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Sample records for bispectral index-guided protocol

  1. Protocol for the BAG-RECALL clinical trial: a prospective, multi-center, randomized, controlled trial to determine whether a bispectral index-guided protocol is superior to an anesthesia gas-guided protocol in reducing intraoperative awareness with explicit recall in high risk surgical patients

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    Villafranca Alex

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness with explicit recall of intra-operative events is a rare and distressing complication that may lead to severe psychological symptoms. Candidate depth of anesthesia monitors have been developed, partly with the aim of preventing this complication. Despite conflicting results from clinical trials and the lack of incisive validation, such monitors have enjoyed widespread clinical adoption, in particular the bispectral index. The American Society of Anesthesiologists has called for adequately powered and rigorously designed clinical trials to determine whether the use of such monitors decreases the incidence of awareness in various settings. The aim of this study is to determine with increased precision whether incorporating the bispectral index into a structured general anesthesia protocol decreases the incidence of awareness with explicit recall among a subset of surgical patients at increased risk for awareness and scheduled to receive an inhalation gas-based general anesthetic. Methods/Design BAG-RECALL is a multi-center, randomized, controlled clinical trial, in which 6,000 patients are being assigned to bispectral index-guided anesthesia (target range, 40 to 60 or end-tidal anesthetic gas-guided anesthesia (target range, 0.7 to 1.3 age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentration. Postoperatively, patients are being assessed for explicit recall at two intervals (0 to 72 hours, and 30 days after extubation. The primary outcome of the trial is awareness with explicit recall. Secondary outcomes include postoperative mortality, psychological symptoms, intensive care and hospital length of stay, average anesthetic gas administration, postoperative pain and nausea and vomiting, duration of stay in the recovery area, intra-operative dreaming, and postoperative delirium. Discussion This trial has been designed to complement two other clinical trials: B-Unaware and MACS (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00281489 and NCT00689091

  2. Bispectral index-guided anaesthesia for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Muralidhar Kanchi; Banakal Sanjay; Murthy Keshav; Garg Rajneesh; Rani G; Dinesh R

    2008-01-01

    Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring may assist reduction in utilisation of anaesthetic agents during general surgical procedures. This study was designed to test whether the use of BIS monitoring reduces the anaesthetic requirements during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This prospective - clinical trial was conducted on 40 adult patients undergoing elective off-pump CABG. Patients received either isoflurane or propofol anaesthesia. BIS monitoring, which guided the dose of anae...

  3. Feasibility of bispectral index-guided propofol infusion for flexible bronchoscopy sedation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lun Lo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There are safety issues associated with propofol use for flexible bronchoscopy (FB. The bispectral index (BIS correlates well with the level of consciousness. The aim of this study was to show that BIS-guided propofol infusion is safe and may provide better sedation, benefiting the patients and bronchoscopists. METHODS: After administering alfentanil bolus, 500 patients were randomized to either propofol infusion titrated to a BIS level of 65-75 (study group or incremental midazolam bolus based on clinical judgment to achieve moderate sedation. The primary endpoint was safety, while the secondary endpoints were recovery time, patient tolerance, and cooperation. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with hypoxemia or hypotensive events were not different in the 2 groups (study vs. control groups: 39.9% vs. 35.7%, p = 0.340; 7.4% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.159, respectively. The mean lowest blood pressure was lower in the study group. Logistic regression revealed male gender, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, and electrocautery were associated with hypoxemia, whereas lower propofol dose for induction was associated with hypotension in the study group. The study group had better global tolerance (p<0.001, less procedural interference by movement or cough (13.6% vs. 36.1%, p<0.001; 30.0% vs. 44.2%, p = 0.001, respectively, and shorter time to orientation and ambulation (11.7±10.2 min vs. 29.7±26.8 min, p<0.001; 30.0±18.2 min vs. 55.7±40.6 min, p<0.001, respectively compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: BIS-guided propofol infusion combined with alfentanil for FB sedation provides excellent patient tolerance, with fast recovery and less procedure interference. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials. gov NCT00789815.

  4. Bispectral index-guided anaesthesia for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar Kanchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bispectral index (BIS monitoring may assist reduction in utilisation of anaesthetic agents during general surgical procedures. This study was designed to test whether the use of BIS monitoring reduces the anaesthetic requirements during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. This prospective - clinical trial was conducted on 40 adult patients undergoing elective off-pump CABG. Patients received either isoflurane or propofol anaesthesia. BIS monitoring, which guided the dose of anaesthetic, was carried out in 50 percent of the patients. The amount of anaesthetic agent (isoflurane or propofol administered from the start of anaesthesia to the end of surgical procedure was calculated and were compared in four groups of patients - namely Group A (I-no BIS received isoflurane; end tidal concentration was maintained at 1-1.2% in a low flow technique throughout the procedure, Group B (I-BIS received isoflurane in a low flow technique; inspired concentration was dictated by BIS value maintained at 50; Group C (P-no BIS received propofol at a dose range of 4-8 mg/kg/hr and in Group D(P-BIS the propofol infusion rate was dictated by BIS value maintained at 50. The quantity of isoflurane was significantly less for Group B (I-BIS as compared with Group A (I-no BIS (37 ± 4 vs. 24 ± 4 ml; p< 0.05 and similarly the amount of propofol infused was significantly less in Group D (P-BIS as compared with Group C (P-no BIS (176 ± 9 vs. 120 ± 6 ml; p< 0.05. BIS guided anaesthesia reduces the anaesthetic agent required for the performance of off-pump CABG. This can be extrapolated in terms of saving agent and reduced cardiac depression during off-pump CABG.

  5. Clinical vs. bispectral index-guided propofol induction of anesthesia: A comparative study

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    Snehdeep Arya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinically optimized focusing of drug administration to specific need of patient with bispectral index (BIS monitoring results in reduced dose and faster recovery of consciousness. This study was planned with an aim to study and compare the conventional clinical end point or BIS on the requirement of dosage of propofol, hemodynamic effects, and BIS alterations following propofol induction. Methods: 70 patients, ASA I and II, 20-60 years undergoing elective surgical procedure under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were selected and divided into two groups. Group A received (inj. fentanyl (2 μg/kg, followed 3 min later by inj. propofol at the rate of 30 mg/kg/hr infusion till the loss of response to verbal command while group B received inj. fentanyl (2 μg/kg, followed 3 min later by inj. propofol at the rate of 30 mg/kg/hr infusion. The end point of hypnosis was when the BIS value was sustained for 1 min at 48±2. The patients were intubated. Total induction dose of propofol was noted in each group. The value of BIS and hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, systolic/diastolic blood pressure were noted at the time of loss of consciousness, at the time of intubation, and 1 min after intubation, thereafter every minute for first 10 min and thereafter every 10 min till end of surgery. Any involuntary muscle activity such as jerky movements, dystonic posturing, and opisthotonos were also recorded. Results: The mean dose of propofol used in groups A and B were 1.85±0.48 mg/kg and 1.79±0.41 mg/kg, respectively. The dosage used in group B were less but not clinically significant (P=0.575. On comparing the dosage of propofol in males among the groups there was a significantly lower dosage of propofol required in group B (2.06±0.45 mg/kg and 1.83±0.32 mg/kg, respectively, P=0.016. This decrease however was not seen in female patients dosage being 1.65±0.44 mg/kg and 1.75±0.49 mg/kg, respectively (P=0.372. The hemodynamic

  6. Bispectral index-guided intraoperative sedation with dexmedetomidine and midazolam infusion in orthopaedic surgery of lower limbs%脑电双频指数引导下右美托咪啶和咪达唑仑用于下肢手术镇静的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵一凡; 陈倩茹; 胡楚文; 曹铭辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare and evaluate the effect and safety of dexmedetomidine(DEX) and midazolam sedation in lower limbs orthopaedic surgery. Methods Fifty-two patients undergoing lower limbs surgery were randomly assigned to group D (n=27,DEX, 0.5 μg·kg-1·h-1, loading dose 0.5 μg/kg) and group M(n=25, midazolam, 50 μg·kg-1·h-1, loading dose 30 μg/kg). An infusion was administered after mounting a bispectral index (BIS) monitor under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. The target BIS level was≤85. An additional bolus dose of the study drug or cessation of the infusion was adjusted according to the BIS level, and the change should be recorded. Respiratory rates (RR), heart rate (HR), pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were continually monitored. Sedation should be evaluated according to the Ramsay sedation scale(RSS) before the drug withdrawal. Results HR was lower in group D (72±7) bpm than that in group M (83±8) bpm (P0.05).两组的停药前RSS评分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).D组有6例、M组有7例需要进行剂量调整.另外,M组有5例因舌后坠致SpO2下降需托下颌处理,D组无类似情况.结论 DEX用于骨科下肢手术镇静可引起HR减慢但对血压无明显影响;在相同的镇静程度下,DEX比咪达唑仑更有利丁维持呼吸道通畅,可能更适用于该类手术的镇静.

  7. General methods for constructing bispectral operators

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalov, B N; Yakimov, M T

    1996-01-01

    We present methods for obtaining new solutions to the bispectral problem. We achieve this by giving its abstract algebraic version suitable for generalizations. All methods are illustrated by new classes of bispectral operators.

  8. Bispectral algebras of commuting ordinary differential operators

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalov, B N; Yakimov, M T

    1997-01-01

    We develop a systematic way for constructing bispectral algebras of commuting ordinary differential operators of any rank N. It enables us to obtain all previously known classes or examples of bispectral operators. The suggested method is completely algorithmic, which allows us to present explicitly new examples. We conjecture that the class built in the present paper exhausts all bispectral scalar operators. This paper is the third of a series of papers (hep-th/9510211, q-alg/9602010, q-alg/9602012) on the bispectral problem.

  9. Bragg gratings in index-guiding photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishede, Jesper; Hougaard, Kristian G.; Libori, S.E. Barkou;

    2002-01-01

    A numerical investigation of coupling coefficients of Bragg-gratings in index-guiding photonic crystal fibres is presented. It is shown that index-guiding photonic crystal fibres have larger coupling coefficients for fibres with small core areas than step-index fibres.......A numerical investigation of coupling coefficients of Bragg-gratings in index-guiding photonic crystal fibres is presented. It is shown that index-guiding photonic crystal fibres have larger coupling coefficients for fibres with small core areas than step-index fibres....

  10. Highest weight modules of W$_{1+\\infty}$, Darboux transformations and the bispectral problem

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalov, B N; Yakimov, M T

    1996-01-01

    We announce a systematic way for constructing bispectral algebras of commuting differential operators of any rank N. It enables us to obtain all previously known classes and examples of bispectral operators. Moreover, we give a representation-theoretic explanation of the results including those of Duistermaat and Gr\\"unbaum. The manifold of bispectral operators of any order is preserved by an hierarchy of symmetries. We point out that our methods provide a completely algorithmic procedure for obtaining bispectral algebras. We conjecture that the class built in the present paper exhausts all bispectral scalar operators. The proofs and details will appear in our subsequent papers.

  11. Bispectral Index Monitoring in Guillain Barre Syndrome with Dysautonomia

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Sharma; Virendra Jain; Rath, Girija P; Parmod K Bithal

    2008-01-01

    Bispectral index (BIS) is commonly used as an index of depth of anaesthesia and sedation. BIS can provide an additional benefit in detecting a critical neurological event, especially if the change of neurological status is caused by the critical illness itself. We encountered such an incident where the BIS value was decreased in a patient with Guillain Barre Syndrome, possibly due to cerebral hypoperfusion. The present report emphasises that BIS can be used not only as an indicator of cerebra...

  12. The Utility of Bispectral Index for Titration of Propofol Dosages and Recovery from Anaesthesia

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    Heena Parikh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of clinical signs may not be reliable to measure the hypnotic component of anaesthesia. Bispectral Index monitoring provides a direct measurement of the hypnotic effect of the anaesthetic agent used and it may have certain clinical advantages over clinical signs. Objective: This study consists of dose requirement of propofol with bispectral Index monitoring and without bispectral Index monitoring. Material and Methods: In the present study, 100 patients were randomly divided into two groups (50 in each group, one group received Standard dose of propofol while the other received propofol infusion with BIS monitoring. Results: Mean amount of propofol for induction used was 1.6 vs 2.24 mg/kg in bispectral index group and standard group respectively. The inference was that the induction dose of propofol by Bispectral index and by standard practice was statistically highly significant with P<0.001. Similarly mean amount of propofol for maintenance used was 5.70 vs 8.88 mg/kg/hr in bispectral index group and standard group respectively. The inference was that the maintenance dose of propofol by Bispectral index and by standard practice was statistically highly significant with P<0.001. Conclusion: Dose requirement of propofol was less and early recovery from anesthesia with bispectral Index monitoring. [Natl J of Med Res 2012; 2(4.000: 484-487

  13. Bi-spectral extraction through elliptic neutron guides

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    Jacobsen, Henrik, E-mail: hjacobse@fys.ku.dk [Nanoscience center and eScience center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); ESS design update program (Denmark); Lieutenant, Klaus; Zendler, Carolin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); ESS design update program (Germany); Lefmann, Kim [Nanoscience center and eScience center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); ESS design update program (Denmark)

    2013-07-21

    In this paper we present the results of investigating a suggested guide extraction system utilizing both a thermal and a cold moderator at the same time, the so-called bi-spectral extraction. Here, the thermal moderator has line of sight to the sample position, and the neutrons from the cold source are reflected by a supermirror towards the sample. The work is motivated by the construction of the European Spallation Source (ESS) but the results are general and can be used at any neutron source. Due to the long pulse structure, most instruments at ESS will be long, often exceeding 50 m from moderator to detector. We therefore investigate the performance of bi-spectral extraction for instrument lengths of 30 m, 56 m, 81 m and 156 m. In all these cases, our results show that we can utilize both moderators (and thus high intensity in a wide wavelength band) in the same instrument at a cost of flux of 5–30% for neutrons with wavelength larger than 1 Å. In general, the divergence distribution is smooth at the sample position for all wavelengths. -- Highlights: • We simulate bi-spectral neutron beam extraction through elliptic guides. • Two independent ray-tracing tools (McStas and VITESS) give similar results. • Brilliance transfers of 70–95% for λ>1Å are achieved for guide lengths of 30–156 m. • The beam profile is smooth at the sample position. • The simulations are performed with ESS in mind, but have general validity.

  14. Bispectral Index Monitoring in Guillain Barre Syndrome with Dysautonomia

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    Deepak Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bispectral index (BIS is commonly used as an index of depth of anaesthesia and sedation. BIS can provide an additional benefit in detecting a critical neurological event, especially if the change of neurological status is caused by the critical illness itself. We encountered such an incident where the BIS value was decreased in a patient with Guillain Barre Syndrome, possibly due to cerebral hypoperfusion. The present report emphasises that BIS can be used not only as an indicator of cerebral ischaemia, but also as a tool to judge adequacy and efficacy of interventions targeted to restore the same.

  15. Highest weight modules over W$_{1+\\infty}$ algebra and the bispectral problem

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalov, B N; Yakimov, M T

    1996-01-01

    The present paper establishes a connection between the Lie algebra W_{1+infty} and the bispectral problem. We show that the manifolds of bispectral operators obtained by Darboux transformations on powers of Bessel operators are in one to one correspondence with the manifolds of tau-functions lying in the W_{1+infty}-modules M_beta introduced in our previous paper hep-th/9510211. An immediate corollary is that they are preserved by hierarchies of symmetries generated by subalgebras of W_{1+infty}. This paper is the last of a series of papers (hep-th/9510211, q-alg/9602010, q-alg/9602011) on the bispectral problem.

  16. Auditory information processing during adequate propofol anesthesia monitored by electroencephalogram bispectral index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kerssens (Chantal); J. Klein (Jan); A. van der Woerd; B. Bonke (Benno)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMemory for intraoperative events may arise from inadequate anesthesia when the hypnotic state is not continuously monitored. Electroencephalogram bispectral index (BIS) enables monitoring of the hypnotic state and titration of anesthesia to an adequate level

  17. Bispectral Index Monitoring: validity and utility in pediatric dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ashima; Mittal, Neeti; Mittal, Parteek; Gauba, K

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and safe provision of sedation and general anesthesia is dependent on continuous vigilance of patient's sedation depth. Failure to do so may result in unintended oversedation or undersedation. It is a common practice to observe sedation depth by applying subjective sedation scales and in case of general anesthesia, practitioner is dependent on vital sign assessment. The Bispectral Index System (BIS) is a recently introduced objective, quantitative, easy to use, and free from observer bias, and clinically useful tool to assess sedation depth and it precludes the need to stimulate the patient to assess his sedation level. The present article is an attempt to orient the readers towards utility and validity of BIS for sedation and general anesthesia in pediatric dentistry. In this article, we attempt to make the readers understand the principle of BIS, its variation across sedation continuum, its validity across different age groups and for a variety of sedative drugs.

  18. Design of low-confinement-loss and highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fang-di; XU Zheng-kai; YE Pei-da

    2008-01-01

    We present a systematic scheme to achieve both high birefringence and low confinement loss in index-guiding photonic crystal fibers (PCFs),using a structurally-simple PCF with finite number of air holes in the cladding region.By increasing the size of the outermost-ring air holes in the cladding region,highly birefringent PCFs with low confinement loss can be successfully achieved.The design strategy is based on the fact that the modal birefringence of PCFs is dominated by the inner-ring air holes in PCF,which is verified by a full-vector finite element method with anisotropic perfectly matched layers.Numerical results show that modal birefringence in the order of 10.3 and confinement loss less than 0.1 dB/km can be easily realized in the proposed PCF with only four rings of air holes in the cladding region.We expect that such fibers will be much easier to be fabvicated than those with more air holes in the cladding region.

  19. Bispectral methods of signal processing applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Totsky, Alexander V; Kravchenko, Victor F

    2015-01-01

    By studying applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration, this monograph discusses signal processing techniques based on bispectral methods. Improved robustness against different forms of noise as well as preservation of phase information render this method a valuable alternative to common power-spectrum analysis used in radar object recognition, digital wireless communications, and jitter removal in images.

  20. Bispectral experimental estimation of the nonlinear energy transfer in two-dimensional plasma turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manz, P.; Ramisch, M.; Stroth, U.;

    2008-01-01

    Experimental density and potential fluctuation data from a 2D probe array have been analysed to study the turbulent cascade in a toroidally confined magnetized plasma. The bispectral analysis technique used is from Ritz et al ( 1989 Phys. Fluids B 1 153) and Kim et al ( 1996 Phys. Plasmas 3 3998...

  1. Entropy and bispectral index for assessment of sedation, analgesia and the effects of unpleasant stimuli in critically ill patients: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenggi, Matthias; Ypparila-Wolters, Heidi; Bieri, Christine; Steiner, Carola; Takala, Jukka; Korhonen, Ilkka; Jakob, Stephan M

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Sedative and analgesic drugs are frequently used in critically ill patients. Their overuse may prolong mechanical ventilation and length of stay in the intensive care unit. Guidelines recommend use of sedation protocols that include sedation scores and trials of sedation cessation to minimize drug use. We evaluated processed electroencephalography (response and state entropy and bispectral index) as an adjunct to monitoring effects of commonly used sedative and analgesic drugs and intratracheal suctioning. Methods Electrodes for monitoring bispectral index and entropy were placed on the foreheads of 44 critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation and who previously had no brain dysfunction. Sedation was targeted individually using the Ramsay Sedation Scale, recorded every 2 hours or more frequently. Use of and indications for sedative and analgesic drugs and intratracheal suctioning were recorded manually and using a camera. At the end of the study, processed electroencephalographical and haemodynamic variables collected before and after each drug application and tracheal suctioning were analyzed. Ramsay score was used for comparison with processed electroencephalography when assessed within 15 minutes of an intervention. Results The indications for boli of sedative drugs exhibited statistically significant, albeit clinically irrelevant, differences in terms of their association with processed electroencephalographical parameters. Electroencephalographical variables decreased significantly after bolus, but a specific pattern in electroencephalographical variables before drug administration was not identified. The same was true for opiate administration. At both 30 minutes and 2 minutes before intratracheal suctioning, there was no difference in electroencephalographical or clinical signs in patients who had or had not received drugs 10 minutes before suctioning. Among patients who received drugs, electroencephalographical parameters

  2. Usefulness of the bispectral index during cardiopulmonary resuscitation -A case report-

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jin Yong; Kim, Yeonbaek; Kim, Jung-Eun

    2013-01-01

    The usefulness of using the bispectral index (BIS) for monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is not clearly understood. However, BIS has been a popular anesthetic monitoring device used during operations. The case presented is of a pregnant woman going into cardiac arrest due to an amniotic fluid embolism during a Cesarean section. CPR was performed, but neither the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) nor the return of consciousness was achieved, despite 50 min of effecti...

  3. Evaluation of the Adequacy of General Anesthesia in Cesarean Section by Bispectral Index

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Mohammad Reza Hadavi; Elaheh Allahyary; Saman Asadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Awareness and recall, though not common, are the major hazards of general anesthesia, especially in Cesarean section (C/S) because of the absence of benzodiazepine and opioids for a significant time during anesthesia. In this study, the Bispectral Index (BIS), end-tidal isoflurane, and hemodynamic parameters were examined to evaluate the depth of the routine general anesthetic technique in C/S. Methods: This study was carried out on 60 parturient patients undergoing elective C/...

  4. The effect of aging on bispectral index before and after sedation: a prospective study

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    Mahoori A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The Bispectral Index (BIS is an EEG-derived value that measures the sedative and hypnotic component of the anesthetic state. The effects of age on the bispectral index have not been well documented. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of age on hypnotic requirement and bispectral index in awake and in patients with sedation induced by midazolam. "n"nMethods: Eighty patients were enrolled in this prospective observational study. The patients in study group were aged more than 70 years, and the age in control group ranged 20-40 years. Baseline recording of BIS was taken in awake patients in two groups for few minutes. Five minutes after administration of 0.02 mg/kg IV midazolam the BIS value also was taken and recorded. "n"nResults: In the study group, patients had a mean base BIS 94±3 compared with 97.3±1 in the control group (p< 0.0001. Five minutes after administration of 0.02 mg/kg midazolam the value were 80.9±6 and 90.4±3 respectively (p< 0.0001. "n"nConclusion: When BIS is used as a monitor of hypnosis in the elderly, we recommend that a baseline recording be taken before induction for a few minutes to alert the anesthesia provider to the possibility of low initial values. Further studies are needed to verify if the recommended range of 50-60 of BIS during clinical anesthesia is also adequate in the elderly with low initial baseline BIS or if this range needs adjusting in view of reduced initial BIS value.

  5. Quando o índice bispectral (BIS pode fornecer valores espúrios Cuando el índice bispectral (BIS puede suministrar valores falsos When the bispectral index (Bis can give false results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Teixeira Domingues Duarte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O índice bispectral (BIS é um parâmetro multifatorial derivado do eletroencefalograma (EEG que permite a monitorização do componente hipnótico da anestesia. Foi obtido a partir de algoritmo derivado da análise de grande número de EEGs de voluntários e pacientes submetidos a sedações e anestesia geral com diferentes agentes anestésicos. Além de outros benefícios, o uso do BIS para monitorização da profundidade da anestesia reduz a ocorrência de despertar e memória intra-operatória. Esta revisão teve o objetivo de apresentar situações clínicas em que o BIS aponta valores espúrios, falsamente elevados ou reduzidos, em decorrência de condições do paciente ou ações de anestésicos não-previstos quando da elaboração do seu algoritmo. CONTEÚDO: Os valores do BIS podem sofrer alteração e influência em variadas situações clínicas em que há padrões anormais do EEG; efeito de diferentes anestésicos e outros fármacos não-incluídos na elaboração de seu algoritmo; interferência de equipamentos elétricos; bem como decorrentes de peculiaridades do monitor. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de o algoritmo do BIS ter sofrido diversas alterações desde a sua primeira versão, essas situações que determinam variações espúrias dos valores do BIS devem ser reconhecidas pelo anestesiologista a fim de evitar complicações, sejam conseqüentes à sobredose anestésica, sejam por subdoses que poderão causar despertar e memória intra-operatória.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El índice bispectral (BIS es un parámetro multifactorial derivado del electroencefalograma (EEG, que permite la monitorización del componente hipnótico de la anestesia. Fue obtenido a partir de algoritmo derivado del análisis de un gran número de EEG de voluntarios y pacientes sometidos a sedaciones y anestesia general con diferentes agentes anestésicos. Además de otros beneficios, el uso del BIS para la monitorización de la

  6. Comparative pharmacodynamic modeling using bispectral and narcotrend-index with and without a pharmacodynamic plateau during sevoflurane anesthesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreuer, S.; Bruhn, J.; Walter, E.; Larsen, R.; Apfel, C.C.; Grundmann, U.; Biedler, A.; Wilhelm, W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We compared two pharmacodynamic models, one with and one without a plateau effect. Bispectral indices (BIS, Aspect Medical Systems, Natick, MA, version XP) and Narcotrend (NCT, MonitorTechnik, Bad Bramstedt, Germany, version 4.0) were used as an electroencephalographic measure of sevoflu

  7. Comparison of relative oxycodone consumption in surgical pleth index-guided analgesia versus conventional analgesia during sevoflurane anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Young Ju; Lim, Byung Gun; Lee, So Hyun; Park, Sangwoo; Kim, Heezoo; Lee, Il Ok; Kong, Myoung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The surgical pleth index (SPI) is proposed for titration of analgesic drugs during general anesthesia. Several reports have investigated the effect of SPI on the consumption of opioids including remifentanil, fentanyl, and sufentanil during anesthesia, but there are no reports about oxycodone. We aimed to investigate intravenous oxycodone consumption between SPI-guided analgesia and conventional analgesia practices during sevoflurane anesthesia in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Methods: Forty-five patients undergoing elective thyroidectomy were randomly assigned to an SPI group (SPI-guided analgesia group, n = 23) or a control group (conventional analgesia group, n = 22). Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane to achieve bispectral index values between 40 and 60. In the SPI group, oxycodone 1 mg was administered intravenously at SPI values over 50; in the control group, oxycodone 1 mg was administered intravenously at the occurrence of tachycardia or hypertension event. Intraoperative oxycodone consumption and extubation time were recorded. The number of hemodynamic and somatic movement events was recorded, as were postoperative pain and recovery scores. Results: Patients’ characteristics were comparable between the groups. Intraoperative oxycodone consumption in the SPI group was significantly lower than the control group (3.5 ± 2.4 vs 5.1 ± 2.4 mg; P = 0.012). Extubation time was significantly shorter in the SPI group (10.6 ± 3.5 vs 13.4 ± 4.6 min; P = 0.026). Hemodynamic and somatic movement events during anesthesia were comparable between the groups, as were numeric rating scales for pain and modified Aldrete scores at postanesthesia care unit. Conclusions: SPI-guided analgesia reduces intravenous oxycodone consumption and extubation time compared with conventional analgesia based on clinical parameters during sevoflurane anesthesia in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. PMID:27583920

  8. Bispectral index monitoring prevent awareness during total intravenous anesthesia: a prospective, randomized,double-blinded, multi-center controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chen; GUO Jian-rong; JIN Yao-jun; WU Gang; YUAN Wei; YUAN Zhi-guo; YUE Yun; XU Liang; MA Ya-qun; SUN Yan-xia; LI Yan-hong; ZHANG Liang; FENG Chun-sheng; LUO Bing; ZHAO Zhen-long

    2011-01-01

    Background Awareness is a serious complication of general anesthesia.In China,the incidence of intraoperative awareness was 1% in patients undergoing total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA).In this study,we compared the incidence of awareness between Bispectral index (BIS)-guided and routine TIVA protocol and evaluated the effect of BIS on preventing awareness.Methods A prospective,randomized,double-blinded,multicenter controlled trial was performed.Patients (≥18 years of age) undergoing TIVA were randomly divided into BIS-guided group (Group A,BIS was monitored and recommended to maintain between 40-60) and control group (Group B,BIS was monitored but the screen was covered).The intraoperative BIS values were downloaded and the BIS trends of confirmed awareness cases were analyzed to determine whether light anesthesia existed.Results Of the total 5228 patients,2919 patients were assigned to Group A and 2309 to Group B.Four cases of confirmed awareness (0.14%) were reported in the BIS-guided group and 15 (0.65%) in the control group (P=0.002,OR=0.21,95% confidence intervals:0.07-0.63).The incidence of possible awareness (0.14% vs.0.26%,P=0.485) and dreaming (3.1% vs.3.1%,P=0.986) was comparable between BIS-guided group and the control group.Among the 19 confirmed awareness cases,intraoperative BIS trends of six cases were downloaded and identified.Five of them showed signs of light anesthesia as BIS >60 and lasted 19-106 minutes,whereas one case had a stable BIS trend and the values were within 60 during the operation.Another five awareness cases were reviewed for anesthesia procedures,of which improper light anesthesia were confirmed.Conclusions BIS-guided TIVA (BIS was recommended to maintain between 40-60) decreased the risk of awareness compared with routine TIVA.The main reason for awareness was light anesthesia.

  9. Relationship of bispectral index to hemodynamic variables and alveolar concentration multiples of sevoflurane in puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgaz, J; Granados, M M; Domínguez, J M; Navarrete, R; Galán, A; Fernández, J A; Gómez-Villamandos, R J

    2009-06-01

    The relationships between bispectral index (BIS), cardiovascular variables and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) multiples of sevoflurane in puppies were determined. Five puppies were anesthetized with sevoflurane on two occasions. First, the individual sevoflurane MAC values were determined for each puppy. Secondly, dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane at each of 5 MAC multiples, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5 and 1.75 MAC administered in random order. Hemodynamic parameters and BIS data were collected for 20min. Somatic stimulus was then applied and the same parameters and data were collected for 6min. Correlation between BIS and end tidal sevoflurane and between BIS and hemodynamic parameters were studied. We found positive significant correlation in both cases. BIS is lower in puppies that in adults at the same alveolar anesthetic concentrations and sevoflurane appears to be a safe anesthetic in puppies.

  10. Capnography and the Bispectral Index—Their Role in Pediatric Sedation: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sammartino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedation in children is increasingly emerging as a minimally invasive technique that may be associated with local anaesthesia or diagnostic and therapeutic procedures which do not necessarily require general anaesthesia. Standard monitoring requirements are not sufficient to ensure an effective control of pulmonary ventilation and deep sedation. Capnography in pediatric sedation assesses the effect of different drugs on the occurrence of respiratory failure and records early indicators of respiratory impairment. The Bispectral index (BIS allows the reduction of dose requirements of anaesthetic drugs, the reduction in the time to extubation and eye opening, and the reduction in the time to discharge. In the field of pediatric sedation, capnography should be recommended to prevent respiratory complications, particularly in spontaneous ventilation. The use of the BIS index, however, needs further investigation due to a lack of evidence, especially in infants. In this paper, we will investigate the role of capnography and the BIS index in improving monitoring standards in pediatric sedation.

  11. Effect of different doses of dezocine on degree of emergence agitation under bispectral index monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-Bao Liang; Zong-Rong Guo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of different doses of dezocine on degree of emergence agitation under bispectral index monitoring. Methods:A total of 196 cases who received general anesthesia in our hospital from September 2012 to December 2014 were selected as research subjects, bispectral index (BIS) monitoring was continuously conducted during anesthesia induction and extubation anesthesia recovery, and according to different methods of dezocine intervention, they were randomly divided into control group, D1 group, D2 group and D3 group, each group with 49 cases. Differences in levels of recovery time-related indexes, BIS values before dezocine administration (T0), sputum suction before extubation (T1), extubation time (T2) and 10 min after extubation (T3), hemodynamic indexes and stress indexes of all groups were compared. Results:Recovery time and extubation time of D2 group were shorter than those of control group, D1 group and D3 group, restlessness scale after extubation and VAS were lower than those of control group and D1 group, and Ramsay sedation scale was higher than that of control group and D1 group (P0.05);cortisol and blood glucose levels at T1, T2 and T3 points in time of D2 and D3 group were lower than those of other two groups (P0.05). Conclusions:0.1 mg/kg dezocine administration before end of operation can reduce emergence agitation without causing excessive sedation or prolonged extubation time, and it has active significance in stabilizing patients’ hemodynamic and stress levels in extubation period.

  12. Effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on propofol pharmacokinetics and bispectral index during coronary surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio G. Barbosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Cardiopulmonary bypass is known to alter propofol pharmacokinetics in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, few studies have evaluated the impact of these alterations on postoperative pharmacodynamics. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that changes in propofol pharmacokinetics increase hypnotic effects after cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: Twenty patients scheduled for on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (group, n=10 or off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (group, n=10 coronary artery bypass grafts were anesthetized with sufentanil and a propofol target controlled infusion (2.0 µg/mL. Depth of hypnosis was monitored using the bispectral index. Blood samples were collected from the induction of anesthesia up to 12 hours after the end of propofol infusion, at predetermined intervals. Plasma propofol concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography, followed by a non-compartmental propofol pharmacokinetic analysis. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, considering p<0.05 as significant. RESULTS: After cardiopulmonary bypass, despite similar plasma propofol concentrations in both groups, bispectral index values were lower in the on-pump coronary artery bypass graft group. Time to extubation after the end of propofol infusion was greater in the on-pump coronary artery bypass graft group (334 ± 117 vs. 216 ± 85 min, p = 0.04. Patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass had shorter biological (1.82 ± 0.5 vs. 3.67 ± 1.15h, p < 0.01 and terminal elimination (6.27 ± 1.29 vs. 10.5h ± 2.18, p < 0.01 half-life values, as well as higher total plasma clearance (28.36 ± 11.40 vs.18.29 ± 7.67 mL/kg/min, p = 0.03, compared to patients in the off-pump coronary artery bypass graft group. CONCLUSION: Aside from the increased sensitivity of the brain to anesthetics after cardiopulmonary bypass, changes in propofol pharmacokinetics may contribute to its central nervous system effects.

  13. The effect of music on preoperative sedation and the bispectral index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganidagli, Suleyman; Cengiz, Mustafa; Yanik, Medaim; Becerik, Cevdet; Unal, Bahriye

    2005-07-01

    We assessed the effect of music on the level of sedation and the electroencephalograph bispectral index (BIS) during the preoperative period. Fifty-four ASA physical status I-II patients, scheduled for elective septo-rhinoplastic surgery, were included in the study. Subjects were assigned to receive either music (music group; n = 28) or no music (control group; n = 26) during the preoperative period. Sedative premedication was provided with midazolam 0.08 mg/kg IM. Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scales (OAAS) scores and BIS values were recorded at specific time intervals. In the control group, there were more patients with an OAAS score of 1 than in the music group at 30 min after midazolam injection. In addition, there were more patients with an OAAS score of 2 in the control group than in the music group at 30-50 min. However, there were significantly more patients with an OAAS score of 3 in the music group than in the control group at 20-50 min. BIS values of the music group were also smaller than the control group at 30 and 40 min. BIS values were significantly decreased from baseline values at 10-50 min in the music group, whereas BIS values decreased at 30-50 min in the control group. In conclusion, listening to music during midazolam premedication is associated with an increase in sedation level in the preoperative period as reflected by a lower BIS value. PMID:15976214

  14. Bi-spectral beam extraction in combination with a focusing feeder

    CERN Document Server

    Zendler, C; Nekrassov, D; Cussen, L D; Strobl, M

    2013-01-01

    Bi-spectral beam extraction combines neutrons from two different kind of moderators into one beamline, expanding the spectral range and thereby the utilization of an instrument. This idea can be realized by a mirror that reflects long wavelength neutrons from an off-axis colder moderator into a neutron guide aligned with another moderator emitting neutrons with shorter wavelengths which will be transmitted through the mirror. The mirror used in such systems is typically several meters long, which is a severe disadvantage because it reduces the possible length of a focusing device in design concepts requiring a narrow beam at a short distance from the source, as used in many instruments under development for the planned European Spallation Source (ESS). We propose a shortened extraction system consisting of several mirrors, and show that such an extraction system is better suited for combination with a feeder in an eye of the needle design, illustrated here in the context of a possible ESS imaging beamline.

  15. Bi-spectral beam extraction in combination with a focusing feeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zendler, C., E-mail: carolin.zendler@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); ESS Design Update Programme (Germany); Lieutenant, K.; Nekrassov, D.; Cussen, L.D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); ESS Design Update Programme (Germany); Strobl, M. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Box 176, 22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2013-03-11

    Bi-spectral beam extraction combines neutrons from two different kinds of moderators into one beamline, expanding the spectral range and thereby the utilization of an instrument. This idea can be realized by a mirror that reflects long wavelength neutrons from an off-axis colder moderator into a neutron guide aligned with another moderator emitting neutrons with shorter wavelengths which will be transmitted through the mirror. The mirror used in such systems is typically several meters long, which is a severe disadvantage because it reduces the possible length of a focusing device in design concepts requiring a narrow beam at a short distance from the source, as used in many instruments under development for the planned European Spallation Source (ESS). We propose a shortened extraction system consisting of several mirrors and show that such an extraction system is better suited for combination with a feeder in an eye of the needle design, illustrated here in the context of a possible ESS imaging beamline.

  16. Effect of a single dose of esmolol on the bispectral index to endotracheal intubation during desflurane anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun Mi; Min, Kyeong Tae; Lee, Jeong Rim; Lee, Tai Kyung; Choi, Seung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Background In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of a single dose of esmolol on the bispectral index (BIS) to endotracheal intubation during desflurane anesthesia. Methods After induction of anesthesia, 60 patients were mask-ventilated with desflurane (end-tidal 1 minimum alveolar concentration) for 5 min and then received either normal saline, esmolol 0.5 or 1 mg/kg, 1 min prior to intubation (control, esmolol-0.5 and esmolol-1 gr...

  17. Can bispectral index or auditory evoked potential index predict implicit memory during propofol-induced sedation?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun; YUE Yun; SUN Yong-hai; WU An-shi

    2006-01-01

    Background Some patients still suffer from implicit memory of intraoperative events under adequate depth of anaesthesia. The elimination of implicit memory should be a necessary aim of clinical general anaesthesia.However, implicit memory cannot be tested during anaesthesia yet. We propose bispectral index (BIS) and auditory evoked potential index (AEPI), as predictors of implicit memory during anaesthesia.Methods Thirty-six patients were equally divided into 3 groups according to the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Score: A, level 3; B, level 2 ;and C, level 1. Every patient was given the first auditory stimulus before sedation. Then every patient received the second auditory stimulus after the target level of sedation had been reached. BIS and AEPI were monitored before and after the second auditory stimulus presentation. Four hours later, the inclusion test and exclusion test were performed on the ward using process dissociation procedure and the scores of implicit memory estimated.Results In groups A and B but not C, implicit memory estimates were statistically greater than zero (P<0.05).The implicit memory scores in group A did not differ significantly from those in group B (P>0.05). Implicit memory scores correlated with BIS and AEPI (P<0.01). The area under ROC curve is BIS> AEPI. The 95% cutoff points of BIS and AEPI for predicting implicit memory are 47 and 28, respectively.Conclusions Implicit memory does not disappear until the depth of sedation increases to level 1 of OAA/S score. Implicit memory scores correlate well with BIS and AEPI during sedation. BIS is a better index for predicting implicit memory than AEPI during propofol induced sedation.

  18. Bispectral index monitoring for conscious sedation in intervention: better, safer, faster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: The aim of this study was to compare subjective (Ramsay sedation score, RSS) with objective electroencephalogram-based bispectral index (BIS) assessment, and to validate the appropriate BIS range for measurement of conscious sedation in interventional procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred patients undergoing sedo-analgesia (midazolam and fentanyl) for interventional gastrointestinal procedures were divided into two groups. In group A (n=30) sedation was guided by the RSS with the operator blinded to the BIS recording. In group B (n=70) the operator titrated intravenous sedation to maintain an optimal BIS, predetermined from the results in group A. Recovery time, procedure duration, physiological parameters and unplanned events were recorded in both groups. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the BIS and RSS (p<0.001). BIS values of 87.2 and 80.9 corresponded to an RSS of 3 and 4, respectively. The optimal BIS level was defined as 80-85. Fifty-seven point five percent of readings were within this range in group B compared with 26.5% in group A (p<0.001). Sedation approaching general anaesthesia (BIS<60) occurred in 5.5% of patients in group A but not in group B. Mean recovery time, duration of procedure, midazolam and fentanyl doses were significantly reduced in group B. Unplanned events were reduced from 27 to 17%, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.29). CONCLUSION: BIS monitoring enables more effective titration of sedatives to maintain a suitable level of consciousness, whilst reducing procedure time. The BIS offers an objective, safe and reliable measure of sedation, without disturbing either patient or operator. BIS monitoring raises the standard of patient care, and in our view, should be used to augment standard assessment

  19. Bispectral index monitoring of a narcolepsy-cataplexy episode during regional anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahaba, Ashraf A; Xu, Guo Xun; Liu, Qing Hai; Xue, Ji Xiu; Metzler, Helfried

    2009-02-01

    Narcolepsy or Gélineau syndrome is an extremely incapacitating chronic sleep disorder of unknown etiology that is characterized by uncontrollable attacks of deep sleep and is typically associated with cataplexy sudden loss of muscle tone. The Bispectral Index (BIS), an electroencephalographic-derived cerebral monitor, used for monitoring the effects of anesthetic/hypnotic drugs was shown to correlate to various conditions that could influence the eletroencephalogram. We assessed the utility of using BIS for monitoring a possible narcolepsy-cataplexy episode and whether a distinctive BIS profile might offer an early warning of an impending narcoleptic/cataplectic spell. We recorded both hemispheres, using two synchronized BIS-XP monitors, during a narcolepsy-cataplexy episode in a 57-yr-old male patient undergoing lower limb surgery under femoral nerve block regional anesthesia. The patient went through three stages: first a prodromal "intermittent low-vigilance" phase interrupted by high electromyographic activity. This was followed by a second "continuous low-vigilance" phase of BIS around 75 with low electromyographic activity, ending with a third "nonresponsive vigilance" phase of a full-blown narcolepsy-cataplexy episode of BIS around 45 with complete loss of muscle power. The purpose of presenting this report is to emphasize the fact that narcoleptic patients can still run the risk of loss of consciousness with atonia under regional anesthesia, and such an undesirable complication cannot be under-estimated. BIS monitoring is a simple method that could offer an early warning of an imminent episode, with its associated hazards, in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy undergoing surgery under regional anesthesia.

  20. Bispectral index monitoring for conscious sedation in intervention: better, safer, faster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.K.; Laasch, H.-U.; Wilbraham, L.; England, R.E.; Morris, J.A.; Martin, D.F. E-mail: derrick.martin@smtr.nhs.uk

    2004-12-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to compare subjective (Ramsay sedation score, RSS) with objective electroencephalogram-based bispectral index (BIS) assessment, and to validate the appropriate BIS range for measurement of conscious sedation in interventional procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred patients undergoing sedo-analgesia (midazolam and fentanyl) for interventional gastrointestinal procedures were divided into two groups. In group A (n=30) sedation was guided by the RSS with the operator blinded to the BIS recording. In group B (n=70) the operator titrated intravenous sedation to maintain an optimal BIS, predetermined from the results in group A. Recovery time, procedure duration, physiological parameters and unplanned events were recorded in both groups. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the BIS and RSS (p<0.001). BIS values of 87.2 and 80.9 corresponded to an RSS of 3 and 4, respectively. The optimal BIS level was defined as 80-85. Fifty-seven point five percent of readings were within this range in group B compared with 26.5% in group A (p<0.001). Sedation approaching general anaesthesia (BIS<60) occurred in 5.5% of patients in group A but not in group B. Mean recovery time, duration of procedure, midazolam and fentanyl doses were significantly reduced in group B. Unplanned events were reduced from 27 to 17%, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.29). CONCLUSION: BIS monitoring enables more effective titration of sedatives to maintain a suitable level of consciousness, whilst reducing procedure time. The BIS offers an objective, safe and reliable measure of sedation, without disturbing either patient or operator. BIS monitoring raises the standard of patient care, and in our view, should be used to augment standard assessment.

  1. Evaluation of the Adequacy of General Anesthesia in Cesarean Section by Bispectral Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Reza Hadavi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Awareness and recall, though not common, are the major hazards of general anesthesia, especially in Cesarean section (C/S because of the absence of benzodiazepine and opioids for a significant time during anesthesia. In this study, the Bispectral Index (BIS, end-tidal isoflurane, and hemodynamic parameters were examined to evaluate the depth of the routine general anesthetic technique in C/S. Methods: This study was carried out on 60 parturient patients undergoing elective C/S. A standardized anesthetic technique was applied: induction with Thiopental (4-5 mg/kg and Succinylcholine (1.5-2 mg/kg as well as maintenance with O2, N2O, and isoflurane. Electrocardiogram, heart rate, blood pressure, Spo2, end-tidal isoflurane concentration, BIS, and any clinical signs of inadequate depth of anesthesia such as movement, sweating, lacrimation, coughing, and jerking were continuously monitored and recorded at 16 fixed time points during anesthesia. Results: A median BIS of less than 70 (range: 42-68 was obtained on all occasions during surgery; however, at each milestone, at least 20% of the patients had BIS values above 60. Hemodynamic parameters increased significantly in some patients, especially during laryngoscopy and intubation. No patient experienced recall or awareness. Conclusion: The currently used general anesthetic technique in our center appears inadequate in some milestones to reliably produce BIS values less than 60, which are associated with lower risk of awareness. Therefore, with respect to such desirable outcomes as good Apgar and clinical status in neonates, we would recommend the application of this method (if confirmed by further studies through larger dosages of anesthetic agents.

  2. Closed-loop control of anesthesia using bispectral index - Performance assessment in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgey under combined general and regional anesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Absalom, AR; Sutcliffe, N; Kenny, GN

    2002-01-01

    Background: The Bispectral Index (BIS) is an electroencephalogram-derived measure of anesthetic depth. A closed-loop anesthesia system was built using BIS as the control variable, a proportional-integral-differential control algorithm, and a propofol target-controlled infusion system as (lie control

  3. The accuracy and clinical feasibility of a new Bayesian-based closed-loop control system for propofol administration using the bispectral index as a controlled variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Tom; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Neckebroek, Martine M.; Van den Hauwe, Kristof; Bonte, Sjoert; Mortier, Eric P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Closed-loop control of the hypnotic component of anesthesia has been proposed in an attempt to optimize drug delivery. Here, we introduce a newly developed Bayesian-based, patient-individualized, model-based, adaptive control method for bispectral index (BIS) guided propofol infusion int

  4. Effects of Phenytoin Therapy on Bispectral Index and Haemodynamic Changes Following Induction and Tracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmod P Bithal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation (LTI increase blood pressure and heart rate (HR. Intensity of these changes is influenced by the anaesthetic depth assessed by the bispectral index (BIS. We determined the effect of phenytoin on anaesthetic depth and its influence on haemodynamics following LTI. Fifty patients of ASA grades I and II on oral phenytoin 200 to 300mg per day for more than one week were compared with 48 control patients. Standard anaesthesia technique was followed. BIS, non invasive mean blood pressure (MBP and HR were recorded 30, 60, 90 and 120 sec after LTI. Phenytoin group needed lesser thiopentone for induction, 5 mg (1.1 vs. 4.3 mg (0.7 [p=0.036]. BIS was significantly lower in the phenytoin group vs. the control 30, 60, 90 and 120 sec after LTI [43.1 (16.0 vs. 48.9 (14.9, p=0.068, 56.3 (16.7 vs. 64.3 (14.4, p=0.013, 59.8 (15.8 vs. 67.5 (12.1, p=0.008, 62.6 (14 vs. 68.9 (11.2, p=0.017, and 64.2 (11.3 vs. 69 (11.7, p=0.033], respectively. MBP was also lower in the phenytoin group 30, 60, 90 and 120 sec after LTI [112.8 mmHg (13.8, vs. 117.9 mmHg (18 p=0.013, 108.6 (12.8 vs. 117.5 (16 p=0.003, 106.1 mmHg (14.1 vs. 113.2 mmHg (14.9, p=0.017, 101.8 mmHg (13.8 vs. 109.5 mmHg (14.1, p=0.007], respectively. HR was lower in phenytoin group at 30 sec. (p=0.027, 60 sec (p=0.219, and again at 120 sec (p=0.022. Oral phenytoin therapy for over a week results in greater anaesthetic depth as observed using BIS, which also attenuated haemodynamic response of LTI.

  5. 脑电双频指数指导下调节七氟烷体积分数对患儿眼心反射抑制的影响%Effect of bispectral index-guided sevoflurane concentration change on oculocardiac reflex in pediatric patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠; 刘凤梅; 周峰; 米志华; 黄鹤

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether bispectrial index (BlS)-guided sevoflurane concentration change can effectively suppress the oculocardiac reflex in pediatric patients receiving strabotomy. Methods Totally 52 congenital esotropia children were randomly divided into group A and B (each n = 26). All children were anesthetized with sevoflurane inhalation. The BIS was maintained at about 40 in group A and about 60 in group B. The following indicators, including pulse oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2). Blood pressure (BP), electrocardiogram and end-tidal pressure of carbon dioxide (petCO2), were monitored during the operation. The incidences of oculocardiac reflex and related sevoflurane concentration were recorded. Results All the other physical data were within normal range except for the heart rate. The incidence of oculocardiac reflex was 11.6% (3/26) in group A, which was significantly lower than that in group B (34. 9% [9/26], P<0.05). The mean sevoflurane concentration was 0. 021 ± 0. 003 in group A, which was significantly higher than that in group B (0.015±0.005, P<0.05). Conclusion Compared with the adjusted seveflurane concentration guided by BIS = 60±2, that guided by BIS = 40± 1 can reduce the incidence of oculocardiac reflex in congenital crosseye children receiving strabotomy. (Shanghai Med J, 2011, 34: 601-603)%目的 探讨脑电双频指数(BIS)指导下调节七氟烷体积分数能否有效抑制行斜视手术时患儿的眼心反射.方法 52例行手术治疗的先天性斜视患儿被随机分为A、B两组,分别维持BIS值为40(A组)和60(B组)左右,两组均采用吸入七氟烷行全身麻醉,术中监测脉搏血氧饱和度(SpO2)、血压(BP)、心电图(ECG)、呼吸末二氧化碳分压(pet CO2),记录眼心反射的发生率及呼气末七氟烷体积分数.结果 A组的眼心反射发生率为11.6%(3/26),显著低于B组的34.9%(9/26,P<0.05).A组的呼气末七氟烷体积分数为0.021±0.003,显著高于B组的0.015±0.005(P<0.05).结论 先天性斜视患儿行手术治疗,吸入七氟烷行全身麻醉时,BIS值维持于40±1时其眼心反射的发生率低于BIS值为60±2时.

  6. Bispectral index monitoring as an adjunct to nurse-administered combined sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Se Young Jang; Hyun Gu Park; Min Kyu Jung; Chang Min Cho; Soo Young Park; Seong Woo Jeon; Won Young Tak

    2012-01-01

    AIM:TO determine whether bispectral index (BIS)monitoring is useful for propofol administration for deep sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).METHODS:Fifty-nine consecutive patients with a variety of reasons for ERCP who underwent the procedure at least twice between 1 July 2010 and 30 November 2010.This was a randomized cross-over study,in which each patient underwent ERCP twice,once with BIS monitoring and once with control monitoring.Whether BIS monitoring was done during the first or second ERCP procedure was random.Patients were intermittently administered a mixed regimen including midazolam,pethidine,and propofol by trained nurses.The nurse used a routine practice to monitor sedation using the Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (MOAA/S) scale or the BIS monitoring.The total amount of midazolam and propofol used and serious side effects were compared between the BIS and control groups.RESULTS:The mean total propofol dose administered was 53.1 ± 32.2 mg in the BIS group and 54.9± 30.8 mg in the control group (P =0.673).The individual propofol dose received per minute during the ERCP procedure was 2.90 ± 1.83 mg/min in the BIS group and 3.44 ± 2.04 mg in the control group (P =0.103).The median value of the MOAA/S score during the maintenance phase of sedation was comparable for the two groups.The mean BIS values throughout the procedure (from insertion to removal of the endoscope) were 76.5 ± 8.7 for all 59 patients in using the BIS monitor.No significant differences in the frequency of < 80% oxygen saturation,hypotension (< 80 mmHg),or bradycardia (< 50 beats/min) were observed between the two study groups.Four cases of poor cooperation occurred,in which the procedure should be stopped to add the propofol dose.After adding the propofol,the procedure could be conducted successfully (one case in the BIS group,three cases in the control group).The endoscopist rated patient sedation as excellent for

  7. Comparison of equi-minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane and isoflurane on bispectral index values during both wash in and wash out phases: A prospective randomised study

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu Gupta; Iti Shri; Prashant Sakia; Deepika Govil

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: At equal minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), volatile agents may produce different bispectral index (BIS) values especially at low BIS levels when the effect is volatile agent specific. The present study was performed to compare the BIS values produced by sevoflurane and isoflurane at equal MAC and thereby assessing which is a better hypnotic agent. Methods: Sixty American Society of Anaesthesiologists I and II patients undergoing elective mastoidectomy were divided int...

  8. The effect of different doses of esmolol on hemodynamic, bispectral index and movement response during orotracheal intubation: prospective, randomized, double-blind study

    OpenAIRE

    Mensure Yılmaz Çakırgöz; Aydın Taşdöğen; Çimen Olguner; Hülya Korkmaz; Ertuğrul Öğün; Burak Küçükebe; Esra Duran

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A prospective, randomized and double-blind study was planned to identify the optimum dose of esmolol infusion to suppress the increase in bispectral index values and the movement and hemodynamic responses to tracheal intubation. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups in a double-blind fashion. 2.5 mg kg-1 propofol was administered for anesthesia induction. After loss of consciousness, and before administration of 0.6 ...

  9. Comparison of recovery profiles of propofol AND sevoflurane anesthesia with bispectral index monitoring (BIS in general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Somvanshi

    2015-03-01

    Method: Fifty ASA physical status I-II patients of either sex, aged between 18 and 60 years were randomly divided into two groups to receive either propofol infusion (group P, n=25 or sevoflurane (group S, n=25. Cardiovascular parameters, SpO2 and bispectral index (BIS scores were recorded. Time to eye opening, hand squeezing and achieve modified Aldrete's Score and #8805; 9 and the incidence of complications were noted. Results: Early recovery times [eye opening, hand squeezing and achieve modified Aldrete's Score and #8805; 9] were significantly longer in group P (P 0.05. The incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting was significantly higher in group S. Conclusions: The present study which adjusted propofol infusion rate and sevoflurane concentration according to BIS scores revealed that maintenance of anesthesia with sevoflurane is associated with faster recovery than anesthesia with propofol. Propofol resulted in a significantly lower incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(1.000: 52-56

  10. Awareness of bispectral index monitoring system among the critical care nursing personnel in a tertiary care hospital of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bispectral index monitoring system (BIS is one of the several systems used to measure the effects of anaesthetic and sedative drugs on the brain and to track changes in the patient′s level of sedation and hypnosis. BIS monitoring provides information clinically relevant to the adjustment of dosages of sedating medication. It can help the nursing personnel in preventing under- and over sedation among intensive care unit (ICU patients. Objective: The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge of nursing personnel working in the ICU regarding BIS. Methods: Fifty-four subjects participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was developed to assess the knowledge of the nursing personnel regarding BIS. Focus group discussions were held among the nursing personnel to know their views regarding BIS. Results: Mean age (years of the subjects was 30.7΁7.19 (21-47 years, with a female preponderance. Although the use of BIS in ICU is not common, majority (94.44% were aware of BIS and its purpose. 79.62% of the subjects knew about its implication in patient care. The mean knowledge score of the subjects was 11.87΁2.43 (maximum score being 15. Conclusion: There exists an awareness among the critical care nursing staff in our institution regarding BIS and its clinical implications. Its use in the critical care setting may benefit the patients in terms of providing optimal sedation.

  11. [Application of bispectral index (BIS) monitoring to anesthetic management of posterior spinal fusion in a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Maiko; Hayashi, Hideaki; Hayashi, Yukio; Mashimo, Takashi

    2002-07-01

    A 12-year-old boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy underwent posterior spinal fusion for progressive scoliosis. Preoperative evaluation was focused on respiratory function as well as cardiac function, which revealed markedly reduced respiratory reserve (FVC 0.77 l, %FVC 25.9%, FEV1.0 0.48 l, %FEV1.0 62%) and well-preserved biventricular function. A possible association between malignant hyperthermia and Duchenne muscular dystrophy has been documented. Thus anesthesia was administered without triggering agents. Propofol and fentanyl were used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia, and the patient was ventilated with O2-nitrous oxide mixture. The anesthesia machine, prepared by using a disposable circuit and fresh CO2-absorbent and disconnecting the vaporizers, was flushed with O2 at a rate of 10 l.min-1 for 20 minutes before use. A small dose of vecuronium was administered while monitoring the train-of-four ratio. The bispectral index (BIS) was utilized to optimize the depth of anesthesia so that the wake-up test could be performed promptly on surgeon's request while avoiding the intraoperative awareness. The BIS was helpful in continuously assessing the wakening process. BIS increased from 40's to 80's in 15 minutes after discontinuation of propofol and nitrous oxide during the test. The patient was kept under close observation postoperatively without any sign of malignant hyperthermia. PMID:12166284

  12. Comparative study among acepromazine, chlorpromazine and methotrimeprazine in different doses, through bispectral index, term and pressure algimetry, in dogs / Estudo comparativo entre a acepromazina, clorpromazina e levomepromazina em diferentes doses, através do exame bispectral, termo e pressoalgimetria, em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mitsuko Matsubara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study’s objective was to realize comparisons among different acepromazine, chlorpromazine and methotrimeprazine doses, evaluate parametric changes, test analgesia using press and term algimetry, and evaluate bispectral condition. 90 mongrel dogs were used, male and female, adult, weighting 10 to 15 Kg as a rule, distributed in 9 groups with 10 animals each. At first, second and third groups acepromazine was used at 0,1; 0,05 e 0,025 mg/Kg, respectively. At forth, fifth and sixth groups, chlorpromazine was used at 1,0; 0,5 and 0,25 mg/Kg, respectively. At seventh, eighth and ninth groups, methotrimeprazine at 1,0; 0,5 and 0,25 mg/Kg was used, respectively. All drugs were administered intravenously. Objects of study: heart rate (HR, non invasive blood pressure (SAP, MAP, DAP, respiratory rate (f, capnography (ETCO2, pulse oxymetry (SatO2, mouth and rectal temperature, bispectral index (BIS, electromyography (EMG%, press and term algimetry. Somatic analgesia was evaluated by animal’s response to nociceptives stimulus. We concluded that chlorpromazine had more hypotension. Dogs showed higher hypnosis level at chlorpromazine group, with evident myorelaxation. All groups showed analgesia to thermic and mechanic stimulus. Acepromazine group showed high duration to both pain stimuli. Bispectral index was shorten at chlorpromazine group at 1,0 mg/kg doses, showing higher hypnosis index, and acepromazine was the less depressing considering the bispectral index.Objetivou-se comparar, em diferentes doses, a acepromazina, a clorpromazina e a levomepromazina com relação às alterações paramétricas, à analgesia avaliada através da presso e termoalgimetria e a condição bispectral em 90 cães sem raça definida alocados em nove grupos. No primeiro, segundo e terceiro grupo foi empregada a acepromazina nas doses de 0,1; 0,05 e 0,025 mg/kg, respectivamente. No quarto, quinto e sexto grupo foi empregada a clorpromazina nas doses de 1,0; 0,5 e 0

  13. Comparison of the ability of wavelet index and bispectral index for reflecting regain of consciousness in patients undergone surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-tong; CHENG Hao; XIONG Wei; WANG Bao-guo

    2010-01-01

    Background Wavelet index (WLI) is a new parameter for monitoring depth of anesthesia based on Wavelet analysis.We observed the change of WLI and bispectral index (BIS) in patients regain of consciousness (ROC) in the absence of frontalis electromyographic (EMG) interference. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of WLI and BIS for reflecting ROC in patients undergone surgery.Methods Twelve patients who were scheduled for maxillofacial surgeries were enrolled in the study. BIS and WLI values were monitored continually. After being given midazolam and remifentanil, patients were asked to squeeze the investigator's hand ever 30 seconds. Patients were continuously given propofol until loss of consciousness (LOC1).Tunstall's isolated forearm technique was used to test the surgical consciousness in patients. After total muscle relaxation,endotracheal intubations were performed, and the patients were connected to a ventilator. Then, propofol was withdrawn until the patients showed regain of consciousness (ROC1) and an awareness reaction. After the command test, patients were readministered with propofol until loss of consciousness (LOC2). After surgery, all of the sedatives were withdrawn,and the patients were let to regain consciousness (ROC2).Results The BIS values of twelve patients at ROC1 after using muscle relaxant were much lower than those at LOC1 and ROC2 without using muscle relaxant, showing statistical significance (P <0.05). Meanwhile, the WLI values of twelve patients at ROC1 after using muscle relaxant were much higher than those at LOC1 and equal to ROC2 without using muscle relaxant, showing statistical significances (P <0.05) between ROC1 and LOC1.Conclusions This study showed that under muscle relaxation or facial paralysis, when there is no EMG signal, BIS can not accurately reflect regain of consciousness in surgical patients, but WLI can reflect it accurately. So WLI may have advantages for reflecting state of consciousness in surgical

  14. Bispectral pairwise interacting source analysis for identifying systems of cross-frequency interacting brain sources from electroencephalographic or magnetoencephalographic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chella, Federico; Pizzella, Vittorio; Zappasodi, Filippo; Nolte, Guido; Marzetti, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Brain cognitive functions arise through the coordinated activity of several brain regions, which actually form complex dynamical systems operating at multiple frequencies. These systems often consist of interacting subsystems, whose characterization is of importance for a complete understanding of the brain interaction processes. To address this issue, we present a technique, namely the bispectral pairwise interacting source analysis (biPISA), for analyzing systems of cross-frequency interacting brain sources when multichannel electroencephalographic (EEG) or magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data are available. Specifically, the biPISA makes it possible to identify one or many subsystems of cross-frequency interacting sources by decomposing the antisymmetric components of the cross-bispectra between EEG or MEG signals, based on the assumption that interactions are pairwise. Thanks to the properties of the antisymmetric components of the cross-bispectra, biPISA is also robust to spurious interactions arising from mixing artifacts, i.e., volume conduction or field spread, which always affect EEG or MEG functional connectivity estimates. This method is an extension of the pairwise interacting source analysis (PISA), which was originally introduced for investigating interactions at the same frequency, to the study of cross-frequency interactions. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated in simulations for up to three interacting source pairs and for real MEG recordings of spontaneous brain activity. Simulations show that the performances of biPISA in estimating the phase difference between the interacting sources are affected by the increasing level of noise rather than by the number of the interacting subsystems. The analysis of real MEG data reveals an interaction between two pairs of sources of central mu and beta rhythms, localizing in the proximity of the left and right central sulci.

  15. Evaluation of entropy for monitoring the depth of anesthesia compared with bispectral index: a multicenter clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian-dong; DING Qian; TAN Zhi-ming; ZHU Zhi-rong; YUE Yun; ZHAO Yu-jie; XU Chen-shi; ZHAO Jing; HUANG Yu-guang; WANG Tian-long; PEI Ling; WANG Jian; YAO Li-nong

    2012-01-01

    Background As a new electroencephalogram (EEG) signal processing technique for monitoring the depth of anesthesia,entropy consists of two indices:reaction entropy (RE) and state entropy (SE).Our study compared entropy with classical bispectral index (BIS) in reduction of myoelectrical interference and noxious stimuli with EEG signals.Methods Two hundred and eighty patients (ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ,18-60 years old) undergoing scheduled surgeries from seven medical centers were enrolled.Anesthesia induction was managed with propofol via the target-controlled infusion (TCI)system.The results of BIS,RE,SE,mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded before anesthesia induction,at the moment of unconsciousness,before and 2 minutes after administration of muscle relaxant,and before and one and three minutes after the tracheal intubation.Results The values of half maximum effective concentrations (EC50),5% effective concentrations (EC05) and 95% effective concentrations (EC95) of propofol effect-site concentration at the onset of unconsciousness were 1.2 (1.1-1.3μg/ml),2.5 (2.4-2.5 μg/ml) and 3.7 (3.7-3.8 μg/ml),while those of the predicted plasma propofol concentration were 2.8 (2.7-2.9 μg/ml),3.9 (3.8-3:9 μg/ml) and 4.9 (4.8-5.0 μg/ml),respectively.The values of BIS,SE and RE were 62,59 and 63 when 50% of patients lost consciousness,and 79,80,85 and 42,37,44,respectively,when 5% and 95% of patients were unconscious.The values of BIS,RE and SE dropped two minutes after the injection of muscle relaxant,but there were no significant differences between RE and SE.MAP and HR increased visibly,which indicated a reaction to tracheal intubation; the values of BIS,RE and SE,however,did not display any significant changes.Conclusions This large-sample multicentric study confirmed the values of RE and SE as approximating BIS value,at the onset of unconsciousness during propofol TCI anesthesia.After elimination of myoelectrical activation,all values of RE

  16. Comparison of the EEG-based SNAP index and the Bispectral (BIS) index during sevoflurane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gimeno, P; Soro, M; Pérez-Solaz, A; Carrau, M; Belda, F J; Jover, J L; Aguilar, G

    2005-12-01

    The BIS monitor (Aspect Medical Inc, Newton, USA) was the first electroencephalogram (EEG)-based monitor of the hypnotic effect reflected by a dimensionless figure ranging from 100 (awake state) to 0 (flat line EEG). Its widespread use makes it the most-studied and the best-known among same intended devices. Its algorithm processes low-frequency EEG oscillations in order to provide the Bispectral index. A BIS index ranging from 40 to 60 has been established as the proper for surgical performance. The BIS monitor permits a closer approach to the hypnotic component of anaesthesia beyond clinical signs and may reduce the probability of intraoperative awareness; therefore, it has become a recommended monitoring tool in routine practice. The SNAP monitor (Nicolet Biomedical, Madison WI, USA) is also intended for monitoring the hypnotic effect of anaesthetics, which is in turn displayed as an index ranging from 100 to 0, with 100 meaning a fully awake state and 0 meaning no brain activity. The algorithm of the SNAP monitor is featured by its additional processing of ultra-high EEG frequencies, which seem to be involved in the formation of consciousness. The use of these frequencies would theoretically improve responsiveness during increased brain activity. We studied its behaviour patterns and capability to monitor the hypnotic effect induced by sevoflurane-nitrous oxide by comparison with the BIS index. Seventy patients ASA I-III were induced with propofol, fentanyl and rocuronium, and maintained with sevoflurane-N(2)O. BIS and SNAP indices were simultaneously recorded before induction, after intubation, after incision, at the following 10, 30 and 50 minutes, awakening and extubation time points, together with heart rate and blood pressure. The Pearson correlation was R(2) = 0.68 (p < .05). The Bland and Altman test showed a bias of 14.3 for SNAP index values with respect to BIS index values. We concluded that the SNAP index correlates with variations in the hypnotic

  17. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    cryptography was thus concerned with message confidentiality and integrity. Modern cryptography cover a much wider range of subjects including the area of secure multiparty computation, which will be the main topic of this dissertation. Our first contribution is a new protocol for secure comparison, presented...... framework. We call this framework VIFF, short for Virtual Ideal Functionality Framework. VIFF implements a UC functionality for general multiparty computation on asynchronous networks. We give a formal definition of the functionality in Chapter 3. There we also describe how we implemented the functionality...... no information is released. The communication complexity of this protocol is the same as that of a passively secure solution up to a constant factor. It is secure against an adaptive and active adversary corrupting less than n=3 players. Following the presentation of VIFF, we turn to a more theoretical subject...

  18. Rational Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachin, Christian

    Security research continues to provide a plethora of new protocols and mechanisms; these solutions patch either existing vulnerabilities found in practical systems or solve hypothetical security problems in the sense that the problem is often conceived at the same time when the first solution is proposed. Yet only a very small fraction of this research is relevant to ordinary users in the sense that they are willing to actually deploy the technology.

  19. Hemodynamics and bispectral index (BIS) of dogs anesthetized with midazolam and ketamine associated with medetomidine or dexmedetomidine and submitted to ovariohysterectomy Avaliação hemodinâmica e do índice bispectral (BIS) de cadelas anestesiadas com midazolam e cetamina associados à medetomidina ou dexmedetomidina e submetidas a ovário-salpingo-histerectomia

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando do Carmo Silva; Eduardo Hatschbach; Yuri Karaccas de Carvalho; Bruno Watanabe Minto; Flávio Massone; Paulo do Nascimento Junior

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate hemodynamics and bispectral index (BIS) in bitches anesthetized with ketamine and midazolam in combination with dexmedetomidine or medetomidine and submitted to ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Twenty bitches pretreated with levomedetomidine and buprenorphine were anesthetized with 5 mg.kg-1 ketamine and 0.2 mg.kg-1 midazolam i.v. Continuous infusion of 0.4 mg.kg-1.h-1 midazolam and 20 mg.kg-1.h-1 ketamine was initiated in combination with DEX (n=10): 20 µg.kg-1.h-1 dexmedeto...

  20. Histology protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tim D. Hewitson & Ian A. Darby (Eds Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA Series: Springer Protocols Methods in Molecular Biology, Volume 611, 2010 Pages: 230; € 83.15 ISBN: 978-1-60327-344-2 Impressive as it can sounds in the era that Biology see a clear dominance of reductionism with the idea that complexity can be disentagled more and more thanks to the use of molecular tools, the reader will remain fascinated by this slim and agile volume devoted to bring together what apparently are two separeted words: molecular biology and histology. Simply remembering to the youngest scientists.....

  1. Cloud cover over the equatorial eastern Pacific derived from July 1983 International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data using a hybrid bispectral threshold method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.

    1987-01-01

    A set of visible and IR data obtained with GOES from July 17-31, 1983 is analyzed using a modified version of the hybrid bispectral threshold method developed by Minnis and Harrison (1984). This methodology can be divided into a set of procedures or optional techniques to determine the proper contaminate clear-sky temperature or IR threshold. The various optional techniques are described; the options are: standard, low-temperature limit, high-reflectance limit, low-reflectance limit, coldest pixel and thermal adjustment limit, IR-only low-cloud temperature limit, IR clear-sky limit, and IR overcast limit. Variations in the cloud parameters and the characteristics and diurnal cycles of trade cumulus and stratocumulus clouds over the eastern equatorial Pacific are examined. It is noted that the new method produces substantial changes in about one third of the cloud amount retrieval; and low cloud retrievals are affected most by the new constraints.

  2. Comparative study of Poincaré plot analysis using short electroencephalogram signals during anaesthesia with spectral edge frequency 95 and bispectral index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K; Yamada, T; Sawa, T

    2015-03-01

    The return or Poincaré plot is a non-linear analytical approach in a two-dimensional plane, where a timed signal is plotted against itself after a time delay. Its scatter pattern reflects the randomness and variability in the signals. Quantification of a Poincaré plot of the electroencephalogram has potential to determine anaesthesia depth. We quantified the degree of dispersion (i.e. standard deviation, SD) along the diagonal line of the electroencephalogram-Poincaré plot (named as SD1/SD2), and compared SD1/SD2 values with spectral edge frequency 95 (SEF95) and bispectral index values. The regression analysis showed a tight linear regression equation with a coefficient of determination (R(2) ) value of 0.904 (p plot tightly correlates with SEF95, reflecting anaesthesia-dependent changes in electroencephalogram oscillation.

  3. BiSpectral Index (BIS) monitoring may detect critical hypotension before automated non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurement during general anaesthesia; a case report. [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2oi

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Matthew M. J.

    2014-01-01

    A patient undergoing general anaesthesia for neurosurgery exhibited an unexpected sudden decrease in the BiSpectral Index (BIS) value to near-zero. This prompted the detection of profound hypotension using non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurement and expedited urgent assessment and treatment, with the patient making a full recovery. Widely regarded as a ‘depth of anaesthesia’ monitor, this case demonstrates the potential extra clinical benefit BIS may have in the detection of critical i...

  4. Bispectral index in dogs with high intracranial pressure, anesthetized with propofol and submitted to two levels of FiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C.F. Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inspired oxygen fractions (FiO2 of 1 and 0.6 on bispectral index (BIS in dogs with high intracranial pressure, submitted to a continuous rate infusion of propofol were evaluated. Eight dogs were anesthetized on two occasions, receiving, during controlled ventilation, an FiO2 = 1 (G100 or an FiO2 = 0.6 (G60. Propofol was used for induction (10mg.kg-1, IV, followed by a continuous rate infusion (0.6mg.kg-1.minute-1. After 20 minutes, a fiber-optic catheter was implanted on the surface of the right cerebral cortex to monitor the intracranial pressure, the baseline measurements of BIS values, signal quality index, suppression ratio number, electromyogram indicator, end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure, mean arterial pressure, intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure were taken. Then, the blood flow from the right jugular vein was interrupted in order to increase intracranial pressure and after 20 minutes additional recordings were performed at 15-minute intervals (T0, T15, T30, T45 and T60. The arterial oxygen partial pressure varied according to the changes in oxygen. For the other parameters, no significant differences were recorded. The BIS monitoring was not influenced by different FiO2.

  5. Comparison of equi-minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane and isoflurane on bispectral index values during both wash in and wash out phases: A prospective randomised study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: At equal minimum alveolar concentration (MAC, volatile agents may produce different bispectral index (BIS values especially at low BIS levels when the effect is volatile agent specific. The present study was performed to compare the BIS values produced by sevoflurane and isoflurane at equal MAC and thereby assessing which is a better hypnotic agent. Methods: Sixty American Society of Anaesthesiologists I and II patients undergoing elective mastoidectomy were divided into groups receiving either isoflurane or sevoflurane, and at equi-MAC. BIS value was measured during both wash in and wash out phase, keeping other parameters same. Statistical analysis was performed using the Friedman two-way analysis and Mann-Whitney U-test. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: BIS value was significantly lower with sevoflurane at all MAC values as compared to isoflurane, except in the beginning and at MAC awake. However, both the drugs proved to be cardiostable. Conclusion: At equi-MAC sevoflurane produces lower BIS values during wash in as well as wash out phase as compared to isoflurane, reflecting probably an agent specific effect and a deficiency in BIS algorithm for certain agents and their interplay.

  6. Mobile internet protocol analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brachfeld, Lawrence J.

    1999-01-01

    Mobile Internet Protocol (IP) is a proposed standard that builds on the current Internet Protocol by making the fact that a user is mobile transparent to applications and higher level protocols such as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet while maintaining any current conne...

  7. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  8. BiSpectral Index (BIS monitoring may detect critical hypotension before automated non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP measurement during general anaesthesia; a case report. [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2oi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient undergoing general anaesthesia for neurosurgery exhibited an unexpected sudden decrease in the BiSpectral Index (BIS value to near-zero. This prompted the detection of profound hypotension using non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP measurement and expedited urgent assessment and treatment, with the patient making a full recovery. Widely regarded as a ‘depth of anaesthesia’ monitor, this case demonstrates the potential extra clinical benefit BIS may have in the detection of critical incidents such as anaphylaxis during general anaesthesia.

  9. Effect of intravenous injection of dopamine on the bispectral index,entropy index,and sedation score during continuous propofol infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-long WANG

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To examine the effect of an intravenous injection of dopamine on the bispectral index(BIS,entropy index,and sedation score [Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/Sedation(OAAS] during continuous propofol infusion.Methods The present study selected nine patients undergoing an operation under ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ general anesthesia.Propofol is administered for anesthesia,and plasma/effective concentration(Cp/Ce remained unchanged when OAA/S=2.An intravenous injection of dopamine is then administrated at a single injection dosage of 3 mg to 5 mg.BIS,response entropy(RE,state entropy(SE,OAA/S score,and mean arterial pressure(MAP are recorded 1 min before injection and 1 min to 5 min after injection.Results Cp/Ce is 1.71±0.42 when OAA/S=2.After the intravenous injection of dopamine,BIS increases remarkably in five cases(BIS > 70 in four cases.The increment primarily occurs at 3 and 4 min.The entropy index in nine cases begins to increase at 2min,with this index apparently higher than that before the injection in six cases.The difference between RE and SE increases,and the increment of BIS and the entropy index occurs later than MAP.The OAA/S score ≥4 in five cases.Conclusion Intravenous injection of dopamine results in higher BIS,entropy index,and sedation score during a continuous infusion of propofol when OAA/S=2,thereby having an arousal effect.The entropy index is sensitive in terms of reflecting the arousal effect of dopamine.

  10. The effect of different doses of esmolol on hemodynamic, bispectral index and movement response during orotracheal intubation: prospective, randomized, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensure Yılmaz Çakırgöz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A prospective, randomized and double-blind study was planned to identify the optimum dose of esmolol infusion to suppress the increase in bispectral index values and the movement and hemodynamic responses to tracheal intubation. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups in a double-blind fashion. 2.5 mg kg-1 propofol was administered for anesthesia induction. After loss of consciousness, and before administration of 0.6 mg kg-1 rocuronium, a tourniquet was applied to one arm and inflated to 50 mm Hg greater than systolic pressure. The patients were divided into 3 groups; 1 mg kg-1 h-1 esmolol was given as the loading dose and in Group Es50 50 μg kg-1 min-1, in Group Es150 150 μg kg-1 min-1, and in Group Es250 250 μg kg-1 min-1 esmolol infusion was started. Five minutes after the esmolol has been begun, the trachea was intubated; gross movement within the first minute after orotracheal intubation was recorded. Results: Incidence of movement response and the ΔBIS max values were comparable in Group Es250 and Group Es150, but these values were significantly higher in Group Es50 than in the other two groups. In all three groups in the 1st minute after tracheal intubation heart rate and mean arterial pressure were significantly higher compared to values from before intubation (p < 0.05. In the study period there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of heart rate and mean arterial pressure. Conclusion: In clinical practise we believe that after 1 mg kg-1 loading dose, 150 μg kg-1 min-1 iv esmolol dose is sufficient to suppress responses to tracheal intubation without increasing side effects.

  11. Research on Protocol Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪芸; 顾冠群; 等

    1996-01-01

    This paper elaborates the concept and model of protocol migration in network interconnection.Migration strategies and principles are discussed and several cases are studied in detail which show the basic procedure and techniques used in protocol migration.

  12. Hemodynamics and bispectral index (BIS of dogs anesthetized with midazolam and ketamine associated with medetomidine or dexmedetomidine and submitted to ovariohysterectomy Avaliação hemodinâmica e do índice bispectral (BIS de cadelas anestesiadas com midazolam e cetamina associados à medetomidina ou dexmedetomidina e submetidas a ovário-salpingo-histerectomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando do Carmo Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate hemodynamics and bispectral index (BIS in bitches anesthetized with ketamine and midazolam in combination with dexmedetomidine or medetomidine and submitted to ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Twenty bitches pretreated with levomedetomidine and buprenorphine were anesthetized with 5 mg.kg-1 ketamine and 0.2 mg.kg-1 midazolam i.v. Continuous infusion of 0.4 mg.kg-1.h-1 midazolam and 20 mg.kg-1.h-1 ketamine was initiated in combination with DEX (n=10: 20 µg.kg-1.h-1 dexmedetomidine or MED (n=10: 30 µg.kg-1.h-1 medetomidine over 30 minutes. A pharmacokinetic study provided dexmedetomidine plasma concentration, set to be 3.0 ng.mL-1. RESULTS: BIS decreased in both groups (P0.05, but heart rate decreased in both groups, as compared to control values (POBJETIVO: Verificar o comportamento hemodinâmico e o índice bispectral de cadelas anestesiadas com cetamina e midazolam associados à dexmedetomidina ou medetomidina. MÉTODOS: Vinte cadelas receberam pré-tratamento com levomepromazina e buprenorfina e foram anestesiadas com cetamina, 5 mg.kg-1 i.v., e midazolam, 0,2 mg.kg-1 i.v., seguidos da administração contínua de midazolam, 0,4 mg.kg-1.h-1, e cetamina, 20 mg.kg-1.h-1, associados, conforme o grupo, à: DEX (n=10: dexmedetomidina 20 µg.kg-1.h-1 ou MED (n=10: medetomidina 30 µg.kg-1.h-1, mantidos por 30 minutos. A dose de dexmedetomidina foi obtida por meio de estudo farmacocinético planejando-se concentração plasmática de 3,0 ng.mL-1. RESULTADOS: Os valores do BIS diminuíram em ambos os grupos (P0,05, sem a presença de efeitos adversos. CONCLUSÃO: A administração contínua de dexmedetomidina em concentração plasmática calculada de 3 ng.mL-1, em combinação com midazolam e cetamina, resulta em plano anestésico adequado para castração de cadelas, estabilidade hemodinâmica e despertar tranquilo, sem efeitos adversos.

  13. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Users expect communication systems to guarantee, amongst others, privacy and integrity of their data. These can be ensured by using well-established protocols; the best protocol, however, is useless if not all parties involved in a communication have a correct implementation of the protocol and all...

  14. Adaptation of TURN protocol to SIP protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Guezouri, Mustapha; Keche, Mokhtar

    2010-01-01

    Today, SIP is a protocol par Excellence in the field of communication over Internet. But, the fact that it belongs to the application layer constitutes a weakness vis-a-vis the NAT traversal. This weakness is due to the way in which the server replies to the requests of clients on the one hand. On the other, it is caused by the dynamic allocation of UDP ports for emission and reception of packets RTP/RTCP. The TURN Protocol may face this weakness. However, its use requires a certain number of exchanges between the clients and a TURN server before establishing the multimedia sessions and this increase the latent time. In this article, we propose to adapt TURN protocol for applications based on SIP protocol such as telephony over Internet, conference video, etc. This adaptation optimises the establishment of multimedia sessions by integrating a manager of TCP connections and multimedia flow controller into SIP Proxy server.

  15. Blind Collective Signature Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Moldovyan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the digital signature (DS scheme specified by Belarusian DS standard there are designed the collective and blind collective DS protocols. Signature formation is performed simultaneously by all of the assigned signers, therefore the proposed protocols can be used also as protocols for simultaneous signing a contract. The proposed blind collective DS protocol represents a particular implementation of the blind multisignature schemes that is a novel type of the signature schemes. The proposed protocols are the first implementations of the multisignature schemes based on Belarusian signature standard.

  16. Changes in the Bispectral Index in Response to Loss of Consciousness and No Somatic Movement to Nociceptive Stimuli in Elderly Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Yang; Yun Yue; Jonathan Z Pan; Ming-Zhang Zuo; Yu Shi; Shu-Zhen Zhou; Wen-Ping Peng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bispectral index (BIS) is considered very useful to guide anesthesia care in elderly patients, but its use is controversial for the evaluation of the adequacy of analgesia.This study compared the BIS changes in response to loss of consciousness (LOC) and loss of somatic response (LOS) to nociceptive stimuli between elderly and young patients receiving intravenous target-controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol and remifentanil.Methods: This study was performed on 52 elderly patients (aged 65-78 years) and 52 young patients (aged 25-58 years), American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ.Anesthesia was induced with propofol administered by TCI.A standardized noxious electrical stimulus (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, [TENS]) was applied (50 Hz, 80 mA, 0.25 ms pulses for 4 s) to the ulnar nerve at increasing remifentanil predicted effective-site concentration (Ce) until patients lost somatic response to TENS.Changes in awake, prestimulus, poststimulus BIS, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulse oxygen saturation, predicted plasma concentration, Ce of propofol, and remifentanil at both LOC and LOS clinical points were investigated.Results: BISLOC in elderly group was higher than that in young patient group (65.4 ± 9.7 vs.57.6 ± 12.3) (t =21.58, P < 0.0001) after TCI propofol, and the propofol Ce at LOC was 1.6 ± 0.3 μg/ml in elderly patients, which was significantly lower than that in young patients (2.3 ± 0.5 μg/ml) (t =7.474, P < 0.0001).As nociceptive stimulation induced BIS to increase, the mean of BIS maximum values after TENS was significantly higher than that before TENS in both age groups (t =8.902 and t =8.019, P < 0.0001).With increasing Ce of remifentanil until patients lost somatic response to TENS, BISLOS was the same as the BISLOC in elderly patients (65.6 ± 10.7 vs.65.4 ± 9.7), and there were no marked differences between elderly and young patient groups in BISawake, BISLOS, and Ce of

  17. Nitrous Oxide and Nitrous Oxide-Free Low-Flow Anesthesia Using Bispectral Index Monitoring: Effects on Hemodynamics, Recovery Times, Volatile Anesthetic Consumption and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Gülhan Köksal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of desfluraneN2O and desflurane-fentanyl combinations on hemodynamics, recovery times, volatile anesthetic consumption and costs in low-flow desflurane anesthesia by bispectral index (BIS monitoring of depth of anesthesia. Methods: After approval of ethics committee and obtaining patient consents, 60 patients were divided into two equal groups randomly. Non-invasive blood pressure measurement, ECG, SpO2 and BIS were monitored. All patients received 10 L .min-1 100% oxygen with mask for 5 minute before intubation. 2 mg.kg-1 propofol, 2 μg.kg-1 fentanyl and 0.6 mg.kg-1 rocuronium bromide were administered at induction in both groups. Desfluran 6% was chosen for anesthesia maintenance. Group 1 received 50% O2-N2O mixture in 6 L.min-1 and Group 2 received 50% O2-air mixture in 6 L.min-1 as carrier gas. Low-flow anesthesia (1 L.min-1 was started after a 10-min period of initial high flow (6 L.min-1. In Group 2, infusion of fentanyl was begun in 1 μg.kg.hour-1 rate. Desflurane level was adjusted at a main BIS value of 40-60. Blood pressure, heart rate, FiO2, etO2, FiN22, EtN2O, FiCO2, EtCO2, Fidesfluran and Etdesflurane were recorded. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of heart rate, arterial blood pressure, settings of desfluran and recovery time. BIS values (p<0.001 and anesthetic agent costs (p<0.001 were higher in Group 2. Conclusion: Using fentanyl infusion instead of nitrous oxide in low flow-anesthesia with desflurane did not alter the hemodynamic parameters. Fentanyl infusion with medical air-oxygen as carrier gas is an alternative technique, but increases BIS values and anesthetic agent costs. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2010; 48: 132-8

  18. Block Advertisement Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Nemirovsky, Danil

    2015-01-01

    Bitcoin, a decentralized cryptocurrency, has attracted a lot of attention from academia, financial service industry and enthusiasts. The trade-off between transaction confirmation throughput and centralization of hash power do not allow Bitcoin to perform at the same level as modern payment systems. Block Advertisement Protocol is proposed as a step to resolve this issue. The protocol allows block mining and block relaying to happen in parallel. The protocol dictates a miner to advertise the ...

  19. A Framework Based on 2-D Taylor Expansion for Quantifying the Impacts of Subpixel Reflectance Variance and Covariance on Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius Retrievals Based on the Bispectral Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Werner, F.; Cho, H.-M.; Wind, G.; Platnick, S.; Ackerman, A. S.; Di Girolamo, L.; Marshak, A.; Meyer, K.

    2016-01-01

    The bispectral method retrieves cloud optical thickness (t) and cloud droplet effective radius (re) simultaneously from a pair of cloud reflectance observations, one in a visible or near-infrared (VIS/NIR) band and the other in a shortwave infrared (SWIR) band. A cloudy pixel is usually assumed to be horizontally homogeneous in the retrieval. Ignoring subpixel variations of cloud reflectances can lead to a significant bias in the retrieved t and re. In the literature, the retrievals of t and re are often assumed to be independent and considered separately when investigating the impact of subpixel cloud reflectance variations on the bispectral method. As a result, the impact on t is contributed only by the subpixel variation of VIS/NIR band reflectance and the impact on re only by the subpixel variation of SWIR band reflectance. In our new framework, we use the Taylor expansion of a two-variable function to understand and quantify the impacts of subpixel variances of VIS/NIR and SWIR cloud reflectances and their covariance on the t and re retrievals. This framework takes into account the fact that the retrievals are determined by both VIS/NIR and SWIR band observations in a mutually dependent way. In comparison with previous studies, it provides a more comprehensive understanding of how subpixel cloud reflectance variations impact the t and re retrievals based on the bispectral method. In particular, our framework provides a mathematical explanation of how the subpixel variation in VIS/NIR band influences the re retrieval and why it can sometimes outweigh the influence of variations in the SWIR band and dominate the error in re retrievals, leading to a potential contribution of positive bias to the re retrieval. We test our framework using synthetic cloud fields from a large-eddy simulation and real observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. The predicted results based on our framework agree very well with the numerical simulations. Our

  20. Transport Protocol Throughput Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Bhatti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Interest continues to grow in alternative transport protocols to the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP. These alternatives include protocols designed to give greater efficiency in high-speed, high-delay environments (so-called high-speed TCP variants, and protocols that provide congestion control without reliability. For the former category, along with the deployed base of ‘vanilla’ TCP – TCP NewReno – the TCP variants BIC and CUBIC are widely used within Linux: for the latter category, the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP is currently on the IETF Standards Track. It is clear that future traffic patterns will consist of a mix of flows from these protocols (and others. So, it is important for users and network operators to be aware of the impact that these protocols may have on users. We show the measurement of fairness in throughput performance of DCCP Congestion Control ID 2 (CCID2 relative to TCP NewReno, and variants Binary Increase Congestion control (BIC, CUBIC and Compound, all in “out-of-the box” configurations. We use a testbed and endto- end measurements to assess overall throughput, and also to assess fairness – how well these protocols might respond to each other when operating over the same end-to-end network path. We find that, in our testbed, DCCP CCID2 shows good fairness with NewReno, while BIC, CUBIC and Compound show unfairness above round-trip times of 25ms.

  1. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    . In response, we promote linear logic as a high-level language for both specifying and implementing voting protocols. Our linear logical specifications of the single-winner first-past-the-post (SW- FPTP) and single transferable vote (STV) protocols demonstrate that this approach leads to concise...

  2. IPv6 Protocol Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the emerging of next generation Intemet protocol (IPv6), it is expected to replace the current version of Internet protocol (IPv4) that will be exhausted in the near future. Besides providing adequate address space, some other new features are included into the new 128 bits of IP such as IP auto configuration, quality of service, simple routing capability, security, mobility and multicasting. The current protocol analyzer will not be able to handle IPv6 packets. This paper will focus on developing protocol analyzer that decodes IPv6 packet. IPv6 protocol analyzer is an application module,which is able to decode the IPv6 packet and provide detail breakdown of the construction of the packet. It has to understand the detail construction of the IPv6, and provide a high level abstraction of bits and bytes of the IPv6 packet.Thus it increases network administrators' understanding of a network protocol,helps he/she in solving protocol related problem in a IPv6 network environment.

  3. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  4. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  5. 1996 : Track Count Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge's Track Count Protocol is to provide an index to the population size of game animals inhabiting St. Vincent Island.

  6. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  7. Cytoskeleton - Methods and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytoskeleton - Methods and ProtocolsSecond edition, 2010; Ray H. Gavin (Ed; Springer Protocols methods in molecular biology, vol. 586 Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA; Pages: 390; €95.44; ISBN: 978-1-60761-375-6Ray H. Gavin, from the Brooklyn College of The City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY, USA, wrote a few line as preface of this book. This is quite understandable: there is not a great need of words when there are facts that sustain and favour the dissemination of a cultural product. This is the case of the second edition of Cytoskeleton - Methods and Protocols, which appears just ten years after the first edition...

  8. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  9. Apoptosis - Methods and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis - Methods and ProtocolsSecond edition, 2009; Peter Erhardt and Ambrus Toth (Eds; Springer Protocols - Methods in molecular biology, vol. 559; Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA; Pages: 400; €88.35; ISBN: 978-1-60327-016-8The editors rightly begin the preface telling us that: “The ability to detect and quantify apoptosis, to understand its biochemistry and to identify its regulatory genes and proteins is crucial to biomedical research”. Nowadays this is a grounding concept of biology and medicine. What is particularly remarkable...

  10. Security Protocols in a Nutshell

    OpenAIRE

    Toorani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Security protocols are building blocks in secure communications. They deploy some security mechanisms to provide certain security services. Security protocols are considered abstract when analyzed, but they can have extra vulnerabilities when implemented. This manuscript provides a holistic study on security protocols. It reviews foundations of security protocols, taxonomy of attacks on security protocols and their implementations, and different methods and models for security analysis of pro...

  11. Business protocol in integrated Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelová, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The first chapter devotes to definitions of basic terms such as protocol or business protocol, to differences between protocol and etiquette, and between social etiquette and business etiquette. The second chapter focuses on the factors influencing the European business protocol. The third chapter is devoted to the etiquette of business protocol in the European countries. It touches the topics such as punctuality and planning of business appointment, greeting, business cards, dress and appear...

  12. Security Protocol Design: A Case Study Using Key Distribution Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Dojen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays security protocols are a key component in providing security services for fixed and mobile networks. These services include data confidentiality, radio link encryption, message integrity, mobile subscriber authentication, electronic payment, certified e-mail, contract signing and nonrepudiation. This paper is concerned with design of effective security protocols. Security protocols are introduced and some common attacks against security protocols are discussed. The vulnerabilities that lead to theattacks are analyzed and guidelines for effective security protocol design are proposed. The presented guidelines are applied to the Andrew Secure RPC protocol and its adapted versions. It is demonstrated that compliance with the guidelines successfully avoidsfreshness and parallel session attacks.

  13. 光导在折射率引导光纤、多孔光纤、光子带隙光纤和纳米线中的简要定性解释%Simple qualitative explanations for light guidance in index-guiding fibres, holey fibres, photonic band-gap fibres and nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOVE John

    2014-01-01

    本文是一篇教学论文,旨在通过对具体实例中不同物理过程的分析来定性解释光导拓宽固体材料折射率引导光纤光谱、多孔光纤光谱、光子带隙光纤光谱和纳米线光谱的原理。%This is a tutorial-style paper in which simple explanations are presented to provide qualitative in-sight into the different physical processes that account for the guidance of light in the broadening spectrum of fibre types.These types include solid-material index-guiding fibres, holey fibres, photonic band-gap fibres and nano-wires.

  14. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  15. A family of quantum protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Devetak, I; Winter, A

    2003-01-01

    We introduce two dual, purely quantum protocols: for entanglement distillation assisted by quantum communication (``mother'' protocol) and for entanglement assisted quantum communication (``father'' protocol). We show how a large class of ``children'' protocols (including many previously known ones) can be derived from the two by direct application of teleportation or super-dense coding. Furthermore, the parent may be recovered from most of the children protocols by making them ``coherent''. We also summarize the various resource trade-offs these protocols give rise to.

  16. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  17. Phototherapy Modalities and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Ferahbaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, the development of irradiation devices with new emission spectra has led to an expanded role for phototherapy in the treatment of skin diseases. This development is best illustrated by the increasing frequency with which 311 nm UVB phototherapy is used for the treatment of psoriasis and vitiligo, especially. Another example is UVA1 340-400 nm. UVA1 was first used to treat patients with atopic dermatitis, but it has been found to be efficacious in several other skin diseases. This is overview of the protocols for phototherapy with UV in the treatment of skin diseases as currently used according to recent literature review. There are, of course, other protocols in use that are effective.

  18. Mitosis Methods & Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitosis Methods & Protocols Andrew D. McAinsh (Edt Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA Series: Springer Protocols Methods in Molecular Biology, Volume 545, 2009 ISBN: 978-1-60327-992-5   It is quite clear from the contents of this book that the remarkably fascinating phenomenon of mitosis (that captured, and still is capturing, the attention of entire generations of scientists is still open to research. This is mainly due to our lack of knowledge of so many multifaced events of this extraordinarly complex process. The reader giving a glace through the Contents and Contributors sections is speechless: All of the first-class models (i.e., budding yeast, Caenorabditis, Drosophila, Xenopus and Human are presented..... 

  19. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  20. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo;

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...... demonstrate that these techniques suffice for identifying a number of authentication flaws in symmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder, Otway-Rees, Yahalom and Andrew Secure RPC....

  1. An automatic protocol composition checker

    OpenAIRE

    Kojovic, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Formal analysis is widely used to prove security properties of the protocols. There are tools to check protocols in isolation, but in fact we use many protocols in parallel or even vertically stacked, e.g. running an application protocol (like login) over a secure channel (like TLS) and in general it is unclear if that is safe. There are several works that give sufficient conditions for parallel and vertical composition, but there exists no program to check whether these conditions are actual...

  2. Cirrus cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals from eMAS during SEAC4RS using bi-spectral reflectance measurements within the 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kerry; Platnick, Steven; Arnold, G. Thomas; Holz, Robert E.; Veglio, Paolo; Yorks, John; Wang, Chenxi

    2016-04-01

    Previous bi-spectral imager retrievals of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) based on the Nakajima and King (1990) approach, such as those of the operational MODIS cloud optical property retrieval product (MOD06), have typically paired a non-absorbing visible or near-infrared wavelength, sensitive to COT, with an absorbing shortwave or mid-wave infrared wavelength sensitive to CER. However, in practice it is only necessary to select two spectral channels that exhibit a strong contrast in cloud particle absorption. Here it is shown, using eMAS observations obtained during NASA's SEAC4RS field campaign, that selecting two absorbing wavelength channels within the broader 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band, namely the 1.83 and 1.93 µm channels that have sufficient differences in ice crystal single scattering albedo, can yield COT and CER retrievals for thin to moderately thick single-layer cirrus that are reasonably consistent with other solar and IR imager-based and lidar-based retrievals. A distinct advantage of this channel selection for cirrus cloud retrievals is that the below-cloud water vapor absorption minimizes the surface contribution to measured cloudy top-of-atmosphere reflectance, in particular compared to the solar window channels used in heritage retrievals such as MOD06. This reduces retrieval uncertainty resulting from errors in the surface reflectance assumption and reduces the frequency of retrieval failures for thin cirrus clouds.

  3. Optimal wavelengths obtained from laws analogous to the Wien's law for monospectral and bispectral methods, and general methodology for multispectral temperature measurements taking into account global transfer function including non-uniform emissivity of surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodiet, Christophe; Remy, Benjamin; Degiovanni, Alain

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, it is shown how to select the optimal wavelengths minimizing the relative error and the standard deviation of the temperature. Furthermore, it is shown that the optimal wavelengths in mono-spectral and bi-spectral methods (for a Planck's law) can be determined by laws analogous to the displacement Wien's law. The simplicity of these laws can thus allow real-time selection of optimal wavelengths for a control/optimization of industrial processes, for example. A more general methodology to obtain the optimal wavelengths selection in a multi-spectral method (taking into account the spectral variations of the global transfer function including the emissivity variations) for temperature measurement of surfaces exhibiting non-uniform emissivity, is also presented. This latter can then find an interest in glass furnaces temperature measurement with spatiotemporal non-uniformities of emissivity, the control of biomass pyrolysis, the surface temperature measurement of buildings or heating devices, for example. The goal consists of minimizing the standard deviation of the estimated temperature (optimal design experiment). For the multi-spectral method, two cases will be treated: optimal global and optimal constrained wavelengths selection (to the spectral range of the detector, for example). The estimated temperature results obtained by different models and for different number of parameters and wavelengths are compared. These different points are treated from theoretical, numerical and experimental points of view.

  4. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.;

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques...

  5. Transfusion protocol in trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Paramjit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood and blood components are considered drugs because they are used in the treatment of diseases. As with any drug, adverse effects may occur, necessitating careful consideration of therapy. Like any other therapeutic decision, the need for transfusion should be considered on the basis of risks and benefits and alternative treatments available to avoid over- and under-transfusion. This review is focused on the blood transfusion protocol in trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock. Besides, issues related to emergency and massive transfusion have also been elaborated. We conducted a comprehensive MEDLINE search and reviewed the relevant literature, with particular reference to emergency medical care in trauma.

  6. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 74683-79494

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  7. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  8. Provenance Query Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, S.; Moreau, L; Groth, P; Tan, V.; Munroe, S; Jiang, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    A related document defines schemas to be used for documentation about the execution of a process. It also defines the provenance of a data item as the process that led to that item. A provenance query is a query for the provenance of a data item and the results of such a query is documentation of the process that led to the item. In this document, we specify a protocol by which a querying actor and provenance store can communicate in performing a provenance query. This primarily takes the for...

  9. Stream Control Transmission Protocol Steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Fraczek, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a new transport layer protocol that is due to replace TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) protocols in future IP networks. Currently, it is implemented in such operating systems like BSD, Linux, HP-UX or Sun Solaris. It is also supported in Cisco network devices operating system (Cisco IOS) and may be used in Windows. This paper describes potential steganographic methods that may be applied to SCTP and may pose a threat to network security. Proposed methods utilize new, characteristic SCTP features like multi-homing and multistreaming. Identified new threats and suggested countermeasures may be used as a supplement to RFC 5062, which describes security attacks in SCTP protocol and can induce further standard modifications.

  10. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe, Alberto; Pepe, Alberto; Yeomans, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should naturally guide authors towards OA publication and CERN wants to help reach a full...

  11. Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Sigurd Torkel

    they are used to speed up secure computation. An Oblivious RAM is a construction for a client with a small $O(1)$ internal memory to store $N$ pieces of data on a server while revealing nothing more than the size of the memory $N$, and the number of accesses. This specifically includes hiding the access pattern......This thesis contains research on the theory of secure multi-party computation (MPC). Especially information theoretically (as opposed to computationally) secure protocols. It contains results from two main lines of work. One line on Information Theoretically Secure Oblivious RAMS, and how....... We construct an oblivious RAM that hides the client's access pattern with information theoretic security with an amortized $\\log^3 N$ query overhead. And how to employ a second server that is guaranteed not to conspire with the first to improve the overhead to $\\log^2 N$, while also avoiding...

  12. A PROGRAMMED LABOUR - PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Prospective randomized Clinical study of outcome of labour following. “A Programmed labour. Protocol” was done at Department of OBG, MRMC Gulbarga. The Protocol was aimed with dual. Objective of Providing Pain relief during labour and teaching the goal of safe motherhood by optimizing objective outcome. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Shortening of duration of labour. Effect of labour analgesia. Monitoring of the events during labour. Lowering the incidence of operative deliveries. METHODS: 100 cases primi pregnant women admitted in labour room are randomly selected. It is designed to apply to low risk primi parous, singleton cephalic presentation without evidence of CPD and spontaneous onset of labour. RESULTS: Shortened duration of all the stages of Labour, especially significant reduction in duration of active phase of labour. CONCLUSION: The programmed labour is simple easy and effective method for painless and safe delivery.

  13. Midazolam por via oral como medicação pré-anestésica em crianças e adolescentes com paralisia cerebral: estudo comparativo das variações do índice bispectral Midazolam por vía oral como medicación preanestésica en niños y adolescentes con parálisis cerebral: estudio comparativo de las variaciones del índice bispectral Oral midazolam as pre-anesthetic medication in children and teenagers with cerebral palsy: a comparative study on the variations of the bispectral index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Vieira da Costa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O midazolam é um derivado benzodiazepínico com ação hipnótica e muito utilizado como medicação pré-anestésica em anestesia pediátrica. As crianças com paralisia cerebral (PC também se beneficiam do uso do midazolam, mas seus efeitos são ainda desconhecidos sobre esse grupo de pacientes que apresentam uma série de particularidades, com alterações inclusive no local de ação do midazolam. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a ação do midazolam utilizado como medicação pré-anestésica sobre o índice bispectral (EEG-BIS dos pacientes com paralisia cerebral. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados dois grupos de pacientes: um com diagnóstico de PC e outro sem doença do sistema nervoso central (SNC e periférico. Foram registrados valores de EEG-BIS na enfermaria na véspera da operação e no dia da operação, 40 minutos depois da administração de 0,6 mg.kg-1 de midazolam via oral. Foram excluídos pacientes com história de reação paradoxal ao midazolam e pacientes do grupo-controle que estivessem em uso de outra medicação. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 77 pacientes de ambos os sexos, entre 4 e 18 anos de idade. Não houve diferença entre os valores de EEG-BIS basal entre os grupos estudados. Após o uso do midazolam houve diminuição dos valores do EEG-BIS nos dois grupos estudados, com diferença estatística significativa em cada grupo. Na comparação entre grupos não houve diferença estatística. CONCLUSÕES: O midazolam administrado como medicação pré-anestésica na dose de 0,6 mg.kg-1 diminui os valores basais do EEG-BIS sem caracterizar hipnose e sem diferença estatística nos grupos estudados.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El midazolam es un derivado benzodiazepínico con acción hipnótica y muy utilizado como medicación preanestésica en anestesia pediátrica. Los niños con parálisis cerebral (PC también se benefician del uso del midazolam, pero sus efectos todavía se desconocen sobre ese

  14. 意识指数和脑电双频谱指数监测在小儿全身麻醉诱导中的应用%Index of consciousness and bispectral index in general anaesthesia induction in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金泉英; 刘珺珺; 顾志清

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨意识指数(index of consciousness,IoC)在小儿全身麻醉诱导时镇静深度监测中的应用价值.方法 25例择期手术患儿,应用丙泊酚等进行麻醉诱导,麻醉诱导期间测试患儿意识反应,镇静深度采用镇静/警觉评分(observers assessment of alertness/sedation scale,OAA/S),记录OAA/S评分即刻的IoC,并与脑电双频谱指数(bispectral index,BIS)进行比较.结果 25例中有效数据17例;OAA/S为0分时IoC值(44.82±8.47)、BIS值(39.00±14.44)均低于OAA/S为5分时(IoC值为96.65±2.64,BIS值为90.24±5.83),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),且以上2个时间点IoC值均大于BIS值(P<0.05);OAA/S与IoC(r=0.871,P=0.000)、BIS(r=0.864,P=0.000)以及IoC与BIS(r=0.805,P=0.002)均呈正相关.结论 IoC值可反映丙泊酚麻醉诱导期间小儿镇静深度.

  15. The impact of cloud vertical profile on liquid water path retrieval based on the bispectral method: A theoretical study based on large-eddy simulations of shallow marine boundary layer clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel J.; Zhang, Zhibo; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Platnick, Steven; Baum, Bryan A.

    2016-04-01

    Passive optical retrievals of cloud liquid water path (LWP), like those implemented for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), rely on cloud vertical profile assumptions to relate optical thickness (τ) and effective radius (re) retrievals to LWP. These techniques typically assume that shallow clouds are vertically homogeneous; however, an adiabatic cloud model is plausibly more realistic for shallow marine boundary layer cloud regimes. In this study a satellite retrieval simulator is used to perform MODIS-like satellite retrievals, which in turn are compared directly to the large-eddy simulation (LES) output. This satellite simulator creates a framework for rigorous quantification of the impact that vertical profile features have on LWP retrievals, and it accomplishes this while also avoiding sources of bias present in previous observational studies. The cloud vertical profiles from the LES are often more complex than either of the two standard assumptions, and the favored assumption was found to be sensitive to cloud regime (cumuliform/stratiform). Confirming previous studies, drizzle and cloud top entrainment of dry air are identified as physical features that bias LWP retrievals away from adiabatic and toward homogeneous assumptions. The mean bias induced by drizzle-influenced profiles was shown to be on the order of 5-10 g/m2. In contrast, the influence of cloud top entrainment was found to be smaller by about a factor of 2. A theoretical framework is developed to explain variability in LWP retrievals by introducing modifications to the adiabatic re profile. In addition to analyzing bispectral retrievals, we also compare results with the vertical profile sensitivity of passive polarimetric retrieval techniques.

  16. Ⅱ类超晶格双光谱红外探测器光谱串音的量化分析计算%Quantitative Analysis and Calculation of Spectral Crosstalk of Type Ⅱ Superlattice Bispectral Infrared Detectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忆锋; 余连杰; 田萦

    2011-01-01

    对于起降阶段的各类飞机来说,便携式导弹是主要威胁.以基于Ⅱ类超晶格双光谱红外探测器的机载导弹逼近告警(MAW)系统为应用背景,介绍了光谱串音的定义及计算方法.分别测出两个光谱通道的光谱响应曲线,容易利用MATLAB样条函数积分命令算出两条曲线交叉部分围成的面积,该面积的数值反映了器件光谱串音的大小.给出了所用MATLAB程序,该方法具有实现容易、使用快捷等特点.%The main threats for any type of aircraft are the man portable missiles during taking-off and landing.Under the application background of missile approach warning (MAW) based on type Ⅱ superlatice bispectral infrared detectors, the definition and calculation methods of spectral crosstalk were introduced.After measuring separately the spectral response curves of the two spectral channels, the area of the region bounded by the crossed sections of the two curves reflecting the amount of spectral crosstalk of the device, can be calculated easily with MATLAB spline function integration commands.The MATLAB program was listed in this paper.It is easier to implement and convenient to use.

  17. Protocols for Robotic Telescope Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Klotz

    2010-01-01

    This paper is addressed to astronomers who are not specialists in computer science. We give explanations of some basic and advanced protocols to receive events and how to implement them in a robotic observatory software. We describe messages such as GCN notices, VOEvents or RTML, and protocols such as CGI, HTTP, SOAP, RSS, and XMPP.

  18. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, A.; Yeomans, J.

    2007-10-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should guide authors naturally towards OA publication, and CERN wants to help reach a full open access publishing environment for the particle physics community and related sciences in the next few years.

  19. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Mittal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available IPTV is one of the mostly used technology of Internet and IP application. IPTV is a service for the delivery of broadcast TV, movies on demand and other interactive multimedia services over a secure, end-to-end operator managed broadband IP data network with desired QoS to the public with a broadband Internet connection. IPTV system may also include Internet services such as Web access and VoIP where it may be called Triple Play and is typically supplied by a broadband operator using the same infrastructure. IPTV is not the Internet Video that simply allows users to watch videos, like movie previews and web-cams, over the Internet in a best effort fashion. IPTV technology offers revenue-generating opportunities for the telecom and cable service providers. For traditional telephone service providers, Triple Play is delivered using a combination of optical fiber and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL technologies to its residential base. IPTV is a system where a digital television service is delivered by using Internet Protocol over a network infrastructure, which may include delivery by a broadband connection. A general definition of IPTV is television content that, instead of being delivered through traditional broadcast and cable formats, is received by the viewer through the technologies used for computer networks. In this paper I am trying to discuss this topic as my knowledge, including what is IPTV, how it works, its advantages and its applications

  20. Mode field expansion in index-guiding microstructured optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dinesh Kumar; Sharma, Anurag

    2013-05-01

    The mode-field expander (MFE) is a microstructured optical fiber (MOF) based device that enlarges the modal field distribution and can couple light from large mode area (LMA) fibers into small core fibers or vice-versa and other optical waveguides. Using our earlier developed analytical field model, we studied the mode-field expansion in MOFs having triangular lattice, and low-loss splicing of MOFs to standard single-mode fibers (SMFs), based on the controlled all airhole collapse method, which leads to an optimum mode-field match at the joint interface of the MOF-SMF. Comparisons with available experimental and simulation results have also been included.

  1. An index guiding temporal planting policies for wind erosion reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, C.X.; Zheng, D.W.; Stigter, C.J.; He, W.Q.; Tuo, D.B.; Zhao, P.

    2006-01-01

    Vegetation cover has spatial as well as temporal characteristics, but the latter are often neglected. Temporal cover characteristics were explored to recommend planting policies for returning arable land into land better protected from serious wind erosion during late autumn, winter, and particularl

  2. Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Theis Peter; Broeng, Jes; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;

    2001-01-01

    . While extremely high degrees of birefringence may be obtained for the fibers, we demonstrate that careful design with respect to multimode behavior must be performed. We further discuss the cutoff properties of birefringent PCFs and present experimental results in agreement with theoretical predictions......Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) offer new possibilities of realizing highly birefringent fibers due to a higher intrinsic index contrast compared to conventional fibers. In this letter, we analyze theoretically the levels of birefringence that can be expected using relatively simple PCF designs...

  3. AN IMPROVED AUTHENTICATED KEY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, Seo and Sweeney proposed a simple authenticated key agreement protocol that was designed to act as a Diffie-Hellman key agreement protocol with user authentication.Various attacks on this protocol are described and enhanced in the literature. Recently, Ku and Wang proposed an improved authenticated key agreement protocol, where they asserted the protocol could withstand the existing attacks. This paper shows that Ku and Wang's protocol is still vulnerable to the modification attack and presents an improved authenticated key agreement protocol to enhance the security of Ku and Wang's protocol. The protocol has more efficient performance by replacing exponentiation operations with message authentication code operations.

  4. SIP protocol model for OMNET++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucerak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes our new SIP protocol implementation for the OMNeT++ simulation framework. OMNeT++ simulation framework provides an extensive support of IP related protocols, nevertheless a working SIP protocol implementation is missing. Real measurements were also done using a SIPp traffic generator and the results are compared to those obtained by our new SIP model. Since this work is a part of bigger project concerned strictly on measuring "first response times" over networks with a faulty transmission links, the actually collected statistics are focused only this way.

  5. Dynamic random channel reservation protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Yanying; Zhang Wenjun; Yu Songyu

    2005-01-01

    Demand assignment MAC protocols have been used widely in wireless networks. It can effectively utilize wireless bandwidth. Some strategies can be used by demand assignment MAC protocols to further improve their efficiency. The concept of transmit probability is introduced. This concept allows a request slot to be assigned to many different traffic classes at the same time. Based on it, the dynamic random channel reservation (DRCR) protocol is proposed. The DRCR protocol operates dynamically by observing the traffic conditions. It uses information about the recent traffic conditions to assign transmit probability with which an mobile station can select request slots with lower traffic. The performance of DRCR is evaluated and compared with RSCA. The results show that DRCR is more stable than RSCA, it offers shorter delays of requests than RSCA and can relieve heavily stressed traffic classes faster than RSCA.

  6. National Elk Refuge vaccination protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal by the State of Wyoming, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, to vaccinate elk on the National Elk Refuge. The proposal provides a protocol for vaccinating...

  7. Automatic Sequencing for Experimental Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Paul F.; Stern, Ivan

    We present a paradigm and implementation of a system for the specification of the experimental protocols to be used for the calibration of AXAF mirrors. For the mirror calibration, several thousand individual measurements need to be defined. For each measurement, over one hundred parameters need to be tabulated for the facility test conductor and several hundred instrument parameters need to be set. We provide a high level protocol language which allows for a tractable representation of the measurement protocol. We present a procedure dispatcher which automatically sequences a protocol more accurately and more rapidly than is possible by an unassisted human operator. We also present back-end tools to generate printed procedure manuals and database tables required for review by the AXAF program. This paradigm has been tested and refined in the calibration of detectors to be used in mirror calibration.

  8. Improved Authenticated Multi-Key Agreement Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua; YUAN Zheng; WEN Qiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    Zhou et al give an attack on Harn's modified authenticated multi-key agreement protocol, and give a protocol that can prevent the unknown key-share attack. The paper points out that the protocol is vulnerable to a concatenation attack. This paper proposes an improved authenticated multi-key agreement protocol which shows how to make Harn's protocol more secure by modifying the signature and verification. And this protocol can escape the concatenation attack.

  9. Self-Healing Protocol Implementations

    OpenAIRE

    Tschudin, Christian; Yamamoto, Lidia

    2005-01-01

    Current studies on self-configuring and adaptive networks aim at developing specific and fixed protocols which are able to optimize their configuration in a variable network environment. In this talk we study the problem where the protocols need to cope with a defective execution, including the lossy execution or the injection of foreign code. One guiding question will be the creation of robust execution circuits which can distribute over a network and which continue their service despite par...

  10. Secure E-payment Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattar J Aboud

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The vast spreading of information in the last decade has led to greatdevelopment in e-commerce. For instance, e-trade and e-bank are two mainInternet services that implement e-transaction from anyplace in the world. Thishelps merchant and bank to ease the financial transaction process and to giveuser friendly services at any time. However, the cost of workers andcommunications falls down considerably while the cost of trusted authority andprotecting information is increased. E-payment is now one of the most centralresearch areas in e-commerce, mainly regarding online and offline paymentscenarios. In this paper, we will discuss an important e-payment protocol namelyKim and Lee scheme examine its advantages and delimitations, whichencourages the author to develop more efficient scheme that keeping allcharacteristics intact without concession of the security robustness of theprotocol. The suggest protocol employs the idea of public key encryption schemeusing the thought of hash chain. We will compare the proposed protocol with Kimand Lee protocol and demonstrate that the proposed protocol offers moresecurity and efficiency, which makes the protocol workable for real worldservices.

  11. Effect of intravenous lidocaine on bispectral index and stress reaction in patients undergo tracheal intubation%静脉注射利多卡因对气管插管病人BIS值及应激反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红珠; 陈冯琳; 王明仓

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To observe the relationship between the level of catecholamine with bispec-tral index during endotracheal intubation with propofol anesthesia in order to investigate the mechanism of the preventing of endotracheal intubation response with lidocaine. METHODS: Sixty patients were randomly allocated into two groups:control group (Group C) and lidocaine group (Group L). The patients received lidocaine 1. 5 mg/kg in Group L and saline in Group C before induction of anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (2 mg/kg) and fentanyl (4 jug/kg) and tracheal intubation was facilitated with rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) in all patients. Bispectral index (BIS), systolic pressure ( SP) , diastolic pressure(DP) and heart rate(HR)were continuously monitored and recorded before induced of anesthesia(T0) , preintubation(T!) , immediately and 1,3 min after intubation (T2-4). Arterial blood samples were obtained at To? Tj and T3 for determination of plasma concentration of adrenaline (Ad) and noradrenaline(NA). RE-SULTS :SP, DP,HR were significantly increased after intubation in Group C compared with baseline values at T0 ( P 0. 05). Compared with Group C, BIS value at Ti to T4 decreased significantly in Group L(P<0. 05). Plasma Ad and NA were lower at T3 in Group L than those in Group C and T0(P<0. 05). CONCLUSION: Lidocaine can further reduce BIS value and the plasma concentration of catecholamines during propofol anesthesia, indicating the sedative and anti-nociep-tive effect of intravenous lidocaine. Lidocaine (1. 5 mg/kg) can restrain the changes of BIS and reduce stress reaction caused by tracheal intubation.%目的:观察利多卡因对丙泊酚麻醉诱导气管插管时血浆儿茶酚胺与脑电双频指数(BIS)变化的影响,探讨利多卡因抑制气管插管反应的机制.方法:60例患者随机分为对照组(C组)和利多卡因组(L组).L组先静脉注射利多卡因1.5 mg/kg,C组注入等量生理盐水,然后两组均静脉注射丙泊酚2 mg/kg、芬太尼4

  12. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  13. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  14. Cryptographic Protocols under Quantum Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Lunemann, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    The realm of this thesis is cryptographic protocol theory in the quantum world. We study the security of quantum and classical protocols against adversaries that are assumed to exploit quantum effects to their advantage. Security in the quantum world means that quantum computation does not jeopardize the assumption, underlying the protocol construction. But moreover, we encounter additional setbacks in the security proofs, which are mostly due to the fact that some well-known classical proof techniques are forbidden by certain properties of a quantum environment. Interestingly, we can exploit some of the very same properties to the benefit of quantum cryptography. Thus, this work lies right at the heart of the conflict between highly potential effects but likewise rather demanding conditions in the quantum world.

  15. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus;

    2011-01-01

    Attacks on classical cryptographic protocols are usually modeled by allowing an adversary to ask queries from an oracle. Security is then defined by requiring that as long as the queries satisfy some constraint, there is some problem the adversary cannot solve, such as compute a certain piece...... string model. While our protocol is classical, it is sound against a cheating unbounded quantum prover and computational zero-knowledge even if the verifier is allowed a superposition attack. Finally, we consider multiparty computation and show that for the most general type of attack, simulation based...... of information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security...

  16. Symbolic Analysis of Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten

    a concrete protocol by Blumberg et al. using one-way functions and commitments for providing various location based vehicle services, and report on our ndings and experience of carrying out its analysis using the ProVerif tool. Third, we make an abstract model of the powerful simulation-based Universally...... Compos- able framework by Canetti for specifying and analysing protocols, and show that our model is sound with respect to its standard computational interpretation. Our model supports powerful primitives such as homomorphic encryption and non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs, which we show may be used...... to implement several interesting two-party functionalities. As a case study we use the ProVerif tool to analyse an oblivious transfer protocol by Damgard et al. under static corruption...

  17. Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong

    Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.

  18. The Kyoto protocol development; La viabilite du protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R. [Harvard Univ., Barrow, AK (United States); Guesneris, R. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-04-01

    From the author R. Cooper point of view the Kyoto Protocol is a flawed concept. The reasons for dropping Kyoto are presented in this paper insisting that rejecting Kyoto not means to imply that global climate change is not a serious problem. After a presentation of the US policy facing the Climatic Change, some concluding propositions are proposed. (A.L.B.)

  19. Additional protocol experience in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) is the national regulatory body with regulation, authorization and control responsibilities. CNCAN has the right and obligation to ensure that safeguards are applied, in accordance with the terms of the safeguards agreement, on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within the State, under its jurisdiction or carried out under its control anywhere, for the exclusive purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. CNCAN has built a strong primary and secondary legislation in order to have a strong legal framework to fulfill the NPT, Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol requirements. In respect of the non-proliferation issues CNCAN has as a major goal to strengthen the effectiveness and to improve the efficiency of the safeguards system. Also closer co-operation between the IAEA and CNCAN as coordinator of the national system of accounting for and control of nuclear material has been developed by organizing international and national seminars on the implementation of safeguards and the additional protocol. After the entry into force of the Additional Protocol, CNCAN prepared appropriate declarations and answers to the relevant IAEA questions in order to obtain a drawn conclusion of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and nuclear activities within Romania territory. The IAEA evaluated in Romania not only the results of its nuclear material related activities under the Safeguards Agreement but also the results of its broader, more qualitative, evaluation and verification activities under the Additional Protocol. CNCAN assured that the IAEA inspectors have complementary access according to the Additional Protocol as requested in accordance with the provisions of the Safeguards Agreement and the Additional Protocol and cooperated in resolving in a timely manner, any questions or

  20. The Simplest Protocol for Oblivious Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chou, Tung; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Oblivious Transfer (OT) is the fundamental building block of cryptographic protocols. In this paper we describe the simplest and most efficient protocol for 1-out-of-n OT to date, which is obtained by tweaking the Diffie-Hellman key-exchange protocol. The protocol achieves UC-security against...... optimizations) is at least one order of magnitude faster than previous work. Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / Oblivious Transfer, UC Security, Elliptic Curves, Efficient Implementation...

  1. Analysis of the Transport Layer Security protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Firing, Tia Helene

    2010-01-01

    In this master thesis we have presented a security analysis of the TLS protocol with particular emphasis on the recently discovered renegotiation attack. From our security proof we get that the Handshake protocol with renegotiation, including the fix from IETF, is secure, and hence not vulnerable to the renegotiation attack anymore. We have also analysed the Handshake protocol with session resumption, and the Application data protocol together with the Record protocol. Both of these prot...

  2. Developing security protocols in χ-Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Milicia, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    It is of paramount importance that a security protocol effectively enforces the desired security requirements. The apparent simplicity of informal protocol descriptions hides the inherent complexity of their interactions which, often, invalidate informal correctness arguments and justify the effo......-Spaces aids several steps in the development of a security protocolprotocol executions can be simulated in hostile environments, a security protocol can be implemented, and security properties of implementations can be formally verified....

  3. Relação entre a infusão contínua de dexmedetomidina e a fração expirada de sevoflurano monitorizada pelo índice bispectral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Edno

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A associação de agentes venosos à anestesia geral inalatória proporciona melhor qualidade de analgesia e hipnose. A dexmedetomidina é um agonista específico alfa2-adrenérgico com estas características e reconhecida por proporcionar estabilidade hemodinâmica. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito da infusão contínua de dexmedetomidina na fração expirada de sevoflurano (FEsevo em anestesia geral, monitorizada pela análise bispectral do EEG (BIS. MÉTODO: Estudou-se, de modo prospectivo, 24 pacientes adultos, de ambos os sexos, estado físico ASA I e II, submetidos à cirurgias eletivas sob anestesia geral, monitorizados com ECG, PANI, SpO2, P ET CO2, FEsevo e BIS. Procedeu-se a indução venosa com alfentanil (30 µg.kg-1, tiopental (5 mg.kg-1 e vecurônio (0,1 mg.kg-1 e intubação traqueal. Iniciaram-se a administração de sevoflurano (manutenção do BIS entre 40 e 60, a ventilação controlada com volume corrente de 10 ml.kg-1 e a manutenção da P ET CO2 entre 35 e 45 mmHg. Na fase de manutenção da anestesia, após 60 minutos da indução anestésica (M60, foi iniciada a infusão contínua de dexmedetomidina em 2 fases: infusão inicial (1 µg.kg-1 em 20 minutos; e, infusão de manutenção (0,5 µg.kg-1.h-1. A concentração de sevoflurano foi ajustada para manter o valor de BIS entre 40 e 60. As variáveis de PA, FC, FEsevo, SpO2, P ET CO2 e BIS foram avaliadas nos momentos pré-indução (M-15, M15, M45, M75, M105 e M120. RESULTADOS: A associação da dexmedetomidina à anestesia geral com sevoflurano proporcionou redução significativa (p < 0,05 da FEsevo de M45 (1,604 ± 0,485 a M105 (1,073 ± 0,457 e de M45 (1,604 ± 0,485 a M120 (1,159 ± 0,475. As variáveis hemodinâmicas analisadas apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes com p < 0,05, mas sem repercussões clínicas. CONCLUSÕES: A associação de dexmedetomidina em infusão contínua (0,5 µg.kg-1.h-1 à anestesia

  4. 脑电双频谱指数和 Narcotrend 监测临床应用新进展%The new advance in clinical application of bispectral index and Narcotrend monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝倩; 周莉; 刘保江; 吕洁萍

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the depth of anesthesia has been a challenge in anesthetic research. For decades, adequacy of general anesthesia was estimated on the basis of unspecific clinical parameters, such as blood pressure, heart rate, sweating, tearing, eye movement, and many more. These traditional methods may vary from patient to patient depending on the type of surgery. And with the extent of time, these indicators may have fatigue phenomenon. In addition, the use of other drugs such as muscle relaxants and vasodilators make the analysis of these signs difficult and unreliable. Today, an increasing number of monitors reflect anesthetic effects on the main target organ of general anesthesia, the brain. These monitors record and process electroencephalogram or auditory evoked potentials, which can accurately reflect the changes in the physiological functions of the brain. At present, bispectral index (BIS) and Narcotrend monitors are commonly used for monitoring the hypnotic component of anesthesia during perioperative period. BIS is first applied to clinical, a large number of data proved the good correlation between the BIS value and sedation degree, which is its uniqueness. Narcotrend monitor is a new type of EEG monitoring system, compared with the BIS, the time delay for calculation is shorter and the electrode is cheaper. This article reviewed the application and progress of the two technologies.%麻醉深度的评估一直是麻醉研究领域的一个重要话题。传统的临床麻醉常根据临床体征调节麻醉深度,如血压、心率、出汗、流泪、眼球运动等。这些体征可能由于手术类型不同因人而异,且可能随麻醉和手术时间延长出现疲劳现象,加之现代麻醉术中骨骼肌松弛药和血管扩张剂的联合使用,使得全麻下的临床体征很难用来准确客观地评估麻醉深度。随着神经电生理技术迅猛发展,近年产生了许多定量脑电图和诱发电位指标,可更加精确

  5. Protocol biopsies for renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rush David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocol biopsies in renal transplantation are those that are procured at predetermined times post renal transplantation, regardless of renal function. These biopsies have been useful to study the natural history of the transplanted kidney as they have detected unexpected - i.e. "subclinical" pathology. The most significant subclinical pathologies that have been detected with protocol biopsies have been acute lesions, such as cellular and antibody mediated rejection, and chronic lesions, such as interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, and transplant glomerulopathy. The potential benefit of early recognition of the above lesions is that their early treatment may result in improved long-term outcomes. Conversely, the identification of normal histology on a protocol biopsy, may inform us about the safety of reduction in overall immunosuppression. Our centre, as well as others, is attempting to develop non-invasive methods of immune monitoring of renal transplant patients. However, we believe that until such methods have been developed and validated, the protocol biopsy will remain an indispensable tool for the complete care of renal transplant patients.

  6. Kyoto protocol on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports a short overview of main points of Kyoto protocol to United Nations Framework Convention on climate Change and of some options still to be defined, evolutions of Italian emissions with respect to other European countries, check of decree by inter ministerial committee on economic planning on national plan to reduce emissions

  7. Performance Evaluation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Curti, Michele;

    2005-01-01

    We use a special operational semantics which drives us in inferring quantitative measures on systems describing cryptographis cryptographic protocols. We assign rates to transitions by only looking at these labels. The rates reflect the distributed architecture running applications and the use of...... of possibly different cryptosystems. We then map transition systems to Markov chains and evaluate performance of systems, using standard tools....

  8. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...

  9. From protocol to published report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Louise; Callréus, Torbjörn; Petersen, Lene Grejs;

    2016-01-01

    %) of the sample, and 87% (95% CI: 80 to 94%) of the trials were hospital based. CONCLUSIONS: Overall consistency between protocols and their corresponding published reports was low. Motivators for the inconsistencies are unknown but do not seem restricted to economic incentives....

  10. Improving the DGK comparison protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    When processing signals in the encrypted domain, homomorphic encryption can be used to enable linear operations on encrypted data. Comparison of encrypted data however requires an additional protocol between the parties and will be relatively expensive. A well-known and frequently used comparison pr

  11. The Kyoto Protocol and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘巧云

    2005-01-01

    The kyoto Protocol is an agreement to the United Nations Framework Convention on CLimate Change (UNFCCC)2,an international treaty on global warming .It is a legally binding agreement under which industrialized countries will reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by an average of 5.2% compared to the level of 1990 during the 2008-12 period.

  12. Recursive Ping-Pong Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a process calculus with recursion which allows us to express an unbounded number of runs of the ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. We study the decidability issues associated with two common approaches to checking security properties, namely reachability analysis...

  13. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  14. Automata-theoretic protocol programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, Sung-Shik Theodorus Quirinus

    2016-01-01

    Parallel programming has become essential for writing scalable programs on general hardware. Conceptually, every parallel program consists of workers, which implement primary units of sequential computation, and protocols, which implement the rules of interaction that workers must abide by. As progr

  15. A Student Teamwork Induction Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Caroline; Spong, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Faulty group processes have harmful effects on performance but there is little research about intervention protocols to pre-empt them in higher education. This naturalistic experiment compared a control cohort with an inducted cohort. The inducted cohort attended a workshop, consultations, elected a leader and used tools (a group log and group…

  16. Improvement In MAODV Protocol Using Location Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Sharnjeet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is difficult in wireless sensor network (WSN due to limited resources. Each node in WSN is constrained by their limited battery power for their energy. The energy is reduced as the time goes off due to the packet transmission and reception. Energy management techniques are necessary to minimize the total power consumption of all the nodes in the network in order to maximize its life span. Our proposed protocol Location based routing (LBR aimed to find a path which utilizes the minimum energy to transmit the packets between the source and the destination. The required energy for the transmission and reception of data is evaluated in MATLAB. LBR is implemented on Multicast Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (MAODV to manage the energy consumption in the transmission and reception of data. Simulation results of LBR show the energy consumption has been reduced.

  17. Session Initiation Protocol Attacks and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Keshavarz, Hassan; Noor, Rafidah Md

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) has become widely used in current internet protocols. It is a text-based protocol much like Hyper Text Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). SIP is a strong enough signaling protocol on the internet for establishing, maintaining, and terminating session. In this paper the areas of security and attacks in SIP are discussed. We consider attacks from diverse related perspectives. The authentication schemes are compared, the representative existing solutions are highlighted, and several remaining research challenges are identified. Finally, the taxonomy of SIP threat will be presented.

  18. How to write a protocol: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathy; Farrell, Mary Beth

    2015-03-01

    Clinical protocols play an important role in the provision of high-quality care in nuclear medicine. Properly written protocols help to ensure that nuclear medicine procedures are performed in a standardized, reproducible manner so that patients receive high-quality care. The following article is the second in a 2-part series on how to write a protocol. A framework for composing protocols and the components of clinical imaging protocols were detailed in the first article. This article details the framework and components of protocols for cardiac stress testing, therapy, and quality control. PMID:25655345

  19. Novel analysis and improvement of Yahalom protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chun-ling; YU Han; L(U) Heng-shan; WANG Ru-chuan

    2009-01-01

    The modified version of Yahalom protocol improved by Burrows, Abradi, and Needham (BAN) still has security drawbacks. This study analyzed such flaws in a detailed way from the point of strand spaces, which is a novel method of analyzing protocol's security. First, a mathematical model of BAN-Yahalom protocol is constructed. Second, penetrators' abilities are restricted with a rigorous and formalized definition. Moreover, to increase the security of this protocol against potential attackers in practice, a further improvement is made to the protocol. Future application of this re-improved protocol is also discussed.

  20. Implementation and evaluation of a protocol management system for automated review of CT protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Joshua; Leng, Shuai; Zhang, Yi; Vrieze, Thomas; McCollough, Cynthia

    2016-09-08

    Protocol review is important to decrease the risk of patient injury and increase the consistency of CT image quality. A large volume of CT protocols makes manual review labor-intensive, error-prone, and costly. To address these challenges, we have developed a software system for automatically managing and monitoring CT proto-cols on a frequent basis. This article describes our experiences in the implementation and evaluation of this protocol monitoring system. In particular, we discuss various strategies for addressing each of the steps in our protocol-monitoring workflow, which are: maintaining an accurate set of master protocols, retrieving protocols from the scanners, comparing scanner protocols to master protocols, reviewing flagged differences between the scanner and master protocols, and updating the scanner and/or master protocols. In our initial evaluation focusing only on abdo-men and pelvis protocols, we detected 309 modified protocols in a 24-week trial period. About one-quarter of these modified protocols were determined to contain inappropriate (i.e., erroneous) protocol parameter modifications that needed to be corrected on the scanner. The most frequently affected parameter was the series description, which was inappropriately modified 47 times. Two inappropriate modifications were made to the tube current, which is particularly important to flag as this parameter impacts both radiation dose and image quality. The CT protocol changes detected in this work provide strong motivation for the use of an automated CT protocol quality control system to ensure protocol accuracy and consistency.

  1. Implementation and evaluation of a protocol management system for automated review of CT protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Joshua; Leng, Shuai; Zhang, Yi; Vrieze, Thomas; McCollough, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Protocol review is important to decrease the risk of patient injury and increase the consistency of CT image quality. A large volume of CT protocols makes manual review labor-intensive, error-prone, and costly. To address these challenges, we have developed a software system for automatically managing and monitoring CT proto-cols on a frequent basis. This article describes our experiences in the implementation and evaluation of this protocol monitoring system. In particular, we discuss various strategies for addressing each of the steps in our protocol-monitoring workflow, which are: maintaining an accurate set of master protocols, retrieving protocols from the scanners, comparing scanner protocols to master protocols, reviewing flagged differences between the scanner and master protocols, and updating the scanner and/or master protocols. In our initial evaluation focusing only on abdo-men and pelvis protocols, we detected 309 modified protocols in a 24-week trial period. About one-quarter of these modified protocols were determined to contain inappropriate (i.e., erroneous) protocol parameter modifications that needed to be corrected on the scanner. The most frequently affected parameter was the series description, which was inappropriately modified 47 times. Two inappropriate modifications were made to the tube current, which is particularly important to flag as this parameter impacts both radiation dose and image quality. The CT protocol changes detected in this work provide strong motivation for the use of an automated CT protocol quality control system to ensure protocol accuracy and consistency. PMID:27685112

  2. Kyoto: protocol on climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the 3rd Conference of the Signatory States to the United Nations Climate Framework Convention held in Kyoto, the so-called Kyoto Protocol on the UN Climate Framework Convention was adopted unanimously, after two years of difficult and complex negotiations, on December 11, 1997. The protocol for the first time includes legally binding obligations for the industrialized countries requiring them to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions between 2008 and 2012 by a total of 5.2% relative to the 1990 level. In meeting this obligation, the industrialized countries assumed different levels of reduction and limitation, respectively. Thus, e.g., the EU countries accepted a Communitywide reduction by 8%, while the USA is obliged to reduce by 7% and Japan by 6%. (orig.)

  3. Neonatal euthanasia: The Groningen Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarrondo, Felipe E

    2014-11-01

    For the past thirty years, voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide of adult patients have been common practice in the Netherlands. Neonatal euthanasia was recently legalized in the Netherlands and the Groningen Protocol (GP) was developed to regulate the practice. Supporters claim compliance with the GP criteria makes neonatal euthanasia ethically permissible. An examination of the criteria used by the Protocol to justify the euthanasia of seriously ill neonates reveals the criteria are not based on firm moral principles. The taking of the life of a seriously ill person is not the solution to the pain and suffering of the dying process. It is the role of the medical professional to care for the ailing patient with love and compassion, always preserving the person's dignity. Neonatal euthanasia is not ethically permissible. PMID:25473136

  4. Chapter 14: Chiller Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiessen, A.

    2014-09-01

    This protocol defines a chiller measure as a project that directly impacts equipment within the boundary of a chiller plant. A chiller plant encompasses a chiller--or multiple chillers--and associated auxiliary equipment. This protocol primarily covers electric-driven chillers and chiller plants. It does not include thermal energy storage and absorption chillers fired by natural gas or steam, although a similar methodology may be applicable to these chilled water system components. Chillers provide mechanical cooling for commercial, institutional, multiunit residential, and industrial facilities. Cooling may be required for facility heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or for process cooling loads (e.g., data centers, manufacturing process cooling). The vapor compression cycle, or refrigeration cycle, cools water in the chilled water loop by absorbing heat and rejecting it to either a condensing water loop (water cooled chillers) or to the ambient air (air-cooled chillers).

  5. On using Mobile IP Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayza A. Nada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in wireless communication technology and the unprecedented growth of the Internet have paved the way for wireless networking and IP mobility. Mobile Internet protocol has been designed within the IETF to support the mobility of users who wish to connect to the Internet and maintain communications as they move from place to place. This study describes and summarizes the current Internet draft for mobile IP (MIPv4 with its major components: agent discovery, registration and tunneling. In addition, we outline the available encapsulation techniques and route optimization procedure. In the end, we describe the design of the new protocol for transparent routing of IPv6 packets to mobile IPv6 nodes operating in the Internet.

  6. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  7. A student teamwork induction protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Kamau, Caroline; Spong, A.

    2015-01-01

    Faulty group processes have harmful effects on performance but there is little research about intervention protocols to pre-empt them in HE. This naturalistic experiment compared a control cohort with an inducted cohort. The inducted cohort attended a workshop, consultations, elected a leader and used tools (a group log and group contract) designed to minimize social loafing, optimize coordination (by boosting good information sampling) and orient group dynamics towards the task. In the absen...

  8. Heuristic Methods for Security Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Qurat ul Ain Nizamani; Emilio Tuosto

    2009-01-01

    Model checking is an automatic verification technique to verify hardware and software systems. However it suffers from state-space explosion problem. In this paper we address this problem in the context of cryptographic protocols by proposing a security property-dependent heuristic. The heuristic weights the state space by exploiting the security formulae; the weights may then be used to explore the state space when searching for attacks.

  9. Analysing Protocol Stacks for Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We show an approach, CaPiTo, to model service-oriented applications using process algebras such that, on the one hand, we can achieve a certain level of abstraction without being overwhelmed by the underlying implementation details and, on the other hand, we respect the concrete industrial standa...... to the financial case study taken from Chapter 0-3. Finally, we develop a static analysis to analyse the security properties as they emerge at the level of concrete industrial protocols....

  10. Power Control Protocols in VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Samara, Ghassan; Salem, Amer O. Abu; Alhmiedat, Tareq

    2013-01-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) is one of the most challenging research area in the field of the Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), Power control is a critical issue in VANETwhere is should be managed carefully to help the channel to have high performance. In this paper a comparative study in the published protocols in the field of safety message dynamic power control will be presented and evaluated.

  11. Automatic analysis of distance bounding protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Malladi, Sreekanth; Kothapalli, Kishore

    2010-01-01

    Distance bounding protocols are used by nodes in wireless networks to calculate upper bounds on their distances to other nodes. However, dishonest nodes in the network can turn the calculations both illegitimate and inaccurate when they participate in protocol executions. It is important to analyze protocols for the possibility of such violations. Past efforts to analyze distance bounding protocols have only been manual. However, automated approaches are important since they are quite likely to find flaws that manual approaches cannot, as witnessed in literature for analysis pertaining to key establishment protocols. In this paper, we use the constraint solver tool to automatically analyze distance bounding protocols. We first formulate a new trace property called Secure Distance Bounding (SDB) that protocol executions must satisfy. We then classify the scenarios in which these protocols can operate considering the (dis)honesty of nodes and location of the attacker in the network. Finally, we extend the const...

  12. How to write a protocol: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathy; Farrell, Mary Beth

    2015-03-01

    Clinical imaging protocols play an important role in the provision of high-quality care in nuclear medicine. It is imperative that all nuclear medicine facilities have protocols for every procedure performed. However, creating protocols that are detailed, unambiguous, and consistent is often easier said than done. Properly written protocols help to ensure that nuclear medicine procedures are performed in a standardized, reproducible manner so that patients receive high-quality care. This 2-part article provides technologists with a framework for composing comprehensive protocols. Part 1 discusses the secrets to successfully composing protocols ensuring they are detailed and step-by-step along with the importance of basing protocols on evidence from published guidelines and peer-reviewed literature. The components and important aspects of clinical imaging protocols are detailed. PMID:25613336

  13. A father protocol for quantum broadcast channels

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuis, Frédéric; Hayden, Patrick; Li, Ke

    2006-01-01

    A new protocol for quantum broadcast channels based on the fully quantum Slepian-Wolf protocol is presented. The protocol yields an achievable rate region for entanglement-assisted transmission of quantum information through a quantum broadcast channel that can be considered the quantum analogue of Marton's region for classical broadcast channels. The protocol can be adapted to yield achievable rate regions for unassisted quantum communication and for entanglement-assisted classical communica...

  14. Static Validation of a Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Andersen, Esben Heltoft; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    The desired security properties of electronic voting protocols include verifiability, accuracy, democracy and fairness. In this paper we use a static program analysis tool to validate these properties for one of the classical voting protocols under appropriate assumptions. The protocol...... is formalised in an extension of the LySa process calculus with blinding signatures. The analysis, which is fully automatic, pinpoints previously undiscovered flaws related to verifiability and accuracy and we suggest modifications of the protocol needed for validating these properties....

  15. ACSEPP On-Line Electronic Payment Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-bin; ZHU Xian; HONG Fan

    2004-01-01

    With analyzing the existing on-line electronic payment protocols, this paper presents a new on-line electronic payment protocol named ACSEPP: Anonymous, Convenient and Secure Electronic Payment Protocol.Its aim is to design a practical electronic payment protocol which is both secure and convenient.Without using PKI_CA frame, it realized the anonymity of consumer and merchant, the convenient of handling, the low cost of maintenance and the security.

  16. Component versioning for protocol configuration management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tian-zhou; HE Zhen-jie; HUANG Jiang-wei; DAI Hong-jun

    2005-01-01

    Classical software configuration management which deals with source code versioning becomes insufficient when most components are distributed in binary form. As an important aspect of software configuration, protocol configuration also encounters those problems. This paper focuses on solving protocol component versioning issues for protocol configuration management on embedded system, incorporating the following versioning issues: version identification, version description and protocol component archiving and retrieving based on the version library.

  17. A father protocol for quantum broadcast channels

    CERN Document Server

    Dupuis, F; Dupuis, Fr\\'ed\\'eric; Hayden, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    We present a new protocol for quantum broadcast channels based on the fully quantum Slepian-Wolf protocol. The protocol yields an achievable rate region for entanglement-assisted transmission of quantum information through a quantum broadcast channel that can be considered the quantum analogue of Marton's region for classical broadcast channels. The protocol can be adapted to yield achievable rate regions for unassisted quantum communication and for entanglement-assisted classical communication. Regularized versions of all three rate regions are provably optimal.

  18. Bioinspired Security Analysis of Wireless Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrocchi, Marinella; Spognardi, Angelo; Santi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    work, this paper investigates feasibility of adopting fraglets as model for specifying security protocols and analysing their properties. In particular, we give concrete sample analyses over a secure RFID protocol, showing evolution of the protocol run as chemical dynamics and simulating an adversary...

  19. Cryptanalysis on Cheng et al. protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Tejeshwari

    2016-06-01

    Deployment of new node in any wireless sensor network is a sensitive task. This is the reason why, an Access Control Protocol is required in WSN. In this paper, we demonstrate that Access Control Protocol proposed by Cheng et al.[1] for Wireless Sensor Network is insecure. The reason is that this protocol fails to resist the active attack.

  20. Epidemic Protocols for Pervasive Computing Systems - Moving Focus from Architecture to Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    epidemic protocols as distribution mechanism for pervasive systems. The nature of epidemic protocols make them easy to implement, easy to deploy, and resilient to failures. By using epidemic protocols, it is possible to mitigate a wide range of the potential issues on the protocol layer. The result...

  1. Optimizing One Fair Document Exchange Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Alaraj, Abdullah M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient fair document exchange protocol. The exchange of the documents will be between two parties. The protocol is based on the verifiable and recoverable encryption of a document's key. This verifiable and recoverable encryption of the document's key will allow one party to verify the encrypted key. It will also ensure this party that the Semi Trusted Third Party will be able to recover the key if the other party misbehaves. The protocol also incorporates the concept of enforcing the honesty of one party. The proposed protocol consists of only three messages and is more efficient than related protocols.

  2. Vulnerabilities in Quantum Key Distribution Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, D R

    2003-01-01

    Recently proposed quantum key distribution protocols are shown to be vulnerable to a classic man-in-the-middle attack using entangled pairs created by Eve. It appears that the attack could be applied to any protocol that relies on manipulation and return of entangled qubits to create a shared key. The protocols that are cryptanalyzed in this paper were proven secure with respect to some eavesdropping approaches, and results reported here do not invalidate these proofs. Rather, they suggest that quantum cryptographic protocols, like conventional protocols, may be vulnerable to methods of attack that were not envisaged by their designers.

  3. Reactive broadcasting protocol for video on demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Jehan-Francois; Carter, Steven W.; Long, Darrell D. E.

    1999-12-01

    We propose a reactive broadcasting protocol that addresses the problem of distributing moderately popular videos in a more efficient fashion. Like all efficient broadcasting protocols, reactive broadcasting assumes that the customer set-top box has enough local storage to store at least one half of each video being watched. Unlike other broadcasting protocols, reactive broadcasting only broadcasts the later portions of each video. the initial segment of each video is distributed on demand using a stream tapping protocol. Our simulations show that reactive broadcasting outperforms both conventional broadcasting protocols and pure stream tapping for a wide range of video request rates.

  4. Sequence Patterns of Identity Authentication Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Hongcai; He Dake

    2006-01-01

    From the viewpoint of protocol sequence, analyses are made of the sequence patterns of possible identity authentication protocol under two cases: with or without the trusted third party (TTP). Ten feasible sequence patterns of authentication protocol with TTP and 5 sequence patterns without TTP are gained. These gained sequence patterns meet the requirements for identity authentication,and basically cover almost all the authentication protocols with TTP and without TTP at present. All of the sequence patterns gained are classified into unilateral or bilateral authentication. Then , according to the sequence symmetry, several good sequence patterns with TTP are evaluated. The accompolished results can provide a reference to design of new identity authentication protocols.

  5. Simple and Efficient Contract Signing Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Alaraj, Abdullah M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new contract signing protocol is proposed based on the RSA signature scheme. The protocol will allow two parties to sign the same contract and then exchange their digital signatures. The protocol ensures fairness in that it offers parties greater security: either both parties receive each other's signatures or neither does. The protocol is based on offline Trusted Third Party (TTP) that will be brought into play only if one party fails to sign the contract. Otherwise, the TTP remains inactive. The protocol consists of only three messages that are exchanged between the two parties.

  6. Novel Ω-protocols for NP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Ω-protocols, introduced by Garay, Mackenzie and Yang, is a variant of S-protocols with online extractor which is a useful tool to overcome the nest effect in concurrent scenario. In this work, we construct an Ω-protocol for Hamiltonian cycle problem, and therefore, it allows us to present Ω-protocol for any NP relation. For most general NP relations, our construction of Ω-protocols is much more efficient than the informal one described by Garay et al. and we believe that the method for our construction may be of independent interest.

  7. Authenticating Tripartite Key Agreement Protocol with Pairings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Li Liu; Fang-Guo Zhang; Ke-Fei Chen

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an authenticated tripartite key agreement protocol is proposed, which is an ID-based one with pairings. This protocol involves only one round. The authenticity of the protocol is assured by a special signature scheme, so that messages carrying the information of two ephemeral keys can be broadcasted authentically by an entity. Consequently, one instance of the protocol results in eight session keys for three entities. In other word, one instance of the protocol generates a session key, which is eight times longer than those obtained from traditional key agreement protocols. Security attributes of the protocol are presented, and the computational overhead and bandwidth of the broadcast messages are analyzed as well.

  8. Generalized routing protocols for multihop relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Performance of multihop cooperative networks depends on the routing protocols employed. In this paper we propose the last-n-hop selection protocol, the dual path protocol, the forward-backward last-n-hop selection protocol and the forward-backward dual path protocol for the routing of data through multihop relay networks. The average symbol error probability performance of the schemes is analysed by simulations. It is shown that close to optimal performance can be achieved by using the last-n-hop selection protocol and its forward-backward variant. Furthermore we also compute the complexity of the protocols in terms of number of channel state information required and the number of comparisons required for routing the signal through the network. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Security Protocols: Specification, Verification, Implementation, and Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almousa, Omar

    An important aspect of Internet security is the security of cryptographic protocols that it deploys. We need to make sure that such protocols achieve their goals, whether in isolation or in composition, i.e., security protocols must not suffer from any aw that enables hostile intruders to break...... their security. Among others, tools like OFMC [MV09b] and Proverif [Bla01] are quite efficient for the automatic formal verification of a large class of protocols. These tools use different approaches such as symbolic model checking or static analysis. Either approach has its own pros and cons, and therefore, we...... called SPS (Security Protocol Specification) language, that enables users, without requiring deep expertise in formal models from them, to specify a wide range of real-world protocols in a simple and intuitive way. Thus, SPS allows users to verify their protocols using different tools, and generate...

  10. Language, Semantics, and Methods for Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico

    Security protocols help in establishing secure channels between communicating systems. Great care needs therefore to be taken in developing and implementing robust protocols. The complexity of security-protocol interactions can hide, however, security weaknesses that only a formal analysis can...... reveal. The last few years have seen the emergence of successful intensional, event-based, formal approaches to reasoning about security protocols. The methods are concerned with reasoning about the events that a security protocol can perform, and make use of a causal dependency that exists between...... representation and do not address how to build up protocol representations in a compositional fashion. This dissertation presents a new, event-based approach to reasoning about security protocols. We seek a broader class of models to show how event-based models can be structured in a compositional way and so...

  11. A Secure Short Message Communication Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-Wen Chang; Heng Pan; Hong-Yong Jia

    2008-01-01

    According to the security requirement of the short message service (SMS) industry application, a secure short message communication protocol is proposed. This is an application level protocol constructed on the standard SMS communication protocol using public key authentication and key agreement without the need of wireless public key infrastructure (WPKI). Secure short message transmission and dynamic key agreement between mobile terminals and the accessing gateway are realized. The security of the proposed protocol is validated through the BAN logic. Compared with the standard SMS protocol, the effective payload rate of our protocol can reach 91.4%, and subscriber identity module (SIM) tool kit (STK) applications based on our protocol suit well for all kinds of mobile terminals in practical application.

  12. Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

    1998-12-01

    This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

  13. Protocols for calibrating multibeam sonar

    OpenAIRE

    Foote, Kenneth G.; Chu, Dezhang; Hammar, Terence R.; Baldwin, Kenneth C.; Mayer, Larry A.; Hufnagle, Lawrence C. jr.; Jech, J. Michael

    2005-01-01

    Development of protocols for calibrating multibeam sonar by means of the standard-target method is documented. Particular systems used in the development work included three that provide the water-column signals, namely the SIMRAD SM2000/90- and 200-kHz sonars and RESON SeaBat 8101 sonar, with operating frequency of 240 kHz. Two facilities were instrumented specifically for the work: a sea well at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and a large, indoor freshwater tank at the University o...

  14. Research on Container Behaviors Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the development of middleware technology, there are some new features to be adopted on demand in middleware platform based on container component. Aiming at the adaptation of middleware platform, from the nature of component container, this paper begins with behaviors features of EJB (Enterprise Java Bean) container, extracts general behaviors protocol of container, and defines its formal behaviors specification. In the end, the interactive relationship of components is described by WRIGHT language, and the configuration of whole system is shown. The method proposed in this paper mines the hidden features of framework of component container, and applies to refactor middleware platform in reflection and aspect-oriented programming technology.

  15. New Models for Population Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Michail, Othon

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are about to be part of everyday life. Homes and workplaces capable of self-controlling and adapting air-conditioning for different temperature and humidity levels, sleepless forests ready to detect and react in case of a fire, vehicles able to avoid sudden obstacles or possibly able to self-organize routes to avoid congestion, and so on, will probably be commonplace in the very near future. Mobility plays a central role in such systems and so does passive mobility, that is, mobility of the network stemming from the environment itself. The population protocol model was

  16. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C

    2016-10-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. PMID:27600131

  17. Trust relationships in exchange protocols

    OpenAIRE

    González-Deleito Collell, Nicolás

    2005-01-01

    Les protocoles d'échange d'informations représentent un des grands domaines actuels de recherche en sécurité informatique, et sont entre autres à la base des mécanismes de commerce électronique. Ils sont par exemple nécessaires à la réalisation d'un achat en ligne, à la signature d'un contrat électronique et au courrier électronique recommandé. Dans ces exemples, les échanges d'informations consistent à échanger respectivement un objet électronique contre un paiement, des signatures digitales...

  18. Trypanosoma spp. ring test protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test material will be chosen by the coordinating lab for incorporation into a proficiency panel after repeated testing by more than one analyst on multiple PCR runs on different days. Test material: suitable test material will be provided. Protocol and laboratory procedures: Each laboratory is allowed to use their own 'in-house' test procedure (SOPs will nevertheless be provided by the respective laboratories for comparison and evaluation). Each PCR should be executed on two separate occasions. Test material used will be coded and sent as a blind panel to the participants. Each participating laboratory will be given a unique set of codes

  19. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  20. Latest approaches of Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently EURELECTRIC welcome the proposal of new EC Directive concerning the inclusion in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) of credits from the project mechanisms - Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The proposed Directive is an amendment to the EU Emissions Trading Directive adopted in June 2003. EURELECTRIC calls for unlimited use of credits in ETS. The draft Directive provides for the application of these mechanisms to begin as of 2008, on condition that the Kyoto Protocol does actually enter into force, an event which is still dependent on Russia's ratification. Such ratification has been subject to contradictory statements from the Russian Government, and the question of whether their signature to the Protocol is forthcoming is still fraught with uncertainty. Although it is not anticipated that significant quantities of JI or CDM certified credits will be available in the period 2005-2007, those that do become available would provide some additional liquidity in the emissions trading market. There is a direct relation between the coming ETS and electricity pricing: environmental policy is the driver, based on the need to switch to a low-carbon future and manage the necessary investments in a rational manner - and emissions trading is the best solution available. Romania has good opportunities to be involved in the greenhouse gases market, both in ETS and JI mechanisms. Some JI projects between Romanian and The Netherlands are already done or underway. (author)

  1. Research on Routing Protocol of Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Tuo Ming Fu; Che Min

    2016-01-01

    Routing protocol is an important content of mobile Ad Hoc. The typical mobile Ad Hoc network routing protocols is introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of these routing protocols are analyzed. A hybrid routing protocol is put forward based on this.

  2. BIS在氯胺酮联合咪达唑仑小儿麻醉深度中的监测价值评价%Evaluation on monitoring value of bispectral index in pediatric anesthesia depth of ketamine combined with midazolam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡军; 武玉清; 周成华; 周策; 陆富钊; 李鑫; 黄鹂; 李伟; 张永; 陈虎

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of bispectral index (BIS) monitor in pedo-oblique inguinal hernia operation through anesthesia by ketamine combined with midazolam . Methods Forty 2-to 6-year-old child patients undergoing pedo-oblique inguinal hernia surgery in 2011 were randomly divided into 2 groups; BIS group (B, n=20) and control group (C, n=20). In group B , we controlled the dosage of ketamine and midazolam by BIS monitor (78±5). In group C, we controlled the dosage of ketamine and midazolam by observation of haemodynamic reaction , respiratory rate and boby movement. Results Compared to group C , there is less haemodynamic fluctuation and shorter analepsia time and better sedation in group B. Conclusion BIS monitor could control the depth of anesthesia , shorten analepsia time by continuous and objective monitoring in pedo-oblique inguinal hernia operation , which results in better sedation in surgery and enhancementof pedo-patient comfort and safety.%目的 探讨脑电双频指数(bispectral index,BIS)在氯胺酮联合咪达唑仑进行小儿腹股沟斜疝手术麻醉深度监测中的应用价值.方法 选择择期行腹股沟斜疝手术的患儿40例,年龄2~6岁,ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级,随机分成 BIS监测组(B组)和对照组(C组).B组 (20例) 通过术中监测BIS数值,调整氯胺酮和咪达唑仑剂量使其维持在78±5;C组根据术中患儿的血流动力学反应、呼吸频率改变和出现体动反应来调整氯胺酮和咪达唑仑用量大小.结果 同C组相比,B组患儿镇静充分,血流动力学波动较小,术后苏醒时间缩短,有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 应用BIS能连续、客观地监测并控制氯胺酮联合咪达唑仑进行小儿腹股沟斜疝手术的麻醉深度,缩短术后苏醒时间,有利于术中镇静及增强患儿的舒适感和安全性.

  3. Symmetric cryptographic protocols for extended millionaires' problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ShunDong; WANG DaoShun; DAI YiQi

    2009-01-01

    Yao's millionaires' problem is a fundamental problem in secure multiparty computation, and its solutions have become building blocks of many secure multiparty computation solutions. Unfortunately,most protocols for millionaires' problem are constructed based on public cryptography, and thus are inefficient. Furthermore, all protocols are designed to solve the basic millionaires' problem, that is,to privately determine which of two natural numbers is greater. If the numbers are real, existing solutions do not directly work. These features limit the extensive application of the existing protocols. This study introduces and refines the first symmetric cryptographic protocol for the basic millionaires' problem, and then extends the symmetric cryptographic protocol to privately determining which of two real numbers is greater, which are called the extended millionaires' problem, and proposes corresponding Constructed based on symmetric cryptography, these protocols are very efficient.

  4. VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Bijan; Bikas, Md Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is a new technology which has taken enormous attention in the recent years. Due to rapid topology changing and frequent disconnection makes it difficult to design an efficient routing protocol for routing data among vehicles, called V2V or vehicle to vehicle communication and vehicle to road side infrastructure, called V2I. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol has taken significant attention. So, it is very necessary to identify the pros and cons of routing protocols which can be used for further improvement or development of any new routing protocol. This paper presents the pros and cons of VANET routing protocols for inter vehicle communication.

  5. Novel construction of Secure RFID Authentication Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiqul Abidin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an efficient and secure authentication protocol for secure and low-cost RFID systems in random oracles. Security is one of the prime concerns of RFID system. Proposed protocol relies on Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem (ECDLP to achieve security. The protocol achieves the most important security goals scalability, anonymity and anti-cloning for RFID system. A password based protocol has vulnerability on fixed password. This can be exploited by threats. In the proposed protocol, there is a provision to change the password of the Tags. Hence the vulnerability can be reduced in an acceptable level. Computation cost is very less as compare to the other protocols.

  6. E-Cash Payment Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Srivastava

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available E-cash is a payment system designed and implemented for making purchases over open networks such as the Internet. Need of a payment system which enables the electronic transactions are growing at the same time that the use of Internet is growing in our daily life. Present days electronic payment systems have a major problem, they cannot handle the security and the users anonymity and at the same time these systems are secure on the cost of their users anonymity. This paper shows the payment protocols for digital cash and discusses how a digital cash system can be formed by presenting a few of the present days digital cash systems in details. We also provide a comparison and determine them together to see which one of them fulfils the properties for digital cash and the required security level.

  7. Fetal MRI: techniques and protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Neuroradiology, University Clinics of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-10, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter Christian [Department of Anatomy, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-09-01

    The development of ultrafast sequences has led to a significant improvement in fetal MRI. Imaging protocols have to be adjusted to the rapidly developing fetal central nervous system (CNS) and to the clinical question. Sequence parameters must be changed to cope with the respective developmental stage, to produce images free from motion artefacts and to provide optimum visualization of the region and focus of interest. In contrast to postnatal studies, every suspect fetal CNS abnormality requires examination of the whole fetus and the extrafetal intrauterine structures including the uterus. This approach covers both aspects of fetal CNS disorders: isolated and complex malformations and cerebral lesions arising from the impaired integrity of the feto-placental unit. (orig.)

  8. [The research protocol. Part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    One of the principal aims in research is the publication of the study in scientific journals. This implies two challenges: the first one, the election of an adequate research design, and the second one, the concrete and simple wording of the results for the study to be accepted in the most appropriate journal according to the scope. Despite numerous supporting documents are available for both issues, the publication process is long, tiresome, and can discourage the most enthusiastic researcher. This is the first of a series of articles with the objective to describe the steps from the research question to the publication of the study. First of all, the importance of the research design will be addressed. The structure of the protocol is essential to achieve the objectives, and provides a way to organize the investigation in a logic, comprehensible and efficient manner.

  9. The comparative cost analysis of EAP Re-authentication Protocol and EAP TLS Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mehla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP is a generic framework supporting multiple types of authentication methods. In systems where EAP is used for authentication, it is desirable to not repeat the entire EAP exchange with another authenticator. The EAP reauthentication Protocol provides a consistent, methodindependentand low-latency re-authentication. It is extension to current EAP mechanism to support intradomain handoff authentication. This paper analyzed the performance of the EAP re-authentication protocol, andcompared it with that of the EAP-TLS protocol. The result shows that the authentication delay of EAP reauthentication protocol is only twentieth of that in the EAPTLS protocol.

  10. An Identity- Based Key- Exchange Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ya-juan; ZHU Yue-fei; HUANG Qiu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    An identity-based key-exchange protocol using a bilinear map is proposed and it is proved SK-secure(session key secure) in the AM (authenticated links adversarial model)provided the BDDH (bilinear Diffie-Hellmen) assumption is correct. Then we apply the signature-based authenticator to our protocol and obtain an identity-Based key-exchange protocol that is SK-secure in the UM (unauthenticated links adversarial model) provided the BDDH assumption is correct.

  11. Vulnerabilities in Quantum Key Distribution Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, D. Richard

    2003-01-01

    Recently proposed quantum key distribution protocols are shown to be vulnerable to a classic man-in-the-middle attack using entangled pairs created by Eve. It appears that the attack could be applied to any protocol that relies on manipulation and return of entangled qubits to create a shared key. The protocols that are cryptanalyzed in this paper were proven secure with respect to some eavesdropping approaches, and results reported here do not invalidate these proofs. Rather, they suggest th...

  12. SCRUTINY OF BROADCASTING PROTOCOLS IN VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Rohini Nere; Uma Nagaraj

    2015-01-01

    Definitive broadcasting in vehicular ad hoc networks is the key to success for various services and applications on an intelligent transportation system. Many trusted broadcasting protocols have been proposed but none of them has been evaluated in realistic scenario. In this paper, we discuss these reliable broadcasting protocols on VANET. Basic mechanism in broadcasting, and also we are providing collective research of Broadcasting protocols in vanet in that some real time protoc...

  13. Emission trading under the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Holtsmark, Bjart; Hagem, Cathrine

    2003-01-01

    On 11 December 1997, delegates to the third conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed upon the Kyoto Protocol. The protocol sets binding emission targets for developed nations (Annex B countries). The Protocol states that Annex B countries may participate in emission trading. The rules for emission trading are to be discussed at the fourth Conference of the Parties in November 1998. differentiation of targets among countries, but not in any system...

  14. Security in network environment-network protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Fessl, Jaromír

    2011-01-01

    Work is focused on network protocols features and security characteristics. Overview of protocols is made through all layers of OSI model and by this design structured. For each layer is made summary of interesting facts. Separate chapter is dedicated for VPN and for implementation possibilities of VPN. In chapter Practical problems are reflected most important problems of actual security (from network protocol point of view) concerned on SSL/TLS, SMTP and DNS. Together with security charact...

  15. Security analysis of session initiation protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Lucas E.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The goal of this thesis is to investigate the security of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). This was accomplished by researching previously discovered protocol and implementation vulnerabilities, evaluating the current state of security tools and using those tools to discover new vulnerabilities in SIP software. The CVSS v2 system was used to score protocol and implementation vulnerabilities to give them a meaning that was us...

  16. VULNERABILITIES OF THE SSL/TLS PROTOCOL

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Ćurguz

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes vulnerabilities of the SSL/TLS Handshake protocol, which is responsible for authentication of the parties in the communication and negotiation of security parameters that will be used to protect confidentiality and integrity of the data. It will be analyzed the attacks against the implementation of Handshake protocol, as well as the attacks against the other elements necessary to SSL/TLS protocol to discover security flaws that were exploited, modes of attac...

  17. Rewriting-Based Verification of Authentication Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Ogata, Kazuhiro; Futatsugi, Kokichi

    2004-01-01

    We propose a method of formally analysing security protocols based on rewriting. The method is roughly as follows. A security protocol is modeled as an observational transition system, which is described in CafeOBJ. Proof scores showing that the protocol has safety (security) properties are then written in CafeOBJ and the proof scores are executed (rewritten) by the CafeOBJ system.

  18. Bitcoin-NG: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Eyal, Ittay; Gencer, Adem Efe; Sirer, Emin Gun; van Renesse, Robbert

    2015-01-01

    Cryptocurrencies, based on and led by Bitcoin, have shown promise as infrastructure for pseudonymous online payments, cheap remittance, trustless digital asset exchange, and smart contracts. However, Bitcoin-derived blockchain protocols have inherent scalability limits that trade-off between throughput and latency and withhold the realization of this potential. This paper presents Bitcoin-NG, a new blockchain protocol designed to scale. Based on Bitcoin's blockchain protocol, Bitcoin-NG is By...

  19. VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Bijan; Ibrahim, Md.; Bikas, Md. Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is a new technology which has taken enormous attention in the recent years. Due to rapid topology changing and frequent disconnection makes it difficult to design an efficient routing protocol for routing data among vehicles, called V2V or vehicle to vehicle communication and vehicle to road side infrastructure, called V2I. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol h...

  20. Failure of Kak quantum key distribution protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ching-Nung Yang; Su-Hsuan Chu; Bing-Ling Lu

    2005-01-01

    Kak's quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol provides not only the distribution but also the integrity of secret key simultaneously in quantum channel. Consequently the additional exchange of information, used to check whether an eavesdropper exists, is unnecessary. In this comment, we will point out the failure of Kak's protocol and show that Kak's protocol does not have the joint distribution and integration that the author declares in [1].

  1. CIMS Network Protocol and Its Net Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗军舟; 顾冠群

    1997-01-01

    Computer communication network architectures for cims are based on the OSI Reference Model.In this paper,CIMS network protocol model is set up on the basis of the corresqonding service model.Then the authors present a formal specification of transport protocols by using an extended Predicate/Transition net system that is briefly introduced in the third part.Finally,the general methods for the Petri nets based formal specification of CIMS network protocols are outlined.

  2. Universal protocol for alopecia areata clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinkovska, Natasha A; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2013-12-01

    Within the area of alopecia areata research, there is an obvious need for well-designed clinical trials of therapeutic agents. The National Alopecia Areata Foundation (NAAF) has created an initiative for the development of a unified protocol with guidelines for clinical studies. The NAAF universal protocol represents a joint effort of clinicians and investigators with experience in treating alopecia areata. This protocol will serve as a tremendous resource to facilitate future clinical studies. PMID:24326554

  3. A Formal Approach to Protocol Performance Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Mingwei; WU Jianping

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes a formal approach to protocol performance testing based on the extended concurrent TTCN. To meet the needs of protocol performance testing, concurrent TTCN is extended, and the extended concurrent TTCN's operational semantics is defined in terms of Input-Output Labeled Transition System. An architecture design of protocol performance test system is described, and an example of test cases and its test resultare given.

  4. Quantum three-pass cryptography protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Wu, Ling-An; Liu, Songhao

    2002-09-01

    We present a new kind of quantum cryptography protocol based on Shamir's three-pass protocol of classical cryptography, which allows the transmission of qubits directly and secretly via the aid of an unjammable classical channel. In this protocol we implement the encryption and decryption transformations via rotations on the Poincare sphere of the photons polarization parameters. The key technique is that Bob's encryption rotation must be commutative with Alice s decryption rotation; this means that the axes of these two rotations must be parallel. We also present a security analysis of the protocol under a man-in-the-middle attack.

  5. Network Coding Protocols for Smart Grid Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Rui; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Phulpin, Yannick;

    2014-01-01

    We propose a robust network coding protocol for enhancing the reliability and speed of data gathering in smart grids. At the heart of our protocol lies the idea of tunable sparse network coding, which adopts the transmission of sparsely coded packets at the beginning of the transmission process...... but then switches to a denser coding structure towards the end. Our systematic mechanism maintains the sparse structure during the recombination of packets at the intermediate nodes. The performance of our protocol is compared by means of simulations of IEEE reference grids against standard master-slave protocols...

  6. A formal model of fair exchange protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Sihan; LI Gaicheng

    2005-01-01

    Based on the study of existing fair exchange protocols, this paper sets up an accurate formal model by stepwise refinement. In the process of refinement an unreliable channel is employed to simulate an attack behavior. The model provides a novel formal definition of exchanged items, and presents the formal goals for fairness, accountability,etc., reflecting the inherent requirements for fair exchange protocols across-the-board. In order to check, prove, and design fair exchange protocols effectively and efficiently, the model puts forward a novel property of abuse-freeness which applies to all fair exchange protocols, gives a formal definition for trust strand of the third party, and presents general criteria of designing a secure and effective fair exchange protocol. Taking a typical fair exchange protocol as an example, this paper presents the analysis steps of fair exchange protocols appealing to our model. An unknown attack is uncovered. The analysis reveals the process of a complete attack, discovering deeper reasons for causing an attack.Finally, we modify the flawed protocol and the revised protocol ensures the desirable properties.

  7. A New Watermarking Protocol against Conspiracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; KOU Weidong; FAN Kai; CAO Xuefei

    2006-01-01

    A trusted third party introduced in watermarking protocols would decrease the security and affect the implementation of the protocols. In this paper, a new watermarking protocol with an un-trusted third party (UTTP) was proposed. Based on the idea of all-or-nothing disclosure of secret (ANDOS), all of the buyer, the seller and the third party didn't know the exact watermark, which was embedded in a digital content for tracing piracy. The proposed protocol provided mechanisms to trace piracy and protect customer's right. In addition, the problem that a seller colluded with UTTP to frame the buyer, namely, the conspiracy problem, could be avoided.

  8. Tool Supported Analysis of Web Services Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Abinoam P.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Srba, Jiri;

    2011-01-01

    We describe an abstract protocol model suitable for modelling of web services and other protocols communicating via unreliable, asynchronous communication channels. The model is supported by a tool chain where the first step translates tables with state/transition protocol descriptions, often used...... e.g. in the design of web services protocols, into an intermediate XML format. We further translate this format into a network of communicating state machines directly suitable for verification in the model checking tool UPPAAL. We introduce two types of communication media abstractions in order...

  9. Multimode Communication Protocols Enabling Reconfigurable Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlemann Lars

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the realization and application of a generic protocol stack for reconfigurable wireless communication systems. This focus extends the field of software-defined radios which usually concentrates on the physical layer. The generic protocol stack comprises common protocol functionality and behavior which are extended through specific parts of the targeted radio access technology. This paper considers parameterizable modules of basic protocol functions residing in the data link layer of the ISO/OSI model. System-specific functionality of the protocol software is realized through adequate parameterization and composition of the generic modules. The generic protocol stack allows an efficient realization of reconfigurable protocol software and enables a completely reconfigurable wireless communication system. It is a first step from side-by-side realized, preinstalled modes in a terminal towards a dynamic reconfigurable anymode terminal. The presented modules of the generic protocol stack can also be regarded as a toolbox for the accelerated and cost-efficient development of future communication protocols.

  10. Mac protocols for cyber-physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a literature review of various wireless MAC protocols and techniques for achieving real-time and reliable communications in the context of cyber-physical systems (CPS). The evaluation analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 for CPS therein will give insights into configuration and optimization of critical design parameters of MAC protocols. In addition, this book also presents the design and evaluation of an adaptive MAC protocol for medical CPS, which exemplifies how to facilitate real-time and reliable communications in CPS by exploiting IEEE 802.15.4 based MAC protocols. This book wil

  11. Secure Key Management Protocol in WIMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noudjoud Kahya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX /IEEE 802.16, is new technology basedon wireless metropolitan area network. Security of connections access in WIMAX /IEEE 802.16 iscomplete with respect to the Privacy Key Management (PKM protocol. The protocol is responsible forproviding the secure distribution of keying data from Base Station (BS to Subscriber Station (SS. In thispaper we provide the formal analysis of PKMv2 using Scyther tool to verify the security properties. Wefound that PKMv2 is vulnerable to replay, DoS, Man-in-the middle attacks. At last we have proposed asecure protocol (SPKM to prevent the authorization protocol from such attacks.

  12. Efficient secure two-party protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Hazay, Carmit

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive study of efficient protocols and techniques for secure two-party computation -- both general constructions that can be used to securely compute any functionality, and protocols for specific problems of interest. The book focuses on techniques for constructing efficient protocols and proving them secure. In addition, the authors study different definitional paradigms and compare the efficiency of protocols achieved under these different definitions.The book opens with a general introduction to secure computation and then presents definitions of security for a

  13. Equilibria of Generalized Cut and Choose Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Caragiannis, Ioannis; Kurokawa, David;

    Classic cake cutting protocols — which fairly allocate a divisible good among agents with heterogeneous preferences — are susceptible to manipulation. Do their strategic outcomes still guarantee fairness? To answer this question we adopt a novel algo rithmic approach, proposing a concrete...... computational model and reasoning about the game-theoretic properties of algorithms that operate in this model. Specifically, we show that each protocol in the class of generalized cut and choose (GCC) protocols — which includes the most important discrete cake cutting protocols — is guaranteed to have...

  14. Effect of esmolol on bispectral index in patients undergoing orotracheal intubation during induction of anesthesia%艾司洛尔对患者麻醉诱导气管插管时脑电双频谱指数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹德权; 陈艳平; 张燕玲

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of esmolol on bispectral index (BIS) in patients undergoing orotracheal intubation during induction of anesthesia and to investigate the mechanism of inhibiting the cardiovascular responses to tracheal intubation.Methode Forty patients in physical status of ASA Ⅰ or Ⅱ and aged 20-60 years were randomly divided into 2 groups ( n = 20 each): esmolol group (group E) and control group (group C). Anesthesia was induced with midazolam 0.1 mg/kg, fentanyl 5 μg/kg and vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg. In group E, esmolol 1 mg/kg was given intravenously before anesthesia induction and followed by an infusion of esmolol 250 μg· kg- 1·min-1, while a comparable volume of saline was given for group C. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and BIS were recorded before esmolol administration, before induction of anesthesia, before orotracheal intubation, and at 1, 2 and 5 min after intubation, respectively.Results There were no significant differences in HR, MAP and BIS between the two groups before tracheal intubation. HR and MAP significantly increased after tracheal intubation in both groups, but BIS only in group C significantly increased after intubation.HR, MAP and BIS were significantly lower after intubation in group E than in group C ( P< 0.05).Conclusion Esmolol can decrease BIS during tracheal intubation and its antinociceptive property is related to the mechanism of inhibiting cardiovascular responses to tracheal intubation.

  15. Bispectral Index as an Indicator of Cerebral Hypoperfusion During Off Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting%脑电双频指数作为脑灌注不足指标在非体外循环下冠状动脉旁路移植术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas M. Hemmerling; Jean-Fran(c)ois Olivier; Fadi Basile; Nien Le; Ignatio Prieto; 徐静

    2006-01-01

    非体外循环下冠状动脉旁路移植术(off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting,OPCAB)中常发生心动过缓和低血压.本文报道一例58岁行冠脉左回旋支远端吻合时并发可逆性脑灌注不足的病例.术中行远端吻合时,该患者的脑电双频指数(bispectral index,BIS)从45~50骤降至0.术后在手术室内拔除气管导管即刻的神经系统功能评估正常,无神经系统后遗症.术后恢复顺利,于术后第5天出院.OPCAB术中可能并发脑灌注不足,BIS可用于监测OPCAB术中脑灌注不足的发生.

  16. Analysis of a security protocol in ?CRL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, J.

    2002-01-01

    Needham-Schroeder public-key protocol; With the growth and commercialization of the Internet, the security of communication between computers becomes a crucial point. A variety of security protocols based on cryptographic primitives are used to establish secure communication over insecure open netwo

  17. Diagrammatization of the Transmission Control Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Al-Fedaghi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the wide spread of Internet services, developers and users need a greater understanding of the technology of networking. Acquiring a clear understanding of communication protocols is an important step in understanding how a network functions; however, many protocols are complicated, and explaining them can be demanding. In addition, protocols are often explained in terms of traffic analysis and oriented toward technical staff and those already familiar with network protocols. This paper aims at proposing a diagrammatic methodology to represent protocols in general, with a focus on the Transmission Control Protocol and Secure Sockets Layer in particular. The purpose is to facilitate understanding of protocols for learning and communication purposes. The methodology is based on the notion of flow of primitive things in a system with six stages: creation, release, transfer, arrival, acceptance, and processing. Though the method presents a basic description of protocols without in-depth analysis of all aspects and mechanisms, the resultant conceptual description is a systematic specification that utilizes a few basic notions that assist in illustrating functionality and support comprehension.

  18. Climate Change And The Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of global warming is addressed. Changes in earth surface temperature, emission of CO2 and other four major green house gases are presented. Effect of global warming on weather, ocean, and ecosystem is discussed. A brief history of the Kyoto protocol starting from the 151 Earth Summit in 1972 is outlined. An overview of the protocol and a brief summary are given

  19. Kyoto Protocol: trade versus the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Could the signatories to the Kyoto Protocol find themselves up against the WTO? This paper examines how the climate change agreement could conflict with trade rules, and shows that there are potentially serious conflicts in the interface between the WTO and the Kyoto Protocol. It argues for dialogue and debate before it is too late. (author)

  20. Performance of a connectionless protocol over ATM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, Geert J.; Moorsel, van Aad P.A.; Niemegeers, Ignas G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent studies show the existence of a demand for a connectionless broadband service. In order to cope with this demand, a connectionless protocol for the B-ISDN needs to be designed. Such a protocol should make use of ATM and the ATM Adaptation Layer. It needs to specify destination and bandwidth o

  1. Summary Report on Rational Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alwen, Joël; Cachin, Christian; Pereira, Olivier;

    This report gives an overview of some of the models and techniques in rational cryptography, an emerging research area which in particular uses the methodologies and techniques of game theory to analyze cryptographic protocols and which uses cryptographic protocol theory to implement game theoretic...

  2. Welfare monitroing system : assessment protocol for horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livestock Research,

    2012-01-01

    This document describes the protocol for horses in more detail. For the development of the protocol the Welfare Quality® framework was used. For each measure there is a description how to assess the measure including the method of classification.

  3. 40 CFR 161.70 - Acceptable protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptable protocols. 161.70 Section 161.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA... Development (OECD) Protocols. Tests conducted in accordance with the requirements and recommendations of...

  4. The Formal Specifications for Protocols of Decoders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Meng-ting; WU Guo-qing; SHU Feng-di

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a formal approach, FSPD (Formal Specifications for Protocols of Decoders), to specify decoder communication protocols. Based on axiomatic, FSPD is a precise language with which programmers could use only one suitable driver to handle various types of decoders. FSPD is helpful for programmers to get high adaptability and reusability of decoder-driver software.

  5. Secure Geographic Routing Protocols: Issues and Approaches

    CERN Document Server

    sookhak, Mehdi; Haghparast, Mahboobeh; ISnin, Ismail Fauzi

    2011-01-01

    In the years, routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been substantially investigated by researches. Most state-of-the-art surveys have focused on reviewing of wireless sensor network .In this paper we review the existing secure geographic routing protocols for wireless sensor network (WSN) and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

  6. Secure Geographic Routing Protocols: Issues and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi sookhak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the years, routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN have been substantially investigated by researches Most state-of-the-art surveys have focused on reviewing of wireless sensor network .In this paper we review the existing secure geographic routing protocols for wireless sensor network (WSN and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

  7. Forests and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetze, D.C. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation referred to carbon sinks in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) as specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Policy issues, opportunities and challenges were discussed. The slides summarized the environmental potential of carbon sink projects, the current status of carbon sinks in the CDM, and strategies towards a CDM carbon sink. The Nyakach, Kenya biomass enhancement case study was presented, along with the Colombian Andean biodiversity corridor reforestation project. Potential sink projects were described as those resulting in direct reduction of emissions. These include reducing deforestation by protecting forests from being converted to agriculture, by protecting forests from the impacts of human activities, and by substituting biomass energy sources for fossil fuels. Indirect reduction of emissions via sequestration involves restoring natural forests in deforested or degraded areas and expanding agroforests and plantations. The co-benefits of carbon sink projects are biodiversity and socio-economic benefits. Under the Bonn Agreement, afforestation and reforestation projects are eligible under the CDM. Credits are limited to 1 per cent of Annex 1 party's base year emissions per year. The important elements of the Marrakech Accord are the prompt start of the CDM, as well as modalities and procedures.

  8. Treatment protocols for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujkov Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and the second cause of cancer death among women. About 95% (90% in developed countries of invasive carcinomas are of sqamous types, and 5% (10% in developed countries are adenocarcinomas. FIGO classification of cervical carcinomas, based on clinical staging and prognostic factor dictate therapeutic procedures and help in designing treatment protocols. Therapeutic modalities Surgical therapy includes conization, radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and palliative operation urinary diversion and colostomy. Radiotherapy, brachytherapy and teletherapy are most recently combined with chemotherapy as concurrent chemoradiation. Discussion and conclusion No change in therapeutic modalities will ever decrease mortality rate of cervical carcinoma as much as education, prevention and early screening. The 5-year survival for locally advanced disease has not improved during the last 40 years as a result of failure to deliver therapy to the paraaortic region. Paraaortic lymph nodes should be evaluated before therapy planning by different imaging procedures, or more exactly by surgical staging: laparoscopy or laparotomy. Radical operations of cervical carcinoma should be performed by experienced surgeons, educated for this type of operation, with sufficient number of cases.

  9. Quantum Communication Complexity of Quantum Authentication Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Guedes, Elloá B

    2011-01-01

    In order to perform Quantum Cryptography procedures it is often essencial to ensure that the parties of the communication are authentic. Such task is accomplished by quantum authentication protocols which are distributed algorithms based on the intrinsic properties of Quantum Mechanics. The choice of an authentication protocol must consider that quantum states are very delicate and that the channel is subject to eavesdropping. However, even in face of the various existing definitions of quantum authentication protocols in the literature, little is known about them in this perspective, and this lack of knowledge may unfavor comparisons and wise choices. In the attempt to overcome this limitation, in the present work we aim at showing an approach to evaluate quantum authentication protocols based on the determination of their quantum communication complexity. Based on our investigation, no similar methods to analyze quantum authentication protocols were found in the literature. Pursuing this further, our approa...

  10. Security Weaknesses in Arbitrated Quantum Signature Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Zhang, Kejia; Cao, Tianqing

    2014-01-01

    Arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) is a cryptographic scenario in which the sender (signer), Alice, generates the signature of a message and then a receiver (verifier), Bob, can verify the signature with the help of a trusted arbitrator, Trent. In this paper, we point out there exist some security weaknesses in two AQS protocols. Our analysis shows Alice can successfully disavow any of her signatures by a simple attack in the first protocol. Furthermore, we study the security weaknesses of the second protocol from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. Some potential improvements of this kind of protocols are given. We also design a new method to authenticate a signature or a message, which makes AQS protocols immune to Alice's disavowal attack and Bob's forgery attack effectively.

  11. Cryptanalysis of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2011-08-01

    As a new model for signing quantum messages, arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) has recently received a lot of attention. In this paper we study the cryptanalysis of previous AQS protocols from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. We show that in these protocols the receiver, Bob, can realize existential forgery of the sender's signature under known message attack. Bob can even achieve universal forgery when the protocols are used to sign a classical message. Furthermore, the sender, Alice, can successfully disavow any of her signatures by simple attack. The attack strategies are described in detail and some discussions about the potential improvements of the protocols are given. Finally we also present several interesting topics on AQS protocols that can be studied in future.

  12. Cryptanalysis of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fei; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2011-01-01

    As a new model for signing quantum message, arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) has recently received a lot of attention. In this paper we study the cryptanalysis of previous AQS protocols from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. We show that in these protocols the receiver Bob can realize existential forgery of the sender's signature under known message attack. Bob can even achieve universal forgery when the protocols are used to sign a classical message. Furthermore, the sender Alice can successfully disavow any of her signatures by simple attack. The attack strategies are described in detail and some discussions about the potential improvements of the protocols are given. Finally we also present several interesting topics in future study on AQS protocols.

  13. VULNERABILITIES OF THE SSL/TLS PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ćurguz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes vulnerabilities of the SSL/TLS Handshake protocol, which is responsible for authentication of the parties in the communication and negotiation of security parameters that will be used to protect confidentiality and integrity of the data. It will be analyzed the attacks against the implementation of Handshake protocol, as well as the attacks against the other elements necessary to SSL/TLS protocol to discover security flaws that were exploited, modes of attack, the potential consequences, but also studying methods of defense. All versions of the protocol are going to be the subject of the research but emphasis will be placed on the critical attack that the most endanger the safety of data. The goal of the research is to point out the danger of existence of at least vulnerability in the SSL/TLS protocol, which can be exploited and endanger the safety of the data that should be protected.

  14. Multicast Protocol for Uni-Directional Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄皓; 陈贵海; 谢立; 孙钟秀

    2000-01-01

    A very inexpensive receive-only satellite receiver can receive high bandwidth traffic from a feeder. Therefore the connection between the feeder and the receiver is uni-directional. The existing routing protocols, such as Link-State and Distance-Vector, are designed on the premise that any links are bidirectional and they cannot handle the uni-directional links. In this paper, a dynamic multicast routing protocol is proposed, which can handle uni-directional networks. This protocol can also adapt to the dynamic change of the topology of the network and has good scalability. A formal description of the protocol by Petri net is given. Liveness,deadlock free and other properties of the protocol are proved.

  15. A fully efficient secure quantum cryptography protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang Bin Wang

    2001-01-01

    Since Bennett and Brassard suggested their quantum key distribution protocol(BB84 protocol) in 1984, the subject has been extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally. The protocol allows two remote parties Alice and Bob to create and share a secret key using a quantum channel and public authenticated communications. The quantum key created in this way is in principle secure because eavesdroppers have no way to tap the quantum channel without disturb it. In the protocol, two level quantum bits are measured in two basis, $X$ and $Z$ randomly by Bob. So at least half of the measurement results will be discarded because Bob has a half probability taking the measurement in a wrong basis. On the other hand, the security is not the maximum in BB84 protocol. To increase the security, one may straightforwardly increase the number of basis used in the protocol. For example, six state protocol was proposed recently for two level system. However, in this way, it seems to be the case that the higher the secu...

  16. Efficient Privacy Preserving Protocols for Similarity Join

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Hawashin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the similarity join process, one or more sources may not allow sharing its data with other sources. In this case, a privacy preserving similarity join is required. We showed in our previous work [4] that using long attributes, such as paper abstracts, movie summaries, product descriptions, and user feedbacks, could improve the similarity join accuracy using supervised learning. However, the existing secure protocols for similarity join methods can not be used to join sources using these long attributes. Moreover, the majority of the existing privacy‐preserving protocols do not consider the semantic similarities during the similarity join process. In this paper, we introduce a secure efficient protocol to semantically join sources when the join attributes are long attributes. We provide two secure protocols for both scenarios when a training set exists and when there is no available training set. Furthermore, we introduced the multi‐label supervised secure protocol and the expandable supervised secure protocol. Results show that our protocols can efficiently join sources using the long attributes by considering the semantic relationships among the long string values. Therefore, it improves the overall secure similarity join performance.

  17. Snakebite management in Iran: Devising a protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Monzavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Snakebite in Iran has been a health concern. However, management of snakebite is not standardized and varies from center to center. This study is aimed at devising an evidence-based comprehensive protocol for snakebite management in Iran, to reduce unnecessary variations in practice. Materials and Methods: A narrative search in electronic databases was performed. Fifty peer-reviewed articles, guidelines, and textbooks were reviewed and practical details were extracted. Our currently used protocol in the Mashhad Toxicology Center was supplemented with this information. Consequently an improved wide-range protocol was developed. The protocol was then discussed and amended within a focus group comprised of medical toxicologists and internal medicine specialists. The amended version was finally discussed with expert physicians specialized in different areas of medicine, to be optimized by supplementing other specific considerations. Results: During a one-year process, the protocol was finalized. The final version of the protocol, which was designed in six steps, comprised of three components: A schematic algorithm, a severity grading scale, and instructions for supportive and adjunctive treatments. The algorithm pertains to both Viperidae and Elapidae snakebite envenomations and consists of a planned course of action and dosing of antivenom, based on the severity of the envenomation. Conclusion: Snakebite envenomation is a clinical toxicologic emergency, which needs to be treated in a timely and organized manner. Hence, a multi-aspect protocol was designed to improve the clinical outcomes, reduce unnecessary administration of antivenom, and help physicians make more proper clinical judgments.

  18. Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Gopinath

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many energy-efficient routing protocols have been proposed. However, very little efforts have been taken in studying the energy consumption of individual node, overhead and route maintaining issues. While not considering the design of energy efficient routing protocol, it may perform very worst than the normal routing protocol. Here, we have proposed On Demand Based Energy Efficient Routing Protocol (ODBEERP. The main aim of proposed protocol is to discover the minimum power-limitation route. The power limitation of a route is decided by the node which has the minimum energy in that route. So compared with the minimum node energy in any other route, the minimum node energy in the minimum power-limitation route has more energy. We have also proposed a more accurate analysis to track the energy consumptions due to various factors, and improve the performance during path discovery and in mobility scenarios. The proposed protocol is evaluated with object oriented discrete event simulator environment. Simulation results shows that the ODBEERP achieves good throughput, less delay, high packet delivery ratio and good energy efficiency than the existing protocol PEER.

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE PROTECTED EXTENSIBLE AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Rana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF has proposednew protocols for highly secured wireless networking. Thepurpose of this paper is to implement one such proposedsecurity protocol - PEAP (Protected ExtensibleAuthentication Protocol [1]. PEAP was jointly developedby Microsoft, Cisco and RSA security. The protocolimplementation is done on the server end of a Client/Servernetwork model on a RADIUS server (RemoteAuthentication Dial-in User Service. The proposedprotocol - PEAP provides for Client identity protection andkey generation thus preventing unauthorized user accessand protecting or encrypting the data against maliciousactivities.

  20. Advanced Internet Protocols, Services, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Oki, Eiji; Tatipamula, Mallikarjun; Vogt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Today, the internet and computer networking are essential parts of business, learning, and personal communications and entertainment. Virtually all messages or transactions sent over the internet are carried using internet infrastructure- based on advanced internet protocols. Advanced internet protocols ensure that both public and private networks operate with maximum performance, security, and flexibility. This book is intended to provide a comprehensive technical overview and survey of advanced internet protocols, first providing a solid introduction and going on to discu

  1. Demand Priority Protocol Simulation and Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Yongzhao; SONG Shunlin; XIE Li

    1999-01-01

    A new network protocol (DemandPriority Protocol) environment can provide more satisfying service fordifferent urgent transmission requests. In this paper, in order toprovide guidance for the selection of environment of multimedia datatransmission in Computer Supported Cooperative Work better, anobject-oriented protocol specification language based on C++ is used todesign a virtual environment of multiworkstation of computer cooperativework and to simulate exe-cution of demand priority network protocoland then the performances of various transmission requests are analyzed.Finally, an evaluation of the demand priority LAN is given.

  2. The Russian Federation and the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Douma, Wybe; Ratsiborinskaya, Daria

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis book brings together the results of two conferences: 'The Kyoto Protocol and beyond: A legal perspective', organised by the University of Siena on 10-11 June 2006, and 'Tackling Climate Change: An appraisal of the Kyoto Protocol and options for the future', held at the T.M.C. Asser Institute in The Hague on 30-31 March 2007. These conferences focused on the legal aspects of the Kyoto Protocol implementation and the post-2012 regime. Experts in European and international envir...

  3. Security-Preserving Asymmetric Protocol Encapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaudenay, Serge; Phan, Raphael C-W

    2007-01-01

    Query-response based protocols between a client and a server such as SSL, TLS, SSH are asymmetric in the sense that the querying client and the responding server play different roles, and for which there is a need for two-way linkability between queries and responses within the protocol. We are motivated by the observation that though results exist in other related contexts, no provably secure scheme has been applied to the setting of client-server protocols, which differ from conventional co...

  4. Performance evaluation of TCP over ABT protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Shingo; Murata, Masayuki; Miyahara, Hideo

    1998-10-01

    ABT is promising for effectively transferring a highly bursty data traffic in ATM networks. Most of past studies focused on the data transfer capability of ABT within the ATM layer. In actual, however, we need to consider the upper layer transport protocol since the transport layer protocol also supports a network congestion control mechanism. One such example is TCP, which is now widely used in the Internet. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of TCP over ABT protocols. Simulation results show that the retransmission mechanism of ABT can effectively overlay the TCP congestion control mechanism so that TCP operates in a stable fashion and works well only as an error recovery mechanism.

  5. Overview of the InterGroup protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berket, Karlo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Agarwal, Deborah A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Melliar-Smith, P. Michael [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Moser, Louise E. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not, in general, scale well to large numbers of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces a novel approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays and a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable group timestamp ordered.

  6. Analysis of Enhanced Associativity Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said A. Shaar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces an analysis to the performance of the Enhanced Associativity Based Routing protocol (EABR based on two factors; Operation complexity (OC and Communication Complexity (CC. OC can be defined as the number of steps required in performing a protocol operation, while CC can be defined as the number of messages exchanged in performing a protocol operation[1]. The values represent the worst-case analysis. The EABR has been analyzed based on CC and OC and the results have been compared with another routing technique called ABR. The results have shown that EABR can perform better than ABR in many circumstances during the route reconstruction.

  7. Analyzing security protocols in hierarchical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ye; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    Validating security protocols is a well-known hard problem even in a simple setting of a single global network. But a real network often consists of, besides the public-accessed part, several sub-networks and thereby forms a hierarchical structure. In this paper we first present a process calculus...... capturing the characteristics of hierarchical networks and describe the behavior of protocols on such networks. We then develop a static analysis to automate the validation. Finally we demonstrate how the technique can benefit the protocol development and the design of network systems by presenting a series...

  8. Comparison of on Demand Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhushan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A routing protocol is used to facilitate communication in ad hoc network. The primary goal of such a routing protocol is to provide an efficient and reliable path between a pair of nodes. The routing protocols for ad hoc network can be categorized into three categories: table driven, on demand and hybrid routing. The table driven and hybrid routing strategies require periodic exchange of hello messages between nodes of the ad hoc network and thus have high processing and bandwidth requirements. On the other hand on demand routing strategy creates routes when required and hence is very much suitable for ad hoc network. This paper therefore examines the performance of three on demand routing protocols at application layer using QualNet-5.01 simulator.

  9. Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000

  10. Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

  11. Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes monitoring protocols for marshbirds in North America. Monitoring parameters, field procedures, survey methods, timing of surveys, recording...

  12. Privacy-Preserving Protocols for Eigenvector Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, Manas A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a protocol for computing the dominant eigenvector of a collection of private data distributed across multiple parties, with the individual parties unwilling to share their data. Our proposed protocol is based on secure multiparty computation with a trusted third-party arbitrator who deals with data encrypted by the other parties using an additive homomorphic cryptosystem. We also augment the protocol with randomization to make it difficult, with a high probability, for any party to estimate properties of the data belonging to other parties from the intermediate steps. The previous approaches towards this problem were based on expensive QR decomposition of correlation matrices, we present an efficient algorithm using the power iteration method. We present an analysis of the correctness, security, efficiency of protocol and experiments over a prototype implementation.

  13. Multicast Routing Protocols in Adhoc Mobile networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Nagaprasad,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of applications are in areas where rapid deployment and dynamic reconfiguration are necessary and a wire line network is not available. These include military battlefields, emergency search and rescue sites, classrooms, and conventions where participants share information dynamically using their mobile devices. Well established routing protocols do exist to offer efficient multicasting service in conventional wired networks. These protocols, having been designed for fixed networks, may fails to keep up with node movements and frequent topology changes in a MANET. Therefore, adapting existing wired multicast protocols as such to a MANET, which completely lacks infrastructure, appear less promising. Providing efficient multicasting over MANET faces many challenges, includes scalability,quality of service, reliable service, security, Address configuration, Applications for multicast over MANET. The existing multicast routing protocol do not addresses these issues effectively over Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET.

  14. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Hung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols.

  15. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Li-Ling; Luo, Yung-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN) is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols.

  16. National Wildlife Refuge System Survey Protocol Template

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This template was developed for drafting National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) Survey Protocols. The template is arranged in the same order as the eight basic...

  17. ARC Code TI: Geometry Manipulation Protocol (GMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Geometry Manipulation Protocol (GMP) is a library which serializes datatypes between XML and ANSI C data structures to support CFD applications. This library...

  18. Compiling symbolic attacks to protocol implementation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rusinowitch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently efficient model-checking tools have been developed to find flaws in security protocols specifications. These flaws can be interpreted as potential attacks scenarios but the feasability of these scenarios need to be confirmed at the implementation level. However, bridging the gap between an abstract attack scenario derived from a specification and a penetration test on real implementations of a protocol is still an open issue. This work investigates an architecture for automatically generating abstract attacks and converting them to concrete tests on protocol implementations. In particular we aim to improve previously proposed blackbox testing methods in order to discover automatically new attacks and vulnerabilities. As a proof of concept we have experimented our proposed architecture to detect a renegotiation vulnerability on some implementations of SSL/TLS, a protocol widely used for securing electronic transactions.

  19. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Li-Ling; Luo, Yung-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN) is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols. PMID:27005624

  20. Identity-based authentication protocol for grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hon; Sun Shixin; Yang Homiao

    2008-01-01

    Current grid authentication frameworks are achieved by applying the standard SSL authentication protocol(SAP).The authentication process is very complicated,and therefore,the grid user is in a heavily loaded point both in computation and in communication.Based on identity-based architecture for grid(IBAG)and corre-sponding encryption and signature schemes,an identity-based authentication protocol for grid is proposed.Being certificate-free,the authentication protocol aligns well with the demands of grid computing.Through simulation testing,it is seen that the authentication protocol is more lightweight and efficient than SAP,especially the more lightweight user side.This contributes to the larger grid scalability.

  1. How To Develop Survey Protocols: A Handbook

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This handbook provides a standard and guidance for developing and reviewing survey protocols used in the National Wildlife Refuge System. In the handbook, survey...

  2. Rethinking low extra delay background transport protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Carofiglio, Giovanna; Rossi, Dario; Testa, Claudio; Valenti, Silvio

    2010-01-01

    BitTorrent has recently introduced LEDBAT, a novel application-layer congestion control protocol for data exchange. The protocol design starts from the assumption that network bottlenecks are at the access of the network, and that thus user traffic competes creating self-inducing congestion. To relieve from this phenomenon, LEDBAT is designed to quickly infer that self-induced congestion is approaching (by detecting relative changes of the one-way delay in the transmission path), and to react by reducing the sending rate prior that congestion occurs. Prior work has however shown LEDBAT to be affected by a latecomer advantage, where newly arriving connections can starve already existing flows. In this work, we propose modifications to the congestion window update mechanism of the LEDBAT protocol that aim at solving this issue, guaranteeing thus intra-protocol fairness and efficiency. Closed-form expressions for the stationary throughput and queue occupancy are provided via a fluid model, whose accuracy is conf...

  3. Reparable Key Distribution Protocols for Internet Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It has claimed that any practical way to achieve perfect reparability for key distribution protocol (KDP) could only be futile. Fortunately, this paper presents reparable KDPs for internet environments with the use of the concept of timestamps.

  4. Secure Key Management Protocol in WIMAX

    OpenAIRE

    Noudjoud Kahya; Nacira Ghoualmi; Pascal Lafourcade

    2012-01-01

    The Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX /IEEE 802.16), is new technology basedon wireless metropolitan area network. Security of connections access in WIMAX /IEEE 802.16 iscomplete with respect to the Privacy Key Management (PKM) protocol. The protocol is responsible forproviding the secure distribution of keying data from Base Station (BS) to Subscriber Station (SS). In thispaper we provide the formal analysis of PKMv2 using Scyther tool to verify the security properties. ...

  5. OAuth protocol for CERN Web Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kleszcz, Emil; Rodriguez Fernandez, Luis; Marescaux, Nicolas Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Project Specification The CERN Authentication service has recently increased his offer of SSO protocols/frameworks with OAuth2 standard. The purpose of the work is to explain the need for an authorization standard and explain how does OAuth2 protocol addresses our requirements. OAuth is an open standard for authorization which provides a secure access to server resources that belongs to a user. As a wide known and relatively new standard (2012) is used by big players in the industry a...

  6. The Kyoto Protocol: Can We Meet?

    OpenAIRE

    Boromisa, Ana-Maria; Tišma, Sanja

    2008-01-01

    Integration into the EU is one of strategic foreign policy goals of Croatia. Before accession, Croatia has to align with the EU policies and legislation. The European Commission in its Croatia 2007 Progress report identified ratification of the Kyoto Protocol as progress regarding environmental chapter of accession negotiations. By ratifying the Kyoto Protocol in May 2007 Croatia pledged to reduce greenhouse gases by 5% in the first commitment period, 2008-2012, from the amount released into ...

  7. The obscure future of the Kyoto protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Tsayem Demaze, Moise

    2013-01-01

    Since it came into effect in 2005 followed by its first period of application from 2008 to 2012, the Kyoto protocol has been subject to debates and international negotiations about its post-2012 future. Many grey areas persist, even though the Durban conference, held in December 2011, and the Doha conference, held in December 2012, ratified the principle of a second period of application of the protocol and started negotiations for a new international treaty supposed to come into effect in 2020.

  8. The Kyoto Protocol : a Review and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Böhringer, Christoph

    2003-01-01

    International concern about climate change has led to the Kyoto Protocol, negotiated in 1997, which contains legally binding emission targets for industrialized countries to be achieved during the commitment period 2008-2012. While proponents of the Protocol celebrate it as a breakthrough in international climate policy, opponents criticize that its approach, namely setting targets and timetables for emission reductions, is seriously flawed. This paper provides a critical assessment of the Pr...

  9. Mutual Authentication Protocols for RFID Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashrar A. Omer; Johnson P. Thomas; Ling Zhu

    2008-01-01

    With the availability of low-cost radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, security becomes an increasing concern.However, such tags do not permit complex eryptographic functions due to their computational, communications, and storage limitations.In this paper, we investigate the security issues and requirements of RFID systems, and propose ultra-light weight and light weight protocols for low-cost RFID tags. The proposed protocols has been applied to a supply chain management system.

  10. Quantum Key Distribution Protocol with User Authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H; Lee, D; Lim, J; Yang, H J; Lee, Hwayean; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Donghoon; Lim, Jongin; Yang, HyungJin

    2005-01-01

    We propose a quantum key distribution protocol with quantum based user authentication. User authentication is executed by validating the correlation of GHZ states. Alice and Bob can distribute a secure key using the remaining GHZ states after authentication. This secret key does not leak even to the arbitrator by the properties of the entanglement. We will show that our protocol is secure against the cloning attack.

  11. Protocol for communications in potentially noisy environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Gerlad M.; Farrow, Jeffrey

    2016-02-09

    A communications protocol that is designed for transmission of data in networks that are subjected to harsh conditions is described herein. A network includes a plurality of devices, where the devices comprise respective nodes. The nodes are in communication with one another by way of a central network hub. The protocol causes the nodes to transmit data over a network bus at different data rates depending upon whether the nodes are operating normally or an arbitration procedure has been invoked.

  12. Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP): Future Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Deepti

    2014-01-01

    VoIP (voice over IP) delivers standard voice over telephone services over Internet Protocol (IP). VoIP is the technology of digitizing sound, compressing it, breaking it up into data packets, and sending it over an IP (internet protocol) network where it is reassembled, decompressed, and converted back into an analog wave form. Gateways are the key component required to facilitate IP Telephony. A gateway is used to bridge the traditional circuit switched PSTN with the packet switched Internet...

  13. Compiling symbolic attacks to protocol implementation tests

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Rusinowitch; Ghazi Maatoug; Hatem Ghabri

    2013-01-01

    Recently efficient model-checking tools have been developed to find flaws in security protocols specifications. These flaws can be interpreted as potential attacks scenarios but the feasability of these scenarios need to be confirmed at the implementation level. However, bridging the gap between an abstract attack scenario derived from a specification and a penetration test on real implementations of a protocol is still an open issue. This work investigates an architecture for automatically g...

  14. Trust Authentication Protocol on the Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It is unsuitable to use traditional identity-based authentication on the Web where entities are not foreknown to each other. Trust relationship must be established between strangers before authentication. To achieve trust authentication, the resource-constrained trust negotiation is addressed, and traditional authentication key exchange protocol is extended. Owing to avoiding the heavy computational demands the public key cryptography operations bring about, the authentication protocol is well-suited for security authentication on the Web.

  15. Dose protocols of acetylcholine test in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向定成; 龚志华; 何建新; 洪长江; 邱建; 马骏

    2004-01-01

    @@ Acetylcholine test has been widely used clinically in several countries as a practical test provoking coronary artery spasm.1-3 Although it has also been launched recently in a few hospitals in China, the dose protocol for acetylcholine test used in these hospitals were from abroad.4,5 This study was aimed at developing a dose protocol for acetylcholine test suitable for Chinese people.

  16. Analyzing the exhaustiveness of the synapse protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Marinkovic, Bojan; Ciancaglini, Vincenzo; Ognjanovic, Zoran; Glavan, Paola; Liquori, Luigi; Maksimovic, Petar

    2015-01-01

    International audience The Synapse protocol is a scalable protocol designed for information retrieval over inter-connected heterogeneous overlay networks. In this paper, we give a formal description of Synapse using the Abstract State Machines framework. The formal description pertains to Synapse actions that manipulate distributed keys. Based on this formal description, we present results concerning the expected exhaustiveness for a number of scenarios and systems maintained by the Synaps...

  17. Hybrid Long-Distance Entanglement Distribution Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, J.B.; Rigas, I.; Polzik, E.S.;

    2010-01-01

    We propose a hybrid (continuous-discrete variable) quantum repeater protocol for long-distance entanglement distribution. Starting from states created by single-photon detection, we show how entangled coherent state superpositions can be generated by means of homodyne detection. We show that near......-deterministic entanglement swapping with such states is possible using only linear optics and homodyne detectors, and we evaluate the performance of our protocol combining these elements....

  18. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, C. E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  19. Variable TDMA MAC Protocol For WDM EPON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minsuk; Jung; Yongseok; Chang; Jonghoon; Eom; Sungho; Kim

    2003-01-01

    A MAC(Media Access Control) protocol, one of the most important technologies for an EPON(Ethernet Passive Optical Network), contains a scheduling algorithm to avoid collisions in shared links and assigns an effective bandwidth when ONUs (Optical Network Units) transfer signals upward. The current paper proposes a MAC Protocol that operates a TDMA(Time method with a variable slot assignment to overcome short of bandwidth using by the number of n wavelength., the next generation access network. To verify ...

  20. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  1. Optimistic protocol for partitioned distributed database systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protocol for transaction processing during partition failures is presented which guarantees mutual consistency between copies of data-items after repair is completed. The protocol is optimistic in that transactions are processed without restrictions during the failure; conflicts are detected at repair time using a precedence graph and are resolved by backing out transactions according to some backout strategy. The protocol is then evaluated using simulation and probabilistic modeling. In the simulation, several parameters are varied such as the number of transactions processed in a group, the type of transactions processed, the number of data-items present in the database, and the distribution of references to data-items. The simulation also uses different backout strategies. From these results we note conditions under which the protocol performs well, i.e., conditions under which the protocol backs out a small percentage of the transaction run. A probabilistic model is developed to estimate the expected number of transactions backed out using most of the above database and transaction parameters, and is shown to agree with simulation results. Suggestions are then made on how to improve the performance of the protocol. Insights gained from the simulation and probabilistic modeling are used to develop a backout strategy which takes into account individual transaction costs and attempts to minimize total backout cost. Although the problem of choosing transactions to minimize total backout cost is, in general, NP-complete, the backout strategy is efficient and produces very good results

  2. Network-topology-adaptive quantum conference protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Sheng; Wang Jian; Tang Chao-Jing; Zhang Quan

    2011-01-01

    As an important application of the quantum network communication,quantum multiparty conference has made multiparty secret communication possible.Previous quantum multiparty conference schemes based on quantum data encryption are insensitive to network topology.However,the topology of the quantum network significantly affects the communication efficiency,e.g.,parallel transmission in a channel with limited bandwidth.We have proposed two distinctive protocols,which work in two basic network topologies with efficiency higher than the existing ones.We first present a protocol which works in the reticulate network using Greeberger-Horne-Zeilinger states and entanglement swapping.Another protocol,based on quantum multicasting with quantum data compression,which can improve the efficiency of the network,works in the star-like network.The security of our protocols is guaranteed by quantum key distribution and one-time-pad encryption.In general,the two protocols can be applied to any quantum network where the topology can be equivalently transformed to one of the two structures we propose in our protocols.

  3. Performance of coopMAC Protocols over CSMA/CA 802.11 protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Srikanth.Kamath

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless communication is very fast becoming the most frequently used form of communication. Ad-Hoc networks can be easily set up anywhere without any infrastructure cost and its mobility adds to its advantage. Hence with increase in its demand the quality of the setup comes under scrutiny, hence calling for its development. This paper presents the concept of Cooperative MAC protocols. Cooperative MAC protocols are found to be more efficient over 802.11 MAC protocols and improve the network performance substantially. Comparison of 802.11 MAC protocols and CoopMAC protocols on NS2 platform is carried out and successfully proved that cooperative MAC protocols offer much higher throughput.

  4. EAR Protocol-Towards Fair Optimistic Non-Repudiation Exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-yan; WANG Ru-chuan

    2005-01-01

    Fairness is of crucial importance for the exchange protocols via Internet. Non-repudiation therefore becomes one of the vital premises, which are essential in the exchange of sensitive and important messages. This paper is to propose a new exchange protocol, termed "EAR" Exchange Protocol as it consists of three sub-protocols: Exchange sub-protocol, Abort sub-protocol and Recovery sub-protocol. It is to be argued that the incorporation of these three sub-protocols may effectively enables EAR to assure non-repudiation, strong fairness, timeliness, confidentiality and the minimized involvement of the Trusted Third Party (TTP).

  5. Security Analysis of Broadcaster Group Key Exchange Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; ZHANG Huanguo

    2006-01-01

    Group key exchange protocols are basic protocols to provide privacy and integrity in secure group communication. This paper discusses the security of one type of group key exchange protocols and defines the kind of protocols as broadcaster group protocols. It points out two attacks on this kind of protocols. The first attack can be avoided by using fresh values in each action during one session of the group protocol. The second attack should be related with concrete application. It also proposes a dynamic key agreement protocol as an example of solutions at the last part of the paper.

  6. The Comparative Study of Entropy and Bispectral Indexes on Monitoring the Depth of Anaesthesia for the Elderly Patients%脑电双频指数和熵指数监测老年患者麻醉深度的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于帅; 林财珠

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究脑电双频指数和熵指数在老年患者硬膜外复合丙泊酚靶控静脉全麻中麻醉深度监测的可行性、准确性,并比较其优越性。方法选取择期行根治性全胃切除术的老年胃癌患者40例,均采用硬膜外复合丙泊酚靶控输注静脉全麻的麻醉方法,记录不同时间节点患者的心率(HR)、平均动脉压(MAP)、脑电双频指数(BIS)、反应熵(RE)、状态熵(SE)及停药后苏醒时间、拔管时间、手术时间、丙泊酚总用量、术中知晓的发生与否。结果应用阶梯式靶控输注丙泊酚诱导、术中维持及停药后BIS和RE、SE均随着意识变化而变化,2组之间差别无统计学意义。结论老年患者上腹部手术中施行硬膜外复合丙泊酚靶控输注静脉全麻时,BIS和RE、SE均可准确反映其麻醉深度。%Objective To compare the differences between entropy and bispectral indexes on mo‐nitoring the depth of anaesthesia for the elderly patients during the target‐controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol general anesthesia . Methods Fourty elderly patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery were studied . Anaesthesia was induced with epidural anesthesia combined with the target‐controlled infu‐sion (TCI) of propofol general anesthesia . Recording HR ,MAP ,BIS ,RE ,SE at different time ,also the emergence time and extubation time after discontinuation ,total operating time ,total dose of propofol ,and occurrence of the perioperative awareness . Results When applying ladder‐type target‐controlled infusion of propofol ,BIS and RE ,SE all changed with the conscious during induction ,maintenance and discontinua‐tion of propofol . There was no statistic difference between two groups . Conclusion In elderly patients with upper abdominal surgery in the implementation of epidural composite propofol target‐controlled infu‐sion w hen general anesthesia ,BIS and RE ,SE may reflect the depth of

  7. Chain-Chain Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia A Ali

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN is an emerging technology for monitoring physical world. WSNs consist of large numbers of sensor nodes operated by battery mostly in harsh environment. Thus energy conservation is a primary issue for organization of these sensor nodes. Another crucial issue is the data delivery time by sensor nodes to the sink node, especially in Military, medical fields, and security monitoring systems where minimum delay is desirable. Number of protocols has been proposed in the literature for routing. One of such protocols is the cluster based routing protocol LEACH (low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy. LEACH protocol organizes WSN into a set of clusters and a periodic voting for cluster head is performed in order to be evenly distributed among all the sensors of the WSN. This periodical cluster head voting in LEACH, however, consumes an amount of non-negligible energy and other resources. For energy conservation, PEGASIS (power efficient gathering in sensor information systems a near optimal chain-based protocol has been proposed, however, it is faced with the challenge of long delay for the transmitted data. Another routing protocol called CCM (Chain-Cluster based Mixed routing, which is mainly a hybrid of LEACH and PEGASIS is proposed, the consumed energy increases as network size increases. In this paper, we propose an efficient routing protocol called CCBRP (Chain-Chain based routing protocol, it achieves both minimum energy consumption and minimum delay. The CCBRP protocol mainly divides a WSN into a number of chains (Greedy algorithm is used to form each chain as in PEGSIS protocol and runs in two phases. In the first phase, sensor nodes in each chain transmit data to their chain leader nodes in parallel. In the second phase, all chain leader nodes form a chain (also, using Greedy algorithm and choose randomly a leader node then all chain leader nodes send their data to this chosen leader node. This chosen leader node

  8. Angel-6000型脑电麻醉深度监护仪与脑电双频指数临床应用比较%Study of the changes and correlation of index of consciousness and bispectral index during target-controlled infusion of propofol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 徐广民; 范丹

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of correlation between index of consciousness (IoC) and bispectral index (BIS) during target-controlled infusion of propofol. Methods: IoC and BIS of 35 patients undering laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia were monitored simultaneously. Anesthesia was induced with TCI propofol. When the plasma propofol concentration increased from 1.5 μg/ml to 4μg/ml, The changes and corredation of IoC and BIS were compared in basic state at the, loss and recovery of consciousness and during intubation. Result: There was no significant difference in basic IoC and BIS (P > 0.05). When patients were at the loss and recovery of consciousness, the IoC and BIS were lower than the basic value (P 0.05),意识消失与意识恢复时两者均低于基础值(P0.05),与BIS(42.7±6.65)比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。不同浓度时BIS与loC值的相关系数r为0.971(P<0.01),两者具有显著相关性。插管时IoC为55±5.37,高于插管前,并高于同期BIS值(P<0.05)。结论:丙泊酚TCI实施全身麻醉时IoC能良好地反映患者意识水平,与BIS具有良好的相关性,能够实时反映气管插管刺激对于脑电的影响。

  9. 意识指数与脑电双频指数监测靶控丙泊酚全麻诱导时镇静深度的比较%Comparison between the index of consciousness and the bispectral index during propofol target-controlled infusion anaesthesia induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛鑫; 赵晶; 黄宇光

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨意识指数(IOC)与脑电双频指数(BIS)相比,靶控丙泊酚全麻诱导时用于监测镇静深度的相关性.方法 纳入行基本外科或妇产科手术的患者30例,靶控丙泊酚全麻诱导期间,同时监测IOC和BIS.记录镇静评分(OAA/S)由5分逐级降低至1分时,每次OAA/S评分即刻的IOC及BIS值,以及相应点的丙泊酚效应室浓度.结果 与基线值比较,OAA/S评分从5逐渐降低至1时,BIS与IOC值均降低,BIS值之间或IOC值之间的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 IOC用于靶控丙泊酚全麻诱导时的镇静深度监测,与BIS具有良好的相关性.%Objective To compare a new level of consciousness monitor, called the index of consciousness (IOC) with the bispectral index (BIS) during propofol target-controlled infusion (TCI) anaesthesia induction. Methods After ethical committee approval and written patient consent, data from 30 patients were recorded. All patients were induced with propofol target-controlled infusion ( TCI) , until the Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation (OAAS) scale level 1 was reached, and then IOC and BIS were calculated during OAAS 5 - 1. Results With the increase of sedation during OAAS 5 ~ 1, there was a significant decrease of BIS and IOC ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions IOC has a close correlation with BIS during propofol target-controlled infusion (TCI) anaesthesia induction.

  10. Protocol Independent Multicast Based States Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Hemalatha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM protocol is being used. The PIM protocol avoids the packet drop and diverting problem. The PIM protocol is not dependent on any specific unicast routing protocol. It is IP routing independent protocol. The PIM uses the unicast and multicast information to create a distribution tree along the reverse path from the receivers towards the source. The PIM protocol consists of three modes such as sparse mode, dense mode and bidirectional mode. The sparse mode is used to sends the file from router to a receiver. The dense mode is used to sends the file from router to multiple receivers. The bidirectional mode is used to sends the message from router to sender and then continue the other process depending on the sender requirements. The client sends the file from sender to destination via the router. First the sender selects the file name and receiver name for transmission. Then the state is assigned automatically depend upon the user selection. The state can be defined by the number of destination selected to transmit the file from the source. If the sender selects single destination, it will assign “Without forwarding state router” for transmission. Otherwise it will assign “Forwarding state router” for transmission. If the receiver is not available, the router sends a message to sender such that “the requested receiver is not available”. Then the client will decide the file is transfer or not, it will reply with transfer the file, then the file will be transferred until the file will be discarded at client side. If the sender tries the same process after two times, the router will display the warning message as “the requested receiver is not available, this file will be discarded at client side”. Then it continues the other process.

  11. Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha Sunny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is an autonomous system that is composed of the mobile nodes which communicates through wireless links without any preexisting infrastructure. MANET is a collection of mobile nodes which can self-organize freely and dynamically into arbitrary and temporary network topologies. Mobile nodes in ad-hoc networks function as a router and can dynamically establish routes among themselves by means of a routing protocol. Routing protocols in mobile ad-hoc network helps node to send and receive packets. Therefore, selection of an appropriate routing protocol is an integral part of establishing a MANET. A suitable and effective routing mechanism helps to extend the successful deployment of mobile ad-hoc networks. An attempt has been made to compare the performance between on-demand reactive routing protocols namely AODV, DSR and proactive routing protocol namely DSDV for Constant Bit Rate (CBR traffic by varying network scope i.e. number of participating nodes as well as by varying the speed. The parameters used for evaluation are Packet delivery ratio (PDR, Normalized routing overhead, Average end to end delay (Delay, Throughput and Average Energy consumption. The simulations are carried out using Network Simulator NS2:34.

  12. A Lightweight Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongdong Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The buyer-seller watermarking protocol enables a seller to successfully identify a traitor from a pirated copy, while preventing the seller from framing an innocent buyer. Based on finite field theory and the homomorphic property of public key cryptosystems such as RSA, several buyer-seller watermarking protocols (N. Memon and P. W. Wong (2001 and C.-L. Lei et al. (2004 have been proposed previously. However, those protocols require not only large computational power but also substantial network bandwidth. In this paper, we introduce a new buyer-seller protocol that overcomes those weaknesses by managing the watermarks. Compared with the earlier protocols, ours is n times faster in terms of computation, where n is the number of watermark elements, while incurring only O(1/lN times communication overhead given the finite field parameter lN. In addition, the quality of the watermarked image generated with our method is better, using the same watermark strength.

  13. WDM Network and Multicasting Protocol Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Kirci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical technology gains extensive attention and ever increasing improvement because of the huge amount of network traffic caused by the growing number of internet users and their rising demands. However, with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM, it is easier to take the advantage of optical networks and optical burst switching (OBS and to construct WDM networks with low delay rates and better data transparency these technologies are the best choices. Furthermore, multicasting in WDM is an urgent solution for bandwidth-intensive applications. In the paper, a new multicasting protocol with OBS is proposed. The protocol depends on a leaf initiated structure. The network is composed of source, ingress switches, intermediate switches, edge switches, and client nodes. The performance of the protocol is examined with Just Enough Time (JET and Just In Time (JIT reservation protocols. Also, the paper involves most of the recent advances about WDM multicasting in optical networks. WDM multicasting in optical networks is given as three common subtitles: Broadcast and-select networks, wavelength-routed networks, and OBS networks. Also, in the paper, multicast routing protocols are briefly summarized and optical burst switched WDM networks are investigated with the proposed multicast schemes.

  14. Manet Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Arafat Ali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, multi-path routing protocols have attained more attention in mobile ad hoc networks as compared to other routing schemes due to their abilities and efficiency in improving bandwidth of communication, increasing delivery reliability, responding to congestion and heavy traffic. Several protocols have been developed to address multi path routing, but it always has a problem that the discovered paths may be not 100% disjoint and sending data is done in only one path until it's broken; the discovery of multiple paths also generates more overhead on the network. Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol [LBPRP] tried to solve previous multi path problems, distributing traffic among multiple paths sending data in parallel form as it uses all paths in the same time. We employed a simple test scenario to be sure of proposed model efficiency and to validate the proposed Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol. [LBPRP] will achieve load balancing in sending data, decreasing the end-to-end delay and increasing the packet delivery ratio and throughput, thus the performance of multi-path routing protocols can be improved consequently.

  15. Economics of the Kyoto Protocol for Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golub, D.D.; Strukova, E. [Environmental Defense, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The authors propose a careful analysis of the economic consequences of the Kyoto Protocol for Russian economic recovery. They review a different GHG forecasts for Russia and develop a new forecast for uncertain GDP growth and the changing elasticity of GHG emissions per GDP. As the rate of growth remains uncertain, elasticity could change over time, as well as the fuel mix. They apply the Monte-Carlo method to simulate these uncertainties and to produce a reasonable interval for CO{sub 2} emissions in 2010. The probability of Russia exceedings its Kyoto emissions budget is essentially zero. They also discuss the benefits for Russia from the Kyoto Protocol, and more generally from the implementation of GHG mitigation policy. Ancillary benefits from Kyoto Protocol implementation will bring essential reductions in risk to human health. On the other hand, potential negative changes in the fuel mix and GDP structure, as well as a slowing of the innovation process, could exacerbate the existing health problems. Alternatives to the Kyoto Protocol may bring much tougher commitments to Russia. In conclusion the Kyoto Protocol is the best possible deal for Russia. 24 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Controlled Delegation Protocol in Mobile RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang MingHour

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve off-line delegation for mobile readers, we propose a delegation protocol for mobile RFID allowing its readers access to specific tags through back-end server. That is to say, reader-tag mutual authentication can be performed without readers being connected to back-end server. Readers are also allowed off-line access to tags' data. Compared with other delegation protocols, our scheme uniquely enables back-end server to limit each reader's reading times during delegation. Even in a multireader situation, our protocol can limit reading times and reading time periods for each of them and therefore makes back-end server's delegation more flexible. Besides, our protocol can prevent authorized readers from transferring their authority to the unauthorized, declining invalid access to tags. Our scheme is proved viable and secure with GNY logic; it is against certain security threats, such as replay attacks, denial of service (DoS attacks, Man-in-the-Middle attacks, counterfeit tags, and breaches of location and data privacy. Also, the performance analysis of our protocol proves that current tags can afford the computation load required in this scheme.

  17. Semen cryopreservation protocols of Mangalarga Marchador stallions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Leite Candeias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the utilization of three semen protocols (Inra 82®, Merck Gema and Botu-crio® and two filling techniques (0.25 and 0.50 mL straws in Mangalarga Marchador stallions were studied in this experiment. Sperm parameters were assessed during processing and post-freezing. No interactions between the protocols and type of filling were observed, so they were assessed separately. Sperm parameters were not altered when the extender was added to the centrifugation; however, there was reduction of motility and strength when freezing extenders were added. The Botu-crio® protocol preserved the parameters of total and progressive sperm motility, smoothed path velocity (µm/s, straight line velocity (µm/s, track velocity (µm/s and the average and fast spermatozoa percentage better than the others. No difference between the extenders for the percentage of sperm integrity was observed. There was no difference in the responses studied on the filling techniques. The stallions presented better freezing with the use of the Botu-crio® protocol. The best post-freezing viability results were found for semen frozen using the Botu-crio® protocol and there were no differences concerning the sperm quality comparing 0.25 and 0.50 mL straws.

  18. Eccentricity in Zone Routing Protocol for MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs Komal Nair

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a decentralized network of autonomous mobile nodes, able to communicate with each other over wireless links. Due to the mobility of the nodes, the topology ofthe network changes spontaneously, therefore use of conventional routing tables maintained at fixed points (routers is not suggested. Such a network may operate in a standalone fashion. There are variousrouting protocols available for MANETs. The most popular ones are DSR, DSDV and ZRP .The zone routing protocol (ZRP is a hybrid routing protocol that proactively maintains routes within a localregion of the network. ZRP can be configured for a particular network through adjustment of a single parameter, the routing zone radius. In this paper, we address the issue of configuring the ZRP to providethe best performance for a particular network at any time with the concept of eccentricity. The results illustrate the important characteristics of different protocols based on their performance and thus suggest some improvements in the respective protocol. The tools used for the simulation are NS2 which is the main simulator, NAM (Network Animator and Tracegraph which is used for preparing the graphs from the trace files.

  19. Welfare Quality assessment protocol for laying hens = Welfare Quality assessment protocol voor leghennen

    OpenAIRE

    Niekerk, van, M.; H. Gunnink; Reenen, van, A Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Results of a study on the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for laying hens. It reports the development of the integration of welfare assessment as scores per criteria as well as simplification of the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol. Results are given from assessment of 122 farms.

  20. Animation of Natural Language Specifications of Authentication Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabroka A. Mayouf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: A few visualization tools have been created for protocol design and analysis. Although these tools provide an environment for designing security protocols, each one has its own protocol definition language (its also called informal specification language. The problem is that the user should understand the language which related to the used tool in order to define an exist protocol or design a new one. For specification, a language needs to be intuitive as well as easily usable and understandable by the security protocol engineer. It must be able to precisely and unambiguously specify the behavior of security protocol. Approach: In this study, we propose an approach for protocol specification based on the Natural language definitions of protocol semantics. By using programmatic semantics together with animations, representational flexibility of different protocol demonstration is retained for as long as it is needed. Result: This study provides an environment that can be used by protocols designers to develop and investigate different scenarios of security protocols especially authentication protocols. Natural Language Protocol Specifications (NLPS approach is used to define the protocol. The environment accepts the natural language text of protocol specifications and converts it to animations of protocol behavior. Conclusions/Recommendations: NLPS environment can really help protocol designer to consider and investigate the behavior of security protocols. It can also be used for teaching-learning security protocol concepts. In further, we will consider the possibility of analyzing security protocols using our NLPS environment and animation techniques in order to improve the correctness; that is determining whether or not the intended security properties of a protocol do hold.

  1. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit (‘Ethics Tool Kit’) has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval. PMID:26811365

  2. A Review: Multi Protocol Label Switching (Mpls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashed Qayoom Shawl,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for technology called MPLS is increasing day by day in most internet service provider networks. Majority of the carriers are deploying MPLS in their backbone networks to facilitate a number of services and applications such as virtual private networks, quality of service (QoS and traffic engineering. MPLS is a scalable, protocol-independent protocol. MPLS allows for creating end-to-end circuits across any type of transport medium using any protocol. The primary benefit of MPLS is to eliminate the dependence on a particular OSI model data-link layer technology such as asynchronous transfer mode (ATM, Frame Relay or Ethernet and eliminates the need for multiple layer-2 networks to satisfy different types of traffic. This paper reflects a detailed overview on MPLS with its architectural terminology, working and the services that it offers.

  3. MILITARY MULTI-HOP ROUTING PROTOCOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Military tactical network is one of the most important applications of ad hoc network. Currently the existing routing protocols are put forward based on the simple and universal network model which has the ability of multi-hop routing but cannot work efficiently in the special military applications. The narrow bandwidth and limited energy of the wireless network make general routing protocols seem to be more redundant.In order to satisfy military needs properly, this letter makes a detailed analysis of physical nodes and traffic distribution in military network, uses cross-layer design concept for reference, combines traffic characteristic of application layer with routing protocol design. It categorized routing problem as crucial routes and non-crucial routes which adopted separate maintenance methods. It not only realizes basic transmission function but also works efficiently. It is quite fit for military application.

  4. Chapter 15: Commercial New Construction Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keates, S.

    2014-09-01

    This protocol is intended to describe the recommended method when evaluating the whole-building performance of new construction projects in the commercial sector. The protocol focuses on energy conservation measures (ECMs) measures (or packages of measures) where evaluators can best analyze impacts using building simulation. These ECMs typically require the use of calibrated building simulations under Option D of the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol. Examples of such measures include Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design building certification, novel and/or efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system designs, and extensive building controls systems. In general, it is best to evaluate any ECM (or set of measures) expected to significantly interact with other systems within the building and with savings sensitive to seasonal variations in weather.

  5. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  6. Framework Design of Secure Cloud Transmission Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesha H A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing technologies are in high demand because of several benefits. Many business organizations are looking into cloud computing services to reduce the cost and complexity of their business infrastructure and its preservation. However, there are certain security issues in cloud computing technologies. To overcome those security issues, we propose secure cloud transmission protocol design. This framework design details will help us in developing a secure protocol for the customers who are using cloud computing technologies over insecure internet. In this paper we discuss: i Overview model of proposed secure cloud transmission system in internet ii Security requirements iii roles and responsibilities of secure transmission protocol in OSI and iv Framework Design of secure cloud transmission.

  7. Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2016-07-01

    We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.

  8. Recursion vs. Replication in Simple Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    We use some recent techniques from process algebra to draw several conclusions about the well studied class of ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. In particular we show that all nontrivial properties, including reachability and equivalence checking wrt. the whole van Glabbeek......'s spectrum, become undecidable for a very simple recursive extension of the protocol. The result holds even if no nondeterministic choice operator is allowed. We also show that the extended calculus is capable of an implicit description of the active intruder, including full analysis and synthesis of...... messages in the sense of Amadio, Lugiez and Vanackere. We conclude by showing that reachability analysis for a replicative variant of the protocol becomes decidable....

  9. Analysis of Security Protocols by Annotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han

    The trend in Information Technology is that distributed systems and networks are becoming increasingly important, as most of the services and opportunities that characterise the modern society are based on these technologies. Communication among agents over networks has therefore acquired a great...... deal of research interest. In order to provide effective and reliable means of communication, more and more communication protocols are invented, and for most of them, security is a significant goal. It has long been a challenge to determine conclusively whether a given protocol is secure or not....... The development of formal techniques, e.g. control flow analyses, that can check various security properties, is an important tool to meet this challenge. This dissertation contributes to the development of such techniques. In this dissertation, security protocols are modelled in the process calculus LYSA...

  10. Performance Evaluation of MANET Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrituparna Paul

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The task of finding and sustaining routes in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETS is an important factor in determining the efficiency of any MANET protocol. MANET characteristically is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links without any centralised infrastructure. Absence of fixed infrastructures and host mobility thus network may experience rapid and unpredictable topology changes. Hence, routing is required in order to perform communication among the entire network. There are several routing protocols namely proactive, reactive and hybrid etc. In this paper we will discuss the active research work on these routing protocols and its performance evaluation. To this end, we adopt a simulation approach, which is more suitable to this kind of analysis

  11. Self Fault-Tolerance of Protocols: A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The prerequisite for the existing protocols' correctness is that protocols can be normally operated under the normal conditions, rather than dealing with abnormal conditions.In other words, protocols with the fault-tolerance can not be provided when some fault occurs. This paper discusses the self fault-tolerance of protocols. It describes some concepts and methods for achieving self fault tolerance of protocols. Meanwhile, it provides a case study, investigates a typical protocol that does not satisfy the self fault-tolerance, and gives a new redesign version of this existing protocol using the proposed approach.

  12. A Cryptographic Moving-Knife Cake-Cutting Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Manabe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a cake-cutting protocol using cryptography when the cake is a heterogeneous good that is represented by an interval on a real line. Although the Dubins-Spanier moving-knife protocol with one knife achieves simple fairness, all players must execute the protocol synchronously. Thus, the protocol cannot be executed on asynchronous networks such as the Internet. We show that the moving-knife protocol can be executed asynchronously by a discrete protocol using a secure auction protocol. The number of cuts is n-1 where n is the number of players, which is the minimum.

  13. Objective and automated protocols for the evaluation of biomedical search engines using No Title Evaluation protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campagne Fabien

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of information retrieval techniques has traditionally relied on human judges to determine which documents are relevant to a query and which are not. This protocol is used in the Text Retrieval Evaluation Conference (TREC, organized annually for the past 15 years, to support the unbiased evaluation of novel information retrieval approaches. The TREC Genomics Track has recently been introduced to measure the performance of information retrieval for biomedical applications. Results We describe two protocols for evaluating biomedical information retrieval techniques without human relevance judgments. We call these protocols No Title Evaluation (NT Evaluation. The first protocol measures performance for focused searches, where only one relevant document exists for each query. The second protocol measures performance for queries expected to have potentially many relevant documents per query (high-recall searches. Both protocols take advantage of the clear separation of titles and abstracts found in Medline. We compare the performance obtained with these evaluation protocols to results obtained by reusing the relevance judgments produced in the 2004 and 2005 TREC Genomics Track and observe significant correlations between performance rankings generated by our approach and TREC. Spearman's correlation coefficients in the range of 0.79–0.92 are observed comparing bpref measured with NT Evaluation or with TREC evaluations. For comparison, coefficients in the range 0.86–0.94 can be observed when evaluating the same set of methods with data from two independent TREC Genomics Track evaluations. We discuss the advantages of NT Evaluation over the TRels and the data fusion evaluation protocols introduced recently. Conclusion Our results suggest that the NT Evaluation protocols described here could be used to optimize some search engine parameters before human evaluation. Further research is needed to determine if NT

  14. Study Application of RADIUS Protocol on Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fang; YANG Huan-yu; LI Hong

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents how to apply the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)protocol ,which is generally applied to dial-up network, to the authentication & charge of Broad Band accessing control system on Ethernet. It is provided that the Broad Band accessing control system included a self-designed communication protocol is used in communicating between an terminal user and Network Access Server .The interface module on the servers side and the Radius system is also given in this article.

  15. NADA protocol: integrative acupuncture in addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kenneth; Olshan-Perlmutter, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) acupuncture is a simple, standardized, 1- to 5-point auricular needling protocol that originated as a grass-roots response to the opiate epidemic of the 1970s. NADA acupuncture is increasingly recognized as a universally useful intervention in the treatment of addictions specifically and in behavior health more generally. It is recognized as a best practice in the treatment of substance use disorders. Integrative programs using the NADA protocol are likely to see improvements in engagement, retention, decreased drug cravings, anxiety, and less physical symptoms.

  16. A Protocol for Evaluating Contextual Design Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Stamps

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies.

  17. Building multiservice Internet protocol virtual private networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, William

    1999-11-01

    Multiservice Internet Protocol-based Virtual Private Networks (MIP- VPNs) with Quality of Service (QoS) are becoming a reality due to the availability of new standards from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). This paper describes how components including security models, IP tunneling protocols, and service differentiation schemes fit together in order to construct such a VPN. First, the concept and rationale of VPN is presented, followed by a discussion of its supporting components. A comparison is made among the various VPN technologies.

  18. Explicit Protocol for Deterministic Entanglement Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yong-Jian; GAO Peng; GUO Guang-Can

    2005-01-01

    @@ We present an explicit protocol for extraction of an EPR pair from two partially entangled pairs in a deterministic fashion via local operations and classical communication. This protocol is constituted by a local measurement described by a positive operator-valued measure (POVM), one-way classical communication, and a corresponding local unitary operation or a choice between the two pairs. We explicitly construct the required POVM by the analysis of the doubly stochastic matrix connecting the initial and the final states. Our scheme might be useful in future quantum communication.

  19. Performance of Conferencing over MANET Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim Abdullah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc network represents a system of wireless nodes that can freely and dynamically self-organize into arbitrary and temporary network topologies, allowing people and devices to seamlessly internet-work in areas without any preexisting communication infrastructure. The routing protocols of this network elapsed much time in route discovery and route maintenances. In this research work we have studied the performance of routing protocols DSR and AODV when the nodes involved in video conferencing. Simulation studies show that AODV is better than DSR in coverage area with acceptable delay and packet loss.

  20. Variable TDMA MAC Protocol For WDM EPON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minsuk Jung; Yongseok Chang; Jonghoon Eom; Sungho Kim

    2003-01-01

    A MAC(Media Access Control) protocol, one of the most important technologies for an EPON(Ethernet Passive Optical Network), contains a scheduling algorithm to avoid collisions in shared links and assigns an effective bandwidth when ONUs (Optical Network Units) transfer signals upward. The current paper proposes a MAC Protocol that operates a TDMA(Time method with a variable slot assignment to overcome short of bandwidth using by the number of n wavelength., the next generation access network. To verify the above, the current study also implements an EPON model using OPNET as the simulation tool.

  1. Comparison of Five Parathyroid Scintigraphic Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Virpi Tunninen; Pekka Varjo; Jukka Schildt; Aapo Ahonen; Tomi Kauppinen; Irina Lisinen; Anu Holm; Hannu Eskola; Marko Seppänen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We compared five parathyroid scintigraphy protocols in patients with primary (pHPT) and secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) and studied the interobserver agreement. The dual-tracer method (99mTc-sestamibi/123I) was used with three acquisition techniques (parallel-hole planar, pinhole planar, and SPECT/CT). The single-tracer method (99mTc-sestamibi) was used with two acquisition techniques (double-phase parallel-hole planar, and SPECT/CT). Thus five protocols were used, resulting ...

  2. Optimal protocols for slowly driven quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkowski, Patrick R; DeWeese, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    The design of efficient quantum information processing will rely on optimal nonequilibrium transitions of driven quantum systems. Building on a recently developed geometric framework for computing optimal protocols for classical systems driven in finite time, we construct a general framework for optimizing the average information entropy for driven quantum systems. Geodesics on the parameter manifold endowed with a positive semidefinite metric correspond to protocols that minimize the average information entropy production in finite time. We use this framework to explicitly compute the optimal entropy production for a simple two-state quantum system coupled to a heat bath of bosonic oscillators, which has applications to quantum annealing. PMID:26465432

  3. Statistical principles for prospective study protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Robin; Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research...... (rigorous) protocol writing too troublesome, will realize that they have already written the first half of the final paper if they follow these recommendations; authors simply need to change the protocols future tense into past tense. Thus, the aim of this clinical commentary is to describe and explain...

  4. A Formal Approach to Protocol Interoperability Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝瑞兵; 吴建平

    1998-01-01

    Porotocol Interoperability testing is an important means to ensure the interconnection and interoperation between protocol products.In this paper,we proposed a formal approach to protocol interoperability testing based on the operational semantics of Concurrent TTCN.We define Concurrent TTCN's operational semantics by using Labeled Transition System,and describe the interoperability test execution and test verdict based on Concurrent TTCN.This approach is very helpful for the formation of formal interoperability testing theory and construction of general interoperability testing system.

  5. Automated Theorem Proving for Cryptographic Protocols with Automatic Attack Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Juerjens; Thomas A. Kuhn

    2016-01-01

    Automated theorem proving is both automatic and can be quite efficient. When using theorem proving approaches for security protocol analysis, however, the problem is often that absence of a proof of security of a protocol may give little hint as to where the security weakness lies, to enable the protocol designer to improve the protocol. For our approach to verify cryptographic protocols using automated theorem provers for first-order logic (such as e-SETHEO or SPASS), we demonstrate a method...

  6. A New Route Maintenance in Dynamic Source Routing Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is infrastructureless, self-organizable, multi hop packet switched network. A number of routing protocols for MANETs have been proposed in recent years. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol is one of the most popular routing protocol for ad hoc networks. This paper presents a novel method to enhance route maintenance part of DSR protocol. Our proposed route maintenance significantly increases the efficiency of the protocol at the time of route failures.

  7. Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols for Remote Login in MANETs

    OpenAIRE

    VIKAS GOYAL; SHAVETA RANI; PARAMJIT SINGH

    2013-01-01

    Wireless networks are those networks, in which devices are connected without using cables. Thebest example, which comes across in our daily life is mobile phones. MANET has mobile nodes in network,which transfer data packets from source node to destination node; this is possible by routing protocols. Inthis paper, the routing protocols used are - Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Protocol,Geographical Routing Protocol (GRP) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) Protocol. The performan...

  8. A Security Analysis of the 802.11s Wireless Mesh Network Routing Protocol and Its Secure Routing Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Seong-Moo Yoo; Jun Huy Lam; Sang-Gon Lee; Whye Kit Tan

    2013-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can act as a scalable backbone by connecting separate sensor networks and even by connecting WMNs to a wired network. The Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) is the default routing protocol for the 802.11s WMN. The routing protocol is one of the most important parts of the network, and it requires protection, especially in the wireless environment. The existing security protocols, such as the Broadcast Integrity Protocol (BIP), Counter with cipher block chaining...

  9. Secure Bidirectional Communication Protocol without Quantum Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Z. J.; Man, Z. X.

    2004-01-01

    In this letter we propose a theoretical deterministic secure direct bidirectional quantum communication protocol by using swapping quantum entanglement and local unitary operations, in which the quantum channel for photon transmission can be discarded, hence any attack with or without eavesdropping or even the destructive attack without scruple is impossible.

  10. Cognitive Radio MAC Protocol for WLAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, Frank H.P.; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2008-01-01

    To solve the performance degradation issue in current WLAN caused by the crowded unlicensed spectrum, we propose a cognitive radio (CR) media access protocol, C-CSMA/CA. The basic idea is that with cognitive radio techniques the WLAN devices can not only access the legacy WLAN unlicensed spectrum...

  11. Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, M.D.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, fungi have adapted to occupy specific niches, from symbiotically inhabiting the flora of the intestinal tract of mammals to saprophytic growth on leaf litter resting on the forest floor. In Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field d

  12. Recursion Versus Replication in Simple Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    We use some very recent techniques from process algebra to draw interesting conclusions about the well studied class of ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. In particular we show that all nontrivial properties, including reachability and equivalence checking wrt. the whole van Glabbee...

  13. A classification of service discovery protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Raluca; Hartel, Pieter; Scholten, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Service discovery is an emerging field in the area of ubiquitous computing. There are various techniques and protocols (proposed or/and already implemented) particularly tailored to specific sets of objectives. This paper analyses the current state of the art and presents a taxonomy of service disco

  14. Implementing the Environmental Protocol Domestically : An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Vidas, Davor

    2000-01-01

    This book - edited by Davor Vidas of the Nansens Institute (Oslo, Norway) - is the first book that comprehensively discusses the implementation of the Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. Part V of this book includes a number of chapters describing the measures that have been taken by sel

  15. Smart environments technology, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Diane

    2004-01-01

    Smart Environments contains contributions from leading researchers, describing techniques and issues related to developing and living in intelligent environments. Reflecting the multidisciplinary nature of the design of smart environments, the topics covered include the latest research in smart environment philosophical and computational architecture considerations, network protocols for smart environments, intelligent sensor networks and powerline control of devices, and action prediction and identification.

  16. SECURED ELECTRONIC VOTING PROTOCOL USING HYBRID CRYPTOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALAICHELVI V

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Voting play a really vital role in the democracy of our life. In this paper, we propose an electronic voting protocol. Our scheme does not require a special voting channel and communication can occur entirely over the current Internet. This method integrates the Internet convenience and cryptology. In the existing protocol the Tallier has to wait until the decryption key is received from the voter. So it will consume lot of time. But, the proposed protocol is based on the hybrid cryptosystem. In this, the ballot is encrypted using faster secret key algorithm and the digital envelope is encrypted using Tallier’s public key. So, the Tallier will decrypt the digital envelope using his own private key to get the secret key and then the encrypted ballot is decrypted using that secret key. So, comparatively the proposed protocol consumes less time. This paper also analyzes the various security issues involved in an electronic voting like security, privacy, authentication, anonymous, uniqueness, accuracy, fairness, efficiency and uncoercibility.

  17. Sessions and Separability in Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Guttman, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Despite much work on sessions and session types in non- adversarial contexts, session-like behavior given an active adversary has not received an adequate definition and proof methods. We provide a syntactic property that guarantees that a protocol has session-respecting executions. Any uncomprom...

  18. Protocols for communication and governance of risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Lind, N.C.; Faber, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain the need to organize the development of standard protocols for communication about major public risks. Tragic events, such as inadequate earthquake preparedness or great unnecessary losses of life due to public misunderstandings underline the importance of such pr

  19. Secure communication protocol for mobile multimedia applications

    OpenAIRE

    Komninos, N.; Honary, B.; Darnell, M.

    2000-01-01

    Data transmission over wireless communication networks is increasing rapidly and security has become a very important issue. The main considerations of secure communication systems are authentication, key distribution, and data transfer. This paper describes a secure communication protocol (SCP), which provides privacy and data integrity for end-to-end data transmission over wireless communication systems.

  20. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    ” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited...

  1. Evaluating Computer-Tutors: A Protocol Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, James

    A protocol study investigated whether computer tutors (programs that interactively guide writers while they freewrite with a word processing program) promote or hinder a richer understanding of the composing process. The analysis focused on writers' attitudes toward computer tutors in the invention process. Data were collected by tape recording a…

  2. Demarcation of Security in Authentication Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2011-01-01

    easier, and enables us to define security goals with a fine granularity. We present one such separation, by introducing the notion of binding sequence as a security primitive. A binding sequence, roughly speaking, is the only required security property of an authentication protocol. All other...... authentication goals, the correctness requirements, can be derived from the binding sequence....

  3. Delta-t protocol specification: working draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.W.

    1981-12-04

    This document is one of a series describing protocols associated with the Livermore Interactive Network Communication System (LINCS) hierarchical architecture. At the heart of LINCS is its basic interprocess communication (LINCS-IPC) service. LINCS-IPC defines a reliable, flow controlled, full duplex, uninterpreted, labeled bit stream communication service. LINCS-IPC is level 4 in the LINCS architecture. Level 3 of LINCS is the Network layer defining an internetwork datagram type service. LINCS-IPC interfaces to User processes that utilize higher level syntactic and semantic conventions for process interaction. The transport service provided by the Delta-t protocol can be considered a sublayer of the LINCS-IPC layer. Delta-t augments the Network level service as required to support LINCS-IPC. This document specifies the services provided by the Delta-t protocol to support LINCS-IPC, the operation of Delta-t, and the services Delta-t requires of the Network level. This document was written to be self-contained but the reader will find it useful to have available for reference the LINCS-IPC and LINCS DeltaGram Network layer protocol specifications. Implementations are underway in Pascal for the PDP-11 running under RT11 and RX11, in BLISS for the VAX running under VMS, in MODEL for the CRAY-1 and CDC 7600 running under NLTSS and LTSS, and for the SEL 32/75 running under PORT.

  4. A Verifiable Language for Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde

    We develop a formal language for specifying cryptographic protocols in a structured and clear manner, which allows verification of many interesting properties; in particular confidentiality and integrity. The study sheds new light on the problem of creating intuitive and human readable languages...

  5. Direct data access protocols benchmarking on DPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furano, Fabrizio; Devresse, Adrien; Keeble, Oliver; Mancinelli, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager is an example of a multi-protocol, multi-VO system for data access on the Grid that went though a considerable technical evolution in the last years. Among other features, its architecture offers the opportunity of testing its different data access frontends under exactly the same conditions, including hardware and backend software. This characteristic inspired the idea of collecting monitoring information from various testbeds in order to benchmark the behaviour of the HTTP and Xrootd protocols for the use case of data analysis, batch or interactive. A source of information is the set of continuous tests that are run towards the worldwide endpoints belonging to the DPM Collaboration, which accumulated relevant statistics in its first year of activity. On top of that, the DPM releases are based on multiple levels of automated testing that include performance benchmarks of various kinds, executed regularly every day. At the same time, the recent releases of DPM can report monitoring information about any data access protocol to the same monitoring infrastructure that is used to monitor the Xrootd deployments. Our goal is to evaluate under which circumstances the HTTP-based protocols can be good enough for batch or interactive data access. In this contribution we show and discuss the results that our test systems have collected under the circumstances that include ROOT analyses using TTreeCache and stress tests on the metadata performance.

  6. A Bayesian approach to optimizing cryopreservation protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Sambu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation is beset with the challenge of protocol alignment across a wide range of cell types and process variables. By taking a cross-sectional assessment of previously published cryopreservation data (sample means and standard errors as preliminary meta-data, a decision tree learning analysis (DTLA was performed to develop an understanding of target survival using optimized pruning methods based on different approaches. Briefly, a clear direction on the decision process for selection of methods was developed with key choices being the cooling rate, plunge temperature on the one hand and biomaterial choice, use of composites (sugars and proteins as additional constituents, loading procedure and cell location in 3D scaffolding on the other. Secondly, using machine learning and generalized approaches via the Naïve Bayes Classification (NBC method, these metadata were used to develop posterior probabilities for combinatorial approaches that were implicitly recorded in the metadata. These latter results showed that newer protocol choices developed using probability elicitation techniques can unearth improved protocols consistent with multiple unidimensionally-optimized physical protocols. In conclusion, this article proposes the use of DTLA models and subsequently NBC for the improvement of modern cryopreservation techniques through an integrative approach.

  7. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Urquiza-Aguiar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation.

  8. Integrated Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Verma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In opportunistic networks the existence of a simultaneous path is not assumed to transmit a message between a sender and a receiver. Information about the context in which the users communicate is a key piece of knowledge to design efficient routing protocols in opportunistic networks. But this kind of information is not always available. When users are very isolated, context information cannot be distributed, and cannot be used for taking efficient routing decisions. In such cases, context oblivious based schemes are only way to enable communication between users. As soon as users become more social, context data spreads in the network, and context based routing becomes an efficient solution. In this paper we design an integrated routing protocol that is able to use context data as soon as it becomes available and falls back to dissemination-based routing when context information is not available. Then, we provide a comparison between Epidemic and PROPHET, these are representative of context oblivious and context aware routing protocols. Our results show that integrated routing protocol is able to provide better result in term of message delivery probability and message delay in both cases when context information about users is available or not.

  9. Summary Report on Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Salvail, Louis; Cachin, Christian

    are infeasible to invert. In fact, the security proofs of all currently employed cryptographic protocols need to assume some component being a one-way function. Unfortunately, at our current point i history, we really have no idea whether one-way functions even exist, and though most researchers in computational...

  10. The Nagoya Protocol: Fragmentation or Consolidation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Richerzhagen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In October, 2010, a protocol on access and benefit-sharing (ABS of genetic resources was adopted, the so-called Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Before the adoption of the Nagoya Protocol, the governance architecture of ABS was already characterized by a multifaceted institutional environment. The use of genetic resources is confronted with many issues (conservation, research and development, intellectual property rights, food security, health issues, climate change that are governed by different institutions and agreements. The Nagoya Protocol contributes to increased fragmentation. However, the question arises whether this new regulatory framework can help to advance the implementation of the ABS provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD. This paper attempts to find an answer to that question by following three analytical steps. First, it analyzes the causes of change against the background of theories of institutional change. Second, it aims to assess the typology of the architecture in order to find out if this new set of rules will contribute to a more synergistic, cooperative or conflictive architecture of ABS governance. Third, the paper looks at the problem of “fit” and identifies criteria that can be used to assess the new ABS governance architecture with regard to its effectiveness.

  11. The Kyoto protocol in a global perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Redek

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The global climate has changed notably since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses (GHG have increased dramatically followed by an increase in global average temperature. In order to avoid negative potential outcomes of global warming, countries have adopted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that has so far been ratified by 192 countries. In 1997 the Kyoto Protocol, a binding GHG reduction plan, was adopted and entered into force in 2005. But several countries, including the USA, have had doubts about the potential negative consequences of the planned 5% global joint reduction of GHG. However, studies generally show that on a macroeconomic level: (1 welfare loss in terms of GDP and lost growth in EU is low; (2 it differs among economies; and (3 permit trading and permit price (in either global or regional markets is highly correlated with the welfare loss. The main objective of the paper is to describe the attitudes and responses to the Kyoto Protocol from a global perspective. The paper has three objectives. First, to provide an overview of global greenhouse gas emissions and the big drivers behind these emissions. Second, to present where different countries, both developed and less developed countries, such as India, China and the countries of South-east Europe currently stand as regards their efforts to achieve the Kyoto Protocol requirements. Third, to analyse the responses and attitudes to the Kyoto Protocol from a country development perspective.

  12. The challenges of additional protocol implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Board of Governors approved the Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements, INFCIRC/540, (referred to as the Additional Protocol) in May 1997. The Additional Protocol provides for new mechanisms that include expanded information on State's nuclear activities to be declared to the IAEA and increased physical access to locations for IAEA inspectors. Given the expanded capability under the additional protocol for the Agency to draw conclusions regarding the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities, Safeguards Department staff have had to broaden their outlook with respect to all safeguards activities being conducted. Beyond verification of nuclear material, inspectors are being called upon to conduct a wider range of activities, with more emphasis on observation of indicators of a State's nuclear-related activities and consideration of the consistency of the other information with a State's declarations. This includes consideration of how the evaluation of all information available to the Agency affects the planning and prioritizing of future safeguards activities, for example in resolving questions or inconsistencies in the declared information or selecting locations for conducting complementary access. The implementation of strengthened safeguards and the additional protocol has led to a need to institutionally change the roles of many staff members in the various Safeguards Divisions and increase the interaction between the Divisions to most effectively draw State-level conclusions regarding the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. This paper focuses on the significant changes in the roles of safeguards inspectors, in particular facility officers and country officers, in the implementation of strengthened safeguards. It outlines the nature of the changes, and some of the challenges being faced in order to adapt to these roles, including changes in the nature of interaction between the Operations and Support Divisions

  13. Adenosine stress protocols for myocardial perfusion imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baškot Branislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Treadmill test combined with myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS is a commonly used technique in the assessment of coronary artery disease. There are many patients, however, who may not be able to undergo treadmill test. Such patients would benefit from pharmacological stress procedures combined with MPS. The most commonly used pharmacological agents for cardiac stress are coronary vasodilatators (adenosine, dipyridamol and catecholamines. Concomitant low-level treadmill exercise with adenosine pharmacologic stress (AdenoEX during MPS has become commonly used in recent years. A number of studies have demonstrated a beneficial impact of AdenoEX protocol. The aim of the study was, besides introducing into practice the two types of protocols of pharmatological stress test with adenosine, as a preparation for MPS, to compare and monitor the frequency of their side effects to quality, acquisition, as well as to standardize the onset time of acquisition (diagnostic imaging for both protocols. Methods. A total of 130 patients underwent pharmacological stress test with adenosine (vasodilatator. In 108 of the patients we performed concomitant exercise (AdenoEX of low level (50W by a bicycle ergometar. In 28 of the patients we performed Adenosine abbreviated protocol (AdenoSCAN. Side effects of adenosine were followed and compared between the two kinds of protocols AdenoEX and AdenoSCAN. Also compared were image quality and suggested time of acquisition after the stress test. Results. Numerous side effects were found, but being short-lived they did not require any active interventions. The benefit of AdenoEX versus AdenoSCAN included decreased side effects (62% vs 87%, improved safety and patients tolerance, improved target-to-background ratios because of less subdiaphragmatic activity, earlier acquisition, and improved sensitivity. Conclusion. The safety and efficacy of adenosine pharmacological stress is even better with concomitant

  14. Bayesian adaptive survey protocols for resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency in resource management decisions requires a proper accounting of uncertainty at multiple stages of the decision-making process. As information becomes available, periodic review and updating of resource management protocols reduces uncertainty and improves management decisions. One of the most basic steps to mitigating anthropogenic effects on populations is determining if a population of a species occurs in an area that will be affected by human activity. Species are rarely detected with certainty, however, and falsely declaring a species absent can cause improper conservation decisions or even extirpation of populations. We propose a method to design survey protocols for imperfectly detected species that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty in the detection process, is capable of quantitatively incorporating expert opinion into the decision-making process, allows periodic updates to the protocol, and permits resource managers to weigh the severity of consequences if the species is falsely declared absent. We developed our method using the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas), a threatened species precinctive to the Central Valley of California, as a case study. Survey date was negatively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake, and water temperature was positively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake at a sampled location. Reporting sampling effort, timing and duration of surveys, and water temperatures would allow resource managers to evaluate the probability that the giant gartersnake occurs at sampled sites where it is not detected. This information would also allow periodic updates and quantitative evaluation of changes to the giant gartersnake survey protocol. Because it naturally allows multiple sources of information and is predicated upon the idea of updating information, Bayesian analysis is well-suited to solving the problem of developing efficient sampling protocols for species of

  15. The braided single-stage protocol for quantum secure communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darunkar, Bhagyashri; Verma, Pramode K.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the concept and implementation of a Braided Single-stage Protocol for quantum secure communication. The braided single-stage protocol is a multi-photon tolerant secure protocol. This multi-photon tolerant protocol has been implemented in the laboratory using free-space optics technology. The proposed protocol capitalizes on strengths of the three-stage protocol and extends it with a new concept of braiding. This protocol overcomes the limitations associated with the three-stage protocol in the following ways: It uses the transmission channel only once as opposed to three times in the three-stage protocol, and it is invulnerable to man-in-the-middle attack. This paper also presents the error analysis resulting from the misalignment of the devices in the implementation. The experimental results validate the efficient use of transmission resources and improvement in the data transfer rate.

  16. Investigations and Performance Evaluation of Dynamic Routing Protocol with New Proposed Protocol for WAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudha,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Routing is a relevant issue for maintaining good performance and successfully operating in a network. Routing Protocols allow routers to dynamically advertise and learn routes, determine whichroutes are available and which are the most efficient routes to a destination. In any IP network, routing protocols provide the intelligence that takes a collection of physical links and transforms them into a network that enables packets to travel from one host to another. In this paper we present performance evaluation for the combination of conventional model of “RIP” and “OSPF” routing protocols for network traffic over WAN using OPNET. There is significant improvement in the FTP download response time which is reduced by the order of 3sec. The performance metrics like: point-to-point link utilization has increased from 122% to 133% and throughput has increased from 1547 to 1703packets/sec without significant change in queuing delay for both the protocols.

  17. Energy-efficient MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li De-liang; Peng Fei

    2009-01-01

    Designing energy-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols has a significant influence on the energy performance of wireless sensor network (WSN). In this paper we present a survey of the recent typical MAC protocols regarding energy efficiency for WSN. According to channel access policies, we classify these protocols into four categories: contention-based, TDMA-based, hybrid, and cross layer protocols, in which the advantages and disadvantages in each class of MAC protocols are discussed. Finally, we point out open research issues that need to carry on to achieve high energy efficiency for the design of MAC protocols in WSN.

  18. The Research and Application Design of SDL Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at overcoming the disadvantages in the Simple Data Link(SDL) protocol, we study and modify the protocol mechanism, which enhances the flexibility in carrying the packets of various network layer protocols and improves the ability to correct errors. We research the error check and error correction of CRC and the application of MPLS labels in the SDL protocol. Furthermore, we provide a method of CRC correction and application of MPLS labels in the SDL protocol. Finally, we present a scheme of realizing the SDL protocol.

  19. The comparative cost analysis of EAP Re-authentication Protocol and EAP TLS Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Mehla; Bhawna Gupta

    2010-01-01

    the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is a generic framework supporting multiple types of authentication methods. In systems where EAP is used for authentication, it is desirable to not repeat the entire EAP exchange with another authenticator. The EAP reauthentication Protocol provides a consistent, methodindependentand low-latency re-authentication. It is extension to current EAP mechanism to support intradomain handoff authentication. This paper analyzed the performance of the EAP r...

  20. Power Saving MAC Protocols for WSNs and Optimization of S-MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simarpreet Kaur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Low power MAC protocols have received a lot of consideration in the last few years because of their influence on the lifetime of wireless sensor networks. Since, sensors typically operate on batteries, replacement of which is often difficult. A lot of work has been done to minimize the energy expenditure and prolong the sensor lifetime through energy efficient designs, across layers. Meanwhile, the sensor network should be able to maintain a certain throughput in order to fulfill the QoS requirements of the end user, and to ensure the constancy of the network. This paper introduces different types of MAC protocols used for WSNs and proposes S‐MAC, a Medium‐Access Control protocol designed for Wireless Sensor Networks. S‐MAC uses a few innovative techniques to reduce energy consumption and support selfconfiguration. A new protocol is suggested to improve the energy efficiency, latency and throughput of existing MAC protocol for WSNs. A modification of the protocol is then proposed to eliminate the need for some nodes to stay awake longer than the other nodes which improves the energy efficiency, latency and throughput and hence increases the life span of a wireless sensor network.

  1. Automated Verification of Quantum Protocols using MCMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Belardinelli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology for the automated verification of quantum protocols using MCMAS, a symbolic model checker for multi-agent systems The method is based on the logical framework developed by D'Hondt and Panangaden for investigating epistemic and temporal properties, built on the model for Distributed Measurement-based Quantum Computation (DMC, an extension of the Measurement Calculus to distributed quantum systems. We describe the translation map from DMC to interpreted systems, the typical formalism for reasoning about time and knowledge in multi-agent systems. Then, we introduce dmc2ispl, a compiler into the input language of the MCMAS model checker. We demonstrate the technique by verifying the Quantum Teleportation Protocol, and discuss the performance of the tool.

  2. Gamma camera performance: technical assessment protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolster, A.A. [West Glasgow Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Physics; Waddington, W.A. [University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Inst. of Nuclear Medicine

    1996-12-31

    This protocol addresses the performance assessment of single and dual headed gamma cameras. No attempt is made to assess the performance of any associated computing systems. Evaluations are usually performed on a gamma camera commercially available within the United Kingdom and recently installed at a clinical site. In consultation with the manufacturer, GCAT selects the site and liaises with local staff to arrange a mutually convenient time for assessment. The manufacturer is encouraged to have a representative present during the evaluation. Three to four days are typically required for the evaluation team to perform the necessary measurements. When access time is limited, the team will modify the protocol to test the camera as thoroughly as possible. Data are acquired on the camera`s computer system and are subsequently transferred to the independent GCAT computer system for analysis. This transfer from site computer to the independent system is effected via a hardware interface and Interfile data transfer. (author).

  3. Fairness in Physical Products Delivery Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohammed Alaraj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In an e-commerce transaction, a buyer purchases a physical product, such as a laptop, from an onlineseller. In an attempt to protect himself, any seller would prefer to collect payment from the buyer beforehe sends the product. Likewise, the buyer would prefer to have the product shipped to him before hemakes a payment to the seller. Both parties have a need to take precautions to minimize their risk in casethe other party proves to be untrustworthy. This paper proposes a new e-commerce fair exchangeprotocol based on verifiable and recoverable encryption of keys. The proposed protocol is based onoffline TTP. Only seven messages are exchanged between the parties involved in the protocol. Disputesare resolved electronically in case one party evades

  4. Non-blocking message total ordering protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun; WANG JunLing

    2008-01-01

    Message total ordering is a critical part in active replication in order to maintain consistency among members in a fault tolerant group. The paper proposes a non-blocking message total ordering protocol (NBTOP) for distributed systems. Non-blocking property refers to that the members in a fault tolerant group keep on running independently without waiting for installing the same group view when a fault tolerant group evolves even when decision messages collide. NBTOP takes advantage of token ring as its logical control way. Members adopt re-requesting mechanism (RR) to obtain their lost decisions. Forward acknowledgement mechanism (FA) is put forth to solve decision collisions. The paper further proves that NBTOP satisfies the properties of total order, agreement, and termination. NBTOP is implemented, and its performance test is done. Comparing with the performance of Totem, the results show that NBTOP has a better total ordering delay. It manifests that non-blocking property helps to improve protocol efficiency.

  5. Staining protocol for organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolla, Nadine; Galimberti, Ivan; DePaola, Vincenzo; Caroni, Pico

    2006-01-01

    This protocol details a method to immunostain organotypic slice cultures from mouse hippocampus. The cultures are based on the interface method, which does not require special equipment, is easy to execute and yields slice cultures that can be imaged repeatedly, from the time of isolation at postnatal day 6-9 up to 6 months in vitro. The preserved tissue architecture facilitates the analysis of defined hippocampal synapses, cells and entire projections. Time-lapse imaging is based on transgenes expressed in the mice or on constructs introduced through transfection or viral vectors; it can reveal processes that develop over periods ranging from seconds to months. Subsequent to imaging, the slices can be processed for immunocytochemistry to collect further information about the imaged structures. This protocol can be completed in 3 d.

  6. May the Kyoto protocol produce results?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A not well managed drastic reduction of greenhouse emissions might result in significant decrease of living standards, but without such reduction efforts, climate change might have five to twenty times higher costs. Thus, while indicating estimated consequences or evolutions of greenhouse emissions and temperature, the author stresses the need of emission reduction. She discusses the role of economic instruments which can be used in policies aimed at the struggle against climate change. She recalls the emission reduction commitments specified in the Kyoto protocol, discusses the present status, operation and results of the international emission trading scheme, the lessons learned after the first years of operation, comments the involvement of emerging countries in relationship with another mechanism defined in the protocol: the Clean Development Mechanism

  7. Mouse cell culture - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mouse is, out of any doubt, the experimental animal par excellence for many many colleagues within the scientific community, notably for those working in mammalian biology (in a broad sense, from basic genetic to modeling human diseases, starting at least from 1664 Robert Hooke experiments on air’s propertyn. Not surprising then that mouse cell cultures is a well established field of research itself and that there are several handbooks devoted to this discipline. Here, Andrew Ward and David Tosh provide a necessary update of the protocols currently needed. In fact, nearly half of the book is devoted to stem cells culture protocols, mainly embryonic, from a list of several organs (kidney, lung, oesophagus and intestine, pancreas and liver to mention some........

  8. An Efficient Multicast Source Authentication Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Weidong; LI Zhitang; LU Chuiwei; ZHANG Yejiang

    2006-01-01

    We propose an efficient multicast source authentication protocol called efficient multi-tree-chains scheme (EMTC),which shows more loss resistibility,less communication cost,and no delay at receivers. The EMTC scheme is based on combination of single Chain scheme and Hash Tree Chains scheme,and integrates the advantages of both. In this scheme,stream is firstly divided into blocks with n packets,and each block consists of m clusters,everyone of which contains a tree of packets. All clusters are chained together. Through EMTC,packets of one cluster can be authenticated by any packet of the previous cluster. Compared to other multicast authentication protocols,the proposed scheme has the following advantages: ① dramatically improves the resistance to burst packets loss; ② low computation and communication overhead; ③ imposes low delay on the sender side and no delay on the receiver side.

  9. Da Vinci robot emergency undocking protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, O E; O'Sullivan, S; Hewitt, M; O'Reilly, B A

    2016-09-01

    The role of robot-assisted surgery across gynaecology is evolving with increasing numbers of procedures being undertaken with varying degrees of complexity. While the risk of conversion is low at approximately 1 %, the reasons for conversion are variable. These range from technical issues with the robot, surgical complications such as haemorrhage and anaesthetics issues such as an inability to ventilate the patient adequately. While many conversions to open or laparoscopic approach are not due to life-threatening indications, it is important that the theatre staff are aware of the indication and can perform an emergency undocking as effectively, efficiently and safely as possible when the need arises. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of the literature available outlining such protocols. For this reason, we developed an emergency undocking protocol clearly outlining the role of each theatre staff member and the need for clear concise communication. PMID:27126584

  10. Direct data access protocols benchmarking on DPM

    CERN Document Server

    Furano, Fabrizio; Keeble, Oliver; Mancinelli, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The Disk Pool Manager is an example of a multi-protocol, multi-VO system for data access on the Grid that went though a considerable technical evolution in the last years. Among other features, its architecture offers the opportunity of testing its different data access frontends under exactly the same conditions, including hardware and backend software. This characteristic inspired the idea of collecting monitoring information from various testbeds in order to benchmark the behaviour of the HTTP and Xrootd protocols for the use case of data analysis, batch or interactive. A source of information is the set of continuous tests that are run towards the worldwide endpoints belonging to the DPM Collaboration, which accumulated relevant statistics in its first year of activity. On top of that, the DPM releases are based on multiple levels of automated testing that include performance benchmarks of various kinds, executed regularly every day. At the same time, the recent releases of DPM can report monitoring infor...

  11. Internet Core Protocols Help for Network Administrators

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Eric

    2000-01-01

    If you've ever been responsible for a network, you know that sinkingfeeling: your pager has gone off at 2 a.m., the network is broken, and you can't figure out why by using a dial-in connection from home. You drive into the office, dig out your protocol analyzer, and spend the next fourhours trying to put things back together before the staff shows up for work. When this happens, you often find yourself looking at the low-level guts of the Internet protocols: you're deciphering individual packets, trying to figure out what is (or isn't) happening. Until now, the only real guide to the protoc

  12. Kyoto protocol and Nepal's energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepal has recently ratified Kyoto Protocol, which considers justifiable use of resources to limit or reduce the emission of gases that contribute to green house gas inventory in the atmosphere. Nepal's per capita green gas (GHG) emission from energy use is insignificant. However, it is important for Nepal to adopt environmentally friendly energy options based on local resources like hydropower and biomass. Nepal can benefit from the provisions of clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) or carbon funds being promoted by various organizations in order to obtain funding for new projects that reduce GHG emissions (ER). Funding can be generated through Carbon trading in international market as well. In this paper, the country's current contribution to GHG due to energy consumption is evaluated. Options for promoting more sustainable and environmentally friendly projects have also been discussed

  13. Protocol independent adaptive route update for VANET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Asim; Ajmal, Sana; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  14. Analysis of Security Protocols in Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Alessandro

    .e., protecting the system from the external world). With increased connectivity of these systems to external networks the attack surface has grown, and consequently there is a need for securing the system from external attacks. Introducing security protocols in safety critical systems requires careful......Embedded real-time systems have been adopted in a wide range of safety-critical applications—including automotive, avionics, and train control systems—where the focus has long been on safety (i.e., protecting the external world from the potential damage caused by the system) rather than security (i...... considerations on the available resources, especially in meeting real-time and resource constraints, as well as cost and reliability requirements. For this reason many proposed security protocols in this domain have peculiar features, not present in traditional security literature. In this thesis we tackle...

  15. Severe hypomagnesaemia with tetany following ESHAP protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumdar Gautam

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One patient with B-cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma developed severe hypomagnesaemia and tetany 15 days after the first course of treatment with ESHAP protocol. This prompted a careful look at the incidence and severity of hypomagnesaemia during treatment with this combination chemotherapy. Method This patient and two further patients having the same treatment were monitored for hypomagnesaemia throughout their treatment period. Result All three patients developed significant hypomagnesaemia requiring intravenous magnesium infusion in the second and third weeks after treatment though not after every course of chemotherapy. Conclusions ESHAP protocol is often associated with significant hypomagnesaemia two to three weeks after treatment. Therefore, serum magnesium level should be monitored throughout the treatment period.

  16. Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality

    CERN Document Server

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2014-01-01

    The violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities indicates only that the assumption of "conterfactual definiteness" and/or the probabilistic models used in proofs were incorrect. In this paper we discuss in detail an intimate relation between experimental protocols and probabilistic models. In particular we show that local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models are inconsistent with the experimental protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. In particular these models neglect a contextual character of quantum theory (QT) and do not describe properly quantum measurements. We argue that the violation of various inequalities gives arguments against the irreducible randomness of act of the measurement. Therefore quantum probabilities are reducible what means that QT is emergent. In this case one could expect to discover in time series of data some unpredicted fine structures proving that QT is not predictably complete what would be a major discovery.

  17. A New Secure Pairing Protocol using Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Buhan, I.R.

    2008-01-01

    Secure Pairing enables two devices, which share no prior context with each other, to agree upon a security association that they can use to protect their subsequent communication. Secure pairing offers guarantees of the association partner identity and it should be resistant to eavesdropping or to a man-in-the-middle attack. We propose a user friendly solution to this problem. Keys extracted from biometric data of the participants are used for authentication. Details of the pairing protocol a...

  18. Traffic Engineering With Traditional IP Routing Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Fortz, Bernard; Rexford, Jennifer; Thorup, Mikkel

    2002-01-01

    Traffic engineering involves adapting the routing of traffic to the network conditions, with the joint goals of good user performance and efficient use of network resources. In this paper, we describe an approach to intradomain traffic engineering that works within the existing deployed base of Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs), such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Intermediate System-Intermediate System (IS-IS). We explain how to adapt the configuration of link weights, based on a ...

  19. Trusted Hosts in Host Identity Protocol (HIP)

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Amir

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the project was to study the possibilities to establish trusted hosts in Host Identity Protocol (HIP) and implement certificate handling in HIP packets. The time complexity and performance while using certificates in HIP packets was also measured. The research project was carried out at Arcada University of Applied Sciences in collaboration with Helsinki University. The project aimed to implement standard x.509 certification of the public key used as HI (Host Identity) to deri...

  20. z39.50 Information Retrieval Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Koganuramath, M. M.; Angadi, Mallikarjun; Kademani, B. S.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the Internet information retrieval protocol z39.50 and it's usage. Brief history, definition and the working of z39.50 are also depicted here. An attempt has also been made to study various versions of z39.50 and on freely available softwares on the web. Some of the problems encountered, current developments and new initiatives are also discussed here.

  1. The Kyoto protocol in a global perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tjaša Redek; Matjaž Koman; Polona Domadenik; Andreja Cirman

    2009-01-01

    The global climate has changed notably since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses (GHG) have increased dramatically followed by an increase in global average temperature. In order to avoid negative potential outcomes of global warming, countries have adopted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that has so far been ratified by 192 countries. In 1997 the Kyoto Protocol, a binding GHG reduction plan, ...

  2. Dynamic consistency problems behind the Kyoto protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Ha-Duong, Minh; Hourcade, Jean Charles; Lecocq, Franck

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the economic rationale behind both the quantitative targets and the flexibility mechanisms adopted in the Kyoto Protocol. It synthesises some theoretical dimensions of the debate about the so-called "when flexibility" of climate policies, explaining the importance of the interplay between uncertainty and technico-economic inertia. Numerical results shows that the aggregate Kyoto abatement target is consistent with a stochastic dynamic optimum in which a 450 ppm concentrati...

  3. Studying Media Access andControl Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Alalelddin Fuad Yousif

    2010-01-01

    This thesis project’s goal is to enable undergraduate students to gain insight into media access and control protocols based upon carrying out laboratory experiments. The educational goal is to de-mystifying radio and other link and physical layer communication technologies as the students can follow packets from the higher layers down through the physical layer and back up again. The thesis fills the gap between the existing documentation for the Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) re...

  4. Session Initiation Protocol Security: A Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Selvakumar Manickam; Chen-Wei Tan; Aws N. Jaber; Ali A. Khudher

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: This study aims to discuss several issues on session initiation protocol security and threats. An in-depth investigation related to SIP with the intention to categorize the wide variety of SIP security issues. Approach: Related papers to the infrastructure of SIP security were analysed. Some of the identified issues are: Social threats, eavesdropping, delaying, modification of media session, service abuse threats, physical access threats and denied services threats. Results...

  5. Building America House Simulation Protocols (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Engebrecht, C.

    2010-10-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  6. DATA PROVENANCE IN PHOTOGRAMMETRY THROUGH DOCUMENTATION PROTOCOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Carboni, N.; G. Bruseker; A. Guillem; Bellido Castañeda, D.; Coughenour, C.; Domajnko, M.; Kramer, M.; Ramos Calles, M. M.; E. K. Stathopoulou; R Suma

    2016-01-01

    Documenting the relevant aspects in digitisation processes such as photogrammetry in order to provide a robust provenance for their products continues to present a challenge. The creation of a product that can be re-used scientifically requires a framework for consistent, standardised documentation of the entire digitisation pipeline. This article provides an analysis of the problems inherent to such goals and presents a series of protocols to document the various steps of a photogra...

  7. Mobile opportunistic networks architectures, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Denko, Mieso K

    2011-01-01

    Widespread availability of pervasive and mobile devices coupled with recent advances in networking technologies make opportunistic networks one of the most promising communication technologies for a growing number of future mobile applications. Covering the basics as well as advanced concepts, this book introduces state-of-the-art research findings, technologies, tools, and innovations. Prominent researchers from academia and industry report on communication architectures, network algorithms and protocols, emerging applications, experimental studies, simulation tools, implementation test beds,

  8. Retinopathy of Prematurity and Blood Transfusion Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    P Mohagheghi; Khosravi, N.; H Samaii

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role of blood transfusion protocols on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a prospective cohort study on 57 premature infants under 1501 grams birth weight was performed. Fourteen day-old infants were divided into two groups randomly. Infants in group 1 (n=27) received packed red blood cell transfusion only if specific medical signs were met and their hematocrit level was under 30%. Infants in group 2 (n=30) received blood transfusion to maintain their hematocrit level > 40%...

  9. A CONTRIBUTION TO SECURE THE ROUTING PROTOCOL

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed ERRITALI; Oussama Mohamed Reda; Bouabid El Ouahidi

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a contribution to secure the routing protocol GPSR (Greedy Perimeter StatelessRouting) for vehicular ad hoc networks, we examine the possible attacks against GPSR and securitysolutions proposed by different research teams working on ad hoc network security. Then, we propose asolution to secure GPSR packet by adding a digital signature based on symmetric cryptographygenerated using the AES algorithm and the MD5 hash function more suited to a mobile environment

  10. An adaptive protocol for distributed beamforming

    OpenAIRE

    Sigg, Stephan; Beigl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We study distributed adaptive beamforming in networks of wireless nodes. In particular, we observe that for the synchronisation of carrier phases, distinct algorithmic configurations are optimal in various environmental settings and propose a protocol that utilises organic computing principles to find optimum parameters. Furthermore, we study the impact of different modulation schemes on the bit error rate of a signal sequence transmitted collaboratively by distributed devices via adaptive be...

  11. Stochastic stability of continuous time consensus protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Medvedev, Georgi S.

    2010-01-01

    A unified approach to studying convergence and stochastic stability of continuous time consensus protocols (CPs) is presented in this work. Our method applies to networks with directed information flow; both cooperative and noncooperative interactions; networks under weak stochastic forcing; and those whose topology and strength of connections may vary in time. The graph theoretic interpretation of the analytical results is emphasized. We show how the spectral properties, such as algebraic co...

  12. Advanced routing protocols for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Campista , Miguel Elias Mitre

    2014-01-01

    This text introduces the principles of routing protocols and metrics as they affect wireless networking environments, specifically in urban areas. Timely because of the recent rise in small city life, this topic includes the consideration of ad hoc, mesh, vehicular, sensor, and delay tolerant networks. These approaches are each unique, and author Miguel Mitre Campista provides a thorough, but accessible, explanation of their individual characteristics for engineers, computer scientists, IT professionals, and curious Internet users.

  13. Routing Protocols in MANET: Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanti; Vikram Nandal

    2014-01-01

    A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is composed of mobile nodes without any infrastructure like wireless access points or base stations. MANET describes wireless, mobile and multi-hop networks that operate without the benefit of any existing infrastructure except for the nodes themselves. The main goal of an ad hoc network routing protocol is to establish correct and efficient route between a pair of mobile nodes so that messages delivered within the active route timeout interval. Several protoco...

  14. Montreal Protocol Benefits simulated with CCM SOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Egorova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ozone depletion is caused by the anthropogenic increase of halogen-containing species in the atmosphere, which results in the enhancement of the concentration of reactive chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere. To reduce the influence of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances (ODS, the Montreal Protocol was agreed by Governments in 1987, with several Amendments and Adjustments adopted later. In order to assess the benefits of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments and Adjustments (MPA on ozone and UV radiation, two different runs of the chemistry-climate model (CCM SOCOL have been carried out. The first run was driven by the emission of ozone depleting substances (ODS prescribed according to the restrictions of the MPA. For the second run we allow the ODS to grow by 3% annually. We find that the MPA would have saved up to 80% of the global annual total ozone by the end of the 21st century. Our calculations also show substantial changes of the stratospheric circulation pattern as well as in surface temperature and precipitations that could occur in the world without MPA implementations. To illustrate the changes in UV radiation at the surface and to emphasise certain features, which can only be seen for some particular regions if the influence of the cloud cover changes is accounted for, we calculate geographical distribution of the erythemally weighted irradiance (Eery. For the no Montreal Protocol simulation Eery increases by factor of 4 to 16 between the 1970s and 2100. For the scenario including the Montreal Protocol it is found that UV radiation starts to decrease in 2000, with continuous decline of 5% to 10% at middle latitudes in the both Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

  15. A CONTRIBUTION TO SECURE THE ROUTING PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed ERRITALI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a contribution to secure the routing protocol GPSR (Greedy Perimeter StatelessRouting for vehicular ad hoc networks, we examine the possible attacks against GPSR and securitysolutions proposed by different research teams working on ad hoc network security. Then, we propose asolution to secure GPSR packet by adding a digital signature based on symmetric cryptographygenerated using the AES algorithm and the MD5 hash function more suited to a mobile environment

  16. Comparison of Five Parathyroid Scintigraphic Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virpi Tunninen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We compared five parathyroid scintigraphy protocols in patients with primary (pHPT and secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT and studied the interobserver agreement. The dual-tracer method (T99mc-sestamibi/123I was used with three acquisition techniques (parallel-hole planar, pinhole planar, and SPECT/CT. The single-tracer method (T99mc-sestamibi was used with two acquisition techniques (double-phase parallel-hole planar, and SPECT/CT. Thus five protocols were used, resulting in five sets of images. Materials and Methods. Image sets of 51 patients were retrospectively graded by four experienced nuclear medicine physicians. The final study group consisted of 24 patients (21 pHPT, 3 sHPT who had been operated upon. Surgical and histopathologic findings were used as the standard of comparison. Results. Thirty abnormal parathyroid glands were found in 24 patients. The sensitivities of the dual-tracer method (76.7–80.0% were similar (P=1.0. The sensitivities of the single-tracer method (13.3–31.6% were similar (P=0.625. All differences in sensitivity between these two methods were statistically significant (P<0.012. The interobserver agreement was good. Conclusion. This study indicates that any dual-tracer protocol with T99mc-sestamibi and 123I is superior for enlarged parathyroid gland localization when compared with single-tracer protocols using T99mc-sestamibi alone. The parathyroid scintigraphy was found to be independent of the reporter.

  17. Dynamic Characteristics of Explicit Control Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shuang-mei; LI Jian-hua; GUO Chuan-xiong

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of eplicit control protocol (XCP) were investigated with single bottle-neck on the microscopic time-scale. Analysis and simulation results show that the bandwidth utilization of an XCP bottleneck link converges to 1 at exponential rate, persistent congestion cannot occur at the bottleneck link, and throughput of an arbitrary subset of XCP flows at the bottleneck link converges to its fair share in exponential rate. The XCP has high bandwidth utilization and good fairness properties.

  18. Protocol Independent Adaptive Route Update for VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Asim Rasheed; Sana Ajmal; Amir Qayyum

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptiv...

  19. Integrated Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anshul Verma; Dr. Anurag Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    In opportunistic networks the existence of a simultaneous path is not assumed to transmit a message between a sender and a receiver. Information about the context in which the users communicate is a key piece of knowledge to design efficient routing protocols in opportunistic networks. But this kind of information is not always available. When users are very isolated, context information cannot be distributed, and cannot be used for taking efficient routing decisions. In such cases, context o...

  20. Analysis of Security Protocols for Mobile Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazid, Mohammad; Zeadally, Sherali; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga

    2016-11-01

    Mobile Healthcare (mHealth) continues to improve because of significant improvements and the decreasing costs of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs). mHealth is a medical and public health practice, which is supported by mobile devices (for example, smartphones) and, patient monitoring devices (for example, various types of wearable sensors, etc.). An mHealth system enables healthcare experts and professionals to have ubiquitous access to a patient's health data along with providing any ongoing medical treatment at any time, any place, and from any device. It also helps the patient requiring continuous medical monitoring to stay in touch with the appropriate medical staff and healthcare experts remotely. Thus, mHealth has become a major driving force in improving the health of citizens today. First, we discuss the security requirements, issues and threats to the mHealth system. We then present a taxonomy of recently proposed security protocols for mHealth system based on features supported and possible attacks, computation cost and communication cost. Our detailed taxonomy demonstrates the strength and weaknesses of recently proposed security protocols for the mHealth system. Finally, we identify some of the challenges in the area of security protocols for mHealth systems that still need to be addressed in the future to enable cost-effective, secure and robust mHealth systems. PMID:27640159

  1. Nuclear energy and the Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the application of its 'flexible mechanisms' are at the forefront of energy policy debates in most OECD countries. The potential role of nuclear energy in this context is viewed very differently and assessed against various criteria by the range of stakeholders in governments and civil society according to their interests and priorities. This book provides key facts concerning nuclear energy and the Kyoto Protocol. It highlights the challenges and opportunities for the future development of nuclear energy in the context of implementing the Kyoto Protocol, and more broadly in alleviating the risks of global climate change. The report will be of interest to energy policy makers and senior experts in the field as well as to members of civil society eager to better understand the issues raised within the debate on the role of nuclear energy in sustainable development. It will assists in making the necessary trade-off involved in addressing global climate change concerns. (authors)

  2. Analyzing Interoperability of Protocols Using Model Checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUPeng

    2005-01-01

    In practical terms, protocol interoperability testing is still laborious and error-prone with little effect, even for those products that have passed conformance testing. Deadlock and unsymmetrical data communication are familiar in interoperability testing, and it is always very hard to trace their causes. The previous work has not provided a coherent way to analyze why the interoperability was broken among protocol implementations under test. In this paper, an alternative approach is presented to analyzing these problems from a viewpoint of implementation structures. Sequential and concurrent structures are both representative implementation structures, especially in event-driven development model. Our research mainly discusses the influence of sequential and concurrent structures on interoperability, with two instructive conclusions: (a) a sequential structure may lead to deadlock; (b) a concurrent structure may lead to unsymmetrical data communication. Therefore, implementation structures carry weight on interoperability, which may not gain much attention before. To some extent, they are decisive on the result of interoperability testing. Moreover, a concurrent structure with a sound task-scheduling strategy may contribute to the interoperability of a protocol implementation. Herein model checking technique is introduced into interoperability analysis for the first time. As the paper shows, it is an effective way to validate developers' selections on implementation structures or strategies.

  3. Application Protocol Design for Collaborative Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joung-Souk Sung

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This presentation will describe the effort to construct an effective educational support environment and to develop meaningful educational applications, This system is a framework supporting interactive collaboration which enables both teachers and students to interact in real-time from remote sites. The purpose of this collaboration is to bring interactive multimedia learning in real-time. In order to induce collaborative learning, this paperproposes protocol design process that shares knowledge awareness information for learning environments. The protocol helps learner to mediate and recognize collaborators in the shared knowledge space. We are developing an open-ended collaborative learning supportsystem, which is called prototype system for protocol design, and facilities to share individual knowledge and to learn through collaboration. This system architecture can be viewed asdivided in four logical parts: the infrastructure, the service functions, the advanced service functions and the application. The session management is creates/destroys the sessions and performs the functions controlling the QOS by detaching the network load. Session manager include: session control, floor control, media instance control, packet interpreter, event interpreter, media server instance, media interface, network interface private applicationinterface and media server control.

  4. Heterogeneous LEACH Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishi Sharma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks are networks of large number of tiny, battery powered sensor nodes having limited on-board storage, processing, and radio capabilities. Nodes sense and send their reports toward a processing center which is called base station. Since this transmission and reception process consumes lots of energy as compare to data processing, Designing protocols and applications for such networks has to be energy aware in order to prolong the lifetime of the network. Generally, real life applications deal with such Heterogeneity rather than Homogeneity. In this paper, a protocol is proposed, which is heterogeneous in energy. We analyze the basic distributed clustering routing protocol LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy, which is a homogeneous system, and then we study the impact of heterogeneity in energy of nodes to prolong the life time of WSN. Simulation results using MATLAB shows that the proposed Leach-heterogeneous system significantly reduces energy consumption and increase the total lifetime of the wireless sensor network.

  5. Analysis of Security Protocols for Mobile Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazid, Mohammad; Zeadally, Sherali; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga

    2016-11-01

    Mobile Healthcare (mHealth) continues to improve because of significant improvements and the decreasing costs of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs). mHealth is a medical and public health practice, which is supported by mobile devices (for example, smartphones) and, patient monitoring devices (for example, various types of wearable sensors, etc.). An mHealth system enables healthcare experts and professionals to have ubiquitous access to a patient's health data along with providing any ongoing medical treatment at any time, any place, and from any device. It also helps the patient requiring continuous medical monitoring to stay in touch with the appropriate medical staff and healthcare experts remotely. Thus, mHealth has become a major driving force in improving the health of citizens today. First, we discuss the security requirements, issues and threats to the mHealth system. We then present a taxonomy of recently proposed security protocols for mHealth system based on features supported and possible attacks, computation cost and communication cost. Our detailed taxonomy demonstrates the strength and weaknesses of recently proposed security protocols for the mHealth system. Finally, we identify some of the challenges in the area of security protocols for mHealth systems that still need to be addressed in the future to enable cost-effective, secure and robust mHealth systems.

  6. Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP: Future Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Deepti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available VoIP (voice over IP delivers standard voice over telephone services over Internet Protocol (IP. VoIP is the technology of digitizing sound, compressing it, breaking it up into data packets, and sending it over an IP (internet protocol network where it is reassembled, decompressed, and converted back into an analog wave form. Gateways are the key component required to facilitate IP Telephony. A gateway is used to bridge the traditional circuit switched PSTN with the packet switched Internet. The paper covers software, hardware and protocol requirements followed by weighing the VoIP advantages such as low cost, portability, free and advanced features, bandwidth efficiency, call recording and monitoring against the VoIP disadvantages such as power dependency, quality of voice and service, security, and reliability. With ever increasing internet penetration and better broadband connectivity, VoIP is going to expand further with businesses already using VoIP standalone or in a hybrid format, although our focus and scope here remains VoIP. Mobile VoIP, an infant with less than 4% market share, has so far been focusing on increasing active subscriptions without a sustainable revenue model, but has the potential and is going to see tussle with static VoIP for space in days ahead.

  7. VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL (VOIP: FUTURE POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Kumari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available VoIP (voice over IP delivers standard voice over telephone services over Internet Protocol (IP. VoIP is the technology of digitizing sound, compressing it, breaking it up into data packets, and sending it over an IP (internet protocol network where it is reassembled, decompressed, and converted back into an analog wave form. Gateways are the key component required to facilitate IP Telephony. A gateway is used to bridge the traditional circuit switched PSTN with the packet switched Internet. The paper covers software, hardware and protocol requirements followed by weighing the VoIP advantages such as low cost, portability, free and advanced features, bandwidth efficiency, call recording and monitoring against the VoIP disadvantages such as power dependency, quality of voice and service, security, and reliability. With ever increasing internet penetration and better broadband connectivity, VoIP is going to expand further with businesses already using VoIP standalone or in a hybrid format, although our focus and scope here remains VoIP. Mobile VoIP, an infant with less than 4% market share, has so far been focusing on increasing active subscriptions without a sustainable revenue model, but has the potential and is going to see tussle with static VoIP for space in days ahead.

  8. Yoga-teaching protocol adapted for children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhagyalaxmi Mohanty

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Specially designed protocol may pave the way to impart yoga in an exciting and comfortable way to children with VI. More studies are needed to further investigate the effectiveness of this new yoga protocol in similar settings.

  9. Comparison of CSMA based MAC protocols of wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    singh, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    Energy conservation has been an important area of interest in Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs). Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols play an important role in energy conservation. In this paper, we describe CSMA based MAC protocols for WSN and analyze the simulation results of these protocols. We implemented S-MAC, T-MAC, B-MAC, B-MAC+, X-MAC, DMAC and Wise-MAC in TOSSIM, a simulator which unlike other simulators simulates the same code running on real hardware. Previous surveys mainly focused on the classification of MAC protocols according to the techniques being used or problem dealt with and presented a theoretical evaluation of protocols. This paper presents the comparative study of CSMA based protocols for WSNs, showing which MAC protocol is suitable in a particular environment and supports the arguments with the simulation results. The comparative study can be used to find the best suited MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks in different environments.

  10. Sufficient Conditions for Vertical Composition of Security Protocols (Extended Version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Viganò, Luca

    Vertical composition of security protocols means that an application protocol (e.g., a banking service) runs over a channel established by another protocol (e.g., a secure channel provided by TLS). This naturally gives rise to a compositionality question: given a secure protocol P1 that provides...... a certain kind of channel as a goal and another secure protocol P2 that assumes this kind of channel, can we then derive that their vertical composition P2[P1] is secure? It is well known that protocol composition can lead to attacks even when the individual protocols are all secure in isolation....... In this paper, we formalize seven easy-to-check static conditions that support a large class of channels and applications and that we prove to be su_cient for vertical security protocol composition....

  11. Passive Cryptanalysis of Unconditionally Secure Authentication Protocol for RFID Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Abyaneh, Mohammad Reza Sohizadeh

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Alomair et al. proposed the first UnConditionally Secure mutual authentication protocol for low-cost RFID systems(UCS-RFID). The security of the UCS-RFID relies on five dynamic secret keys which are updated at every protocol run using a fresh random number (nonce) secretly transmitted from a reader to tags. Our results show that, at the highest security level of the protocol (security parameter= 512), inferring a nonce is feasible with the probability of 0.99 by eavesdropping(observing) about 90 runs of the protocol. Finding a nonce enable a passive attacker to recover all five secret keys of the protocol. To do so, we propose a three-phase probabilistic approach in this paper. Our attack recovers the secret keys with a probability that increases by accessing to more protocol runs. We also show that tracing a tag using this protocol is also possible even with less runs of the protocol.

  12. Classical Authentication Aided Three-Stage Quantum Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Basuchowdhuri, Partha

    2006-01-01

    This paper modifies Kak's three-stage protocol so that it can guarantee secure transmission of information. Although avoiding man-in-the-middle attack is our primary objective in the introduction of classical authentication inside the three-stage protocol, we also benefit from the inherent advantages of the chosen classical authentication protocol. We have tried to implement ideas like key distribution center, session key, time-stamp, and nonce, within the quantum cryptography protocol.

  13. KYOTO PROTOCOL- THE SOLUTION TO THE CLIMATE CHANGE PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Stanisoara

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the subject to a particularly important Protocol: Kyoto Protocol from 1997 entered into force on 15 February 2005. It aims to limit emissions of six greenhouse gases. In short, the Kyoto Protocol commits industrialized countries to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions based on the principles of the Convention. The Convention itself only encourages countries to do so. Under the Protocol, the European Community has committed to reduce b...

  14. A Study on Merits and Demerits of SAN Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    ASHUTOSH KUMAR SINGH

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on SAN protocols and their various topologies, protocol layers, addresses. This article gives the description of rules and regulation of SAN that work in networks of storage. This study paper deals with the study of SAN and DAS, how they work in the open industrial network. This paper surveys on protocols and their working in storage. DAS have SATA, SCSI and SAN have uses FC, FCOE protocols.

  15. Precise Energy Modeling for the Bluetooth Low Energy Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Kindt, Philipp; Yunge, Daniel; Diemer, Robert; Chakraborty, Samarjit

    2014-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a wireless protocol well suited for ultra-low-power sensors running on small batteries. BLE is described as a new protocol in the official Bluetooth 4.0 specification. To design energy-efficient devices, the protocol provides a number of parameters that need to be optimized within an energy, latency and throughput design space. To minimize power consumption, the protocol parameters have to be optimized for a given application. Therefore, an energy-model that can ...

  16. Symbolic Model Checking and Analysis for E-Commerce Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Jing-Hua; ZHANG Mei; LI Xiang

    2005-01-01

    A new approach is proposed for analyzing non-repudiation and fairness of e-commerce protocols. The authentication e-mail protocol CMP1 is modeled as finite state machine and analyzed in two vital aspects - non-repudiation and fairness using SMV. As a result, the CMP1 protocol is not fair and we have improved it. This result shows that it is effective to analyze and check the new features of e-commerce protocols using SMV model checker

  17. Performance Evaluation of the WSN Routing Protocols Scalability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alazzawi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Scalability is an important factor in designing an efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. A good routing protocol has to be scalable and adaptive to the changes in the network topology. Thus scalable protocol should perform well as the network grows larger or as the workload increases. In this paper, routing protocols for wireless sensor networks are simulated and their performances are evaluated to determine their capability for supporting network scalability.

  18. Research on Diameter Protocols%Diameter协议研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱锡鹏; 刘海鹏

    2003-01-01

    Diameter is the next authentication,authorization and accounting protocol currently developed in the IETF AAA working group ,which will replace the widely and successfully deployed Radius protocol. In the paper ,the motivations and backgrounds of Diameter protocols are firstly introduced. The following is a detailed description of the Diameter base protocol and its applications,such as mobile IP,NASREQ. Then the comparisons and analysis between Diameter and Radius are given.

  19. Link Expiration Time-Aware Routing Protocol for UWSNs

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Ashraf Uddin; Mamun-or-Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We propose a link expiration time-aware routing protocol for UWSNs. In this protocol, a sending node forwards a data packet after being sure that the packet reaches the forwarding node, and acknowledgment is returned to the sending node after receiving the data packet. Node mobility is handled in the protocol through the calculation of the link expiration time and sending the packet based on the link expiration time. Although the protocol employs two types of control packet, it provides less ...

  20. Test protocols for advanced inverter interoperability functions :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Ralph, Mark E.; Ellis, Abraham; Broderick, Robert Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Distributed energy resources (DER) such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, when deployed in a large scale, are capable of influencing significantly the operation of power systems. Looking to the future, stakeholders are working on standards to make it possible to manage the potentially complex interactions between DER and the power system. In 2009, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA) initiated a large industry collaborative to identify and standardize definitions for a set of DER grid support functions. While the initial effort concentrated on grid-tied PV inverters and energy storage systems, the concepts have applicability to all DER. A partial product of this on-going effort is a reference definitions document (IEC TR 61850-90-7, Object models for power converters in distributed energy resources (DER) systems) that has become a basis for expansion of related International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and is supported by US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP). Some industry-led organizations advancing communications protocols have also embraced this work. As standards continue to evolve, it is necessary to develop test protocols to independently verify that the inverters are properly executing the advanced functions. Interoperability is assured by establishing common definitions for the functions and a method to test compliance with operational requirements. This document describes test protocols developed by SNL to evaluate the electrical performance and operational capabilities of PV inverters and energy storage, as described in IEC TR 61850-90-7. While many of these functions are not now required by existing grid codes or may not be widely available commercially, the industry is rapidly moving in that direction. Interoperability issues are already apparent as

  1. The MAC framework: redefining MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, T.; Halkes, G.; Bezemer, M.; Langendoen, K.

    2010-01-01

    Most current WSN MAC protocol implementations have multiple tasks to perform—deciding on correct timing, sending of packets, sending of acknowledgements, etc. However, as much of this is common to all MAC protocols, there is duplication of functionality, which leads to larger MAC protocol code size

  2. Generating Protocol Software from CPN Models Annotated with Pragmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge; Kristensen, Lars M.; Kindler, Ekkart

    2013-01-01

    and verify protocol software, but limited work exists on using CPN models of protocols as a basis for automated code generation. The contribution of this paper is a method for generating protocol software from a class of CPN models annotated with code generation pragmatics. Our code generation method...

  3. Assessment time of the Welfare Quality protocol for dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Engel, B.; Uijl, I.; Schaik, van G.; Dijkstra, T.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Welfare Quality® (WQ) protocols are increasingly used for assessing welfare of farm animals. These protocols are time consuming (about one day per farm) and, therefore, costly. Our aim was to assess the scope for reduction of on-farm assessment time of the WQ protocol for dairy cattle. Seven tra

  4. A Secure Protocol for Efficient SMS Transmission and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianju Ning

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the usage of mobile phones around the world is growing more and more. Short Message Service (SMS is one of the most important applications due to its easy way to send and receive messages from users to users. There have been many transmission protocols aiming to make sure secure and effective transferring in the SMS. Some of them are based on symmetric algorithms, while others are based on signature encryption or public key infrastructure. However, all of these existing protocols lack sufficient security or high efficiency. When the protocols possess high security margin, they usually have a limited performance in software. And when the performance is guaranteed, the security margin usually decreases. So in this paper, we study the advantages and disadvantages of some widely-used protocols. Basing on this, we propose a new protocol for secure SMS transmission. Our protocol improves both the structure and the modules of previous protocols from theoretical and practical aspects, so that it can assure the security level as well as very efficient performance. Compared with other protocols having similar security, our protocol has a more convenient implementation. Compared with other protocols with similar performance, our protocol is safer. Also, we use a signature model which does not need the PKI on-line, increasing the security greatly. Finally, we take experiments on real mobile phones to verify our protocol and analyze the results.

  5. Hybrid quantum repeater protocol with fast local processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Johannes; Brask, Jonatan Bohr; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2012-01-01

    We propose a hybrid quantum repeater protocol combining the advantages of continuous and discrete variables. The repeater is based on the previous work of Brask et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 160501 (2010)] but we present two ways of improving this protocol. In the previous protocol entangled single...

  6. Creation of the client for the communications protocol Jabber

    OpenAIRE

    Pešková, Petra

    2010-01-01

    This Bachaleror's thesis describes and compares the best known communication protocols (ICQ, AIM, MSN, Gadu Gadu, IRC, Google chat a Yahoo! Messenger), especially the Jabber protocol. A part of this thesis is to design an instant messaging client based on Jabber protocol.

  7. The Interlibrary Loan Protocol: An OSI Solution to ILL Messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Fay

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the interlibrary loan (ILL) protocol, a standard based on the principles of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model. Benefits derived from protocol use are described, the status of the protocol as an international standard is reviewed, and steps taken by the National Library of Canada to facilitate migration to an ILL…

  8. Tendencies in the development of utilization protocols, seminar report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roveri, A.

    1983-07-01

    The open system interconnections model (OSI) structured approach to specify protocols is discussed. A stratification in seven levels characterizes the architecture of the system. Transfer level protocol characterization of utilization protocols in the OSI model, data flow control, and presentation and application levels are described.

  9. Caltech computer scientists develop FAST protocol to speed up Internet

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Caltech computer scientists have developed a new data transfer protocol for the Internet fast enough to download a full-length DVD movie in less than five seconds. The protocol is called FAST, standing for Fast Active queue management Scalable Transmission Control Protocol" (1 page).

  10. Securing statically-verified communications protocols against timing attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Gilmore, Stephen; Hillston, Jane;

    2004-01-01

    We present a federated analysis of communication protocols which considers both security properties and timing. These are not entirely independent observations of a protocol; by using timing observations of an executing protocol it is possible to deduce derived information about the nature of the...

  11. Protocol-Based Verification of Message-Passing Parallel Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Acosta, Hugo-Andrés; Eduardo R. B. Marques, Eduardo R. B.; Martins, Francisco;

    2015-01-01

    a protocol language based on a dependent type system for message-passing parallel programs, which includes various communication operators, such as point-to-point messages, broadcast, reduce, array scatter and gather. For the verification of a program against a given protocol, the protocol is first...

  12. On the Structure of Protocols for Magic State Distillation

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Earl T

    2009-01-01

    We present a theorem that shows that all useful protocols for magic state distillation output states with a fidelity that is upper-bounded by those generated by a much smaller class of protocols. This reduced class consists of the protocols where multiple copies of a state are projected onto a stabilizer codespace and the logical qubit is then decoded.

  13. Simulation for a New Real-time Ethernet MAC Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Gang(沈钢); Cai Yunze; Xu Xiaoming; He Xing; Zhang Weidong

    2004-01-01

    A method for modeling broadcast protocols in OPNET is introduced by illustrating a simulation of a new real-time Ethernet MAC protocol. The details of network models in OPNET are given and the procedure in modeling is introduced. Simulation results verify that the protocol is correct and efficient.

  14. Model Checking Data Consistency for Cache Coherence Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Pan; Hui-Min Lin; Yi Lv

    2006-01-01

    A method for automatic verification of cache coherence protocols is presented, in which cache coherence protocols are modeled as concurrent value-passing processes, and control and data consistency requirement are described as formulas in first-orderμ-calculus. A model checker is employed to check if the protocol under investigation satisfies the required properties. Using this method a data consistency error has been revealed in a well-known cache coherence protocol.The error has been corrected, and the revised protocol has been shown free from data consistency error for any data domain size, by appealing to data independence technique.

  15. Three Party Quantum Authenticated Key Distribution Protocol Using Superposition States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sathi Reddy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Quantum authenticated key distribution protocol that can perform key distribution and also ensure that the participants of the communication are authentic, both implicitly and explicitly. This protocol provides new directions in Classical cryptography and Quantum cryptography.The Participants of the protocol trust the third party regarding the authentication part only. Thus the proposed protocol will be preferable for network systems which deal with highly sensitive information, such as military, hospitals, research facilities. Our protocol utilizes polarized photons in superposition states for authentication and key distribution which provides high security against many attacks.

  16. Sufficient Conditions for Vertical Composition of Security Protocols (Extended Version)

    OpenAIRE

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Viganò, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Vertical composition of security protocols means that an application protocol (e.g., a banking service) runs over a channel established by another protocol (e.g., a secure channel provided by TLS). This naturally gives rise to a compositionality question: given a secure protocol P1 that provides a certain kind of channel as a goal and another secure protocol P2 that assumes this kind of channel, can we then derive that their vertical composition P2[P1] is secure? It is well known that protoco...

  17. EXTENDED DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR AD HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Kumari Sharma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available MANET is a collection of self-configurable mobile nodes. Several routing protocols are proposed for ad hoc network among which DSR and AODV On demand routing protocols are mostly used. Existing Dynamic source routing protocol is not suitable for large network because packet size gets increased according to the number of nodes travelled by route discovery packet. In this paper, extended DSR routing protocol is proposed to eliminate the above limitation of existing DSR. Proposed protocol will be suitable for small and large both types of networks.

  18. On the security of the Blockchain Bix Protocol and Certificates

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, Riccardo; Pintore, Federico; Rinaldo, Giancarlo; Sala, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    The BIX protocol is a blockchain-based protocol that allows distribution of certificates linking a subject with his public key, hence providing a service similar to that of a PKI but without the need of a CA. In this paper we analyze the security of the BIX protocol in a formal way, in four steps. First, we identify formal security assumptions which are well-suited to this protocol. Second, we present some attack scenarios against the BIX protocol. Third, we provide a formal security proof th...

  19. Efficient multiparty protocols via log-depth threshold formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Gil; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Ishai, Yuval;

    2013-01-01

    We put forward a new approach for the design of efficient multiparty protocols: Design a protocol π for a small number of parties (say, 3 or 4) which achieves security against a single corrupted party. Such protocols are typically easy to construct, as they may employ techniques that do not scale...... of efficient protocols for Secure Multiparty Computation (MPC) in the presence of an honest majority, as well as broadcast protocols from point-to-point channels and a 2-cast primitive. We obtain new results on MPC over blackbox groups and other algebraic structures. The above results rely on the following...

  20. Anonymous authentication protocol for multi-services in wireless environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To provide mutual authentication among users, wireless networks, and service providers in roaming wireless environments, this article presents an anonymous authentication and access control protocol. Bases on this protocol, entities of different trusted domains can mutually authenticate each other and preserve the anonymity of users. Hybrid cryptosystem, secret splitting, and hash chains are used in the protocol, which decrease computational loads and establish trusted relations for both entities. The proposed protocol has the least computation complexity compared with other protocols, whereas, the security has been significantly improved.

  1. A Performance Comparison of Two Real Time WLAN MAC Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Chun-sheng; LI Feng; ZHANG Wei-dong

    2007-01-01

    By modifying the IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network (WLAN) medium access protocol (MAC), a contention based and a polling based protocol are proposed to deal with the case every station possesses two classes of frame in real time applications. Both protocols can ensure the real time frame only need to wait a determinable bounded time. These two protocols are introduced briefly and a performance comparison between them is made. Simulation results show that each protocol has advantage over the others in certain network condition.

  2. A New Formal Method for Communication Protocol Specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李腊元

    1989-01-01

    A new formal method for communication protocol specification is presented.FSM,CSP and ADT are mixed and the best features of these approaches can be offered in the fomal method.First,we briefly describe the formal techniques of communication protocol.We then put forward the hybrid method of protocol specification.Finally,an example,i.e.,IEEE 802.3 MAC protocol for LAN described by the proposed formal method,is given.The results of studies show that this hybrid formal method for protocol specification is a correct,unambiguous and complete approach.

  3. Quantum Key Distribution Using Decoy State Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sellami Ali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Quantum key distribution provides unconditional security guaranteed by the fundamental laws of quantum physics. Unfortunately, for real-life experimental set-ups, which mainly based on faint laser pulses, the occasional production of multi-photons and channel loss make it possible for sophisticated eavesdroppers to launch various subtle eavesdropping attacks including the Photon Number Splitting (PNS attack. The decoy state protocols recently proposed to beat PNS attack and to improve dramatically distance and secure key generation rate of Quantum Key Distribution (QKD. Approach: Objective of this study was experimental implementation of weak decoy + vacuum states QKD for increasing the performance of QKD system. To show conceptually how simple it was to apply the weak decoy + vacuum state idea to a commercial QKD system, we chosen ID-3000 commercial quantum key distribution system manufactured by id quantique. To implement the weak decoy + vacuum state protocol, we had to add some new optical and electronics components to id quantique and to attenuate each signal to the intensity of either signal state or weak decoy or vacuum state randomly. Results: In our implementation, the attenuation will be done by placing a VOA (variable optical attenuator in Alice’s side. Specifically, our QKD system required the polarizations of 2 pulses from the same signal to be orthogonal. Therefore the VOA must be polarization independent so as to attenuate the two pulses equally. The VOA utilized in experiment to attenuate signals dynamically was Intensity Modulator (IM. We had implemented weak + vacuum protocol on a modified commercial QKD system over a 25 km of telecom fibers with an unconditionally secure key rate of 6.2931x10-4 per pulse. Conclusion: By making simple modifications to a commercial quantum key distribution system, we could achieve much better performance with substantially higher key generation rate and longer distance than

  4. NLHB : A Non-Linear Hopper Blum Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Madhavan, Mukundan; Sankarasubramaniam, Yogesh; Viswanathan, Kapali

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a light-weight provably-secure authentication protocol called the NLHB protocol, which is a variant of the HB protocol. The HB protocol uses the complexity of decoding linear codes for security against passive attacks. In contrast, security for the NLHB protocol is proved by reducing passive attacks to the problem of decoding a class of non-linear codes\\footnote that are provably hard. We demonstrate that the existing passive attacks on the HB protocol family, which have contributed to considerable reduction in its effective key-size, are ineffective against the NLHB protocol. From the evidence, we conclude that smaller-key sizes are sufficient for the NLHB protocol to achieve the same level of passive attack security as the HB Protocol. Further, for this choice of parameters, we provide an implementation instance for the NLHB protocol for which the Prover/Verifier complexity is lower than the HB protocol, enabling authentication on very low-cost devices like RFID tags. Finally, in t...

  5. Algebra model and security analysis for cryptographic protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUAI Jinpeng; LI Xianxian

    2004-01-01

    More and more cryptographic protocols have been used to achieve various security requirements of distributed systems in the open network environment. However cryptographic protocols are very difficult to design and analyze due to the complexity of the cryptographic protocol execution, and a large number of problems are unsolved that range from the theory framework to the concrete analysis technique. In this paper, we build a new algebra called cryptographic protocol algebra (CPA) for describing the message operations with many cryptographic primitives, and proposed a new algebra model for cryptographic protocols based on the CPA. In the model, expanding processes of the participant's knowledge on the protocol runs are characterized with some algebraic notions such as subalgebra, free generator and polynomial algebra, and attack processes are modeled with a new notion similar to that of the exact sequence used in homological algebra. Then we develope a mathematical approach to the cryptographic protocol security analysis. By using algebraic techniques, we have shown that for those cryptographic protocols with some symmetric properties, the execution space generated by an arbitrary number of participants may boil down to a smaller space generated by several honest participants and attackers. Furthermore we discuss the composability problem of cryptographic protocols and give a sufficient condition under which the protocol composed of two correct cryptographic protocols is still correct, and we finally offer a counterexample to show that the statement may not be true when the condition is not met.

  6. A Comparison of Performance between Macro-mobility Protocol and Micro-mobility Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Hong; NIE Neng; WU Zhong-fu; ZHAO Jun; LIAO Xiao-feng

    2003-01-01

    Mobile IP is the proposed standard for IP mobility support. When a Mobile Node (MN) is far away from home, registration at its home agent can cause a long handoff delay that leads to significant packet drop and throughput reduction. In order to improve standard mobile IP, the mobility of MN has been divided into micro-mobility and macro-mobility. Some micro-mobility management protocols have been developed. We compare the performance between standard mobile IP (RFC2002,RFC3220,RFC3344) and micro-mobility management protocols and give some equations along with the analysis of calculating results.

  7. Verification of Authentication Protocols for Epistemic Goals via SAT Compilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Le Su; Qing-Liang Chen; Abdul Sattar; Wei-Ya Yue; Guan-Feng Lv; Xi-Zhong Zheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a new methodology that uses knowledge structures, a specific form of Kripke semantics for epistemic logic, to analyze communication protocols over hostile networks. The paper particularly focuses on automatic verification of authentication protocols. Our approach is based on the actual definitions of a protocol, not on some difficultto-establish justifications. The proposed methodology is different from many previous approaches to automatic verification of security protocols in that it is justification-oriented instead of falsification-oriented, i.e., finding bugs in a protocol. The main idea is based on observations: separating a principal executing a run of protocol from the role in the protocol, and inferring a principal's knowledge from the local observations of the principal. And we show analytically and empirically that this model can be easily reduced to Satisfiability (SAT) problem and efficiently implemented by a modern SAT solver.

  8. The Extended Clustering AD HOC Routing Protocol (ECRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buthayna Al-Sharaa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc networks are acollection of mobile nodes communicating via wireless channels without any fixedinfrastructure. Because of their ease and low cost of building, ad hoc networks have a lot of attractiveapplications in different fields. The topology of ad hoc networks changes dynamically, and each node in thenetwork can act as a host or router.With the increase in the number of wirelessdevices andlarge amountof traffic to be exchanged, the demand for scalable routing protocols has increased. This paper presents ascalable routing protocol, based on AODV protocol, called the Extended Clustering Ad Hoc RoutingProtocol (ECRP. This is a hybrid protocol, which combines reactive and proactive approaches in routing.The protocol uses theGlobal PositioningSystem todetermine the position of certain nodesin the network.The evaluation methodology and simulation results obtained showthat the protocol is efficient and scaleswell in large networks

  9. A case for evaluating sensor network protocols concurrently

    KAUST Repository

    Gnawali, Omprakash

    2010-01-01

    Researchers typically evaluate and compare protocols on the testbeds by running them one at a time. This methodology ignores the variation in link qualities and wireless environment across these experiments. These variations can introduce significant noise in the results. Evaluating two protocols concurrently, however, suffers from inter-protocol interactions. These interactions can perturb performance even under very light load, especially timing and timing sensitive protocols. We argue that the benefits of running protocols concurrently greatly outweigh the disadvantages. Protocols rarely run in isolation in real networks, and so considering such interactions is valuable. Although the wireless environment is still uncontrolled, concurrent evaluations make comparisons fair and more statistically sound. Through experiments on two testbeds, we make the case for evaluating and comparing low data-rate sensor network protocols by running them concurrently. Copyright 2010 ACM.

  10. A Multiple Access Protocol for Multimedia Transmission over Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops and evaluates the performance of an advanced multiple access protocol for transmission of full complement of multimedia signals consisting of various combinations of voice, video, data, text and images over wireless networks. The protocol is called Advanced Multiple Access Protocol for Multimedia Transmission (AMAPMT) and is to be used in the Data Link Layer of the protocol stack. The principle of operation of the protocol is presented in a number of logical flow charts. The protocol grants permission to transmit to a source on the basis of a priority scheme that takes into account a time-to-live (TTL) parameter of all the transactions, selectable priorities assigned to all the sources and relevant channel state information (CSI) in this order. Performance of the protocol is evaluated in terms of quality of service parameters like packet loss ratio (PLR), mean packet transfer delay (MPTD) and throughput. Using a simulation model based on an OPNET simulation software package does the evalua...

  11. The mother of all protocols: Restructuring quantum information's family tree

    CERN Document Server

    Abeyesinghe, A; Hayden, P; Winter, A; Abeyesinghe, Anura; Devetak, Igor; Hayden, Patrick; Winter, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    We give a simple, direct proof of the "mother" protocol of quantum information theory. In this new formulation, it is easy to see that the mother, or rather her generalization to the fully quantum Slepian-Wolf protocol, simultaneously accomplishes two goals: quantum communication-assisted entanglement distillation, and state transfer from the sender to the receiver. As a result, in addition to her other "children," the mother protocol generates the state merging primitive of Horodecki, Oppenheim and Winter, a fully quantum reverse Shannon theorem, and a new class of distributed compression protocols for correlated quantum sources which are optimal for sources described by separable density operators. Moreover, the mother protocol described here is easily transformed into the so-called "father" protocol whose children provide the quantum capacity and the entanglement-assisted capacity of a quantum channel, demonstrating that the division of single-sender/single-receiver protocols into two families was unnecess...

  12. SPP: A data base processor data communications protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and implementation of a data communications protocol for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. The protocol is termed SPP (Service Port Protocol) since it enables data transfer between the host computer and the DBP service port. The protocol implementation is extensible in that it is explicitly layered and the protocol functionality is hierarchically organized. Extensive trace and performance capabilities have been supplied with the protocol software to permit optional efficient monitoring of the data transfer between the host and the Intel data base processor. Machine independence was considered to be an important attribute during the design and implementation of SPP. The protocol source is fully commented and is included in Appendix A of this report.

  13. Network protocols. Special issue; Netwerkprotocollen. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, G.A. [RTB Van Heugten, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rooijakkers, G.W.J. [GTI Building Automation, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Peterse, A. [Regel Partners, Hoevelaken (Netherlands); Smits, P. [Konnex Nederland, Valkenswaard (Netherlands); Hamers, E.P. [Van Dorp Installaties, Breda (Netherlands); Van der Velden, J.A.J. [Kropman, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Van Lingen, G.; Wijn, D.M. [Engineer Johnson Controls, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Deckere, W.J.M.A. [Deerns raadgevende ingenieurs, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Driessen, B. [Saia Burgess, Gouda (Netherlands); Van Olst, K. [K en R Consultants, Deventer (Netherlands); Mosterman, F. [Wago Building Technology, Harderwijk (Netherlands); Staub, R. [BUS-House, Zuerich (Switzerland); Meiring, O.B.; Hut, W.H. [Sauter Building Control Nederland, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tukker, A. [Webeasy Products, Sliedrecht (Netherlands); Bakker, L.G.; Soethout, L.L.; Elkhuizen, P.A. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands); Haeseler, U. [TAC GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kerdel, J.F. [Siemens Building Technologies, Zoetermeer (Netherlands); Lugt, G.L.; Draijer, G.W.

    2007-11-15

    In 20 articles attention is paid to several aspects of network protocols by means of which building automation systems can exchange data: building automation and management, history of technical installations management, the open communication standard BACnet (Building Automation and Control network), the so-called ISO/IEC domotics and communication standard KNX or Konnex, the integration of electrotechnical and engineering installations by the LonWorks technology, other standard protocols as Modbus, M-bus, OPC (OLE for Process Control), an outline of TCP/IP, smart design of networks, automation and networks and building owners, the use of BACnet and Ethernet in a renovated office building, the use of an open management network in buildings, wireless open integrated systems, terminology in network communication, the use of BACnet in combination with KNX, the impact of BACnet on building automation, the role of the installation sector in the ICT-environment, knowledge of building automation and management, regulations with respect to building automation, and BACnet MSTP (Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol) [Dutch] In 20 artikelen wordt in dit themanummer aandacht besteed aan diverse aspecten m.b.t. netwerkprotocollen waarmee verschillende automatiseringssystemen gegevens met elkaar uitwisselen: gebouwautomatisering en beheer, geschiedenis van technisch installatie beheer, de open communicatie standaard BACnet (Building Automation and Control network), de zogenaamde ISO/IEC domotica en communicatie standaard KNX of Konnex, de integratie van electrotechnische en werktuigbouwkundige installaties met behulp van de LonWorks technologie, andere standaard protocollen zoals Modbus, M-bus, OPC (OLE for Process Control), uitleg over TCP/IP, slim ontwerpen van netwerken, gebouweigenaren over automatisering en netwerken, het gebruik van BACnet en Ethernet in een tot kantoorgebouw gerenoveerd monumentaal gebouw, het gebruik van een open management netwerk in gebouwen, draadloos met

  14. Session Initiation Protocol Security: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvakumar Manickam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study aims to discuss several issues on session initiation protocol security and threats. An in-depth investigation related to SIP with the intention to categorize the wide variety of SIP security issues. Approach: Related papers to the infrastructure of SIP security were analysed. Some of the identified issues are: Social threats, eavesdropping, delaying, modification of media session, service abuse threats, physical access threats and denied services threats. Results and Conclusion: A useful categorization of SIP security issues has been done. The vulnerabilities of existing SIP infrastructure and possible remedies are discussed. It is confirmed that, message attacks are the most dominant category of SIP attacks.

  15. Securing VOIP networks via Transport protocols Layer

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Moon; Kapila Moon; Dr.B.B.Meshram

    2012-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), is a technology that allows you to make voice calls using a broadband Internet connection instead of a regular (or analog) phone line. VoIP services have compelling technical advantages over circuit switching. VoIP networks are based more on an open architecture than that of their circuit-switched contemporaries. This open, standards-based architecture means that VoIP services are more interchangeable and more modular than that of a proprietary, monolith...

  16. Delay tolerant networks protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Spyropoulos, Thrasyvoulos

    2011-01-01

    Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) - which include terrestrial mobile networks, exotic media networks, ad-hoc networks, and sensor networks - are becoming more important and may not be well served by the current end-to-end TCP/IP model. This book provides a self-contained, one-stop reference for researchers and practitioners who are looking toward the future of networking. The text presents a systematic exploration of DTN concepts, architectures, protocols, enabling technologies, and applications. It also discusses various challenges associated with DTN. The author includes a wealth of illustrative

  17. Sensor Protocol for Roaming Bluetooth Multiagent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Neungsoo Park; Bijoy Kumar Mandal; Young-Ho Park

    2013-01-01

    Bluetooth is a low-cost, short-range wireless technology capable of providing many communication functionalities. However, Bluetooth does not support any sensor protocol which is related to a roaming and in which handoff occurs dynamically when a Bluetooth device is moving away from coverage of the network. If a device is losing its connection to the master device, there is no provision which transfers it to another master. Handoff is not possible in a piconet, as in order to stay within the ...

  18. Protocol for counterfactually transporting an unknown qubit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim eSalih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum teleportation circumvents the uncertainty principle using dual channels: a quantum one consisting of previously-shared entanglement, and a classical one, together allowing the disembodied transport of an unknown quantum state over distance. It has recently been shown that a classical bit can be counterfactually communicated between two parties in empty space, Alice and Bob. Here, by using our dual version of the chained quantum Zeno effect to achieve a counterfactual CNOT gate, we propose a protocol for transporting an unknown qubit counterfactually, that is without any physical particles travelling between Alice and Bob—no classical channel and no previously-shared entanglement.

  19. Radiotherapy QA of the DAHANCA 19 protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samsøe, E.; Andersen, E.; Hansen, C. R.;

    2015-01-01

    trials. RT-QA of large multicentre-trials, however, requires substantial effort and resources. Recently, we presented a digital QA platform, the CIRRO dose plan bank, which allows for central review of such trials. Here, we present our RT-QA results from the latest completed clinical protocol from...... in CTV1 dose coverage were due to clinical considerations of the tolerance dose to the spinal cord, thus compromising target dose. Five of the major deviations in total treatment time were related to comorbidities, such as alcohol- or cardiac related matters and hospitalization. The remaining two cases...

  20. 2014 Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, C. Metzger [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    As Building America has grown to include a large and diverse cross-section of the home building and retrofit industries, it has become more important to develop accurate, consistent analysis techniques to measure progress towards the program's goals. The House Simulation Protocol (HSP) document provides guidance to program partners and managers so they can compare energy savings for new construction and retrofit projects. The HSP provides the program with analysis methods that are proven to be effective and reliable in investigating the energy use of advanced energy systems and of entire houses.

  1. Comparison of High Speed Congestion Control Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawhar Ben Abed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Congestion control limits the quantity of information input at a rate less important than that of thetransmission one to ensure good performance as well as protect against overload and blocking of thenetwork. Researchers have done a great deal of work on improving congestion control protocols,especially on high speed networks.In this paper, we will be studying the congestion control alongside low and high speed congestion controlprotocols. We will be also simulating, evaluating, and comparing eight of high speed congestion controlprotocols : Bic TCP, Cubic TCP, Hamilton TCP, HighSpeed TCP, Illinois TCP, Scalable TCP,Compound TCP and YeAH TCP, with multiple flows.

  2. A LITERARY REVIEW OF MANET SECURITY PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc networks offer various applications which are verymuch essential in wireless networks. But the vital problemconcerning their security aspects is the major issue whichmust be solved. A mobile adhoc network is a collection ofnodes that are connected through a wireless mediumforming rapidly changing topologies. The dynamic andcooperative nature of ad hoc networks present challenges insecuring these networks. Attacks on ad hoc network routingprotocols is the main problem which affects the networkperformance and reliability. Here a brief introduction ismade of the most popular protocols that follow the tabledrivenapproach and the source initiated on-demandapproach.

  3. Satellite-Friendly Protocols and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, O.; Schmidt, M.; Ebert, J.; Schlemmer, H.; Kastner, S.; Riedler, W.

    2002-01-01

    We are currently observing a development unprecedented with other services, the enormous growth of the Internet. Video, voice and data applications can be supported via this network in high quality. Multi-media applications require high bandwidth which may not be available in many areas. When making proper use of the broadcast feature of a communications satellite, the performance of the satellite-based system can compare favourably to terrestrial solutions. Internet applications are in many cases highly asymmetric, making them very well suited to applications using small and inexpensive terminals. Data from one source may be used simultaneously by a large number of users. The Internet protocol suite has become the de-facto standard. But this protocol family in its original form has not been designed to support guaranteed quality of service, a prerequisite for real-time, high quality traffic. The Internet Protocol has to be adapted for the satellite environment, because long roundtrip delays and the error behaviour of the channel could make it inefficient over a GEO satellite. Another requirement is to utilise the satellite bandwidth as efficiently as possible. This can be achieved by adapting the access system to the nature of IP frames, which are variable in length. In the framework of ESA's ARTES project a novel satellite multimedia system was developed which utilises Multi-Frequency TDMA in a meshed network topology. The system supports Quality of Service (QoS) by reserving capacity with different QoS requirements. The system is centrally controlled by a master station with the implementation of a demand assignment (DAMA) system. A lean internal signalling system has been adopted. Network management is based on the SNMP protocol and industry-standard network management platforms, making interfaces to standard accounting and billing systems easy. Modern communication systems will have to be compliant to different standards in a very flexible manner. The

  4. Post surgical management protocol for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The objectives of a management protocol for thyroid carcinoma are to increase five and 10 year survival rate and to give the patients a long uncomplicated life. Certain prognostic factors determine the outcome of the disease. These factors generally help in selection of high risk group that require more aggressive treatment and follow up from the low risk group that are managed in a more conservative way. The different factors that determine prognosis are: the age of the patient, gender, tumour size, presence of extra thyroid extension, distant metastasis, histologic grading of the tumor, tumor staging, family history and oncogenicity, time of treatment after initial diagnosis etc. (Author)

  5. 2014 Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Engebrecht-Metzger, C.; Horowitz, S.; Hendron, R.

    2014-03-01

    As BA has grown to include a large and diverse cross-section of the home building and retrofit industries, it has become more important to develop accurate, consistent analysis techniques to measure progress towards the program's goals. The House Simulation Protocol (HSP) document provides guidance to program partners and managers so they can compare energy savings for new construction and retrofit projects. The HSP provides the program with analysis methods that are proven to be effective and reliable in investigating the energy use of advanced energy systems and of entire houses.

  6. Infectious Bronchitis Vaccination Protocols for Laying Hens

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sulaiman; Roberts, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    A research was conducted to investigate the effects of vaccination protocols for Infectious Bronchitis (IB) on egg production, egg quality, and IB antibody titres of laying hens. Different initial vaccination (Control, VicS eye, VicS spray, VicS water, A3 eye, A3 spray, and A3 water) for IB were administered to day-old Isa Brown hens. Half the hens were revaccinated regularly during lay whereas the other hens were not vaccinated. Results showed that initial vaccination treatment had signific...

  7. A Safe Protocol for Amalgam Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana G. Colson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's environment has different impacts on our body than previous generations. Heavy metals are a growing concern in medicine. Doctors and individuals request the removal of their amalgam (silver mercury restorations due to the high mercury content. A safe protocol to replace the silver mercury filling will ensure that there is minimal if any absorption of materials while being removed. Strong alternative white composite and lab-processed materials are available today to create a healthy and functioning mouth. Preparation of the patient prior to the procedure and after treatment is vital to establish the excretion of the mercury from the body.

  8. Mac protocols for wireless sensor network (wsn): a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data communication between nodes is carried out under Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol which is defined at data link layer. The MAC protocols are responsible to communicate and coordinate between nodes according to the defined standards in WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks). The design of a MAC protocol should also address the issues of energy efficiency and transmission efficiency. There are number of MAC protocols that exist in the literature proposed for WSN. In this paper, nine MAC protocols which includes S-MAC, T-MAC, Wise-MAC, Mu-MAC, Z-MAC, A-MAC, D-MAC, B-MAC and B-MAC+ for WSN have been explored, studied and analyzed. These nine protocols are classified in contention based and hybrid (combination of contention and schedule based) MAC protocols. The goal of this comparative study is to provide a basis for MAC protocols and to highlight different mechanisms used with respect to parameters for the evaluation of energy and transmission efficiency in WSN. This study also aims to give reader a better understanding of the concepts, processes and flow of information used in these MAC protocols for WSN. A comparison with respect to energy reservation scheme, idle listening avoidance, latency, fairness, data synchronization, and throughput maximization has been presented. It was analyzed that contention based MAC protocols are less energy efficient as compared to hybrid MAC protocols. From the analysis of contention based MAC protocols in term of energy consumption, it was being observed that protocols based on preamble sampling consume lesser energy than protocols based on static or dynamic sleep schedule. (author)

  9. Broadband dispersion compensating fiber using index-guiding photonic crystal fiber with defected core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Wu; Dexiu Huang; Hairong Liu; Weijun Tong

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel broadband dispersion compensating photonic crystal fiber withdefected core in this paper. The small central defect of air hole can flexibly control the chromatic dispersion properties of this kind of photonic crystal fiber. This kind of fiber has broadband large negative chromatic dispersion, and range of 1500 - 1625 nm. The calculated chromatic dispersion curve is well matched to the measured chromatic dispersion coefficient in the range of 1500 - 1625 nm. The proposed photonic crystal fiber can be used to design the dispersion compensating fiber in the desired wavelength range by adjusting its structural parameters.

  10. SECURING VIRTUAL IMAGES USING BLIND AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAVIKIRAN PEELUKHANA,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The cloud virtualization technology improves the economy of scale for data centers through server consolidation, application consolidation and resources consolidation. Virtualization allows the provider to move Virtual Images from more congested host to less-congested hosts, as required. Enterprises also get improved server reliability, which in turn increases application performance. Despite these benefits, it includes major security challenges with the portability of Virtual Images between different cloud providers.The security and integrity of Virtual images is the foundation for the overall security of the cloud. Many of the Virtual images are intended to be shared by diverse and unrelated users. Unfortunately, existing approaches to cloud security built by cloud practitioners fall short when dealing with Virtual images. Secure transmission of virtual Images can bepossible by providing authentication using Blind Authentication protocol (BAP. The proposed approach authenticates the allocation of virtual images using Blind authentication protocol. It provides provable protection against replay and client side attacks even if the keys of the user are compromised. The encryption also provides template protection, revocability and alleviates the concerns on privacy in widespread use of biometrics. Carrying out the authentication in the encrypted domain is a secure process, while the encryption key acts as an additional layer of security.

  11. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol. Other ASD devices, such as magnetic drive, eddy current drives, variable belt sheave drives, or direct current motor variable voltage drives, are also not addressed. The VFD is by far the most common type of ASD hardware. With VFD speed control on a centrifugal fan or pump motor, energy use follows the affinity laws, which state that the motor electricity demand is a cubic relationship to speed under ideal conditions. Therefore, if the motor runs at 75% speed, the motor demand will ideally be reduced to 42% of full load power; however, with other losses it is about 49% of full load power.

  12. Protocol for cardiac assessment of recreational athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinea, Ana M; Lollett, Carlos; Herrera, Hector; Passariello, Gianfranco; Wong, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the development of a database on physical fitness is presented. As initial population to fill this database, people who practice recreational sports at the Universidad Simon Bolivar (USB) were chosen. The goal was studying individual physical fitness in order to structure exercise routines that gives certain benefits without risking the individual health, promoting a less sedentary way of life. Before the study, a low-cost noninvasive protocol was designed to determine the level of physical fitness. The methodology consisted of four steps: a) A review of existing protocols to propose a set of physical fitness (International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)), cardiovascular (heart rate variability, heart rate recovery time and arterial blood pressure), anthropomorphic, aerobic (maximum oxygen consumption) and mood state (Profile of Mood State (POMS)) measurements, which allow sketching a complete profile on the sportsman physical fitness. b) Instrumental data collection. c) Electrocardiographic signal processing. d) Data post-processing using multivariate analysis. The database was composed of 26 subject from USB. Ten subjects were soccer players, ten were mountain climbers and six were sedentary people. Results showed that the heart rate recover time after 2-3 min, IPAQ and maximum oxygen consumption have higher weights for classifying individuals according to their habitual physical activity. Heart rate variability, as well as, POMS did not contribute greatly for discriminating recreational sport from sedentary persons. PMID:23366343

  13. Toward a Standard Protocol for Micelle Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michael A; Swope, William C; Jordan, Kirk E; Warren, Patrick B; Noro, Massimo G; Bray, David J; Anderson, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present protocols for simulating micelles using dissipative particle dynamics (and in principle molecular dynamics) that we expect to be appropriate for computing micelle properties for a wide range of surfactant molecules. The protocols address challenges in equilibrating and sampling, specifically when kinetics can be very different with changes in surfactant concentration, and with minor changes in molecular size and structure, even using the same force field parameters. We demonstrate that detection of equilibrium can be automated and is robust, for the molecules in this study and others we have considered. In order to quantify the degree of sampling obtained during simulations, metrics to assess the degree of molecular exchange among micellar material are presented, and the use of correlation times are prescribed to assess sampling and for statistical uncertainty estimates on the relevant simulation observables. We show that the computational challenges facing the measurement of the critical micelle concentration (CMC) are somewhat different for high and low CMC materials. While a specific choice is not recommended here, we demonstrate that various methods give values that are consistent in terms of trends, even if not numerically equivalent. PMID:27096611

  14. Kyoto protocol: at last the agreement has been reached; Protocole de Kyoto: un accord enfin conclu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    After more than 3 years of negotiations, 180 countries agreed at Bonn on the application of the Kyoto protocol to fight the climatic warming. The main aspects of this agreement are discussed: the carbon wells, the tools of the pollution control for the developed countries and the financial help to the developing countries. (A.L.B.)

  15. OIL SPILL DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS PROTOCOL. II: PERFORMANCE OF THE REVISED PROTOCOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocol for testing the effectiveness of dispersants for use in treating oil spills on the open water, the swirling flask test (SFT), has been found to give widely varying results in the hands of different testing laborator...

  16. Effects of penehyclidine as preanesthetic medication on hemodynamics and bispectral index in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery%麻醉前应用戊乙奎醚对冠脉搭桥术患者血流动力学和脑电双频指数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方波; 马虹

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察冠脉搭桥术麻醉前应用戊乙奎醚对麻醉诱导前后患者血流动力学和脑电双频指数(BIS)的影响.方法:择期全麻下行冠脉搭桥术患者40例,随机分为2组,每组20例.戊乙奎醚组麻醉诱导前肌内注射(肌注)戊乙奎醚0.01 mg·kg(-1),东莨菪碱组肌注东莨菪碱0.006 mg·kg(-1).观察比较2组麻醉诱导前后心率、血压、心率收缩压乘积(RPP)和BIS值.结果:东莨菪碱组用药后收缩压和RPP无明显变化,用药后20 min患者心率有所上升,用药后10、20 min BIS值有所下降,但高于戊乙奎醚组(P<0.05).戊乙奎醚组用药后10、20 min,患者心率、血压、RPP和BIS值均降低(P<0.05).气管插管前后戊乙奎醚组心率、收缩压、RPP和BIS值多低于东莨菪碱组.2组均未见明显不良反应.结论:应用戊乙奎醚作为冠脉搭桥术前用药,可降低心肌耗氧量,有利于患者血流动力学平稳和镇静.%AIM To evaluate the effects of penehyclidine as a preanesthetic medication on hemodynamics and bispectral index (BIS) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. METHODS A total of 40 patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting under general anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups (n = 20 for each group) , and were intramuscularly injected with penehyclidine 0.01 mg-kg"1 in penehyclidine group and scopolamine 0.006 mg'kg"1 in scopolamine group respectively before general anesthesia. Heart rate ( HR) , blood pressure ( BP) and BIS were measured, and rate pressure product ( RPP) was calculated. RESULTS There were no significant changes of SBP and RPP in the scopolamine group, but HRtended to increase 20 min after administration. BIS in the scopolamine group were deceased 10 and 20 min after administration, but were higher than that in penehyclidine group (P < 0.05). The HR, BP, RPP and BIS were decreased 10 and 20 min after intramuscular injection of penehyclidine (P < 0.05). And the HR, BP, RPP and

  17. Bispectral commuting difference operators for multivariable Askey-Wilson polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Iliev, Plamen

    2008-01-01

    We construct a commutative algebra A_z, generated by d algebraically independent q-difference operators acting on variables z_1, z_2,..., z_d, which is diagonalized by the multivariable Askey-Wilson polynomials P_n(z) considered by Gasper and Rahman [6]. Iterating Sears' transformation formula, we show that the polynomials P_n(z) possess a certain duality between z and n. Analytic continuation allows us to obtain another commutative algebra A_n, generated by d algebraically independent differ...

  18. The Quantum Steganography Protocol via Quantum Noisy Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhan-Hong; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2015-08-01

    As a promising branch of quantum information hiding, Quantum steganography aims to transmit secret messages covertly in public quantum channels. But due to environment noise and decoherence, quantum states easily decay and change. Therefore, it is very meaningful to make a quantum information hiding protocol apply to quantum noisy channels. In this paper, we make the further research on a quantum steganography protocol for quantum noisy channels. The paper proved that the protocol can apply to transmit secret message covertly in quantum noisy channels, and explicity showed quantum steganography protocol. In the protocol, without publishing the cover data, legal receivers can extract the secret message with a certain probability, which make the protocol have a good secrecy. Moreover, our protocol owns the independent security, and can be used in general quantum communications. The communication, which happen in our protocol, do not need entangled states, so our protocol can be used without the limitation of entanglement resource. More importantly, the protocol apply to quantum noisy channels, and can be used widely in the future quantum communication.

  19. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research.

  20. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research.