction and followed by an infusion of esmolol 250 μg· kg- 1·min-1, while a comparable volume of saline was given for group C. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and BIS were recorded before esmolol administration, before induction of anesthesia, before orotracheal intubation, and at 1, 2 and 5 min after intubation, respectively.Results There were no significant differences in HR, MAP and BIS between the two groups before tracheal intubation. HR and MAP significantly increased after tracheal intubation in both groups, but BIS only in group C significantly increased after intubation.HR, MAP and BIS were significantly lower after intubation in group E than in group C ( P< 0.05).Conclusion Esmolol can decrease BIS during tracheal intubation and its antinociceptive property is related to the mechanism of inhibiting cardiovascular responses to tracheal intubation.

  19. Advanced Internet Protocols, Services, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Oki, Eiji; Tatipamula, Mallikarjun; Vogt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Today, the internet and computer networking are essential parts of business, learning, and personal communications and entertainment. Virtually all messages or transactions sent over the internet are carried using internet infrastructure- based on advanced internet protocols. Advanced internet protocols ensure that both public and private networks operate with maximum performance, security, and flexibility. This book is intended to provide a comprehensive technical overview and survey of advanced internet protocols, first providing a solid introduction and going on to discu

  20. Demand Priority Protocol Simulation and Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Yongzhao; SONG Shunlin; XIE Li

    1999-01-01

    A new network protocol (DemandPriority Protocol) environment can provide more satisfying service fordifferent urgent transmission requests. In this paper, in order toprovide guidance for the selection of environment of multimedia datatransmission in Computer Supported Cooperative Work better, anobject-oriented protocol specification language based on C++ is used todesign a virtual environment of multiworkstation of computer cooperativework and to simulate exe-cution of demand priority network protocoland then the performances of various transmission requests are analyzed.Finally, an evaluation of the demand priority LAN is given.

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE PROTECTED EXTENSIBLE AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Rana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF has proposednew protocols for highly secured wireless networking. Thepurpose of this paper is to implement one such proposedsecurity protocol - PEAP (Protected ExtensibleAuthentication Protocol [1]. PEAP was jointly developedby Microsoft, Cisco and RSA security. The protocolimplementation is done on the server end of a Client/Servernetwork model on a RADIUS server (RemoteAuthentication Dial-in User Service. The proposedprotocol - PEAP provides for Client identity protection andkey generation thus preventing unauthorized user accessand protecting or encrypting the data against maliciousactivities.

  2. Re-examining generalized teleportation protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Song, Jie; Song, He-Shan

    2007-11-01

    We present an explicit generalized protocol for probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary N-qubit GHZ entangled state via only one non-maximally two-qubit entangled state. Without entanglement concentration, using standard Bell-state measurement and classical communication one cannot teleport the state with unit fidelity and unit probability. We show that by properly choosing the measurement basis it is possible to achieve unity fidelity transfer of the state. Compared with Gordon et al's protocol [G. Gordon, G. Rigolin, Phys. Rev. A 73 (2006) 042309], this protocol has the advantage of transmitting much less qubits and classical information for teleporting an arbitrary N-qubit GHZ state.

  3. Security-Preserving Asymmetric Protocol Encapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaudenay, Serge; Phan, Raphael C-W

    2007-01-01

    Query-response based protocols between a client and a server such as SSL, TLS, SSH are asymmetric in the sense that the querying client and the responding server play different roles, and for which there is a need for two-way linkability between queries and responses within the protocol. We are motivated by the observation that though results exist in other related contexts, no provably secure scheme has been applied to the setting of client-server protocols, which differ from conventional co...

  4. Efficient Three Party Key Exchange Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    H. K. Pathak; Manju Sanghi

    2012-01-01

    Key exchange protocols allow two or more parties communicating over a public network to establish a common secret key called a session key. In 1976, Diffie and Hellman proposed the first practical key exchange (DH key exchange) protocol.  In 2005, Abdalla and  Pointcheval suggested  a new variation  of the computational   DH assumption  called chosen based computational Diffie Hellman (CCDH)  and presented  simple password based authenticated  key exchange protocols.  Since then several three...

  5. Performance evaluation of TCP over ABT protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Shingo; Murata, Masayuki; Miyahara, Hideo

    1998-10-01

    ABT is promising for effectively transferring a highly bursty data traffic in ATM networks. Most of past studies focused on the data transfer capability of ABT within the ATM layer. In actual, however, we need to consider the upper layer transport protocol since the transport layer protocol also supports a network congestion control mechanism. One such example is TCP, which is now widely used in the Internet. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of TCP over ABT protocols. Simulation results show that the retransmission mechanism of ABT can effectively overlay the TCP congestion control mechanism so that TCP operates in a stable fashion and works well only as an error recovery mechanism.

  6. Overview of the InterGroup protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berket, Karlo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Agarwal, Deborah A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Melliar-Smith, P. Michael [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Moser, Louise E. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not, in general, scale well to large numbers of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces a novel approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays and a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable group timestamp ordered.

  7. The Russian Federation and the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Douma, Wybe; Ratsiborinskaya, Daria

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis book brings together the results of two conferences: 'The Kyoto Protocol and beyond: A legal perspective', organised by the University of Siena on 10-11 June 2006, and 'Tackling Climate Change: An appraisal of the Kyoto Protocol and options for the future', held at the T.M.C. Asser Institute in The Hague on 30-31 March 2007. These conferences focused on the legal aspects of the Kyoto Protocol implementation and the post-2012 regime. Experts in European and international envir...

  8. Analyzing security protocols in hierarchical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ye; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    Validating security protocols is a well-known hard problem even in a simple setting of a single global network. But a real network often consists of, besides the public-accessed part, several sub-networks and thereby forms a hierarchical structure. In this paper we first present a process calculus...... capturing the characteristics of hierarchical networks and describe the behavior of protocols on such networks. We then develop a static analysis to automate the validation. Finally we demonstrate how the technique can benefit the protocol development and the design of network systems by presenting a series...

  9. Cryptanalysis of a hybrid authentication protocol for large mobile networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Chris; Tang, Q.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyse a hybrid authentication protocol due to Chien and Jan, designed for use in large mobile networks. The proposed protocol consists of two sub-protocols, namely the intra-domain authentication protocol and the inter-domain authentication protocol, which are used depending on whether the user and the request service are located in the same domain. We show that both sub-protocols suffer from a number of security vulnerabilities.

  10. A Cryptographic Moving-Knife Cake-Cutting Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshifumi Manabe; Tatsuaki Okamoto

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a cake-cutting protocol using cryptography when the cake is a heterogeneous good that is represented by an interval on a real line. Although the Dubins-Spanier moving-knife protocol with one knife achieves simple fairness, all players must execute the protocol synchronously. Thus, the protocol cannot be executed on asynchronous networks such as the Internet. We show that the moving-knife protocol can be executed asynchronously by a discrete protocol using a secure auction ...

  11. National Wildlife Refuge System Survey Protocol Template

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This template was developed for drafting National Wildlife Refuge System NWRS Survey Protocols. The template is arranged in the same order as the eight basic...

  12. Multicast Routing Protocols in Adhoc Mobile networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Nagaprasad,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of applications are in areas where rapid deployment and dynamic reconfiguration are necessary and a wire line network is not available. These include military battlefields, emergency search and rescue sites, classrooms, and conventions where participants share information dynamically using their mobile devices. Well established routing protocols do exist to offer efficient multicasting service in conventional wired networks. These protocols, having been designed for fixed networks, may fails to keep up with node movements and frequent topology changes in a MANET. Therefore, adapting existing wired multicast protocols as such to a MANET, which completely lacks infrastructure, appear less promising. Providing efficient multicasting over MANET faces many challenges, includes scalability,quality of service, reliable service, security, Address configuration, Applications for multicast over MANET. The existing multicast routing protocol do not addresses these issues effectively over Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET.

  13. Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000

  14. Compiling symbolic attacks to protocol implementation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rusinowitch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently efficient model-checking tools have been developed to find flaws in security protocols specifications. These flaws can be interpreted as potential attacks scenarios but the feasability of these scenarios need to be confirmed at the implementation level. However, bridging the gap between an abstract attack scenario derived from a specification and a penetration test on real implementations of a protocol is still an open issue. This work investigates an architecture for automatically generating abstract attacks and converting them to concrete tests on protocol implementations. In particular we aim to improve previously proposed blackbox testing methods in order to discover automatically new attacks and vulnerabilities. As a proof of concept we have experimented our proposed architecture to detect a renegotiation vulnerability on some implementations of SSL/TLS, a protocol widely used for securing electronic transactions.

  15. Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

  16. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Li-Ling; Luo, Yung-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN) is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols. PMID:27005624

  17. Statistical principles for prospective study protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Robin; Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research to...... "statistically significant" or not. In the present paper we outline the considerations and suggestions on how to build a trial protocol, with an emphasis on having a rigorous protocol stage, always leading to a full article manuscript, independent of statistical findings. We conclude that authors, who find...... (rigorous) protocol writing too troublesome, will realize that they have already written the first half of the final paper if they follow these recommendations; authors simply need to change the protocols future tense into past tense. Thus, the aim of this clinical commentary is to describe and explain the...

  18. A Protocol for Messaging to Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Atri, Dimitra; Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Messaging to extraterrestrial intelligence (METI) is a branch of study concerned with constructing and broadcasting a message toward habitable planets. Since the Arecibo message of 1974, the handful of METI broadcasts have increased in content and complexity, but the lack of an established protocol has produced unorganized or cryptic messages that could be difficult to interpret. Here we outline the development of a self-consistent protocol for messaging to extraterrestrial intelligence that provides constraints and guidelines for the construction of a message in order to maximize the probability that the message effectively communicates. A METI protocol considers several factors including signal encoding, message length, information content, anthropocentrism, transmission method, and transmission periodicity. Once developed, the protocol will be released for testing on different human groups worldwide and across cultural boundaries. An effective message to extraterrestrials should at least be understandable ...

  19. ARC Code TI: Geometry Manipulation Protocol (GMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Geometry Manipulation Protocol (GMP) is a library which serializes datatypes between XML and ANSI C data structures to support CFD applications. This library...

  20. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Hung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols.

  1. Privacy-Preserving Protocols for Eigenvector Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, Manas A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a protocol for computing the dominant eigenvector of a collection of private data distributed across multiple parties, with the individual parties unwilling to share their data. Our proposed protocol is based on secure multiparty computation with a trusted third-party arbitrator who deals with data encrypted by the other parties using an additive homomorphic cryptosystem. We also augment the protocol with randomization to make it difficult, with a high probability, for any party to estimate properties of the data belonging to other parties from the intermediate steps. The previous approaches towards this problem were based on expensive QR decomposition of correlation matrices, we present an efficient algorithm using the power iteration method. We present an analysis of the correctness, security, efficiency of protocol and experiments over a prototype implementation.

  2. How To Develop Survey Protocols: A Handbook

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This handbook provides a standard and guidance for developing and reviewing survey protocols used in the National Wildlife Refuge System. In the handbook, survey...

  3. Comparison of on Demand Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhushan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A routing protocol is used to facilitate communication in ad hoc network. The primary goal of such a routing protocol is to provide an efficient and reliable path between a pair of nodes. The routing protocols for ad hoc network can be categorized into three categories: table driven, on demand and hybrid routing. The table driven and hybrid routing strategies require periodic exchange of hello messages between nodes of the ad hoc network and thus have high processing and bandwidth requirements. On the other hand on demand routing strategy creates routes when required and hence is very much suitable for ad hoc network. This paper therefore examines the performance of three on demand routing protocols at application layer using QualNet-5.01 simulator.

  4. Quantum communication protocols based on entanglement swapping

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Luna, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    We recall several cryptographic protocols based on entanglement alone and also on entanglement swapping. We make an exposition in terms of the geometrical aspects of the involved Hilbert spaces, and we concentrate on the formal nature of the used transformations.

  5. Probabilistic Model--Checking of Quantum Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Gay, S; Papanikolaou, N; Gay, Simon; Nagarajan, Rajagopal; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos

    2005-01-01

    We establish fundamental and general techniques for formal verification of quantum protocols. Quantum protocols are novel communication schemes involving the use of quantum-mechanical phenomena for representation, storage and transmission of data. As opposed to quantum computers, quantum communication systems can and have been implemented using present-day technology; therefore, the ability to model and analyse such systems rigorously is of primary importance. While current analyses of quantum protocols use a traditional mathematical approach and require considerable understanding of the underlying physics, we argue that automated verification techniques provide an elegant alternative. We demonstrate these techniques through the use of PRISM, a probabilistic model-checking tool. Our approach is conceptually simpler than existing proofs, and allows us to disambiguate protocol definitions and assess their properties. It also facilitates detailed analyses of actual implemented systems. We illustrate our techniqu...

  6. Identity-based authentication protocol for grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hon; Sun Shixin; Yang Homiao

    2008-01-01

    Current grid authentication frameworks are achieved by applying the standard SSL authentication protocol(SAP).The authentication process is very complicated,and therefore,the grid user is in a heavily loaded point both in computation and in communication.Based on identity-based architecture for grid(IBAG)and corre-sponding encryption and signature schemes,an identity-based authentication protocol for grid is proposed.Being certificate-free,the authentication protocol aligns well with the demands of grid computing.Through simulation testing,it is seen that the authentication protocol is more lightweight and efficient than SAP,especially the more lightweight user side.This contributes to the larger grid scalability.

  7. Network Coding Protocols for Smart Grid Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Rui; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Phulpin, Yannick;

    2014-01-01

    We propose a robust network coding protocol for enhancing the reliability and speed of data gathering in smart grids. At the heart of our protocol lies the idea of tunable sparse network coding, which adopts the transmission of sparsely coded packets at the beginning of the transmission process...... but then switches to a denser coding structure towards the end. Our systematic mechanism maintains the sparse structure during the recombination of packets at the intermediate nodes. The performance of our protocol is compared by means of simulations of IEEE reference grids against standard master-slave protocols...... used in real systems. Our results show that network coding achieves 100% reliability, even for hostile network conditions, while gathering data 10 times faster than standard master-slave schemes....

  8. Cryptanalysis of Two RFID Authentication Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjie Cao

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency identi¯cation (RFID technologies have many advantages in applications such as object tracking and monitoring, ticketing, supply-chain management, contactless payment systems. However, the RFID system may bring about various security and privacy problems. In this paper we present our security analysis of the LAK protocol and the CWH protocol. First, we show that the LAK protocol cannot resist replay attacks, and therefore an adversary can impersonate a legal tag. Next, we present a full-disclosure attack on the CWH protocol. By sending malicious queries to a tag and collecting the response messages emitted by the tag, the full-disclosure attack allows an adversary to extract the secret information from the tag.

  9. A Secure DSDV Protocol for Manets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Kalavathi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a secure destination-sequenced distance-vector routing protocol (SDSDV for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. The proposed protocol is based on the regular DSDV protocol. Within SDSDV, each node maintains two one-way hash chains about each node in the network. Two additional fields, which we call AL (alteration field and AC (accumulation field, are added to each entry of the update packets to carry the hash values. With proper use of the elements of the hash chains, the sequence number and the metric values on a route can be protected from being arbitrarily tampered. In comparison with the secure efficient distance vector (SEAD protocol previously proposed in the literature provides only lower bound protection on the metrics, SDSDV can provide complete protection.

  10. Formal validation of a deterministic MAC protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Godary-Dejean K.; Andreu D.

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the formal validation of a medium access protocol. This protocol has been designed to meet the specific requirements of an implantable network-based neuroprosthese. This article presents the modeling of STIMAP with Time Petri Nets (TPN), and the verification of the deterministic medium access it provides, using timed model checking. Doing so, we show that existent formal methods and tools are not perfectly suitable for the validation of real system, espe- cially when s...

  11. SPION: Secure Protocols in OSI Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlgren, Bengt; Lindgren, Per; Sirotkin, Teet

    1989-01-01

    SPION: Secure Protocols in OSI Networks This report describes how security services can be realized in a computer network using the protocols of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model for communication. The report starts with defining security requirements for a "typical" local area network in a company, university or similar organization. It is assumed that the organization does not use the network for transfer of extremely sensitive information, such a...

  12. Compiling symbolic attacks to protocol implementation tests

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Rusinowitch; Ghazi Maatoug; Hatem Ghabri

    2013-01-01

    Recently efficient model-checking tools have been developed to find flaws in security protocols specifications. These flaws can be interpreted as potential attacks scenarios but the feasability of these scenarios need to be confirmed at the implementation level. However, bridging the gap between an abstract attack scenario derived from a specification and a penetration test on real implementations of a protocol is still an open issue. This work investigates an architecture for automatically g...

  13. Mutual Authentication Protocols for RFID Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashrar A. Omer; Johnson P. Thomas; Ling Zhu

    2008-01-01

    With the availability of low-cost radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, security becomes an increasing concern.However, such tags do not permit complex eryptographic functions due to their computational, communications, and storage limitations.In this paper, we investigate the security issues and requirements of RFID systems, and propose ultra-light weight and light weight protocols for low-cost RFID tags. The proposed protocols has been applied to a supply chain management system.

  14. ASAP : a protocol for symbolic computation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmas, Stéphane; Gaetano, Marc; Sausse, Alain

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the conception and the implementation of a simple protocol for exchanging mathematical data between processes. Our purpose is to enable symbolic computation systems to communicate and cooperate together but also with user programs, graphical interfaces, curve and surface plotters. In the first part, we study the general problem of the exchanging ofmathematical data. The second part defines the protocol. Then, we present the documentation of a C library which implements A...

  15. Dose protocols of acetylcholine test in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向定成; 龚志华; 何建新; 洪长江; 邱建; 马骏

    2004-01-01

    @@ Acetylcholine test has been widely used clinically in several countries as a practical test provoking coronary artery spasm.1-3 Although it has also been launched recently in a few hospitals in China, the dose protocol for acetylcholine test used in these hospitals were from abroad.4,5 This study was aimed at developing a dose protocol for acetylcholine test suitable for Chinese people.

  16. Analyzing the exhaustiveness of the synapse protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Marinkovic, Bojan; Ciancaglini, Vincenzo; Ognjanovic, Zoran; Glavan, Paola; Liquori, Luigi; Maksimovic, Petar

    2015-01-01

    International audience The Synapse protocol is a scalable protocol designed for information retrieval over inter-connected heterogeneous overlay networks. In this paper, we give a formal description of Synapse using the Abstract State Machines framework. The formal description pertains to Synapse actions that manipulate distributed keys. Based on this formal description, we present results concerning the expected exhaustiveness for a number of scenarios and systems maintained by the Synaps...

  17. Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP): Future Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Deepti

    2014-01-01

    VoIP (voice over IP) delivers standard voice over telephone services over Internet Protocol (IP). VoIP is the technology of digitizing sound, compressing it, breaking it up into data packets, and sending it over an IP (internet protocol) network where it is reassembled, decompressed, and converted back into an analog wave form. Gateways are the key component required to facilitate IP Telephony. A gateway is used to bridge the traditional circuit switched PSTN with the packet switched Internet...

  18. An Anonymous Secure Routing Using OLSR Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Osiers Gyamfuah Grace; Dr. John Rajan

    2013-01-01

    Security and privacy concerns are major issues to be considered in Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET). Several routing protocols have been proposed to achieve both routing and data packets security. In order to achieve privacy, the anonymous routing concept has been introduced and few protocols have been proposed for use in this area. In this paper, global position system (GPS) device is used to obtain the current location of nodes and with the help of a cryptographic algorithm incorporated int...

  19. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, C. E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  20. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  1. Protocol for communications in potentially noisy environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Gerlad M.; Farrow, Jeffrey

    2016-02-09

    A communications protocol that is designed for transmission of data in networks that are subjected to harsh conditions is described herein. A network includes a plurality of devices, where the devices comprise respective nodes. The nodes are in communication with one another by way of a central network hub. The protocol causes the nodes to transmit data over a network bus at different data rates depending upon whether the nodes are operating normally or an arbitration procedure has been invoked.

  2. Quantum Key Distribution Protocol with User Authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H; Lee, D; Lim, J; Yang, H J; Lee, Hwayean; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Donghoon; Lim, Jongin; Yang, HyungJin

    2005-01-01

    We propose a quantum key distribution protocol with quantum based user authentication. User authentication is executed by validating the correlation of GHZ states. Alice and Bob can distribute a secure key using the remaining GHZ states after authentication. This secret key does not leak even to the arbitrator by the properties of the entanglement. We will show that our protocol is secure against the cloning attack.

  3. Parent Siblings Oriented Tree Quorum Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Anurag Singh; Ashish Kumar Rai,; Anup Kumar Jayswal; Meenu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we are proposing a new replica control algorithm Parent Siblings Oriented Tree Quorum Protocol (PSTQ) for the management of replicated data in distributed database system. Thisalgorithm imposes a logical structure of tree on the set of copies of an object. The proposed protocol provides a small read quorum as well as a small write quorum while guaranteeing fault-tolerance of write operations. With this algorithm read operation is executed by reading one copy in failure-free env...

  4. The Kyoto Protocol: Can We Meet?

    OpenAIRE

    Boromisa, Ana-Maria; Tišma, Sanja

    2008-01-01

    Integration into the EU is one of strategic foreign policy goals of Croatia. Before accession, Croatia has to align with the EU policies and legislation. The European Commission in its Croatia 2007 Progress report identified ratification of the Kyoto Protocol as progress regarding environmental chapter of accession negotiations. By ratifying the Kyoto Protocol in May 2007 Croatia pledged to reduce greenhouse gases by 5% in the first commitment period, 2008-2012, from the amount released into ...

  5. The obscure future of the Kyoto protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Tsayem Demaze, Moise

    2013-01-01

    Since it came into effect in 2005 followed by its first period of application from 2008 to 2012, the Kyoto protocol has been subject to debates and international negotiations about its post-2012 future. Many grey areas persist, even though the Durban conference, held in December 2011, and the Doha conference, held in December 2012, ratified the principle of a second period of application of the protocol and started negotiations for a new international treaty supposed to come into effect in 2020.

  6. The Kyoto Protocol : a Review and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Böhringer, Christoph

    2003-01-01

    International concern about climate change has led to the Kyoto Protocol, negotiated in 1997, which contains legally binding emission targets for industrialized countries to be achieved during the commitment period 2008-2012. While proponents of the Protocol celebrate it as a breakthrough in international climate policy, opponents criticize that its approach, namely setting targets and timetables for emission reductions, is seriously flawed. This paper provides a critical assessment of the Pr...

  7. Trust Authentication Protocol on the Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It is unsuitable to use traditional identity-based authentication on the Web where entities are not foreknown to each other. Trust relationship must be established between strangers before authentication. To achieve trust authentication, the resource-constrained trust negotiation is addressed, and traditional authentication key exchange protocol is extended. Owing to avoiding the heavy computational demands the public key cryptography operations bring about, the authentication protocol is well-suited for security authentication on the Web.

  8. Efficient Communication Protocols for Deciding Edit Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jowhari, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present two communication protocols on computing edit distance. In our first result, we give a one-way protocol for the following Document Exchange problem. Namely given x ∈ Σn to Alice and y ∈ Σn to Bob and integer k to both, Alice sends a message to Bob so that he learns x or...

  9. Variable TDMA MAC Protocol For WDM EPON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minsuk; Jung; Yongseok; Chang; Jonghoon; Eom; Sungho; Kim

    2003-01-01

    A MAC(Media Access Control) protocol, one of the most important technologies for an EPON(Ethernet Passive Optical Network), contains a scheduling algorithm to avoid collisions in shared links and assigns an effective bandwidth when ONUs (Optical Network Units) transfer signals upward. The current paper proposes a MAC Protocol that operates a TDMA(Time method with a variable slot assignment to overcome short of bandwidth using by the number of n wavelength., the next generation access network. To verify ...

  10. Secure Key Management Protocol in WIMAX

    OpenAIRE

    Noudjoud Kahya; Nacira Ghoualmi; Pascal Lafourcade

    2012-01-01

    The Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX /IEEE 802.16), is new technology basedon wireless metropolitan area network. Security of connections access in WIMAX /IEEE 802.16 iscomplete with respect to the Privacy Key Management (PKM) protocol. The protocol is responsible forproviding the secure distribution of keying data from Base Station (BS) to Subscriber Station (SS). In thispaper we provide the formal analysis of PKMv2 using Scyther tool to verify the security properties. ...

  11. Security Analysis of Broadcaster Group Key Exchange Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; ZHANG Huanguo

    2006-01-01

    Group key exchange protocols are basic protocols to provide privacy and integrity in secure group communication. This paper discusses the security of one type of group key exchange protocols and defines the kind of protocols as broadcaster group protocols. It points out two attacks on this kind of protocols. The first attack can be avoided by using fresh values in each action during one session of the group protocol. The second attack should be related with concrete application. It also proposes a dynamic key agreement protocol as an example of solutions at the last part of the paper.

  12. EAR Protocol-Towards Fair Optimistic Non-Repudiation Exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-yan; WANG Ru-chuan

    2005-01-01

    Fairness is of crucial importance for the exchange protocols via Internet. Non-repudiation therefore becomes one of the vital premises, which are essential in the exchange of sensitive and important messages. This paper is to propose a new exchange protocol, termed "EAR" Exchange Protocol as it consists of three sub-protocols: Exchange sub-protocol, Abort sub-protocol and Recovery sub-protocol. It is to be argued that the incorporation of these three sub-protocols may effectively enables EAR to assure non-repudiation, strong fairness, timeliness, confidentiality and the minimized involvement of the Trusted Third Party (TTP).

  13. Optimistic protocol for partitioned distributed database systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protocol for transaction processing during partition failures is presented which guarantees mutual consistency between copies of data-items after repair is completed. The protocol is optimistic in that transactions are processed without restrictions during the failure; conflicts are detected at repair time using a precedence graph and are resolved by backing out transactions according to some backout strategy. The protocol is then evaluated using simulation and probabilistic modeling. In the simulation, several parameters are varied such as the number of transactions processed in a group, the type of transactions processed, the number of data-items present in the database, and the distribution of references to data-items. The simulation also uses different backout strategies. From these results we note conditions under which the protocol performs well, i.e., conditions under which the protocol backs out a small percentage of the transaction run. A probabilistic model is developed to estimate the expected number of transactions backed out using most of the above database and transaction parameters, and is shown to agree with simulation results. Suggestions are then made on how to improve the performance of the protocol. Insights gained from the simulation and probabilistic modeling are used to develop a backout strategy which takes into account individual transaction costs and attempts to minimize total backout cost. Although the problem of choosing transactions to minimize total backout cost is, in general, NP-complete, the backout strategy is efficient and produces very good results

  14. Network-topology-adaptive quantum conference protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Sheng; Wang Jian; Tang Chao-Jing; Zhang Quan

    2011-01-01

    As an important application of the quantum network communication,quantum multiparty conference has made multiparty secret communication possible.Previous quantum multiparty conference schemes based on quantum data encryption are insensitive to network topology.However,the topology of the quantum network significantly affects the communication efficiency,e.g.,parallel transmission in a channel with limited bandwidth.We have proposed two distinctive protocols,which work in two basic network topologies with efficiency higher than the existing ones.We first present a protocol which works in the reticulate network using Greeberger-Horne-Zeilinger states and entanglement swapping.Another protocol,based on quantum multicasting with quantum data compression,which can improve the efficiency of the network,works in the star-like network.The security of our protocols is guaranteed by quantum key distribution and one-time-pad encryption.In general,the two protocols can be applied to any quantum network where the topology can be equivalently transformed to one of the two structures we propose in our protocols.

  15. MDEP Protocol VICWG-01. MDEP Protocol: Witnessed, Joint, and Multinational Vendor Inspection Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) was launched in 2006 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) with the aim of developing innovative approaches to leverage the resources and knowledge of national regulatory authorities reviewing new reactor designs. MDEP full members are regulators from Canada, People's Republic of China, Finland, France, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, South Africa, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The United Arab Emirates and Turkey are associate members. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) acts as the Technical Secretariat for the MDEP. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) participates in many of the MDEP activities, including harmonisation efforts. The Vendor Inspection Cooperation Working Group (VICWG) is one of the issue-specific working groups that the MDEP members are undertaking with one long term goal of the VICWG being to maximize the use of the results obtained from other regulator's efforts in inspecting vendors. To accomplish this goal, it is vital that the regulators learn about each other's procedures, processes, and regulations. To facilitate the learning process the VICWG is coordinating vendor inspections among the involved regulatory authorities with the purpose of enhancing the understanding of each other's vendor inspection procedures. This programme is administered by the NEA. Involvement in specific inspections provides a number of opportunities for member state regulators to witness other regulators' inspection methods, gain useful information on the quality systems and manufacturing arrangements of specific vendors and where appropriate, actively participate in the inspection. The purpose of this protocol is to provide guidance to regulators that wish to carry out vendor inspections or participate in or witness other regulators' vendor inspections. It also provides

  16. Chain-Chain Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia A Ali

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN is an emerging technology for monitoring physical world. WSNs consist of large numbers of sensor nodes operated by battery mostly in harsh environment. Thus energy conservation is a primary issue for organization of these sensor nodes. Another crucial issue is the data delivery time by sensor nodes to the sink node, especially in Military, medical fields, and security monitoring systems where minimum delay is desirable. Number of protocols has been proposed in the literature for routing. One of such protocols is the cluster based routing protocol LEACH (low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy. LEACH protocol organizes WSN into a set of clusters and a periodic voting for cluster head is performed in order to be evenly distributed among all the sensors of the WSN. This periodical cluster head voting in LEACH, however, consumes an amount of non-negligible energy and other resources. For energy conservation, PEGASIS (power efficient gathering in sensor information systems a near optimal chain-based protocol has been proposed, however, it is faced with the challenge of long delay for the transmitted data. Another routing protocol called CCM (Chain-Cluster based Mixed routing, which is mainly a hybrid of LEACH and PEGASIS is proposed, the consumed energy increases as network size increases. In this paper, we propose an efficient routing protocol called CCBRP (Chain-Chain based routing protocol, it achieves both minimum energy consumption and minimum delay. The CCBRP protocol mainly divides a WSN into a number of chains (Greedy algorithm is used to form each chain as in PEGSIS protocol and runs in two phases. In the first phase, sensor nodes in each chain transmit data to their chain leader nodes in parallel. In the second phase, all chain leader nodes form a chain (also, using Greedy algorithm and choose randomly a leader node then all chain leader nodes send their data to this chosen leader node. This chosen leader node

  17. Simulation and Evaluation of CTP and Secure-CTP Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pecho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses characteristics and qualities of two routing protocols – Collection Tree Protocol and its secure modification. The original protocol, as well as other protocols for wireless sensors, solves only problems of ra- dio communication and limited resources. Our design of the secure protocol tries to solve also the essential security ob- jectives. For the evaluation of properties of our protocol in large networks, a TOSSIM simulator was used. Our effort was to show the influence of the modification of the routing protocol to its behavior and quality of routing trees. We have proved that adding security into protocol design does not necessarily mean higher demands for data transfer, power consumption or worse protocol efficiency. In the paper, we manifest that security in the protocol may be achieved with low cost and may offer similar performance as the original protocol.

  18. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  19. Protocol Independent Multicast Based States Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Hemalatha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM protocol is being used. The PIM protocol avoids the packet drop and diverting problem. The PIM protocol is not dependent on any specific unicast routing protocol. It is IP routing independent protocol. The PIM uses the unicast and multicast information to create a distribution tree along the reverse path from the receivers towards the source. The PIM protocol consists of three modes such as sparse mode, dense mode and bidirectional mode. The sparse mode is used to sends the file from router to a receiver. The dense mode is used to sends the file from router to multiple receivers. The bidirectional mode is used to sends the message from router to sender and then continue the other process depending on the sender requirements. The client sends the file from sender to destination via the router. First the sender selects the file name and receiver name for transmission. Then the state is assigned automatically depend upon the user selection. The state can be defined by the number of destination selected to transmit the file from the source. If the sender selects single destination, it will assign “Without forwarding state router” for transmission. Otherwise it will assign “Forwarding state router” for transmission. If the receiver is not available, the router sends a message to sender such that “the requested receiver is not available”. Then the client will decide the file is transfer or not, it will reply with transfer the file, then the file will be transferred until the file will be discarded at client side. If the sender tries the same process after two times, the router will display the warning message as “the requested receiver is not available, this file will be discarded at client side”. Then it continues the other process.

  20. The challenges of additional protocol implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The IAEA Board of Governors approved the Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements, INFCIRC/540, (referred to as the Additional Protocol) in May 1997. The Additional Protocol provides for new mechanisms that include expanded information on State's nuclear activities to be declared to the IAEA and increased physical access to locations for IAEA inspectors. The objective is to provide the basis for gaining assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in a State. Although the Agency conducted field trials of various aspects of implementation of the Additional Protocol, the first actual implementation experience began with the entry into force of Australia's additional protocol in December of 1997. As of late August 2001,21 states have entered into force an additional protocol and another 35 states have signed the additional protocol but not yet entered the agreement into force. Because implementation of the Additional Protocol requires new activities to be carried out by the IAEA, new procedures, guidelines and training have been developed to support these activities. As more experience is gained these documents are being refined and additional ones developed to meet unforeseen needs. In addition, evaluation and follow-up of the expanded information and the results of increased access has required the Safeguards Department to expand and adapt its procedures and mode of operation. The challenge has been in establishing sufficient measures and the necessary infrastructure for consistent application of the additional protocol in such a way that they can be adapted as needed based on Agency experience. Initial development focused on the logistical aspects of implementing these new activities. These activities include the processing, handling and review of additional protocol declarations; planning, conducting and reporting on complementary access activities; and follow-up activities arising from information review or

  1. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF VANETS ROUTING PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abduladhim Ashtaiwi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lately, the concept of VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc Networks has gotten a huge attention as more wireless communication technologies becoming available. Such networkis expected to be one of the most valuable technology for improving efficiency and safety of the future transportation. Vehicular networks are characterized by high mobility nodes which pose many communication challenging problems. In vehicular networks, routing Collision Avoidance Messages (CAMs among vehicles is a key communication problem.Failure in routing CAMs to their intended destination within the time constraint can render these messages useless. Many routing protocols have been adapted for VANETs, such as DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector, AODV (Ad-hoc On demand Distance Vector, and DSR (Dynamic Source Routing. This work compares the performance of those routing protocols at different driving environments and scenarios created by using the mobility generator (VanetMobiSim and network simulator(NS2. The obtained results at different vehicular densities, speeds, road obstacles, lanes, traffic lights, and transmission ranges showed that on average AODV protocol outperforms DSR and DSDV protocols in packet delivery ratio and end-toend delay. However, at certain circumstances (e.g., at shorter transmission ranges DSR tends to have better performance than AODV and DSDV protocols.

  2. A Lightweight Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongdong Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The buyer-seller watermarking protocol enables a seller to successfully identify a traitor from a pirated copy, while preventing the seller from framing an innocent buyer. Based on finite field theory and the homomorphic property of public key cryptosystems such as RSA, several buyer-seller watermarking protocols (N. Memon and P. W. Wong (2001 and C.-L. Lei et al. (2004 have been proposed previously. However, those protocols require not only large computational power but also substantial network bandwidth. In this paper, we introduce a new buyer-seller protocol that overcomes those weaknesses by managing the watermarks. Compared with the earlier protocols, ours is n times faster in terms of computation, where n is the number of watermark elements, while incurring only O(1/lN times communication overhead given the finite field parameter lN. In addition, the quality of the watermarked image generated with our method is better, using the same watermark strength.

  3. Economics of the Kyoto Protocol for Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golub, D.D.; Strukova, E. [Environmental Defense, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The authors propose a careful analysis of the economic consequences of the Kyoto Protocol for Russian economic recovery. They review a different GHG forecasts for Russia and develop a new forecast for uncertain GDP growth and the changing elasticity of GHG emissions per GDP. As the rate of growth remains uncertain, elasticity could change over time, as well as the fuel mix. They apply the Monte-Carlo method to simulate these uncertainties and to produce a reasonable interval for CO{sub 2} emissions in 2010. The probability of Russia exceedings its Kyoto emissions budget is essentially zero. They also discuss the benefits for Russia from the Kyoto Protocol, and more generally from the implementation of GHG mitigation policy. Ancillary benefits from Kyoto Protocol implementation will bring essential reductions in risk to human health. On the other hand, potential negative changes in the fuel mix and GDP structure, as well as a slowing of the innovation process, could exacerbate the existing health problems. Alternatives to the Kyoto Protocol may bring much tougher commitments to Russia. In conclusion the Kyoto Protocol is the best possible deal for Russia. 24 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Semen cryopreservation protocols of Mangalarga Marchador stallions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Leite Candeias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the utilization of three semen protocols (Inra 82®, Merck Gema and Botu-crio® and two filling techniques (0.25 and 0.50 mL straws in Mangalarga Marchador stallions were studied in this experiment. Sperm parameters were assessed during processing and post-freezing. No interactions between the protocols and type of filling were observed, so they were assessed separately. Sperm parameters were not altered when the extender was added to the centrifugation; however, there was reduction of motility and strength when freezing extenders were added. The Botu-crio® protocol preserved the parameters of total and progressive sperm motility, smoothed path velocity (µm/s, straight line velocity (µm/s, track velocity (µm/s and the average and fast spermatozoa percentage better than the others. No difference between the extenders for the percentage of sperm integrity was observed. There was no difference in the responses studied on the filling techniques. The stallions presented better freezing with the use of the Botu-crio® protocol. The best post-freezing viability results were found for semen frozen using the Botu-crio® protocol and there were no differences concerning the sperm quality comparing 0.25 and 0.50 mL straws.

  5. WDM Network and Multicasting Protocol Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Kirci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical technology gains extensive attention and ever increasing improvement because of the huge amount of network traffic caused by the growing number of internet users and their rising demands. However, with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM, it is easier to take the advantage of optical networks and optical burst switching (OBS and to construct WDM networks with low delay rates and better data transparency these technologies are the best choices. Furthermore, multicasting in WDM is an urgent solution for bandwidth-intensive applications. In the paper, a new multicasting protocol with OBS is proposed. The protocol depends on a leaf initiated structure. The network is composed of source, ingress switches, intermediate switches, edge switches, and client nodes. The performance of the protocol is examined with Just Enough Time (JET and Just In Time (JIT reservation protocols. Also, the paper involves most of the recent advances about WDM multicasting in optical networks. WDM multicasting in optical networks is given as three common subtitles: Broadcast and-select networks, wavelength-routed networks, and OBS networks. Also, in the paper, multicast routing protocols are briefly summarized and optical burst switched WDM networks are investigated with the proposed multicast schemes.

  6. WDM network and multicasting protocol strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirci, Pinar; Zaim, Abdul Halim

    2014-01-01

    Optical technology gains extensive attention and ever increasing improvement because of the huge amount of network traffic caused by the growing number of internet users and their rising demands. However, with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), it is easier to take the advantage of optical networks and optical burst switching (OBS) and to construct WDM networks with low delay rates and better data transparency these technologies are the best choices. Furthermore, multicasting in WDM is an urgent solution for bandwidth-intensive applications. In the paper, a new multicasting protocol with OBS is proposed. The protocol depends on a leaf initiated structure. The network is composed of source, ingress switches, intermediate switches, edge switches, and client nodes. The performance of the protocol is examined with Just Enough Time (JET) and Just In Time (JIT) reservation protocols. Also, the paper involves most of the recent advances about WDM multicasting in optical networks. WDM multicasting in optical networks is given as three common subtitles: Broadcast and-select networks, wavelength-routed networks, and OBS networks. Also, in the paper, multicast routing protocols are briefly summarized and optical burst switched WDM networks are investigated with the proposed multicast schemes. PMID:24744683

  7. Eccentricity in Zone Routing Protocol for MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs Komal Nair

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a decentralized network of autonomous mobile nodes, able to communicate with each other over wireless links. Due to the mobility of the nodes, the topology ofthe network changes spontaneously, therefore use of conventional routing tables maintained at fixed points (routers is not suggested. Such a network may operate in a standalone fashion. There are variousrouting protocols available for MANETs. The most popular ones are DSR, DSDV and ZRP .The zone routing protocol (ZRP is a hybrid routing protocol that proactively maintains routes within a localregion of the network. ZRP can be configured for a particular network through adjustment of a single parameter, the routing zone radius. In this paper, we address the issue of configuring the ZRP to providethe best performance for a particular network at any time with the concept of eccentricity. The results illustrate the important characteristics of different protocols based on their performance and thus suggest some improvements in the respective protocol. The tools used for the simulation are NS2 which is the main simulator, NAM (Network Animator and Tracegraph which is used for preparing the graphs from the trace files.

  8. Manet Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Arafat Ali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, multi-path routing protocols have attained more attention in mobile ad hoc networks as compared to other routing schemes due to their abilities and efficiency in improving bandwidth of communication, increasing delivery reliability, responding to congestion and heavy traffic. Several protocols have been developed to address multi path routing, but it always has a problem that the discovered paths may be not 100% disjoint and sending data is done in only one path until it's broken; the discovery of multiple paths also generates more overhead on the network. Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol [LBPRP] tried to solve previous multi path problems, distributing traffic among multiple paths sending data in parallel form as it uses all paths in the same time. We employed a simple test scenario to be sure of proposed model efficiency and to validate the proposed Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol. [LBPRP] will achieve load balancing in sending data, decreasing the end-to-end delay and increasing the packet delivery ratio and throughput, thus the performance of multi-path routing protocols can be improved consequently.

  9. Controlled Delegation Protocol in Mobile RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang MingHour

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve off-line delegation for mobile readers, we propose a delegation protocol for mobile RFID allowing its readers access to specific tags through back-end server. That is to say, reader-tag mutual authentication can be performed without readers being connected to back-end server. Readers are also allowed off-line access to tags' data. Compared with other delegation protocols, our scheme uniquely enables back-end server to limit each reader's reading times during delegation. Even in a multireader situation, our protocol can limit reading times and reading time periods for each of them and therefore makes back-end server's delegation more flexible. Besides, our protocol can prevent authorized readers from transferring their authority to the unauthorized, declining invalid access to tags. Our scheme is proved viable and secure with GNY logic; it is against certain security threats, such as replay attacks, denial of service (DoS attacks, Man-in-the-Middle attacks, counterfeit tags, and breaches of location and data privacy. Also, the performance analysis of our protocol proves that current tags can afford the computation load required in this scheme.

  10. Operational protocols for controlling accelerator equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equipment used to operate an accelerator is varied. However, the different devices may be divided into a limited number of classes for which operational protocols can be defined. Operational protocols permit: (i) a uniform operation, (ii) a clear definition of responsibility between the various specialists, (iii) independent development of programs and use of the most appropriate technology, (iv) the change of hardware and the transportability of software, and (v) the fabrication of devices by industry for general use. An operational protocol should be independent of any given control system and it must not be confused with a transmission protocol. As a first step, one defines an operational model of the device to be controlled. The model must represent a high-level description of the device as seen by the user. It will be characterized by a set of parameters and a set of rules. Although the particular requirements of specialists are not included in the operational protocol, allowances should be made for them. Emphasis will be placed on studies carried out on power converters and beam instrumentation. A general-purpose control message architecture is reported. (orig.)

  11. Operational protocols for controlling accelerator equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, R.; Baribaud, G.; Benincasa, G.P.; Burla, P.; Casalegno, L.; Coudert, G.; Gelato, G.; Kuhn, H.K.; Saban, R.; Spinks, A. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). LEP Div.)

    1990-08-01

    The equipment used to operate an accelerator is varied. However, the different devices may be divided into a limited number of classes for which operational protocols can be defined. Operational protocols permit: (i) a uniform operation, (ii) a clear definition of responsibility between the various specialists, (iii) independent development of programs and use of the most appropriate technology, (iv) the change of hardware and the transportability of software, and (v) the fabrication of devices by industry for general use. An operational protocol should be independent of any given control system and it must not be confused with a transmission protocol. As a first step, one defines an operational model of the device to be controlled. The model must represent a high-level description of the device as seen by the user. It will be characterized by a set of parameters and a set of rules. Although the particular requirements of specialists are not included in the operational protocol, allowances should be made for them. Emphasis will be placed on studies carried out on power converters and beam instrumentation. A general-purpose control message architecture is reported. (orig.).

  12. Open Core Protocol (OCP) Clock Domain Crossing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlev, Mathias; Poulsen, Christian Keis; Sparsø, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The open core protocol (OCP) is an openly licensed configurable and scalable interface protocol for on-chip subsystem communications. The protocol defines read and write transactions from a master towards a slave across a point-to-point connection and the protocol assumes a single common clock. T...

  13. Welfare Quality assessment protocol for laying hens = Welfare Quality assessment protocol voor leghennen

    OpenAIRE

    Niekerk, van, M.; H. Gunnink; Reenen, van, A Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Results of a study on the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for laying hens. It reports the development of the integration of welfare assessment as scores per criteria as well as simplification of the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol. Results are given from assessment of 122 farms.

  14. Self Fault-Tolerance of Protocols: A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The prerequisite for the existing protocols' correctness is that protocols can be normally operated under the normal conditions, rather than dealing with abnormal conditions.In other words, protocols with the fault-tolerance can not be provided when some fault occurs. This paper discusses the self fault-tolerance of protocols. It describes some concepts and methods for achieving self fault tolerance of protocols. Meanwhile, it provides a case study, investigates a typical protocol that does not satisfy the self fault-tolerance, and gives a new redesign version of this existing protocol using the proposed approach.

  15. The Decentralized Non-Blocking Atomic Commitment Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Guerraoui, R.; Schiper, A.

    1995-01-01

    In a transactional system, an atomic commitment protocol ensures that for any transaction, all data managers agree on the same outcome: commit or abort. A non-blocking atomic commitment protocol enables an outcome to be decided at every correct data manager despite the failure of others. It is well known that the famous Two Phase Commit protocol (2PC) is a blocking protocol, whereas the Three Phase Commit protocol (3PC) is a non-blocking protocol. Both protocols are centralized. In t...

  16. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit (‘Ethics Tool Kit’) has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval. PMID:26811365

  17. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-04-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit ('Ethics Tool Kit') has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval. PMID:26811365

  18. Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2016-07-01

    We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.

  19. Chapter 15: Commercial New Construction Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keates, S.

    2014-09-01

    This protocol is intended to describe the recommended method when evaluating the whole-building performance of new construction projects in the commercial sector. The protocol focuses on energy conservation measures (ECMs) measures (or packages of measures) where evaluators can best analyze impacts using building simulation. These ECMs typically require the use of calibrated building simulations under Option D of the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol. Examples of such measures include Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design building certification, novel and/or efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system designs, and extensive building controls systems. In general, it is best to evaluate any ECM (or set of measures) expected to significantly interact with other systems within the building and with savings sensitive to seasonal variations in weather.

  20. Implications of international protocols on energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will have significant medium and long term implications for the economies of Annex B and non-Annex B countries. It is shown that the adoption of a system of internationally tradable emission quotas would result in three 'dividends' compared with an outcome where Article 17 trading - relating to emissions trading - is prohibited. First, trading would improve the environmental effectiveness of the protocol because the extent of carbon dioxide equivalent leakage would be reduced. Second, the overall cost of meeting the agreed Annex B targets would be reduced thus leading to greater certainty that the protocol will be implemented in full. Third, a disparity in the differential impacts of Annex B abatement policies on different developing countries would be reduced under emissions trading, leading to a more equitable outcome for these countries

  1. A Review: Multi Protocol Label Switching (Mpls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashed Qayoom Shawl,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for technology called MPLS is increasing day by day in most internet service provider networks. Majority of the carriers are deploying MPLS in their backbone networks to facilitate a number of services and applications such as virtual private networks, quality of service (QoS and traffic engineering. MPLS is a scalable, protocol-independent protocol. MPLS allows for creating end-to-end circuits across any type of transport medium using any protocol. The primary benefit of MPLS is to eliminate the dependence on a particular OSI model data-link layer technology such as asynchronous transfer mode (ATM, Frame Relay or Ethernet and eliminates the need for multiple layer-2 networks to satisfy different types of traffic. This paper reflects a detailed overview on MPLS with its architectural terminology, working and the services that it offers.

  2. Recursion Versus Replication in Simple Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    We use some very recent techniques from process algebra to draw interesting conclusions about the well studied class of ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. In particular we show that all nontrivial properties, including reachability and equivalence checking wrt. the whole van Glabbeek......'s spectrum, become undecidable for a very simple recursive extension of the protocol. The result holds even if no nondeterministic choice operator is allowed. We also show that the extended calculus is capable of an implicit description of the active intruder, including full analysis and synthesis of...... messages in the sense of Amadio, Lugiez and Vanackere. We conclude by showing that reachability analysis for a replicative variant of the protocol becomes decidable....

  3. Recursion vs. Replication in Simple Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    We use some recent techniques from process algebra to draw several conclusions about the well studied class of ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. In particular we show that all nontrivial properties, including reachability and equivalence checking wrt. the whole van Glabbeek......'s spectrum, become undecidable for a very simple recursive extension of the protocol. The result holds even if no nondeterministic choice operator is allowed. We also show that the extended calculus is capable of an implicit description of the active intruder, including full analysis and synthesis of...... messages in the sense of Amadio, Lugiez and Vanackere. We conclude by showing that reachability analysis for a replicative variant of the protocol becomes decidable....

  4. An Anonymous Secure Routing Using OLSR Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osiers Gyamfuah Grace

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Security and privacy concerns are major issues to be considered in Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET. Several routing protocols have been proposed to achieve both routing and data packets security. In order to achieve privacy, the anonymous routing concept has been introduced and few protocols have been proposed for use in this area. In this paper, global position system (GPS device is used to obtain the current location of nodes and with the help of a cryptographic algorithm incorporated into the existing Optimized Link State Routing protocol (OLSR, it is expected that security services such as authentication, data integrity, privacy and confidentiality will be provided. This work proposes to protect the network against active attacks such as impersonation and modification.

  5. Framework Design of Secure Cloud Transmission Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesha H A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing technologies are in high demand because of several benefits. Many business organizations are looking into cloud computing services to reduce the cost and complexity of their business infrastructure and its preservation. However, there are certain security issues in cloud computing technologies. To overcome those security issues, we propose secure cloud transmission protocol design. This framework design details will help us in developing a secure protocol for the customers who are using cloud computing technologies over insecure internet. In this paper we discuss: i Overview model of proposed secure cloud transmission system in internet ii Security requirements iii roles and responsibilities of secure transmission protocol in OSI and iv Framework Design of secure cloud transmission.

  6. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  7. Objective and automated protocols for the evaluation of biomedical search engines using No Title Evaluation protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campagne Fabien

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of information retrieval techniques has traditionally relied on human judges to determine which documents are relevant to a query and which are not. This protocol is used in the Text Retrieval Evaluation Conference (TREC, organized annually for the past 15 years, to support the unbiased evaluation of novel information retrieval approaches. The TREC Genomics Track has recently been introduced to measure the performance of information retrieval for biomedical applications. Results We describe two protocols for evaluating biomedical information retrieval techniques without human relevance judgments. We call these protocols No Title Evaluation (NT Evaluation. The first protocol measures performance for focused searches, where only one relevant document exists for each query. The second protocol measures performance for queries expected to have potentially many relevant documents per query (high-recall searches. Both protocols take advantage of the clear separation of titles and abstracts found in Medline. We compare the performance obtained with these evaluation protocols to results obtained by reusing the relevance judgments produced in the 2004 and 2005 TREC Genomics Track and observe significant correlations between performance rankings generated by our approach and TREC. Spearman's correlation coefficients in the range of 0.79–0.92 are observed comparing bpref measured with NT Evaluation or with TREC evaluations. For comparison, coefficients in the range 0.86–0.94 can be observed when evaluating the same set of methods with data from two independent TREC Genomics Track evaluations. We discuss the advantages of NT Evaluation over the TRels and the data fusion evaluation protocols introduced recently. Conclusion Our results suggest that the NT Evaluation protocols described here could be used to optimize some search engine parameters before human evaluation. Further research is needed to determine if NT

  8. Automated Theorem Proving for Cryptographic Protocols with Automatic Attack Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Juerjens; Thomas A. Kuhn

    2016-01-01

    Automated theorem proving is both automatic and can be quite efficient. When using theorem proving approaches for security protocol analysis, however, the problem is often that absence of a proof of security of a protocol may give little hint as to where the security weakness lies, to enable the protocol designer to improve the protocol. For our approach to verify cryptographic protocols using automated theorem provers for first-order logic (such as e-SETHEO or SPASS), we demonstrate a method...

  9. Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols for Remote Login in MANETs

    OpenAIRE

    VIKAS GOYAL; SHAVETA RANI; PARAMJIT SINGH

    2013-01-01

    Wireless networks are those networks, in which devices are connected without using cables. Thebest example, which comes across in our daily life is mobile phones. MANET has mobile nodes in network,which transfer data packets from source node to destination node; this is possible by routing protocols. Inthis paper, the routing protocols used are - Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Protocol,Geographical Routing Protocol (GRP) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) Protocol. The performan...

  10. Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Verstraete, Frank

    2004-01-01

    We construct new entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method how entanglement-assisted distillation protocols can be converted into non-entanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

  11. Research on an Improved Wireless Sensor Networks Clustering Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng-Qiu Lu; Lin-Ge Wang; Jin Shan

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption of clustering routing protocol is one of the exigent problems needs to solve in wireless sensor networks. Aiming at the uneven energy consumption and unreasonable cluster heads selection in LEACH protocol, a new clustering routing protocol is proposed in this paper including number of cluster heads, cluster head choosing algorithm and network topology. Finally we give some analysis and comparison between the improved protocol and other two protocols, and the results show ...

  12. Angel-6000型脑电麻醉深度监护仪与脑电双频指数临床应用比较%Study of the changes and correlation of index of consciousness and bispectral index during target-controlled infusion of propofol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 徐广民; 范丹

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of correlation between index of consciousness (IoC) and bispectral index (BIS) during target-controlled infusion of propofol. Methods: IoC and BIS of 35 patients undering laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia were monitored simultaneously. Anesthesia was induced with TCI propofol. When the plasma propofol concentration increased from 1.5 μg/ml to 4μg/ml, The changes and corredation of IoC and BIS were compared in basic state at the, loss and recovery of consciousness and during intubation. Result: There was no significant difference in basic IoC and BIS (P > 0.05). When patients were at the loss and recovery of consciousness, the IoC and BIS were lower than the basic value (P 0.05),意识消失与意识恢复时两者均低于基础值(P0.05),与BIS(42.7±6.65)比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。不同浓度时BIS与loC值的相关系数r为0.971(P<0.01),两者具有显著相关性。插管时IoC为55±5.37,高于插管前,并高于同期BIS值(P<0.05)。结论:丙泊酚TCI实施全身麻醉时IoC能良好地反映患者意识水平,与BIS具有良好的相关性,能够实时反映气管插管刺激对于脑电的影响。

  13. 意识指数与脑电双频指数监测靶控丙泊酚全麻诱导时镇静深度的比较%Comparison between the index of consciousness and the bispectral index during propofol target-controlled infusion anaesthesia induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛鑫; 赵晶; 黄宇光

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨意识指数(IOC)与脑电双频指数(BIS)相比,靶控丙泊酚全麻诱导时用于监测镇静深度的相关性.方法 纳入行基本外科或妇产科手术的患者30例,靶控丙泊酚全麻诱导期间,同时监测IOC和BIS.记录镇静评分(OAA/S)由5分逐级降低至1分时,每次OAA/S评分即刻的IOC及BIS值,以及相应点的丙泊酚效应室浓度.结果 与基线值比较,OAA/S评分从5逐渐降低至1时,BIS与IOC值均降低,BIS值之间或IOC值之间的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 IOC用于靶控丙泊酚全麻诱导时的镇静深度监测,与BIS具有良好的相关性.%Objective To compare a new level of consciousness monitor, called the index of consciousness (IOC) with the bispectral index (BIS) during propofol target-controlled infusion (TCI) anaesthesia induction. Methods After ethical committee approval and written patient consent, data from 30 patients were recorded. All patients were induced with propofol target-controlled infusion ( TCI) , until the Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation (OAAS) scale level 1 was reached, and then IOC and BIS were calculated during OAAS 5 - 1. Results With the increase of sedation during OAAS 5 ~ 1, there was a significant decrease of BIS and IOC ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions IOC has a close correlation with BIS during propofol target-controlled infusion (TCI) anaesthesia induction.

  14. Comparison of Five Parathyroid Scintigraphic Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Virpi Tunninen; Pekka Varjo; Jukka Schildt; Aapo Ahonen; Tomi Kauppinen; Irina Lisinen; Anu Holm; Hannu Eskola; Marko Seppänen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We compared five parathyroid scintigraphy protocols in patients with primary (pHPT) and secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) and studied the interobserver agreement. The dual-tracer method (99mTc-sestamibi/123I) was used with three acquisition techniques (parallel-hole planar, pinhole planar, and SPECT/CT). The single-tracer method (99mTc-sestamibi) was used with two acquisition techniques (double-phase parallel-hole planar, and SPECT/CT). Thus five protocols were used, resulting ...

  15. Optimal protocols for slowly driven quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkowski, Patrick R; DeWeese, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    The design of efficient quantum information processing will rely on optimal nonequilibrium transitions of driven quantum systems. Building on a recently developed geometric framework for computing optimal protocols for classical systems driven in finite time, we construct a general framework for optimizing the average information entropy for driven quantum systems. Geodesics on the parameter manifold endowed with a positive semidefinite metric correspond to protocols that minimize the average information entropy production in finite time. We use this framework to explicitly compute the optimal entropy production for a simple two-state quantum system coupled to a heat bath of bosonic oscillators, which has applications to quantum annealing. PMID:26465432

  16. Social Protocols for Agile Virtual Teams

    CERN Document Server

    Picard, Willy

    2011-01-01

    Despite many works on collaborative networked organizations (CNOs), CSCW, groupware, workflow systems and social networks, computer support for virtual teams is still insufficient, especially support for agility, i.e. the capability of virtual team members to rapidly and cost efficiently adapt the way they interact to changes. In this paper, requirements for computer support for agile virtual teams are presented. Next, an extension of the concept of social protocol is proposed as a novel model supporting agile interactions within virtual teams. The extended concept of social protocol consists of an extended social network and a workflow model.

  17. Social Protocols for Agile Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Willy

    Despite many works on collaborative networked organizations (CNOs), CSCW, groupware, workflow systems and social networks, computer support for virtual teams is still insufficient, especially support for agility, i.e. the capability of virtual team members to rapidly and cost efficiently adapt the way they interact to changes. In this paper, requirements for computer support for agile virtual teams are presented. Next, an extension of the concept of social protocol is proposed as a novel model supporting agile interactions within virtual teams. The extended concept of social protocol consists of an extended social network and a workflow model.

  18. Variable TDMA MAC Protocol For WDM EPON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minsuk Jung; Yongseok Chang; Jonghoon Eom; Sungho Kim

    2003-01-01

    A MAC(Media Access Control) protocol, one of the most important technologies for an EPON(Ethernet Passive Optical Network), contains a scheduling algorithm to avoid collisions in shared links and assigns an effective bandwidth when ONUs (Optical Network Units) transfer signals upward. The current paper proposes a MAC Protocol that operates a TDMA(Time method with a variable slot assignment to overcome short of bandwidth using by the number of n wavelength., the next generation access network. To verify the above, the current study also implements an EPON model using OPNET as the simulation tool.

  19. Vicissitudes of Nagoya Protocol in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources is not only one of the central objectives of the Nagoya Protocol, but also a challenge for communities of scientists, researchers, and indigenous ancestral generally for the educational community. It is therefore essential to know what the real and material implications for the population, the ratification of the Nagoya Protocol, which despite having sufficient justification and argued, highlights the need to develop legal tools, economic, technological and education for proper and fair implementation.

  20. Sessions and Separability in Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Guttman, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Despite much work on sessions and session types in non- adversarial contexts, session-like behavior given an active adversary has not received an adequate definition and proof methods. We provide a syntactic property that guarantees that a protocol has session-respecting executions. Any uncomprom......Despite much work on sessions and session types in non- adversarial contexts, session-like behavior given an active adversary has not received an adequate definition and proof methods. We provide a syntactic property that guarantees that a protocol has session-respecting executions. Any......- work, and gives a general pattern for reasoning about independence....

  1. Study Application of RADIUS Protocol on Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fang; YANG Huan-yu; LI Hong

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents how to apply the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)protocol ,which is generally applied to dial-up network, to the authentication & charge of Broad Band accessing control system on Ethernet. It is provided that the Broad Band accessing control system included a self-designed communication protocol is used in communicating between an terminal user and Network Access Server .The interface module on the servers side and the Radius system is also given in this article.

  2. A Protocol for Evaluating Contextual Design Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Stamps

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies.

  3. A Formal Approach to Protocol Interoperability Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝瑞兵; 吴建平

    1998-01-01

    Porotocol Interoperability testing is an important means to ensure the interconnection and interoperation between protocol products.In this paper,we proposed a formal approach to protocol interoperability testing based on the operational semantics of Concurrent TTCN.We define Concurrent TTCN's operational semantics by using Labeled Transition System,and describe the interoperability test execution and test verdict based on Concurrent TTCN.This approach is very helpful for the formation of formal interoperability testing theory and construction of general interoperability testing system.

  4. A Security Analysis of the 802.11s Wireless Mesh Network Routing Protocol and Its Secure Routing Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Seong-Moo Yoo; Jun Huy Lam; Sang-Gon Lee; Whye Kit Tan

    2013-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can act as a scalable backbone by connecting separate sensor networks and even by connecting WMNs to a wired network. The Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) is the default routing protocol for the 802.11s WMN. The routing protocol is one of the most important parts of the network, and it requires protection, especially in the wireless environment. The existing security protocols, such as the Broadcast Integrity Protocol (BIP), Counter with cipher block chaining...

  5. Secure Bidirectional Communication Protocol without Quantum Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Z. J.; Man, Z. X.

    2004-01-01

    In this letter we propose a theoretical deterministic secure direct bidirectional quantum communication protocol by using swapping quantum entanglement and local unitary operations, in which the quantum channel for photon transmission can be discarded, hence any attack with or without eavesdropping or even the destructive attack without scruple is impossible.

  6. Demarcation of Security in Authentication Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2011-01-01

    easier, and enables us to define security goals with a fine granularity. We present one such separation, by introducing the notion of binding sequence as a security primitive. A binding sequence, roughly speaking, is the only required security property of an authentication protocol. All other...... authentication goals, the correctness requirements, can be derived from the binding sequence....

  7. Leaf tissue sampling and DNA extraction protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semagn, Kassa

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomists must be familiar with a number of issues in collecting and transporting samples using freezing methods (liquid nitrogen and dry ice), desiccants (silica gel and blotter paper), and preservatives (CTAB, ethanol, and isopropanol), with each method having its own merits and limitations. For most molecular studies, a reasonably good quality and quantity of DNA is required, which can only be obtained using standard DNA extraction protocols. There are many DNA extraction protocols that vary from simple and quick ones that yield low-quality DNA but good enough for routine analyses to the laborious and time-consuming standard methods that usually produce high quality and quantities of DNA. The protocol to be chosen will depend on the quality and quantity of DNA needed, the nature of samples, and the presence of natural substances that may interfere with the extraction and subsequent analysis. The protocol described in this chapter has been tested for extracting DNA from eight species and provided very good quality and quantity of DNA for different applications, including those genotyping methods that use restriction enzymes. PMID:24415469

  8. Direct data access protocols benchmarking on DPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furano, Fabrizio; Devresse, Adrien; Keeble, Oliver; Mancinelli, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager is an example of a multi-protocol, multi-VO system for data access on the Grid that went though a considerable technical evolution in the last years. Among other features, its architecture offers the opportunity of testing its different data access frontends under exactly the same conditions, including hardware and backend software. This characteristic inspired the idea of collecting monitoring information from various testbeds in order to benchmark the behaviour of the HTTP and Xrootd protocols for the use case of data analysis, batch or interactive. A source of information is the set of continuous tests that are run towards the worldwide endpoints belonging to the DPM Collaboration, which accumulated relevant statistics in its first year of activity. On top of that, the DPM releases are based on multiple levels of automated testing that include performance benchmarks of various kinds, executed regularly every day. At the same time, the recent releases of DPM can report monitoring information about any data access protocol to the same monitoring infrastructure that is used to monitor the Xrootd deployments. Our goal is to evaluate under which circumstances the HTTP-based protocols can be good enough for batch or interactive data access. In this contribution we show and discuss the results that our test systems have collected under the circumstances that include ROOT analyses using TTreeCache and stress tests on the metadata performance.

  9. Quantifying information leakage of randomized protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Malacaria, Pasquale;

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of information leakage provides a quantitative evaluation of the security of a system. We propose the usage of Markovian processes to model deterministic and probabilistic systems. By using a methodology generalizing the lattice of information approach we model refined attacker...... the Onion Routing protocol....

  10. Behaviour Protocols Verification: Fighting State Explosion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mach, M.; Plášil, František; Kofroň, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2005), s. 22-30. ISSN 1525-9293 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/03/0672 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : formal verification * software components * stateexplos ion * behavior protocols * parse trees Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  11. Delta-t protocol specification: working draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.W.

    1981-12-04

    This document is one of a series describing protocols associated with the Livermore Interactive Network Communication System (LINCS) hierarchical architecture. At the heart of LINCS is its basic interprocess communication (LINCS-IPC) service. LINCS-IPC defines a reliable, flow controlled, full duplex, uninterpreted, labeled bit stream communication service. LINCS-IPC is level 4 in the LINCS architecture. Level 3 of LINCS is the Network layer defining an internetwork datagram type service. LINCS-IPC interfaces to User processes that utilize higher level syntactic and semantic conventions for process interaction. The transport service provided by the Delta-t protocol can be considered a sublayer of the LINCS-IPC layer. Delta-t augments the Network level service as required to support LINCS-IPC. This document specifies the services provided by the Delta-t protocol to support LINCS-IPC, the operation of Delta-t, and the services Delta-t requires of the Network level. This document was written to be self-contained but the reader will find it useful to have available for reference the LINCS-IPC and LINCS DeltaGram Network layer protocol specifications. Implementations are underway in Pascal for the PDP-11 running under RT11 and RX11, in BLISS for the VAX running under VMS, in MODEL for the CRAY-1 and CDC 7600 running under NLTSS and LTSS, and for the SEL 32/75 running under PORT.

  12. A Study of MAC Protocols for WBANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Ullah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN. A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent requirements.

  13. A study of MAC protocols for WBANs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Shen, Bin; Islam, S M Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2010-01-01

    The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent requirements. PMID:22315531

  14. Analysis of Security Protocols by Annotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han

    The trend in Information Technology is that distributed systems and networks are becoming increasingly important, as most of the services and opportunities that characterise the modern society are based on these technologies. Communication among agents over networks has therefore acquired a great...... general framework for the study of several interesting security properties, and developers, who get a collection of tools that can validate protocols with respect to various aspects of security....... deal of research interest. In order to provide effective and reliable means of communication, more and more communication protocols are invented, and for most of them, security is a significant goal. It has long been a challenge to determine conclusively whether a given protocol is secure or not. The...... development of formal techniques, e.g. control flow analyses, that can check various security properties, is an important tool to meet this challenge. This dissertation contributes to the development of such techniques. In this dissertation, security protocols are modelled in the process calculus LYSA. A...

  15. A Verifiable Language for Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde

    We develop a formal language for specifying cryptographic protocols in a structured and clear manner, which allows verification of many interesting properties; in particular confidentiality and integrity. The study sheds new light on the problem of creating intuitive and human readable languages...

  16. Service discovery with routing protocols for MANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xuemai; Shi, Shuo

    2005-11-01

    Service discovery is becoming an important topic as its use throughout the Internet becomes more widespread. In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), the routing protocol is very important because it is special network. To find a path for data, and destination nodes, nodes send packets to each node, creating substantial overhead traffic and consuming much time. Even though a variety of routing protocols have been developed for use in MANETs, they are insufficient for reducing overhead traffic and time. In this paper, we propose SDRP: a new service discovery protocol combined with routing policies in MANETs. The protocol is performed upon a distributed network. We describe a service by a unique ID number and use a group-cast routing policy in advertisement and request. The group-cast routing policy decreases the traffic in networks, and it is efficient to find destination node. In addition, the nodes included in the reply path also cache the advertisement information, and it means when each node finds a node next time, they can know where it is as soon as possible, so they minimize the time. Finally, we compare SDRP with both Flood and MAODV in terms of overload, and average delay. Simulation results show SDRP can spend less response time and accommodate even high mobility network environments.

  17. The Kyoto protocol in a global perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Redek

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The global climate has changed notably since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses (GHG have increased dramatically followed by an increase in global average temperature. In order to avoid negative potential outcomes of global warming, countries have adopted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that has so far been ratified by 192 countries. In 1997 the Kyoto Protocol, a binding GHG reduction plan, was adopted and entered into force in 2005. But several countries, including the USA, have had doubts about the potential negative consequences of the planned 5% global joint reduction of GHG. However, studies generally show that on a macroeconomic level: (1 welfare loss in terms of GDP and lost growth in EU is low; (2 it differs among economies; and (3 permit trading and permit price (in either global or regional markets is highly correlated with the welfare loss. The main objective of the paper is to describe the attitudes and responses to the Kyoto Protocol from a global perspective. The paper has three objectives. First, to provide an overview of global greenhouse gas emissions and the big drivers behind these emissions. Second, to present where different countries, both developed and less developed countries, such as India, China and the countries of South-east Europe currently stand as regards their efforts to achieve the Kyoto Protocol requirements. Third, to analyse the responses and attitudes to the Kyoto Protocol from a country development perspective.

  18. Integrated Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Verma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In opportunistic networks the existence of a simultaneous path is not assumed to transmit a message between a sender and a receiver. Information about the context in which the users communicate is a key piece of knowledge to design efficient routing protocols in opportunistic networks. But this kind of information is not always available. When users are very isolated, context information cannot be distributed, and cannot be used for taking efficient routing decisions. In such cases, context oblivious based schemes are only way to enable communication between users. As soon as users become more social, context data spreads in the network, and context based routing becomes an efficient solution. In this paper we design an integrated routing protocol that is able to use context data as soon as it becomes available and falls back to dissemination-based routing when context information is not available. Then, we provide a comparison between Epidemic and PROPHET, these are representative of context oblivious and context aware routing protocols. Our results show that integrated routing protocol is able to provide better result in term of message delivery probability and message delay in both cases when context information about users is available or not.

  19. Hybrid Long-Distance Entanglement Distribution Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, J.B.; Rigas, I.; Polzik, E.S.;

    2010-01-01

    We propose a hybrid (continuous-discrete variable) quantum repeater protocol for long-distance entanglement distribution. Starting from states created by single-photon detection, we show how entangled coherent state superpositions can be generated by means of homodyne detection. We show that near...

  20. Analyzing security protocols in hierarchical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ye; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    Validating security protocols is a well-known hard problem even in a simple setting of a single global network. But a real network often consists of, besides the public-accessed part, several sub-networks and thereby forms a hierarchical structure. In this paper we first present a process calculus...

  1. Secure communication protocol for mobile multimedia applications

    OpenAIRE

    Komninos, N.; Honary, B.; Darnell, M.

    2000-01-01

    Data transmission over wireless communication networks is increasing rapidly and security has become a very important issue. The main considerations of secure communication systems are authentication, key distribution, and data transfer. This paper describes a secure communication protocol (SCP), which provides privacy and data integrity for end-to-end data transmission over wireless communication systems.

  2. Measurement Protocols for Optimized Fuel Assembly Tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the measurement protocols for optimized tags that can be applied to standard fuel assemblies used in light water reactors. This report describes work performed by the authors at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for NA-22 as part of research to identify specific signatures that can be developed to support counter-proliferation technologies.

  3. The braided single-stage protocol for quantum secure communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darunkar, Bhagyashri; Verma, Pramode K.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the concept and implementation of a Braided Single-stage Protocol for quantum secure communication. The braided single-stage protocol is a multi-photon tolerant secure protocol. This multi-photon tolerant protocol has been implemented in the laboratory using free-space optics technology. The proposed protocol capitalizes on strengths of the three-stage protocol and extends it with a new concept of braiding. This protocol overcomes the limitations associated with the three-stage protocol in the following ways: It uses the transmission channel only once as opposed to three times in the three-stage protocol, and it is invulnerable to man-in-the-middle attack. This paper also presents the error analysis resulting from the misalignment of the devices in the implementation. The experimental results validate the efficient use of transmission resources and improvement in the data transfer rate.

  4. Adenosine stress protocols for myocardial perfusion imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baškot Branislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Treadmill test combined with myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS is a commonly used technique in the assessment of coronary artery disease. There are many patients, however, who may not be able to undergo treadmill test. Such patients would benefit from pharmacological stress procedures combined with MPS. The most commonly used pharmacological agents for cardiac stress are coronary vasodilatators (adenosine, dipyridamol and catecholamines. Concomitant low-level treadmill exercise with adenosine pharmacologic stress (AdenoEX during MPS has become commonly used in recent years. A number of studies have demonstrated a beneficial impact of AdenoEX protocol. The aim of the study was, besides introducing into practice the two types of protocols of pharmatological stress test with adenosine, as a preparation for MPS, to compare and monitor the frequency of their side effects to quality, acquisition, as well as to standardize the onset time of acquisition (diagnostic imaging for both protocols. Methods. A total of 130 patients underwent pharmacological stress test with adenosine (vasodilatator. In 108 of the patients we performed concomitant exercise (AdenoEX of low level (50W by a bicycle ergometar. In 28 of the patients we performed Adenosine abbreviated protocol (AdenoSCAN. Side effects of adenosine were followed and compared between the two kinds of protocols AdenoEX and AdenoSCAN. Also compared were image quality and suggested time of acquisition after the stress test. Results. Numerous side effects were found, but being short-lived they did not require any active interventions. The benefit of AdenoEX versus AdenoSCAN included decreased side effects (62% vs 87%, improved safety and patients tolerance, improved target-to-background ratios because of less subdiaphragmatic activity, earlier acquisition, and improved sensitivity. Conclusion. The safety and efficacy of adenosine pharmacological stress is even better with concomitant

  5. Bayesian adaptive survey protocols for resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency in resource management decisions requires a proper accounting of uncertainty at multiple stages of the decision-making process. As information becomes available, periodic review and updating of resource management protocols reduces uncertainty and improves management decisions. One of the most basic steps to mitigating anthropogenic effects on populations is determining if a population of a species occurs in an area that will be affected by human activity. Species are rarely detected with certainty, however, and falsely declaring a species absent can cause improper conservation decisions or even extirpation of populations. We propose a method to design survey protocols for imperfectly detected species that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty in the detection process, is capable of quantitatively incorporating expert opinion into the decision-making process, allows periodic updates to the protocol, and permits resource managers to weigh the severity of consequences if the species is falsely declared absent. We developed our method using the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas), a threatened species precinctive to the Central Valley of California, as a case study. Survey date was negatively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake, and water temperature was positively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake at a sampled location. Reporting sampling effort, timing and duration of surveys, and water temperatures would allow resource managers to evaluate the probability that the giant gartersnake occurs at sampled sites where it is not detected. This information would also allow periodic updates and quantitative evaluation of changes to the giant gartersnake survey protocol. Because it naturally allows multiple sources of information and is predicated upon the idea of updating information, Bayesian analysis is well-suited to solving the problem of developing efficient sampling protocols for species of

  6. Montreal Protocol benefits simulated with CCM SOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Egorova

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ozone depletion is caused by the anthropogenic increase of halogen containing species in the atmosphere, which results in the enhancement of the concentration of reactive chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere. To reduce the influence of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances (ODS, the Montreal Protocol was agreed by Governments in 1987, with several Amendments adopted later. In order to assess the benefits of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments (MPA on ozone and UV radiation, two different runs of the chemistry-climate model (CCM SOCOL have been carried out. The first run was driven by the emission of ozone depleting substances (ODS prescribed according to the restrictions of the Montreal Protocol and all its Amendments. For the second run we allow the ODS to grow by 3% annually. We find that the MPA would have saved up to 80% of the global annual total ozone by the end of the 21st century. Our calculations also show substantial changes in surface temperature and precipitations that could occur in the world without MPA implementations. To illustrate the changes in UV radiation at the surface and to emphasize certain features which can only be seen for some particular regions if the influence of the cloud cover changes is accounted for, we calculate geographical distribution of the erythemally weighted irradiance (Eery. For the no Montreal Protocol simulation Eery increases by factor of 4 to 16 between the 1970s and 2100. For the scenario including the Montreal Protocol it is found that UV radiation starts to decrease in 2000, with continuous decline of 5% to 10% at middle latitudes in the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

  7. The challenges of additional protocol implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Board of Governors approved the Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements, INFCIRC/540, (referred to as the Additional Protocol) in May 1997. The Additional Protocol provides for new mechanisms that include expanded information on State's nuclear activities to be declared to the IAEA and increased physical access to locations for IAEA inspectors. Given the expanded capability under the additional protocol for the Agency to draw conclusions regarding the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities, Safeguards Department staff have had to broaden their outlook with respect to all safeguards activities being conducted. Beyond verification of nuclear material, inspectors are being called upon to conduct a wider range of activities, with more emphasis on observation of indicators of a State's nuclear-related activities and consideration of the consistency of the other information with a State's declarations. This includes consideration of how the evaluation of all information available to the Agency affects the planning and prioritizing of future safeguards activities, for example in resolving questions or inconsistencies in the declared information or selecting locations for conducting complementary access. The implementation of strengthened safeguards and the additional protocol has led to a need to institutionally change the roles of many staff members in the various Safeguards Divisions and increase the interaction between the Divisions to most effectively draw State-level conclusions regarding the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. This paper focuses on the significant changes in the roles of safeguards inspectors, in particular facility officers and country officers, in the implementation of strengthened safeguards. It outlines the nature of the changes, and some of the challenges being faced in order to adapt to these roles, including changes in the nature of interaction between the Operations and Support Divisions

  8. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  9. The Research and Application Design of SDL Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at overcoming the disadvantages in the Simple Data Link(SDL) protocol, we study and modify the protocol mechanism, which enhances the flexibility in carrying the packets of various network layer protocols and improves the ability to correct errors. We research the error check and error correction of CRC and the application of MPLS labels in the SDL protocol. Furthermore, we provide a method of CRC correction and application of MPLS labels in the SDL protocol. Finally, we present a scheme of realizing the SDL protocol.

  10. Energy-efficient MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li De-liang; Peng Fei

    2009-01-01

    Designing energy-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols has a significant influence on the energy performance of wireless sensor network (WSN). In this paper we present a survey of the recent typical MAC protocols regarding energy efficiency for WSN. According to channel access policies, we classify these protocols into four categories: contention-based, TDMA-based, hybrid, and cross layer protocols, in which the advantages and disadvantages in each class of MAC protocols are discussed. Finally, we point out open research issues that need to carry on to achieve high energy efficiency for the design of MAC protocols in WSN.

  11. A New Protocol and Lower Bounds for Quantum Coin Flipping

    OpenAIRE

    Ambainis, Andris

    2002-01-01

    We present a new protocol and two lower bounds for quantum coin flipping. In our protocol, no dishonest party can achieve one outcome with probability more than 0.75. Then, we show that our protocol is optimal for a certain type of quantum protocols. For arbitrary quantum protocols, we show that if a protocol achieves a bias of at most $\\epsilon$, it must use at least $\\Omega(\\log \\log \\frac{1}{\\epsilon})$ rounds of communication. This implies that the parallel repetition fails for quantum co...

  12. Investigations and Performance Evaluation of Dynamic Routing Protocol with New Proposed Protocol for WAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudha,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Routing is a relevant issue for maintaining good performance and successfully operating in a network. Routing Protocols allow routers to dynamically advertise and learn routes, determine whichroutes are available and which are the most efficient routes to a destination. In any IP network, routing protocols provide the intelligence that takes a collection of physical links and transforms them into a network that enables packets to travel from one host to another. In this paper we present performance evaluation for the combination of conventional model of “RIP” and “OSPF” routing protocols for network traffic over WAN using OPNET. There is significant improvement in the FTP download response time which is reduced by the order of 3sec. The performance metrics like: point-to-point link utilization has increased from 122% to 133% and throughput has increased from 1547 to 1703packets/sec without significant change in queuing delay for both the protocols.

  13. The comparative cost analysis of EAP Re-authentication Protocol and EAP TLS Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Mehla; Bhawna Gupta

    2010-01-01

    the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is a generic framework supporting multiple types of authentication methods. In systems where EAP is used for authentication, it is desirable to not repeat the entire EAP exchange with another authenticator. The EAP reauthentication Protocol provides a consistent, methodindependentand low-latency re-authentication. It is extension to current EAP mechanism to support intradomain handoff authentication. This paper analyzed the performance of the EAP r...

  14. Power Saving MAC Protocols for WSNs and Optimization of S-MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simarpreet Kaur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Low power MAC protocols have received a lot of consideration in the last few years because of their influence on the lifetime of wireless sensor networks. Since, sensors typically operate on batteries, replacement of which is often difficult. A lot of work has been done to minimize the energy expenditure and prolong the sensor lifetime through energy efficient designs, across layers. Meanwhile, the sensor network should be able to maintain a certain throughput in order to fulfill the QoS requirements of the end user, and to ensure the constancy of the network. This paper introduces different types of MAC protocols used for WSNs and proposes S‐MAC, a Medium‐Access Control protocol designed for Wireless Sensor Networks. S‐MAC uses a few innovative techniques to reduce energy consumption and support selfconfiguration. A new protocol is suggested to improve the energy efficiency, latency and throughput of existing MAC protocol for WSNs. A modification of the protocol is then proposed to eliminate the need for some nodes to stay awake longer than the other nodes which improves the energy efficiency, latency and throughput and hence increases the life span of a wireless sensor network.

  15. A review of the Protocol Reporter v.2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agreement between the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (the Safeguards Agreement) entered into force on November 14th, 1975. The Additional Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement (the Additional Protocol) was signed on June 21st, 1999 and entered into force on February 19th, 2004. ROK has been submitting annual updated reports of initial declaration on every May 15th since August 2004. Additional protocol reports have been submitted through Protocol Reporter provided by IAEA. Protocol Reporter is a computer system that facilitates preparation of reports by Member States of Declarations pursuant to Article 2 and 3 of the Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements (Additional Protocol). Protocol Reporter version 1.0 was developed by the IAEA in 1999 to help Member States structure electronic data storage and reporting formats in a way which is compatible with the guidelines on the Additional Protocol and its data handling system. However, Protocol Reporter version 1.0 had several limitations in data management and Member states requested upgraded software. In order to meet the demand, IAEA developed and released Protocol Reporter version 2.0 in 2008. Member states, consequently, should declare and submit the additional reports through the new version of the protocol reporter. This paper aimed to provide a brief overview of Protocol Reporter v.2.0 and highlight the improvements over the previous version

  16. Automated Verification of Quantum Protocols using MCMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Belardinelli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology for the automated verification of quantum protocols using MCMAS, a symbolic model checker for multi-agent systems The method is based on the logical framework developed by D'Hondt and Panangaden for investigating epistemic and temporal properties, built on the model for Distributed Measurement-based Quantum Computation (DMC, an extension of the Measurement Calculus to distributed quantum systems. We describe the translation map from DMC to interpreted systems, the typical formalism for reasoning about time and knowledge in multi-agent systems. Then, we introduce dmc2ispl, a compiler into the input language of the MCMAS model checker. We demonstrate the technique by verifying the Quantum Teleportation Protocol, and discuss the performance of the tool.

  17. Kyoto protocol and Nepal's energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepal has recently ratified Kyoto Protocol, which considers justifiable use of resources to limit or reduce the emission of gases that contribute to green house gas inventory in the atmosphere. Nepal's per capita green gas (GHG) emission from energy use is insignificant. However, it is important for Nepal to adopt environmentally friendly energy options based on local resources like hydropower and biomass. Nepal can benefit from the provisions of clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) or carbon funds being promoted by various organizations in order to obtain funding for new projects that reduce GHG emissions (ER). Funding can be generated through Carbon trading in international market as well. In this paper, the country's current contribution to GHG due to energy consumption is evaluated. Options for promoting more sustainable and environmentally friendly projects have also been discussed

  18. UV Impacts Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul; McKenzie, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "World Expected" UV environment are compared with the "World Avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on protection of the ozone layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes which could also be important.

  19. Internet Core Protocols Help for Network Administrators

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Eric

    2000-01-01

    If you've ever been responsible for a network, you know that sinkingfeeling: your pager has gone off at 2 a.m., the network is broken, and you can't figure out why by using a dial-in connection from home. You drive into the office, dig out your protocol analyzer, and spend the next fourhours trying to put things back together before the staff shows up for work. When this happens, you often find yourself looking at the low-level guts of the Internet protocols: you're deciphering individual packets, trying to figure out what is (or isn't) happening. Until now, the only real guide to the protoc

  20. Statistical principles for prospective study protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Robin; Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research to......, risk differences, and other quantities that convey information. One of the goals in biomedical research is to develop parsimonious models - meaning as simple as possible. This approach is valid if the subsequent research report (the article) is written independent of whether the results are...... "statistically significant" or not. In the present paper we outline the considerations and suggestions on how to build a trial protocol, with an emphasis on having a rigorous protocol stage, always leading to a full article manuscript, independent of statistical findings. We conclude that authors, who find...

  1. Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality

    CERN Document Server

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2014-01-01

    The violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities indicates only that the assumption of "conterfactual definiteness" and/or the probabilistic models used in proofs were incorrect. In this paper we discuss in detail an intimate relation between experimental protocols and probabilistic models. In particular we show that local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models are inconsistent with the experimental protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. In particular these models neglect a contextual character of quantum theory (QT) and do not describe properly quantum measurements. We argue that the violation of various inequalities gives arguments against the irreducible randomness of act of the measurement. Therefore quantum probabilities are reducible what means that QT is emergent. In this case one could expect to discover in time series of data some unpredicted fine structures proving that QT is not predictably complete what would be a major discovery.

  2. Direct data access protocols benchmarking on DPM

    CERN Document Server

    Furano, Fabrizio; Keeble, Oliver; Mancinelli, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The Disk Pool Manager is an example of a multi-protocol, multi-VO system for data access on the Grid that went though a considerable technical evolution in the last years. Among other features, its architecture offers the opportunity of testing its different data access frontends under exactly the same conditions, including hardware and backend software. This characteristic inspired the idea of collecting monitoring information from various testbeds in order to benchmark the behaviour of the HTTP and Xrootd protocols for the use case of data analysis, batch or interactive. A source of information is the set of continuous tests that are run towards the worldwide endpoints belonging to the DPM Collaboration, which accumulated relevant statistics in its first year of activity. On top of that, the DPM releases are based on multiple levels of automated testing that include performance benchmarks of various kinds, executed regularly every day. At the same time, the recent releases of DPM can report monitoring infor...

  3. Mouse cell culture - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mouse is, out of any doubt, the experimental animal par excellence for many many colleagues within the scientific community, notably for those working in mammalian biology (in a broad sense, from basic genetic to modeling human diseases, starting at least from 1664 Robert Hooke experiments on air’s propertyn. Not surprising then that mouse cell cultures is a well established field of research itself and that there are several handbooks devoted to this discipline. Here, Andrew Ward and David Tosh provide a necessary update of the protocols currently needed. In fact, nearly half of the book is devoted to stem cells culture protocols, mainly embryonic, from a list of several organs (kidney, lung, oesophagus and intestine, pancreas and liver to mention some........

  4. An Efficient Multicast Source Authentication Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Weidong; LI Zhitang; LU Chuiwei; ZHANG Yejiang

    2006-01-01

    We propose an efficient multicast source authentication protocol called efficient multi-tree-chains scheme (EMTC),which shows more loss resistibility,less communication cost,and no delay at receivers. The EMTC scheme is based on combination of single Chain scheme and Hash Tree Chains scheme,and integrates the advantages of both. In this scheme,stream is firstly divided into blocks with n packets,and each block consists of m clusters,everyone of which contains a tree of packets. All clusters are chained together. Through EMTC,packets of one cluster can be authenticated by any packet of the previous cluster. Compared to other multicast authentication protocols,the proposed scheme has the following advantages: ① dramatically improves the resistance to burst packets loss; ② low computation and communication overhead; ③ imposes low delay on the sender side and no delay on the receiver side.

  5. Devising local protocols for multipartite quantum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Scott M.

    2016-04-01

    We provide a method of designing protocols for implementing multipartite quantum measurements when the parties are restricted to local operations and classical communication (LOCC). For each finite integer number of rounds r , the method succeeds in every case for which an r -round protocol exists for the measurement under consideration, and failure of the method has the immediate implication that the measurement under consideration cannot be implemented by LOCC no matter how many rounds of communication are allowed, including when the number of rounds is allowed to be infinite. It turns out that this method shows—often with relative ease—the impossibility by LOCC for a number of examples, including cases where this was not previously known, as well as the example that demonstrated what has famously become known as nonlocality without entanglement.

  6. Fairness in Physical Products Delivery Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohammed Alaraj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In an e-commerce transaction, a buyer purchases a physical product, such as a laptop, from an onlineseller. In an attempt to protect himself, any seller would prefer to collect payment from the buyer beforehe sends the product. Likewise, the buyer would prefer to have the product shipped to him before hemakes a payment to the seller. Both parties have a need to take precautions to minimize their risk in casethe other party proves to be untrustworthy. This paper proposes a new e-commerce fair exchangeprotocol based on verifiable and recoverable encryption of keys. The proposed protocol is based onoffline TTP. Only seven messages are exchanged between the parties involved in the protocol. Disputesare resolved electronically in case one party evades

  7. Protocol independent adaptive route update for VANET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Asim; Ajmal, Sana; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  8. Severe hypomagnesaemia with tetany following ESHAP protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumdar Gautam

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One patient with B-cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma developed severe hypomagnesaemia and tetany 15 days after the first course of treatment with ESHAP protocol. This prompted a careful look at the incidence and severity of hypomagnesaemia during treatment with this combination chemotherapy. Method This patient and two further patients having the same treatment were monitored for hypomagnesaemia throughout their treatment period. Result All three patients developed significant hypomagnesaemia requiring intravenous magnesium infusion in the second and third weeks after treatment though not after every course of chemotherapy. Conclusions ESHAP protocol is often associated with significant hypomagnesaemia two to three weeks after treatment. Therefore, serum magnesium level should be monitored throughout the treatment period.

  9. Multipass Steering Protocols at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CEBAF recirculating accelerator consists of two CW superconducting RF linacs, through which an electron beam is accelerated for up to 5 passes. Focusing and steering elements affect each pass differently, requiring a multipass steering protocol to correct the orbits. Perturbations include lens misalignments (including long-term ground motion), BPM offsets, and focusing and steering from RF fields inside the cavities. A previous treatment of this problem assumed all perturbations were localized at the quadrupoles and the absence of x-y coupling. Having analyzed the problem and characterized the solutions, we developed an empirical iterative protocol to compare against previous results in the presence of skew fields and cross-plane coupling. We plan to characterize static and acceleration-dependent components of the beam line perturbations to allow systematic and rapid configuration of the accelerator at different linac energy gains

  10. May the Kyoto protocol produce results?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A not well managed drastic reduction of greenhouse emissions might result in significant decrease of living standards, but without such reduction efforts, climate change might have five to twenty times higher costs. Thus, while indicating estimated consequences or evolutions of greenhouse emissions and temperature, the author stresses the need of emission reduction. She discusses the role of economic instruments which can be used in policies aimed at the struggle against climate change. She recalls the emission reduction commitments specified in the Kyoto protocol, discusses the present status, operation and results of the international emission trading scheme, the lessons learned after the first years of operation, comments the involvement of emerging countries in relationship with another mechanism defined in the protocol: the Clean Development Mechanism

  11. Da Vinci robot emergency undocking protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, O E; O'Sullivan, S; Hewitt, M; O'Reilly, B A

    2016-09-01

    The role of robot-assisted surgery across gynaecology is evolving with increasing numbers of procedures being undertaken with varying degrees of complexity. While the risk of conversion is low at approximately 1 %, the reasons for conversion are variable. These range from technical issues with the robot, surgical complications such as haemorrhage and anaesthetics issues such as an inability to ventilate the patient adequately. While many conversions to open or laparoscopic approach are not due to life-threatening indications, it is important that the theatre staff are aware of the indication and can perform an emergency undocking as effectively, efficiently and safely as possible when the need arises. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of the literature available outlining such protocols. For this reason, we developed an emergency undocking protocol clearly outlining the role of each theatre staff member and the need for clear concise communication. PMID:27126584

  12. Towards wider adherence to the strengthened safeguards system: Additional protocols and small quantities protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past few years, the IAEA Secretariat has been implementing a Plan of Action to encourage and facilitate the conclusion of safeguards agreements and additional protocols. Such outreach activities by the IAEA and its Member States have contributed to the IAEA's effectiveness and efficiency objectives through a rapidly increasing number of States with additional protocols. Since 2001, the number of States with additional protocols in force has more than tripled from 24 to 78, while 110 States have signed additional protocols. Of particular importance for the strengthening of safeguards, more than 80% of all States with safeguards significant nuclear activities have concluded additional protocols. Following the IAEA Board of Governors' decisions in 2005 regarding small quantities protocols (SQPs), the Secretariat's outreach activities have also promoted the acceptance of the new standardized SQP text, which allows for initial reports, early information about new facilities and IAEA inspections, while making SQPs unavailable for States with planned or existing nuclear facilities. Since the Board took its decisions, nine States have accepted the modified SQP text and the IAEA has written to all relevant States proposing to modify the existing SQPs. For States that have not yet decided to conclude an additional protocol, the Secretariat has found that this is generally because of policy reasons or administrative hurdles or because of legal or technical obstacles. Specifically, a number of States need to put in place an effective national system for accounting and control of nuclear material and activities. Many States have taken action to strengthen such controls in order to be able to report under their safeguards agreements and additional protocols. This is a positive development from the point of view of strengthened safeguards, and also strengthens the authorities' hand in preventing and detecting attempts at illicit trafficking. Accordingly, the IAEA has

  13. Sufficient Conditions for Vertical Composition of Security Protocols (Extended Version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Viganò, Luca

    Vertical composition of security protocols means that an application protocol (e.g., a banking service) runs over a channel established by another protocol (e.g., a secure channel provided by TLS). This naturally gives rise to a compositionality question: given a secure protocol P1 that provides a...... certain kind of channel as a goal and another secure protocol P2 that assumes this kind of channel, can we then derive that their vertical composition P2[P1] is secure? It is well known that protocol composition can lead to attacks even when the individual protocols are all secure in isolation. In this...... paper, we formalize seven easy-to-check static conditions that support a large class of channels and applications and that we prove to be su_cient for vertical security protocol composition....

  14. Passive Cryptanalysis of Unconditionally Secure Authentication Protocol for RFID Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Abyaneh, Mohammad Reza Sohizadeh

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Alomair et al. proposed the first UnConditionally Secure mutual authentication protocol for low-cost RFID systems(UCS-RFID). The security of the UCS-RFID relies on five dynamic secret keys which are updated at every protocol run using a fresh random number (nonce) secretly transmitted from a reader to tags. Our results show that, at the highest security level of the protocol (security parameter= 512), inferring a nonce is feasible with the probability of 0.99 by eavesdropping(observing) about 90 runs of the protocol. Finding a nonce enable a passive attacker to recover all five secret keys of the protocol. To do so, we propose a three-phase probabilistic approach in this paper. Our attack recovers the secret keys with a probability that increases by accessing to more protocol runs. We also show that tracing a tag using this protocol is also possible even with less runs of the protocol.

  15. Comparison of CSMA based MAC protocols of wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    singh, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    Energy conservation has been an important area of interest in Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs). Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols play an important role in energy conservation. In this paper, we describe CSMA based MAC protocols for WSN and analyze the simulation results of these protocols. We implemented S-MAC, T-MAC, B-MAC, B-MAC+, X-MAC, DMAC and Wise-MAC in TOSSIM, a simulator which unlike other simulators simulates the same code running on real hardware. Previous surveys mainly focused on the classification of MAC protocols according to the techniques being used or problem dealt with and presented a theoretical evaluation of protocols. This paper presents the comparative study of CSMA based protocols for WSNs, showing which MAC protocol is suitable in a particular environment and supports the arguments with the simulation results. The comparative study can be used to find the best suited MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks in different environments.

  16. A Key Agreement Protocol Using Non-Abelian Group

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Dwivedi; D.B.OJHA

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a key agreement protocol based on a non abelian group. It is proved that the proposed protocol meets several security attributes under the assumption that the Root Problem (RP) in braid group is a hard problem

  17. A Secure Key Agreement Protocol Using Braid Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Chaturvedi; Shyam Sundar

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an authenticated key agreement protocol based on a braid group. It is proved that the proposed protocol meets several security attributes under the assumption that the Root Problem (RP) in braid group is a hard problem.

  18. Principles of the new quantum cryptography protocols building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the quantum cryptography protocols is the maximal secrecy under the conditions of the real experiment. This work presents the result of the new protocol building with the use of the secrecy maximization. While using some well-known approaches this method has allowed one to achieve completely new results in quantum cryptography. The process of the protocol elaboration develops from the standard BB84 protocol upgrading to the building of completely new protocol with arbitrary large bases number. The secrecy proofs of the elaborated protocol appear to be natural continuation of the protocol building process. This approach reveals possibility to reach extremely high parameters of the protocol. It suits both the restrictions of contemporary technologies and requirements for high bit rate while being absolutely secret

  19. Traffic Engineering With Traditional IP Routing Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Fortz, Bernard; Rexford, Jennifer; Thorup, Mikkel

    2002-01-01

    Traffic engineering involves adapting the routing of traffic to the network conditions, with the joint goals of good user performance and efficient use of network resources. In this paper, we describe an approach to intradomain traffic engineering that works within the existing deployed base of Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs), such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Intermediate System-Intermediate System (IS-IS). We explain how to adapt the configuration of link weights, based on a ...

  20. Advanced routing protocols for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Campista , Miguel Elias Mitre

    2014-01-01

    This text introduces the principles of routing protocols and metrics as they affect wireless networking environments, specifically in urban areas. Timely because of the recent rise in small city life, this topic includes the consideration of ad hoc, mesh, vehicular, sensor, and delay tolerant networks. These approaches are each unique, and author Miguel Mitre Campista provides a thorough, but accessible, explanation of their individual characteristics for engineers, computer scientists, IT professionals, and curious Internet users.

  1. A Protocol for Quantum Energy Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Hotta, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    A new protocol, quantum energy distribution (QED), is proposed in which multiple parties can simultaneously extract positive energy from spin chains by common secret keys shared by an energy supplier. QED is robust against impersonation; an adversary, who does not have a common secret key and attempts to get energy, will instead give energy to the spin chains. The total amount of energy transfer gives a lower bound of the residual energy of any local cooling process by the energy supplier.

  2. Mobile opportunistic networks architectures, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Denko, Mieso K

    2011-01-01

    Widespread availability of pervasive and mobile devices coupled with recent advances in networking technologies make opportunistic networks one of the most promising communication technologies for a growing number of future mobile applications. Covering the basics as well as advanced concepts, this book introduces state-of-the-art research findings, technologies, tools, and innovations. Prominent researchers from academia and industry report on communication architectures, network algorithms and protocols, emerging applications, experimental studies, simulation tools, implementation test beds,

  3. An adaptive protocol for distributed beamforming

    OpenAIRE

    Sigg, Stephan; Beigl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We study distributed adaptive beamforming in networks of wireless nodes. In particular, we observe that for the synchronisation of carrier phases, distinct algorithmic configurations are optimal in various environmental settings and propose a protocol that utilises organic computing principles to find optimum parameters. Furthermore, we study the impact of different modulation schemes on the bit error rate of a signal sequence transmitted collaboratively by distributed devices via adaptive be...

  4. Transport services and protocols for OSI

    OpenAIRE

    Lenzini, Luciano

    1981-01-01

    A Transport Layer has been defined as Level 4 of the open systems Interconnection (OSI) Basic Reference Model. Its major characteristic is that it forms the boundary between data COmmUnication functions (the three Lower layers of the Model) and data processing functions (Levels 5 through 7). The International organization for standardization (ISO) is currently defining a standard Transport service and Protocol for this Layer. Although both technical and political problems are presently hinder...

  5. Trusted Hosts in Host Identity Protocol (HIP)

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Amir

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the project was to study the possibilities to establish trusted hosts in Host Identity Protocol (HIP) and implement certificate handling in HIP packets. The time complexity and performance while using certificates in HIP packets was also measured. The research project was carried out at Arcada University of Applied Sciences in collaboration with Helsinki University. The project aimed to implement standard x.509 certification of the public key used as HI (Host Identity) to deri...

  6. Comparison of Five Parathyroid Scintigraphic Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virpi Tunninen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We compared five parathyroid scintigraphy protocols in patients with primary (pHPT and secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT and studied the interobserver agreement. The dual-tracer method (T99mc-sestamibi/123I was used with three acquisition techniques (parallel-hole planar, pinhole planar, and SPECT/CT. The single-tracer method (T99mc-sestamibi was used with two acquisition techniques (double-phase parallel-hole planar, and SPECT/CT. Thus five protocols were used, resulting in five sets of images. Materials and Methods. Image sets of 51 patients were retrospectively graded by four experienced nuclear medicine physicians. The final study group consisted of 24 patients (21 pHPT, 3 sHPT who had been operated upon. Surgical and histopathologic findings were used as the standard of comparison. Results. Thirty abnormal parathyroid glands were found in 24 patients. The sensitivities of the dual-tracer method (76.7–80.0% were similar (P=1.0. The sensitivities of the single-tracer method (13.3–31.6% were similar (P=0.625. All differences in sensitivity between these two methods were statistically significant (P<0.012. The interobserver agreement was good. Conclusion. This study indicates that any dual-tracer protocol with T99mc-sestamibi and 123I is superior for enlarged parathyroid gland localization when compared with single-tracer protocols using T99mc-sestamibi alone. The parathyroid scintigraphy was found to be independent of the reporter.

  7. Montreal Protocol Benefits simulated with CCM SOCOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, T.; Rozanov, E.; Gröbner, J.; Hauser, M.; Schmutz, W.

    2013-04-01

    Ozone depletion is caused by the anthropogenic increase of halogen-containing species in the atmosphere, which results in the enhancement of the concentration of reactive chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere. To reduce the influence of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances (ODS), the Montreal Protocol was agreed by Governments in 1987, with several Amendments and Adjustments adopted later. In order to assess the benefits of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments and Adjustments (MPA) on ozone and UV radiation, two different runs of the chemistry-climate model (CCM) SOCOL have been carried out. The first run was driven by the emission of ozone depleting substances (ODS) prescribed according to the restrictions of the MPA. For the second run we allow the ODS to grow by 3% annually. We find that the MPA would have saved up to 80% of the global annual total ozone by the end of the 21st century. Our calculations also show substantial changes of the stratospheric circulation pattern as well as in surface temperature and precipitations that could occur in the world without MPA implementations. To illustrate the changes in UV radiation at the surface and to emphasise certain features, which can only be seen for some particular regions if the influence of the cloud cover changes is accounted for, we calculate geographical distribution of the erythemally weighted irradiance (Eery). For the no Montreal Protocol simulation Eery increases by factor of 4 to 16 between the 1970s and 2100. For the scenario including the Montreal Protocol it is found that UV radiation starts to decrease in 2000, with continuous decline of 5% to 10% at middle latitudes in the both Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

  8. Building America House Simulation Protocols (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Engebrecht, C.

    2010-10-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  9. Session Initiation Protocol Security: A Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Selvakumar Manickam; Chen-Wei Tan; Aws N. Jaber; Ali A. Khudher

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: This study aims to discuss several issues on session initiation protocol security and threats. An in-depth investigation related to SIP with the intention to categorize the wide variety of SIP security issues. Approach: Related papers to the infrastructure of SIP security were analysed. Some of the identified issues are: Social threats, eavesdropping, delaying, modification of media session, service abuse threats, physical access threats and denied services threats. Results...

  10. Implementation of Co-Operative Communication Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    H.Srikanth.Kamath

    2013-01-01

    In a wireless transmission the signal quality suffers severely from bad channel quality due to effects like fading caused by multi-path propagation. To reduce such effects diversity can be used thereby increasing the network capacity and coverage. In this paper we study and simulate the transmission protocols such as Amplify and Forward, Decode and Forward and Coded Cooperation. Cooperative communication refers to processing of this overheard information at the surrounding nodes and retransmi...

  11. Zero-Knowledge Protocols and Multiparty Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastro, Valerio

    This thesis presents results in two branches of cryptography. In the first part we construct two general multiparty computation protocols that can evaluate any arithmetic circuit over a finite field. Both are built in the preprocessing model and achieve active security in the setting of a dishone...... communication complexity, while the construction over the integers improves the state of the art both in terms of communication complexity and in the security requirements (it requires factoring instead of the strong RSA assumption)....

  12. Dynamic Characteristics of Explicit Control Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shuang-mei; LI Jian-hua; GUO Chuan-xiong

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of eplicit control protocol (XCP) were investigated with single bottle-neck on the microscopic time-scale. Analysis and simulation results show that the bandwidth utilization of an XCP bottleneck link converges to 1 at exponential rate, persistent congestion cannot occur at the bottleneck link, and throughput of an arbitrary subset of XCP flows at the bottleneck link converges to its fair share in exponential rate. The XCP has high bandwidth utilization and good fairness properties.

  13. Routing Protocols in MANET: Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanti; Vikram Nandal

    2014-01-01

    A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is composed of mobile nodes without any infrastructure like wireless access points or base stations. MANET describes wireless, mobile and multi-hop networks that operate without the benefit of any existing infrastructure except for the nodes themselves. The main goal of an ad hoc network routing protocol is to establish correct and efficient route between a pair of mobile nodes so that messages delivered within the active route timeout interval. Several protoco...

  14. A Study of MAC Protocols for WBANs

    OpenAIRE

    Sana Ullah; Bin Shen; S. M. Riazul Islam; Pervez Khan; Shahnaz Saleem; Kyung Sup Kwak

    2009-01-01

    The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to s...

  15. Retinopathy of Prematurity and Blood Transfusion Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    P Mohagheghi; Khosravi, N.; H Samaii

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role of blood transfusion protocols on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a prospective cohort study on 57 premature infants under 1501 grams birth weight was performed. Fourteen day-old infants were divided into two groups randomly. Infants in group 1 (n=27) received packed red blood cell transfusion only if specific medical signs were met and their hematocrit level was under 30%. Infants in group 2 (n=30) received blood transfusion to maintain their hematocrit level > 40%...

  16. A CONTRIBUTION TO SECURE THE ROUTING PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed ERRITALI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a contribution to secure the routing protocol GPSR (Greedy Perimeter StatelessRouting for vehicular ad hoc networks, we examine the possible attacks against GPSR and securitysolutions proposed by different research teams working on ad hoc network security. Then, we propose asolution to secure GPSR packet by adding a digital signature based on symmetric cryptographygenerated using the AES algorithm and the MD5 hash function more suited to a mobile environment

  17. A CONTRIBUTION TO SECURE THE ROUTING PROTOCOL

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed ERRITALI; Oussama Mohamed Reda; Bouabid El Ouahidi

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a contribution to secure the routing protocol GPSR (Greedy Perimeter StatelessRouting) for vehicular ad hoc networks, we examine the possible attacks against GPSR and securitysolutions proposed by different research teams working on ad hoc network security. Then, we propose asolution to secure GPSR packet by adding a digital signature based on symmetric cryptographygenerated using the AES algorithm and the MD5 hash function more suited to a mobile environment

  18. Pressure for backing Kyoto Protocol grows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    The European Union and its 15 member states simultaneously ratified the Kyoto Protocol on climate change on 31 May; Japan followed suit on 4 June; and pressure is building for other countries to approve the treaty so that it can come into force in time for the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa late this year. The summit runs from 26 August through 4 September.

  19. Montreal Protocol Benefits simulated with CCM SOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Egorova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ozone depletion is caused by the anthropogenic increase of halogen-containing species in the atmosphere, which results in the enhancement of the concentration of reactive chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere. To reduce the influence of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances (ODS, the Montreal Protocol was agreed by Governments in 1987, with several Amendments and Adjustments adopted later. In order to assess the benefits of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments and Adjustments (MPA on ozone and UV radiation, two different runs of the chemistry-climate model (CCM SOCOL have been carried out. The first run was driven by the emission of ozone depleting substances (ODS prescribed according to the restrictions of the MPA. For the second run we allow the ODS to grow by 3% annually. We find that the MPA would have saved up to 80% of the global annual total ozone by the end of the 21st century. Our calculations also show substantial changes of the stratospheric circulation pattern as well as in surface temperature and precipitations that could occur in the world without MPA implementations. To illustrate the changes in UV radiation at the surface and to emphasise certain features, which can only be seen for some particular regions if the influence of the cloud cover changes is accounted for, we calculate geographical distribution of the erythemally weighted irradiance (Eery. For the no Montreal Protocol simulation Eery increases by factor of 4 to 16 between the 1970s and 2100. For the scenario including the Montreal Protocol it is found that UV radiation starts to decrease in 2000, with continuous decline of 5% to 10% at middle latitudes in the both Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

  20. Integrated Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anshul Verma; Dr. Anurag Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    In opportunistic networks the existence of a simultaneous path is not assumed to transmit a message between a sender and a receiver. Information about the context in which the users communicate is a key piece of knowledge to design efficient routing protocols in opportunistic networks. But this kind of information is not always available. When users are very isolated, context information cannot be distributed, and cannot be used for taking efficient routing decisions. In such cases, context o...

  1. Addresing State Explosion in Behavior Protocol Verification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mach, M.; Plášil, František

    Michigan : ACIS, 2004 - (Hu, G.; Huang, T.; Ni, X.; Zhou, A.), s. 327-333 ISBN 0-9700776-8-8. [ACIS. International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel /Distributed Computing /5./. Beijing (CN), 30.06.2004-02.07.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/03/0672 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : formal verification * software components * state explosion * behavior protocols * parse trees Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  2. Stochastic stability of continuous time consensus protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Medvedev, Georgi S.

    2010-01-01

    A unified approach to studying convergence and stochastic stability of continuous time consensus protocols (CPs) is presented in this work. Our method applies to networks with directed information flow; both cooperative and noncooperative interactions; networks under weak stochastic forcing; and those whose topology and strength of connections may vary in time. The graph theoretic interpretation of the analytical results is emphasized. We show how the spectral properties, such as algebraic co...

  3. The Kyoto protocol in a global perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tjaša Redek; Matjaž Koman; Polona Domadenik; Andreja Cirman

    2009-01-01

    The global climate has changed notably since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses (GHG) have increased dramatically followed by an increase in global average temperature. In order to avoid negative potential outcomes of global warming, countries have adopted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that has so far been ratified by 192 countries. In 1997 the Kyoto Protocol, a binding GHG reduction plan, ...

  4. Dynamic consistency problems behind the Kyoto protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Ha-Duong, Minh; Hourcade, Jean Charles; Lecocq, Franck

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the economic rationale behind both the quantitative targets and the flexibility mechanisms adopted in the Kyoto Protocol. It synthesises some theoretical dimensions of the debate about the so-called "when flexibility" of climate policies, explaining the importance of the interplay between uncertainty and technico-economic inertia. Numerical results shows that the aggregate Kyoto abatement target is consistent with a stochastic dynamic optimum in which a 450 ppm concentrati...

  5. A feasible quantum communication complexity protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Galvao, Ernesto F.

    2001-01-01

    I show that a simple multi-party communication task can be performed more efficiently with quantum communication than with classical communication, even with low detection efficiency $\\eta$. The task is a communication complexity problem in which distant parties need to compute a function of the distributed inputs, while minimizing the amount of communication between them. A realistic quantum optical setup is suggested that can demonstrate a five-party quantum protocol with higher-than-classi...

  6. Protocol Independent Adaptive Route Update for VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Asim Rasheed; Sana Ajmal; Amir Qayyum

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptiv...

  7. Preliminary Specification of Services and Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Neves; Paulo Verissimo

    2008-01-01

    This document describes the preliminary specification of services and protocols for the Crutial Architecture. The Crutial Architecture definition, first addressed in Crutial Project Technical Report D4 (January 2007), intends to reply to a grand challenge of computer science and control engineering: how to achieve resilience of critical information infrastructures, in particular in the electrical sector. The definitions herein elaborate on the major architectural options and components establ...

  8. CRUTIAL - Preliminary specification of services and protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Nuno; Verissimo, Paulo; Bondavalli, Andrea; Grandoni, Fabrizio; et al, .

    2008-01-01

    This document describes the preliminary specification of services and protocols for the Crutial Architecture. The Crutial Architecture definition, first addressed in Crutial Project Technical Report D4 (January 2007), intends to reply to a grand challenge of computer science and control engineering: how to achieve resilience of critical information infrastructures, in particular in the electrical sector. The definitions herein elaborate on the major architectural options and components establ...

  9. Studying Media Access andControl Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Alalelddin Fuad Yousif

    2010-01-01

    This thesis project’s goal is to enable undergraduate students to gain insight into media access and control protocols based upon carrying out laboratory experiments. The educational goal is to de-mystifying radio and other link and physical layer communication technologies as the students can follow packets from the higher layers down through the physical layer and back up again. The thesis fills the gap between the existing documentation for the Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) re...

  10. Cognitive Radio MAC Protocol for WLAN

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, Frank H. P.; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2008-01-01

    To solve the performance degradation issue in current WLAN caused by the crowded unlicensed spectrum, we propose a cognitive radio (CR) media access protocol, C-CSMA/CA. The basic idea is that with cognitive radio techniques the WLAN devices can not only access the legacy WLAN unlicensed spectrum but opportunistically access any other under-utilized licensed spectrum without a license. The application scenario of C-CSMA/CA is infrastructure BSS (Basic Service Set) WLAN. C-CSMA/CA efficiently ...

  11. A New Secure Pairing Protocol using Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Buhan, I.R.

    2008-01-01

    Secure Pairing enables two devices, which share no prior context with each other, to agree upon a security association that they can use to protect their subsequent communication. Secure pairing offers guarantees of the association partner identity and it should be resistant to eavesdropping or to a man-in-the-middle attack. We propose a user friendly solution to this problem. Keys extracted from biometric data of the participants are used for authentication. Details of the pairing protocol a...

  12. DATA PROVENANCE IN PHOTOGRAMMETRY THROUGH DOCUMENTATION PROTOCOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Carboni, N.; G. Bruseker; A. Guillem; Bellido Castañeda, D.; Coughenour, C.; Domajnko, M.; Kramer, M.; Ramos Calles, M. M.; E. K. Stathopoulou; R Suma

    2016-01-01

    Documenting the relevant aspects in digitisation processes such as photogrammetry in order to provide a robust provenance for their products continues to present a challenge. The creation of a product that can be re-used scientifically requires a framework for consistent, standardised documentation of the entire digitisation pipeline. This article provides an analysis of the problems inherent to such goals and presents a series of protocols to document the various steps of a photogra...

  13. Behavior Protocols Capturing Errors and Updates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, Jiří; Plášil, František

    Bonn : University of Bonn, 2003 - (Constanza, P.; Kniesel, G.), s. 17-25 [USE'03. International Workshop on Unanticipated Software Evolution /2./. Warsaw (PL), 05.04.2003-06.04.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2030902; GA ČR GA201/03/0911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : software components * composition errors * behavior protocols Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  14. The Groningen Protocol - the Jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Steinberg, Avraham; Blazer, Shraga; Jotkowitz, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Despite significant advances in neonatology, there will always be newborns with serious life-threatening conditions creating most difficult bioethical dilemmas. Active euthanasia for adult patients is one of the most controversial bioethical questions; for severely ill neonates, the issue is even more complex, due to their inability to take part in any decision concerning their future. The Groningen Protocol introduced in 2005 by P.J. Sauer proposes criteria allowing active euthanasia for severely ill, not necessarily terminal, newborns with incurable conditions and poor quality of life in order to spare them unbearable suffering. We discuss the ethical dilemma and ideological foundations of the protocol, the opinions of its defenders and critics, and the dangers involved. The Jewish perspective relating to the subject is presented based on classical Jewish sources, which we trust may enrich modern bioethical debates. In Jewish law, the fetus acquires full legal status only after birth. However, while the lives of terminally ill neonates must in no way be actively destroyed or shortened, there is no obligation to make extraordinary efforts to prolong their lives. Accurate preimplantation or prenatal diagnosis might significantly reduce the incidence of nonviable births, but active killing of infants violates the basic foundations of Jewish law, and opens the 'slippery slope' for uncontrolled abuse. Therefore, we call upon the international medical and bioethical community to reject the Groningen Protocol that permits euthanization and to develop ethical guidelines for the optimal care of severely compromised neonates. PMID:19176977

  15. Application Protocol Design for Collaborative Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joung-Souk Sung

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This presentation will describe the effort to construct an effective educational support environment and to develop meaningful educational applications, This system is a framework supporting interactive collaboration which enables both teachers and students to interact in real-time from remote sites. The purpose of this collaboration is to bring interactive multimedia learning in real-time. In order to induce collaborative learning, this paperproposes protocol design process that shares knowledge awareness information for learning environments. The protocol helps learner to mediate and recognize collaborators in the shared knowledge space. We are developing an open-ended collaborative learning supportsystem, which is called prototype system for protocol design, and facilities to share individual knowledge and to learn through collaboration. This system architecture can be viewed asdivided in four logical parts: the infrastructure, the service functions, the advanced service functions and the application. The session management is creates/destroys the sessions and performs the functions controlling the QOS by detaching the network load. Session manager include: session control, floor control, media instance control, packet interpreter, event interpreter, media server instance, media interface, network interface private applicationinterface and media server control.

  16. Review of monitoring protocols for dispersant effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispersant applications to an oil spill were monitored to determine their effectiveness. Current protocols consist of some visual criteria or a surface monitoring program using in-situ fluorometers to gauge the relative effectiveness of dispersant application. However, this study shows that there are many false positives and false negatives with these monitoring techniques. The problem can be addressed to some degree, by paying attention to the science and technology. The current published methods such as SMART and the SERVS protocols do not necessarily assure that effectiveness is accurately gauged. It was also argued that current protocols are very limited by basic physical and chemical problems, and therefore can only supply estimates as to the effectiveness of dispersant application. It was recommended that a screening test of the dispersant effectiveness be conducted before any test application of dispersants. The test should indicate a dispersion of approximately one-half of the oil. It was also suggested that since visual methods are the the main monitoring method, more work is needed to produce visual monitoring guidelines and visual aids. It was also suggested that monitoring of oil concentrations in the water column would provide valuable scientific information. 52 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  17. VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL (VOIP: FUTURE POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Kumari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available VoIP (voice over IP delivers standard voice over telephone services over Internet Protocol (IP. VoIP is the technology of digitizing sound, compressing it, breaking it up into data packets, and sending it over an IP (internet protocol network where it is reassembled, decompressed, and converted back into an analog wave form. Gateways are the key component required to facilitate IP Telephony. A gateway is used to bridge the traditional circuit switched PSTN with the packet switched Internet. The paper covers software, hardware and protocol requirements followed by weighing the VoIP advantages such as low cost, portability, free and advanced features, bandwidth efficiency, call recording and monitoring against the VoIP disadvantages such as power dependency, quality of voice and service, security, and reliability. With ever increasing internet penetration and better broadband connectivity, VoIP is going to expand further with businesses already using VoIP standalone or in a hybrid format, although our focus and scope here remains VoIP. Mobile VoIP, an infant with less than 4% market share, has so far been focusing on increasing active subscriptions without a sustainable revenue model, but has the potential and is going to see tussle with static VoIP for space in days ahead.

  18. Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP: Future Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Deepti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available VoIP (voice over IP delivers standard voice over telephone services over Internet Protocol (IP. VoIP is the technology of digitizing sound, compressing it, breaking it up into data packets, and sending it over an IP (internet protocol network where it is reassembled, decompressed, and converted back into an analog wave form. Gateways are the key component required to facilitate IP Telephony. A gateway is used to bridge the traditional circuit switched PSTN with the packet switched Internet. The paper covers software, hardware and protocol requirements followed by weighing the VoIP advantages such as low cost, portability, free and advanced features, bandwidth efficiency, call recording and monitoring against the VoIP disadvantages such as power dependency, quality of voice and service, security, and reliability. With ever increasing internet penetration and better broadband connectivity, VoIP is going to expand further with businesses already using VoIP standalone or in a hybrid format, although our focus and scope here remains VoIP. Mobile VoIP, an infant with less than 4% market share, has so far been focusing on increasing active subscriptions without a sustainable revenue model, but has the potential and is going to see tussle with static VoIP for space in days ahead.

  19. Nuclear energy and the Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the application of its 'flexible mechanisms' are at the forefront of energy policy debates in most OECD countries. The potential role of nuclear energy in this context is viewed very differently and assessed against various criteria by the range of stakeholders in governments and civil society according to their interests and priorities. This book provides key facts concerning nuclear energy and the Kyoto Protocol. It highlights the challenges and opportunities for the future development of nuclear energy in the context of implementing the Kyoto Protocol, and more broadly in alleviating the risks of global climate change. The report will be of interest to energy policy makers and senior experts in the field as well as to members of civil society eager to better understand the issues raised within the debate on the role of nuclear energy in sustainable development. It will assists in making the necessary trade-off involved in addressing global climate change concerns. (authors)

  20. Analyzing Interoperability of Protocols Using Model Checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUPeng

    2005-01-01

    In practical terms, protocol interoperability testing is still laborious and error-prone with little effect, even for those products that have passed conformance testing. Deadlock and unsymmetrical data communication are familiar in interoperability testing, and it is always very hard to trace their causes. The previous work has not provided a coherent way to analyze why the interoperability was broken among protocol implementations under test. In this paper, an alternative approach is presented to analyzing these problems from a viewpoint of implementation structures. Sequential and concurrent structures are both representative implementation structures, especially in event-driven development model. Our research mainly discusses the influence of sequential and concurrent structures on interoperability, with two instructive conclusions: (a) a sequential structure may lead to deadlock; (b) a concurrent structure may lead to unsymmetrical data communication. Therefore, implementation structures carry weight on interoperability, which may not gain much attention before. To some extent, they are decisive on the result of interoperability testing. Moreover, a concurrent structure with a sound task-scheduling strategy may contribute to the interoperability of a protocol implementation. Herein model checking technique is introduced into interoperability analysis for the first time. As the paper shows, it is an effective way to validate developers' selections on implementation structures or strategies.