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Sample records for bison bison bonasus

  1. Nutritive value and meat quality of domestic cattle (Bos taurus, zubron (Bos taurus × Bison bonasus and European bison (Bison bonasus meat

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    Andrzej Łozicki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to study the nutritive value and meat quality aspects of domestic cattle (Bos taurus, zubron (Bos taurus × Bison bonasus and European bison (Bison bonasus meat. The bulls and zubrons were fattened to 600–650 kg of body weight using the same feeding regimen. The European bison meat was from selective shooting of males. The meat was analysed for chemical composition, fatty acid composition, meat quality characteristics and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS value. Compared to beef, zubron and European bison meat had a lower content of crude fat, crude ash and a higher moisture content. The meat of the zubrons and European bison showed a lower content of saturated fatty acids and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to beef. The shear force of meat was highest for European bison meat and lowest for beef. Higher a* and b* colour parameters were established in European bison and zubron meat. The highest TBARS value was found in beef.

  2. Space Use and Movement Patterns in a Semi-Free-Ranging Herd of European Bison (Bison bonasus.

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    Amandine Ramos

    Full Text Available The successful reintroduction and restocking of the European Bison demands a reliable knowledge of the biology of this species. Yet little is known to date about the European bison, and empirical data remains insufficient to set up a reliable plan ensuring the reintroduction, maintenance and survival of populations in habitats that have been largely modified by human activity. Studies of the ecology, social behaviour and management of bison are therefore crucial to the conservation of this species and its cohabitation with humans. To meet these challenges, we focused on movement patterns and space use in a semi-free-ranging herd of European bison living in the Réserve Biologique des Monts-d'Azur (France. Bison spend over 80% of their time foraging and resting; foraging mainly occurs around the artificial feeding sites (i.e., hay racks or in meadows. The time of day and the presence of snow have no influence on the time budget allocated to each activity. Animals, however, spend more time at the food racks in winter. Bison also spend most of their time in small groups of individuals, confirming the occurrence of both fission-fusion dynamics and sexual segregation in this species. Bison seem to follow a Lévy walk pattern of movement, which is probably related to the geographical distribution and size of food patches in the reserve. The conclusions of this study provide a better understanding of the sociality, life habits and habitat use of bison, and also describe how the provision of hay affects all these behaviours. These results could be useful in the development of tools to select the most suitable habitats for the reintroduction, management and conservation of bison populations.

  3. Influence of management and biological factors on parasitic invasions in the wild – Spread of the blood-sucking nematode Ashworthius sidemi in European bison (Bison bonasus

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    Marta Kołodziej-Sobocińska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The full course of new parasite introductions in wild animals is difficult to accurately trace. We documented and analysed the invasive blood-sucking nematode Ashworthius sidemi (Trichostrongylidae introduction and spread in European bison (Bison bonasus from the initial phase of its progression. In the Polish part of the Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF the parasite was first found in 2000. From 2002 to 2015, 165 culled bison were investigated. The prevalence and intensity of A. sidemi Schulz, 1933 infection increased over the following years, reaching 100% of investigated bison four years after introduction and a maximal median intensity of 8200 nematodes per animal in the winter of 2008/2009. Afterwards, a significant decline of median infection intensity was observed to the minimum value of 410 nematodes per animal. Between 2011 and 2014 prevalence varied from 89 to 100%. Among the factors analysed, the number of years since introduction, herd size, age and sex proved to significantly influence infection intensity. A higher infection intensity was recorded in sub-adults compared to juveniles and adults. Males had significantly lower infection intensity than females, but this was the case for adults only. The highest infection intensities were recorded in the biggest bison herds, where the winter supplementary feeding of bison is intense. Moreover, the longer the parasite was present in the host population, the more important herd size became as a factor. Our study indicates that it is not solely biological factors that determine the spread of a newly detected parasite in wildlife, but that management practices can also have a strong influence. This is especially important in endangered species under intensive human care as the management practices may pose a threat to the species.

  4. Flex & Bison

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, John

    2009-01-01

    If you need to parse or process text data in Linux or Unix, this useful book explains how to use flex and bison to solve your problems quickly. flex & bison is the long-awaited sequel to the classic O'Reilly book, lex & yacc. In the nearly two decades since the original book was published, the flex and bison utilities have proven to be more reliable and more powerful than the original Unix tools. flex & bison covers the same core functionality vital to Linux and Unix program development, along with several important new topics. You'll find revised tutorials for novices and references for ad

  5. The parasitic fauna of the European bison (Bison bonasus) (Linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. Part 1. The summarising list of parasites noted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Wita, Irena; Moskwa, Bożena; Werszko, Joanna; Bień, Justyna; Goździk, Katarzyna; Lachowicz, Jacek; Cabaj, Władysław

    2014-09-01

    During the current century, 88 species of parasites have been recorded in Bison bonasus. These are 22 species of protozoa (Trypanosoma wrublewskii, T. theileri, Giardia sp., Sarcocystis cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, S. fusiformis, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium sp., Eimeria cylindrica, E. subspherica, E. bovis, E. zuernii, E. canadensis, E. ellipsoidalis, E. alabamensis, E. bukidnonensis, E. auburnensis, E. pellita, E. brasiliensis, Babesia divergens), 4 trematodes species (Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola hepatica, Parafasciolopsis fasciolaemorpha, Paramphistomum cervi), 4 cestodes species (Taenia hydatigena larvae, Moniezia benedeni, M. expansa, Moniezia sp.), 43 nematodes species (Bunostomum trigonocephalum, B. phlebotomum, Chabertia ovina, Oesophagostomum radiatum, O. venulosum, Dictyocaulus filaria, D.viviparus, Nematodirella alcidis, Nematodirus europaeus, N. helvetianus, N. roscidus, N. filicollis, N. spathiger, Cooperia oncophora, C. pectinata, C. punctata, C. surnabada, Haemonchus contortus, Mazamastrongylus dagestanicus, Ostertagia lyrata, O. ostertagi, O. antipini, O. leptospicularis, O. kolchida, O. circumcincta, O. trifurcata, Spiculopteragia boehmi, S. mathevossiani, S. asymmetrica, Trichostrongylus axei, T. askivali, T. capricola, T. vitrinus, Ashworthius sidemi, Onchocerca lienalis, O. gutturosa, Setaria labiatopapillosa, Gongylonema pulchrum, Thelazia gulosa, T. skrjabini, T. rhodesi, Aonchotheca bilobata, Trichuris ovis), 7 mites (Demodex bisonianus, D. bovis, Demodex sp., Chorioptes bovis, Psoroptes equi, P. ovis, Sarcoptes scabiei), 4 Ixodidae ticks (Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, I. hexagonus, Dermacentor reticulatus), 1 Mallophaga species (Bisonicola sedecimdecembrii), 1 Anoplura (Haematopinus eurysternus), and 2 Hippoboscidae flies (Lipoptena cervi, Melophagus ovinus). There are few monoxenous parasites, many typical for cattle and many newly acquired from Cervidae.

  6. Papillomatosis in a European bison.

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    Literák, I; Tomita, Y; Ogawa, T; Shirasawa, H; Smíd, B; Novotny, L; Adamec, M

    2006-01-01

    Five European bison (Bison bonasus) from three European zoos were shipped to the Bukovské Vrchy Hills (Slovakia) in June 2004 and kept together in an acclimatization enclosure. The European bison were released into the wild in December 2004. At that time, papillomas were found at the medial canthus of the left eye of a 12-yr-old female bison. Cutaneous papillomatosis was confirmed histologically. Negative stain transmission electron microscopic examination revealed papillomavirus in the papillomas, and papillomavirus DNA also was detected using the polymerase chain reaction with FAP59 and FAP64 primers. The amplified 413 bp DNA sequence was identical to that of BAPV2 bovine papillomavirus. This paper is the first report of papillomatosis in European bison.

  7. Soil and vegetation under Bison bonasus grazing in the Kaluzhskie Zaseki Reserve (Central European Russia)

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    Khanina, Larisa; Bobrovsky, Maxim; Shashkov, Maxim; Ivanova, Natalia; Ivashchenko, Kristina

    2017-04-01

    Plant diversity and soil characteristics including soil macrofauna and microbial biomass were studied in two areas of the Reserve affected by grazing of semi-free-ranging European bison population during the decade. The study areas are surrounded by broad-leaved forest co-dominated by Quercus robur, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata, Ulmus glabra, Acer platanoides and A. campestre. Aiming to assess impacts of the bison population on soil and vegetation, we studied two series of conjugated biotopes: (1) a meadow with feeder, (2) a transition zone: the forest edge with damaged tree trunks, trampled soil and fragmented ground vegetation and (3) a forest without visible signs of bison activities. One biotope series was located on loamy soils and other one on sandy-loams. The following samplings of soil and vegetation were conducted in each biotope in two areas: (1) plant species list with their coverage in three vegetation layers in 5 square plots of 100 m2 was compiled; (2) earthworms were sampled in 8 monoliths of 25x25x35 cm and handy sorted to estimate earthworm diversity, number and biomass; (3) soil was also sampled from 0 to 10 cm soil depths with 4 replications to estimate soil physico-chemical characteristics and soil microbial biomass. Preliminary results showed relatively high ecological difference of the areas on loams and sandy-loams: soil on loams was richer in the main chemical elements, such as C, N, Ca and K. At that, in both areas, meadow soils were richer than forest soils in C, N, Ca, P and K. The highest values of C and N were observed in the transition zones and they were closed to values observed in the meadow soils. Total amount of exchangeable cations and Ca most strongly decreased from meadow to forest soils with the intermediate values in the transition zones. Despite the ecological differences of the areas, paired biotopes were similar to each other in structure of vegetation communities. For 10 years of grazing, forest vegetation was

  8. Post-Mortem Evaluation of Pathological Lesions in European Bison (Bison Bonasus in the Białowieża Primeval Forest Between 2008 and 2013

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    K. Krzysiak Michał

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the analysis of the findings of 234 post-mortem examinations on free-ranging and captive European bison selectively culled or having fallen between 2008 and 2013 in Białowieża Primeval Forest. Pneumonia, emphysema, nephritis, bodily traumas, and intestinal lesions were observed in 106 (45.3%, 77 (32.9%, 82 (35.0%, 68 (29.1%, and 56 (23.9% animals respectively and were the most common pathological changes. Almost half of all males (66 out of 140; 47.1% tested showed some pathological changes of prepuce and penis, described as posthitis or balanoposthitis. Infection with liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica and lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus was observed macroscopically in 114 (48.7% and 80 (32.9% bison respectively. F. hepatica prevalence was associated with the emergence of other liver changes such as hepatitis and cirrhosis (P < 0.001. Similarly, the prevalence of D. viviparus coincided with pneumonia (P = 0.001, changes in the upper respiratory tract (P = 0.04, and emphysema (P < 0.001. Hepatitis, infection with F. hepatica, and pathological lesions in the male and female reproductive tracts were associated with the animals’ age. Mechanical injuries, caused by other bison or less commonly by traffic accidents, were the most common cause of death of bison below six months of age. Most pathological changes were significantly more frequent in the selectively culled animals in comparison with the ones having fallen, which confirms the desirability of elimination as a tool to improve the health and welfare of the bison population and limit the number of reservoirs of invasive and possibly infectious diseases.

  9. Genome variability in European and American bison detected using the BovineSNP50 BeadChip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, C.; Wójcik, Jan M; Tokarska, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

     The remaining wild populations of bison have all been through severe bottlenecks. The genomic consequences of these bottlenecks present an interesting area to study. Using a very large panel of SNPs developed in Bos taurus we have carried out a genome-wide screening on the European bison (Bison...... bonasus; EB) and on two subspecies of American bison: the plains bison (B. bison bison; PB) and the wood bison (B. bison athabascae; WB). One hundred bison samples were genotyped for 52,978 SNPs along with seven breeds of domestic bovine Bos taurus. Only 2,209 of the SNPs were polymorphic in the bison...

  10. Possibilities of using the European bison (Bison bonasus) epididymal spermatozoa collected post-mortem for cryopreservation and artificial insemination: a pilot study

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    2011-01-01

    Background European bison is the largest mammal in Europe with the population of approximately 4000 individuals. However, there is no report of post-mortem spermatozoa collection and cryopreservation from this species and the aim of this study was to test if the epididymal spermatozoa collected post-mortem from European bison are suitable for cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI). Methods Epididymides were collected post-mortem from two European bison bulls at age of 8 (bull 1) and 11 year (bull 2). Epididymal sperm was harvested by making multiple incisions in caudae epididymidis, which were then rinsed with extender. The left epididymis of bull 1 was rinsed with BioXcell (IMV, France), whereas the right epididymis of bull 1 and the right and left epididymides of bull 2 were rinsed with the extender based on Tris, citric acid, glucose, egg yolk, glycerol, antibiotics and distilled water (extender II). The diluted semen was cooled to 5 degrees C, and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour. Then, properties of the frozen/thawed semen were examined with the use of computer-assisted semen analysis system, and thirty cows and nine heifers of domestic cattle were artificially inseminated. Results Motility of fresh spermatozoa collected from the right epididymis of bull 1 was 70% (spermatozoa diluted with extender II), and from the left one was 60% (spermatozoa diluted with BioXcell), whereas motility of fresh spermatozoa collected from bull 2 was 90% (spermatozoa diluted with extender II). Spermatozoa motility just after thawing were 11 and 13% in bull 1, respectively for spermatozoa collected from the left and right epididymis and 48% in bull 2. As a result of AI of domestic cows and heifers with the frozen/thawed European bison spermatozoa, two pregnancies were obtained in heifers. One pregnancy finished with a premature labour after 253 days of pregnancy, and the second one after 264 days of pregnancy. Conclusions This is the first report showing pregnancy in

  11. Hepatic lipidosis in pregnant captive American bison (Bison bison).

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    Palmer, Mitchell V; Olsen, Steve C

    2002-11-01

    Hepatic lipidosis, a hallmark lesion of lipid mobilization disorders in ruminants, was noted in four 3-year-old, pregnant bison (Bison bison) after periods of anorexia that progressed to recumbency and death. The affected bison were part of a herd at the National Animal Disease Center (NADC) that was used for brucellosis vaccine research. Microscopically, the liver contained swollen hepatocytes with numerous, variably sized, round, smoothly contoured vacuoles that displaced cytoplasmic structures. Hepatocytes in all zones of the lobule were affected equally. Hypoglycemia, decreased total carbon dioxide, elevated gamma-glutamyltransferase, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and increased nonesterified fatty acid levels were noted. As in the case of cattle, altered nutritional demands of late gestation combined with management factors such as obesity, nutrition, stress, and concomitant disease may be critical in the pathophysiology of lipid mobilization disorders in bison. Additionally, stressors unique to this research herd likely contributed to fatal hepatic lipidosis.

  12. Seasonal Shifts in Diet and Gut Microbiota of the American Bison (Bison bison.

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    Gaddy T Bergmann

    Full Text Available North American bison (Bison bison are becoming increasingly important to both grassland management and commercial ranching. However, a lack of quantitative data on their diet constrains conservation efforts and the ability to predict bison effects on grasslands. In particular, we know little about the seasonality of the bison diet, the degree to which bison supplement their diet with eudicots, and how changes in diet influence gut microbial communities, all of which play important roles in ungulate performance. To address these knowledge gaps, we quantified seasonal patterns in bison diet and gut microbial community composition for a bison herd in Kansas using DNA sequencing-based analyses of both chloroplast and microbial DNA contained in fecal matter. Across the 11 sampling dates that spanned 166 days, we found that diet shifted continuously over the growing season, allowing bison to take advantage of the seasonal availability of high-protein plant species. Bison consumed more woody shrubs in spring and fall than in summer, when forb and grass intake predominated. In examining gut microbiota, the bacterial phylum Tenericutes shifted significantly in relative abundance over the growing season. This work suggests that North American bison can continuously adjust their diet with a high reliance on non-grasses throughout the year. In addition, we find evidence for seasonal patterns in gut community composition that are likely driven by the observed dietary changes.

  13. Dances with anthrax: wolves (Canis lupus) kill anthrax bacteremic plains bison (Bison bison bison) in southwestern Montana.

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    Blackburn, Jason K; Asher, Valpa; Stokke, Stephen; Hunter, David L; Alexander, Kathleen A

    2014-04-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the cause of anthrax, was recovered from two plains bison (Bison bison bison) cows killed by wolves (Canis lupus) in Montana, USA, without associated wolf mortality in July 2010. This bison herd experienced an epizootic in summer 2008, killing ∼ 8% of the herd, the first documented in the region in several decades. No wolf deaths were associated with the 2008 event. Surveillance has continued since 2008, with research, ranch, and wildlife personnel diligent during summer. As part of this, we tested wolf-killed bison and elk (Cervus elaphus) for anthrax during the 2010 summer using lateral flow immunochromatographic assays (LFIA). Two bison cows were positive for protective antigen, confirming active bacteremia. The LFIA results were confirmed with traditional bacteriology recovering viable B. anthracis. No wolf fatalities were associated with the bison deaths, despite consuming the meat. Low-level anthrax occurrence in large, rough terrain landscapes remains difficult to detect, particularly if mortality in the herbivore host is not a consequence of infection. In these instances, surveillance of predators with large home ranges may provide a more sensitive indicator of anthrax emergence or reemergence in such systems. Though speculative, it is also possible that anthrax infection in the bison increased predation risk. These results also suggest B. anthracis remains a threat to wildlife and associated livestock in southwestern Montana.

  14. Yersinia enterocolitica: an unlikely cause of positive brucellosis tests in greater yellowstone ecosystem bison (Bison bison).

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    See, Wade; Edwards, William H; Dauwalter, Stacey; Almendra, Claudia; Kardos, Martin D; Lowell, Jennifer L; Wallen, Rick; Cain, Steven L; Holben, William E; Luikart, Gordon

    2012-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 has identical O-antigens to those of Brucella abortus and has apparently caused false-positive reactions in numerous brucellosis serologic tests in elk (Cervus canadensis) from southwest Montana. We investigated whether a similar phenomenon was occurring in brucellosis antibody-positive bison (Bison bison) using Y. enterocolitica culturing techniques and multiplex PCR of four diagnostic loci. Feces from 53 Yellowstone bison culled from the population and 113 free-roaming bison from throughout the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) were tested. Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 was not detected in any of 53 the bison samples collected at slaughter facilities or in any of the 113 fecal samples from free-ranging bison. One other Y. enterocolitica serotype was isolated; however, it is not known to cause cross-reaction on B. abortus serologic assays because it lacks the perosamine synthetase gene and thus the O-antigens. These findings suggest that Y. enterocolitica O:9 cross-reactivity with B. abortus antigens is unlikely to have been a cause of false-positive serology tests in GYE bison and that Y. enterocolitica prevalence was low in bison in the GYE during this study.

  15. Abortion associated with Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) in a bison (Bison bison) herd

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    Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) has recently emerged as a significant health threat in bison and is an increasing concern and source of economic loss for producers. Clinical manifestations of infection documented in bison include pneumonia, respiratory distress and polyarthritis. The current study des...

  16. Systemic mycoplasmosis with dystocia and abortion in North American bison (Bison bison) herd

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    Mycoplasma bovis has recently emerged as a significant health threat in bison and is an increasing concern and source of economic loss for producers. Clinical manifestations of infection documented in bison include pneumonia, respiratory distress and polyarthritis. The current study describes the ...

  17. Bison conservation initiative: Bison conservation genetics workshop: report and recommendations

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    Gogan, Peter J.; Dratch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    One of the first outcomes of the Department of the Interior (DOI) Bison Conservation Initiative was the Bison Conservation Genetics Workshop held in Nebraska in September 2008. The workshop brought together scientists from government agencies and non-governmental organizations with professional population geneticists to develop guidance for the genetic management of the federal bison herds. The scientists agreed on the basic tenets of genetic management for the DOI herds and discussed different approaches to meeting those goals. First, the 12 DOI herds are an irreplaceable resource for the long-term conservation of North American plains bison. Most of the herds show low levels of cattle introgression dating from the time when they were saved from extirpation; those herds should not be mixed without careful consideration as to their origin. Herds that show no evidence of cattle ancestry by the current molecular methods are the highest priority for protection from genetic mixing with any other bison herds. Second, despite the fact that most of the herds now managed by the U.S. government were founded with very few bison and have been maintained for many generations at relatively low population sizes, they do not show obvious effects of inbreeding. They have retained significant amounts of genetic variation by the standard measures, heterozygosity and allelic diversity. This may be explained in part by the fact that most of these herds are not remnants of a single population. Third, to preserve genetic variation in federal bison herds over decades and centuries, herds should be managed at a population or metapopulation level of 1,000 animals or more, with a sex ratio that enables competition between breeding bulls. The parks and refuges that currently have bison herds, with the exception of Yellowstone National Park, do not have enough land to support a population of this size. In the short term, it will be important to develop satellite herds to attain population

  18. Effectiveness of microsatellite and SNP markers for parentage and identity analysis in species with low genetic diversity: the case of European bison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torskarska, M; Marshall, T; Kowalczyk, R

    2009-01-01

    The European bison (Bison bonasus) has recovered successfully after a severe bottleneck about 90 years ago. Pedigree analysis indicates that over 80% of the genes in the contemporary population descend from just 2 founder individuals and the pedigree-based inbreeding coefficient averages almost 0...

  19. Review of Bison Usage in VERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Russell [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pawlowski, Roger P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clarno, Kevin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stimpson, Shane G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Bison is being used in VERA in a variety of ways; this milestone will document an independent review of the current usage of Bison and provide guidance that will improve the accuracy, performance, and consistency in the ways that Bison is used. This task will entail running a suite of small, single and multi-cycle problems with VERA-CS, followed by Bison, and Tiamat (inline) and evaluating the usage. It will also entail performing several detailed ramp to full power solutions to compare the one-way coupled solver with the fully-coupled Tiamat. This will include at least one iteration with the PHI team to incorporate some of the feedback and improve the usage. This work will also be completed in conjunction with an FMC task to evaluate the ability of Bison to model load-follow in a PWR

  20. Rabies in Two Bison from Colorado

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    Jack C. Rhyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two adult female bison, housed in an outdoor research facility and observed daily, died suddenly three days apart. Minimal coordination and behavioral changes were observed in one animal the evening before being found in a moribund state. Malignant catarrhal fever was suspected in both bison due to a recent confirmed MCF case with similar course. The cause of death was not apparent from necropsy, but brains of both animals were strongly positive for rabies virus antigen by fluorescent antibody and/or immunohistochemical tests. Minimal to mild encephalitis with Negri bodies was observed on histopathology. The bison were located in an area that had not been endemic for skunk rabies; however, a case of rabies in a skunk had been discovered 1.6 km north of the bison paddock two months prior to the bison cases.

  1. Pregnancy rates in central Yellowstone bison

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    Gogan, Peter J.; Russell, Robin E.; Olexa, Edward M.; Podruzny, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Plains bison (Bison b. bison) centered on Yellowstone National Park are chronically infected with brucellosis (Brucella abortus) and culled along the park boundaries to reduce the probability of disease transmission to domestic livestock. We evaluated the relationship between pregnancy rates and age, dressed carcass weight, and serological status for brucellosis among bison culled from the central Yellowstone subpopulation during the winters of 1996–1997, 2001–2002, and 2002–2003. A model with only dressed carcass weight was the best predictor of pregnancy status for all ages with the odds of pregnancy increasing by 1.03 (95% CI = 1.02–1.04) for every 1-kg increase in weight. We found no effect of age or the serological status for brucellosis on pregnancy rates across age classes; however, we did find a positive association between age and pregnancy rates for bison ≥2 years old. Bison ≥2 years old had an overall pregnancy rate of 65% with markedly different rates in alternate ages for animals between 3 and 7 years old. Pregnancy rates were 0.50 (95% CI = 0.31–0.69) for brucellosis positive and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.34–0.78) for brucellosis negative 2- and 3-year-olds and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.60–0.85) in brucellosis positive and 0.69 (95% CI = 0.49–0.85) in brucellosis negative bison ≥4 years old. Only 1 of 21 bison <2 years old was pregnant. Our findings are important to accurately predict the effects of brucellosis on Yellowstone bison population dynamics. We review our results relative to other studies of Yellowstone bison that concluded serological status for brucellosis influences pregnancy rates.

  2. Early cave art and ancient DNA record the origin of European bison

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    Soubrier, Julien; Gower, Graham; Chen, Kefei; Richards, Stephen M.; Llamas, Bastien; Mitchell, Kieren J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Kosintsev, Pavel; Lee, Michael S. Y.; Baryshnikov, Gennady; Bollongino, Ruth; Bover, Pere; Burger, Joachim; Chivall, David; Crégut-Bonnoure, Evelyne; Decker, Jared E.; Doronichev, Vladimir B.; Douka, Katerina; Fordham, Damien A.; Fontana, Federica; Fritz, Carole; Glimmerveen, Jan; Golovanova, Liubov V.; Groves, Colin; Guerreschi, Antonio; Haak, Wolfgang; Higham, Tom; Hofman-Kamińska, Emilia; Immel, Alexander; Julien, Marie-Anne; Krause, Johannes; Krotova, Oleksandra; Langbein, Frauke; Larson, Greger; Rohrlach, Adam; Scheu, Amelie; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Tokarska, Małgorzata; Tosello, Gilles; van der Plicht, Johannes; van Loenen, Ayla; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Wooley, Oliver; Orlando, Ludovic; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Shapiro, Beth; Cooper, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The two living species of bison (European and American) are among the few terrestrial megafauna to have survived the late Pleistocene extinctions. Despite the extensive bovid fossil record in Eurasia, the evolutionary history of the European bison (or wisent, Bison bonasus) before the Holocene (modern cattle (aurochs, Bos primigenius) before 120 kya, and contains up to 10% aurochs genomic ancestry. Although undetected within the fossil record, ancestors of the wisent have alternated ecological dominance with steppe bison in association with major environmental shifts since at least 55 kya. Early cave artists recorded distinct morphological forms consistent with these replacement events, around the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼21–18 kya). PMID:27754477

  3. European bison as a refugee species? Evidence from isotopic data on Early Holocene bison and other large herbivores in northern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Bocherens

    Full Text Available According to the refugee species concept, increasing replacement of open steppe by forest cover after the last glacial period and human pressure had together forced European bison (Bison bonasus--the largest extant terrestrial mammal of Europe--into forests as a refuge habitat. The consequent decreased fitness and population density led to the gradual extinction of the species. Understanding the pre-refugee ecology of the species may help its conservation management and ensure its long time survival. In view of this, we investigated the abundance of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N in radiocarbon dated skeletal remains of European bison and other large herbivores--aurochs (Bos primigenius, moose (Alces alces, and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus--from the Early Holocene of northern Europe to reconstruct their dietary habits and pattern of habitat use in conditions of low human influence. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions in collagen of the ungulate species in northern central Europe during the Early Holocene showed significant differences in the habitat use and the diet of these herbivores. The values of the δ13C and δ15N isotopes reflected the use of open habitats by bison, with their diet intermediate between that of aurochs (grazer and of moose (browser. Our results show that, despite the partial overlap in carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of some species, Early Holocene large ungulates avoided competition by selection of different habitats or different food sources within similar environments. Although Early Holocene bison and Late Pleistocene steppe bison utilized open habitats, their diets were significantly different, as reflected by their δ15N values. Additional isotopic analyses show that modern populations of European bison utilize much more forested habitats than Early Holocene bison, which supports the refugee status of the species.

  4. Fibroblasts express OvHV-2 capsid protein in vasculitis lesions of American bison (Bison bison) with experimental sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) caused by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2), a '-herpesvirus, is an often fatal disease characterized by lymphoproliferation, vasculitis, and mucosal ulceration in American bison (Bison bison), cattle (Bos taurus), and other clinically susceptible speci...

  5. Genetic Analysis of the Henry Mountains Bison Herd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin H Ranglack

    Full Text Available Wild American plains bison (Bison bison populations virtually disappeared in the late 1800s, with some remnant animals retained in what would become Yellowstone National Park and on private ranches. Some of these private bison were intentionally crossbred with cattle for commercial purposes. This forced hybridization resulted in both mitochondrial and nuclear introgression of cattle genes into some of the extant bison genome. As the private populations grew, excess animals, along with their history of cattle genetics, provided founders for newly established public bison populations. Of the US public bison herds, only those in Yellowstone and Wind Cave National Parks (YNP and WCNP appear to be free of detectable levels of cattle introgression. However, a small free-ranging population (~350 animals exists on public land, along with domestic cattle, in the Henry Mountains (HM of southern Utah. This isolated bison herd originated from a founder group translocated from YNP in the 1940s. Using genetic samples from 129 individuals, we examined the genetic status of the HM population and found no evidence of mitochondrial or nuclear introgression of cattle genes. This new information confirms it is highly unlikely for free-living bison to crossbreed with cattle, and this disease-free HM bison herd is valuable for the long-term conservation of the species. This bison herd is a subpopulation of the YNP/WCNP/HM metapopulation, within which it can contribute significantly to national efforts to restore the American plains bison to more of its native range.

  6. 9 CFR 78.22 - Brucellosis reactor bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor bison. 78.22... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.22 Brucellosis reactor bison. (a...

  7. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed bison...

  8. Anti-Brucella Antibodies in Moose (Alces alces gigas), Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), and Plains Bison (Bison bison bison) in Alaska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg Helena; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Godfroid, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We used an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) and the rose bengal test (RBT) to test for anti-Brucella antibodies in moose (Alces alces gigas), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), and plains bison (Bison bison bison) from various game management units (GMUs) in Alaska, US, sampled from 1982 to 2010. A portion of the sera had previously been tested with the standard plate test (SPT), the buffered Brucella antigen (BBA) card test, and the card test (CARD). No antibody-positive plains bison were identified. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected in moose (iELISA, n=4/87; RBT, n=4/87; SPT, n=4/5; BBA, n=4/4) from GMU 23 captured in 1992, 1993, and 1995 and in muskoxen (iELISA, n=4/52; RBT, n=4/52; CARD, n=4/35) from GMUs 26A and 26B captured in 2004, 2006, and 2007. A negative effect of infection on the health of individuals of these species is probable. The presence of antibody-positive animals from 1992 to 2007 suggests presence of brucellae over time. The antibody-positive animals were found in northern Alaska, an area with a historically higher prevalence of Brucella-positive caribou, and a spillover of Brucella suis biovar 4 from caribou may have occurred. Brucella suis biovar 4 causes human brucellosis, and transmission from consumption of moose and muskoxen is possible.

  9. BISON Software V&V Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Williamson; J. D. Hales; D. M. Perez; S. R. Novascone; G. Pastore

    2014-07-01

    The primary vision for the BISON development team is to deliver a nuclear fuel performance simulation tool that is used to provide a researcher or fuel designer with best estimate calculations of the highly coupled and nonlinear phenomena that govern nuclear fuel behavior. Accurately simulating nuclear fuel behavior is a challenging computational undertaking and verification and validation (V&V) play an important role in realizing this vision. The purpose of this V&V plan is to express the BISON team’s definition of the terms verification and validation, document what we have done regarding V&V, and outline what we plan to do.

  10. Mitochondrial Genome Analysis Reveals Historical Lineages in Yellowstone Bison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Forgacs

    Full Text Available Yellowstone National Park is home to one of the only plains bison populations that have continuously existed on their present landscape since prehistoric times without evidence of domestic cattle introgression. Previous studies characterized the relatively high levels of nuclear genetic diversity in these bison, but little is known about their mitochondrial haplotype diversity. This study assessed mitochondrial genomes from 25 randomly selected Yellowstone bison and found 10 different mitochondrial haplotypes with a haplotype diversity of 0.78 (± 0.06. Spatial analysis of these mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplotypes did not detect geographic population subdivision (FST = -0.06, p = 0.76. However, we identified two independent and historically important lineages in Yellowstone bison by combining data from 65 bison (defined by 120 polymorphic sites from across North America representing a total of 30 different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from one of the Yellowstone lineages represent descendants of the 22 indigenous bison remaining in central Yellowstone in 1902. The other mitochondrial DNA lineage represents descendants of the 18 females introduced from northern Montana in 1902 to supplement the indigenous bison population and develop a new breeding herd in the northern region of the park. Comparing modern and historical mitochondrial DNA diversity in Yellowstone bison helps uncover a historical context of park restoration efforts during the early 1900s, provides evidence against a hypothesized mitochondrial disease in bison, and reveals the signature of recent hybridization between American plains bison (Bison bison bison and Canadian wood bison (B. b. athabascae. Our study demonstrates how mitochondrial DNA can be applied to delineate the history of wildlife species and inform future conservation actions.

  11. Pathology of brucellosis in bison from Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyan, Jack C.; Gidlewski, T.; Roffe, T.J.; Aune, K.; Philo, L.M.; Ewalt, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Between February 1995 and June 1999, specimens from seven aborted bison (Bison bison) fetuses or stillborn calves and their placentas, two additional placentas, three dead neonates, one 2-wk-old calf, and 35 juvenile and adult female bison from Yellowstone National Park (USA) were submitted for bacteriologic and histopathologic examination. One adult animal with a retained placenta had recently aborted. Serum samples from the 35 juvenile and adult bison were tested for Brucella spp. antibodies. Twenty-six bison, including the cow with the retained placenta, were seropositive, one was suspect, and eight were seronegative. Brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from three aborted fetuses and associated placentas, an additional placenta, the 2-wk-old calf, and 11 of the seropositive female bison including the animal that had recently aborted. Brucella abortus biovar 2 was isolated from one additional seropositive adult female bison. Brucella abortus was recovered from numerous tissue sites from the aborted fetuses, placentas and 2-wk-old calf. In the juvenile and adult bison, the organism was more frequently isolated from supramammary (83%), retropharyngeal (67%), and iliac (58%) lymph nodes than from other tissues cultured. Cultures from the seronegative and suspect bison were negative for B. abortus. Lesions in the B. abortus-infected, aborted placentas and fetuses consisted of necropurulent placentitis and mild bronchointerstitial pneumonia. The infected 2-wk-old calf had bronchointerstitial pneumonia, focal splenic infarction, and purulent nephritis. The recently-aborting bison cow had purulent endometritis and necropurulent placentitis. Immunohistochemical staining of tissues from the culture-positive aborted fetuses, placentas, 2-wk-old calf, and recently-aborting cow disclosed large numbers of B. abortus in placental trophoblasts and exudate, and fetal and calf lung. A similar study with the same tissue collection and culture protocol was done using six

  12. Romance without responsibilities: the use of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida to manage free-ranging bison (Bison bison) on Catalina Island, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Calvin L; King, Julie L; Kirkpatrick, Jay F

    2013-12-01

    Prior to 2010, the introduced population of American bison (Bison bison) on Santa Catalina Island, California, was managed through the shipment of surplus bison to private ranches, Native American reservations, and livestock auctions on the mainland. In response to escalating costs, transport-induced stress to the animals, and ecologic impacts associated with high bison numbers on-island between shipments, the use of the immunocontraceptive vaccine porcine zona pellucida (PZP) as a fertility control option for managing the population was investigated. Between 2009 and 2012, a total of 64 bison cows (> or =1 yr old) received primer inoculations of 100 microg PZP emulsified with 0.5 ml Freund's modified adjuvant (FMA) delivered through a combination of intramuscular injections by hand (50 bison cows) during roundups and via field darting (14 bison cows). Pre-rut booster inoculations of 100 microg PZP emulsified with 0.5 ml Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) were administered exclusively via field darting in 2010, 2011, and 2012 to 45, 48, and 61 bison cows (> or =1 yr old), respectively. During the present study, 38 adult cows (marked and unmarked) received one or more PZP inoculations during their first, second, or third trimesters of pregnancy, and of these individuals, 35 successfully produced calves. Low pregnancy values detected in the remaining three cows have been attributed to residual progesterone associated with unsuccessful fertilization. The 2010 pretreatment calving rate (calves born per cow) determined via direct observation was 67.4% (29 calves from 43 cows). Through the use of PZP, the calving rate was reduced to 10.4% by 2011 and to 3.3% by 2012. Considering the annual mortality rate of 2-5% documented during this study, the results demonstrate the potential of PZP use as an effective nonlethal tool for controlling population growth in free-ranging bison.

  13. Bison and the oil sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauls, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    Syncrude's Mildred Lake oil sands development project is located within the central boreal mixed wood forest in an area supporting traditional land uses, including trapping and harvesting of wildlife and plant materials by Fort McKay First Nation residents, in a community within 10 km of the Syncrude development. Reclamation requirements and standards in Alberta specify that the reclamation process must restore a landscape capability equivalent to, or better than that existing before disturbance. Syncrude is committed to complying with all provincial requirements and guidelines in all aspects of its business, including land reclamation. A five year research program has been established to determine the feasibility of reclaiming a portion of the landscape to support wood bison and bison subspecies once indigenous to this area. The current project may be expanded as a pilot commercial ranching venture to explore its commercial viability as a business venture by the Fort McKay First nations

  14. In vitro-production of embryos using immature oocytes collected transvaginally from superstimulated wood bison (Bison bison athabascae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Miriam P; Palomino, J Manuel; Anzar, Muhammad; Mapletoft, Reuben J; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Adams, Gregg P

    2017-04-01

    Two experiments were done to test the hypothesis that morphologic characteristics of wood bison cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) are reflective of the ability of the oocyte to develop to an advanced embryonic stage after in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture, and to determine the effect of prolonging the interval from the end of superstimulation treatment to oocyte collection (FSH starvation period). Experiments were done during the anovulatory season. In Experiment 1, ovarian superstimulation was induced in 10 bison with two doses of FSH given at 48 h intervals beginning at the time of follicular wave emergence. COC were collected 3 days (72 h) after the last dose of FSH by follicular aspiration and classified as compact, expanded or denuded. The COC were matured in vitro for 24 h before fertilization in vitro (Day 0). Embryo development was assessed on Days 3, 7 and 8. The blastocyst rate was 7/34, 2/10 and 0/3 in COC classified as compact, expanded and denuded, respectively; however, only compact COC resulted in embryos that reached the expanded blastocyst stage. In Experiment 2, COC were collected at either 3 or 4 days (72 or 96 h) after the last dose of FSH (n = 16 bison/group) to determine the effect of the duration of FSH starvation on oocyte competence. The COC were classified as compact good (>3 layers of cumulus cells), compact regular (1-3 layers of cumulus cells), expanded or denuded, and then matured, fertilized and cultured in vitro. Although follicles were larger (P starvation group, there was no effect of starvation period on the distribution of COC morphology; overall, 112/194 (57.7%) were compact, 29/194 (26.3%) were expanded, 39/194 (20.1%) were denuded, and 14/194 (7.2%) were degenerated (P starvation period on embryo development. Compact good COC had the highest cleavage (88%) and blastocyst rates (54%; P < 0.05), followed by compact regular COC at 73% and 25%, respectively. Expanded and denuded COC had low cleavage (40% vs

  15. Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Researchers collect species occurrence data, records of an organism at a particular time in a particular place, as a primary or ancillary function of many biological field investigations. Presently, these data reside in numerous distributed systems and formats (including publications) and are consequently not being used to their full potential. As a step toward addressing this challenge, the Core Science Analytics and Synthesis (CSAS) program of the US Geological Survey (USGS) is developing Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON), an integrated and permanent resource for biological occurrence data from the United States. BISON will leverage the accumulated human and infrastructural resources of the long-term USGS investment in research and information management and delivery. CSAS is also the U.S. Node of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), an international, government-initiated and funded effort focused on making biodiversity data freely available for scientific research, conservation and sustainable development. CSAS, with its partners at Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), hosts a full mirror of the hundreds of millions of global records to which GBIF provides access. BISON has been initiated with the 110 million records GBIF makes available from the U.S. and is integrating millions more records from other sources each year.

  16. Effects of winter road grooming on bison in YNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornlie, Daniel D.; Garrott, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of winter recreation—specifically snowmobiling—on wildlife in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have become high-profile management issues. The road grooming needed to support oversnow travel in YNP is also being examined for its effects on bison (Bison bison) ecology. Data were collected from November 1997 through May 1998 and from December 1998 through May 1999 on the effects of road grooming on bison in Madison–Gibbon–Firehole (MGF) area of YNP Peak bison numbers occurred during late March—early April and were strongly correlated with the snow water equivalent measurements in the Hayden Valley area (1997–1998: r* = 0.62, p:0.001: 1998–1999: r2 = 0.64, P-0.001). Data from an infrared trail monitor on the Mary Mountain trail between the Hayden and Firehole valleys suggest that this trail is the sole corridor for major bison distributional shifts between these locations. Of the 28,293 observations of individual bison made during the study, 8% were traveling and 69% were foraging. These percentages were nearly identical during the period of winter road grooming (7% and 68%, respectively). During this period, 77% of bison foraging activity and 12% of bison traveling activity involved displacing snow. Most travel took place off roads (Pgrooming, with peak use in April and lowest use during the road-grooming period. Bison in the MGF area of YNF neither seek out nor avoid groomed roads. The minimal use of roads compared to off-road areas, the short distances traveled on the roads, the decreased use of roads during the over snow vehicle (OSV) season, and the increased costs of negative interactions with OSVs suggest that grooming roads during winter does not have a major influence on bison ecology.

  17. Fibroblasts express OvHV-2 capsid protein in vasculitis lesions of American bison (Bison bison) with experimental sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Danielle D; Taus, Naomi S; Schneider, David A; Cunha, Cristina W; Davis, William C; Brown, Wendy C; Li, Hong; O'Toole, Donal; Oaks, J Lindsay

    2013-10-25

    American bison (Bison bison) are particularly susceptible to developing fatal sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) caused by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2), a γ-herpesvirus in the Macavirus genus. This generally fatal disease is characterized by lymphoproliferation, vasculitis, and mucosal ulceration in American bison, domestic cattle (Bos taurus), and other clinically susceptible species which are considered non-adapted, dead-end hosts. The pathogenesis and cellular tropism of OvHV-2 infection have not been fully defined. An earlier study detected OvHV-2 open reading frame 25 (ORF25) transcripts encoding the viral major capsid protein in tissues of bison with SA-MCF, and levels of viral transcript expression positively correlated with lesion severity. To further define the cellular tropism and replication of OvHV-2 infection in vascular lesions of bison, immunofluorescence studies were performed to identify cell type(s) expressing ORF25 protein within tissues. Cytoplasmic and not nuclear ORF25 protein was demonstrated in predominantly perivascular fibroblasts in six bison with experimentally-induced SA-MCF, and there was no evidence of immunoreactivity in vascular endothelium, smooth muscle, or infiltrating leukocytes. The cytoplasmic distribution of viral major capsid protein suggests that viral replication in perivascular fibroblasts may be abortive in this dead-end host. These findings provide a novel foundation for defining the pathogenesis of vasculitis in non-adapted hosts with SA-MCF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. CD8+/perforin+/WC1- gammadelta T cells, CD8+ alphabeta T cells, infiltrate vasculitis lesions of American bison (Bison bison) with experimental sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) caused by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) is a fatal disease associated with lymphoproliferation, lymphocytic vasculitis, and mucosal ulceration in clinically susceptible species. SA-MCF is an important threat to American bison (Bison bison) due to th...

  19. An Update on NiCE Support for BISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaskey, Alex [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Billings, Jay Jay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deyton, Jordan H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wojtowicz, Anna [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation program (NEAMS) from the Department of Energy s Office of Nuclear Energy has funded the development of a modeling and simulation workflow environment to support the various codes in its nuclear energy scientific computing toolkit. This NEAMS Integrated Computational Environment (NiCE) provides extensible tools and services that enable efficient code execution, input generation, pre-processing visualizations, and post-simulation data analysis and visualization for a large portion of the NEAMS Toolkit. A strong focus for the NiCE development team throughout FY 2015 has been support for the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) and the NEAMS nuclear fuel performance modeling application built on that environment, BISON. There is a strong desire in the program to enable and facilitate the use of BISON throughout nuclear energy research and industry. A primary result of this desire is the need for strong support for BISON in NiCE. This report will detail improvements to NiCE support for BISON. We will present a new and improved interface for interacting with BISON simulations in a variety of ways: (1) improved input model generation, (2) embedded mesh and solution data visualizations, and (3) local and remote BISON simulation launch. We will also show how NiCE has been extended to provide support for BISON code development.

  20. Physiological responses of Yellowstone bison to winter nutritional deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelGiudice, Glenn D.; Singer, Francis J.; Seal, Ulysses S.; Bowser, Gillian

    1994-01-01

    Because nutrition is critically related to other aspects of bison (Bison bison) ecology, and the winter ranges inhabited by bison in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are ecologically diverse, it was important to determine if nutritional deprivation differences occurred among winter ranges. We used chemistry profiles of urine suspended in snow to compare nutritional deprivation of bison from January to April 1988 on 4 sampling areas of 3 winter ranges in YNP. Declining (P creatinine ratios in bison on all 4 sampling areas indicated progressive nutritional deprivation through late March. Concurrent increases (P ≤ 0.001) in mean urea nitrogen: creatinine ratios from late February through late march in 3 of 4 areas suggested that increased net catabolism was occurring. Diminished creatinine ratios of sodium and phosphorus reflected low dietary intake of these minerals throughout winter. Mean values and trends of urinary characteristics indicated nutritional deprivation varied among 3 winter ranges in YNP. Continued physiological monitoring of nutritional deprivation, along with detailed examination of other aspects of the bison's ecology, will provide greater insight into the role of ungulate nutrition in the dynamics of such a complex system and improve management.

  1. Fossil and genomic evidence constrains the timing of bison arrival in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Duane; Stiller, Mathias; Heintzman, Peter D.; Reyes, Alberto V.; Zazula, Grant D.; Soares, André E. R.; Meyer, Matthias; Hall, Elizabeth; Jensen, Britta J. L.; Arnold, Lee J.; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Shapiro, Beth

    2017-03-01

    The arrival of bison in North America marks one of the most successful large-mammal dispersals from Asia within the last million years, yet the timing and nature of this event remain poorly determined. Here, we used a combined paleontological and paleogenomic approach to provide a robust timeline for the entry and subsequent evolution of bison within North America. We characterized two fossil-rich localities in Canada’s Yukon and identified the oldest well-constrained bison fossil in North America, a 130,000-y-old steppe bison, Bison cf. priscus. We extracted and sequenced mitochondrial genomes from both this bison and from the remains of a recently discovered, ˜120,000-y-old giant long-horned bison, Bison latifrons, from Snowmass, Colorado. We analyzed these and 44 other bison mitogenomes with ages that span the Late Pleistocene, and identified two waves of bison dispersal into North America from Asia, the earliest of which occurred ˜195-135 thousand y ago and preceded the morphological diversification of North American bison, and the second of which occurred during the Late Pleistocene, ˜45-21 thousand y ago. This chronological arc establishes that bison first entered North America during the sea level lowstand accompanying marine isotope stage 6, rejecting earlier records of bison in North America. After their invasion, bison rapidly colonized North America during the last interglaciation, spreading from Alaska through continental North America; they have been continuously resident since then.

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of the Gap Heat Transfer Model in BISON.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Schmidt, Rodney C.; Williamson, Richard (INL); Perez, Danielle (INL)

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes the result of a NEAMS project focused on sensitivity analysis of the heat transfer model in the gap between the fuel rod and the cladding used in the BISON fuel performance code of Idaho National Laboratory. Using the gap heat transfer models in BISON, the sensitivity of the modeling parameters and the associated responses is investigated. The study results in a quantitative assessment of the role of various parameters in the analysis of gap heat transfer in nuclear fuel.

  3. Brucellosis in Yellowstone National Park bison: Quantitative serology and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, T.J.; Rhyan, Jack C.; Aune, K.; Philo, L.M.; Ewalt, D.R.; Gidlewski, T.; Hennager, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    We collected complete sets of tissues, fluids, and swabs (approx 30) from 37 Yellowstone National Park (YNP) female bison (Bison bison) killed as a result of management actions by the Montana Department of Livestock and YNP personnel. Our goal was to establish the relation between blood tests demonstrating an animal has antibody to Brucella and the potential of that animal to be infected during the second trimester of pregnancy, the time when most management actions are taken. Twenty-eight of the 37 bison were seropositive adults (27) or a seropositive calf (1). We cultured samples using macerated whole tissues plated onto 4 Brucella-selective media and incubated with added CO2 for 1 week. Specimens from 2 adult seropositive females were contaminated, thus eliminating them from our data. Twelve of the remaining 26 seropositive adult and calf female bison (46%) were culture positive for Brucella abortus from 1 or more tissues. Culture positive adult females had high serologic titers. All 11 adults measured 3+ at 1:40 for 10 of 11 (91%) animals. All culture positive female adults had either a PCFIA ???0.080 or a CF reaction ???4+ at 1:80. However 5 (36%) bison with high titers were culture negative for B. abortus. Our findings on the relation between Brucella serology and culture are similar to those reported from studies of chronically infected cattle herds.

  4. Safety of revaccination of pregnant bison with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S C; Holland, S D

    2003-10-01

    From December 1998 through February 1999, a study was conducted in a Brucella-infected bison herd to evaluate the safety of booster vaccination of adult bison (Bison bison) with 6 x 10(9) colony forming units (CFU) of Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51) that had previously been vaccinated as yearlings with 1 x 10(10) CFU of SRB51. Abortions or other adverse effects were not observed after SRB51 booster vaccination. At 10 wk after adult vaccination, pregnant and nonpregnant bison (n = 65) were randomly selected for bacteriologic sampling of targeted maternal tissues during abattoir processing. Fetal tissues were also sampled in pregnant bison. The SR351 recovered from tissue samples of eight of 48 pregnant bison and none of 17 nonpregnant bison. In three of the eight culture-positive bison, SRB51 was recovered from fetal tissues. In three additional bison, one pregnant and two nonpregnant, B. abortus biovar 1 field strain was recovered from internal iliac or supramammary lymphatic tissues. Results of this study suggest the possibility that the SRB51 vaccine can be safely used to booster vaccinate pregnant bison in a Brucella-infected bison herd. Our data also reaffirms the potential for B. abortus field strains to persist in bison until attainment of reproductive age, despite extensive use of vaccination and serologic testing.

  5. 75 FR 27579 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft... Brucellosis Remote Vaccination Program, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National... the Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Yellowstone...

  6. Bison PRNP genotyping and potential association with Brucella spp. seroprevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabury, C.M.; Halbert, N.D.; Gogan, P.J.P.; Templeton, J.W.; Derr, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    The implication that host cellular prion protein (PrPC) may function as a cell surface receptor and/or portal protein for Brucella abortus in mice prompted an evaluation of nucleotide and amino acid variation within exon 3 of the prion protein gene (PRNP) for six US bison populations. A non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (T50C), resulting in the predicted amino acid replacement M17T (Met ??? Thr), was identified in each population. To date, no variation (T50: Met) has been detected at the corresponding exon 3 nucleotide and/or amino acid position for domestic cattle. Notably, 80% (20 of 25) of the Yellowstone National Park bison possessing the C/C genotype were Brucella spp. seropositive, representing a significant (P = 0.021) association between seropositivity and the C/C genotypic class. Moreover, significant differences in the distribution of PRNP exon 3 alleles and genotypes were detected between Yellowstone National Park bison and three bison populations that were either founded from seronegative stock or previously subjected to test-and-slaughter management to eradicate brucellosis. Unlike domestic cattle, no indel polymorphisms were detected within the corresponding regions of the putative bison PRNP promoter, intron 1, octapeptide repeat region or 3???-untranslated region for any population examined. This study provides the first evidence of a potential association between nucleotide variation within PRNP exon 3 and the presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in bison, implicating PrPC in the natural resistance of bison to brucellosis infection. ?? 2005 International Society for Animal Genetics.

  7. 9 CFR 78.3 - Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS General Provisions § 78.3 Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate. Cattle and bison moving interstate, except cattle and bison moved directly to a recognized slaughtering... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling in transit of cattle and...

  8. BISON Theory Manual The Equations behind Nuclear Fuel Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, J. D.; Williamson, R. L.; Novascone, S. R.; Pastore, G.; Spencer, B. W.; Stafford, D. S.; Gamble, K. A.; Perez, D. M.; Liu, W.

    2016-01-01

    BISON is a finite element-based nuclear fuel performance code applicable to a variety of fuel forms including light water reactor fuel rods, TRISO particle fuel, and metallic rod and plate fuel. It solves the fully-coupled equations of thermomechanics and species diffusion, for either 2D axisymmetric or 3D geometries. Fuel models are included to describe temperature and burnup dependent thermal properties, fission product swelling, densification, thermal and irradiation creep, fracture, and fission gas production and release. Plasticity, irradiation growth, and thermal and irradiation creep models are implemented for clad materials. Models are also available to simulate gap heat transfer, mechanical contact, and the evolution of the gap/plenum pressure with plenum volume, gas temperature, and fission gas addition. BISON is based on the MOOSE framework and can therefore efficiently solve problems using standard workstations or very large high-performance computers. This document describes the theoretical and numerical foundations of BISON.

  9. BISON Theory Manual The Equations behind Nuclear Fuel Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, J. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Williamson, R. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Novascone, S. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pastore, G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spencer, B. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Stafford, D. S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gamble, K. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Perez, D. M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Liu, W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    BISON is a finite element-based nuclear fuel performance code applicable to a variety of fuel forms including light water reactor fuel rods, TRISO particle fuel, and metallic rod and plate fuel. It solves the fully-coupled equations of thermomechanics and species diffusion, for either 2D axisymmetric or 3D geometries. Fuel models are included to describe temperature and burnup dependent thermal properties, fission product swelling, densification, thermal and irradiation creep, fracture, and fission gas production and release. Plasticity, irradiation growth, and thermal and irradiation creep models are implemented for clad materials. Models are also available to simulate gap heat transfer, mechanical contact, and the evolution of the gap/plenum pressure with plenum volume, gas temperature, and fission gas addition. BISON is based on the MOOSE framework and can therefore efficiently solve problems using standard workstations or very large high-performance computers. This document describes the theoretical and numerical foundations of BISON.

  10. Post-bottleneck mtDNA diversity in a free-living population of European bison: implications for conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojcik, J. M.; Kawalko, A.; Tokarska, M.

    2009-01-01

    genetic diversity. We studied a total of 195 individuals (127 males and 68 females). A 1429 bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) including the D-loop region was analyzed in 87 individuals and revealed only three distinct haplotypes. Nucleotide (pi) and haplotype (H-d) diversity values were estimated...... for the European bison and were compared with pi and H-d estimated from three individuals of American bison Bison bison. Very low diversity values were found in the European bison in comparison with the diversity values found in the American bison. The low mtDNA variability in the European bison is in concordance...

  11. First Steps into the Wild - Exploration Behavior of European Bison after the First Reintroduction in Western Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Schmitz

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is rapidly declining globally. One strategy to help to conserve species is to breed species in captivity and release them into suitable habitats. The way that reintroduced animals explore new habitats and/or disperse from the release site is rarely studied in detail and represents key information for the success of reintroduction projects. The European bison (Bison bonasus L. 1758 was the largest surviving herbivore of the post-glacial megafauna in Europe before it became extinct in the wild, surviving only in captivity since 1919. We investigated the exploration behavior of a herd of European bison reintroduced into the Rothaargebirge, a commercial forest in low range mountain intensively used and densely populated by humans, in the first six months after release. We focused on three questions: (1 how did the European bison move and utilize the habitat on a daily basis, (2 how did the animals explore the new environment, and (3 did their habitat preferences change over time. The European bison dispersed away from their previous enclosure at an average rate of 539 m/month, with their areas of daily use ranging from 70 to 173 ha, their movement ranging from 3.6 km to 5.2 km per day, and their day-to-day use of areas ranged between 389 and 900 m. We could identify three major exploration bouts, when the animals entered and explored areas previously unknown to them. During the birthing phase, the European bison reduced daily walking distances, and the adult bull segregated from the herd for 58 days. Around rut, roaming behavior of the herd increased slightly. The animals preferred spruce forest, wind thrown areas and grassland, all of which are food abundant habitat types, and they avoided beech forest. Habitat preference differed slightly between phases of the study period, probably due to phenological cycles. After six months, the complete summer home range was 42.5 km2. Our study shows that a small free-ranging herd of European

  12. Rise and fall of the Beringian steppe bison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, B.; Drummond, A. J.; Rambaut, A.

    2004-01-01

    The widespread extinctions of large mammals at the end of the Pleistocene epoch have often been attributed to the depredations of humans; here we present genetic evidence that questions this assumption. We used ancient DNA and Bayesian techniques to reconstruct a detailed genetic history of bison...

  13. Modelling of LOCA Tests with the BISON Fuel Performance Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Richard L [Idaho National Laboratory; Pastore, Giovanni [Idaho National Laboratory; Novascone, Stephen Rhead [Idaho National Laboratory; Spencer, Benjamin Whiting [Idaho National Laboratory; Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-05-01

    BISON is a modern finite-element based, multidimensional nuclear fuel performance code that is under development at Idaho National Laboratory (USA). Recent advances of BISON include the extension of the code to the analysis of LWR fuel rod behaviour during loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). In this work, BISON models for the phenomena relevant to LWR cladding behaviour during LOCAs are described, followed by presentation of code results for the simulation of LOCA tests. Analysed experiments include separate effects tests of cladding ballooning and burst, as well as the Halden IFA-650.2 fuel rod test. Two-dimensional modelling of the experiments is performed, and calculations are compared to available experimental data. Comparisons include cladding burst pressure and temperature in separate effects tests, as well as the evolution of fuel rod inner pressure during ballooning and time to cladding burst. Furthermore, BISON three-dimensional simulations of separate effects tests are performed, which demonstrate the capability to reproduce the effect of azimuthal temperature variations in the cladding. The work has been carried out in the frame of the collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory and Halden Reactor Project, and the IAEA Coordinated Research Project FUMAC.

  14. Selection of vegetation types and density of bison in an arid ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenecker, Kathryn A.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Nielsen, Scott E.; Pague, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Understanding species habitat selection and factors that drive selection are key components for conservation. We report the first resource selection functions (RSFs) for bison inhabiting an arid ecosystem and use them with density estimates of bison to estimate the number of bison that could be supported if the bison range were expanded to federal lands in the San Luis Valley of Colorado. We derived RSFs for vegetation types using locations of plains bison collected weekly over 3 years from 2005 to 2007. Bison selected for wet or mesic grassland habitats in all seasons. Wetland selection by bison was predicted to be 18 times greater than that of rabbitbrush vegetation, the reference category, and selection of meadows was predicted to be 11 times greater than that of the rabbitbrush type. Willow-dominated plant communities were strongly avoided. Cottonwood communities were also avoided, with the exception of some moderate levels of selection in fall. The willow and cottonwood communities have an understory with low biomass of herbaceous species and low productivity in this arid system. Based on the RSFs we predicted that in the San Luis Valley of Colorado up to 2,379 bison could be supported in similar habitats under Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) jurisdiction, and up to 759 bison could be supported on adjacent National Park Service (NPS) land. This modeling framework provides a conservation tool for the restoration of bison to their historical habitats, and has utility for application to other terrestrial species where assumptions are met. 

  15. BISON and MARMOT Development for Modeling Fast Reactor Fuel Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Williamson, Richard L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schwen, Daniel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Novascone, Stephen Rhead [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Medvedev, Pavel G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    BISON and MARMOT are two codes under development at the Idaho National Laboratory for engineering scale and lower length scale fuel performance modeling. It is desired to add capabilities for fast reactor applications to these codes. The fast reactor fuel types under consideration are metal (U-Pu-Zr) and oxide (MOX). The cladding types of interest include 316SS, D9, and HT9. The purpose of this report is to outline the proposed plans for code development and provide an overview of the models added to the BISON and MARMOT codes for fast reactor fuel behavior. A brief overview of preliminary discussions on the formation of a bilateral agreement between the Idaho National Laboratory and the National Nuclear Laboratory in the United Kingdom is presented.

  16. Standalone BISON Through VERA: User's Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimpson, Shane G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-03

    Activities to incorporate fuel performance capabilities into the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA) are receiving increasing attention. The multiphysics emphasis is expanding as the neutronics (MPACT) and thermal-hydraulics (CTF) packages are becoming more mature. Capturing the finer details of fuel phenomena (swelling, densification, relocation, gap closure, etc.) is the natural next step in the VERA Core Simulator (VERA-CS) development process since these phenomena are currently not directly taken into account. While several codes could be used to accomplish this, the BISON fuel performance code being developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the focus of ongoing work in the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Built on INL’s MOOSE framework, BISON uses the finite element method for geometric representation and a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) scheme to solve systems of partial differential equations for various fuel characteristic relationships. There are several modes of operation in BISON, but, for this work, it uses a 2D azimuthally symmetric (R-Z) smeared-pellet model.

  17. Efficacy of Dart or Booster Vaccination with Strain RB51 in Protecting Bison against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, S. C.; Johnson, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study characterized the efficacy of the Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in bison when delivered by single intramuscular vaccination (hand RB51), by single pneumatic dart delivery (dart RB51), or as two vaccinations approximately 13 months apart (booster RB51) in comparison to control bison. All bison were challenged intraconjunctivally in midgestation with 107 CFU of B. abortus strain 2308 (S2308). Bison were necropsied and sampled within 72 h of abortion or delivery of a live calf....

  18. Immune responses of bison and efficacy after booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-one bison heifers were randomly assigned to saline (control; n=7) or single vaccination (n=24) with 1010 CFU of B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51). Some vaccinated bison were randomly selected for booster vaccination with 10**10 CFU of RB51 at 11 months after initial vaccination (n=16). When comp...

  19. Immune responses of bison and efficacy after booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S C; McGill, J L; Sacco, R E; Hennager, S G

    2015-04-01

    Thirty-one bison heifers were randomly assigned to receive saline or a single vaccination with 10(10) CFU of Brucella abortus strain RB51. Some vaccinated bison were randomly selected for booster vaccination with RB51 at 11 months after the initial vaccination. Mean antibody responses to RB51 were greater (P RB51-vaccinated bison at 8, 16, and 24 weeks after the initial vaccination and at 8 weeks after the booster vaccination. The vaccinated bison had greater (P Brucella organisms in all tissues, except in retropharyngeal and supramammary lymph nodes. Our study suggests that RB51 booster vaccination is an effective vaccination strategy for enhancing herd immunity against brucellosis in bison. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. The accidental conservationist: William T. Hornaday, the Smithsonian bison expeditions and the US National Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Mary Anne

    2005-09-01

    In 1886 William T. Hornaday, the Chief Taxidermist of the US National Museum, led the "Smithsonian Institution Buffalo Outfit" to Montana. The American bison was fast heading toward extinction and the mission of the expedition was to locate those of the elusive animals that remained and obtain specimens for the scientific collection at the museum. The successful expedition produced the most complete scientific series, and the finest artistic grouping of taxidermied specimens of the American bison anywhere in the world. Haunted by the scattered skeletal remains of the millions of slaughtered bison that peppered the Eastern Montana Plains, Hornaday fought to establish the National Zoological Park, which would provide sanctuary for bison and other endangered species, and a captive breeding program, which would result in the eventual reintroduction of the American bison to the wild.

  1. Dietary traits of the late Early Pleistocene Bison menneri (Bovidae, Mammalia) from its type site Untermassfeld (Central Germany) and the problem of Pleistocene 'wood bison'

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asperen, Eline N.; Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich

    2017-12-01

    Over the course of the Early and early Middle Pleistocene, a climatic cooling trend led to the partial opening up of landscapes in the western Palaearctic. This led to a gradual replacement of browsers by grazers, whilst some herbivore species shifted their diet towards including more grass. Wear patterns of herbivore cheek teeth can inform our understanding of the timing and extent of this change and indicate levels of dietary plasticity. One of the indicator species of the faunal turnover is the first large-sized form of bison in the Palaearctic, Bison menneri. The dental mesowear of the palaeopopulation from the species' late Early Pleistocene type site of Untermassfeld in Central Germany and the Late Pleistocene B. priscus from Taubach, both from habitat mosaics of forested habitats and more open landscapes, have a mixed feeder profile similar to that of North American wood bison, which has a distinct preference for open habitats but occasionally consumes a high amount of browse as a fall-back food. In contrast, the grazer mesowear signature of early Middle Pleistocene B. schoetensacki voigtstedtensis from Voigtstedt indicates these animals likely did not regularly feed in the densely forested area around the site. The mesowear of B. schoetensacki from Süssenborn, in a more open environment, is similar to that of extant European bison. Both Pleistocene and extant bison are grazers to mixed feeders with relatively high tolerance of a suboptimal browsing diet. None of these species can be regarded as true 'wood bison'.

  2. Micrometeorite Impacts in Beringian Mammoth Tusks and a Bison Skull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstrum, Jonathon T.; Firestone, Richard B; West, Allen; Stefanka, Zsolt; Revay, Zsolt

    2010-02-03

    We have discovered what appear to be micrometeorites imbedded in seven late Pleistocene Alaskan mammoth tusks and a Siberian bison skull. The micrometeorites apparently shattered on impact leaving 2 to 5 mm hemispherical debris patterns surrounded by carbonized rings. Multiple impacts are observed on only one side of the tusks and skull consistent with the micrometeorites having come from a single direction. The impact sites are strongly magnetic indicating significant iron content. We analyzed several imbedded micrometeorite fragments from both tusks and skull with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These analyses confirm the high iron content and indicate compositions highly enriched in nickel and depleted in titanium, unlike any natural terrestrial sources. In addition, electron microprobe (EMP) analyses of a Fe-Ni sulfide grain (tusk 2) show it contains between 3 and 20 weight percent Ni. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) of a particle extracted from the bison skull indicates ~;;0.4 mg of iron, in agreement with a micrometeorite ~;;1 mm in diameter. In addition, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and XRF analyses of the skull show possible entry channels containing Fe-rich material. The majority of tusks (5/7) have a calibrated weighted mean 14C age of 32.9 +- 1.8 ka BP, which coincides with the onset of significant declines<36 ka ago in Beringian bison, horse, brown bear, and mammoth populations, as well as in mammoth genetic diversity. It appears likely that the impacts and population declines are related events, although their precise nature remains to be determined.

  3. Overview of the BISON Multidimensional Fuel Performance Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Williamson; J. D. Hales; S. R. Novascone; B. W. Spencer; D. M. Perez; G. Pastore; R. C. Martineau

    2013-10-01

    BISON is a modern multidimensional multiphysics finite-element based nuclear fuel performance code that has been under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (USA) since 2009. A brief background is provided on the code’s computational framework (MOOSE), governing equations, and material and behavioral models. Ongoing code verification and validation work is outlined, and comparative results are provided for select validation cases. Recent applications are discussed, including specific description of two applications where 3D treatment is important. A summary of future code development and validation activities is given. Numerous references to published work are provided where interested readers can find more complete information.

  4. Summary of BISON Development Activities: NEAMS FY14 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, R. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Novascone, S. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, J. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spencer, B. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Liu, W. [Anatech, Inc.; Pastore, G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Perez, D. M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gardner, R. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Stafford, D. S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gamble, K. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This summary report contains an overview of work performed under the work package entitled “FY2014 NEAMS INL-Engineering Scale Fuel Performance & Interface with RPL Tools.” A first chapter identifies the specific FY-14 milestones, providing a basic description of the associated work and references to related detailed documentation. Where applicable, a representative technical result is provided. A second chapter summarizes substantial additional work including 1) efforts to improve numerical convergence and contact in BISON, 2) development of capability to simulate hydrogen behavior in Zircaloy cladding and 3) efforts to enhance collaborative work with the Halden Research Program. A final chapter briefly outlines planned future work.

  5. Predicting bison migration out of Yellowstone National Park using bayesian models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Geremia

    Full Text Available Long distance migrations by ungulate species often surpass the boundaries of preservation areas where conflicts with various publics lead to management actions that can threaten populations. We chose the partially migratory bison (Bison bison population in Yellowstone National Park as an example of integrating science into management policies to better conserve migratory ungulates. Approximately 60% of these bison have been exposed to bovine brucellosis and thousands of migrants exiting the park boundary have been culled during the past two decades to reduce the risk of disease transmission to cattle. Data were assimilated using models representing competing hypotheses of bison migration during 1990-2009 in a hierarchal bayesian framework. Migration differed at the scale of herds, but a single unifying logistic model was useful for predicting migrations by both herds. Migration beyond the northern park boundary was affected by herd size, accumulated snow water equivalent, and aboveground dried biomass. Migration beyond the western park boundary was less influenced by these predictors and process model performance suggested an important control on recent migrations was excluded. Simulations of migrations over the next decade suggest that allowing increased numbers of bison beyond park boundaries during severe climate conditions may be the only means of avoiding episodic, large-scale reductions to the Yellowstone bison population in the foreseeable future. This research is an example of how long distance migration dynamics can be incorporated into improved management policies.

  6. On the origin of brucellosis in bison of Yellowstone National Park: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Mary; Meyer, Margaret E.

    1994-01-01

    Brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus occurs in the free-ranging bison (Bison bison) of Yellowstone and Wood Buffalo National Parks and in elk (Cervus elaphus) of the Greater Yellowstone Area. As a result of nationwide bovine brucellosis eradication programs, states and provinces proximate to the national parks are considered free of bovine brucellosis. Thus, increased attention has been focused on the wildlife within these areas as potential reservoirs for transmission to cattle. Because the national parks are mandated as natural areas, the question has been raised as to whether Brucella abortus is endogenous or exogenous to bison, particularly for Yellowstone National Park. We synthesized diverse lines of inquiry, including the evolutionary history of both bison and Brucella, wild animals as Brucella hosts, biochemical and genetic information, behavioral characteristics of host and organism, and area history to develop an evaluation of the question for the National Park Service. All lines of inquiry indicated that the organism was introduced to North America with cattle, and that the introduction into the Yellowstone bison probably was directly from cattle shortly before 1917. Fistulous withers of horses was a less likely possibility. Elk on winter feedgrounds south of Yellowstone National Park apparently acquired the disease directly from cattle. Bison presently using Grand Teton National Park probably acquired brucellosis from feedground elk.

  7. Reactivity Insertion Accident (RIA) Capability Status in the BISON Fuel Performance Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Richard L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Folsom, Charles Pearson [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pastore, Giovanni [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Veeraraghavan, Swetha [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-05-01

    One of the Challenge Problems being considered within CASL relates to modelling and simulation of Light Water Reactor LWR) fuel under Reactivity Insertion Accident (RIA) conditions. BISON is the fuel performance code used within CASL for LWR fuel under both normal operating and accident conditions, and thus must be capable of addressing the RIA challenge problem. This report outlines required BISON capabilities for RIAs and describes the current status of the code. Information on recent accident capability enhancements, application of BISON to a RIA benchmark exercise, and plans for validation to RIA behavior are included.

  8. 76 FR 61251 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    .... APHIS-2011-0093] Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; New Mexico AGENCY...: We are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations regarding State and zone classifications by...

  9. 75 FR 60586 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... APHIS-2010-0097] Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Minnesota AGENCY: Animal... are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations regarding State and zone classifications by... . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Alecia Naugle, Coordinator, National Tuberculosis Eradication...

  10. Environmental Assessment for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project, Institutional Conservation Program (ICP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This environmental assessment analyzes the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary school and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers and supporting control system and piping

  11. Environmental Assessment for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project, Institutional Conservation Program (ICP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This environmental assessment analyzes the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District`s elementary school and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers and supporting control system and piping

  12. 75 FR 53979 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming ACTION: Reopening of public comment period... Brucellosis Remote Vaccination Draft Environmental Impact Statement. The original comment period was from 28...

  13. Historic distribution and challenges to bison recovery in the northern Chihuahuan Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Rurik; Ceballos, Gerardo; Curtin, Charles; Gogan, Peter J.; Pacheco, Jesus; Truett, Joe

    2007-01-01

    Ecologists and conservationists have long assumed that large grazers, including bison (Bison bison), did not occur in post-Pleistocene southwestern North America. This perception has been influential in framing the debate over conservation and land use in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. The lack of an evolutionary history of large grazers is being used to challenge the validity of ranching as a conservation strategy and to limit the protection and reintroduction of bison as a significant component of desert grassland ecosystems. Archeological records and historical accounts from Mexican archives from AD 700 to the 19th century document that the historic range of the bison included northern Mexico and adjoining areas in the United States. The Janos-Hidalgo bison herd, one of the few free-ranging bison herds in North America, has moved between Chihuahua, Mexico, and New Mexico, United States, since at least the 1920s. The persistence of this cross-border bison herd in Chihuahuan Desert grasslands and shrublands demonstrates that the species can persist in desert landscapes. Additional lines of evidence include the existence of grazing-adapted grasslands and the results of experimental studies that document declines in vegetation density and diversity following the removal of large grazers. The Janos-Hidalgo herd was formed with animals from various sources at the turn of the 19th century. Yet the future of the herd is compromised by differing perceptions of the ecological and evolutionary role of bison in the Desert Grasslands of North America. In Mexico they are considered native and are protected by federal law, whereas in New Mexico, they are considered non-native livestock and therefore lack conservation status or federal protection. Evidence written in Spanish of the presence of bison south of the accepted range and evidence from the disciplines of archaeology and history illustrate how differences in language and academic disciplines, in addition to

  14. The ecological future of the North American bison: Conceiving long-term, large-scale conservation of a species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, E.W.; Redford, Kent; Weber, Bill; Aune, K.; Baldes, Dick; Berger, J.; Carter, Dave; Curtin, C.; Derr, James N.; Dobrott, S.J.; Fearn, Eva; Fleener, Craig; Forrest, Steven C.; Gerlach, Craig; Gates, C. Cormack; Gross, J.E.; Gogan, P.; Grassel, Shaun M.; Hilty, Jodi A.; Jensen, Marv; Kunkel, Kyran; Lammers, Duane; List, R.; Minkowski, Karen; Olson, Tom; Pague, Chris; Robertson, Paul B.; Stephenson, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Many wide-ranging mammal species have experienced significant declines over the last 200 years; restoring these species will require long-term, large-scale recovery efforts. We highlight 5 attributes of a recent range-wide vision-setting exercise for ecological recovery of the North American bison (Bison bison) that are broadly applicable to other species and restoration targets. The result of the exercise, the “Vermejo Statement” on bison restoration, is explicitly (1) large scale, (2) long term, (3) inclusive, (4) fulfilling of different values, and (5) ambitious. It reads, in part, “Over the next century, the ecological recovery of the North American bison will occur when multiple large herds move freely across extensive landscapes within all major habitats of their historic range, interacting in ecologically significant ways with the fullest possible set of other native species, and inspiring, sustaining and connecting human cultures.” We refined the vision into a scorecard that illustrates how individual bison herds can contribute to the vision. We also developed a set of maps and analyzed the current and potential future distributions of bison on the basis of expert assessment. Although more than 500,000 bison exist in North America today, we estimated they occupy values of previous times. By formulating an inclusive, affirmative, and specific vision through consultation with a wide range of stakeholders, we hope to provide a foundation for conservation of bison, and other wide-ranging species, over the next 100 years.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships among the European and American bison and seven cattle breeds recon structed using the Bovine SNP50 Illumina Genotyping BeadChip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Wójcik, Jan M; Kawalko, Agata

    2010-01-01

    bison Bi on bison athabascae (WB) and seven (PB), the wood bison (WB) and seven cattle Bostaurus breeds. Our aims were to (1) reconstruct their evolutionary relationships, (2) detect any genetic signature of past bottlenecks and to quantify the con sequences of bottle necks on the genetic distances...

  16. Influence of group size on the success of wolves hunting bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, Daniel R; Tallian, Aimee; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W

    2014-01-01

    An intriguing aspect of social foraging behaviour is that large groups are often no better at capturing prey than are small groups, a pattern that has been attributed to diminished cooperation (i.e., free riding) in large groups. Although this suggests the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture, little is known about cooperation in large groups that hunt hard-to-catch prey. Here, we used direct observations of Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus) hunting their most formidable prey, bison (Bison bison), to test the hypothesis that large groups are more cooperative when hunting difficult prey. We quantified the relationship between capture success and wolf group size, and compared it to previously reported results for Yellowstone wolves hunting elk (Cervus elaphus), a prey that was, on average, 3 times easier to capture than bison. Whereas improvement in elk capture success levelled off at 2-6 wolves, bison capture success levelled off at 9-13 wolves with evidence that it continued to increase beyond 13 wolves. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that hunters in large groups are more cooperative when hunting more formidable prey. Improved ability to capture formidable prey could therefore promote the formation and maintenance of large predator groups, particularly among predators that specialize on such prey.

  17. File-Based One-Way BISON Coupling Through VERA: User's Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimpson, Shane G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Activities to incorporate fuel performance capabilities into the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA) are receiving increasing attention [1–6]. The multiphysics emphasis is expanding as the neutronics (MPACT) and thermal-hydraulics (CTF) packages are becoming more mature. Capturing the finer details of fuel phenomena (swelling, densification, relocation, gap closure, etc.) is the natural next step in the VERA development process since these phenomena are currently not directly taken into account. While several codes could be used to accomplish this, the BISON fuel performance code [8,9] being developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the focus of ongoing work in the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Built on INL’s MOOSE framework [10], BISON uses the finite element method for geometric representation and a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) scheme to solve systems of partial differential equations for various fuel characteristic relationships. There are several modes of operation in BISON, but, this work uses a 2D azimuthally symmetric (R-Z) smeared-pellet model. This manual is intended to cover (1) the procedure pertaining to the standalone BISON one-way coupling from VERA and (2) the procedure to generate BISON fuel temperature tables that VERA can use.

  18. Influence of group size on the success of wolves hunting bison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R MacNulty

    Full Text Available An intriguing aspect of social foraging behaviour is that large groups are often no better at capturing prey than are small groups, a pattern that has been attributed to diminished cooperation (i.e., free riding in large groups. Although this suggests the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture, little is known about cooperation in large groups that hunt hard-to-catch prey. Here, we used direct observations of Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus hunting their most formidable prey, bison (Bison bison, to test the hypothesis that large groups are more cooperative when hunting difficult prey. We quantified the relationship between capture success and wolf group size, and compared it to previously reported results for Yellowstone wolves hunting elk (Cervus elaphus, a prey that was, on average, 3 times easier to capture than bison. Whereas improvement in elk capture success levelled off at 2-6 wolves, bison capture success levelled off at 9-13 wolves with evidence that it continued to increase beyond 13 wolves. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that hunters in large groups are more cooperative when hunting more formidable prey. Improved ability to capture formidable prey could therefore promote the formation and maintenance of large predator groups, particularly among predators that specialize on such prey.

  19. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of Brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: serologic and culture results from adult females and their offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this prospective study was to follow the natural course of Brucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative female bison and their offspring in Yellowstone National Park over a 5 year period. Specimens were collected from 53 adult, female bison at least once a...

  20. 78 FR 23533 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Wood Bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... classification and our rationale for accepting wood bison as a valid subspecies below. Taxonomy is the theory and... available. In summary, based on the historical physical separation, and quantifiable behavioral... et al. 2003, p. 1010; Boyd et al. 2010, pp. 15-18). The established management of bison as two...

  1. Immune responses and safety after dart or booster vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strain RB51

    Science.gov (United States)

    One alternative in the Bison remote vaccination environmental impact statement (EIS) for Yellowstone National Park includes inoculation of both calves and yearlings. Although RB51 vaccination of bison does protect against experimental challenge, it was unknown whether booster vaccination might enhan...

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of OECD Benchmark Tests in BISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gamble, Kyle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schmidt, Rodney C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williamson, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes a NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) project focused on sensitivity analysis of a fuels performance benchmark problem. The benchmark problem was defined by the Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling working group of the Nuclear Science Committee, part of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD ). The benchmark problem involv ed steady - state behavior of a fuel pin in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The problem was created in the BISON Fuels Performance code. Dakota was used to generate and analyze 300 samples of 17 input parameters defining core boundary conditions, manuf acturing tolerances , and fuel properties. There were 24 responses of interest, including fuel centerline temperatures at a variety of locations and burnup levels, fission gas released, axial elongation of the fuel pin, etc. Pearson and Spearman correlatio n coefficients and Sobol' variance - based indices were used to perform the sensitivity analysis. This report summarizes the process and presents results from this study.

  3. Spatial heterogeneity in the strength of plant-herbivore interactions under predation risk: the tale of bison foraging in wolf country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Harvey

    Full Text Available Spatial heterogeneity in the strength of trophic interactions is a fundamental property of food web spatial dynamics. The feeding effort of herbivores should reflect adaptive decisions that only become rewarding when foraging gains exceed 1 the metabolic costs, 2 the missed opportunity costs of not foraging elsewhere, and 3 the foraging costs of anti-predator behaviour. Two aspects of these costs remain largely unexplored: the link between the strength of plant-herbivore interactions and the spatial scale of food-quality assessment, and the predator-prey spatial game. We modeled the foraging effort of free-ranging plains bison (Bison bison bison in winter, within a mosaic of discrete meadows. Spatial patterns of bison herbivory were largely driven by a search for high net energy gains and, to a lesser degree, by the spatial game with grey wolves (Canis lupus. Bison decreased local feeding effort with increasing metabolic and missed opportunity costs. Bison herbivory was most consistent with a broad-scale assessment of food patch quality, i.e., bison grazed more intensively in patches with a low missed opportunity cost relative to other patches available in the landscape. Bison and wolves had a higher probability of using the same meadows than expected randomly. This co-occurrence indicates wolves are ahead in the spatial game they play with bison. Wolves influenced bison foraging at fine scale, as bison tended to consume less biomass at each feeding station when in meadows where the risk of a wolf's arrival was relatively high. Also, bison left more high-quality vegetation in large than small meadows. This behavior does not maximize their energy intake rate, but is consistent with bison playing a shell game with wolves. Our assessment of bison foraging in a natural setting clarifies the complex nature of plant-herbivore interactions under predation risk, and reveals how spatial patterns in herbivory emerge from multi-scale landscape

  4. Spatial heterogeneity in the strength of plant-herbivore interactions under predation risk: the tale of bison foraging in wolf country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Léa; Fortin, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in the strength of trophic interactions is a fundamental property of food web spatial dynamics. The feeding effort of herbivores should reflect adaptive decisions that only become rewarding when foraging gains exceed 1) the metabolic costs, 2) the missed opportunity costs of not foraging elsewhere, and 3) the foraging costs of anti-predator behaviour. Two aspects of these costs remain largely unexplored: the link between the strength of plant-herbivore interactions and the spatial scale of food-quality assessment, and the predator-prey spatial game. We modeled the foraging effort of free-ranging plains bison (Bison bison bison) in winter, within a mosaic of discrete meadows. Spatial patterns of bison herbivory were largely driven by a search for high net energy gains and, to a lesser degree, by the spatial game with grey wolves (Canis lupus). Bison decreased local feeding effort with increasing metabolic and missed opportunity costs. Bison herbivory was most consistent with a broad-scale assessment of food patch quality, i.e., bison grazed more intensively in patches with a low missed opportunity cost relative to other patches available in the landscape. Bison and wolves had a higher probability of using the same meadows than expected randomly. This co-occurrence indicates wolves are ahead in the spatial game they play with bison. Wolves influenced bison foraging at fine scale, as bison tended to consume less biomass at each feeding station when in meadows where the risk of a wolf's arrival was relatively high. Also, bison left more high-quality vegetation in large than small meadows. This behavior does not maximize their energy intake rate, but is consistent with bison playing a shell game with wolves. Our assessment of bison foraging in a natural setting clarifies the complex nature of plant-herbivore interactions under predation risk, and reveals how spatial patterns in herbivory emerge from multi-scale landscape heterogeneity.

  5. Where the bison roam: public-private partnership supports potential restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J.T.; Schoenecker, Kate A.

    2014-01-01

    A little over one hundred years ago, plains bison were prolific in the Great American West. Reports describe herds containing thousands of animals migrating through the central and western states, totaling 20–30 million across their entire range. With commercial, unregulated hunting in the late 1800s came the rapid demise of bison to barely more than 1,000 by 18891. Recently, renewed interest in restoring these massive animals to at least some of their former range has grown. Efforts are being made to establish “conservation herds”—herds that are specifically managed in the public interest by governments and environmental organizations. For the plains bison native to the United States, there are approximately 19,000 animals comprising 54 known conservation herds.

  6. Demonstration of uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis for PWR fuel performance with BISON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Zhao, Haihua; Zou, Ling; Burns, Douglas; Ladd, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    BISON is an advanced fuels performance code being developed at Idaho National Laboratory and is the code of choice for fuels performance by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) Program. An approach to uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis with BISON was developed and a new toolkit was created. A PWR fuel rod model was developed and simulated by BISON, and uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis were performed with eighteen uncertain input parameters. The maximum fuel temperature and gap conductance were selected as the figures of merit (FOM). Pearson, Spearman, and partial correlation coefficients were considered for all of the figures of merit in sensitivity analysis. (author)

  7. Demonstration of Uncertainty Quantification and Sensitivity Analysis for PWR Fuel Performance with BISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Ladd, Jacob; Zhao, Haihua; Zou, Ling; Burns, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    BISON is an advanced fuels performance code being developed at Idaho National Laboratory and is the code of choice for fuels performance by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) Program. An approach to uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis with BISON was developed and a new toolkit was created. A PWR fuel rod model was developed and simulated by BISON, and uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis were performed with eighteen uncertain input parameters. The maximum fuel temperature and gap conductance were selected as the figures of merit (FOM). Pearson, Spearman, and partial correlation coefficients were considered for all of the figures of merit in sensitivity analysis.

  8. Biosafety of parenteral Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine in bison calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, T.J.; Olsen, S.C.; Gidlewski, T.; Jensen, A.E.; Palmer, M.V.; Huber, R.

    1999-01-01

    Vaccination is considered among the primary management tools for reducing brucellosis prevalence in Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) ungulates. Before their use, however, vaccine safety and efficacy must be demonstrated. Twenty-seven female bison (Bison bison) calves (approx 5 months old) were vaccinated with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 (1.5 x 1010 colony forming units [CFU], subcutaneously) as part of routine management. We assessed the persistence, pathology, shedding, and transmission associated with RB51 by serial necropsy, bacteriology, histopathology, and serology of 20 of these 27 vaccinated calves, and RB51 serology of 10 nonvaccinated, commingling adult females. With the exception of 1 calf, RB51 dot-blot titers at necropsy were <1:80. Strain RB51 was cultured from lymph nodes in 4 of 4 calves at 14 weeks postvaccination (PV), 4 of 4 calves at 18 weeks PV, 1 of 4 calves at 22 weeks PV, 3 of 4 at 26 weeks PV, and 0 of 4 calves at 30 weeks PV. No gross lesions were observed. Mild histologic changes occurred only in a few draining lymph nodes early in sampling. Adverse clinical effects were not observed in vaccinates. Swabs from nasopharynx, conjunctiva, rectum, and vagina were uniformly culture negative for RB51. Strain RB51 dot-blot assays of bison cows were negative at a 1:20 dilution at 26 weeks PV. Our results suggest that RB51 persists longer in bison calves than in domestic cattle and is systemically distributed within lymphatic tissues. However, bison apparently clear the RB51 vaccine strain without shedding, transmission, or significant adverse reactions.

  9. State-space modeling to support management of brucellosis in the Yellowstone bison population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, N. Thompson; Geremia, Chris; Treanor, John; Wallen, Rick; White, P.J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Rhyan, Jack C.

    2015-01-01

    The bison (Bison bison) of the Yellowstone ecosystem, USA, exemplify the difficulty of conserving large mammals that migrate across the boundaries of conservation areas. Bison are infected with brucellosis (Brucella abortus) and their seasonal movements can expose livestock to infection. Yellowstone National Park has embarked on a program of adaptive management of bison, which requires a model that assimilates data to support management decisions. We constructed a Bayesian state-space model to reveal the influence of brucellosis on the Yellowstone bison population. A frequency-dependent model of brucellosis transmission was superior to a density-dependent model in predicting out-of-sample observations of horizontal transmission probability. A mixture model including both transmission mechanisms converged on frequency dependence. Conditional on the frequency-dependent model, brucellosis median transmission rate was 1.87 yr−1. The median of the posterior distribution of the basic reproductive ratio (R0) was 1.75. Seroprevalence of adult females varied around 60% over two decades, but only 9.6 of 100 adult females were infectious. Brucellosis depressed recruitment; estimated population growth rate λ averaged 1.07 for an infected population and 1.11 for a healthy population. We used five-year forecasting to evaluate the ability of different actions to meet management goals relative to no action. Annually removing 200 seropositive female bison increased by 30-fold the probability of reducing seroprevalence below 40% and increased by a factor of 120 the probability of achieving a 50% reduction in transmission probability relative to no action. Annually vaccinating 200 seronegative animals increased the likelihood of a 50% reduction in transmission probability by fivefold over no action. However, including uncertainty in the ability to implement management by representing stochastic variation in the number of accessible bison dramatically reduced the probability of

  10. Efficacy of dart or booster vaccination with strain RB51 in protecting bison against experimental Brucella abortus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S C; Johnson, C S

    2012-06-01

    This study characterized the efficacy of the Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in bison when delivered by single intramuscular vaccination (hand RB51), by single pneumatic dart delivery (dart RB51), or as two vaccinations approximately 13 months apart (booster RB51) in comparison to control bison. All bison were challenged intraconjunctivally in midgestation with 10(7) CFU of B. abortus strain 2308 (S2308). Bison were necropsied and sampled within 72 h of abortion or delivery of a live calf. Compared to nonvaccinated bison, bison in the booster RB51 treatment had a reduced (P RB51 and dart RB51) did not differ (P > 0.05) from the control group in the incidence of abortion or recovery of S2308 from uterine, mammary, fetal, or maternal tissues at necropsy. Compared to nonvaccinated animals, all RB51 vaccination groups had reduced (P RB51 group having reduced (P RB51 enhances protective immunity against Brucella challenge compared to single vaccination with RB51 by hand or by pneumatic dart. Our study also suggests that an initial vaccination of calves followed by booster vaccination as yearlings should be an effective strategy for brucellosis control in bison.

  11. Early cave art and ancient DNA record the origin of European bison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soubrier, Julien; Gower, Graham; Chen, Kefei

    2016-01-01

    , and contains up to 10% aurochs genomic ancestry. Although undetected within the fossil record, ancestors of the wisent have alternated ecological dominance with steppe bison in association with major environmental shifts since at least 55 kya. Early cave artists recorded distinct morphological forms consistent...

  12. 76 FR 56635 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    .... APHIS-2011-0075] Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Michigan AGENCY: Animal... are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations to adjust the boundaries of the modified accredited, modified accredited advanced, and accredited-free tuberculosis risk classification zones for the State of...

  13. 77 FR 16661 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; NM; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ...-0124] Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; NM; Correction AGENCY: Animal and... in the regulatory text of an interim rule that amended the bovine tuberculosis regulations by establishing two separate zones with different tuberculosis risk classifications for the State of New Mexico...

  14. 76 FR 61253 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    .... APHIS-2011-0100] Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Minnesota AGENCY: Animal... are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations regarding State and zone classifications by... for tuberculosis. DATES: This interim rule is effective October 4, 2011. We will consider all comments...

  15. Environmental Assessment and FONSI for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project (Institutional Conservation Program [ICP]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers, and supporting electrical components with a new coal-fired boiler and supporting control system piping. Various alternative systems are also examined, including purchasing a…

  16. 77 FR 26191 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassifying the Wood Bison Under the Endangered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... reclassifying a species) must reflect determinations made in accordance with sections 4(a)(1) and 4(b) of the.... The Hook Lake Bison Recovery Project was a well- planned, science-based attempt to conserve the...), importation into the United States of sport-hunted trophies taken from Canada would not require a permit under...

  17. Modelling of the Gadolinium Fuel Test IFA-681 using the BISON Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, Giovanni [Idaho National Laboratory; Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory; Novascone, Stephen Rhead [Idaho National Laboratory; Spencer, Benjamin Whiting [Idaho National Laboratory; Williamson, Richard L [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-05-01

    In this work, application of Idaho National Laboratory’s fuel performance code BISON to modelling of fuel rods from the Halden IFA-681 gadolinium fuel test is presented. First, an overview is given of BISON models, focusing on UO2/UO2-Gd2O3 fuel and Zircaloy cladding. Then, BISON analyses of selected fuel rods from the IFA-681 test are performed. For the first time in a BISON application to integral fuel rod simulations, the analysis is informed by detailed neutronics calculations in order to accurately capture the radial power profile throughout the fuel, which is strongly affected by the complex evolution of absorber Gd isotopes. In particular, radial power profiles calculated at IFE–Halden Reactor Project with the HELIOS code are used. The work has been carried out in the frame of the collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory and Halden Reactor Project. Some slide have been added as an Appendix to present the newly developed PolyPole-1 algorithm for modeling of intra-granular fission gas release.

  18. Demonstration of Load-Follow Simulation with VERA-CS and Standalone BISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimpson, Shane G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-24

    In this report, load-follow simulations using VERA-CS with one-way coupling to standalone BISON has been demonstrated including both a single rod with a full cycle of load-follow operations and a quarter-core model with a single month of load-follow.

  19. Speech Understanding in Noise in the Bison Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C3I) Mobile Command Post (MCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    communication et renseignement (C3I) du Bison. Les messages ont été présentés en mode silencieux ou en présence d’un bruit de fond qu’on entend dans...commandement, contrôle, communication et renseignement (C3I) du Bison. L’objectif final de la présente recherche est l’atténuation de la surcharge...soit d’un casque d’écoute dans le poste de commandement mobile (MCP) de commandement, contrôle, communication et renseignement (C3I) du Bison. Les

  20. BISON ANTIQUUS OCCURRENCE AND PLEISTOCENE-HOLOCENE STRATIGRAPHY, CANADA DEL BUEY, PAJARITO PLATEAU, NEW MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RENEAU, STEVEN L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; DRAKOS, PAUL G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MORGAN, GARY S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-02-12

    A Bison. (probable Bison antiguus) distal humerus fragment was found within a Pleistocene colluvial deposit on a hillslope above Canada del Buey near White Rock, New Mexico. The Bison fossil is preserved within a buried soil with an inferred age of ca. 50-100 ka, based on soil properties and on stratigraphic position below a deposit of ca. 50-60 ka EI Cajete pumice. This represents the second oldest dated Bison in New Mexico, and one of the few occurrences of this genus in the northern mountains of the state. It is also only the second record of a Pleistocene vertebrate from Los Alamos County, and is a rare occurrence of a pre-25 ka Bison fossil in good stratigraphic context. Hillslopes in the study area are underlain by a sequence of truncated Pleistocene and Holocene soils that are inferred to represent colluvial deposition and soil formation followed by erosion in the mid Pleistocene (buried soil 'b3'), the late Pleistocene (buried soil 'b2'), and the mid-to-late Holocene (buried soil 'b1'). The surface soil is developed in depOSits that overlie 600-800 year-old Ancestral Puebloan sites. Colluvium is dominated by relatively fine-grained (fine to very fine sand) slopewash colluvium deposited by overland flow, but also includes rocky colluvium on hillslopes below mesas. The fine-grained colluvium is likely derived mainly from reworking of eolian deposits. Episodic colluvial deposition appears to, at least in part, accompany and follow episodic eolian events, with intervening periods dominated by erosion and the development of truncated soils.

  1. Immune responses and protection against experimental challenge after vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strain RB51 or RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S C; Boyle, S M; Schurig, G G; Sriranganathan, N N

    2009-04-01

    Vaccination is a tool that could be beneficial in managing the high prevalence of brucellosis in free-ranging bison in Yellowstone National Park. In this study, we characterized immunologic responses and protection against experimental challenge after vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) or a recombinant RB51 strain overexpressing superoxide dismutase (sodC) and glycosyltransferase (wboA) genes (RB51+sodC,wboA). Bison were vaccinated with saline only or with 4.6 x 10(10) CFU of RB51 or 7.4 x 10(10) CFU of RB51+sodC,wboA (n = eight animals/treatment). Bison vaccinated with RB51 or RB51+sodC,wboA had greater (P RB51 after vaccination than did nonvaccinates. However, bison vaccinated with RB51+sodC,wboA cleared the vaccine strain from draining lymph nodes faster than bison vaccinated with the parental RB51 strain. Immunologic responses of bison vaccinated with RB51+sodC,wboA were similar to responses of bison vaccinated with RB51. Pregnant bison were intraconjunctivally challenged in midgestation with 10(7) CFU of B. abortus strain 2308. Bison vaccinated with RB51, but not RB51+sodC,wboA vaccinates, had greater protection from abortion, fetal/uterine, mammary, or maternal infection than nonvaccinates. Our data suggest that the RB51+sodC,wboA strain is less efficacious as a calfhood vaccine for bison than the parental RB51 strain. Our data also suggest that the RB51 vaccine is a currently available management tool that could be utilized to help reduce brucellosis in free-ranging bison.

  2. Standalone BISON Fuel Performance Results for Watts Bar Unit 1, Cycles 1-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarno, Kevin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pawlowski, Roger [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stimpson, Shane [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-07

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is moving forward with more complex multiphysics simulations and increased focus on incorporating fuel performance analysis methods. The coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics capabilities within the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications Core Simulator (VERA-CS) have become relatively stable, and major advances have been made in analysis efforts, including the simulation of twelve cycles of Watts Bar Nuclear Unit 1 (WBN1) operation. While this is a major achievement, the VERA-CS approaches for treating fuel pin heat transfer have well-known limitations that could be eliminated through better integration with the BISON fuel performance code. Several approaches are being implemented to consider fuel performance, including a more direct multiway coupling with Tiamat, as well as a more loosely coupled one-way approach with standalone BISON cases. Fuel performance typically undergoes an independent analysis using a standalone fuel performance code with manually specified input defined from an independent core simulator solution or set of assumptions. This report summarizes the improvements made since the initial milestone to execute BISON from VERA-CS output. Many of these improvements were prompted through tighter collaboration with the BISON development team at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A brief description of WBN1 and some of the VERA-CS data used to simulate it are presented. Data from a small mesh sensitivity study are shown, which helps justify the mesh parameters used in this work. The multi-cycle results are presented, followed by the results for the first three cycles of WBN1 operation, particularly the parameters of interest to pellet-clad interaction (PCI) screening (fuel-clad gap closure, maximum centerline fuel temperature, maximum/minimum clad hoop stress, and cumulative damage index). Once the mechanics of this capability are functioning, future work will target cycles with

  3. Factors influencing the purchase and consumers’ willingness to pay for ground bison

    OpenAIRE

    Qasmi, Bashir; Fausti, Scott; Underwood, Keith

    2015-01-01

    A consumer preference study that included willingness to pay and consumer sensory experiments was conducted for ground bison versus ground beef. A total of 82 subjects completed the study. The initial statistical analysis suggest that there is consistent consumer behavior with respect to consumer preference and frequency of consumption within species consumption options, but consistent consumer behavior appears to weaken when across species consumption preferences is compared to across specie...

  4. In Vitro Pharmacodynamics of Benzimidazole and Tetrahydropyrimidine Derivatives in European Bison Gastro-Intestinal Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura CĂTANĂ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anthelmintic agents against intestinal nematodes found in European bison. It was performed between October 2016 and May 2017, using Egg Hatch Assay (EHA and Larval Development Assay (LDA. The parasites were obtained from faecal samples, harvested from bisons in Romania and Sweden. The efficacy of albendazole (ABZ, mebendazole (MBZ thiabendazole (TBZ and pyrantel (PYR was tested. In EHA, the maximum efficacy was observed in MBZ (EC50 = - 0.227 μg/ml, and then TBZ (EC50 = - 0.2228. ABZ had a weaker result, EC50 being 0.326 μg/ml. All tested benzimidazoles registered hatching percentages below 50%, reflecting the lack of parasitic resistance. MIC obtained in the LDA tests were 0.2144 μg/ml for TBZ, 0.2792 μg/ml for PYR, 0.5429 μg/ml for MBZ, while ABZ came last (MIC = 0.8187 μg/ml. The in vitro tests proved the antiparasitic molecules efficacy against bisons nematode population and a limited risk of inducing resistance phenomena.

  5. Steppe bison paleobiology through the scope of stable isotopes and zooarchaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Marie-Anne; Dorothée, Drucker; Hervé, Bocherens; Ariane, Burke; Marylène, Patou-Mathis; Alexandra, Krotova

    2010-05-01

    Bison are one of the most abundant and widely distributed species of large mammal during the Late Pleistocene. In the southern steppes of Eastern Europe, steppe bison (Bison priscus) is ubiquitous in zooarchaeological assemblages, particularly during the Upper Palaeolithic when a model of economic "specialization" is proposed. Specialization, in this context, implies the deliberate selection of a preferred species, which becomes the key food resource. The applicability of a specialised hunting model for the Upper Palaeolithic of Europe has recently been challenged, however (Grayson & Delpech 2002). In this research, therefore we re-examine bison acquisition strategies during the Upper Palaeolithic in the Ukrainian steppes in the light of biogeochemical and zooarchaeological data. The acquisition strategies used to procure a prey species are directly related to its social and spatial behaviour. A synthesis of ethological information for contemporary bison (Julien 2009) demonstrates the behavioural diversity of this taxa, linked mainly to local environmental variability, climatic conditions and population density. It is therefore necessary to propose a paleoethological model for the steppe bison before attempting to identify the acquisition strategies used by prehistoric hunters. In this research, we reconstruct the behaviour of the steppe bison using a combination of zooarchaeological tools, stable isotope analysis (intra-tooth isotope variation of carbon, oxygen and strontium ratios) and traditional paleobiological approaches. The advantages of using a combined approach are demonstrated through the examination of a case study: the site of Amvrosievka (Ukraine). Amvrosievka is a complex of Epigravettian sites composed of a camp and kill site, where more than 500 bison are represented (Krotova & Belan 1993). Twenty-five permanent lower teeth (M3) representing twenty-five individual bison were selected from the kill and camp site for isotopic analysis. Intra- and

  6. Summary of BISON Development and Validation Activities - NEAMS FY16 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, R. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pastore, G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gamble, K. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spencer, B. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Casagranda, A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Folsom, C. P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Liu, W. [ANATECH Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Veearaghavan, S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Novascone, S. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gardner, R. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, J. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This summary report contains an overview of work performed under the work package en- titled “FY2016 NEAMS INL-Engineering Scale Fuel Performance (BISON)” A first chapter identifies the specific FY-16 milestones, providing a basic description of the associated work and references to related detailed documentation. Where applicable, a representative technical result is provided. A second chapter summarizes major additional accomplishments, which in- clude: 1) publication of a journal article on solution verification and validation of BISON for LWR fuel, 2) publication of a journal article on 3D Missing Pellet Surface (MPS) analysis of BWR fuel, 3) use of BISON to design a unique 3D MPS validation experiment for future in- stallation in the Halden research reactor, 4) participation in an OECD benchmark on Pellet Clad Mechanical Interaction (PCMI), 5) participation in an OECD benchmark on Reactivity Insertion Accident (RIA) analysis, 6) participation in an OECD activity on uncertainity quantification and sensitivity analysis in nuclear fuel modeling and 7) major improvements to BISON’s fission gas behavior models. A final chapter outlines FY-17 future work.

  7. Preservation of collagen and bioapatite fractions extracted from bison teeth in permafrost conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkinsky, Alexander [Center for Applied Isotope Studies, University of Georgia, GA (United States); Glassburn, Crystal L. [Anthropology Department, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Reuther, Joshua [Anthropology Department, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); University of Alaska, Museum of the North, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-10-15

    This research addresses the stability of bioapatite and collagen fractions of AMS dated steppe bison (Bison priscus) teeth. Through the course of other research, 8 prehistoric bison molars were submitted for AMS dating of fractions of collagen extracted from the dentine of each tooth. Because the teeth were well preserved and collagen yields were relatively high during the initial analysis, it provided an opportunity to further research differences between AMS dates produced on collagen from dentine and bioapatite fractions from enamel. The specimens were recovered from late Quaternary sediments of the Lost Chicken Creek drainage in east-central Alaska. All of the samples were very well preserved and gave high enough yield of carbon from both fractions. The {sup 14}C/{sup 13}C ratio was measured using 0.5 MV tandem AMS system. The {sup 14}C age of the samples varied across age ranges between 17,360 ± 50 and 43,370 ± 300 non-calibrated years BP. Such a wide range of ages allows us estimate the stability of each fraction in subarctic permafrost conditions. The results of analyses have shown that {sup 14}C ages of bioapatite fraction are rejuvenated as a result of isotopic exchange with the younger carbon from the soil solutions. The dating of bioapatite from the samples collected in the boreal climate of Alaska is possible only with a certain correction for the isotope fractionation.

  8. Immune responses and safety after dart or booster vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S C; Johnson, C

    2012-05-01

    One alternative for management of brucellosis in Yellowstone National Park bison (Bison bison) is vaccination of calves and yearlings. Although Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccination protects bison against experimental challenge, the effect of booster vaccinations was unknown. This study characterized immunologic responses after dart or booster vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strain RB51. In two studies, 8- to 10-month-old female bison were inoculated with saline (n = 14), hand vaccinated with 1.1 × 10(10) to 2.0 × 10(10) CFU of RB51 (n = 21), or dart vaccinated with 1.8 × 10(10) CFU of RB51 (n = 7). A subgroup of hand vaccinates in study 1 was randomly selected for booster vaccination 15 months later with 2.2 × 10(10) CFU of RB51. Compared to single vaccinates, booster-vaccinated bison had greater serologic responses to RB51. However, there was a trend for antigen-specific proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from booster vaccinates to be reduced compared to responses of PBMC from single vaccinates. PBMC from booster vaccinates tended to have greater gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production than those from single vaccinates. In general, dart vaccination with RB51 induced immunologic responses similar to those of hand vaccination. All vaccinates (single hand, dart, or booster) demonstrated greater (P RB51 in early gestation did not induce abortion or fetal infection. Our data suggest that booster vaccination does not induce strong anamnestic responses. However, phenotypic data on resistance to experimental challenge are required to fully assess the effect of booster vaccination on protective immunity.

  9. FASTGRASS implementation in BISON and Fission gas behavior characterization in UO2 and connection to validating MARMOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Di [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mo, Kun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ye, Bei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jamison, Laura M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Yao, Tiankei [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This activity is supported by the US Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Product Line (FPL). Two major accomplishments in FY 15 are summarized in this report: (1) implementation of the FASTGRASS module in the BISON code; and (2) a Xe implantation experiment for large-grained UO2. Both BISON AND MARMOT codes have been developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to enable next generation fuel performance modeling capability as part of the NEAMS Program FPL. To contribute to the development of the Moose-Bison-Marmot (MBM) code suite, we have implemented the FASTGRASS fission gas model as a module in the BISON code. Based on rate theory formulations, the coupled FASTGRASS module in BISON is capable of modeling LWR oxide fuel fission gas behavior and fission gas release. In addition, we conducted a Xe implantation experiment at the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) in order to produce the needed UO2 samples with desired bubble morphology. With these samples, further experiments to study the fission gas diffusivity are planned to provide validation data for the Fission Gas Release Model in MARMOT codes.

  10. Impacts of reintroduced bison on first nations people in Yukon, Canada: Finding common ground through participatory research and social learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A Clark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1988-1992 wood bison (Bison bison athabascae were transplanted to the southwest Yukon, inadvertently creating concerns among local First Nations about their impacts on other wildlife, habitat, and their members' traditional livelihoods. To understand these concerns we conducted a participatory impact assessment based on a multistage analysis of existing and new qualitative data. We found wood bison had since become a valued food resource, though there was a socially-determined carrying capacity for this population. Study participants desire a population large enough to sustainably harvest but avoid crossing a threshold beyond which bison may alter the regional ecosystem. An alternative problem definition emerged that focuses on how wildlife and people alike are adapting to the observed long-term changes in climate and landscape; suggesting that a wider range of acceptable policy alternatives likely exists than may have previously been thought. Collective identification of this new problem definition indicates that this specific assessment acted as a social learning process in which the participants jointly discovered new perspectives on a problem at both individual and organisational levels. Subsequent regulatory changes, based on this research, demonstrate the efficacy of participatory impact assessment for ameliorating human-wildlife conflicts.

  11. The coupling of the neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE to the nuclear fuels performance application BISON under the MOOSE framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleicher, Frederick N.; Williamson, Richard L.; Ortensi, Javier; Wang, Yaqi; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Hales, Jason D.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2014-10-01

    The MOOSE neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the self-adjoint angular flux equations) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate on unstructured meshes. RATTLESNAKE solves self-adjoint angular flux transport equation and provides a sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux with resonance treatment during burnup or a fast transient. BISON solves the coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter scale. Both applications are able to solve their respective systems on aligned and unaligned unstructured finite element meshes. The power density and local burnup was transferred from RATTLESNAKE to BISON with the MOOSE Multiapp transfer system. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from RATTLESNAKE to BISON. The eigenvalues are shown to agree well with values obtained from the lattice physics code DRAGON. The one-way data transfer of power density is shown to agree with the power density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON.

  12. Immune responses and protection against experimental challenge after vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strains RB51 or RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and Glycosyltransferase genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination is a tool that could be beneficial in managing the high prevalence of brucellosis in free-ranging bison in Yellowstone National Park. In this study, we characterized immunologic responses and protection against experimental challenge after vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus stra...

  13. Economic analysis of alternative bison and elk management practices on the National Elk Refuge and Grand Teton National Park: A comparison of visitor and household responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, John B.; Caughlan, Lynne

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Park Service (NPS) are preparing a management plan for bison and elk inhabiting the National Elk Refuge (NER) and Grand Teton National Park (GTNP). These animals are part of the bison and elk herds in Jackson Hole, one of the largest concentrations of freeranging bison and elk in the world. A range of alternatives for managing the bison and elk herds in the project area will be developed in an Environmental Impact Statement. The EIS will likely include such issues as habitat management, disease management, winter-feeding and hunting programs related to the NER and GTNP. The purposes of this study are to determine how the current management and EIS alternatives for bison and elk inhabiting the NER and GTNP would change: Visitor use

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex lipid virulence factors preserved in the 17,000-year-old skeleton of an extinct bison, Bison antiquus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oona Y-C Lee

    Full Text Available Tracing the evolution of ancient diseases depends on the availability and accessibility of suitable biomarkers in archaeological specimens. DNA is potentially information-rich but it depends on a favourable environment for preservation. In the case of the major mycobacterial pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, robust lipid biomarkers are established as alternatives or complements to DNA analyses. A DNA report, a decade ago, suggested that a 17,000-year-old skeleton of extinct Bison antiquus, from Natural Trap Cave, Wyoming, was the oldest known case of tuberculosis. In the current study, key mycobacterial lipid virulence factor biomarkers were detected in the same two samples from this bison. Fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC indicated the presence of mycolic acids of the mycobacterial type, but they were degraded and could not be precisely correlated with tuberculosis. However, pristine profiles of C(29, C(30 and C(32 mycocerosates and C(27 mycolipenates, typical of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, were recorded by negative ion chemical ionization gas chromatography mass spectrometry of pentafluorobenzyl ester derivatives. These findings were supported by the detection of C(34 and C(36 phthiocerols, which are usually esterified to the mycocerosates. The existence of Pleistocene tuberculosis in the Americas is confirmed and there are many even older animal bones with well-characterised tuberculous lesions similar to those on the analysed sample. In the absence of any evidence of tuberculosis in human skeletons older than 9,000 years BP, the hypothesis that this disease evolved as a zoonosis, before transfer to humans, is given detailed consideration and discussion.

  15. Warthog: A MOOSE-Based Application for the Direct Code Coupling of BISON and PROTEUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaskey, Alexander J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Slattery, Stuart [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Billings, Jay Jay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program from the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy provides a robust toolkit for the modeling and simulation of current and future advanced nuclear reactor designs. This toolkit provides these technologies organized across product lines: two divisions targeted at fuels and end-to-end reactor modeling, and a third for integration, coupling, and high-level workflow management. The Fuels Product Line and the Reactor Product line provide advanced computational technologies that serve each respective field well, however, their current lack of integration presents a major impediment to future improvements of simulation solution fidelity. There is a desire for the capability to mix and match tools across Product Lines in an effort to utilize the best from both to improve NEAMS modeling and simulation technologies. This report details a new effort to provide this Product Line interoperability through the development of a new application called Warthog. This application couples the BISON Fuel Performance application from the Fuels Product Line and the PROTEUS Core Neutronics application from the Reactors Product Line in an effort to utilize the best from all parts of the NEAMS toolkit and improve overall solution fidelity of nuclear fuel simulations. To achieve this, Warthog leverages as much prior work from the NEAMS program as possible, and in doing so, enables interoperability between the disparate MOOSE and SHARP frameworks, and the libMesh and MOAB mesh data formats. This report describes this work in full. We begin with a detailed look at the individual NEAMS framework technologies used and developed in the various Product Lines, and the current status of their interoperability. We then introduce the Warthog application: its overall architecture and the ways it leverages the best existing tools from across the NEAMS toolkit to enable BISON-PROTEUS integration. Furthermore, we show how

  16. BISON Modeling of Reactivity-Initiated Accident Experiments in a Static Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folsom, Charles P.; Jensen, Colby B.; Williamson, Richard L.; Woolstenhulme, Nicolas E.; Ban, Heng; Wachs, Daniel M.

    2016-09-01

    In conjunction with the restart of the TREAT reactor and the design of test vehicles, modeling and simulation efforts are being used to model the response of Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) concepts under reactivity insertion accident (RIA) conditions. The purpose of this work is to model a baseline case of a 10 cm long UO2-Zircaloy fuel rodlet using BISON and RELAP5 over a range of energy depositions and with varying reactor power pulse widths. The results show the effect of varying the pulse width and energy deposition on both thermal and mechanical parameters that are important for predicting failure of the fuel rodlet. The combined BISON/RELAP5 model captures coupled thermal and mechanical effects on the fuel-to-cladding gap conductance, cladding-to-coolant heat transfer coefficient and water temperature and pressure that would not be capable in each code individually. These combined effects allow for a more accurate modeling of the thermal and mechanical response in the fuel rodlet and thermal-hydraulics of the test vehicle.

  17. Verification and Validation of the BISON Fuel Performance Code for PCMI Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence [Idaho National Laboratory; Novascone, Stephen Rhead [Idaho National Laboratory; Gardner, Russell James [Idaho National Laboratory; Perez, Danielle Marie [Idaho National Laboratory; Pastore, Giovanni [Idaho National Laboratory; Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-06-01

    BISON is a modern finite element-based nuclear fuel performance code that has been under development at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) since 2009. The code is applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior and has been used to analyze a variety of fuel forms in 1D spherical, 2D axisymmetric, or 3D geometries. A brief overview of BISON’s computational framework, governing equations, and general material and behavioral models is provided. BISON code and solution verification procedures are described. Validation for application to light water reactor (LWR) PCMI problems is assessed by comparing predicted and measured rod diameter following base irradiation and power ramps. Results indicate a tendency to overpredict clad diameter reduction early in life, when clad creepdown dominates, and more significantly overpredict the diameter increase late in life, when fuel expansion controls the mechanical response. Initial rod diameter comparisons have led to consideration of additional separate effects experiments to better understand and predict clad and fuel mechanical behavior. Results from this study are being used to define priorities for ongoing code development and validation activities.

  18. Validation of the BISON 3D Fuel Performance Code: Temperature Comparisons for Concentrically and Eccentrically Located Fuel Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Hales; D. M. Perez; R. L. Williamson; S. R. Novascone; B. W. Spencer

    2013-03-01

    BISON is a modern finite-element based nuclear fuel performance code that has been under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (USA) since 2009. The code is applicable to both steady and transient fuel behaviour and is used to analyse either 2D axisymmetric or 3D geometries. BISON has been applied to a variety of fuel forms including LWR fuel rods, TRISO-coated fuel particles, and metallic fuel in both rod and plate geometries. Code validation is currently in progress, principally by comparison to instrumented LWR fuel rods. Halden IFA experiments constitute a large percentage of the current BISON validation base. The validation emphasis here is centreline temperatures at the beginning of fuel life, with comparisons made to seven rods from the IFA-431 and 432 assemblies. The principal focus is IFA-431 Rod 4, which included concentric and eccentrically located fuel pellets. This experiment provides an opportunity to explore 3D thermomechanical behaviour and assess the 3D simulation capabilities of BISON. Analysis results agree with experimental results showing lower fuel centreline temperatures for eccentric fuel with the peak temperature shifted from the centreline. The comparison confirms with modern 3D analysis tools that the measured temperature difference between concentric and eccentric pellets is not an artefact and provides a quantitative explanation for the difference.

  19. Comparison of abortion and infection after experimental challenge of pregnant bison and cattle with Brucella abortus strain 2308

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative study was conducted using data from naive bison (n=45) and cattle (n=46) from 8 and 6 studies, respectively, in which a standardized Brucella abortus strain 2308 experimental challenge was administered. The incidence of abortion, fetal infection, uterine or mammary infection, or infec...

  20. Efficacy of dart or booster vaccination with strain RB51 in protecting bison against experimental Brucella abortus challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination is an effective tool for reducing the prevalence of brucellosis in natural hosts. In this study, we characterized the efficacy of the Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) vaccine in bison when delivered by single intramuscular vaccination (Hand RB51), single pneumatic dart delivery (Dart ...

  1. The occurrence of parasitic arthropods in two groups of European bison in the Białowieza primeval forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, J N

    2001-01-01

    Within 1992-2000, a total of 181 Białowieza Forest bison were examined from two winter herds. Twelf parasitic arthropod species were observed, a high infestation being typical of Demodex bisonianius, Chorioptes bovis, Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus, and Bisonicola sedecimdecembrii. The infestation in section 422 herd being higher for B. sedecimdecembrii, I. ricinus, D. reticulatus, Ch. bovis. D. bisonianus was slightly more prevalent in the section 391 herd, the intensity being, however, lower than that in the other herd. Among the remaining arthropods found in the Bialowieza Forest European bison, some Lipoptena cervi occurred in both herds, Demodex sp. and Sarcoptes scabiei were recorded only in the section 422 herd, Ixodes persulcatus was present only in the section 391 bison and those kept in the reservation, while D. bovis, Psoroptes ovis, and Melophagus ovinus were found in the reserve bison only. In the present study, the largest differences in the extent of infestation involved the hair-dwelling arthropods (B. sedecimdecembrii, I. rixinus).

  2. Immune Responses and Protection against Experimental Challenge after Vaccination of Bison with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 or RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, S. C.; Boyle, S. M.; Schurig, G. G.; Sriranganathan, N. N.

    2009-01-01

    Vaccination is a tool that could be beneficial in managing the high prevalence of brucellosis in free-ranging bison in Yellowstone National Park. In this study, we characterized immunologic responses and protection against experimental challenge after vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) or a recombinant RB51 strain overexpressing superoxide dismutase (sodC) and glycosyltransferase (wboA) genes (RB51+sodC,wboA). Bison were vaccinated with saline only or with 4.6 × 101...

  3. Model of U3Si2 Fuel System using BISON Fuel Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. E. Metzger; T. W. Knight; R. L. Williamson

    2014-04-01

    This research considers the proposed advanced fuel system: U3Si2 combined with an advanced cladding. U3Si2 has a number of advantageous thermophysical properties, which motivate its use as an accident tolerant fuel. This preliminary model evaluates the behavior of U3Si2 using available thermophysical data to predict the cladding-fuel pellet temperature and stress using the fuel performance code: BISON. The preliminary results obtained from the U3Si2 fuel model describe the mechanism of Pellet-Clad Mechanical Interaction for this system while more extensive testing including creep testing of U3Si2 is planned for improved understanding of thermophysical properties for predicting fuel performance.

  4. Immunologic responses of bison to vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51: comparison of parenteral to ballistic delivery via compressed pellets or photopolymerized hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Steven C; Christie, R J; Grainger, D W; Stoffregen, W S

    2006-02-27

    This study compared responses of bison calves to 10(10)CFU of Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51) delivered by parenteral or ballistic methods. Two types of biobullet payloads were evaluated; compacted SRB51 pellets or SRB51 encapsulated in photopolymerized poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels. Bison were vaccinated with saline, parenteral SRB51 alone, or in combination with Spirovac, or ballistically with compressed SRB51 or hydrogel biobullets. Bison parenterally vaccinated with SRB51 had greater (P<0.05) immunologic responses when compared to control bison. Co-administration of Spirovac as an adjuvant did not influence immunologic responses. As compared to compressed SRB51 biobullets, ballistic vaccination with hydrogel biobullets increased cellular immune responses at some sampling times. Our data suggest that hydrogel formulations of SRB51 may be a superior alternative to compressed SRB51 tablets for ballistic vaccination of bison. Although preliminary, data suggests that immunologic responses of bison to SRB51 hydrogel bullets are similar to responses after parenteral vaccination with SRB51.

  5. Simulating sterilization, vaccination, and test-and-remove as brucellosis control measures in bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, M.; Cross, P.; Wallen, Rick; White, P.J.; Treanor, John

    2011-01-01

    Brucella abortus, the causative agent of bovine brucellosis, infects wildlife, cattle, and humans worldwide, but management of the disease is often hindered by the logistics of controlling its prevalence in wildlife reservoirs. We used an individually based epidemiological model to assess the relative efficacies of three management interventions (sterilization, vaccination, and test-and-remove). The model was parameterized with demographic and epidemiological data from bison in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Sterilization and test-and-remove were most successful at reducing seroprevalence when they were targeted at young seropositive animals, which are the most likely age and sex category to be infectious. However, these approaches also required the most effort to implement. Vaccination was less effective (even with a perfect vaccine) but also required less effort to implement. For the treatment efforts we explored (50–100 individuals per year or 2.5–5% of the female population), sterilization had little impact upon the bison population growth rate when selectively applied. The population growth rate usually increased by year 25 due to the reduced number of Brucella-induced abortions. Initial declines in seroprevalence followed by rapid increases (>15% increase in 5 years) occurred in 3–13% of simulations with sterilization and test-and-remove, but not vaccination. We believe this is due to the interaction of superspreading events and the loss of herd immunity in the later stages of control efforts as disease prevalence declines. Sterilization provided a mechanism for achieving large disease reductions while simultaneously limiting population growth, which may be advantageous in some management scenarios. However, the field effort required to find the small segment of the population that is infectious rather than susceptible or recovered will likely limit the utility of this approach in many free-ranging wildlife populations. Nevertheless, we encourage

  6. U3Si2 Fabrication and Testing for Implementation into the BISON Fuel Performance Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Travis W.

    2018-04-23

    A creep test stand was designed and constructed for compressive creep testing of U3Si2 pellets. This is described in Chapter 3.

    • Creep testing of U3Si2 pellets was completed. In total, 13 compressive creep tests of U3Si2 pellets was successfully completed. This is reported in Chapter 3.
    • Secondary creep model of U3Si2 was developed and implemented in BISON. This is described in Chapter 4.
    • Properties of U3Si2 were implemented in BISON. This is described in Chapter 4.
    • A resonant frequency and damping analyzer (RFDA) using impulse excitation technique (IET) was setup, tested, and used to analyze U3Si2 samples to measure Young’s and Shear Moduli which were then used to calculate the Poisson ratio for U3Si2. This is described in Chapter 5.
    • Characterization of U3Si2 samples was completed. Samples were prepared and analyzed by XRD, SEM, and optical microscopy. Grain size analysis was conducted on images.
    SEM with EDS was used to analyze second phase precipitates. Impulse excitation technique was used to determine the Young’s and Shear Moduli of a tile specimen which allowed for the determination of the Poisson ratio. Helium pycnometry and mercury intrusion porosimetry was performed and used with image analysis to determine porosity size distribution. Vickers microindentation characterization method was used to evaluate the mechanical properties of U3Si2 including toughness, hardness, and Vickers hardness. Electrical resistivity measurement was done using the four-point probe method. This is reported in Chapter 5.

  7. BISON Fuel Performance Analysis of FeCrAl cladding with updated properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); George, Nathan M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wirth, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-30

    In order to improve the accident tolerance of light water reactor (LWR) fuel, alternative cladding materials have been proposed to replace zirconium (Zr)-based alloys. Of these materials, there is a particular focus on iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys due to much slower oxidation kinetics in high-temperature steam than Zr-alloys. This should decrease the energy release due to oxidation and allow the cladding to remain integral longer in the presence of high temperature steam, making accident mitigation more likely. As a continuation of the development for these alloys, suitability for normal operation must also be demonstrated. This research is focused on modeling the integral thermo-mechanical performance of FeCrAl-cladded fuel during normal reactor operation. Preliminary analysis has been performed to assess FeCrAl alloys (namely Alkrothal 720 and APMT) as a suitable fuel cladding replacement for Zr-alloys, using the MOOSE-based, finite-element fuel performance code BISON and the best available thermal-mechanical and irradiation-induced constitutive properties. These simulations identify the effects of the mechanical-stress and irradiation response of FeCrAl, and provide a comparison with Zr-alloys. In comparing these clad materials, fuel rods have been simulated for normal reactor operation and simple steady-state operation. Normal reactor operating conditions target the cladding performance over the rod lifetime (~4 cycles) for the highest-power rod in the highest-power fuel assembly under reactor power maneuvering. The power histories and axial temperature profiles input into BISON were generated from a neutronics study on full-core reactivity equivalence for FeCrAl using the 3D full core simulator NESTLE. Evolution of the FeCrAl cladding behavior over time is evaluated by using steady-state operating conditions such as a simple axial power profile, a constant cladding surface temperature, and a constant fuel power history. The fuel rod designs and

  8. Atmospheric Extinction Coefficients in the Ic Band for Several Major International Observatories: Results from the BiSON Telescopes, 1984-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, S. J.; Chaplin, W. J.; Davies, G. R.; Elsworth, Y. P.; Howe, R.; Lund, M. N.; Moxon, E. Z.; Thomas, A.; Pallé, P. L.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.

    2017-09-01

    Over 30 years of solar data have been acquired by the Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON), an international network of telescopes used to study oscillations of the Sun. Five of the six BiSON telescopes are located at major observatories. The observational sites are, in order of increasing longitude: Mount Wilson (Hale) Observatory (MWO), California, USA; Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; Observatorio del Teide, Izaña, Tenerife, Canary Islands; the South African Astronomical Observatory, Sutherland, South Africa; Carnarvon, Western Australia; and the Paul Wild Observatory, Narrabri, New South Wales, Australia. The BiSON data may be used to measure atmospheric extinction coefficients in the {{{I}}}{{c}} band (approximately 700-900 nm), and presented here are the derived atmospheric extinction coefficients from each site over the years 1984-2016.

  9. Synergism of cattle and bison inoculum on ruminal fermentation and select bacterial communities in an artificial rumen (Rusitec fed barley straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela B Oss

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of increasing the proportion of bison relative to cattle inoculum on fermentation and microbial populations within an artificial rumen (Rusitec. The experiment was a completely randomized design with a factorial treatment structure (proportion cattle:bison inoculum; 0:100, 33:67, 67:33 and 100:0 replicated in two Rusitec apparatuses (n=8 fermenters. The experiment was 15 d with 8 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling. Fermenters were fed a diet of 70:30 barley straw:concentrate (DM basis. True digestibility of DM was determined after 48 h of incubation from d 13-15, and daily ammonia (NH3 and volatile fatty acid (VFA production were measured on d 9-12. Protozoa counts were determined at d 9, 11, 13 and 15 and particle-associated bacteria (PAB from d 13-15. Select bacterial populations in the PAB were measured using RT-qPCR. Fermenter was considered the experimental unit and day of sampling as a repeated measure. Increasing the proportion of bison inoculum resulted in a quadratic effect (P0.05. Increasing bison inoculum linearly increased (P<0.05 concentrate aNDF disappearance, total and concentrate N disappearance as well as total daily VFA and acetate production. A positive quadratic response (P<0.05 was observed for daily NH3-N, propionate, butyrate, valerate, isovalerate and isobutyrate production, as well as the acetate:propionate ratio. Increasing the proportion of bison inoculum linearly increased (P<0.05 total protozoa numbers. No effects were observed on pH, total gas and methane production, microbial N synthesis, or copies of 16S rRNA associated with total bacteria, Selenomonas ruminantium or Prevotella bryantii. Increasing bison inoculum had a quadratic effect (P<0.05 on Fibrobacter succinogenes, and tended to linearly (P<0.10 increase Ruminococcus flavefaciens and decrease (P<0.05 Ruminococcus albus copy numbers. In conclusion, bison inoculum increased the degradation of feed protein and fibre. A mixture

  10. Analysis of transient fission gas behaviour in oxide fuel using BISON and TRANSURANUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, T.; Bruschi, E.; Pizzocri, D.; Pastore, G.; Van Uffelen, P.; Williamson, R. L.; Luzzi, L.

    2017-04-01

    The modelling of fission gas behaviour is a crucial aspect of nuclear fuel performance analysis in view of the related effects on the thermo-mechanical performance of the fuel rod, which can be particularly significant during transients. In particular, experimental observations indicate that substantial fission gas release (FGR) can occur on a small time scale during transients (burst release). To accurately reproduce the rapid kinetics of the burst release process in fuel performance calculations, a model that accounts for non-diffusional mechanisms such as fuel micro-cracking is needed. In this work, we present and assess a model for transient fission gas behaviour in oxide fuel, which is applied as an extension of conventional diffusion-based models to introduce the burst release effect. The concept and governing equations of the model are presented, and the sensitivity of results to the newly introduced parameters is evaluated through an analytic sensitivity analysis. The model is assessed for application to integral fuel rod analysis by implementation in two structurally different fuel performance codes: BISON (multi-dimensional finite element code) and TRANSURANUS (1.5D code). Model assessment is based on the analysis of 19 light water reactor fuel rod irradiation experiments from the OECD/NEA IFPE (International Fuel Performance Experiments) database, all of which are simulated with both codes. The results point out an improvement in both the quantitative predictions of integral fuel rod FGR and the qualitative representation of the FGR kinetics with the transient model relative to the canonical, purely diffusion-based models of the codes. The overall quantitative improvement of the integral FGR predictions in the two codes is comparable. Moreover, calculated radial profiles of xenon concentration after irradiation are investigated and compared to experimental data, illustrating the underlying representation of the physical mechanisms of burst release.

  11. BISON Fuel Performance Analysis of IFA-796 Rod 3 & 4 and Investigation of the Impact of Fuel Creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sweet, Ryan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the accident tolerance of light water reactor (LWR) fuel, alternative cladding materials have been proposed to replace the currently used zirconium (Zr)-based alloys. Of these materials, there is a particular focus on iron-chromiumaluminum (FeCrAl) alloys because they exhibit slower oxidation kinetics in high-temperature steam than Zr-alloys. This should decrease the energy release due to oxidation and slow cladding consumption in the presence of high temperature steam. These alloys should also exhibit increased “coping time” in the event of an accident scenario by improving the mechanical performance at high temperatures, allowing greater flexibility to achieve core cooling. As a continuation of the development of these alloys, in-reactor irradiation testing of FeCrAl cladded fuel rods has started. In order to provide insight on the possible behavior of these fuel rods as they undergo irradiation in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor, engineering analysis has been performed using FeCrAl material models implemented into the BISON fuel performance code. This milestone report provides an update on the ongoing development of modeling capability to predict FeCrAl cladding fuel performance and to provide an early look at the possible behavior of planned in-reactor FeCrAl cladding experiments. In particular, this report consists of two separate analyses. The first analysis consists of fuel performance simulations of IFA-796 rod 4 and two segments of rod 3. These simulations utilize previously implemented material models for the C35M FeCrAl alloy and UO2 to provide a bounding behavior analysis corresponding to variation of the initial fuel cladding gap thickness within the fuel rod. The second analysis is an assessment of the fuel and cladding stress states after modification of the fuel creep model that is currently implemented in the BISON fuel performance code. Effects from modifying the fuel creep model were identified for the BISON simulations

  12. La rondelle au bison d'enlène (Montesquieu-Avantès, Ariège

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. BÉGOUËN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Une rondelle perforée en os, hors du commun par son décor, a été mise au jour dans une couche du Magdalénien moyen de la grotte d'Enléne. Sur la moitié d'une face un bison entier a été gravé. L'autre face présente un décor beaucoup plus fruste et n'était vraisemblablement pas destinée a étre vue. Cette rondelle, caractéristique du Magdalénien moyen, est replacée par les auteurs dans le contexte des objets de méme nature connus en France et dans les Asturies.

  13. Ancient DNA unravels the truth behind the controversial GUS Greenlandic Norse fur samples: the bison was a horse, and the muskox and beats were goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Mikkel-Holger; Arneborg, Jette; Nyegaard, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The Norse Greenlandic archaeological site known as ‘the Farm Beneath the Sand’ (GUS) has sourced many well-preserved and unique archaeological artefacts. Some of the most controversial finds are tufts of hair, which previous morphological-based examination concluded derive from bison, black bear......, brown bear and muskox, all species whose natural presence in South Greenland is unlikely. If true, the consequences are potentially significant, as they could imply Viking trading with, or hunting within, North America. To validate these previous findings, we genetically profiled the samples, through...... mitochondrial 16S DNA analysis. The results revealed that the putative bison was, in fact horse, while the bears and muskox were goat. The results demonstrate the importance of using genetic analyses to validate results derived from morphological analyses on hair, in particular where such studies lead...

  14. Consumer's behaviour with respect to meat demand in the presence of animal disease concerns: the special case of consumers who eat bison, elk, and venison

    OpenAIRE

    Myae, Aye C.; Goddard, Ellen W.

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases have raised concerns in consumer’s minds about food safety associated with meat world-wide. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) both exist in Canada and consumer markets for beef, bison, elk and deer may have been affected by the diseases. While numerous studies have examined Canadian consumer beef purchasing behavior in the presence of BSE (Lomeli (2005), John(2007)), no examination of the impact of the animal diseases on consumer behavior ...

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Brucella abortus Isolates from Cattle, Elk, and Bison in the United States, 1998 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Tod; Quance, Christine; Edwards, William H.; Tiller, Rebekah V.; Linfield, Tom; Rhyan, Jack; Berte, Angela; Harris, Beth

    2012-01-01

    A variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) protocol targeting 10 loci in the Brucella abortus genome was used to assess genetic diversity among 366 field isolates recovered from cattle, bison, and elk in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and Texas during 1998 to 2011. Minimum spanning tree (MST) and unweighted-pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analyses of VNTR data identified 237 different VNTR types, among which 14 prominent clusters of isolates could be identified. Cattle isolates from Texas segregated into three clusters: one comprised of field isolates from 1998 to 2005, one comprised of vaccination-associated infections, and one associated with an outbreak in Starr County in January 2011. An isolate obtained from a feral sow trapped on property adjacent to the Starr County herd in May 2011 clustered with the cattle isolates, suggesting a role for feral swine as B. abortus reservoirs in Starr County. Isolates from a 2005 cattle outbreak in Wyoming displayed VNTR-10 profiles matching those of strains recovered from Wyoming and Idaho elk. Additionally, isolates associated with cattle outbreaks in Idaho in 2002, Montana in 2008 and 2011, and Wyoming in 2010 primarily clustered with isolates recovered from GYA elk. This study indicates that elk play a predominant role in the transmission of B. abortus to cattle located in the GYA. PMID:22427502

  16. Derivation of effective fission gas diffusivities in UO2 from lower length scale simulations and implementation of fission gas diffusion models in BISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Anders David Ragnar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pastore, Giovanni [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Liu, Xiang-Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perriot, Romain Thibault [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tonks, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Stanek, Christopher Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-07

    This report summarizes the development of new fission gas diffusion models from lower length scale simulations and assessment of these models in terms of annealing experiments and fission gas release simulations using the BISON fuel performance code. Based on the mechanisms established from density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, continuum models for diffusion of xenon (Xe) in UO2 were derived for both intrinsic conditions and under irradiation. The importance of the large XeU3O cluster (a Xe atom in a uranium + oxygen vacancy trap site with two bound uranium vacancies) is emphasized, which is a consequence of its high mobility and stability. These models were implemented in the MARMOT phase field code, which is used to calculate effective Xe diffusivities for various irradiation conditions. The effective diffusivities were used in BISON to calculate fission gas release for a number of test cases. The results are assessed against experimental data and future directions for research are outlined based on the conclusions.

  17. Azimuthally anisotropic hydride lens structures in Zircaloy 4 nuclear fuel cladding: High-resolution neutron radiography imaging and BISON finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun-Li; Zhong, Weicheng; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Heuser, Brent J.

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution neutron radiography has been used to image bulk circumferential hydride lens particles in unirradiated Zircaloy 4 tubing cross section specimens. Zircaloy 4 is a common light water nuclear reactor (LWR) fuel cladding; hydrogen pickup, hydride formation, and the concomitant effect on the mechanical response are important for LWR applications. Ring cross section specimens with three hydrogen concentrations (460, 950, and 2830 parts per million by weight) and an as-received reference specimen were imaged. Azimuthally anisotropic hydride lens particles were observed at 950 and 2830 wppm. The BISON finite element analysis nuclear fuel performance code was used to model the system elastic response induced by hydride volumetric dilatation. The compressive hoop stress within the lens structure becomes azimuthally anisotropic at high hydrogen concentrations or high hydride phase fraction. This compressive stress anisotropy matches the observed lens anisotropy, implicating the effect of stress on hydride formation as the cause of the observed lens azimuthal asymmetry. The cause and effect relation between compressive stress and hydride lens anisotropy represents an indirect validation of a key BISON output, the evolved hoop stress associated with hydride formation.

  18. Presencia de bisonte (Bison priscus Bojanus, 1827 y uro (Bos primigenius Bojanus, 1827 en las cuevas del Búho y de la Zarzamora (Segovia, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsuaga, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las cuevas de Búho y Zarzamora (Segovia, España son dos pequeños conductos kárstico, con entradas contiguas, desarrollados en las calizas cretácicas que afloran al norte del Sistema Central, en la zona de transición entre el piedemonte cristalino del paleozoico y la meseta terciaria de la cuenca del Duero. Los rellenos de estas cavidades han sido excavados en 1988-1990 y 2008-2010 y asignados al Pleistoceno superior. El origen de la acumulación de restos óseos en estas cuevas se interpreta como producto de la actividad de las hienas. El predominio de dos especies de équidos en la asociación de macrovertebrados sugiere ambientes abiertos. Hasta la fecha se han recuperado mas de 80 restos de bovino. La anatomía de los géneros Bos y Bison es muy similar, por lo que la distinción entre ellos es difícil. A falta de terceros molares inferiores, vértebras cervicales y cráneos, la asignación taxonómica se ha basado en elementos apendiculares ; astrágalo, tibia, metatarso y calcáneo. Se identifican 6 restos de Bison priscus que corresponden a 2 individuos y otros 9 restos de Bos primigenius que pertenecen a un mínimo de 2 individuos. Este hallazgo constituye la primera prueba de la presencia de bisonte en la meseta castellana para esta cronología.

  19. Human predatory behavior and the social implications of communal hunting based on evidence from the TD10.2 bison bone bed at Gran Dolina (Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Antonio; Saladié, Palmira; Ollé, Andreu; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2017-04-01

    Zooarcheological research is an important tool in reconstructing subsistence, as well as for inferring relevant aspects regarding social behavior in the past. The organization of hunting parties, forms of predation (number and rate of animals slaughtered), and the technology used (tactics and tools) must be taken into account in the identification and classification of hunting methods in prehistory. The archeological recognition of communal hunting reflects an interest in evolutionary terms and their inherent implications for anticipatory capacities, social complexity, and the development of cognitive tools, such as articulated language. Late and Middle Paleolithic faunal assemblages in Europe have produced convincing evidence of communal hunting of large ungulates allowing for the formation of hypotheses concerning the skills of Neanderthals anatomically modern humans as social predators. However, the emergence of this cooperative behavior is not currently understood. Here, faunal analysis, based on traditional/long-established zooarcheological methods, of nearly 25,000 faunal remains from the "bison bone bed" layer of the TD10.2 sub-unit at Gran Dolina, Atapuerca (Spain) is presented. In addition, other datasets related to the archeo-stratigraphy, paleo-landscape, paleo-environmental proxies, lithic assemblage, and ethno-archeological information of communal hunting have been considered in order to adopt a holistic approach to an investigation of the subsistence strategies developed during deposition of the archeological remains. The results indicate a monospecific assemblage heavily dominated by axial bison elements. The abundance of anthropogenic modifications and the anatomical profile are in concordance with early primary access to carcasses and the development of systematic butchering focused on the exploitation of meat and fat for transportation of high-yield elements to somewhere out of the cave. Together with a catastrophic and seasonal mortality pattern

  20. Analyzing stakeholder preferences for managing elk and bison at the National Elk Refuge and Grand Teton National Park: An example of the disparate stakeholder management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Lynne; Hoag, Dana L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Park Service (NPS) are preparing a management plan for bison and elk inhabiting the National Elk Refuge (NER) and Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) near Jackson Hole, Wyoming. A management plan is needed to evaluate current and possible changes to habitat management, disease management, winter feeding and hunting programs related to the NER and GTNP. In order to make good decisions, managers need to incorporate the opinions and values of the involved stakeholders as well as understand the complex institutional constraints and opportunities that influence the decision making process. Federal, state, local, private and public stakeholders have diverse values and preferences about how to use and manage resources, and underlying institutional factors give certain stakeholders more influence over the outcome. How stakeholders use their influence can greatly affect the time, effort and costs of the decision making process. The overall result will depend both on the stakeholder’s relative power and level of conviction for their preferences.

  1. Histophilus somni IbpA Fic cytotoxin is conserved in disease strains and most carrier strains from cattle, sheep and bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekarias, B; O'Toole, D; Lehmann, J; Corbeil, L B

    2011-04-21

    Histophilus somni causes bovine pneumonia, septicemia, myocarditis, thrombotic meningoencephalitis and arthritis, as well as a genital or upper respiratory carrier state in normal animals. However, differences in virulence factors among strains are not well studied. The surface and secreted immunoglobulin binding protein A (IbpA) Fic motif of H. somni causes bovine alveolar type 2 (BAT2) cells to retract, allowing virulent bacteria to cross the alveolar monolayer. Because H. somni IbpA is an important virulence factor, its presence was evaluated in different strains from cattle, sheep and bison to define whether there are syndrome specific markers and whether antigenic/molecular/functional conservation occurs. A few preputial carrier strains lacked IbpA by Western blotting but all other tested disease or carrier strains were IbpA positive. These positive strains had either both IbpA DR1/Fic and IbpA DR2/Fic or only IbpA DR2/Fic by PCR. IbpA Fic mediated cytotoxicity for BAT2 cells and sequence analysis of IbpA DR2/Fic from selected strains revealed conservation of sequence and function in disease and IbpA positive carrier strains. Passive protection of mice against H. somni septicemia with antibody to IbpA DR2/Fic, along with previous data, indicates that the IbpA DR1/Fic and/or DR2/Fic domains are candidate vaccine antigens for protection against many strains of H. somni. Since IbpA DR2/Fic is conserved in most carrier strains, they may be virulent if introduced to susceptible animals at susceptible sites. Conservation of the protective IbpA antigen in all disease isolates tested is encouraging for development of protective vaccines and diagnostic assays. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 76 FR 6734 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassifying the Wood Bison (Bison bison athabascae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... integral component of boreal forest ecology (Weber and Flannigan 1997, p. 146; Rupp et al. 2004, p. 213..., and lichen (Reynolds et al. 1978, p. 586; Smith 1990, p. 88; Larter and Gates 1991a, pp. 2680-2681... boreal forest ecology (Weber and Flannigan 1997, p. 146; Rupp et al. 2004, p. 213; Soja et al. 2007, p...

  3. Comparative efficacy of an indigenous 'inactivated vaccine' using highly pathogenic field strain of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis 'Bison type' with a commercial vaccine for the control of Capri-paratuberculosis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S V; Singh, P K; Singh, A V; Sohal, J S; Gupta, V K; Vihan, V S

    2007-10-10

    Johne's disease (JD) is endemic in goatherds located at Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, since 1979 and lately it has been reported from farmer's herds in equal frequencies. Despite using test and slaughter method for the control of JD for more than 25 years in these herds, incidence of JD has not been reduced. Efficacy of 'indigenous vaccine' containing native 'Bison type' genotype of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) was compared with commercial vaccine using challenge studies with homologous strain of MAP. Goat kids (85) were randomly divided in to three groups. Kids were vaccinated with 1 ml of vaccine subcutaneously and Sham-immunized with 1 ml of sterile PBS. All kids except 3 in each group were challenged twice at 75- and 275-day post-vaccination (DPV). Four goats each from three groups were sacrificed at 200-day post-challenge to evaluate carcass and histopathologically for vaccine and challenge response in kids of different groups. Samples (blood, serum and fecal) were screened for LTT, ELISA and shedding of bacilli and data on live animal traits, mortality and experimental sacrifice were compared. Average body weights gained by goats in three groups at different stages of trials (0, 1-75, 76-275, 276-425 DPV) showed marked improvements in performance of vaccinated groups over 'Sham-immunized' group. Effect of vaccines against challenge became visible in terms of body weights gained at 276-425 DPV ('Bison' group gained significantly higher body weights than 'Sham-immunized'). Mortality was significantly less in two vaccinated as compared to 'Sham-immunized'. Vaccinated groups also had significant stimulation and sero-conversion for cell mediated and humoral immune response, respectively as compared to 'Sham-immunized'. Results of post-challenged fecal culture showed significant reduction in shedding of MAP in both vaccinated groups than in 'Sham-immunized'. There was significant improvement in external and internal

  4. Might probiotics for bison be around the corner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbiome referrers to a community of microorganisms that live in a certain environment, and research in this area has only recently become a topic of interest. In human research trials, differences in the microbial community were found between people with a healthy digestive system and patients th...

  5. Fully-Coupled Metallic Fuel Performance Simulations using BISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, Jack D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-27

    This document is a set of slides intended to accompany a talk at a meeting. The first topic taken up is zirconium redistribution. The rod edge Zr increase is evidently due to the Soret term and temperature gradient. Then metallic fission gas release modeling is considered. Based on a GRSIS/FEAST model, the approach of generating fission gas in the fuel matrix is described. A sensitivity study on parameters is presented, including sodium bond & diffusion coefficient sensitivity along with dt sensitivity. Finally, results of some coupled simulations are shown, with ideas about future work.

  6. The Holocene distribution of European bison - the archaezoological record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Benecke

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta una reconstrucción de la distribución holocena del bisonte europeo. Está basada en el registro arqueozoologico de esta especie. El bisonte europeo fue un inmigrante al Continente europeo durante el Postglacial inicial. La más antigua evidencia procede de yacimientos del Norte de Euroopa Central y del Sur de Escandinavia, que datan del Preboreal. Durante el Holoceno medio y tardío el bisonte europeo estaba ampliamente distribuido en el Continente europeo. Su distribución se extendía desde Francia al W hasta Ucrania al E. Salvo para un área que comprende el E de Polonia, Bielorrusia, Lituania y Letonia, el bisonte europeo era una especie rara en la mayor parte de su distribución. En la Edad Media se da una reducción en la extension del bisonte europeo en su zona W.

  7. Draft environmental impact statement. Bison basin project, Fremont County, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Construction and operation of leach uranium mine and recovery plant designed to produce one million lb of U 3 O 8 per year at a rate not to exceed 400,000 lb/y in Fremont County, Wyoming are proposed. The project site would consist of 761 acres lying 50 miles south of Riverton and 30 miles southwest of Jeffery City. The in situ leach process, implemented to mine ore contained in the Laney member of the Green River formation, would involve use of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate solution and an oxidizing agent injected and recovered through a complex of well patterns. Each well pattern would consist of six injection wells surrounding a central production well. Only about 40 acres would be mined, while another 13.5 acres would be excavated for equipment foundations and evaporation ponds. Recycling of mined formation water through a reverse osmosis cleanup system and placing it back into the formation after mining was complete would restore the groundwater system to its former potential. Solid wastes produced by the mining process would be removed to a licensed disposal site. Positive Impacts: Uranium ore produced by the mine and refined by the plant would aid in meeting demand for this resource which is estimated to double to a level of 15,000 tons per year within the next 5 years and to reach 45,000-50,000 tons per year by 1990. Some monetary benefits would accrue to local communities due to local expenditures resulting from construction and operation. Negative Impacts: Project activities would result in displacement of livestock grazing practices from 57 acres of land. Some local deterioration of groundwater quality would be expected, and approximately 240 acre-feet of groundwater would be removed from the aquifer permanently. Radon-222 and other small radioactive emissions would result from the solution mining process

  8. Mais qui a attrapé le bison de Higgs ?

    CERN Document Server

    Louapre, David

    2016-01-01

    Les premiers hommes, le Big-Bang et le boson de Higgs vous intriguent ? Vous fourmillez de questions sans toujours oser les poser à haute voix ? Ce livre est fait pour vous ! Laissez le créateur de la chaîne YouTube "Science étonnante" (près de 100 000 abonnés) vous révéler ses découvertes préférées. Vous n'avez qu'une vague idée de ce qu'est un atome ? Un gène ? Une probabilité ? Embarquez, vous en savez bien assez !

  9. Animal remains of the Late Antiquity settlement near Dyakovo Village (Kyustendil Region (SW Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZLATOZAR BOEV

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available From a total of 102 highly fragmented animal bone and tooth finds, dated ~250 AD – ~550 AD have been identified 13 taxa (4 wild species - Bison bonasus, Cervus elaphus, ? Cervus dama and Canis lupus and 9 domestic forms – Bos taurus, Capra hircus, Ovis aries, Equus caballus, Equus asinus, Sus domesticus and Canis familiaris.

  10. Stingray placental analogues: structure of trophonemata in Rhinoptera bonasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlett, W C; Wourms, J P; Smith, J W

    1985-10-01

    The cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus, displays a non-placental form of viviparity since direct maternal-embryonic connections are lacking. Early stage embryos depend on yolk reserves for growth to 215 mm disc width; growth to term, 405 mm disc width, is effected by ingestion of uterine histotrophe. During late gestation, the maternal uterine epithelium possesses 2-3 cm long spatulate, villiform appendages, termed trophonemata. These secrete histotrophe, which is a viscous, nutrient fluid. Scanning electron microscopy of the trophonematal surface reveals branching ridges, each of which is supplied by a capillary. The secretory unit is composed of 8-10 cells joined by extensive junctional complexes. Characteristically, secretory cells have a rough endoplasmic reticulum whose irregular cisternae are grossly distended and filled with low density flocculent material. Uncoated vesicles are given off by an extensive juxtanuclear Golgi complex. Coated vesicles are also present, but are not directly associated with the Golgi complex. Electron dense granules, larger lysosome-like vesicles, and multivesicular bodies are in the vicinity of the Golgi.

  11. A novel fibrocartilaginous tendon from an elasmobranch fish ( Rhinoptera bonasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Adam P; Koob-Emunds, Magdalena M; Kajiura, Stephen M; Koob, Thomas J

    2003-05-01

    Tendons of the jaw adductor muscles of a hard prey crushing stingray exhibit similar adaptations to compressive and shear loads as those seen in mammalian tendons. Ventral intermandibular tendon from the cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus, has a prominent fibrocartilaginous pad that lies between a fibrous region of the tendon and the mineralized tissue of the jaw. Histologically the pad is similar to the fibrocartilaginous meniscus of mammals, and these tissues also share some biochemical traits. Proteoglycan (PG) content in the fibrocartilaginous pad is nearly four times higher than in the linearly arrayed tendinous tissue. The predominant PGs appear to be an aggrecan-like molecule and a decorin-like molecule. The decorin-like molecule is quite small when compared to mammalian decorin (20-80 kDa vs. 100-200 kDa). This study is the first to document adaptations to compressive/shear loading in tendon from a cartilaginous fish, and the similarities to the mammalian condition argue for the early evolution of this reactive ability of tendinous tissue.

  12. Feeding biomechanics of the cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus, over ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Motta, Philip J; Grubbs, R Dean

    2015-09-01

    Growth affects the performance of structure, so the pattern of growth must influence the role of a structure and an organism. Because animal performance is linked to morphological specialization, ontogenetic change in size may influence an organism's biological role. High bite force generation is presumably selected for in durophagous taxa. Therefore, these animals provide an excellent study system for investigating biomechanical consequences of growth on performance. An ontogenetic series of 27 cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) were dissected in order to develop a biomechanical model of the feeding mechanism, which was then compared with bite forces measured from live rays. Mechanical advantage of the feeding apparatus was generally conserved throughout ontogeny, while an increase in the mass and cross-sectional area of the jaw adductors resulted in allometric gains in bite force generation. Of primary importance to forceful biting in this taxon is the use of a fibrocartilaginous tendon associated with the insertion of the primary jaw adductor division. This tendon may serve to redirect muscle forces anteriorly, transmitting them within the plane of biting. Measured bite forces obtained through electrostimulation of the jaw adductors in live rays were higher than predicted, possibly due to differences in specific tension of actual batoid muscle and that used in the model. Mass-specific bite forces in these rays are the highest recorded for elasmobranchs. Cownose rays exemplify a species that, through allometric growth of bite performance and morphological novelties, have expanded their ecological performance over ontogeny. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  13. Early implementation of SiC cladding fuel performance models in BISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-18

    SiC-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) [5–8] are being developed and evaluated internationally as potential LWR cladding options. These development activities include interests within both the DOE-NE LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and the DOE-NE Advanced Fuels Campaign. The LWRS Program considers SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) as offering potentially revolutionary gains as a cladding material, with possible benefits including more efficient normal operating conditions and higher safety margins under accident conditions [9]. Within the Advanced Fuels Campaign, SiC-based composites are a candidate ATF cladding material that could achieve several goals, such as reducing the rates of heat and hydrogen generation due to lower cladding oxidation rates in HT steam [10]. This work focuses on the application of SiC cladding as an ATF cladding material in PWRs, but these work efforts also support the general development and assessment of SiC as an LWR cladding material in a much broader sense.

  14. Demonstration of bacteriocin activity in bovine and bison strains of Pasteurella multocida. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chengappa, M.M.; Carter, G.R.

    1977-08-01

    Of 33 strains of Pasteurella multocida examined, 14 showed bacteriocin activity and 17 were susceptible to bacteriocin. The activity was increased by about twofold if the cultures were induced with ultraviolet radiation; however, no increase in bacteriocin activity was observed if the potential producer strains were induced with mitomycin C. The bacteriocin activity of potential producer strains was increased if CaCl/sub 2/ was incorporated in the medium. The patterns of bacteriocin susceptibility indicate that these substances may ultimately contribute to a typing scheme for the species. An extra-chromosomal genetic element was not detected when a potential producer strain was not detected when a potential producer strain was tested by the dye-buoyant density gradient method. This fact suggests that the genetic material responsible for bacteriocin activity in P multocida is located on the host chromosome proper.

  15. Depauperate genetic variability detected in the American and European bison using genomic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Tokarska, Magorzata; Wójcik, Jan M

    2009-01-01

    A total of 929 polymorphic SNPs in EB (out of 54, 000 SNPs screened using a BovineSNP50 Illumina Genotyping BeadChip), and 1, 524 and 1, 403 polymorphic SNPs in WB and PB, respectively, were analysed. EB, WB and PB have all undergone recent drastic reductions in population size. Accordingly, they...

  16. Constituent Redistribution in U-Zr Metallic Fuel Using the Advanced Fuel Performance Code BISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, Jack D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Matthews, Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Previous work done by Galloway, et. al. on EBR-II ternary (U-Pu-Zr) fuel constituent redistribution yielded accurate simulation data for the limited data sets of Zr redistribution. The data sets included EPMA scans of two different irradiated rods. First, T179, which was irradiated to 1.9 at% burnup, was analyzed. Second, DP16, which was irradiated to 11 at% burnup, was analyzed. One set of parameters that most accurately represented the zirconium profiles for both experiments was determined. Since the binary fuel (U-Zr) has previously been used as the driver fuel for sodium fast reactors (SFR) as well as being the likely driver fuel if a new SFR is constructed, this same process has been initiated on the binary fuel form. From limited binary EPMA scans as well as other fuel characterization techniques, it has been observed that zirconium redistribution also occurs in the binary fuel, albeit at a reduced rate compared to observation in the ternary fuel, as noted by Kim et. al. While the rate of redistribution has been observed to be slower, numerous metallographs of U-Zr fuel show distinct zone formations.

  17. Full Core TREAT Kinetics Demonstration Using Rattlesnake/BISON Coupling Within MAMMOTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortensi, Javier [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); DeHart, Mark D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gleicher, Frederick N. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Yaqi [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alberti, Anthony L. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Palmer, Todd S. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report summarizes key aspects of research in evaluation of modeling needs for TREAT transient simulation. Using a measured TREAT critical measurement and a transient for a small, experimentally simplified core, Rattlesnake and MAMMOTH simulations are performed building from simple infinite media to a full core model. Cross sections processing methods are evaluated, various homogenization approaches are assessed and the neutronic behavior of the core studied to determine key modeling aspects. The simulation of the minimum critical core with the diffusion solver shows very good agreement with the reference Monte Carlo simulation and the experiment. The full core transient simulation with thermal feedback shows a significantly lower power peak compared to the documented experimental measurement, which is not unexpected in the early stages of model development.

  18. Prey capture behavior and kinematics of the Atlantic cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasko, Desirée E; Dean, Mason N; Motta, Philip J; Hueter, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    The structurally reinforced jaws of the cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus testify to this species' durophagous diet of mollusks, but seem ill-suited to the behaviors necessary for excavating such prey. This study explores this discordance by investigating the prey excavation and capture kinematics of R. bonasus. Based on the basal suction feeding mechanism in this group of fishes, we hypothesized a hydraulic method of excavation. As expected, prey capture kinematics of R. bonasus show marked differences relative to other elasmobranchs, relating to prey excavation and use of the cephalic lobes (modified anterior pectoral fin extensions unique to derived myliobatiform rays). Prey are excavated by repeated opening and closing of the jaws to fluidize surrounding sand. The food item is then enclosed laterally by the depressed cephalic lobes, which transport it toward the mouth for ingestion by inertial suction. Unlike in most sharks, upper jaw protrusion and mandibular depression are simultaneous. During food capture, the ray's spiracle, mouth, and gill slit movements are timed such that water enters only the mouth (e.g., the spiracle closes prior to prey capture and reopens immediately following). Indigestible parts are then hydraulically winnowed from edible prey portions, by mouth movements similar to those used in excavation, and ejected through the mouth. The unique sensory/manipulatory capabilities of the cephalic lobes, as well as the cownose ray's hydraulic excavation/winnowing behaviors and suction feeding, make this species an effective benthic predator, despite its epibenthic lifestyle.

  19. Complex Admixture Preceded and Followed the Extinction of Wisent in the Wild

    OpenAIRE

    W?cek, Karolina; Hartmann, Stefanie; Paijmans, Johanna L. A.; Taron, Ulrike; Xenikoudakis, Georgios; Cahill, James A.; Heintzman, Peter D.; Shapiro, Beth; Baryshnikov, Gennady; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Crees, Jennifer J.; Dobosz, Roland; Manaserian, Ninna; Okarma, Henryk; Tokarska, Ma?gorzata

    2016-01-01

    © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. Retracing complex population processes that precede extreme bottlenecks may be impossible using data from living individuals. The wisent (Bison bonasus), Europe's largest terrestrial mammal, exemplifies such a population history, having gone extinct in the wild but subsequently restored by captive breeding efforts. Using low coverage genomic data from modern and historical ind...

  20. 75 FR 8736 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Request for Scoping Comments and Intent To Prepare...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... ecosystems, providing benefits to Alaska's people and economy, and reestablishing wood bison populations that... Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Designation of a Non-Essential Experimental Population of Wood Bison... to establish an experimental population of wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) in Alaska, pursuant to...

  1. Protein and cholesterol electrophoresis of plasma samples from captive cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Marilyn; Field, Cara; McDermott, Alexa; Leppert, Lynda; Clauss, Tonya; Bossart, Gregory D

    2015-11-01

    Our study was undertaken to assess the application of semiautomated methods available at the reference laboratory level for the evaluation of plasma protein and cholesterol via electrophoresis in samples from cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus). Three groups of animals were assessed: clinically normal, clinically abnormal, and parasitized with leeches. As reported previously, the albumin band was negligible; the protein electrophoretograms were dominated by a large beta-globulin fraction. While the group of samples from the leech-parasitized rays did not show any large differences, the abnormal group exhibited significantly elevated total solids and cholesterol levels. The latter was related to a significant increase in very low density lipoprotein levels. The results demonstrate the potential application of these laboratory methods in quantitation of plasma proteins and cholesterol fractions in subclass Elasmobranchii. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Estudo do escápulo-coracóide e da cartilagem sinarcual cérvico-torácica de Rhinoptera brasiliensis Müller & Henle e Rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill) Elasmobranchii, Rhinopteridae) Study of the scapulocoracoid and cervico-thoracic synarcual cartilage of Rhinoptera brasiliensis Müller & Henle and Rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill) (Elasmobranchii, Rhinopteridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia Francisco Afonso; Valéria Gallo

    2001-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the scapulocoracoid and cervico-thoracic synarcual cartilage of juvenile specimens of Rhinoptera brasiliensis Müller & Henle, 1841 and R. bonasus (Mitchill, 1815) was accomplished, in order to identify specific, individual and ontogenetic differences. In the scapulocoracoid, the scapular foramen and the posterodorsal fenestra is larger in R. brasiliensis. The anterior fenestra bridge is thicker and the metacondyle is thinner and longer in R. bonasus. This species als...

  3. 2005 annual progress report: Elk and bison grazing ecology in the Great Sand Dunes complex of lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenecker, Kate A.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Mao, Julie

    2006-01-01

    In 2000 the U.S. Congress authorized the expansion of the former Great Sand Dunes National Monument by establishing a new Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve in its place, and establishing the Baca National Wildlife Refuge. The establishment of Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve and the new Baca National Wildlife Refuge in the San Luis Valley (SLV), Colorado was one of the most significant land conservation actions in the western U.S. in recent years. The action was a result of cooperation between the National Park Service (NPS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Bureau of Land Management (BLM), U.S. Forest Service (USDA-FS), and The Nature Conservancy (TNC). The new national park, when fully implemented, will consist of 107,265 acres, the new national preserve 41,872 acres, and the new national wildlife refuge (USFWS lands) 92,180 acres (fig. 1). The area encompassed by this designation protects a number of natural wonders and features including a unique ecosystem of natural sand dunes, the entire watershed of surface and groundwaters that are necessary to preserve and recharge the dunes and adjacent wetlands, a unique stunted forest, and other valuable riparian vegetation communities that support a host of associated wildlife and bird species.

  4. Biología reproductiva de la raya Rhinoptera bonasus (Elasmobranchii) en el sureste del Golfo de México Reproductive biology of the cownose ray Rhinoptera bonasus (Elasmobranchii) in the Southeastern Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Pérez-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    La raya Rhinoptera bonasus es uno de los batoideos más abundantes en el sureste del Golfo de México, en donde es capturada incidentalmente y procesada seca-salada para consumo humano. En esta región, a la fecha no existen estimaciones de los parámetros reproductivos necesarios para conocer su dinámica poblacional y evaluar su vulnerabilidad a la pesca por medio de análisis demográficos o evaluaciones de riesgo ecológico. Del análisis de 136 hembras con un intervalo de longitud de 43-106 cm de...

  5. Echinobothrium bonasum sp. n., a new cestode from the cownose ray, rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill 1815), in the western North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A D; Campbell, R A

    1980-12-01

    Echinobothrium bonasum sp. n. is described from the cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill), taken in Atlantic coastal waters of Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, and off Sakonnet Point, Rhode Island. This species can be distinguished from all others by the following combination of characters: 14 hooklets armature of 11 large hooks, six in the anterior row and five in the posterior row, flanked by 12 to 14 hooklets per side; 24 to 25 spines per row on the cephalic peduncle; 24 to 31 testes per segment, and, wide vitelline bands that overlap the testicular field.

  6. Estudo do escápulo-coracóide e da cartilagem sinarcual cérvico-torácica de Rhinoptera brasiliensis Müller & Henle e Rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill Elasmobranchii, Rhinopteridae Study of the scapulocoracoid and cervico-thoracic synarcual cartilage of Rhinoptera brasiliensis Müller & Henle and Rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill (Elasmobranchii, Rhinopteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Francisco Afonso

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the scapulocoracoid and cervico-thoracic synarcual cartilage of juvenile specimens of Rhinoptera brasiliensis Müller & Henle, 1841 and R. bonasus (Mitchill, 1815 was accomplished, in order to identify specific, individual and ontogenetic differences. In the scapulocoracoid, the scapular foramen and the posterodorsal fenestra is larger in R. brasiliensis. The anterior fenestra bridge is thicker and the metacondyle is thinner and longer in R. bonasus. This species also possesses a larger re-entrance between the mesocondyle and the metacondyle, as well as in the fitting region of'the synarcual cartilage, placed close to the scapular process. The individual differences are: posteroventral fenestra with variable diameter independent of the size of the specimens; scapulocoracoids, in some specimens, are more fragile even if they have been kept in the same conservation conditions. In the cervico-thoracic synarcual cartilage, the lateral stay in R. brasiliensis encloses completely the superior portion of the anteroscapular bridge. There are three more prominent condyles beside the suprascapula in R. brasiliensis, R. bonasus, however, shows a protuberance close to the suprascapula, inconspicuous and more distant from the scapular lamina. Several specimens of different size of R. bonasus show a synarcual cartilage wider in ventral view and higher in lateral view. In the majority of specimens, the number of ventral spinal foramina is higher than the dorsal ones in both species. R. bonasus has only one pair of asymmetric basal foramina, whereas R. brasiliensis possesses three or four foramina. Regarding individual differences, at least one specimen of R. bonasus exhibits a single basal foramen.

  7. Distribution extension of Glyphobothrium zwerneri Williams & Campbell, 1977 (Tetraphyllidea: Serendipeidae) from the cownose ray Rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill, 1815) (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) from Campeche, México

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido-Flores, Griselda; Monks, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The collection of four specimens of Glyphobothrium zwerneri extends the geographic distribution of the species from the original locality (Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, U.S.A.) to at least Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche, México, at the southern limit of the Gulf of Mexico. The species is a parasite of Rhinoptera bonasus, a stingray that is thought to migrate within a wide range, suggesting that conservation efforts should be consistent within the stingray's range, just as is necessary for birds and ...

  8. Standard oxygen consumption of seasonally acclimatized cownose rays, Rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill 1815), in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neer, J A; Carlson, J K; Thompson, B A

    2006-03-01

    Standard oxygen consumption rate (MO(2)) was determined for 19 cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) using flow-through respirometry. Rays ranged in size from 0.4 to 8.25 kg (350-790 mm DW). Respirometry experiments were conducted on seasonally acclimatized rays at temperatures from 19.0 to 28.8 degrees C. Estimates of mass-dependent MO(2) ranged from 55.88 mg O(2) kg(-1) h(-1) for an 8.25 kg ray to 332.75 mg O(2) kg(-1) h(-1) for a 2.2 kg animal at 22-25 degrees C. Multiple regression analysis examining the effect of temperature, salinity, and mass on standard mass-independent MO(2) found temperature (P 0.05). Q (10) was calculated as 2.33 (19-28 degrees C), falling between the estimates determined for two other batoid species, the bull ray (Myliobatos aquila; Q (10) = 1.87) and the bat ray (Myliobatis californica; Q (10) = 3.00). The difference in the Q (10) estimates may be attributed to the use of seasonally acclimatized as opposed to laboratory-acclimated animals.

  9. The skin microbiome of cow-nose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) in an aquarium touch-tank exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Patrick J; Bowen, Jennifer L; Tlusty, Michael F

    2017-05-01

    Public aquaria offer numerous educational opportunities for visitors while touch-tank exhibits offer guests the ability to directly interact with marine life via physical contact. Despite the popularity of touch-tanks, there is a paucity of research about animal health in these exhibits and, in particular, there is little research on the microbial communities in these highly interactive exhibits. Microbial community structure can have implications for both host health and habitat function. To better understand the microbiome of a touch-tank we used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to analyze the microbial community on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of cow-nose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) as well as their environment in a frequently visited touch-tank exhibit at the New England Aquarium. Our analyses revealed a distinct microbial community associated with the skin of the ray that had lower diversity than the surrounding habitat. The ray skin was dominated by three orders: Burkholderiales (∼55%), Flavobacteriales (∼19%), and Pseudomonadales (∼12%), taxonomic groups commonly associated with other fish species. Our results provide a survey of ray-associated bacterial communities in a touch-tank environment, thereby laying the foundation for future studies examining the role of potential challenges to ray microbiota and their associated health. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. COMPARISON OF PRE- AND POSTQUARANTINE BLOOD CHEMISTRY AND HEMATOLOGY VALUES FROM WILD-CAUGHT COWNOSE RAYS (RHINOPTERA BONASUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Lara; Field, Cara L; Hoopes, Lisa; McDermott, Alexa; Clauss, Tonya

    2016-06-01

    Though one of the most widely kept elasmobranchs in human care, the cownose ray (CNR; Rhinoptera bonasus ), remains a species with minimal published information on hematologic reference intervals. As part of a larger study investigating the health and nutrition of the CNR, this study established a preliminary data set of plasma chemistry and hematology values specific to animals recently caught from the wild and compared this data set (intake sample) to values obtained following a period of quarantine (27-40 days) in an aquarium (exit sample). Blood samples were collected from 47 wild female (n = 46) and male (n = 1) CNR caught in pound nets off the coast of North Carolina and South Carolina. Differences between intake and exit values were analyzed. Due to the preponderance of female animals, data were not analyzed for sex differences. Plasma biochemical profiles were performed and analyzed. A select number of complete blood cell counts were performed (n = 24 from 12 animals). Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) specific to time of sampling were determined for packed cell volume, total solids, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, chloride, potassium, phosphorus, cholesterol, glucose, and aspartate aminotransferase. Values reported are a significant expansion on the existing limited data for CNRs and will serve as a reference for health assessment of individuals both in the wild and in exhibit populations.

  11. A new species of Euzetia (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) on the gills of Rhinoptera bonasus (Rhinopteridae) from Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche, México Una especie nueva de Euzetia (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) de las branquias de Rhinoptera bonasus (Rhinopteridae) de Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche, México

    OpenAIRE

    Griselda Pulido-Flores; Scott Monks

    2008-01-01

    Euzetia lamothei n. sp. (Monogenea: Euzetiinae) is described from the gills of the stingray, Rhinoptera bonasus, collected from marine waters near Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche, Mexico. The species is assigned to Euzetia Chisholm and Whittington, 2001 because it has a haptor with 10 peripheral loculi and 1 central loculus flanked by 2 lateral loculi. The species described herein can be distinguished from the only known member of the genus, E.occultum, by the morphology of the male copulatory or...

  12. A new species of Euzetia (Monogenea: Monocotylidae on the gills of Rhinoptera bonasus (Rhinopteridae from Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche, México Una especie nueva de Euzetia (Monogenea: Monocotylidae de las branquias de Rhinoptera bonasus (Rhinopteridae de Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Pulido-Flores

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Euzetia lamothei n. sp. (Monogenea: Euzetiinae is described from the gills of the stingray, Rhinoptera bonasus, collected from marine waters near Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche, Mexico. The species is assigned to Euzetia Chisholm and Whittington, 2001 because it has a haptor with 10 peripheral loculi and 1 central loculus flanked by 2 lateral loculi. The species described herein can be distinguished from the only known member of the genus, E.occultum, by the morphology of the male copulatory organ, the vas deferens sigmoid, and the presence of a vaginal chamber. Euzetia lamothei n. sp. was found on 1 of 7 R.bonasus (14%. This species is the first record of a member of the genus from the neotropics, the first from Mexico, and the second report of a monocotylid from Rhinoptera.Se describe Euzetia lamothei n. sp. (Monogenea: Euzetiinae, parásito de la branquias de la mantarraya Rhinoptera bonasus, recolectada en Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche, México. Los ejemplares se asignaron a Euzetia Chisholm y Whittington, 2001 porque presentan un haptor con 10 loculi periféricos y 1 loculus central flanqueado por 2 loculi laterales. La especie aquí descrita se distingue de E.occultum por la morfología del órgano copulador, el vaso deferente sigmoide y la presencia de una cámara vaginal. Euzetia lamothei n. sp. se encontró en 1 de 7 R.bonasus (14%. Esta especie representa el primer registro de un miembro del género en el neotrópico, además es el primer registro en México, y el segundo de un monocotílido de Rhinoptera.

  13. Modeling elk and bison carrying capacity for Great Sand Dunes National Park, Baca National Wildlife Refuge, and The Nature Conservancy's Medano Ranch, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wockner, Gary; Boone, Randall; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2015-01-01

    Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve and the neighboring Baca National Wildlife Refuge constitute an extraordinary setting that offers a variety of opportunities for outdoor recreation and natural resource preservation in the San Luis Valley of Colorado. Adjacent to these federal lands, the Nature Conservancy (TNC) manages the historic Medano Ranch. The total land area of these three conservation properties is roughly 121,500 hectares (ha). It is a remote and rugged area in which resource managers must balance the protection of natural resources with recreation and neighboring land uses. The management of wild ungulates in this setting presents challenges, as wild ungulates move freely across public and private landscapes.

  14. Conserving genomic variability in large mammals: Effect of population fluctuations and variance in male reproductive success on variability in Yellowstone bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres Perez-Figueroa; Rick L. Wallen; Tiago Antao; Jason A. Coombs; Michael K. Schwartz; P. J. White; Gordon Luikart

    2012-01-01

    Loss of genetic variation through genetic drift can reduce population viability. However, relatively little is known about loss of variation caused by the combination of fluctuating population size and variance in reproductive success in age structured populations. We built an individual-based computer simulation model to examine how actual culling and hunting...

  15. Lesions associated with plerocerci (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) in the gastric wall of a cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill), (Myliobatiformes: Rhinopteridae) from the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucinska, J D; Bullard, S A

    2011-02-01

    We describe lesions associated with a seemingly intense infection of trypanorhynch plerocerci (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) in the gastric wall of a female cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus (Myliobatiformes: Rhinopteridae) captured in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Grossly, the multitude of encapsulated, encysted plerocerci imparted a bumpy and cobbled appearance to the serosa of the stomach, and none was observed in any other tissue during routine parasitological necropsy. Histologically, the plerocerci were associated with severe intramural granulomatous gastritis, vascular ectasia and mesothelial polyposis with the exclusion of the mucosa. To our knowledge, this is the first published case study documenting platyhelminth-associated histopathological changes in the gastrointestinal tract of R. bonasus as well as that of the efficacy of immunocytochemical markers for smooth muscle actin, Factor VIII, S-100, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in Myliobatiformes. It also may serve as a potential primer for much needed ecological investigations regarding the potential role of elasmobranchs as intermediate or 'paratenic' hosts in the life cycles of trypanorhynch cestodes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Radiocarbon chronologies and extinction dynamics of the Late Quaternary mammalian megafauna of the Taimyr Peninsula, Russian Federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacPhee, RDE; Tikhonov, AN; Mol, D; Maliave, CD; Van der Plicht, H; Greenwood, AD; Flemming, C; Agenbroad, L; MacPhee, Ross D.E.; Tikhonov, Alexei N.; Marliave, Christian de; Greenwood, Alex D.

    This paper presents 75 new radiocarbon dates based on late Quaternary mammal remains recovered from eastern Taimyr Peninsula and adjacent parts of the northern Siberian lowlands, Russian Federation, including specimens of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), steppe bison (Bison priscus), muskox

  17. Large native ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce Rickel

    2005-01-01

    This chapter addresses the large native ungulates (American bison (Bos bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) of the grasslands. The information presented includes...

  18. 76 FR 77006 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... final action is taken. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: Mountain Gorilla... samples from Eastern lowland gorillas (Gorilla berengei), for the purpose of enhancement of the survival... teeth from wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) from government-managed herds such as the Mackenzie...

  19. Brucellosis in the United States: Role and Significance of Wildlife Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory programs for brucellosis in domestic livestock have been active in the United States for almost 80 years. Wildlife reservoirs of brucellosis include bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) for B. abortus whereas B. suis is the predominant species infecting feral swine. The...

  20. Differences in activity level between cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) and Atlantic stingrays (Dasyatis sabina) are related to differences in heart mass, hemoglobin concentration, and gill surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Jeffrey M; Ding, A Adam; Bennett, Wayne A

    2012-10-01

    Aquatic animals are faced with the challenge of extracting oxygen from water, a medium that is metabolically expensive to ventilate and that contains just a fraction of the oxygen concentration relative to air, yet the physiologies of fishes have evolved to support a wide range of activity levels in nature. Oxygen delivery components, including gill surface area (oxygen uptake), blood chemistry (oxygen transport), and the heart (system pump), have been positively correlated to activity level in teleost fishes, yet relatively little is known about how these components are related to activity in elasmobranches. The current study addresses this question by examining heart mass, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit level, and gill surface area in wild-caught representatives of the benthic Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina) and active cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus). Allometric scaling exponents are similar for all four measures between the study species. Heart mass, gill surfaces areas, and hemoglobin concentrations were 2.1 times, approximately 7.1 times, and 2.0 times higher, respectively, in active cownose rays, when compared to benthic Atlantic stingrays, after correcting for differences in body mass. When considered in the context of functional plasticity within the oxygen delivery systems of benthic and active species, data from the current study indicate that higher activity levels in cownose rays are supported by modifications that, at least in part, are likely to enhance oxygen uptake.

  1. EVALUATION OF HEALTH PARAMETERS IN COWNOSE RAYS ( RHINOPTERA BONASUS) HOUSED IN A SEASONAL TOUCH POOL HABITAT COMPARED WITH AN OFF-EXHIBIT HABITAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James G; Naples, Lisa M; Van Bonn, William G; Kent, Angela D; Mitchell, Mark A; Allender, Matthew C

    2017-12-01

    Cownose rays ( Rhinoptera bonasus) are commonly displayed in zoo and aquarium touch pool exhibits; however, there is a gap in our understanding of how these practices might impact the health of these animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare selected health parameters in cownose rays housed in a seasonal outdoor exhibit touch pool system with abundant public contact and an indoor off-exhibit holding system with minimal human contact. All animals underwent physical examination, ultrasound, cloacal wash and cytology, and blood collection for complete blood counts, point-of-care blood analysis, plasma protein electrophoresis, and plasma cholesterol electrophoresis in May and October 2014. Physical examination, ultrasound, and cloacal wash cytology findings were all unremarkable for both groups of animals. Significant differences in health parameters among animals by location and time point were few and included decreased heart rate ( F = 12.158, P = 0.001), increased lactate ( F = 6.838, P = 0.012), and increased low-density lipoproteins ( F = 19.961, P = 0.000) in touch pool animals over time. Based on these results, cownose rays inhabiting a touch pool exhibit and an off-exhibit system remained in comparable planes of health based on routine diagnostic modalities with few differences in measured health parameters.

  2. WHOLE BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS TO TREAT SEVERE ANEMIA IN SEVEN COWNOSE RAYS ( RHINOPTERA BONASUS) AND ONE SHORT-TAIL STINGRAY ( DASYATIS BREVICAUDATA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaune, Alexa J McDermott; Field, Cara L; Clauss, Tonya M

    2017-12-01

    Blood transfusions can provide life-saving treatment to severely anemic animals. Due to limited availability and the difficulty of storing whole blood and blood products, such as fresh frozen plasma and packed red blood cells, exotic animals often receive fresh whole blood transfusions. Little is known about elasmobranch blood types and transfusions. Conspecific cross-matches within several different elasmobranch species were negative, indicating that in an emergency situation a single whole blood transfusion may be possible without causing a transfusion reaction. Experimental transfusions between healthy conspecific Atlantic rays ( Dasyatis sabina) showed no adverse reactions and autotransfusions in marbled electric rays ( Torpedo marmorata) were successful. There are no published reports of blood transfusions performed on clinically abnormal elasmobranchs. The following case series documents blood transfusions performed on seven cownose rays ( Rhinoptera bonasus) and one short-tail stingray ( Dasyatis brevicaudata). All rays were treated with the same protocol, which included pretreatment with steroids and antibiotics followed by an intravenous transfusion of freshly collected, heparinized, whole blood. Three animals survived and currently exhibit no abnormal clinical signs. Two animals died 55 days and 100 days post transfusion. Three animals died 2-22 days post transfusion. Although complications from blood transfusions could not be ruled out, all five animals that died had other health problems that likely contributed to their demise. All eight animals would almost certainly have died without a blood transfusion as they were severely anemic and moribund at the time of presentation. The methods described in this paper may be useful in the treatment of severely anemic elasmobranchs and this is the first report of blood transfusions in clinically abnormal elasmobranchs.

  3. The effect of ancient DNA damage on inferences of demographic histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Erik; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, Marcus Thomas Pius

    2008-01-01

    of diversity. In this paper, we examine the effect of DNA damage on population genetic estimates of ancestral population size. We simulate data using standard coalescent simulations that include postmortem damage and show that estimates of effective population sizes are inflated around, or right after......, the sampling time of the ancestral DNA sequences. This bias leads to estimates of increasing, and then decreasing, population sizes, as observed in several recently published studies. We reanalyze a recently published data set of DNA sequences from the Bison (Bison bison/Bison priscus) and show that the signal...

  4. Alberta Consumers' Valuation of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Red Meat Attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo; Gao, Fei; Unterschultz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes Alberta consumers’ perceptions toward extrinsic and intrinsic attributes of bison and beef steaks. In contrast to published Canadian consumer studies on bison meat that were undertaken prior to May 2003, before the first BSE case of Canadian origin was identified in beef cattle......, this study provides a “post-BSE” assessment of consumer perceptions toward selected bison meat attributes. The results from an attribute-based choice experiment provide little support that simple traceability assurance schemes have value to consumers of bison and beef steaks, thus confirming similar findings...

  5. 76 FR 36571 - Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Malta, MT; Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ...) Evaporation ponds and removal of salt residue, (3) Flushing by Beaver Creek, (4) Underground injection and..., Planning Team Leader, c/o National Bison Range, 58355 Bison Range Road, Moiese, MT 59824. Information... Thibadeau, and five alternatives for addressing the salinity and blowing salts issue on Bowdoin National...

  6. 78 FR 58269 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... important for the productivity and health of ranched bison; and Describe producer-reported occurrence of... identify and focus on vital issues related to bison health and productivity, facilitate the education of... purposes only and will be treated as confidential in accordance with CIPSEA guidelines. Only NAHMS staff...

  7. Prostaglandin E₂ production in mice is reduced by consumption of range-fed sources of red meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, K Shane; Rule, Daniel C; Handrich, Eldon

    2011-12-01

    Many view bison as a healthful alternative to other red meat sources, and as a way to decrease health risks, they associate it with meat consumption. Using mice as a model for immune function, we hypothesized that consumption of meat from range-fed bison would decrease prostaglandin (PG) E₂ and alter prostacyclin (PGI₂) release upon immune challenge when compared with mice fed meat from grain-finished bison, range-fed beef, feedlot steers, free-ranging elk, or chicken breast. After 2 weeks on an experimental diet and inflammatory stimulation, mouse peritoneal macrophage was isolated and analyzed in 12 animals per diet. Peritoneal cell arachidonic acid increased in response to a chicken-based diet (P meat of range-fed beef, range-fed bison, and elk but was highest with meat of grain-finished beef and intermediate in mice fed chicken (P meat had the greatest PGI₂, whereas PGI₂ was decreased in mice fed meat of either range bison, range beef, or chicken (P meat of steers or bison finished in a feedlot. We conclude that consumption of meats characteristic of range-fed ruminants or wild ungulates supports reduced PGE₂ and greater PGI₂ synthesis, indicating potentially greater immune health and lower blood clotting potential than meat from grain-finished cattle or bison in this model system. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Brucellosis Transmission between Wildlife and Livestock in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Inferences from DNA Genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael P; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Anderson, Neil; Ceballos, Ruben M; Edwards, William H; Harris, Beth; Wallen, Rick L; Costa, Vânia

    2017-04-01

    The wildlife of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem carries brucellosis, which was first introduced to the area by cattle in the 19th century. Brucellosis transmission between wildlife and livestock has been difficult to study due to challenges in culturing the causative agent, Brucella abortus . We examined B. abortus transmission between American bison ( Bison bison ), Rocky Mountain elk ( Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and cattle ( Bos taurus ) using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) markers on DNA from 98 B. abortus isolates recovered from populations in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, US. Our analyses reveal interspecies transmission. Two outbreaks (2007, 2008) in Montana cattle had B. abortus genotypes similar to isolates from both bison and elk. Nevertheless, similarity in elk and cattle isolates from the 2008 outbreak suggest that elk are the likely source of brucellosis transmission to cattle in Montana and Wyoming. Brucella abortus isolates from sampling in Montana appear to be divided in two clusters: one found in local Montana elk, cattle, and bison; and another found mainly in elk and a bison from Wyoming, which is consistent with brucellosis having entered Montana via migration of infected elk from Wyoming. Our findings illustrate complex patterns of brucellosis transmission among elk, bison, and cattle as well as the utility of VNTRs to infer the wildlife species of origin for disease outbreaks in livestock.

  9. Complex Admixture Preceded and Followed the Extinction of Wisent in the Wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wecek, Karolina; Hartmann, Stefanie; Paijmans, Johanna L A; Taron, Ulrike; Xenikoudakis, Georgios; Cahill, James A; Heintzman, Peter D; Shapiro, Beth; Baryshnikov, Gennady; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Crees, Jennifer J; Dobosz, Roland; Manaserian, Ninna; Okarma, Henryk; Tokarska, Malgorzata; Turvey, Samuel T; Wójcik, Jan M; Zyla, Waldemar; Szymura, Jacek M; Hofreiter, Michael; Barlow, Axel

    2017-03-01

    Retracing complex population processes that precede extreme bottlenecks may be impossible using data from living individuals. The wisent (Bison bonasus), Europe's largest terrestrial mammal, exemplifies such a population history, having gone extinct in the wild but subsequently restored by captive breeding efforts. Using low coverage genomic data from modern and historical individuals, we investigate population processes occurring before and after this extinction. Analysis of aligned genomes supports the division of wisent into two previously recognized subspecies, but almost half of the genomic alignment contradicts this population history as a result of incomplete lineage sorting and admixture. Admixture between subspecies populations occurred prior to extinction and subsequently during the captive breeding program. Admixture with the Bos cattle lineage is also widespread but results from ancient events rather than recent hybridization with domestics. Our study demonstrates the huge potential of historical genomes for both studying evolutionary histories and for guiding conservation strategies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. Department of Genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Full text: There are five independent research groups in the Department conducting the following lines of investigations: 1. Regulation of sulfur amino acid metabolism in fungi, focusing on cloning and characterisation of structural and regulatory genes in Aspergillus nidulans. 2. Identification and characterization of S. cerevisiae genes involved in the regulation of tRNA biosynthesis and control of translation fidelity in cytosolic and mitochondrial systems. 3. Mechanism of DNA repair and mutagenesis by using mutations in DNA polymerases, mismatch repair and radiation sensitivity genes to study their influence on the generation of mutations in nondividing, resting cells (adaptive mutations) in S. cerevisiae. 4. Pleiotropic effects of the S. cerevisiae IRR1 gene, particularily on colony formation and sister chromatid cohesion. 5. Regulation of heme synthesis in S. cerevisiae: the analysis of structure-function relationship of ferrochelatase (the last enzyme of the pathway). 6. Role of RSP5 the ubiquitin-protein ligase of S. cerevisiae in protein import to mitochondria and endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins. 7. Molecular analysis of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene in Polish 6-GDP deficient subjects. 8. Genetic and phylogenic studies of the Polish Bison bonasus population with the use of nuclear and mitochondrial markers

  11. Migrations and the introduction of wild ruminants as a source of parasite exchange and emergence of new parasitoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between European bison and cervidae is a good model for studies on the influence of migration and introduction of new species on the helmhninthofauna of wild ruminants and the occurrence of new parasitoses. Changes in the helminthofauna of bison and deer under the influence of changes in the environment and living conditions, as well as the introduction and migration of other species, are discussed in detail. The exchange of helminths between bison, cervids and domestic ruminants is demonstrated. Examples of helminth introduction from specific Cervidae species, the formation of the new host-parasite systems and the appearance of new parasitoses are also presented.

  12. 9 CFR 51.10 - Part 53 of this chapter not applicable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.10 Part 53 of this chapter not applicable. No claim for indemnity for animals destroyed because of brucellosis shall hereafter be paid under...

  13. An Archaeological Survey: Shoreline of Lake Darling and Proposed Burlington Dam. Flood Control Project Area, Upper Souris River, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    No cultural materials were collected from the site and only one, " . possibly historic, calcaneus bone (Bison bison) was observed at the site. The...within one piece. In some instances pockets of clearly visible quartz crystals may be seen in the cortex while the newly fractured surface shows a...covered entirely with cortex. A hinge fracture has terminated the majority of the artifact. Artifact Number 401-6: This finely made specimen is pyriform

  14. Analysis of Experimental Fuel Rod Parameters using 3D Modelling of PCMI with MPS Defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casagranda, Albert [Idaho National Laboratory; Spencer, Benjamin Whiting [Idaho National Laboratory; Pastore, Giovanni [Idaho National Laboratory; Novascone, Stephen Rhead [Idaho National Laboratory; Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory; Williamson, Richard L [Idaho National Laboratory; Martineau, Richard Charles [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-06-01

    An in-reactor experiment is being designed in order to validate the pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) behavior of the BISON fuel performance code. The experimental parameters for the test rod being placed in the Halden Research Reactor are being determined using BISON simulations. The 3D model includes a missing pellet surface (MPS) defect to generate large local cladding deformations, which should be measureable after typical burnup times. The BISON fuel performance code is being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and is built on the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework. BISON supports both 2D and 3D finite elements and solves the fully coupled equations for solid mechanics, heat conduction and species diffusion. A number of fuel performance effects are included using models for swelling, densification, creep, relocation and fission gas production & release. In addition, the mechanical and thermal contact between the fuel and cladding is explicitly modelled using a master-slave based contact algorithm. In order to accurately predict PCMI effects, the BISON code includes the relevant physics involved and provides a scalable and robust solution procedure. The depth of the proposed MPS defect is being varied in the BISON model to establish an optimum value for the experiment. The experiment will be interrupted approximately every 6 months to measure cladding radial deformation and provide data to validate BISON. The complete rodlet (~20 discrete pellets) is being simulated using a 180° half symmetry 3D model with MPS defects at two axial locations. In addition, annular pellets will be used at the top and bottom of the pellet stack to allow thermocouples within the rod to measure the fuel centerline temperature. Simulation results will be presented to illustrate the expected PCMI behavior and support the chosen experimental design parameters.

  15. Determination of Experimental Fuel Rod Parameters using 3D Modelling of PCMI with MPS Defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casagranda, Albert [Idaho National Laboratory; Spencer, Benjamin Whiting [Idaho National Laboratory; Pastore, Giovanni [Idaho National Laboratory; Novascone, Stephen Rhead [Idaho National Laboratory; Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory; Williamson, Richard L [Idaho National Laboratory; Martineau, Richard Charles [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-05-01

    An in-reactor experiment is being designed in order to validate the pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) behavior of the BISON fuel performance code. The experimental parameters for the test rod being placed in the Halden Research Reactor are being determined using BISON simulations. The 3D model includes a missing pellet surface (MPS) defect to generate large local cladding deformations, which should be measureable after typical burnup times. The BISON fuel performance code is being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and is built on the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework. BISON supports both 2D and 3D finite elements and solves the fully coupled equations for solid mechanics, heat conduction and species diffusion. A number of fuel performance effects are included using models for swelling, densification, creep, relocation and fission gas production & release. In addition, the mechanical and thermal contact between the fuel and cladding is explicitly modelled using a master-slave based contact algorithm. In order to accurately predict PCMI effects, the BISON code includes the relevant physics involved and provides a scalable and robust solution procedure. The depth of the proposed MPS defect is being varied in the BISON model to establish an optimum value for the experiment. The experiment will be interrupted approximately every 6 months to measure cladding radial deformation and provide data to validate BISON. The complete rodlet (~20 discrete pellets) is being simulated using a 180° half symmetry 3D model with MPS defects at two axial locations. In addition, annular pellets will be used at the top and bottom of the pellet stack to allow thermocouples within the rod to measure the fuel centerline temperature. Simulation results will be presented to illustrate the expected PCMI behavior and support the chosen experimental design parameters.

  16. Historic, pre-European settlement, and present-day contribution of wild ruminants to enteric methane emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to estimate historic (pre-European settlement) enteric CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants in the contiguous United States and compare these with present-day CH(4) emissions from farmed ruminants. The analysis included bison, elk (wapiti), and deer (white-tailed and mule). Wild ruminants such as moose, antelope (pronghorn), caribou, and mountain sheep and goat were not included in the analysis because their natural range is mostly outside the contiguous United States or because they have relatively small population sizes. Data for presettlement and present-day population sizes, animal BW, feed intake, and CH(4) emission factors were adopted from various sources. Present-day CH(4) emissions from livestock were from recent United States Environmental Protection Agency estimates. The most important factor determining CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants in the presettlement period was the size of the bison population. Overall, enteric CH(4) emissions from bison, elk, and deer in the presettlement period were about 86% (assuming bison population size of 50 million) of the current CH(4) emissions from farmed ruminants in the United States. Present-day CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants (bison, elk, and deer) were estimated at 0.28 Tg/yr, or 4.3% of the emissions from domestic ruminants. Due to its population size (estimated at 25 million), the white-tailed deer is the most significant present-day wild ruminant contributor to enteric CH(4) emissions in the contiguous United States.

  17. Nesting ecology of grassland birds following a wildfire in the southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Anthony J.; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, Heather A.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the response of nesting grassland birds occupying short-grass and mixed-grass prairie sites 2 and 3 y following two, large-scale wildfires that burned ≥360,000 ha in the Texas Panhandle in March 2006. Nest success was greater on burned plots compared to unburned plots, though this varied by species and year. Woody vegetation cover was greater around nests on unburned plots compared to burned plots for Cassin's sparrow (Peucaea cassinii) and lark sparrow (Chondestes grammacus). Cassin's sparrows and lark sparrows nested in more-woody vegetation than did grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum), and woody vegetation was reduced following the wildfires. The wildfires appear to have had few if any negative influences on the avian community 3 years postfire. This may be due to grassland breeding birds being adapted to landscapes in which, historically, periodic disturbance (e.g., wildfire, intensive grazing by bison [Bison bison]) resulted in vegetation heterogeneity.

  18. Genomics reveals historic and contemporary transmission dynamics of a bacterial disease among wildlife and livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Drees, Kevin P.; Luikart, Gordon; Quance, Christine; Anderson, Neil J.; Clarke, P. Ryan; Cole, Eric K.; Drew, Mark L.; Edwards, William H.; Rhyan, Jack C.; Treanor, John J.; Wallen, Rick L.; White, Patrick J.; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Cross, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing has provided fundamental insights into infectious disease epidemiology, but has rarely been used for examining transmission dynamics of a bacterial pathogen in wildlife. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), outbreaks of brucellosis have increased in cattle along with rising seroprevalence in elk. Here we use a genomic approach to examine Brucella abortus evolution, cross-species transmission and spatial spread in the GYE. We find that brucellosis was introduced into wildlife in this region at least five times. The diffusion rate varies among Brucella lineages (B3 to 8 km per year) and over time. We also estimate 12 host transitions from bison to elk, and 5 from elk to bison. Our results support the notion that free-ranging elk are currently a self-sustaining brucellosis reservoir and the source of livestock infections, and that control measures in bison are unlikely to affect the dynamics of unrelated strains circulating in nearby elk populations.

  19. Fuel Performance Calculations for FeCrAl Cladding in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Nathan; Worrall, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study expands upon previous neutronics analyses of the reactivity impact of alternate cladding concepts in boiling water reactor (BWR) cores and directs focus toward contrasting fuel performance characteristics of FeCrAl cladding against those of traditional Zircaloy. Using neutronics results from a modern version of the 3D nodal simulator NESTLE, linear power histories were generated and supplied to the BISON-CASL code for fuel performance evaluations. BISON-CASL (formerly Peregrine) expands on material libraries implemented in the BISON fuel performance code and the MOOSE framework by providing proprietary material data. By creating material libraries for Zircaloy and FeCrAl cladding, the thermomechanical behavior of the fuel rod (e.g., strains, centerline fuel temperature, and time to gap closure) were investigated and contrasted.

  20. 1978-1979 Cultural Resource Investigations along the Middle Sheyenne River Valley Including Lake Ashtabula and a Portion of the Sheyenne River. Volume 1,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    metacarpal (Bison?) found on beach, bison skull found on beach also. Nothing in cutbank. IF16 - NE , NE, SW , NW , Sec. 16, T142N - R58W: broken knife...Vehik’s 41j ;j2 -43 ) odseration. We did not observe (1979) materials that could refine -- eg bserat ons. Testing: None Interpretations: Exterior bossing ...is reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/6). Another rim is characterized by- having a boss below the lip and three horizontal lines of vertical iniin on the neck

  1. Warthog: Coupling Status Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Shane W. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reardon, Bradley T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The Warthog code was developed to couple codes that are developed in both the Multi-Physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and SHARP from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The initial phase of this work, focused on coupling the neutronics code PROTEUS with the fuel performance code BISON. The main technical challenge involves mapping the power density solution determined by PROTEUS to the fuel in BISON. This presents a challenge since PROTEUS uses the MOAB mesh format, but BISON, like all other MOOSE codes, uses the libMesh format. When coupling the different codes, one must consider that Warthog is a light-weight MOOSE-based program that uses the Data Transfer Kit (DTK) to transfer data between the various mesh types. Users set up inputs for the codes they want to run, and then Warthog transfers the data between them. Currently Warthog supports XSProc from SCALE or the Sub-Group Application Programming Interface (SGAPI) in PROTEUS for generating cross sections. It supports arbitrary geometries using PROTEUS and BISON. DTK will transfer power densities and temperatures between the codes where the domains overlap. In the past fiscal year (FY), much work has gone into demonstrating two-way coupling for simple pin cells of various materials. XSProc was used to calculate the cross sections, which were then passed to PROTEUS in an external file. PROTEUS calculates the fission/power density, and Warthog uses DTK to pass this information to BISON, where it is used as the heat source. BISON then calculates the temperature profile of the pin cell and sends it back to XSProc to obtain the temperature corrected cross sections. This process is repeated until the convergence criteria (tolerance on BISON solve, or number of time steps) is reached. Models have been constructed and run for both uranium oxide and uranium silicide fuels. These models demonstrate a clear difference in power shape that is not accounted for in a

  2. Cultural Resources Reconnaissance Along the Cheyenne River Arm of Lake Oahe in Dewey, Haakon, Stanley, and Ziebach Counties, South Dakota. Volume 1. Main Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    19. Frison, George C., Michael Wilson, and Diane J. Wilson 1976 Fossil Bison and Artifacts from an Early Altithermal Period Arroyo Trap in Wyoming...Resource Surveys at Pass Creek, Nelson Butte, Babby Butte, Squaw-Humper Creek and Cuny Table in Jackson (Washabaugh) and Shannon Counties, South

  3. 667 Louis Leakey and Mary Leakey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Resonance journal of science education. August 2015 Volume 20 Number 8 ... American Bison became nearly extinct around. 1890 (less than 300 ... Science Academies' Refresher Course in Experimental. Physics. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Developmental. Biology. 756. BOOK REVIEWS. 748 The Age of ...

  4. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cause of bovine abortion worldwide (Dubey,. I999) and several studies have demonstrated that a wide range ofdomestie and wild animals have been exposed to it with viable parasite isolated from only a few hosts (cattle, sheep, water buffalo, dog, horse, bison, white-tailed deer) (Dubey and Schares, 201 l). The domestic.

  5. Bottom-up versus top-down control of tree regeneration in the Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, D.P.J.; Cromsigt, J.P.G.M.; Jedrzejewska, B.A.; Miscicki, S.C.; Jedrzejewski, W.A.; Kweczlich, I.C.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the interactions between biotic and abiotic factors in structuring temperate forest communities by comparing tree recruitment after 7 years inside 30 pairs of exclosure (excluding ungulates: red deer, roe deer, bison, moose, wild boar) and control plots (7 × 7 m each) in one of the most

  6. Review of the 2012 Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in Domestic Ruminants in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Stevens

    Full Text Available An unusually large number of cases of Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD were observed in United States cattle and white-tailed deer in the summer and fall of 2012. USDA APHIS Veterinary Services area offices were asked to report on foreign animal disease investigations and state diagnostic laboratory submissions which resulted in a diagnosis of EHD based on positive PCR results. EHD was reported in the following species: cattle (129 herds, captive white-tailed deer (65 herds, bison (8 herds, yak (6 herds, elk (1 herd, and sheep (1 flock. A majority of the cases in cattle and bison were found in Nebraska, South Dakota, and Iowa. The majority of cases in captive white-tailed deer were found in Ohio, Iowa, Michigan, and Missouri. The most common clinical sign observed in the cattle and bison herds was oral lesions. The major observation in captive white-tailed deer herds was death. Average within-herd morbidity was 7% in cattle and bison herds, and 46% in captive white-tailed deer herds. The average within-herd mortality in captive white-tailed deer herds was 42%.

  7. 78 FR 4108 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Establishment of a Nonessential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ...). Factors leading to the extirpation of wood bison from Alaska most likely included unregulated hunting by... basis for sustainable development, including opportunities for local tourism, and, in the future... habitats. Their large size and social nature also make them relatively easy to monitor (e.g., by aerial...

  8. Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Peacekeeper Rail Garrison Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    attributed by some researchers to contact with Mesoamerica . The ROI is in the heart of the Caddo area, and numerous Caddoan sites have been recorded...These mammals include the mammoth, giant bison, camel, and giant sloth. Megawatt. One thousand kilowatts or one million watts. Mesoamerica . The region

  9. Threat Perception and Attitudes of Adolescents towards Re-Introduced Wild Animals: A Qualitative Study of Young Learners from Affected Regions in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Nadin; Menzel, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Conservation efforts such as the restoration of European bison or the support of wolf immigration into Germany are often socio-scientifically controversial. In many cases, disputes are based on individuals' threat perception and attitudes towards the animal involved. The herewith reported study provides qualitative insights into German…

  10. Psoroptic scabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, R.E.; Thorne, E. Tom; Kingston, Newton; Jolly, William R.; Bergstrom, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    Scabies, caused by mites of the genus Psoroptes, is widespread in free-ranging desert bighorn sheet, Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep, elk, and white-tailed deer. It has been identified on captive mule deer and may have been present on bison.

  11. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of...

  12. Cultural Resources Survey of the White Castle Revetment Item, Iberville, Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-06

    and camel , and most of the Bison species on which the Lithic stage economy had 0een largely based. 2. Certain fluctuations in rainfall and temperature...1974) presented a taxonomy of nineteenth century ceramic types; however, South’s taxonomy is not especially sensitive either to technological

  13. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Green River Launch Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-29

    horse, onager, mammoth, bison, camel , mountain goat, and others (Grayson 1982). Climatic fluctuations have occurred several times during the Holocene, as...Drago, Harry S. 1970. The Great Range Wars. New York: Dodds, Mead and Company.* Durrant, Stephen D. 1952. Mammals of Utah: Taxonomy and Distribution

  14. Cultural Resources Survey of Fall River Lake, Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    points. Additionally, the Paleo-Indlan period 1s marked by the utilization of extinct megafauna: mammoth, mastodon, horse, camel , and bison (the...34Stewardian Taxonomy and American Archeological Units." Journal of the Steward Society. 1 t 1 District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. n.d. "The

  15. Solar Magnetic Atmospheric Effects on Global Helioseismic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ematical structure of the model has since inspired many (Evans & Robert 1990,. 1991; Murawski & Roberts 1993b; Jain & Roberts 1991; Tirry et al. 1998; ..... studies have been made possible by the high quality data sets now available from the ground-based GONG and BiSON networks and instruments such as MDI on.

  16. 9 CFR 78.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... words: “All cattle and bison entering this facility must go directly to slaughter or a quarantined... abortus and found positive or reclassified as a brucellosis reactor by a designated epidemiologist as... suspicious (positive). Herds which are negative to the brucellosis ring test and which are not quarantined as...

  17. 75 FR 31743 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella that primarily affects cattle, bison, and swine. It causes the..., sheep, and horses are also susceptible to B. abortus. In horses, the disease is known as fistulous withers. A third strain of Brucella, B. melitensis, affects mainly goats and sheep. The regulations in 9...

  18. 9 CFR 51.8 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.8 Disinfection of..., conveyances, and materials, contaminated because of occupation or use by brucellosis reactor or exposed... adversely affect the Brucellosis Eradication Program; and except further, that the Administrator may, upon...

  19. 9 CFR 51.2 - Cooperation with States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.2 Cooperation with States. The Administrator has been delegated the authority to cooperate with the proper State authorities in the eradication of brucellosis and to pay indemnities for the destruction of brucellosis-reactor animals or brucellosis-exposed animals. ...

  20. 9 CFR 51.4 - Record of tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.4 Record of tests. The claimant shall be responsible for... affected, including the reactor tag number of each brucellosis reactor animal and the registration name and...

  1. 9 CFR 51.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.9 Claims not allowed. Claims for compensation for animals destroyed because of brucellosis shall not be allowed if any of the following circumstances exist: (a) If...

  2. Cultural Resources Investigations in the Vicinity of Fort Jackson, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana: The Proposed Solari Borrow Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    years ago. These pecple hunted, among other animals, now extinct mega - fauna such as the mastodon and giant bison. Lithic lanceolate projectile points... Fauna Due to the wetland setting of the lower delta of the Mississippi River, water essentially determines the landscape in the region of the study area

  3. Effects of exotic species on Yellowstone's grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Daniel P.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Mattson, D.J.; Gunther, Kerry A.

    2001-01-01

    Humans have affected grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) by direct mortality, competition for space and resources, and introduction of exotic species. Exotic organisms that have affected grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Area include common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), nonnative clovers (Trifolium spp.), domesticated livestock, bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). Some bears consume substantial amounts of dandelion and clover. However, these exotic foods provide little digested energy compared to higher-quality bear foods. Domestic livestock are of greater energetic value, but use of this food by bears often leads to conflicts with humans and subsequent increases in bear mortality. Lake trout, blister rust, and brucellosis diminish grizzly bears foods. Lake trout prey on native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) in Yellowstone Lake; white pine blister rust has the potential to destroy native whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) stands; and management response to bovine brucellosis, a disease found in the Yellowstone bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus), could reduce populations of these 2 species. Exotic species will likely cause more harm than good for Yellowstone grizzly bears. Managers have few options to mitigate or contain the impacts of exotics on Yellowstone's grizzly bears. Moreover, their potential negative impacts have only begun to unfold. Exotic species may lead to the loss of substantial highquality grizzly bear foods, including much of the bison, trout, and pine seeds that Yellowstone grizzly bears currently depend upon.

  4. 76 FR 50081 - Traceability for Livestock Moving Interstate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... cattle, regardless of age or sex or current use, that are of a breed(s) typically used to produce milk or... cattle industry. Previously, many cattle received official identification through USDA's vaccination program for brucellosis, which requires that certain young female cattle and bison (aged 4 to 12 months...

  5. POPULATIONS IN A TRANSVAAL LOWVELD NATURE RESERVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    however, it was found that predation was not an important regulating factor in the case of the bison ... open savanna of Kenya, where predation was found to be considerably overshadowed by other mortality factors .... decision as to whether an animal had died from starvation was based on a combination of findings, viz., the ...

  6. 78 FR 48183 - Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Commerce City, CO; Comprehensive Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... than 271 species of birds, such as bald eagles, burrowing owls, and Swainson's hawks; coyote and red..., including more than 120 species of birds, coyote and red fox, muskrat, raccoon, and beaver, deer, several...: Habitat and prey needs; protection [ssquf] Management of the bison herd [ssquf] The Refuges' urban and...

  7. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4, 24-28,. 1985). Two things have to be remembered here. Some animals like bison come to drink water tWIce a day. Secondly some animals could visit multiple waterholes the same day or some. (e.g. blackbuck) could postpone drinking water ...

  8. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... destroyed because of brucellosis. 51.5 Section 51.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis. (a) The claimant shall be responsible for...

  9. Managing brucellosis in wildlife costs more than expected benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine brucellosis is a contagious bacterial disease of cattle, elk, and bison which occurs in the U.S., primarily in the greater Yellowstone area (GYA) of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho. Brucellosis commonly causes infected pregnant animals to abort their calves. It can result in significant productio...

  10. 76 FR 48118 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis First Point Testing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ...] Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis First Point Testing of Cattle and Bison; Brucellosis Standard Card Test AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... request approval of an information collection associated with the State-Federal Brucellosis Eradication...

  11. DETOMIDINE AND BUTORPHANOL FOR STANDING SEDATION IN A RANGE OF ZOO-KEPT UNGULATE SPECIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouts, Tim; Dodds, Joanne; Berry, Karla; Arif, Abdi; Taylor, Polly; Routh, Andrew; Gasthuys, Frank

    2017-09-01

    General anesthesia poses risks for larger zoo species, like cardiorespiratory depression, myopathy, and hyperthermia. In ruminants, ruminal bloat and regurgitation of rumen contents with potential aspiration pneumonia are added risks. Thus, the use of sedation to perform minor procedures is justified in zoo animals. A combination of detomidine and butorphanol has been routinely used in domestic animals. This drug combination, administered by remote intramuscular injection, can also be applied for standing sedation in a range of zoo animals, allowing a number of minor procedures. The combination was successfully administered in five species of nondomesticated equids (Przewalski horse [ Equus ferus przewalskii; n = 1], onager [ Equus hemionus onager; n = 4], kiang [ Equus kiang ; n = 3], Grevy's zebra [ Equus grevyi ; n = 4], and Somali wild ass [ Equus africanus somaliensis; n = 7]), with a mean dose range of 0.10-0.17 mg/kg detomidine and 0.07-0.13 mg/kg butorphanol; the white ( Ceratotherium simum simum; n = 12) and greater one-horned rhinoceros ( Rhinoceros unicornis ; n = 4), with a mean dose of 0.015 mg/kg of both detomidine and butorphanol; and Asiatic elephant bulls ( Elephas maximus ; n = 2), with a mean dose of 0.018 mg/kg of both detomidine and butorphanol. In addition, the combination was successfully used for standing sedation in six species of artiodactylids: giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata; n = 3), western bongo ( Tragelaphus eurycerus eurycerus; n = 2), wisent ( Bison bonasus ; n = 5), yak ( Bos grunniens ; n = 1), water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ; n = 4) and Bactrian camel ( Camelus bactrianus ; n = 5). The mean dose range for artiodactylid species except bongo was 0.04-0.06 mg/kg detomidine and 0.03-0.06 mg/kg butorphanol. The dose in bongo, 0.15-0.20 mg/kg detomidine and 0.13-0.15 mg/kg butorphanol, was considerably higher. Times to first effect, approach, and recovery after antidote were short. The use of detomidine and butorphanol has

  12. Species-specific responses of Late Quaternary megafauna to climate and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline D; Nogués-Bravo, David; Orlando, Ludovic

    2011-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the roles of climate and humans in driving the dramatic extinctions of large-bodied mammals during the Late Quaternary period remain contentious. Here we use ancient DNA, species distribution models and the human fossil record to elucidate how climate and humans shaped...... the demographic history of woolly rhinoceros, woolly mammoth, wild horse, reindeer, bison and musk ox. We show that climate has been a major driver of population change over the past 50,000 years. However, each species responds differently to the effects of climatic shifts, habitat redistribution and human...... encroachment. Although climate change alone can explain the extinction of some species, such as Eurasian musk ox and woolly rhinoceros, a combination of climatic and anthropogenic effects appears to be responsible for the extinction of others, including Eurasian steppe bison and wild horse. We find no genetic...

  13. Disentangling the effects of climate, density dependence, and harvest on an iconic large herbivore's population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koons, David; Colchero, Fernando; Hersey, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relative effects of climate, harvest, and density dependence on population dynamics is critical for guiding sound population management, especially for ungulates in arid and semi-arid environments experiencing climate change. To address these issues for bison in southern Utah, we...... spring temperature could have a greater ‘relative effect’ on equilibrium abundance than either harvest or the strength of density dependence. Our findings highlight the utility of incorporating elasticity analyses into state-space population models, and the need to include climatic processes in wildlife...... applied a Bayesian state-space model to a 72-year time series of abundance counts. While accounting for known harvest (as well as live removal) from the population, we found that the bison population in southern Utah exhibited strong potential to grow from low density (β0 = 0.26; Bayesian credible...

  14. Black-tailed prairie dogs, cattle, and the conservation of North America's arid grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Sierra-Corona

    Full Text Available Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp. have been eliminated from over 95% of their historic range in large part from direct eradication campaigns to reduce their purported competition with cattle for forage. Despite the longstanding importance of this issue to grassland management and conservation, the ecological interactions between cattle and prairie dogs have not been well examined. We address this issue through two complementary experiments to determine if cattle and prairie dogs form a mutualistic grazing association similar to that between prairie dogs and American bison. Our experimental results show that cattle preferentially graze along prairie dog colony edges and use their colony centers for resting, resembling the mutualistic relationship prairie dogs have with American bison. Our results also show that prairie dog colonies are not only an important component of the grassland mosaic for maintaining biodiversity, but also provide benefits to cattle, thereby challenging the long-standing view of prairie dogs as an undesirable pest species in grasslands.

  15. NEAMS Update. Quarterly Report for January - March 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan, Marius [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This quarterly report covers the following points: A fully three-dimensional smeared cracking model has been implemented and tested in BISON; DAKOTA-BISON was used to study the parameters that govern heat transfer across the fuel-cladding; Calculations of grain boundary mobility in UO2 have been extended to high temperatures; Mesh adaptivity is being employed in MARMOT simulations to increase computational efficiency; Molecular dynamics simulations have shown correlation between atomic displacements and the anisotropic thermal conductivity in UO2; The SHARP team continues to address the application of the toolkit to assembly deformations driven by reactivity feedback; The Nek5000 team has extended the low-Machnumber capability to mixtures with multiple species; The generalized cross section library has been tested for various fuel assemblies and reactor types; and The subgroup cross-section interface was successfully implemented in PROTEUS-SN (page 6).

  16. Divergent evolution in the cytoplasmic domains of PRLR and GHR genes in Artiodactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Meng-Hua

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolactin receptor (PRLR and growth hormone receptor (GHR belong to the large superfamily of class 1 cytokine receptors. Both of them have been identified as candidate genes affecting key quantitative traits, like growth and reproduction in livestock. We have previously studied the molecular anatomy of the cytoplasmic domain of GHR in different cattle breeds and artiodactyl species. In this study we have analysed the corresponding cytoplasmic signalling region of PRLR. Results We sequenced PRLR gene exon 10, coding for the major part of the cytoplasmic domain, from cattle, American bison, European bison, yak, sheep, pig and wild boar individuals. We found different patterns of variation in the two receptors within and between ruminants and pigs. Pigs and bison species have no variation within GHR exon 10, but show high haplotype diversity for the PRLR exon 10. In cattle, PRLR shows lower diversity than GHR. The Bovinae PRLR haplotype network fits better the known phylogenetic relationships between the species than that of the GHR, where differences within cattle breeds are larger than between the different species in the subfamily. By comparison with the wild boar haplotypes, a high number of subsequent nonsynonymous substitutions seem to have accumulated in the pig PRLR exon 10 after domestication. Conclusion Both genes affect a multitude of traits that have been targets of selection after domestication. The genes seem to have responded differently to different selection pressures imposed by human artificial selection. The results suggest possible effects of selective sweeps in GHR before domestication in the pig lineage or species divergence in the Bison lineage. The PRLR results may be explained by strong directional selection in pigs or functional switching.

  17. Development of 3D Oxide Fuel Mechanics Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, B. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Casagranda, A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pitts, S. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jiang, W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-27

    This report documents recent work to improve the accuracy and robustness of the mechanical constitutive models used in the BISON fuel performance code. These developments include migration of the fuel mechanics models to be based on the MOOSE Tensor Mechanics module, improving the robustness of the smeared cracking model, implementing a capability to limit the time step size based on material model response, and improving the robustness of the return mapping iterations used in creep and plasticity models.

  18. Safety of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in non-target ungulates and coyotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreeger, Terry J; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Olsen, Steven C; Edwards, William H; Cook, Walter E

    2002-07-01

    Brucellosis is endemic in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) and bison (Bison bison) in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA; USA). It is possible that an oral brucellosis vaccine could be developed and disseminated in the GYA to reduce disease transmission. Should this occur, non-target species other than elk and bison may come in contact with the vaccine resulting in morbidity or mortality. To assess biosafety, bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis; n = 10), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana; n = 9), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus; n = 11), moose (Alces alces shirasi; n = 10), and coyotes (Canis latrans; n = 24) were given a single oral dose of at least 1.0 x 10(10) colony-forming units of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine (RB51). Animals were randomly divided into vaccinated and control groups. Ungulates were captured, blood sampled, and swabs taken from the nares, rectum, and vagina for bacterial culture on day 0, 42, and 84 post-inoculation (PI). On day 42, the vaccinated group became a control group and vice versa in a crossover design. Blood and swab samples were taken from coyotes on days 0, 14, 28, and 42 PI. There was no crossover for the coyote study. Two coyotes from each group were also euthanized and cultured for RB51 on days 42, 84, 168, and 336 PI. Blood samples were analyzed for hematologic changes and antibodies to RB51 using a modified dot-blot assay. No morbidity or mortality as a result of vaccination was observed in any animal. There were no differences in hematologic parameters at any time for ungulate species; vaccinated coyotes had higher hematocrit, hemoglobin, and eosinophil counts (P RB51. Strain RB51 was cultured from oropharyngeal lymph nodes from one coyote 42 days PI and from a moose 117 days PI. This study suggested that a single oral dose of RB51 was safe in these species.

  19. Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccination in elk. I. Efficacy of reduced dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Walter E; Williams, Elizabeth S; Thorne, E Tom; Kreeger, Terry J; Stout, Glen; Bardsley, Katie; Edwards, Hank; Schurig, Gerhardt; Colby, Lesley A; Enright, Fred; Elzer, Philip H

    2002-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis is a serious zoonotic disease affecting some populations of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and bison (Bison bison) in the Greater Yellowstone Area, USA. The fear that elk and/or bison may spread Brucella abortus to livestock has prompted efforts to reduce or eliminate the disease in wildlife. Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) vaccine has recently been approved for use in cattle. Unlike strain 19 vaccine, RB51 does not cause false positive reactions on standard brucellosis serologic tests. If effective, it may become the vaccine of choice for wildlife. In February 1995, 45 serologically negative female elk calves were trapped and taken to the Sybille Wildlife Research and Conservation Education Unit near Wheatland, Wyoming, USA. In May 1995, 16 of these elk calves were hand-vaccinated with 1 x 10(9) colony forming units (CFU) of RB51, 16 were vaccinated with 1 x 10(8) CFU RB51 by biobullet, and 13 were given a saline placebo. The elk were bred in fall of 1996 and they were challenged with 1 x 10(7) CFU of B. abortus strain 2308 by intraconjunctival inoculation in March 1997. Thirteen (100%) control elk aborted, 14 (88%) hand-vaccinated elk aborted, and 12 (75%) biobullet vaccinated elk aborted or produced nonviable calves. These results suggest that a single dose of 1 x 10(8) to 1 x 10(9) CFU RB51 does not provide significant protection against B. abortus induced abortion in elk. However, the vaccine appears to be safe at this dose and additional study may reveal a more effective RB51 vaccine regimen for elk.

  20. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Environmental Characteristics of Alternative Designated Deployment Areas, Native Americans (Texas/New Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-22

    encountered Apaches, Jicarillas, Conejeros, Ochos, and Rio Colorados on the Cimarron River and described Apaches (and Pueblos) as harvesting maize...Sangre de Cristo Mountains, the Raton Mountains, the Cimarron River, and the bison plains east of the Pecos in northeastern New Mexico. After 1750...68). Lt. Gilpen encountered Apache in his campaign along the Canadian, Cimarron , and Arkansas rivers. The Jicarilla ran off the horses of Adobe Fort

  1. Final Environmental Assessment for Utilization Enhancements at Melrose Air Force Range, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Skunk Spilogale gracilis SST Rocky and brushy areas in desert, grassland, and montane areas Unknown Swift Fox Vulpes velox SST Short to mid...AFR and has been observed during surveys on the land gift area. The western spotted skunk (Spilogale gracilis) is a state sensitive species in...Roosevelt County (BISON-M 2015). The spotted skunk has been recorded in a big spectrum of habitats varying from open lowlands to mountainous areas

  2. The Platform-Aware Compilation Environment (PACE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    HPCToolkit. PACE Compiler: • AAP: The code for the AAP is built on top of the open -source Xerces XML parser and the standard GNU utilities Bison and...Microsystems Technology Office (DARPA/MTO) 675 North Randolph Street Arlington, VA 22203‐2114 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY ACRONYM...can be mapped efficiently onto the system’s hardware. To achieve a reasonably high fraction of available performance with existing tools, the

  3. Archaeological Survey of Cooper Lake, Number 7. 1989. Cultural Resource Studies for Cooper Lake, Hopkins and Delta Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Tetromeryx shuleri), bison, camel , and possibly a large cat from Lake Tawakoni. Informant Jimmy Of all the avocational collectors interviewed, Ross has...Monthly Press, Austin. Stephenson, Robert L. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1950 Archaeological Survey of Texarkana 1975 Soil Taxonomy ...Philip Ceramic System in Southwestern Pottery 1958 Application of the Wheat-Gifford-Wasley Analysis. American Antiquity 12:226-237. Taxonomy to Eastern

  4. Archeological Testing of Sites 32CS42 and 32CS44, Cass County, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Clovis people subsisted main- ly on the flesh of large, terminal Pleistocene fauna, most notably mammouths but also bison, horses, and camels (Gregg...Bone fragments were categorized as either burned or unburned and examined for evidence of cultural modification or possible taxonomi - cal identification...Resources of Lake Sakakawea in Williams and McKenzie Count-ies, North Dakota: A Study in Culture and Taxonomy . I 1983. Principal Investigator

  5. Cultural Resources Survey of the Angelina Revetment Item, St. James Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-22

    including the elephant, horse, and camel , and most of the Bison species on which the Lithic stage economy had been largely based. 2. Certain...well developed (Noel Hume 1970), there is no comprehensive typology of nineteenth century ceramics. South (1974) presented a taxonomy of nineteenth...century ceramic types; however, South’s taxonomy is not especially sensitive either to technological developments or to relationships between certain

  6. Anisotropic Azimuthal Power and Temperature distribution on FuelRod. Impact on Hydride Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Arthur [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Ivanov, Kostadin [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Arramova, Maria [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Hales, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-29

    The degradation of the zirconium cladding may limit nuclear fuel performance. In the high temperature environment of a reactor, the zirconium in the cladding corrodes, releasing hydrogen in the process. Some of this hydrogen is absorbed by the cladding in a highly inhomogeneous manner. The distribution of the absorbed hydrogen is extremely sensitive to temperature and stress concentration gradients. The absorbed hydrogen tends to concentrate near lower temperatures. This hydrogen absorption and hydride formation can cause cladding failure. This project set out to improve the hydrogen distribution prediction capabilities of the BISON fuel performance code. The project was split into two primary sections, first was the use of a high fidelity multi-physics coupling to accurately predict temperature gradients as a function of r, θ , and z, and the second was to use experimental data to create an analytical hydrogen precipitation model. The Penn State version of thermal hydraulics code COBRA-TF (CTF) was successfully coupled to the DeCART neutronics code. This coupled system was verified by testing and validated by comparison to FRAPCON data. The hydrogen diffusion and precipitation experiments successfully calculated the heat of transport and precipitation rate constant values to be used within the hydrogen model in BISON. These values can only be determined experimentally. These values were successfully implemented in precipitation, diffusion and dissolution kernels that were implemented in the BISON code. The coupled output was fed into BISON models and the hydrogen and hydride distributions behaved as expected. Simulations were conducted in the radial, axial and azimuthal directions to showcase the full capabilities of the hydrogen model.

  7. Cultural Resources Reconnaissance Study of the Black Warrior-Tombigbee System Corridor, Alabama. Volume 2. Ethnohistory. A Documentary Study of Native American Life in the Lower Tombigbee Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    1981. "" personal communication.) What can be made of this amazing inventory ? These hunting-gathering bands had killed bison, fox, otter and marten, and...precise geographic location be known, since the ethnographic data is well supplied in the French records. There was a short portage necessary from the river...the Alabama River Valley," in Cultural Resources Inventory of The Jones Bluff Lake, Alabama River, Alabama, by Carey B. Oakley and G. Michael Watson

  8. Male-fertility-restorer mutation induced by x-rays in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Mutsuo; Nakata, Noboru; Yasumuro, Yoshimasa

    1982-01-01

    Some male-fertility restoring mutants were obtained by X-irradiation (20 or 25 kR, 105.3 R/min) of the air-dried seed of cytoplasmic male-sterile (cms) wheat, (timopheevi)-Bison. These X-ray induced male-fertility restoring mutant (Rfx) lines restored the male fertility of F 1 hybrids with cms (timopheevi)-Bison as female, but their fertility-restoring ability was not superior to that of known restorers such as Gironde, Primepi, and (t)-H30. The Rfx lines were also different from the original (timopheevi)-Bison, in many characters. The study on these multicharacter mutations with 18 morphological and physiological characters of the 7 M 6 line groups derived from the 7M 2 plants, revealed that each M 2 progenitor plant of each M 6 line-group had the mutant genes for almost all these characters, and that the mutation for at least half of all these mutant genes was induced in the original cell of the gamates of each X-irradiated M 1 plant. Considering the multicharacter mutations of the Rfx lines, a backcross method for the mutation breeding of male-fertility restorers in wheat was proposed. (Kaihara, S.)

  9. Safety of Brucella abortus strain RB51 in deer mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, W E; Williams, E S; Thorne, E T; Taylor, S K; Anderson, S

    2001-07-01

    Brucella abortus strain RB51 is an approved brucellosis vaccine for use in cattle that may have potential as an oral vaccine for use in elk (Cervus elaphus) and/or bison (Bison bison). This study was designed to determine effects of strain RB51 on deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), a nontarget species that could have access to treated baits in a field situation. In February 1994, 90 mice were orally dosed or intraperitoneally injected with 1 x 10(8) colony forming units strain RB51 and 77 controls were similarly dosed with sterile saline. At weekly intervals through early April 1994, 4 to 6 mice from each group were euthanized, gross necropsies performed, spleens and uteruses cultured, and tissues examined histologically. All orally inoculated mice cleared the infection by 6 wk post-inoculation (PI). While most of the injected mice cleared the infection by 7 wk PI, a few required 9 wk. There were minimal adverse effects attributable to strain RB51. Apparently, strain RB51 would not negatively impact P. maniculatus populations if it were used in a field situation. Also, deer mice appear to be able to clear the vaccine in 6 to 9 wk, thus the probability of these mice transmitting the vaccine to other animals is low.

  10. Enhanced immune response of red deer (Cervus elaphus) to live rb51 vaccine strain using composite microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M; Ficht, Thomas A; Davis, Donald S; Elzer, Philip H; Wong-Gonzalez, Alfredo; Rice-Ficht, Allison C

    2009-01-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease of nearly worldwide distribution. The occurrence of the infection in humans is largely dependent on the prevalence of brucellosis in animal reservoirs, including wildlife. The current vaccine used for cattle Brucella abortus strain RB51, has proven ineffective in protecting bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus nelsoni) from infection and abortion. To test possible improvements in vaccine efficacy, a novel approach of immunization was examined from April 2004 to November 2006 using alginate composite microspheres containing a nonimmunogenic, eggshell-precursor protein of the parasite Fasciola hepatica (Vitelline protein B, VpB) to deliver live vaccine strain RB51. Red deer (Cervus elaphus), used as a model for elk, were vaccinated orally (PO) or subcutaneously (SC) with 1.5x10(10) viable organisms per animal. Humoral responses postvaccination (immunoglobulin G [IgG] levels), assessed at different time points, indicated that capsules containing live RB51 elicited an anti-Brucella specific IgG response. Furthermore, the encapsulated vaccine elicited a cell-mediated response that the nonencapsulated vaccinates failed to produce. Finally, red deer were challenged with B. abortus strain 19 by conjunctival exposure. Only animals that received encapsulated RB51 vaccine by either route exhibited a significant reduction in bacterial counts in their spleens. These data suggest that alginate-VpB microspheres provide a method to enhance the RB51 vaccine performance in elk.

  11. Molecular identification of a yellow perch viral disease associated with exposure to oil sands process affected waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, N.; Van den Heuvel, M.; Phalen, L. [Prince Edward Island Univ., Charlottetown, PE (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Large volumes of tailings and process affected water are generated as a result of oil sand mining processes. This presentation discussed the safe incorporation of these wastes into the terrestrial and aquatic landscape. A study was conducted in which yellow perch were stocked into experimental ponds, namely Demonstration Pond and South Bison Pond, during the periods of 1995-1997 and 2008-2010. Demonstration Pond was comprised of mature fine tailings capped with natural surface water, while South Bison Pond was formed at a site surrounded by overburden or lean oil sands. Disease surveys were conducted at these experimental ponds and also at Mildred, Sucker, and Kimowin Lakes. External white nodular lesions, characteristic of lymphocystis disease were observed on perch at all sites except Kimowin Lake. The identity of the virus was confirmed by DNA extraction and PCR with genotype generic major capsid protein gene primers. The presence of lymphocystis disease virus in perch was confirmed through sequencing of PCR results. The viral genotype appeared to be different from any previously isolated viral genotype. During the course of the study, there was an increasing incidence of the disease at Demonstration Pond and a decreasing incidence at the South Bison Pond. The intensity of the disease was found to be proportional to the incidence, which was positively correlated with changes in naphthenic acid concentration.

  12. Disentangling the effects of climate, density dependence, and harvest on an iconic large herbivore's population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koons, David N; Colchero, Fernando; Hersey, Kent; Gimenez, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the relative effects of climate, harvest, and density dependence on population dynamics is critical for guiding sound population management, especially for ungulates in arid and semiarid environments experiencing climate change. To address these issues for bison in southern Utah, USA, we applied a Bayesian state-space model to a 72-yr time series of abundance counts. While accounting for known harvest (as well as live removal) from the population, we found that the bison population in southern Utah exhibited a strong potential to grow from low density (β0 = 0.26; Bayesian credible interval based on 95% of the highest posterior density [BCI] = 0.19-0.33), and weak but statistically significant density dependence (β1 = -0.02, BCI = -0.04 to -0.004). Early spring temperatures also had strong positive effects on population growth (Pfat1 = 0.09, BCI = 0.04-0.14), much more so than precipitation and other temperature-related variables (model weight > three times more than that for other climate variables). Although we hypothesized that harvest is the primary driving force of bison population dynamics in southern Utah, our elasticity analysis indicated that changes in early spring temperature could have a greater relative effect on equilibrium abundance than either harvest or. the strength of density dependence. Our findings highlight the utility of incorporating elasticity analyses into state-space population models, and the need to include climatic processes in wildlife management policies and planning.

  13. Molecular identification of a yellow perch viral disease associated with exposure to oil sands process affected waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, N.; Van den Heuvel, M.; Phalen, L.

    2010-01-01

    Large volumes of tailings and process affected water are generated as a result of oil sand mining processes. This presentation discussed the safe incorporation of these wastes into the terrestrial and aquatic landscape. A study was conducted in which yellow perch were stocked into experimental ponds, namely Demonstration Pond and South Bison Pond, during the periods of 1995-1997 and 2008-2010. Demonstration Pond was comprised of mature fine tailings capped with natural surface water, while South Bison Pond was formed at a site surrounded by overburden or lean oil sands. Disease surveys were conducted at these experimental ponds and also at Mildred, Sucker, and Kimowin Lakes. External white nodular lesions, characteristic of lymphocystis disease were observed on perch at all sites except Kimowin Lake. The identity of the virus was confirmed by DNA extraction and PCR with genotype generic major capsid protein gene primers. The presence of lymphocystis disease virus in perch was confirmed through sequencing of PCR results. The viral genotype appeared to be different from any previously isolated viral genotype. During the course of the study, there was an increasing incidence of the disease at Demonstration Pond and a decreasing incidence at the South Bison Pond. The intensity of the disease was found to be proportional to the incidence, which was positively correlated with changes in naphthenic acid concentration.

  14. The modification and evaluation of an ELISA test for the surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in wild ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruvot Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is often used to test wildlife samples for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP infection. However, commercially available kits are only validated for use with domestic ruminant species. A literature review was performed to document the current use of MAP serum ELISA in wild and semi-domestic ruminants. We then modified and evaluated a commercial ELISA kit (IDEXX Mycobacterium paratuberculosis Antibody Test Kit for use with species for which it was not originally developed: elk (Cervus elaphus, bison (Bison bison and caribou (Rangifer tarandus. We tested the affinity of different conjugates for immunoglobulin G (IgG isolated from these species, performed checkerboard tests to determine the optimal dilutions of samples and conjugates, and established cut-off values using two different methods: a Receiver Operational Curve on a panel of known samples for elk, and an alternate method involving a panel of unknown serum samples for the three species. Results We found that the anti-bovine conjugate included in the IDEXX ELISA kit has limited affinity for elk, bison, and caribou IgG. Protein G showed good affinity for IgG of all three species, while anti-deer conjugate also bound elk and caribou IgG. Using Protein G with elk serum, a cut-off sample-to-positive (S/P value of 0.22 was selected, resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 73% and 90%, respectively, whereas, using an anti-deer conjugate with elk serum, an S/P cut-off value of 0.29 gave a sensitivity of 68%, with 100% specificity. Cut-off values for bison and caribou using the Protein G conjugate were 0.17 and 0.25 respectively. Conclusions Due to incomplete reporting and a lack of test validation, it is difficult to critically appraise results of many sero-surveys that have previously been done for MAP in wildlife. Commercial ELISA kits may have limited or no capacity to detect antibodies from species other than for

  15. THE APPLICATION OF MAMMOTH FOR A DETAILED TIGHTLY COUPLED FUEL PIN SIMULATION WITH A STATION BLACKOUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleicher, Frederick; Ortensi, Javier; DeHart, Mark; Wang, Yaqi; Schunert, Sebastian; Novascone, Stephen; Hales, Jason; Williamson, Rich; Slaughter, Andrew; Permann, Cody; Andrs, David; Martineau, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Accurate calculation of desired quantities to predict fuel behavior requires the solution of interlinked equations representing different physics. Traditional fuels performance codes often rely on internal empirical models for the pin power density and a simplified boundary condition on the cladding edge. These simplifications are performed because of the difficulty of coupling applications or codes on differing domains and mapping the required data. To demonstrate an approach closer to first principles, the neutronics application Rattlesnake and the thermal hydraulics application RELAP-7 were coupled to the fuels performance application BISON under the master application MAMMOTH. A single fuel pin was modeled based on the dimensions of a Westinghouse 17x17 fuel rod. The simulation consisted of a depletion period of 1343 days, roughly equal to three full operating cycles, followed by a station blackout (SBO) event. The fuel rod was depleted for 1343 days for a near constant total power loading of 65.81 kW. After 1343 days the fission power was reduced to zero (simulating a reactor shut-down). Decay heat calculations provided the time-varying energy source after this time. For this problem, Rattlesnake, BISON, and RELAP-7 are coupled under MAMMOTH in a split operator approach. Each system solves its physics on a separate mesh and, for RELAP-7 and BISON, on only a subset of the full problem domain. Rattlesnake solves the neutronics over the whole domain that includes the fuel, cladding, gaps, water, and top and bottom rod holders. Here BISON is applied to the fuel and cladding with a 2D axi-symmetric domain, and RELAP-7 is applied to the flow of the circular outer water channel with a set of 1D flow equations. The mesh on the Rattlesnake side can either be 3D (for low order transport) or 2D (for diffusion). BISON has a matching ring structure mesh for the fuel so both the power density and local burn up are copied accurately from Rattlesnake. At each depletion time

  16. The fitting of general force-of-infection models to wildlife disease prevalence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisey, D.M.; Joly, D.O.; Messier, F.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers and wildlife managers increasingly find themselves in situations where they must deal with infectious wildlife diseases such as chronic wasting disease, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and West Nile virus. Managers are often charged with designing and implementing control strategies, and researchers often seek to determine factors that influence and control the disease process. All of these activities require the ability to measure some indication of a disease's foothold in a population and evaluate factors affecting that foothold. The most common type of data available to managers and researchers is apparent prevalence data. Apparent disease prevalence, the proportion of animals in a sample that are positive for the disease, might seem like a natural measure of disease's foothold, but several properties, in particular, its dependency on age structure and the biasing effects of disease-associated mortality, make it less than ideal. In quantitative epidemiology, the a??force of infection,a?? or infection hazard, is generally the preferred parameter for measuring a disease's foothold, and it can be viewed as the most appropriate way to a??adjusta?? apparent prevalence for age structure. The typical ecology curriculum includes little exposure to quantitative epidemiological concepts such as cumulative incidence, apparent prevalence, and the force of infection. The goal of this paper is to present these basic epidemiological concepts and resulting models in an ecological context and to illustrate how they can be applied to understand and address basic epidemiological questions. We demonstrate a practical approach to solving the heretofore intractable problem of fitting general force-of-infection models to wildlife prevalence data using a generalized regression approach. We apply the procedures to Mycobacterium bovis (bovine tuberculosis) prevalence in bison (Bison bison) in Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada, and demonstrate strong age dependency in the force of

  17. Ice-age megafauna in Arctic Alaska: extinction, invasion, survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Daniel H.; Groves, Pamela; Kunz, Michael L.; Reanier, Richard E.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.

    2013-01-01

    Radical restructuring of the terrestrial, large mammal fauna living in arctic Alaska occurred between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age. Steppe bison, horse, and woolly mammoth became extinct, moose and humans invaded, while muskox and caribou persisted. The ice age megafauna was more diverse in species and possibly contained 6× more individual animals than live in the region today. Megafaunal biomass during the last ice age may have been 30× greater than present. Horse was the dominant species in terms of number of individuals. Lions, short-faced bears, wolves, and possibly grizzly bears comprised the predator/scavenger guild. The youngest mammoth so far discovered lived ca 13,800 years ago, while horses and bison persisted on the North Slope until at least 12,500 years ago during the Younger Dryas cold interval. The first people arrived on the North Slope ca 13,500 years ago. Bone-isotope measurements and foot-loading characteristics suggest megafaunal niches were segregated along a moisture gradient, with the surviving species (muskox and caribou) utilizing the warmer and moister portions of the vegetation mosaic. As the ice age ended, the moisture gradient shifted and eliminated habitats utilized by the dryland, grazing species (bison, horse, mammoth). The proximate cause for this change was regional paludification, the spread of organic soil horizons and peat. End-Pleistocene extinctions in arctic Alaska represent local, not global extinctions since the megafaunal species lost there persisted to later times elsewhere. Hunting seems unlikely as the cause of these extinctions, but it cannot be ruled out as the final blow to megafaunal populations that were already functionally extinct by the time humans arrived in the region.

  18. Stable isotope labeling confirms mixotrophic nature of streamer biofilm communities at alkaline hot springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eSchubotz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Streamer biofilm communities (SBC are often observed within chemosynthetic zones of Yellowstone hot spring outflow channels, where temperatures exceed those conducive to photosynthesis. Nearest the hydrothermal source (75-88°C SBC comprise thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria, often mixed communities including Desulfurococcales and uncultured Crenarchaeota, as well as Aquificae, Thermus, each carrying diagnostic membrane lipid biomarkers. We tested the hypothesis that SBC can alternate their metabolism between autotrophy and heterotrophy depending on substrate availability. Feeding experiments were performed at two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park: Octopus Spring and ‘Bison Pool’, using various 13C-labeled substrates (bicarbonate, formate, acetate and glucose to determine the relative uptake of these different carbon sources. Highest 13C uptake, at both sites, was from acetate into almost all bacterial fatty acids, particularly into methyl-branched C15, C17 and C19 fatty acids that are diagnostic for Thermus/Meiothermus and some Firmicutes as well as into universally common C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. 13C-glucose showed a similar, but a 10 to 30 times lower uptake across most fatty acids. 13C bicarbonate uptake, signifying the presence of autotrophic communities was only significant at ‘Bison Pool’ and was observed predominantly in non-specific saturated C16, C18, C20 and C22 fatty acids. Incorporation of 13C-formate occurred only at very low rates at ‘Bison Pool’ and was almost undetectable at Octopus Spring, suggesting that formate is not an important carbon source for SBC. 13C uptake into archaeal lipids occurred predominantly with 13C acetate, suggesting also that archaeal communities at both springs have primarily heterotrophic carbon assimilation pathways. We hypothesize that these communities are energy-limited and predominantly nurtured by input of exogenous organic material, with only a small fraction being

  19. Immune responses of elk to initial and booster vaccinations with Brucella abortus strain RB51 or 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S C; Fach, S J; Palmer, M V; Sacco, R E; Stoffregen, W C; Waters, W R

    2006-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that currently available brucellosis vaccines induce poor or no protection in elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). In this study, we characterized the immunologic responses of elk after initial or booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strains RB51 (SRB51) and 19 (S19). Elk were vaccinated with saline or 10(10) CFU of SRB51 or S19 (n=seven animals/treatment) and booster vaccinated with a similar dosage of the autologous vaccine at 65 weeks. Compared to nonvaccinates, elk vaccinated with SRB51 or S19 had greater (P0.05) from the responses of nonvaccinated elk. Gamma interferon production in response to autologous or nonautologous Brucella antigens did not differ (P>0.05) between controls and vaccinates after booster vaccination. Flow cytometric techniques suggested that proliferation occurred more frequently in immunoglobulin M-positive cells, with differences between vaccination and control treatments in CD4+ and CD8+ subset proliferation detected only at 22 weeks after initial vaccination. After booster vaccination, one technique ([3H]thymidine incorporation) suggested that proliferative responses to SRB51 antigen, but not S19 antigen, were greater (PBrucella antigens in S19 or SRB51 vaccinates after booster vaccination. Although some cellular immune responses were detected after initial or booster vaccination of elk with SRB51 or S19, our data suggest that responses tend to be transient and much less robust than previously reported in SRB51-vaccinated cattle (Bos taurus) or bison (Bison bison). These data may explain why the vaccination of elk with S19 and SRB51 induces poor protection against brucellosis.

  20. Histophilosis as a Natural Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, D; Sondgeroth, K S

    2016-01-01

    Histophilus somni is responsible for sporadic disease worldwide in cattle and, to a lesser extent, in small ruminants, bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and North American bison (Bison bison). The importance of H. somni diseases can be attributed to improved clinical and laboratory recognition, combined with the growth in intensive management practices for cattle. Although outbreaks of bovine histophilosis can occur year-round, in northern and southern hemispheres, it is most frequent in late fall and early winter. Weather, stress, dietary changes, and comingling of cattle are likely to be major triggers for outbreaks. The most frequent clinical expressions of histophilosis include undifferentiated fever, fibrinosuppurative pneumonia, encephalitis-leptomeningitis, necrotizing myocarditis, and diffuse pleuritis. Neurological disease occurs either as thrombotic meningoencephalitis (TME) or as suppurative meningitis with ventriculitis. Acute myocarditis is characteristically necrotizing and generally involves one or both papillary muscles in the left ventricular myocardium. Biofilm-like aggregates of bacteria occur in capillaries and veins in myocardium, in the central nervous system, and on endocardial surfaces. H. somni is a component of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex. In our experience, it is most commonly diagnosed in subacute-to-chronic polymicrobial pulmonary infections in combination with Mannheimia haemolytica, Trueperella pyogenes, Pasteurella multocida, or Mycoplasma bovis. Other, less common forms of H. somni disease present as polyarthritis/tenosynovitis, abortion with placentitis and fetal septicemia, epididymitis-orchitis, and ocular infections. It is likely that H. somni is under-recognized clinically and diagnostically. Most state and provincial laboratories in North America rely on bacterial isolation to confirm infection. The use of more sensitive detection methods on field cases of histophilosis will help resolve the pathogenesis of H

  1. Impact of rewilding, species introductions and climate change on the structure and function of the Yukon boreal forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Rudy; Boutin, Stan; Jung, Thomas S; Krebs, Charles J; Taylor, Shawn

    2018-03-01

    Community and ecosystem changes are happening in the pristine boreal forest ecosystem of the Yukon for 2 reasons. First, climate change is affecting the abiotic environment (temperature, rainfall and growing season) and driving changes in plant productivity and predator-prey interactions. Second, simultaneously change is occurring because of mammal species reintroductions and rewilding. The key ecological question is the impact these faunal changes will have on trophic dynamics. Primary productivity in the boreal forest is increasing because of climatic warming, but plant species composition is unlikely to change significantly during the next 50-100 years. The 9-10-year population cycle of snowshoe hares will persist but could be reduced in amplitude if winter weather increases predator hunting efficiency. Small rodents have increased in abundance because of increased vegetation growth. Arctic ground squirrels have disappeared from the forest because of increased predator hunting efficiency associated with shrub growth. Reintroductions have occurred for 2 reasons: human reintroductions of large ungulates and natural recolonization of mammals and birds extending their geographic ranges. The deliberate rewilding of wood bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus canadensis) has changed the trophic structure of this boreal ecosystem very little. The natural range expansion of mountain lions (Puma concolor), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and American marten (Martes americana) should have few ecosystem effects. Understanding potential changes will require long-term monitoring studies and experiments on a scale we rarely deem possible. Ecosystems affected by climate change, species reintroductions and human alteration of habitats cannot remain stable and changes will be critically dependent on food web interactions. © 2017 The Authors. Integrative Zoology published by International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John

  2. Carnivore repatriation and holarctic prey: narrowing the deficit in ecological effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel

    2007-08-01

    The continuing global decline of large carnivores has catalyzed great interest in reintroduction to restore populations and to reestablish ecologically functional relationships. I used variation in the distribution of four Holarctic prey species and their behavior as proxies to investigate the pace and intensity by which responses are lost or reinvigorated by carnivore repatriation. By simulating the presence of wolves (Canis lupus), tigers (Panthera tigris), and brown bears (Ursus arctos) at 19 transcontinental sites, I assayed three metrics of prey performance in areas with no large terrestrial carnivores (the polar islands of Greenland and Svalbard), extant native carnivores (Eastern Siberian Shield, boreal Canada, and Alaska); and repatriated carnivores (the Yellowstone region and Rocky Mountains). The loss and reestablishment of large carnivores changed the ecological effectiveness of systems by (1) dampening immediate group benefits, diminishing awareness, and diminishing flight reaction in caribou (Rangifer tarandus) where predation was eliminated and (2) reinstituting sensitivity to carnivores by elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces) in the Yellowstone region to levels observed in Asian elk when sympatric with Siberian tigers and wolves or in Alaskan moose sympatric with wolves. Behavioral compensation to reintroduced carnivores occurred within a single generation, but only the vigilance reaction of bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone exceeded that of their wolf-exposed conspecifics from boreal Canada. Beyond these overt responses by prey, snow depth and distance to suitably vegetated habitat was related to heightened vigilance in moose and elk, respectively, but only at sites with carnivores. These findings are insufficient to determine whether similar patterns might apply to other species or in areas with alien predators, and they suggest that the presumed excessive vulnerability of naïve prey to repatriated carnivores may be ill-founded. Although

  3. Efficacy of single calfhood vaccination of elk with Brucella abortus strain 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, T.J.; Jones, L.C.; Coffin, K.; Drew, M.L.; Sweeney, Steven J.; Hagius, S.D.; Elzer, P.H.; Davis, D.

    2004-01-01

    Brucellosis has been eradicated from cattle in the states of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho, USA. However, free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) that use feedgrounds in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks still have high seroprevalence to the disease and have caused loss of brucellosis-free status in Wyoming. Management tools to control or eliminate the disease are limited; however, wildlife vaccination is among the methods currently used by wildlife managers in Wyoming. We conducted a controlled challenge study of single calfhood vaccination. Elk calves, caught in January and February of 1999 and 2000 and acclimated to captivity for 3 weeks, were randomly assigned to control or vaccinate groups. The vaccinate groups received Brucetta abortus vaccine strain 19 (S19) by hand-delivered intramuscular injection. Calves were raised to adulthood and bred at either 2.5 or 3.5 years of age for 2000 and 1999 captures, respectively. Eighty-nine (44 controls, 45 vaccinates) pregnant elk entered the challenge portion of the study. We challenged elk at mid-gestation with pathogenic B. abortus strain 2308 by intraconjunctival instillation. Abortion occurred in significantly more (P = 0.002) controls (42; 93%) than vaccinates (32; 71%), and vaccine protected 25% of the vaccinate group. We used Brucella culture of fetus/calf tissues to determine the efficacy of vaccination for preventing infection, and we found that the number of infected fetuses/calves did not differ between controls and vaccinates (P = 0.14). Based on these data, single calfhood vaccination with S19 has low efficacy, will likely have only little to moderate effect on Brucella prevalence in elk, and is unlikely to eradicate the disease in wildlife of the GYA.

  4. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (II): Cost-benefit analysis of reducing elk brucellosis prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroff, Kari; Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Maichak, Eric; Scurlock, Brandon; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-11-01

    Recent cases of bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in cattle (Bos taurus) and domestic bison (Bison bison) of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area (SGYA) have been traced back to free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus). Several management activities have been implemented to reduce brucellosis seroprevalence in elk, including test-and-slaughter, low-density feeding at elk winter feedgrounds, and elk vaccination. It is unclear which of these activities are most cost-effective at reducing the risk of elk transmitting brucellosis to cattle. In a companion paper, a stochastic risk model was used to translate a reduction in elk seroprevalence to a reduction in the risk of transmission to cattle. Here, we use those results to estimate the expected economic benefits and costs of reducing seroprevalence in elk using three different management activities: vaccination of elk with Brucella strain 19 (S19), low-density feeding of elk, and elk test-and-slaughter. Results indicate that the three elk management activities yield negative expected net benefits, ranging from -$2983 per year for low-density feeding to -$595,471 per year for test-and-slaughter. Society's risk preferences will determine whether strategies that generate small negative net benefit, such as low-density feeding, are worth implementing. However, activities with large negative net benefits, such as test-and-slaughter and S19 vaccination, are unlikely to be economically worthwhile. Given uncertainty about various model parameters, we identify some circumstances in which individual management activities might generate positive expected net benefit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biofilm function and variability in a hydrothermal ecosystem: insights from environmental genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Raymond, J.; Shock, E. L.

    2007-12-01

    The ability to adapt to variable environmental conditions is key to survival for all organisms, but may be especially crucial to microorganisms in extreme environments such as hydrothermal systems. Streamer biofilm communities (SBCs) made up of thermophilic chemotrophic microorganisms are common in alkaline-chloride geothermal environments worldwide, but the in situ physiochemical growth parameters and requirements of SBCs are largely unknown [1]. Hot springs in Yellowstone National Park's alkaline geyser basins support SBC growth. However, despite the relative geochemical homogeneity of source pools and widespread ecosystem suitability in these regions (as indicated by energetic profiling [2]), SBCs are not ubiquitous in these ecosystems. The ability of hydrothermal systems to support the growth of SBCs, the relationship between these geochemically driven environments and the microbes that live there, and the function of individuals in these communities are aspects that are adressed here by applying environmental genomics. Analysis of 16S rRNA and total membrane lipid extracts have revealed that community composition of SBCs in "Bison Pool" varies as a function of changing environmental conditions along the outflow channel. In addition, a significant crenarchaeal component was discovered in the "Bison Pool" SBCs. In general, the SBC bacterial diversity triples while the archaeal component varies little (from 3 to 2 genera) in a 5-10°C gradient with distance from the source. While these SBCs are low in overall diversity, the majority of the taxa identified represent uncultured groups of Bacteria and Archaea. As a result, the community function of these taxa and their role in the formation of the biofilms is unknown. However, recent genomic analysis from environmental DNA affords insight into the roles of specific organisms within SBCs at "Bison Pool," and integration of these data with an extensive corresponding geochemical dataset may indicate shifting community

  6. Phylogenetic reconstruction and the identification of ancient polymorphism in the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacEachern Sean

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bovinae subfamily incorporates an array of antelope, buffalo and cattle species. All of the members of this subfamily have diverged recently. Not surprisingly, a number of phylogenetic studies from molecular and morphological data have resulted in ambiguous trees and relationships amongst species, especially for Yak and Bison species. A partial phylogenetic reconstruction of 13 extant members of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae from 15 complete or partially sequenced autosomal genes is presented. Results We identified 3 distinct lineages after the Bovini split from the Boselaphini and Tragelaphini tribes, which has lead to the (1 Buffalo clade (Bubalus and Syncerus species and a more recent divergence leading to the (2 Banteng, Gaur and Mithan and (3 Domestic cattle clades. A fourth lineage may also exist that leads to Bison and Yak. However, there was some ambiguity as to whether this was a divergence from the Banteng/Gaur/Mithan or the Domestic cattle clade. From an analysis of approximately 30,000 sites that were amplified in all species 133 sites were identified with ambiguous inheritance, in that all trees implied more than one mutation at the same site. Closer examination of these sites has identified that they are the result of ancient polymorphisms that have subsequently undergone lineage sorting in the Bovini tribe, of which 53 have remained polymorphic since Bos and Bison species last shared a common ancestor with Bubalus between 5–8 million years ago (MYA. Conclusion Uncertainty arises in our phylogenetic reconstructions because many species in the Bovini diverged over a short period of time. It appears that a number of sites with ambiguous inheritance have been maintained in subsequent populations by chance (lineage sorting and that they have contributed to an association between Yak and Domestic cattle and an unreliable phylogenetic reconstruction for the Bison/Yak clade. Interestingly, a number of these

  7. Phylogenetic reconstruction and the identification of ancient polymorphism in the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachern, Sean; McEwan, John; Goddard, Mike

    2009-04-24

    The Bovinae subfamily incorporates an array of antelope, buffalo and cattle species. All of the members of this subfamily have diverged recently. Not surprisingly, a number of phylogenetic studies from molecular and morphological data have resulted in ambiguous trees and relationships amongst species, especially for Yak and Bison species. A partial phylogenetic reconstruction of 13 extant members of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae) from 15 complete or partially sequenced autosomal genes is presented. We identified 3 distinct lineages after the Bovini split from the Boselaphini and Tragelaphini tribes, which has lead to the (1) Buffalo clade (Bubalus and Syncerus species) and a more recent divergence leading to the (2) Banteng, Gaur and Mithan and (3) Domestic cattle clades. A fourth lineage may also exist that leads to Bison and Yak. However, there was some ambiguity as to whether this was a divergence from the Banteng/Gaur/Mithan or the Domestic cattle clade. From an analysis of approximately 30,000 sites that were amplified in all species 133 sites were identified with ambiguous inheritance, in that all trees implied more than one mutation at the same site. Closer examination of these sites has identified that they are the result of ancient polymorphisms that have subsequently undergone lineage sorting in the Bovini tribe, of which 53 have remained polymorphic since Bos and Bison species last shared a common ancestor with Bubalus between 5-8 million years ago (MYA). Uncertainty arises in our phylogenetic reconstructions because many species in the Bovini diverged over a short period of time. It appears that a number of sites with ambiguous inheritance have been maintained in subsequent populations by chance (lineage sorting) and that they have contributed to an association between Yak and Domestic cattle and an unreliable phylogenetic reconstruction for the Bison/Yak clade. Interestingly, a number of these aberrant sites are in coding sections of the genome

  8. A butchered bone from Norfolk: evidence for very early human presence in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Parfitt

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Before the Anglian glaciation some 450,000 years ago, much of England was drained by large rivers that deposited sediments - known as the Cromer Forest-bed Formation - now exposed along the coast of East Anglia. The Forest-bed has yielded a great variety of fossils but until now no definite evidence of human activity. The recent discovery of cut marks on a bison bone collected from it in the nineteenth century demonstrates conclusively that humans were present in this part of East Anglia over half a million years ago.

  9. Thiamin, riboflavin, and alpha-tocopherol content of exotic meats and loss due to gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakritz, L; Fox, J B; Thayer, D W

    1998-12-01

    Changes in thiamin, riboflavin, and alpha-tocopherol concentrations due to gamma irradiation were followed in alligator, caiman, bison, and ostrich (exotic) meats. The proximate composition showed that the exotic meats generally had lower fat content than domestic animal meats and that the thiamin content of the reptiles was lower. The changes in the vitamins due to irradiation were similar to those previously observed for domestic species. The results indicate that the loss of vitamins in these species is negligible insofar as the American diet is concerned, and that the concept of "chemiclearance" is applicable to exotic meats.

  10. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Saginaw Army Aircraft Plant, Tarrant County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-28

    megafauna following the beginning of the Holocene, bison, mule deer, antelope, wapiti, and moose became the domi- nant herbivores. The extinction of the... megafauna resulted in the demise and eventual extinction of several predator species, including the Machaerodontidae (sabertooth tigers), dire wolf...a: : c so3~ 4’ 0 AaldC 00 U u O .- 4 041Le 0e -0 0 0 so ’a a 416 u 41W 4 41 a’ Ce 96’ - A- .4 d P2-4 0060D-4 - now-extinct Pleistocene megafauna , at

  11. The Behavior and Ecology of Cursorial Predators and Dangerous Prey: Integrating Behavioral Mechanisms with Population-level Patterns in Large Mammal Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tallian, Aimee

    2017-01-01

    Driving into Yellowstone National Park for the first time is a moving experience. Gazing over the sweeping landscapes, seeing a geyser erupt 80 feet into the air, and having your first ‘wildlife encounter’, whether that be a 2 ton bull bison aggressively wallowing on his dirt mound, snorting and kicking up dust, or watching a pack of 6 wolves move through a valley off in the distance, pausing to howl in search of their companions. Yellowstone staff wishes to manage our park in a way that pres...

  12. Evolutionary patterns of two major reproduction candidate genes (Zp2 and Zp3 reveal no contribution to reproductive isolation between bovine species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beja-Pereira Albano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been established that mammalian egg zona pellucida (ZP glycoproteins are responsible for species-restricted binding of sperm to unfertilized eggs, inducing the sperm acrosome reaction, and preventing polyspermy. In mammals, ZP apparently represents a barrier to heterospecific fertilization and thus probably contributes to reproductive isolation between species. The evolutionary relationships between some members of the tribe Bovini are complex and highly debatable, particularly, those involving Bos and Bison species for which interspecific hybridization is extensively documented. Because reproductive isolation is known to be a major precursor of species divergence, testing evolutionary patterns of ZP glycoproteins may shed some light into the speciation process of these species. To this end, we have examined intraspecific and interspecific genetic variation of two ZP genes (Zp2 and Zp3 for seven representative species (111 individuals from the Bovini tribe, including five species from Bos and Bison, and two species each from genera Bubalus and Syncerus. Results A pattern of low levels of intraspecific polymorphism and interspecific divergence was detected for the two sequenced fragments each for Zp2 and Zp3. At intraspecific level, none of neutrality tests detected deviations from neutral equilibrium expectations for the two genes. Several haplotypes in both genes were shared by multiple species from Bos and Bison. Conclusions Here we argue that neither ancestral polymorphism nor introgressive hybridization alone can fully account for haplotype sharing among species from Bos and Bison, and that both scenarios have contributed to such a pattern of haplotype sharing observed here. Additionally, codon-based tests revealed strong evidence for purifying selection in the Zp3 coding haplotype sequences and weak evidence for purifying selection in the Zp2 coding haplotype sequences. Contrary to a general genetic pattern that

  13. Cultural Resources Investigation of the Reservoir Shorelines: Gull Lake, Leech Lake, Pine River, and Lake Pokegama. Volume 1,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    conoidal vessels, lithic projectile points that are long, side notched triangles, conical bone projectile points, wood working tools of beaver incisors...Private Cultural Affiliation: Middle Prehistoric Collections: U of MN 806-30 (1-4) -g Material List: 9 body sherds I bear tooth 1 bison bone Discussion and...with at least Sandy Lake represented. b I .1 .1** * 111 -~ U ’V.- ; ,~:i ~ w I 7 I U.. CM j.J I Figure 38. Bear Canine tooth from site CA 79. I I q a I

  14. Rupestral painting in the superior gallery of Altxerri cave (Aia, Gipuzkoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús ALTUNA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe new details of a complex figure made with red paint in a superior gallery of Altxerri cave. The head of a bison with a corniform motif stands out among other strokes of difficult interpretation. This collection of paintings has no correlation with the numerous engravings and black paintings of the main gallery of this cave. There is no access to this superior gallery from the main gallery of the cave so the Paleolithic artist would have gained access through another entry from the mountain that is unknown in the present. Near the collection of paintings described there is a bison vertebra stuck by its spinous apophysis in a crack on the rock. The C14 dating of the vertebra has not been possible due to the lack of collagen in the sample. Underneath this figure, tarsal remains of two individuals of Rupicapra rupicapra were found dated 34195 ± 1235 y 29940 ± 745 BP. The contemporaneity of the remains and the figure cannot be established.

  15. Direct radiocarbon dates for prehistoric paintings at the Altamira, El Castillo and Niaux caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladas, H.; Cachier, H.; Maurice, P.; Arnold, M.; Quiros, F.B. de; Valdes, V.C.; Uzquiano, P.

    1992-01-01

    Among things that most strikingly distinguish modern humans from other hominids and the rest of the animal kingdom is the ability to represent things and events pictorially. Complex paintings of the type discovered in the Altamira, El Castillo, Niaux and Lascaux caves represent an important stepping stone in the cultural evolution of humankind. Until now dates were derived from style or dated remains left by prehistoric visitors and could be biased by prolonged occupation or visits unrelated to painting activity. Here we report the first radiocarbon dates for the charcoal used to draw stylistically similar bisons in these caves: 14,000 ± 400 yr BP in the Spanish caves of Altamira, 12,990 ± 200 yr BP in El Castillo, and 12,890 ± 160 yr BP for a bison of different style in the French Pyrenean cave of Niaux. Our results demonstrate the imprecise nature of stylistic dating and show that painting dates derived from remains of human activities should be used with caution. (Author)

  16. To follow or not? How animals in fusion-fission societies handle conflicting information during group decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Jerod A; Sigaud, Marie; Fortin, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    When group members possess differing information about the environment, they may disagree on the best movement decision. Such conflicts result in group break-ups, and are therefore a fundamental driver of fusion-fission group dynamics. Yet, a paucity of empirical work hampers our understanding of how adaptive evolution has shaped plasticity in collective behaviours that promote and maintain fusion-fission dynamics. Using movement data from GPS-collared bison, we found that individuals constantly associated with other animals possessing different spatial knowledge, and both personal and conspecific information influenced an individual's patch choice decisions. During conflict situations, bison used group familiarity coupled with their knowledge of local foraging options and recently sampled resource quality when deciding to follow or leave a group - a tactic that led to energy-rewarding movements. Natural selection has shaped collective behaviours for coping with social conflicts and resource heterogeneity, which maintain fusion-fission dynamics and play an essential role in animal distribution. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  17. Seismic Experiment at North Arizona To Locate Washington Fault - 3D Field Test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M

    2008-10-01

    No. of receivers in the inline direction: 80, Number of lines: 6, Receiver Interval: 1 m near the fault, 2 m away from the fault (Receivers 1 to 12 at 2 m intervals, receivers 12 to 51 at 1 m intervals, and receivers 51 to 80 at 2 m intervals), No. of shots in the inline direction: 40, Shot interval: 2 and 4 m (every other receiver location). Data Recording The data are recorded using two Bison equipment, each is 120 channels. We shot at all 240 shot locations and simultaneously recorded seismic traces at receivers 1 to 240 (using both Bisons), then we shot again at all 240 shot locations and we recorded at receivers 241 to 480. The data is rearranged to match the receiver order shown in Figure 3 where receiver 1 is at left-lower corner, receivers increase to 80 at right lower corner, then receiver 81 is back to left side at Y = 1.5 m, etc.

  18. Multiscale development of a fission gas thermal conductivity model: Coupling atomic, meso and continuum level simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonks, Michael R.; Millett, Paul C.; Nerikar, Pankaj; Du, Shiyu; Andersson, David; Stanek, Christopher R.; Gaston, Derek; Andrs, David; Williamson, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Fission gas production and evolution significantly impact the fuel performance, causing swelling, a reduction in the thermal conductivity and fission gas release. However, typical empirical models of fuel properties treat each of these effects separately and uncoupled. Here, we couple a fission gas release model to a model of the impact of fission gas on the fuel thermal conductivity. To quantify the specific impact of grain boundary (GB) bubbles on the thermal conductivity, we use atomistic and mesoscale simulations. Atomistic molecular dynamic simulations were employed to determine the GB thermal resistance. These values were then used in mesoscale heat conduction simulations to develop a mechanistic expression for the effective GB thermal resistance of a GB containing gas bubbles, as a function of the percentage of the GB covered by fission gas. The coupled fission gas release and thermal conductivity model was implemented in Idaho National Laboratory's BISON fuel performance code to model the behavior of a 10-pellet LWR fuel rodlet, showing how the fission gas impacts the UO2 thermal conductivity. Furthermore, additional BISON simulations were conducted to demonstrate the impact of average grain size on both the fuel thermal conductivity and the fission gas release.

  19. Species-specific responses of Late Quaternary megafauna to climate and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Eline D.; Nogués-Bravo, David; Orlando, Ludovic; Weinstock, Jaco; Binladen, Jonas; Marske, Katharine A.; Ugan, Andrew; Borregaard, Michael K.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Goebel, Ted; Graf, Kelly E.; Byers, David; Stenderup, Jesper T.; Rasmussen, Morten; Campos, Paula F.; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Froese, Duane; Zazula, Grant; Stafford, Thomas W.; Aaris-Sørensen, Kim; Batra, Persaram; Haywood, Alan M.; Singarayer, Joy S.; Valdes, Paul J.; Boeskorov, Gennady; Burns, James A.; Davydov, Sergey P.; Haile, James; Jenkins, Dennis L.; Kosintsev, Pavel; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Lai, Xulong; Martin, Larry D.; McDonald, H. Gregory; Mol, Dick; Meldgaard, Morten; Munch, Kasper; Stephan, Elisabeth; Sablin, Mikhail; Sommer, Robert S.; Sipko, Taras; Scott, Eric; Suchard, Marc A.; Tikhonov, Alexei; Willerslev, Rane; Wayne, Robert K.; Cooper, Alan; Hofreiter, Michael; Sher, Andrei; Shapiro, Beth; Rahbek, Carsten; Willerslev, Eske

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the roles of climate and humans in driving the dramatic extinctions of large-bodied mammals during the Late Quaternary remain contentious. We use ancient DNA, species distribution models and the human fossil record to elucidate how climate and humans shaped the demographic history of woolly rhinoceros, woolly mammoth, wild horse, reindeer, bison and musk ox. We show that climate has been a major driver of population change over the past 50,000 years. However, each species responds differently to the effects of climatic shifts, habitat redistribution and human encroachment. Although climate change alone can explain the extinction of some species, such as Eurasian musk ox and woolly rhinoceros, a combination of climatic and anthropogenic effects appears to be responsible for the extinction of others, including Eurasian steppe bison and wild horse. We find no genetic signature or any distinctive range dynamics distinguishing extinct from surviving species, underscoring the challenges associated with predicting future responses of extant mammals to climate and human-mediated habitat change. PMID:22048313

  20. Multiscale development of a fission gas thermal conductivity model: Coupling atomic, meso and continuum level simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonks, Michael R.; Millett, Paul C.; Nerikar, Pankaj; Du, Shiyu; Andersson, David; Stanek, Christopher R.; Gaston, Derek; Andrs, David; Williamson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Fission gas production and evolution significantly impact the fuel performance, causing swelling, a reduction in the thermal conductivity and fission gas release. However, typical empirical models of fuel properties treat each of these effects separately and uncoupled. Here, we couple a fission gas release model to a model of the impact of fission gas on the fuel thermal conductivity. To quantify the specific impact of grain boundary (GB) bubbles on the thermal conductivity, we use atomistic and mesoscale simulations. Atomistic molecular dynamic simulations were employed to determine the GB thermal resistance. These values were then used in mesoscale heat conduction simulations to develop a mechanistic expression for the effective GB thermal resistance of a GB containing gas bubbles, as a function of the percentage of the GB covered by fission gas. The coupled fission gas release and thermal conductivity model was implemented in Idaho National Laboratory’s BISON fuel performance code to model the behavior of a 10-pellet LWR fuel rodlet, showing how the fission gas impacts the UO 2 thermal conductivity. Furthermore, additional BISON simulations were conducted to demonstrate the impact of average grain size on both the fuel thermal conductivity and the fission gas release

  1. Human-induced changes in animal populations and distributions, and the subsequent effects on fluvial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, David R.

    2006-09-01

    Humans have profoundly altered hydrological pathways and fluvial systems through their near-extirpation of native populations of animal species that strongly influenced hydrology and removal of surface sediment, and through the introduction of now-feral populations of animals that bring to bear a suite of different geomorphic effects on the fluvial system. In the category of effects of extirpation, examples are offered through an examination of the geomorphic effects and former spatial extent of beavers, bison, prairie dogs, and grizzly bears. Beavers entrapped hundreds of billions of cubic meters of sediment in North American stream systems prior to European contact. Individual bison wallows, that numbered in the range of 100 million wallows, each displaced up to 23 m 3 of sediment. Burrowing by prairie dogs displaced more than 5000 kg and possibly up to 67,500 kg of sediment per hectare. In the category of feral populations, the roles of feral rabbits, burros and horses, and pigs are highlighted. Much work remains to adequately quantify the geomorphic effects animals have on fluvial systems, but the influence is undeniable.

  2. Effectiveness of Brucella abortus Strain 19 single calfhood vaccination in elk (Cervus elaphus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, Thomas J.; Jones, Lee C.; Coffin, Kenneth; Sweeney, Steven J.; Williams, Beth; Quist, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    Brucellosis in Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) bison and elk has been a source of controversy and focus of the Greater Yellowstone Interagency Brucellosis Committee (GYIBC) for years. Brucellosis has been eradicated from cattle in the 3 states of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho and all three states currently are classified as “brucellosis free” with regard to livestock. Yet free-ranging elk that attend feedgrounds in the GYA, and bison in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, still have high seroprevalence to the disease and are viewed as a threat to the state-federal cooperative national brucellosis eradication program. Recently, cattle in eastern Idaho were found infected with brucellosis and transmission was apparently from fed elk. The GYIBC, formed of state and federal agencies involved in wildlife and livestock management in the 3 states, has committed to eventual elimination of the disease from wildlife. Management tools to control or eliminate the disease are limited; however, wildlife vaccination is one of the methods currently employed. Effective wildlife vaccination depends on dose efficacy, deliverability, and safety to non-targeted species. We commenced a single-dose efficacy study of vaccine Brucella abortus strain 19 (S19) in elk in 1999.

  3. Variable effects of dipteran parasitoids and management treatment on grasshopper fecundity in a tallgrass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, A N; Joern, A

    2012-04-01

    Grasshoppers host a number of parasitoids, but little is known about their impact on grasshopper life history attributes or how those impacts may vary with land use. Here, we report on a three-year survey of nine grasshopper species in a tallgrass prairie managed with fire and bison grazing treatments. We measured parasitoid prevalence and the impact of parasitoid infection on grasshopper fecundity to determine if grasshopper-parasitoid interactions varied with management treatment. Adult female grasshoppers were collected every three weeks from eight watersheds managed with different prescribed burning and grazing treatments. Grasshopper fecundity with and without parasitoids was estimated through dissections of reproductive tracts. Dipteran parasitoids from two families (Nemestrinidae and Tachinidae) were observed infecting grasshoppers. We found significant effects of grazing treatment, but not burn interval, on grasshopper-parasitoid interactions. Parasitoids were three times more abundant in watersheds with bison grazing than in ungrazed watersheds, and the relative abundance of nemestrinid and tachinid flies varied with grazing treatment. Parasitoid prevalence varied among grasshopper species from grasshopper fecundity, with stronger effects on current reproduction than on past reproduction. Furthermore, current fecundity in parasitized grasshoppers was lower in grazed watersheds compared to ungrazed watersheds. Nemestrinid parasitoids generally had stronger impacts on grasshopper fecundity than tachinid parasitoids, the effects of which were more variable.

  4. Species-specific responses of Late Quaternary megafauna to climate and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Eline D; Nogués-Bravo, David; Orlando, Ludovic; Weinstock, Jaco; Binladen, Jonas; Marske, Katharine A; Ugan, Andrew; Borregaard, Michael K; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Nielsen, Rasmus; Ho, Simon Y W; Goebel, Ted; Graf, Kelly E; Byers, David; Stenderup, Jesper T; Rasmussen, Morten; Campos, Paula F; Leonard, Jennifer A; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Froese, Duane; Zazula, Grant; Stafford, Thomas W; Aaris-Sørensen, Kim; Batra, Persaram; Haywood, Alan M; Singarayer, Joy S; Valdes, Paul J; Boeskorov, Gennady; Burns, James A; Davydov, Sergey P; Haile, James; Jenkins, Dennis L; Kosintsev, Pavel; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Lai, Xulong; Martin, Larry D; McDonald, H Gregory; Mol, Dick; Meldgaard, Morten; Munch, Kasper; Stephan, Elisabeth; Sablin, Mikhail; Sommer, Robert S; Sipko, Taras; Scott, Eric; Suchard, Marc A; Tikhonov, Alexei; Willerslev, Rane; Wayne, Robert K; Cooper, Alan; Hofreiter, Michael; Sher, Andrei; Shapiro, Beth; Rahbek, Carsten; Willerslev, Eske

    2011-11-02

    Despite decades of research, the roles of climate and humans in driving the dramatic extinctions of large-bodied mammals during the Late Quaternary period remain contentious. Here we use ancient DNA, species distribution models and the human fossil record to elucidate how climate and humans shaped the demographic history of woolly rhinoceros, woolly mammoth, wild horse, reindeer, bison and musk ox. We show that climate has been a major driver of population change over the past 50,000 years. However, each species responds differently to the effects of climatic shifts, habitat redistribution and human encroachment. Although climate change alone can explain the extinction of some species, such as Eurasian musk ox and woolly rhinoceros, a combination of climatic and anthropogenic effects appears to be responsible for the extinction of others, including Eurasian steppe bison and wild horse. We find no genetic signature or any distinctive range dynamics distinguishing extinct from surviving species, emphasizing the challenges associated with predicting future responses of extant mammals to climate and human-mediated habitat change. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Wild Animals in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasyl, Dariusz; Zając, Magdalena; Lalak, Anna; Skarżyńska, Magdalena; Samcik, Ilona; Kwit, Renata; Jabłoński, Artur; Bocian, Łukasz; Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Hoszowski, Andrzej; Szulowski, Krzysztof

    2017-11-29

    Antimicrobial resistance was tested in Escherichia coli isolated from feces (n = 660) of red deer, roe deer, fallow deer, European bison, and wild boar shot in regional forests in Poland during two winter hunting seasons. Indicator E. coli (n = 542) was resistant against 11 of 14 tested compounds, mostly sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim, and tetracycline (1.3-6.6% range). No significant differences were observed between boar and ruminant isolates. Most of deer and bison isolates showed no resistance. Selective screening of wildlife samples revealed 1.7% prevalence of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli found mostly in wild boars. They produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (bla CTX-M-1 , bla CTX-M-15 ) and plasmid-mediated AmpC-type cephalosporinase (bla CMY-2 ). The majority of the isolates originated from boars shot in a narrow time frame and space; therefore, common antimicrobial selection pressure in the environment was assumed. Three E. coli isolates carried plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (qnrS1/S3). No transferable colistin resistance mechanisms were found in two resistant E. coli. Transferability of resistance was proved in a single pAmpC-positive isolate carrying IncI1-alpha 95 kb plasmid. No cephalosporin-resistant E. coli harbored pathogenicity markers; therefore, they might be considered a vector of resistance determinants, but not a pathogen themselves.

  6. Loss of a large grazer impacts savanna grassland plant communities similarly in North America and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Stephanie; Burkepile, Deron E; Fynn, Richard W S; Burns, Catherine E; Govender, Navashni; Hagenah, Nicole; Koerner, Sally E; Matchett, Katherine J; Thompson, Dave I; Wilcox, Kevin R; Collins, Scott L; Kirkman, Kevin P; Knapp, Alan K; Smith, Melinda D

    2014-05-01

    Large herbivore grazing is a widespread disturbance in mesic savanna grasslands which increases herbaceous plant community richness and diversity. However, humans are modifying the impacts of grazing on these ecosystems by removing grazers. A more general understanding of how grazer loss will impact these ecosystems is hampered by differences in the diversity of large herbivore assemblages among savanna grasslands, which can affect the way that grazing influences plant communities. To avoid this we used two unique enclosures each containing a single, functionally similar large herbivore species. Specifically, we studied a bison (Bos bison) enclosure at Konza Prairie Biological Station, USA and an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) enclosure in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Within these enclosures we erected exclosures in annually burned and unburned sites to determine how grazer loss would impact herbaceous plant communities, while controlling for potential fire-grazing interactions. At both sites, removal of the only grazer decreased grass and forb richness, evenness and diversity, over time. However, in Kruger these changes only occurred with burning. At both sites, changes in plant communities were driven by increased dominance with herbivore exclusion. At Konza, this was caused by increased abundance of one grass species, Andropogon gerardii, while at Kruger, three grasses, Themeda triandra, Panicum coloratum, and Digitaria eriantha increased in abundance.

  7. Beringian Megafaunal Extinctions at ~37 ka B.P.: Do Micrometeorites Embedded in Fossil Tusks and Skulls Indicate an Extraterrestial Precursor to the Younger Dryas Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; Firestone, R. B.; West, A.

    2009-12-01

    Studies of Late Pleistocene megafaunal fossils and their ancient DNA from Beringia (eastern Siberia, Alaska, and the emerged Bering Strait) indicate sharp declines in steppe bison population diversity and horse body size, extinction of the Alaskan wild ass, and local extinctions of brown bear and woolly mammoth genetic lines beginning at about 37 ka B.P. Beringia is also well known for its remarkably preserved Late Pleistocene frozen animal mummies. 14C ages of these mummies are bimodally distributed, having peaks coincident with the earlier ~37 ka B.P., and ~13 ka B.P. Younger Dryas, onset extinction events. Associated with the ~37 ka B.P. event are, for example, the Berezovka mammoth, headless Selerikan horse, steppe bison “Blue Babe”, and baby mammoths “Dima” and “Lyuba”. Analyses of these and other mummies indicate that they died instantly, in mostly healthy condition, with gut contents and high fat reserves indicative of a late summer to autumn season. An assortment of uneaten limbs and other body parts from a variety of species have also been found. Uniformitarian death scenarios inadequately account for the lack of evidence of normal predation and scavenging. Extensive internal injuries (e.g. large bone fractures, hemorrhaging) and apparent rapid burial of the mummies also indicate that something truly unusual happened at the time of these extinction events. We have discovered what appear to be micrometeorites embedded in seven Alaskan mammoth tusks and a Siberian bison skull acquired from commercial sources. 14C ages for five of these fossils have a weighted mean age of 33 ± 2 ka B.P. Laser ablation ICP-MS and XRF analyses of the particles indicate high Fe contents with compositions enriched in Ni and depleted in Ti, similar to Fe meteorites and unlike any natural terrestrial sources. Microprobe analyses of a Fe-Ni sulfide grain from tusk 2 also show that it contains between 3 and 20 weight percent Ni. SEM images and XRF analyses of a bison

  8. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Connor, E.E.; Gerould, S.

    1994-01-01

    Many wildlife species ingest soil while feeding, but ingestion rates are known for only a few species. Knowing ingestion rates may be important for studies of environmental contaminants. Wildlife may ingest soil deliberately, or incidentally, when they ingest soil-laden forage or animals that contain soil. We fed white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing 0-15% soil to relate the dietary soil content to the acid-insoluble ash content of scat collected from the mice. The relation was described by an equation that required estimates of the percent acid-insoluble ash content of the diet, digestibility of the diet, and mineral content of soil. We collected scat from 28 wildlife species by capturing animals, searching appropriate habitats for scat, or removing material from the intestines of animals collected for other purposes. We measured the acid-insoluble ash content of the scat and estimated the soil content of the diets by using the soil-ingestion equation. Soil ingestion estimates should be considered only approximate because they depend on estimated rather than measured digestibility values and because animals collected from local populations at one time of the year may not represent the species as a whole. Sandpipers (Calidris spp.), which probe or peck for invertebrates in mud or shallow water, consumed sediments at a rate of 7-30% of their diets. Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, soil = 17% of diet), American woodcock (Scolopax minor, 10%), and raccoon (Procyon lotor, 9%) had high rates of soil ingestion, presumably because they ate soil organisms. Bison (Bison bison, 7%), black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus, 8%), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis, 8%) consumed soil at the highest rates among the herbivores studied, and various browsers studied consumed little soil. Box turtle (Terrapene carolina, 4%), opossum (Didelphis virginiana, 5%), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, 3%), and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, 9%) consumed soil

  9. Experimental infection of nontarget species of rodents and birds with Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszewski, M.C.; Olsen, S.C.; McLean, R.G.; Clark, L.; Rhyan, Jack C.

    2001-01-01

    The Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 (SRB51) is being considered for use in the management of bnucellosis in wild bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus) populations in the Greater Yellowstone Area (USA). Evaluation of the vaccines safety in non-target species was considered necessary prior to field use. Between June 1998 and December 1999, ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii, n = 21), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus, n = 14), prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster, n = 21), and ravens (Corvus corax, n = 13) were orally inoculated with SRB51 or physiologic saline. Oral and rectal swabs and blood samples were collected for bacteriologic evaluation. Rodents were necropsied at 8 to 10 wk and 12 to 21 wk post inoculation (PI), and ravens at 7 and 11 wk PI. Spleen, liver and reproductive tissues were collected for bacteriologic and histopathologic evaluation. No differences in clinical signs, appetite, weight loss or gain, or activity were observed between saline- and SRB51-inoculated animals in all four species. Oral and rectal swabs from all species were negative throughout the study. In tissues obtained from SRB51-inoculated animals, the organism was isolated from six of seven (86%) ground squirrels, one of six (17%) deer mice, none of seven voles, and one of five (20%) ravens necropsied at 8, 8, 10, and 7 wk PI, respectively. Tissues from four of seven (57%) SRB51-inoculated ground squirrels were culture positive for the organism 12 wk PI; SRB51 was not recovered from deer mice, voles. or ravens necropsied 12, 21, or 11 wk, respectively, PI. SRB51 was not recovered from saline-inoculated ground squirrels, deer mice, or voles at any time but was recovered from one saline-inoculated raven at necropsy, 7 wk PI, likely attributable to contact with SRB51-inoculated ravens in an adjacent aviary room. Spleen was time primary tissue site of colonization in ground squirrels, followed by the liver and reproductive organs. The results indicate oral exposure to

  10. Quantification of drag and lift imposed by pop-up satellite archival tags and estimation of the metabolic cost to cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus)

    OpenAIRE

    Grusha, Donna S.; Patterson, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    The recent development of the pop-up satellite archival tag (PSAT) has allowed the collection of information on a tagged animal, such as geolocation, pressure (depth), and ambient water temperature. The success of early studies, where PSATs were used on pelagic fishes, has spurred increasing interest in the use of these tags on a large variety of species and age groups. However, some species and age groups may not be suitable candidates for carrying a PSAT because of the relatively l...

  11. Inferring demographic structure with moccasin size data from the Promontory Caves, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinger, Michael; Ives, John W

    2015-01-01

    The moccasin assemblage Julian Steward recovered from the Promontory caves in 1930-31 provides a novel example in which material culture can be used to understand the structure of an AD thirteenth century population. Several studies shed light on the relationship between shoe size, foot size, and stature. We develop an anthropometric model for understanding the composition of the Promontory Cave population by using moccasin size as a proxy for foot size. We then predict the stature of the individual who would have worn a moccasin. Stature is closely related to age for children, subadults and adult males. Although there are predictable sex and age factors biasing moccasin discard practices, moccasin dimensions suggest a relatively large proportion of children and subadults occupied the Promontory caves. This bison and antelope hunting population appears to have thrived during its stay on Promontory Point. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Integration of Dakota into the NEAMS Workbench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lefebvre, Robert A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langley, Brandon R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thompson, Adam B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report summarizes a NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) project focused on integrating Dakota into the NEAMS Workbench. The NEAMS Workbench, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is a new software framework that provides a graphical user interface, input file creation, parsing, validation, job execution, workflow management, and output processing for a variety of nuclear codes. Dakota is a tool developed at Sandia National Laboratories that provides a suite of uncertainty quantification and optimization algorithms. Providing Dakota within the NEAMS Workbench allows users of nuclear simulation codes to perform uncertainty and optimization studies on their nuclear codes from within a common, integrated environment. Details of the integration and parsing are provided, along with an example of Dakota running a sampling study on the fuels performance code, BISON, from within the NEAMS Workbench.

  13. Draft comprehensive conservation plan and environmental impact statement - Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christopher; Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; ,

    2015-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Complex, consisting of some of the newer properties in the National Wildlife Refuge System, is a work in progress. Offering unique assets to surrounding communities, these lands promise to become some of the premier urban wildlife refuges in the country. At the heart of the refuge complex is the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge: 16,000 acres of shortgrass and mixed-grass prairie that is home to bison, bald eagles, migratory songbirds, prairie dogs, and much more—all within the Denver Metropolitan area. This comprehensive conservation plan will be the first in the country designed to begin implementing the Refuge System’s new Urban Refuge Initiative. To accomplish this, we analyzed a wide range of options on how best to support up to one million visitors per year without compromising our principal purposes to protect and preserve fish and wildlife and their habitats.

  14. Estimation of accumulated dose of radiation by the method of ESR-spectrometry of dental enamel of mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serezhenkov, V.A.; Moroz, I.A.; Vanin, A.F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemical Physics; Klevezal, G.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Developmental Biology

    1997-01-01

    ESR-spectrometry was used to investigate radiation-induced paramagnetic centers in enamel of mammals: carnivores (polar bear and fox), ungulates (reindeer, European bison, moose), and man. Values at half the microwave power saturation of the radiation signal, P{sub 1/2}, evaluated at room temperature, was found to range from 16 to 26 mW for animals and man. A new approach to discrimination of the radiation induced signal from the total ESR spectrum of reindeer enamel is proposed. ``Dose-response`` dependencies of enamel of different species mammals were measured within the dose range from 0.48 up to 10.08 Gy. Estimations of ``radiosensitivity`` enamel of carnivores and ungulates showed good agreement with radiosensitivity enamel of man by ESR method. (Author).

  15. Rate theory scenarios study on fission gas behavior of U 3 Si 2 under LOCA conditions in LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin; Gamble, Kyle A.; Andersson, David; Mei, Zhi-Gang; Yacout, Abdellatif M.

    2018-01-01

    Fission gas behavior of U3Si2 under various loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions in light water reactors (LWRs) was simulated using rate theory. A rate theory model for U3Si2 that covers both steady-state operation and power transients was developed for the GRASS-SST code based on existing research reactor/ion irradiation experimental data and theoretical predictions of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The steady-state and LOCA condition parameters were either directly provided or inspired by BISON simulations. Due to the absence of in-pile experiment data for U3Si2's fuel performance under LWR conditions at this stage of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) development, a variety of LOCA scenarios were taken into consideration to comprehensively and conservatively evaluate the fission gas behavior of U3Si2 during a LOCA.

  16. Simulations of Xe and U diffusion in UO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Anders D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vyas, Shyam [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael R. [Idaho National Laboratory; Casillas, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uberuaga, Blas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Millett, Paul [Idaho National Laboratory

    2012-09-10

    Diffusion of xenon (Xe) and uranium (U) in UO{sub 2} is controlled by vacancy mechanisms and under irradiation the formation of mobile vacancy clusters is important. Based on the vacancy and cluster diffusion mechanisms established from density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we derive continuum thermodynamic and diffusion models for Xe and U in UO{sub 2}. In order to capture the effects of irradiation, vacancies (Va) are explicitly coupled to the Xe and U dynamics. Segregation of defects to grain boundaries in UO{sub 2} is described by combining the bulk diffusion model with models of the interaction between Xe atoms and vacancies with grain boundaries, which were derived from atomistic calculations. The diffusion and segregation models were implemented in the MOOSE-Bison-Marmot (MBM) finite element (FEM) framework and the Xe/U redistribution was simulated for a few simple microstructures.

  17. Coalescent genealogy samplers: windows into population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhner, Mary K

    2009-02-01

    Coalescent genealogy samplers attempt to estimate past qualities of a population, such as its size, growth rate, patterns of gene flow or time of divergence from another population, based on samples of molecular data. Genealogy samplers are increasingly popular because of their potential to disentangle complex population histories. In the last decade they have been widely applied to systems ranging from humans to viruses. Findings include detection of unexpected reproductive inequality in fish, new estimates of historical whale abundance, exoneration of humans for the prehistoric decline of bison and inference of a selective sweep on the human Y chromosome. This review summarizes available genealogy-sampler software, including data requirements and limitations on the use of each program.

  18. Evaluation of Brucella abortus strain RB51 and strain 19 in pronghorn antelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzer, P.H.; Smith, J.; Roffe, T.; Kreeger, T.; Edwards, J.; Davis, D.

    2002-01-01

    Free-roaming elk and bison in the Greater Yellowstone Area remain the only wildlife reservoirs for Brucella abortus in the United States, and the large number of animals and a lack of holding facilities make it unreasonable to individually vaccinate each animal. Therefore, oral delivery is being proposed as a possible option to vaccinate these wild ungulates. One of the main problems associated with oral vaccination is the potential exposure of nontarget species to the vaccines. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two Brucella vaccines, strain 19 (S19) and the rough strain RB51 (SRB51), in pregnant pronghorn antelope. We conclude that S19 and SRB51 rarely colonize maternal and fetal tissues of pregnant pronghorn and were not associated with fetal death. Oral delivery of either vaccine at this dose appears to be nonhazardous to pregnant pronghorn.

  19. [WILD MAMMALS OF THE GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA IN THE WORKS OF JEAN-EMMANUEL GILIBERT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samojlik, Tomasz; Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Among the many topics of lively scientific work that Jean Emmanuel Gilibert (1741-1814) conducted in Grodno and Vilnius, an important place is occupied by his observations of wild mammals. Royal patronage and care from Antoni Tyzenhauz, Treasurer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the governor of Grodno, allowed Gilibert to keep and observe wild fauna captured by royal services in royal forests, including Białowieża Primeval Forest. Such was an origin of a female bison kept by Gilibert in Grodno. Its description, published in Indagatores naturae in Lithuania (Vilnius 1781) for decades became the primary source of information about the behaviour, food preferences and the anatomy of European bison. European science has just begun to take interest in European bison, therefore Gilibert's account entered scientific circulation by way of French natural history encyclopaedias (mainly Georges Buffon's Histoire naturelle) and works by Georges Cuvier or Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Apart from the description of European bison, Gilibert left an entire series of observations of wild mammals inhabiting the forests of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. His accounts of moose were important in building a knowledge base for this species. In the first half of the 18th century, moose was known mainly from fantastic descriptions in Renaissance works and from prescriptions devoted to using moose hoof as the epilepsy treatment. Gilibert's observations helped to overthrow such superstitions. Similarly, Gilibert's first-hand information verified the widespread legends concerning brown bear (e.g. the belief that white bears, belonging to other species than polar bears, occur in Lithuania) . List of species kept and thoroughly watched by the scholar is much longer and includes lynx, wolf (and hybrids of wolves and dogs), beaver, badger, fox, hedgehog, and even white mouse. Also his comments on the species of mammals then absent in Lithuania but known either from farming or from the fur

  20. CASL Verification and Validation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, Vincent Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dinh, Nam [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This report documents the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs (CASL) verification and validation plan. The document builds upon input from CASL subject matter experts, most notably the CASL Challenge Problem Product Integrators, CASL Focus Area leaders, and CASL code development and assessment teams. This document will be a living document that will track progress on CASL to do verification and validation for both the CASL codes (including MPACT, CTF, BISON, MAMBA) and for the CASL challenge problems (CIPS, PCI, DNB). The CASL codes and the CASL challenge problems are at differing levels of maturity with respect to validation and verification. The gap analysis will summarize additional work that needs to be done. Additional VVUQ work will be done as resources permit. This report is prepared for the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) CASL program in support of milestone CASL.P13.02.

  1. A Translator with a Security Static Analysis Feature of an Information Flow for a Simple Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ju. Antoshina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider while-language programs with variables of two security types: low and high. Security static analysis of information flows of such programs identifies insecure information flows which can cause leaks. Semantic rules of such an analysis which was proposed in [6] assign security types for expressions, operators and compositions of operators. We use these rules to propose an algorithm of security static analysis to discover a security type of the program under consideration. If such a type can be assigned, information flows of the program are secure; otherwise, it contains insecure information flows. We have used flex and bison [5] tools to implement a translator for a while-language into the MMIX computer [2] instruction sequence.

  2. Three-dimensional fuel pin model validation by prediction of hydrogen distribution in cladding and comparison with experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Avramova, Maria [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Ivanov, Kostadin [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Motta, Arthur [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Lacroix, E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Manera, Annalisa [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Walter, D. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Williamson, R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gamble, K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-10-29

    To correctly describe and predict this hydrogen distribution there is a need for multi-physics coupling to provide accurate three-dimensional azimuthal, radial, and axial temperature distributions in the cladding. Coupled high-fidelity reactor-physics codes with a sub-channel code as well as with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool have been used to calculate detailed temperature distributions. These high-fidelity coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics code systems are coupled further with the fuel-performance BISON code with a kernel (module) for hydrogen. Both hydrogen migration and precipitation/dissolution are included in the model. Results from this multi-physics analysis is validated utilizing calculations of hydrogen distribution using models informed by data from hydrogen experiments and PIE data.

  3. A physics-based crystallographic modeling framework for describing the thermal creep behavior of Fe-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Wei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Capolungo, Laurent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Patra, Anirban [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tome, Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    This Report addresses the Milestone M2MS-16LA0501032 of NEAMS Program (“Develop hardening model for FeCrAl cladding), with a deadline of 09/30/2016. Here we report a constitutive law for thermal creep of FeCrAl. This Report adds to and complements the one for Milestone M3MS-16LA0501034 (“Interface hardening models with MOOSE-BISON”), where we presented a hardening law for irradiated FeCrAl. The last component of our polycrystal-based constitutive behavior, namely, an irradiation creep model for FeCrAl, will be developed as part of the FY17 Milestones, and the three regimes will be coupled and interfaced with MOOSE-BISON.

  4. Threat Perception and Attitudes of Adolescents Towards Re-Introduced Wild Animals: A qualitative study of young learners from affected regions in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Nadin; Menzel, Susanne

    2013-12-01

    Conservation efforts such as the restoration of European bison or the support of wolf immigration into Germany are often socio-scientifically controversial. In many cases, disputes are based on individuals' threat perception and attitudes towards the animal involved. The herewith reported study provides qualitative insights into German adolescents' (n = 31, Mage = 16.6 years) attitudes towards animal reintroduction, their threat and coping appraisal about wildlife and their knowledge of local endangered species. We found that students had rather limited knowledge of local endangered species. After Kellert's categories of animal attitudes, the adolescents showed a strong moralistic view on wildlife return. Naturalistic, ecologistic and utilitarian views were also strongly apparent. According to the Protection Motivation Theory, perceived threats could be identified as threats to animals on the one hand and threats to human interests on the other. Such threat perceptions often lead to a dilemma, which made it difficult to decide upon the priorities of wildlife protection versus protection of human interests. Coping mechanism to reduce threats to human interests as mentioned by the participants included restrictions of the animal as well as strategies that focused on responsibility by humans. Regarding coping mechanism to prevent the species' extinction, participants showed a relatively superficial understanding. Furthermore, we found that participants from regions where wolves are currently immigrating or European bison are being reintroduced showed a more positive understanding of the respective animal. Our findings are discussed in the light of this topic's potential as an example of a real-life socio-scientific issue in classroom discussions.

  5. Use of multiscale zirconium alloy deformation models in nuclear fuel behavior analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Robert, E-mail: robert.montgomery@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Tomé, Carlos, E-mail: tome@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Liu, Wenfeng, E-mail: wenfeng.liu@anatech.com [ANATECH Corporation (United States); Alankar, Alankar, E-mail: alankar.alankar@iitb.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India); Subramanian, Gopinath, E-mail: gopinath.subramanian@usm.edu [University of Southern Mississippi (United States); Stanek, Christopher, E-mail: stanek@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Accurate prediction of cladding mechanical behavior is a key aspect of modeling nuclear fuel behavior, especially for conditions of pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), reactivity-initiated accidents (RIA), and loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Current approaches to fuel performance modeling rely on empirical constitutive models for cladding creep, growth and plastic deformation, which are limited to the materials and conditions for which the models were developed. To improve upon this approach, a microstructurally-based zirconium alloy mechanical deformation analysis capability is being developed within the United States Department of Energy Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Specifically, the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal plasticity modeling approach, developed by Lebensohn and Tomé [1], has been coupled with the BISON engineering scale fuel performance code to represent the mechanistic material processes controlling the deformation behavior of light water reactor (LWR) cladding. A critical component of VPSC is the representation of the crystallographic nature (defect and dislocation movement) and orientation of the grains within the matrix material and the ability to account for the role of texture on deformation. A future goal is for VPSC to obtain information on reaction rate kinetics from atomistic calculations to inform the defect and dislocation behavior models described in VPSC. The multiscale modeling of cladding deformation mechanisms allowed by VPSC far exceed the functionality of typical semi-empirical constitutive models employed in nuclear fuel behavior codes to model irradiation growth and creep, thermal creep, or plasticity. This paper describes the implementation of an interface between VPSC and BISON and provides initial results utilizing the coupled functionality.

  6. A Distant Mirror: Solar Oscillations Observed on Neptune by the Kepler K2 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulme, P.; Rowe, J. F.; Bedding, T. R.; Benomar, O.; Corsaro, E.; Davies, G. R.; Hale, S. J.; Howe, R.; Garcia, R. A.; Huber, D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Starting in 2014 December, Kepler (K2) observed Neptune continuously for 49 days at a 1-minute cadence. The goals consisted of studying its atmospheric dynamics, detecting its global acoustic oscillations, and those of the Sun, which we report on here. We present the first indirect detection of solar oscillations in intensity measurements. Beyond the remarkable technical performance, it indicates how Kepler would see a star like the Sun. The result from the global asteroseismic approach, which consists of measuring the oscillation frequency at maximum amplitude max velocity and the mean frequency separation between mode overtones delta velocity, is surprising as the max velocity measured from Neptune photometry is larger than the accepted value. Compared to the usual reference max velocity of the sun equal to 3100 microhertz, the asteroseismic scaling relations therefore make the solar mass and radius appear larger by 13.8 plus or minus 5.8 percent and 4.3 plus or minus 1.9 percent, respectively. The higher max velocity is caused by a combination of the value of max velocity of the sun, being larger at the time of observations than the usual reference from SOHO/VIRGO/SPM (Variability of solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations / on board SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) / Sun PhotoMeters) data (3160 plus or minus 10 microhertz), and the noise level of the K2 time series, being 10 times larger than VIRGO's. The peak-bagging method provides more consistent results: despite a low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), we model 10 overtones for degrees iota equal 0, 1, 2. We compare the K2 data with simultaneous SOHO/VIRGO/SPM photometry and Bison (Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network) velocity measurements. The individual frequencies, widths, and amplitudes mostly match those from VIRGO and BiSON within 1 sigma, except for the few peaks with the lowest S/N.

  7. Final report on accident tolerant fuel performance analysis of APMT-Steel Clad/UO₂ fuel and APMT-Steel Clad/UN-U₃Si₅ fuel concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Galloway, Jack D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-12

    In FY2014 our group completed and documented analysis of new Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) concepts using BISON. We have modeled the viability of moving from Zircaloy to stainless steel cladding in traditional light water reactors (LWRs). We have explored the reactivity penalty of this change using the MCNP-based burnup code Monteburns, while attempting to minimize this penalty by increasing the fuel pellet radius and decreasing the cladding thickness. Fuel performance simulations using BISON have also been performed to quantify changes to structural integrity resulting from thinner stainless steel claddings. We account for thermal and irradiation creep, fission gas swelling, thermal swelling and fuel relocation in the models for both Zircaloy and stainless steel claddings. Additional models that account for the lower oxidation stainless steel APMT are also invoked where available. Irradiation data for HT9 is used as a fallback in the absence of appropriate models. In this study the isotopic vectors within each natural element are varied to assess potential reactivity gains if advanced enrichment capabilities were levied towards cladding technologies. Recommendations on cladding thicknesses for a robust cladding as well as the constitutive components of a less penalizing composition are provided. In the first section (section 1-3), we present results accepted for publication in the 2014 TOPFUEL conference regarding the APMT/UO₂ ATF concept (J. Galloway & C. Unal, Accident Tolerant and Neutronically Favorable LWR Cladding, Proceedings of WRFPM 2014, Sendai, Japan, Paper No.1000050). Next we discuss our preliminary findings from the thermo-mechanical analysis of UN-U₃Si₅ fuel with APMT clad. In this analysis we used models developed from limited data that need to be updated when the irradiation data from ATF-1 test is available. Initial results indicate a swelling rate less than 1.5% is needed to prevent excessive clad stress.

  8. A DISTANT MIRROR: SOLAR OSCILLATIONS OBSERVED ON NEPTUNE BY THE KEPLER K 2 MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaulme, P.; Jackiewicz, J. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Rowe, J. F. [Institut de recherche sur les exoplanètes, iREx, Département de physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Bedding, T. R.; Huber, D. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Benomar, O. [Center for Space Science, NYUAD Institute, New York University Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 129188, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Corsaro, E.; Garcia, R. A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DRF-CNRS, Université Paris 7 Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Davies, G. R. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Hale, S. J.; Howe, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B152TT (United Kingdom); Jiménez, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Mathur, S. [Center for Extrasolar Planetary Systems, Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite #205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Mosser, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Denis Diderot, F-92195 Meudon (France); Appourchaux, T.; Boumier, P.; Leibacher, J., E-mail: gaulme@nmsu.edu [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, Université Paris-Sud and CNRS (UMR 8617), Bâtiment 121, F-91405 Orsay cedex (France); and others

    2016-12-10

    Starting in 2014 December, Kepler K 2 observed Neptune continuously for 49 days at a 1 minute cadence. The goals consisted of studying its atmospheric dynamics, detecting its global acoustic oscillations, and those of the Sun, which we report on here. We present the first indirect detection of solar oscillations in intensity measurements. Beyond the remarkable technical performance, it indicates how Kepler would see a star like the Sun. The result from the global asteroseismic approach, which consists of measuring the oscillation frequency at maximum amplitude ν {sub max} and the mean frequency separation between mode overtones Δ ν , is surprising as the ν {sub max} measured from Neptune photometry is larger than the accepted value. Compared to the usual reference ν {sub max,⊙} = 3100 μ Hz, the asteroseismic scaling relations therefore make the solar mass and radius appear larger by 13.8 ± 5.8% and 4.3 ± 1.9%, respectively. The higher ν {sub max} is caused by a combination of the value of ν {sub max,⊙}, being larger at the time of observations than the usual reference from SOHO /VIRGO/SPM data (3160 ± 10 μ Hz), and the noise level of the K 2 time series, being 10 times larger than VIRGO’s. The peak-bagging method provides more consistent results: despite a low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), we model 10 overtones for degrees ℓ = 0, 1, 2. We compare the K 2 data with simultaneous SOHO /VIRGO/SPM photometry and BiSON velocity measurements. The individual frequencies, widths, and amplitudes mostly match those from VIRGO and BiSON within 1 σ, except for the few peaks with the lowest S/N.

  9. Human influence on distribution and extinctions of the late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkina, Diana; Raia, Pasquale

    2008-06-01

    Late Pleistocene extinctions are of interest to paleontological and anthropological research. In North America and Australia, human occupation occurred during a short period of time and overexploitation may have led to the extinction of mammalian megafauna. In northern Eurasia megafaunal extinctions are believed to have occurred over a relatively longer period of time, perhaps as a result of changing environmental conditions, but the picture is much less clear. To consider megafaunal extinction in Eurasia, we compare differences in the geographical distribution and commonness of extinct and extant species between paleontological and archaeological localities from the late middle Pleistocene to Holocene. Purely paleontological localities, as well as most extinct species, were distributed north of archaeological sites and of the extant species, suggesting that apart from possible differences in adaptations between humans and other species, humans could also have a detrimental effect on large mammal distribution. However, evidence for human overexploitation applies only to the extinct steppe bison Bison priscus. Other human-preferred species survive into the Holocene, including Rangifer tarandus, Equus ferus, Capreolus capreolus, Cervus elaphus, Equus hemionus, Saiga tatarica, and Sus scrofa. Mammuthus primigenius and Megaloceros giganteus were rare in archaeological sites. Carnivores appear little influenced by human presence, although they become rarer in Holocene archaeological sites. Overall, the data are consistent with the conclusion that humans acted as efficient hunters selecting for the most abundant species. Our study supports the idea that the late Pleistocene extinctions were environmentally driven by climatic changes that triggered habitat fragmentation, species range reduction, and population decrease, after which human interference either by direct hunting or via indirect activities probably became critical.

  10. Use of three-dimensional, high-resolution seismic technology to optimize the location of remedial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainer, R.W.; Adams, M.L.

    1993-02-01

    Two three-dimensional (3-D), high-resolution seismic reflection pilot studies were conducted in California at two sites, where the primary contaminants of concern are solvents. Identify pathways of contaminant migration. Determine the subsurface stratigraphy and structure to optimize the location for placement of remedial systems. The geology at the first site, located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, is characterized by unconsolidated alluvium. Ground water varies in depth from about 30 to 100 ft. The site typically is subjected to extensive cultural noise. The second site, in Southern California, is located in a broad, synclinal depression in the Transverse Range. Shallow alluvium overlies a marine turbidite sequence that crops out as massive sandstone beds. Field work for both surveys took place in August 1992. A Bison Model 90120-A, 120-channel (DIFP) seismograph was used to record the data. Thirty-hertz, natural-frequency geophones were used to receive the data, and an Elastic Wave Generator (EWG) was used as the seismic source. The use of a signal-stacking, noninvasive source was found to be an effective method of overriding background noise at the sites. Prior to the commencement of the 3-D pilot studies, a two-dimensional (2-D) profile was recorded to test the acquisition parameters, which included the geometry of the survey, digital sample rate, and analog filter settings. The data were monitored in the field with a Bison 486 Explorer outdoor computer. The 2-D data were processed and displayed in the field. Both sites displayed coherent seismic reflections from the depths of interest on the field-stacked sections

  11. PolyPole-1: An accurate numerical algorithm for intra-granular fission gas release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzocri, D.; Rabiti, C.; Luzzi, L.; Barani, T.; Van Uffelen, P.; Pastore, G.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a new numerical algorithm (called PolyPole-1) to efficiently solve the equation for intra-granular fission gas release in nuclear fuel. The work was carried out in collaboration with Politecnico di Milano and Institute for Transuranium Elements. The PolyPole-1 algorithms is being implemented in INL's fuels code BISON code as part of BISON's fission gas release model. The transport of fission gas from within the fuel grains to the grain boundaries (intra-granular fission gas release) is a fundamental controlling mechanism of fission gas release and gaseous swelling in nuclear fuel. Hence, accurate numerical solution of the corresponding mathematical problem needs to be included in fission gas behaviour models used in fuel performance codes. Under the assumption of equilibrium between trapping and resolution, the process can be described mathematically by a single diffusion equation for the gas atom concentration in a grain. In this work, we propose a new numerical algorithm (PolyPole-1) to efficiently solve the fission gas diffusion equation in time-varying conditions. The PolyPole-1 algorithm is based on the analytic modal solution of the diffusion equation for constant conditions, with the addition of polynomial corrective terms that embody the information on the deviation from constant conditions. The new algorithm is verified by comparing the results to a finite difference solution over a large number of randomly generated operation histories. Furthermore, comparison to state-of-the-art algorithms used in fuel performance codes demonstrates that the accuracy of the PolyPole-1 solution is superior to other algorithms, with similar computational effort. Finally, the concept of PolyPole-1 may be extended to the solution of the general problem of intra-granular fission gas diffusion during non-equilibrium trapping and resolution, which will be the subject of future work.

  12. Thunder on the Yellowstone revisited: An assessment of management of native ungulates by natural regulation, 1968-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, F.J.; Swift, D.M.; Coughenour, M.B.; Varley, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Natural regulation of native ungulates was initiated in 1968 in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) based on the premise that ungulates would reach an equilibrium with their plant resources. The natural-regulation management model stated: density dependence will regulate ungulates (i.e., a dynamic equilibrium will result between ungulates and their food supply, within some bounds of vegetation and soil effects); and no retrogression of soil and vegetation will occur from elk (Cervus elaphus) grazing during this process. The historical record indicated that elk were abundant in the system and elk were primarily food limited before settlement by European man (i.e., wolves [Canis lupus] and Native Americans were only an adjunct to the density dependent population regulation of ungulates). Density dependence was demonstrated in elk, but not in bison (Bison bison). No widespread evidence of overgrazing was observed through 1993 in study sites within vegetation communities that comprised about 97% of the winter range. No evidence of increased exotics, increased sediment yield, warming or drying of the soil, changes in soil nutrients, or differences in aboveground standing-crop biomass of plants was found between grazed and ungrazed plots. Ungulate herbivory apparently stimulated aboveground production of grasses, enhanced nitrogen and macronutrients in grasses, increased nutrient cycling, and enhanced measures of fitness in 6 common plants. However, exposed soil surface (bare ground and pebbles combined) was 11-18% greater on grazed than ungrazed plots, apparently due to a 71% decline in dead and standing litter on grazed plots. Percent live-plant basal cover, however, did not differ on grazed versus ungrazed plots, and there was no difference in soil microclimate or sediment yield. Differences in the abundance of 12% of the herbaceous species were found in grazed versus ungrazed sites (16 of 128 species); 10 were declines and 6 were increases. Willow (Salix spp.) and aspen

  13. Producción y calidad de la leche bubalina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Exequiel Maria Patiño

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El búfalo, al igual que los bovinos, son clasificados zoológicamente en la familia Bovidae y en la subfamilia bovinae. Los bovinos pertenecen a la especie Bos taurus y los búfalos a la Bubalus. Dentro de esta última encontramos a su vez tres sub especies, Bubalis, Karebau o Carabao y Fulvus.La especie Bubalus también es clasificada como búfalo de agua (Bubalus bubalis bubalis y de pantano (Bubalus bubalis karebau.El Bubalus bubalis sp. también denominado búfalo doméstico o asiático muchas veces es confundido con el bisonte americano (Bison bison, mal llamado búfalo americano o con el búfalo africano (Syncerus caffer también conocido como búfalo salvaje de África.El búfalo doméstico posee un número menor de cromosomas que el bovino (50 en lugar de 60, lo que hace incompatible su cruzamiento, aclarando a su vez que el búfalo de río o agua tiene 50 cromosomas, y el de pantano 48, lo cual hace viable su cruzamiento. El búfalo se encuentra actualmente en todos los continentes. Tuvo su origen en Asia y se registran datos de su existencia como animal doméstico desde hace 4.500 años, en la región ocupada actualmente por India y Pakistán.De Asia fue llevado a África, luego a Europa, Oceanía y posteriormente a América. La población bubalina actual en el mundo según la FAO (2008 es de 180,7 millones de cabezas, de las cuales Asia tiene el 96,40% del total de dicha existencia, África cuenta con el 2,78%, América con 0,63%, Europa con el 0,18% y Oceanía con el 0,001%.

  14. Simulation of Missing Pellet Surface thermal behavior with 3D dynamic gap element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Chan; Yang, Yong Sik; Koo, Yang Hyun; Kang, Chang Hak; Lee Sung Uk; Yang, Dong Yol

    2014-01-01

    Most of the fuel performance codes that are able to simulate a multidimensional analysis are used to calculate the radial temperature distribution and perform a multidimensional mechanical analysis based on a one-dimensional (1D) temperature result. The FRAPCON-FRAPTRAN code system incorporates a 1D thermal module and two-dimensional (2D) mechanical module when FEM option is activated. In this method, the multidimensional gap conductance model is not required because one-dimensional thermal analysis is carried out. On the other hand, a gap conductance model for a multi-dimension should be developed in the code to perform a multidimensional thermal analysis. ALCYONE developed by CEA introduces an equivalent heat convection coefficient that represents the multidimensional gap conductance. However, the code does not employ dynamic gap conductance which is a function of gap thickness and gap characteristics in direct. The BISON code, which has been developed by INL (Idaho National Laboratory), employed a thermo-mechanical contact method that is specifically designed for tightly-coupled implicit solutions that employ Jacobian-free solution methods. Owing to tightly-coupled implicit solutions, the BISON code solves gap conductance and gap thickness simultaneously with given boundary conditions. In this paper, 3D dynamic gap element has been proposed to resolve convergence issue and nonlinear characteristic of multidimensional gap conductance. To evaluate 3D dynamic gap element module, 3D thermomechanical module using FORTRAN77 has been implemented incorporating 3D dynamic gap element. To demonstrate effect of 3D dynamic gap element, thermal behavior of missing pellet surface (MPS) has been simulated by the developed module. LWR fuel performance codes should incorporate thermo-mechanical loop to solve gap conductance problem, iteratively. However, gap conductance in multidimensional model is difficult issue owing to its nonlinearity and convergence characteristics. In

  15. Lake oxygen isotopes as recorders of North American Rocky Mountain hydroclimate: Holocene patterns and variability at multi-decadal to millennial time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lesleigh; Berkelhammer, Max; Barron, John A.; Steinman, Byron A.; Finney, Bruce P.; Abbott, Mark B.

    2016-02-01

    Lake sediment oxygen isotope records (calcium carbonate-δ18O) in the western North American Cordillera developed during the past decade provide substantial evidence of Pacific ocean-atmosphere forcing of hydroclimatic variability during the Holocene. Here we present an overview of 18 lake sediment δ18O records along with a new compilation of lake water δ18O and δ2H that are used to characterize lake sediment sensitivity to precipitation-δ18O in contrast to fractionation by evaporation. Of the 18 records, 14 have substantial sensitivity to evaporation. Two records reflect precipitation-δ18O since the middle Holocene, Jellybean and Bison Lakes, and are geographically positioned in the northern and southern regions of the study area. Their comparative analysis indicates a sequence of time-varying north-south precipitation-δ18O patterns that is evidence for a highly non-stationary influence by Pacific ocean-atmosphere processes on the hydroclimate of western North America. These observations are discussed within the context of previous research on North Pacific precipitation-δ18O based on empirical and modeling methods. The Jellybean and Bison Lake records indicate that a prominent precipitation-δ18O dipole (enriched-north and depleted-south) was sustained between ~ 3.5 and 1.5 ka, which contrasts with earlier Holocene patterns, and appears to indicate the onset of a dominant tropical control on North Pacific ocean-atmosphere dynamics. This remains the state of the system today. Higher frequency reversals of the north-south precipitation-δ18O dipole between ~ 2.5 and 1.5 ka, and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, also suggest more varieties of Pacific ocean-atmosphere modes than a single Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) type analogue. Results indicate that further investigation of precipitation-δ18O patterns on short (observational) and long (Holocene) time scales is needed to improve our understanding of the processes that drive

  16. Lake oxygen isotopes as recorders of North American Rocky Mountain hydroclimate: Holocene patterns and variability at multi-decadal to millennial time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lesleigh; Max Berkelhammer,; Barron, John A.; Steinman, Byron A.; Finney, Bruce P.; Abbott, Mark B.

    2016-01-01

    Lake sediment oxygen isotope records (calcium carbonate-δ18O) in the western North American Cordillera developed during the past decade provide substantial evidence of Pacific ocean–atmosphere forcing of hydroclimatic variability during the Holocene. Here we present an overview of 18 lake sediment δ18O records along with a new compilation of lake water δ18O and δ2H that are used to characterize lake sediment sensitivity to precipitation-δ18O in contrast to fractionation by evaporation. Of the 18 records, 14 have substantial sensitivity to evaporation. Two records reflect precipitation-δ18O since the middle Holocene, Jellybean and Bison Lakes, and are geographically positioned in the northern and southern regions of the study area. Their comparative analysis indicates a sequence of time-varying north–south precipitation-δ18O patterns that is evidence for a highly non-stationary influence by Pacific ocean–atmosphere processes on the hydroclimate of western North America. These observations are discussed within the context of previous research on North Pacific precipitation-δ18O based on empirical and modeling methods. The Jellybean and Bison Lake records indicate that a prominent precipitation-δ18O dipole (enriched-north and depleted-south) was sustained between ~ 3.5 and 1.5 ka, which contrasts with earlier Holocene patterns, and appears to indicate the onset of a dominant tropical control on North Pacific ocean–atmosphere dynamics. This remains the state of the system today. Higher frequency reversals of the north–south precipitation-δ18O dipole between ~ 2.5 and 1.5 ka, and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, also suggest more varieties of Pacific ocean–atmosphere modes than a single Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) type analogue. Results indicate that further investigation of precipitation-δ18O patterns on short (observational) and long (Holocene) time scales is needed to improve our understanding of the

  17. Dominance of Dermacentor reticulatus over Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae) on livestock, companion animals and wild ruminants in eastern and central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Kowalec, Maciej; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna

    2015-05-01

    The most common tick species parasitizing animals in Poland are Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. These tick species differ in their distribution, habitats, seasonal activity and host specificity. Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed, whereas the range of D. reticulatus is limited to eastern and central parts of the country with several new foci in the middle-west and the west. However, as in many central European countries, the range of D. reticulatus is expanding, and some authors have correlated this expansion with an increasing number of available hosts. The aim of the present study was to determine the tick fauna on domestic and livestock animals in two areas endemic for I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and to compare the risk of infestation with different tick species in open and forest areas. Over a 14 month period, 732 ticks were collected from five host species including domestic animals (dogs and cats), livestock (cows and horses) and wildlife (European bison) in two areas, central and NE Poland, endemic for D. reticulatus. Three tick species were recorded: D. reticulatus (623 individuals; 85.1% of all collected ticks), I. ricinus (106 individuals; 14.5%) and three females of Ixodes hexagonus (0.4%) from a dog. Dermacentor reticulatus was the dominant tick species found on four host species and constituted 86, 81, 97 and 100% of all ticks from dogs, horses, cows and bison, respectively, and was collected from animals throughout the year, including during the winter. The common tick, I. ricinus, was the dominant tick collected from cats (94%). Fully-engorged, ready-for-reproduction females of D. reticulatus were collected from all host species. In May 2012, questing ticks were collected by dragging in forest or open habitats. The density of adult marsh ticks in open areas was around 2 ticks/100 m(2) in the majority of locations, with a maximum of 9.5 ticks/100 m(2). The density of adult I. ricinus was much lower in its typical

  18. Pellet Cladding Mechanical Interaction Modeling Using the Extended Finite Element Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Benjamin W.; Jiang, Wen; Dolbow, John E.; Peco, Christian

    2016-09-01

    As a brittle material, the ceramic UO2 used as light water reactor fuel experiences significant fracturing throughout its life, beginning with the first rise to power of fresh fuel. This has multiple effects on the thermal and mechanical response of the fuel/cladding system. One such effect that is particularly important is that when there is mechanical contact between the fuel and cladding, cracks that extending from the outer surface of the fuel into the volume of the fuel cause elevated stresses in the adjacent cladding, which can potentially lead to cladding failure. Modeling the thermal and mechanical response of the cladding in the vicinity of these surface-breaking cracks in the fuel can provide important insights into this behavior to help avoid operating conditions that could lead to cladding failure. Such modeling has traditionally been done in the context of finite-element-based fuel performance analysis by modifying the fuel mesh to introduce discrete cracks. While this approach is effective in capturing the important behavior at the fuel/cladding interface, there are multiple drawbacks to explicitly incorporating the cracks in the finite element mesh. Because the cracks are incorporated in the original mesh, the mesh must be modified for cracks of specified location and depth, so it is difficult to account for crack propagation and the formation of new cracks at other locations. The extended finite element method (XFEM) has emerged in recent years as a powerful method to represent arbitrary, evolving, discrete discontinuities within the context of the finite element method. Development work is underway by the authors to implement XFEM in the BISON fuel performance code, and this capability has previously been demonstrated in simulations of fracture propagation in ceramic nuclear fuel. These preliminary demonstrations have included only the fuel, and excluded the cladding for simplicity. This paper presents initial results of efforts to apply XFEM to

  19. Initial Testing of the Microscopic Depletion Implementation in the MAMMOTH Reactor Physics Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortensi, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schunert, S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ganapol, B. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gleicher, F. N. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Baker, B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); DeHart, M. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Present and new nuclear fuels that will be tested at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility will be analyzed with the MAMMOTH reactor physics application, currently under development, at Idaho National Laboratory. MAMMOTH natively couples the BISON, RELAP-7, and Rattlesnake applications within the MOOSE framework. This system allows the irradiation of fuel from beginning of life in a nuclear reactor until it is placed in TREAT for fuel testing within the same analysis mesh and, thus, retaining a very high level of resolution and fidelity. The calculation of the isotopic distribution in fuel requires the solution to the decay and transmutation equations coupled to the neutron transport equation. The Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM) is the current state-of-the-art in the field, as was chosen to be the solver for the decay and transmutation equations. This report shows that the implementation of the CRAM solver within MAMMOTH is correct with various analytic benchmarks for decay and transmutation of nuclides. The results indicate that the solutions with CRAM order 16 achieve the level of precision of the benchmark. The CRAM solutions show little sensitivity to the time step size and consistently produce a high level of accuracy for isotopic decay for time steps of 1x10^11 years. Comparisons to DRAGON5 with 297 isotopes yield comparable results, but some differences need to be further analyzed.

  20. Effects of Grazing and Fire Frequency on Floristic Quality and its Relationship to Indicators of Soil Quality in Tallgrass Prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, George C.; Baer, Sara G.; Blair, John M.

    2017-12-01

    Fire and grazing are widely used to manage grasslands for conservation purposes, but few studies have evaluated the effects of these drivers on the conservation value of plant communities measured by the floristic quality index (FQI). Further, the influence of fire and grazing on soil properties and functions are difficult for land managers and restoration practitioners to assess. The objectives of this study were to: (1) quantify the independent and interactive effects of grazing and fire frequency on floristic quality in native tallgrass prairie to provide potential benchmarks for community assessment, and (2) to explore whether floristic quality can serve as an indicator of soil structure and function for more holistic ecosystem assessments. A factorial combination of fire frequencies (1-2, 4, and 20 years return intervals) and grazing (by bison or ungrazed) treatments were sampled for plant species composition, and for several indicators of soil quality in lowland tallgrass prairie. Floristic quality, diversity, and richness were higher in grazed than ungrazed prairie over all fire frequencies ( P < 0.05). Available inorganic N, microbial biomass N, total N, and soil bulk density were also higher in grazed prairie soil over all fire frequencies ( P < 0.05). Microbial biomass C, total organic C, and total soil N were positively correlated with FQI ( P < 0.05). This study shows that floristic quality and soil N pools are more strongly influenced by grazing than fire and that floristic quality can be an indicator of total soil C and N stocks in never cultivated lowland prairie.

  1. Genetical and cytological response of three tomato varieties to gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanien, E.H.; Abdeltawab, F.M.; Elsouedy, A.; Sharabash, M.T.; Mahmoud, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Seeds of the tomato varieties, i.e, No. 10, bison and kecskement were irradiated with 12 krad. The abnormalities in the meiotic stages of pollen mother cells in both M1 and M2 were evaluated. The 3 varieties were greatly varied in the percentage of abnormalities occurred. The variety No. 10 showed the maximum percentage of lagging chromosomes. Meanwhile, the variety was super accounted in stickiness or clumping chromosomes, chromatid bridges and micronuclei. Whereas, the highest percentage of disturbed chromosomes and sterility was concerning to the variety kecskement. Different types of abnormalities such as stickiness, disturbed chromosomes, chromatid bridges, micronuclei and pollen sterility highly occurred in M2 than M1. Meanwhile, the percentage of lagging chromosomes reached the maximum in M1 rather than in M2. It could be mentioned that pollen sterility was increased by radiation treatment in tomato varieties. This sterility reached the maximum in M2. This was attributed to the increase in the chromosomal abnormalities in M2. A number of mutants, i.e., dwarf, non-branching, sterile plants and variations in fruit weight, had been occurred in the M2 as a function of gamma irradiation. 13 figs., 1 tab

  2. Time Dependent Data Mining in RAVEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Patel, Japan Ketan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    RAVEN is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. The goal of this type of analyses is to understand the response of such systems in particular with respect their probabilistic behavior, to understand their predictability and drivers or lack of thereof. Data mining capabilities are the cornerstones to perform such deep learning of system responses. For this reason static data mining capabilities were added last fiscal year (FY 15). In real applications, when dealing with complex multi-scale, multi-physics systems it seems natural that, during transients, the relevance of the different scales, and physics, would evolve over time. For these reasons the data mining capabilities have been extended allowing their application over time. In this writing it is reported a description of the new RAVEN capabilities implemented with several simple analytical tests to explain their application and highlight the proper implementation. The report concludes with the application of those newly implemented capabilities to the analysis of a simulation performed with the Bison code.

  3. Effect of point defects on the thermal conductivity of UO2: molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang-Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stanek, Christopher Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andersson, Anders David Ragnar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-21

    The thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel is an important materials property that affects fuel performance since it is a key parameter determining the temperature distribution in the fuel, thus governing, e.g., dimensional changes due to thermal expansion, fission gas release rates, etc. [1] The thermal conductivity of UO2 nuclear fuel is also affected by fission gas, fission products, defects, and microstructural features such as grain boundaries. Here, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to determine quantitatively, the effect of irradiation induced point defects on the thermal conductivity of UO2, as a function of defect concentrations, for a range of temperatures, 300 – 1500 K. The results will be used to develop enhanced continuum thermal conductivity models for MARMOT and BISON by INL. These models express the thermal conductivity as a function of microstructure state-variables, thus enabling thermal conductivity models with closer connection to the physical state of the fuel [2].

  4. Large herbivores surf waves of green-up during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Jerod A; Monteith, Kevin L; Aikens, Ellen O; Hayes, Matthew M; Hersey, Kent R; Middleton, Arthur D; Oates, Brendan A; Sawyer, Hall; Scurlock, Brandon M; Kauffman, Matthew J

    2016-06-29

    The green wave hypothesis (GWH) states that migrating animals should track or 'surf' high-quality forage at the leading edge of spring green-up. To index such high-quality forage, recent work proposed the instantaneous rate of green-up (IRG), i.e. rate of change in the normalized difference vegetation index over time. Despite this important advancement, no study has tested the assumption that herbivores select habitat patches at peak IRG. We evaluated this assumption using step selection functions parametrized with movement data during the green-up period from two populations each of bighorn sheep, mule deer, elk, moose and bison, totalling 463 individuals monitored 1-3 years from 2004 to 2014. Accounting for variables that typically influence habitat selection for each species, we found seven of 10 populations selected patches exhibiting high IRG-supporting the GWH. Nonetheless, large herbivores selected for the leading edge, trailing edge and crest of the IRG wave, indicating that other mechanisms (e.g. ruminant physiology) or measurement error inherent with satellite data affect selection for IRG. Our evaluation indicates that IRG is a useful tool for linking herbivore movement with plant phenology, paving the way for significant advancements in understanding how animals track resource quality that varies both spatially and temporally. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Neutronics and Fuel Performance Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Fuel under Normal Operation Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Wu; Piyush Sabharwall; Jason Hales

    2014-07-01

    This report details the analysis of neutronics and fuel performance analysis for enhanced accident tolerance fuel, with Monte Carlo reactor physics code Serpent and INL’s fuel performance code BISON, respectively. The purpose is to evaluate two of the most promising candidate materials, FeCrAl and Silicon Carbide (SiC), as the fuel cladding under normal operating conditions. Substantial neutron penalty is identified when FeCrAl is used as monolithic cladding for current oxide fuel. From the reactor physics standpoint, application of the FeCrAl alloy as coating layer on surface of zircaloy cladding is possible without increasing fuel enrichment. Meanwhile, SiC brings extra reactivity and the neutron penalty is of no concern. Application of either FeCrAl or SiC could be favorable from the fuel performance standpoint. Detailed comparison between monolithic cladding and hybrid cladding (cladding + coating) is discussed. Hybrid cladding is more practical based on the economics evaluation during the transition from current UO2/zircaloy to Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) system. However, a few issues remain to be resolved, such as the creep behavior of FeCrAl, coating spallation, inter diffusion with zirconium, etc. For SiC, its high thermal conductivity, excellent creep resistance, low thermal neutron absorption cross section, irradiation stability (minimal swelling) make it an excellent candidate materials for future nuclear fuel/cladding system.

  6. Promoting access to and use of seismic data in a large scientific community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Eric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing amount of seismic data available from space missions (SOHO, CoRoT, Kepler, SDO,… but also from ground-based facilities (GONG, BiSON, ground-based large programmes…, stellar modelling and numerical simulations, creates new scientific perspectives such as characterizing stellar populations in our Galaxy or planetary systems by providing model-independent global properties of stars such as mass, radius, and surface gravity within several percent accuracy, as well as constraints on the age. These applications address a broad scientific community beyond the solar and stellar one and require combining indices elaborated with data from different databases (e.g. seismic archives and ground-based spectroscopic surveys. It is thus a basic requirement to develop a simple and effcient access to these various data resources and dedicated tools. In the framework of the European project SpaceInn (FP7, several data sources have been developed or upgraded. The Seismic Plus Portal has been developed, where synthetic descriptions of the most relevant existing data sources can be found, as well as tools allowing to localize existing data for given objects or period and helping the data query. This project has been developed within the Virtual Observatory (VO framework. In this paper, we give a review of the various facilities and tools developed within this programme. The SpaceInn project (Exploitation of Space Data for Innovative Helio- and Asteroseismology has been initiated by the European Helio- and Asteroseismology Network (HELAS.

  7. High-resolution analysis of cytosine methylation in ancient DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Llamas

    Full Text Available Epigenetic changes to gene expression can result in heritable phenotypic characteristics that are not encoded in the DNA itself, but rather by biochemical modifications to the DNA or associated chromatin proteins. Interposed between genes and environment, these epigenetic modifications can be influenced by environmental factors to affect phenotype for multiple generations. This raises the possibility that epigenetic states provide a substrate for natural selection, with the potential to participate in the rapid adaptation of species to changes in environment. Any direct test of this hypothesis would require the ability to measure epigenetic states over evolutionary timescales. Here we describe the first single-base resolution of cytosine methylation patterns in an ancient mammalian genome, by bisulphite allelic sequencing of loci from late Pleistocene Bison priscus remains. Retrotransposons and the differentially methylated regions of imprinted loci displayed methylation patterns identical to those derived from fresh bovine tissue, indicating that methylation patterns are preserved in the ancient DNA. Our findings establish the biochemical stability of methylated cytosines over extensive time frames, and provide the first direct evidence that cytosine methylation patterns are retained in DNA from ancient specimens. The ability to resolve cytosine methylation in ancient DNA provides a powerful means to study the role of epigenetics in evolution.

  8. Molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium caprae strains isolated in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska-Wędzina, Monika; Kozińska, Monika; Orłowska, Blanka; Weiner, Marcin; Szulowski, Krzysztof; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Anusz, Krzysztof; Smith, Noel H

    2018-03-10

    Bovine tuberculosis (bovine TB, bTB) is caused by bovine bacilli: Mycobacterium bovis and M caprae The studies conducted in Poland, in the National Bovine Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory in the Department of Microbiology of the National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy, show that animal tuberculosis in Poland is also caused by M caprae We here describe the identification and genotypic assessment of 52 isolates of M caprae obtained from Polish cattle and wild animals over the last five years. We show that strains isolated from bison have significant genotypic diversity and are distinct compared with the genotypes of strains isolated from cattle. Similarly, isolates from cattle herds can be highly genotypically variable. Formal designation of the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is controversial in Poland; there is a gap in veterinary legislation with regard to bTB and no explicit mention of M caprae causing tuberculosis in animal. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Effects of Grazing and Fire Frequency on Floristic Quality and its Relationship to Indicators of Soil Quality in Tallgrass Prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, George C; Baer, Sara G; Blair, John M

    2017-12-01

    Fire and grazing are widely used to manage grasslands for conservation purposes, but few studies have evaluated the effects of these drivers on the conservation value of plant communities measured by the floristic quality index (FQI). Further, the influence of fire and grazing on soil properties and functions are difficult for land managers and restoration practitioners to assess. The objectives of this study were to: (1) quantify the independent and interactive effects of grazing and fire frequency on floristic quality in native tallgrass prairie to provide potential benchmarks for community assessment, and (2) to explore whether floristic quality can serve as an indicator of soil structure and function for more holistic ecosystem assessments. A factorial combination of fire frequencies (1-2, 4, and 20 years return intervals) and grazing (by bison or ungrazed) treatments were sampled for plant species composition, and for several indicators of soil quality in lowland tallgrass prairie. Floristic quality, diversity, and richness were higher in grazed than ungrazed prairie over all fire frequencies (P soil bulk density were also higher in grazed prairie soil over all fire frequencies (P soil N were positively correlated with FQI (P soil N pools are more strongly influenced by grazing than fire and that floristic quality can be an indicator of total soil C and N stocks in never cultivated lowland prairie.

  10. Parallel multiphysics algorithms and software for computational nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaston, D; Hansen, G; Kadioglu, S; Knoll, D A; Newman, C; Park, H; Permann, C; Taitano, W

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing trend in nuclear reactor simulation to consider multiphysics problems. This can be seen in reactor analysis where analysts are interested in coupled flow, heat transfer and neutronics, and in fuel performance simulation where analysts are interested in thermomechanics with contact coupled to species transport and chemistry. These more ambitious simulations usually motivate some level of parallel computing. Many of the coupling efforts to date utilize simple code coupling or first-order operator splitting, often referred to as loose coupling. While these approaches can produce answers, they usually leave questions of accuracy and stability unanswered. Additionally, the different physics often reside on separate grids which are coupled via simple interpolation, again leaving open questions of stability and accuracy. Utilizing state of the art mathematics and software development techniques we are deploying next generation tools for nuclear engineering applications. The Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method combined with physics-based preconditioning provide the underlying mathematical structure for our tools. JFNK is understood to be a modern multiphysics algorithm, but we are also utilizing its unique properties as a scale bridging algorithm. To facilitate rapid development of multiphysics applications we have developed the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE). Examples from two MOOSE-based applications: PRONGHORN, our multiphysics gas cooled reactor simulation tool and BISON, our multiphysics, multiscale fuel performance simulation tool will be presented.

  11. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis - an important food borne pathogen of high public health significance with special reference to India: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Kundan Kumar; Singh, Shoor Vir; Gupta, Saurabh; Singh, Manju; Sohal, Jagdip Singh; Kumar, Naveen; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Bhatia, Ashok Kumar; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2017-12-01

    This review underlines the public health significance of 'Indian Bison Type' of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and also its potential as 'zoonotic infection'. In the absence of control programs, bio-load of MAP is increasing and if we take total population of animals (500 million plus) and human beings (1.23 billion plus) into account, the number of infected animals and human beings will run into millions in India. Our research on screening of over 26,000 domestic livestock for MAP infection using 4 different diagnostic tests (microscopy, culture, ELISA and PCR), during last 31 years has shown that the average bio-load of MAP in the livestock population of India is very high (cattle 43%, buffaloes 36%, goats 23% and sheep 41%). 'Mass screening' of 28,291 human samples between 2008-2016 revealed also high bio-load of MAP. It has been proved that MAP is not in-activated during pasteurization and therefore live bacilli are continuously reaching human population by consumption of even pasteurized milk and other milk products. Live bacilli have also been recovered from meat products and the environment thus illustrating the potential of MAP as pathogen of public health concern. However, at present, there is inadequate scientific evidence to confirm a conclusive link between MAP infection and Johne's disease in ruminants and some cases of Crohn's disease in human beings.

  12. Preliminary Results for the OECD/NEA Time Dependent Benchmark using Rattlesnake, Rattlesnake-IQS and TDKENO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, Mark D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mausolff, Zander [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Weems, Zach [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Popp, Dustin [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Smith, Kristin [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Shriver, Forrest [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Goluoglu, Sedat [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Prince, Zachary [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ragusa, Jean [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    One goal of the MAMMOTH M&S project is to validate the analysis capabilities within MAMMOTH. Historical data has shown limited value for validation of full three-dimensional (3D) multi-physics methods. Initial analysis considered the TREAT startup minimum critical core and one of the startup transient tests. At present, validation is focusing on measurements taken during the M8CAL test calibration series. These exercises will valuable in preliminary assessment of the ability of MAMMOTH to perform coupled multi-physics calculations; calculations performed to date are being used to validate the neutron transport solver Rattlesnake\\cite{Rattlesnake} and the fuels performance code BISON. Other validation projects outside of TREAT are available for single-physics benchmarking. Because the transient solution capability of Rattlesnake is one of the key attributes that makes it unique for TREAT transient simulations, validation of the transient solution of Rattlesnake using other time dependent kinetics benchmarks has considerable value. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has recently developed a computational benchmark for transient simulations. This benchmark considered both two-dimensional (2D) and 3D configurations for a total number of 26 different transients. All are negative reactivity insertions, typically returning to the critical state after some time.

  13. Review of risk factors in four cases of cryptococcosis after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, H-E; Chou, N-K; Chi, N-H; Chen, Y-S; Wang, J-L; Wang, S-S

    2008-10-01

    Cryptococcosis is a rare infection with high mortality in patients who have undergone heart transplantation (HT). In this study, we report four cases of the disease selected from our 328 HT cases (1.22%) between 1987 and 2007. The purpose of this study was to review risk factors for cryptococcosis after HT. Three of the four patients were men. The mean time from HT to diagnosis was 8.5 months (range, 3-17 months). Cryptococcosis was subcutaneous in one patient, systemic in one, and meningeal in two. One patient died. The Antifungal regimens included intravenous amphotericin B (amBisone) and oral fluconazole (Diflucan). Patients with diabetes mellitus or renal insufficiency, are hepatitis B carriers, have undergone repeat HT, or are receivings steroid therapy are susceptible to cryptococcosis. The recommend anticryptococcal therapy is amphotericin B, followed by oral fluconazole for at least 6 months. Early diagnosis with aggressive diagnostic techniques and a combination of therapies must be considered to reduce the risk of death in HT recipients with cryptococcosis.

  14. Vertebrate paleontology, stratigraphy, and paleohydrology of Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument, Nevada (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kathleen; Pigati, Jeffery S.; Scott, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument (TUSK) preserves 22,650 acres of the upper Las Vegas Wash in the northern Las Vegas Valley (Nevada, USA). TUSK is home to extensive and stratigraphically complex groundwater discharge (GWD) deposits, called the Las Vegas Formation, which represent springs and desert wetlands that covered much of the valley during the late Quaternary. The GWD deposits record hydrologic changes that occurred here in a dynamic and temporally congruent response to abrupt climatic oscillations over the last ~300 ka (thousands of years). The deposits also entomb the Tule Springs Local Fauna (TSLF), one of the most significant late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) vertebrate assemblages in the American Southwest. The TSLF is both prolific and diverse, and includes a large mammal assemblage dominated by Mammuthus columbi and Camelops hesternus. Two (and possibly three) distinct species of Equus, two species of Bison, Panthera atrox, Smilodon fatalis, Canis dirus, Megalonyx jeffersonii, and Nothrotheriops shastensis are also present, and newly recognized faunal components include micromammals, amphibians, snakes, and birds. Invertebrates, plant macrofossils, and pollen also occur in the deposits and provide important and complementary paleoenvironmental information. This field compendium highlights the faunal assemblage in the classic stratigraphic sequences of the Las Vegas Formation within TUSK, emphasizes the significant hydrologic changes that occurred in the area during the recent geologic past, and examines the subsequent and repeated effect of rapid climate change on the local desert wetland ecosystem.

  15. Postglacial viability and colonization in North America's ice-free corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mikkel W; Ruter, Anthony; Schweger, Charles; Friebe, Harvey; Staff, Richard A; Kjeldsen, Kristian K; Mendoza, Marie L Z; Beaudoin, Alwynne B; Zutter, Cynthia; Larsen, Nicolaj K; Potter, Ben A; Nielsen, Rasmus; Rainville, Rebecca A; Orlando, Ludovic; Meltzer, David J; Kjær, Kurt H; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-09-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum, continental ice sheets isolated Beringia (northeast Siberia and northwest North America) from unglaciated North America. By around 15 to 14 thousand calibrated radiocarbon years before present (cal. kyr bp), glacial retreat opened an approximately 1,500-km-long corridor between the ice sheets. It remains unclear when plants and animals colonized this corridor and it became biologically viable for human migration. We obtained radiocarbon dates, pollen, macrofossils and metagenomic DNA from lake sediment cores in a bottleneck portion of the corridor. We find evidence of steppe vegetation, bison and mammoth by approximately 12.6 cal. kyr bp, followed by open forest, with evidence of moose and elk at about 11.5 cal. kyr bp, and boreal forest approximately 10 cal. kyr bp. Our findings reveal that the first Americans, whether Clovis or earlier groups in unglaciated North America before 12.6 cal. kyr bp, are unlikely to have travelled by this route into the Americas. However, later groups may have used this north-south passageway.

  16. Postglacial viability and colonization in North America’s ice-free corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mikkel W.; Ruter, Anthony; Schweger, Charles; Friebe, Harvey; Staff, Richard A.; Kjeldsen, Kristian K.; Mendoza, Marie L. Z.; Beaudoin, Alwynne B.; Zutter, Cynthia; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Potter, Ben A.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Rainville, Rebecca A.; Orlando, Ludovic; Meltzer, David J.; Kjær, Kurt H.; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-09-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum, continental ice sheets isolated Beringia (northeast Siberia and northwest North America) from unglaciated North America. By around 15 to 14 thousand calibrated radiocarbon years before present (cal. kyr BP), glacial retreat opened an approximately 1,500-km-long corridor between the ice sheets. It remains unclear when plants and animals colonized this corridor and it became biologically viable for human migration. We obtained radiocarbon dates, pollen, macrofossils and metagenomic DNA from lake sediment cores in a bottleneck portion of the corridor. We find evidence of steppe vegetation, bison and mammoth by approximately 12.6 cal. kyr BP, followed by open forest, with evidence of moose and elk at about 11.5 cal. kyr BP, and boreal forest approximately 10 cal. kyr BP. Our findings reveal that the first Americans, whether Clovis or earlier groups in unglaciated North America before 12.6 cal. kyr BP, are unlikely to have travelled by this route into the Americas. However, later groups may have used this north-south passageway.

  17. A high-elevation, multi-proxy biotic and environmental record of MIS 6–4 from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian M. Miller; Mitchell A. Plummer; Various Others

    2014-10-01

    In North America, terrestrial records of biodiversity and climate change that span Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 are rare. Where found, they provide insight into how the coupling of the ocean–atmosphere system is manifested in biotic and environmental records and how the biosphere responds to climate change. In 2010–2011, construction at Ziegler Reservoir near Snowmass Village, Colorado (USA) revealed a nearly continuous, lacustrine/wetland sedimentary sequence that preserved evidence of past plant communities between ~140 and 55 ka, including all of MIS 5. At an elevation of 2705 m, the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site also contained thousands of well-preserved bones of late Pleistocene megafauna, including mastodons, mammoths, ground sloths, horses, camels, deer, bison, black bear, coyotes, and bighorn sheep. In addition, the site contained more than 26,000 bones from at least 30 species of small animals including salamanders, otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds. The combination of macro- and micro-vertebrates, invertebrates, terrestrial and aquatic plant macrofossils, a detailed pollen record, and a robust, directly dated stratigraphic framework shows that high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are climatically sensitive and varied dramatically throughout MIS 5

  18. Phylogeography of lions (Panthera leo ssp.) reveals three distinct taxa and a late Pleistocene reduction in genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Ross; Shapiro, Beth; Barnes, Ian; Ho, Simon Y W; Burger, Joachim; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Higham, Thomas F G; Wheeler, H Todd; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Sher, Andrei V; Sotnikova, Marina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Baryshnikov, Gennady F; Martin, Larry D; Harington, C Richard; Burns, James A; Cooper, Alan

    2009-04-01

    Lions were the most widespread carnivores in the late Pleistocene, ranging from southern Africa to the southern USA, but little is known about the evolutionary relationships among these Pleistocene populations or the dynamics that led to their extinction. Using ancient DNA techniques, we obtained mitochondrial sequences from 52 individuals sampled across the present and former range of lions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three distinct clusters: (i) modern lions, Panthera leo; (ii) extinct Pleistocene cave lions, which formed a homogeneous population extending from Europe across Beringia (Siberia, Alaska and western Canada); and (iii) extinct American lions, which formed a separate population south of the Pleistocene ice sheets. The American lion appears to have become genetically isolated around 340 000 years ago, despite the apparent lack of significant barriers to gene flow with Beringian populations through much of the late Pleistocene. We found potential evidence of a severe population bottleneck in the cave lion during the previous interstadial, sometime after 48 000 years, adding to evidence from bison, mammoths, horses and brown bears that megafaunal populations underwent major genetic alterations throughout the last interstadial, potentially presaging the processes involved in the subsequent end-Pleistocene mass extinctions.

  19. A formal mammalian biostratigraphy for the Late Pleistocene of Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currant, Andrew; Jacobi, Roger

    2001-10-01

    A series of distinctive mammalian assemblages spanning much of the British Late Pleistocene is defined on the basis of type localities and a formal biozonation proposed. The Joint Mitnor Cave mammal assemblage-zone includes the famous "Hippopotamus fauna" of the early part of the Last Interglacial complex (Oxygen Isotope Substage 5e). This is succeeded by the Bacon Hole mammal assemblage-zone in which hippopotamus is no longer present and species like mammoth, roe deer and northern vole re-enter the British region. This assemblage-zone appears to represent the later substages of OIS 5. A faunal grouping dominated by bison and reindeer is named the Banwell Bone Cave mammal assemblage-zone and is believed to correlate closely with the Early Devensian (OIS 4). The Pin Hole mammal assemblage-zone includes the familiar mammoth-steppe faunas of the Middle Devensian (OIS 3) dominated by horse, woolly rhinoceros and mammoth. The Lateglacial Interstadial is characterized by the Gough's Cave mammal assemblage-zone in which horse, red deer and humans are well represented (part of OIS 2). No definitive evidence for human activity can be found for a period spanning the Last Interglacial complex (OIS 5) and the Early Devensian (OIS 4). Human populations return to Britain with the Pin Hole mammal assemblage-zone fauna during the Middle Devensian (OIS 3) and reappear after the Dimlington Stadial during the Late Devensian (OIS 2) but in a different faunal association.

  20. Comparative investigation of the pharmacology of fish and mammalian neuromuscular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Neuromuscular pharmacology has been extensively studied in mammals but there have been few investigations examining the neuromuscular systems of fish. In situ experiments have shown that the basic cholinergic characteristics of fish neuromuscular junctions are different from those of mammals. In order to further understand the nature of these differences, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) of rat and buffalo sculpin (Enophrys bison) neuromuscular junctions and the AChR of electric ray (Torpedo california) electroplax, were investigated using receptor binding analysis. A rapid filtration assay was utilized to measure [ 125 I]α-BGT binding to tissue membranes. Scatchard analysis of [ 175 I]α-BGT binding was performed on sculpin pectoral muscle rat gastrocnemius, rat denervated gastrocnemius, and Torpedo electroplax. The affinity constant was similar for all tissues studied. In competition studies, d-tubocurarine had the highest affinity for the [ 125 I]-α-BGT binding site in all tissues, illustrating the nicotinic nature of the binding sites. Acetylcholine had high affinity for the rat gastrocnemius binding site and low affinity for the sculpin pectoral muscle and Torpedo electroplax binding site. Atropine had high affinity for the sculpin pectoral muscle binding site when compared to the rate gastrocnemius and Torpedo electroplax binding site, indicating that the sculpin pectoral site may have some mixed muscarinic-nicitinic characteristics. These results indicate that there are definite qualitative as well as quantitative differences between the fish skeletal muscle nicotinic receptor and the nicotinic receptor of fish electroplax and rat skeletal muscle

  1. How stakeholder roles, power, and negotiation impact natural resource policy: A political economy view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughlan, L.

    2002-01-01

    Natural resource management decisions are complicated by multiple property rights, management objectives, and stakeholders with varying degrees of influence over the decision making process. In order to make efficient decisions, managers must incorporate the opinions and values of the involved stakeholders as well as understand the complex institutional constraints and opportunities that influence the decision-making process. Often this type of information is not understood until after a decision has been made, which can result in wasted time and effort.The purpose of my dissertation was to show how institutional frameworks and stakeholder involvement influence the various phases of the resource management decision-making process in a public choice framework. The intent was to assist decision makers and stakeholders by developing a methodology for formally incorporating stakeholders'' objectives and influence into the resource management planning process and to predict the potential success of rent-seeking activity based on stakeholder preferences and level of influence. Concepts from decision analysis, institutional analysis, and public choice economics were used in designing this interdisciplinary framework. The framework was then applied to an actual case study concerning elk and bison management on the National Elk Refuge and Grand Teton National Park near Jackson, Wyoming. The framework allowed for the prediction of the level of support and conflict for all relevant policy decisions, and the identification of each stakeholder''s level of support or opposition for each management decision.

  2. MARMOT update for oxide fuel modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schwen, Daniel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chakraborty, Pritam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jiang, Chao [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Aagesen, Larry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ahmed, Karim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jiang, Wen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Biner, Bulent [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bai, Xianming [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Tonks, Michael [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Millett, Paul [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report summarizes the lower-length-scale research and development progresses in FY16 at Idaho National Laboratory in developing mechanistic materials models for oxide fuels, in parallel to the development of the MARMOT code which will be summarized in a separate report. This effort is a critical component of the microstructure based fuel performance modeling approach, supported by the Fuels Product Line in the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. The progresses can be classified into three categories: 1) development of materials models to be used in engineering scale fuel performance modeling regarding the effect of lattice defects on thermal conductivity, 2) development of modeling capabilities for mesoscale fuel behaviors including stage-3 gas release, grain growth, high burn-up structure, fracture and creep, and 3) improved understanding in material science by calculating the anisotropic grain boundary energies in UO$_2$ and obtaining thermodynamic data for solid fission products. Many of these topics are still under active development. They are updated in the report with proper amount of details. For some topics, separate reports are generated in parallel and so stated in the text. The accomplishments have led to better understanding of fuel behaviors and enhance capability of the MOOSE-BISON-MARMOT toolkit.

  3. Sensitivity analysis of FeCrAl cladding and U3Si2 fuel under accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this milestone report is to highlight the results of sensitivity analyses performed on two accident tol- erant fuel concepts: U3Si2 fuel and FeCrAl cladding. The BISON fuel performance code under development at Idaho National Laboratory was coupled to Sandia National Laboratories’ DAKOTA software to perform the sensitivity analyses. Both Loss of Coolant (LOCA) and Station blackout (SBO) scenarios were analyzed using main effects studies. The results indicate that for FeCrAl cladding the input parameters with greatest influence on the output metrics of interest (fuel centerline temperature and cladding hoop strain) during the LOCA were the isotropic swelling and fuel enrichment. For U3Si2 the important inputs were found to be the intergranular diffusion coefficient, specific heat, and fuel thermal conductivity. For the SBO scenario, Young’s modulus was found to be influential in FeCrAl in addition to the isotropic swelling and fuel enrichment. Contrarily to the LOCA case, the specific heat of U3Si2 was found to have no effect during the SBO. The intergranular diffusion coefficient and fuel thermal conductivity were still found to be of importance. The results of the sensitivity analyses have identified areas where further research is required including fission gas behavior in U3Si2 and irradiation swelling in FeCrAl. Moreover, the results highlight the need to perform the sensitivity analyses on full length fuel rods for SBO scenarios.

  4. Effect of energy drinks on the surface texture of nanoflled composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samadani, Khalid H

    2013-09-01

    To study the effect of three energy drinks on the surface roughness of nanoflled composite resins after different periods of aging time. Composite resin disks, 6 mm diameter, 3 mm thickness were prepared from Filtec Z350 XT, Tetric EvoCeram and Filtec Z250 XT. Specimens fr/8om each material were tested after aging with Red Bull, Bison and Power Horse energy drinks and distilled water as a control. Specimens were stored at 37°C in dark containers for 1, 3 and 6 months. Surface roughness Ra was assessed using a surface scanning interferometry before and after each storage period. Surface roughness differences ΔRa and Ra among specimens were measured. Mean values were statistically analyzed using multiple repeated measured (ANOVA), variance and multiple comparisons of the mean values were done with Bonferroni test, with p energy drinks was signifcantly different for all tested materials at all three times p Energy drinks used in this study had surface degradation effect on the tested composite resin materials. The surface roughness increased with aging time however, it was clinically acceptable in all test groups after 6 months. The effect of energy drinks solutions on the surface roughness parameter of resin composites depends on type of solution and its acidity contents.

  5. [Is the parasite fauna of Poland well recognized?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojmańska, Teresa; Niewiadomska, Katarzyna

    2003-01-01

    The studies of parasite fauna have in Poland a long tradition. Generally the helmint fauna of all groups of vertebrates was more or less examined and as much as over 100 species of Monogenea, almost 400 Digenea, over 250 Cestoda, about 500 Nematoda and 32 Acanthocephala have been recorded. The best recognized are the helminths of fish (especially those of Cyprinidae, Esocidae, Percidae and Salmonidae), frogs examined in various regions of Poland, some birds (especially connected with water environment: Anseriformes, Ciconiformes, Podicipediformes), most of insectivores (although examined only in few localities), European bisons, deers, foxes and wild boars (all under permanent monitoring), as well as domestic animals (cattle, horses, sheeps) and pets. Such groups like some amphibians, reptiles, bats, carniwores, some birds (especially Passeriformes, Charadriiformes, falcons and eagles) need further exploration, as some host species were not the subject of parasitological investigation. In some cases it will be rather difficult goal, as most of these animals are under strict preservation, and only dead (naturally or accidentally) specimens can be autopsied.

  6. Paleoecological and taphonomic implications of insect-damaged pleistocene vertebrate remains from Rancho La Brea, southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Anna R; Harris, John M; Timm, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    The La Brea Tar Pits, the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality, offers unsurpassed insights into southern California's past environments. Recent studies at Rancho La Brea document that insects serve as sensitive and valuable paleoecological and taphonomic indicators. Of the thousands of fossil bird and mammal bones recovered from the Tar Pits, insect trace damage is thus far almost exclusively confined to the foot bones of large herbivores, especially bison, camel, and horse species. Our laboratory experiments with dermestid and tenebrionid beetles establish that the larvae of both consume bone, producing different characteristic feeding traces and providing the first documentation that tenebrionids consume bone. The presence of carcass-exploiting insects in the Rancho La Brea biota provides insight into the taphonomy of the asphaltic bone masses and the environmental conditions under which they accumulated. The succession of dermestids, tenebrionids, and indeterminate traces on many of the foot elements, combined with the climate restrictions and life cycles of these insects, indicate that carcasses could remain unsubmerged for at least 17-20 weeks, thus providing the most reliable estimate to date. Attribution of these traces also suggests that the asphaltic fossils only accumulated during warmer intervals of the Late Pleistocene. Forensic studies need to reevaluate the role of tenebrionids in carcass decomposition and other additional insects that modify bone.

  7. Paleoecological and taphonomic implications of insect-damaged pleistocene vertebrate remains from Rancho La Brea, southern California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Holden

    Full Text Available The La Brea Tar Pits, the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality, offers unsurpassed insights into southern California's past environments. Recent studies at Rancho La Brea document that insects serve as sensitive and valuable paleoecological and taphonomic indicators. Of the thousands of fossil bird and mammal bones recovered from the Tar Pits, insect trace damage is thus far almost exclusively confined to the foot bones of large herbivores, especially bison, camel, and horse species. Our laboratory experiments with dermestid and tenebrionid beetles establish that the larvae of both consume bone, producing different characteristic feeding traces and providing the first documentation that tenebrionids consume bone. The presence of carcass-exploiting insects in the Rancho La Brea biota provides insight into the taphonomy of the asphaltic bone masses and the environmental conditions under which they accumulated. The succession of dermestids, tenebrionids, and indeterminate traces on many of the foot elements, combined with the climate restrictions and life cycles of these insects, indicate that carcasses could remain unsubmerged for at least 17-20 weeks, thus providing the most reliable estimate to date. Attribution of these traces also suggests that the asphaltic fossils only accumulated during warmer intervals of the Late Pleistocene. Forensic studies need to reevaluate the role of tenebrionids in carcass decomposition and other additional insects that modify bone.

  8. First DNA sequences from Asian cave bear fossils reveal deep divergences and complex phylogeographic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Michael; Rohland, Nadin; Weinstock, Jacobo; Baryshnikov, Gennady; Sher, Andrei; Nagel, Doris; Rabeder, Gernot; Pinhasi, Ron; Schmidt, Heiko A; Hofreiter, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Until recently, cave bears were believed to have only inhabited Europe. However, recent morphological evidence suggests that cave bears' geographic range extended as far east as Transbaikalia, Eastern Siberia. These Asian cave bears were morphologically distinct from European cave bears. However, how they related to European lineages remains unclear, stressing the need to assess the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationship between Asian cave bears and their European relatives. In this work, we address this issue using a 227 base-pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region obtained from nine fossil bone samples from eight sites from the Urals, Caucasus, Altai Mountains, Ukraine and Yana River region in Eastern Siberia. Results of the phylogenetic analyses indicate that (i) the cave bear from the Yana River is most closely related to cave bears from the Caucasus region; (ii) the Caucasus/Yana group of bears is genetically very distinct from both European cave bears and brown bears, suggesting that these bears could represent an independent species; and (iii) the Western European cave bear lineage reached at least temporarily to the Altai Mountains, 7000 km east of their known centre of distribution. These results suggest that the diversity of cave bears was greater than previously believed, and that they could survive in a much wider range of ecological conditions than previously assumed. They also agree with recent studies on other extinct and extant species, such as wolves, hyenas and steppe bison, which have also revealed higher genetic and ecological diversity in Pleistocene populations than previously known.

  9. Novel Accident-Tolerant Fuel Meat and Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Mariani; Pavel G Medvedev; Douglas L Porter; Steven L Hayes; James I. Cole; Xian-Ming Bai

    2013-09-01

    A novel accident-tolerant fuel meat and cladding are here proposed. The fuel meat design incorporates annular fuel with inserts and discs that are fabricated from a material having high thermal conductivity, for example niobium. The inserts are rods or tubes. Discs separate the fuel pellets. Using the BISON fuel performance code it was found that the peak fuel temperature can be lowered by more than 600 degrees C for one set of conditions with niobium metal as the thermal conductor. In addition to improved safety margin, several advantages are expected from the lower temperature such as decreased fission gas release and fuel cracking. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed. An enrichment of only 7.5% fully compensates the lost reactivity of the displaced UO2. Slightly higher enrichments, such as 9%, allow uprates and increased burnups to offset the initial costs for retooling. The design has applications for fast reactors and transuranic burning, which may accelerate its development. A zirconium silicide coating is also described for accident tolerant applications. A self-limiting degradation behavior for this coating is expected to produce a glassy, self-healing layer that becomes more protective at elevated temperature, with some similarities to MoSi2 and other silicides. Both the fuel and coating may benefit from the existing technology infrastructure and the associated wide expertise for a more rapid development in comparison to other, more novel fuels and cladding.

  10. The Snowmastodon Project: A view of the Last Interglacial Period from high in the Colorado Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2015-01-01

    In North America, terrestrial records of biodiversity and climate change that span the Last Interglacial Period [or Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5] are rare. In 2010-11, construction at Ziegler Reservoir near Snowmass Village, Colorado revealed a lacustrine/wetland sedimentary sequence that preserved evidence of past plant communities between ~140 and 55 ka, including all of MIS 5. At an elevation of 2705 m, the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site (ZRFS) also contained thousands of well-preserved bones and teeth of Pleistocene megafauna, including mastodons, mammoths, ground sloths, horses, camels, deer, bison, black bear, coyotes, and bighorn sheep. In addition, the site contained more than 26,000 bones from at least 30 species of small animals, including salamanders, otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds. The combination of macro- and micro-vertebrates, invertebrates, terrestrial and aquatic plant macrofossils, a detailed pollen record, and a robust, directly dated stratigraphic framework, shows that high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are climatically sensitive and varied dramatically throughout MIS 5.

  11. A high-elevation, multi-proxy biotic and environmental record of MIS 6-4 from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ian M.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, R. Scott; Johnson, Kirk R.; Mahan, Shannon; Ager, Thomas A.; Baker, Richard G.; Blaauw, Maarten; Bright, Jordon; Brown, Peter M.; Bryant, Bruce; Calamari, Zachary T.; Carrara, Paul E.; Michael D., Cherney; Demboski, John R.; Elias, Scott A.; Fisher, Daniel C.; Gray, Harrison J.; Haskett, Danielle R.; Honke, Jeffrey S.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Kline, Douglas; Leonard, Eric M.; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Lucking, Carol; McDonald, H. Gregory; Miller, Dane M.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Nash, Stephen E.; Newton, Cody; Paces, James B.; Petrie, Lesley; Plummer, Mitchell A.; Porinchu, David F.; Rountrey, Adam N.; Scott, Eric; Sertich, Joseph J. W.; Sharpe, Saxon E.; Skipp, Gary L.; Strickland, Laura E.; Stucky, Richard K.; Thompson, Robert S.; Wilson, Jim

    2014-01-01

    In North America, terrestrial records of biodiversity and climate change that span Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 are rare. Where found, they provide insight into how the coupling of the ocean–atmosphere system is manifested in biotic and environmental records and how the biosphere responds to climate change. In 2010–2011, construction at Ziegler Reservoir near Snowmass Village, Colorado (USA) revealed a nearly continuous, lacustrine/wetland sedimentary sequence that preserved evidence of past plant communities between ~ 140 and 55 ka, including all of MIS 5. At an elevation of 2705 m, the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site also contained thousands of well-preserved bones of late Pleistocene megafauna, including mastodons, mammoths, ground sloths, horses, camels, deer, bison, black bear, coyotes, and bighorn sheep. In addition, the site contained more than 26,000 bones from at least 30 species of small animals including salamanders, otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds. The combination of macro- and micro-vertebrates, invertebrates, terrestrial and aquatic plant macrofossils, a detailed pollen record, and a robust, directly dated stratigraphic framework shows that high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are climatically sensitive and varied dramatically throughout MIS 5.

  12. Pipelines : how do proposed increases in crude production impact the Canadian pipeline picture?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, B.

    2005-01-01

    New markets and pipeline capacity are needed to support Western Canadian oil sands production. A corporate overview of Terasen, a Canadian company with an asset base of over $4 billion was provided in this presentation, as well as details of oil sands supply and infrastructure. A chart of Western Canadian crude supply was presented, along with a map of key current and future markets. It was noted that traditional gas production is expected to decline by 4 per cent per year. Heavy crudes are expected to decline by 3 per cent per year, with imports expected to increase by 460,000 bpd by 2015. However, the Canadian market will face competition from South America. Details of the Far East market were reviewed. Strong West Coast demand has resulted in capacity apportionment for most of 2003 and 2004. Various express opportunities were examined. Corridor expansion was discussed in relation to the Bison project and the Heartland terminal in Edmonton. Choices for marine exports and TMX expansion were also reviewed. TMX representative tolls were listed. Specific project challenges include building and operating pipelines through rugged, environmentally sensitive terrain; stakeholder relations; and a need for shipper commitments. It was noted that there is strong support to continue development, with commercial discussions proceeding. An open season is planned for 2005, with new capacity expected to be in service by late 2006. Terasen's project plans include building strong customer relations; stakeholder engagement; and efficient construction strategies. tabs., figs

  13. Chronology and ecology of late Pleistocene megafauna in the northern Willamette Valley, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Daniel M.; Butler, Virginia L.; O'Connor, James E.; Davis, Edward Byrd; Culleton, Brendan J.; Kennett, Douglas J.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-19th century, western Oregon's Willamette Valley has been a source of remains from a wide variety of extinct megafauna. Few of these have been previously described or dated, but new chronologic and isotopic analyses in conjunction with updated evaluations of stratigraphic context provide substantial new information on the species present, timing of losses, and paleoenvironmental conditions. Using subfossil material from the northern valley, we use AMS radiocarbon dating, stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) analyses, and taxonomic dietary specialization and habitat preferences to reconstruct environments and to develop a local chronology of events that we then compare with continental and regional archaeological and paleoenvironmental data. Analysis of twelve bone specimens demonstrates the presence of bison, mammoth, horse, sloth, and mastodon from ~ 15,000–13,000 cal yr BP. The latest ages coincide with changing regional climate corresponding to the onset of the Younger Dryas. It is suggested that cooling conditions led to increased forest cover, and, along with river aggradation, reduced the area of preferred habitat for the larger bodied herbivores, which contributed to the demise of local megafauna. Archaeological evidence for megafauna–human interactions in the Pacific Northwest is scarce, limiting our ability to address the human role in causing extinction.

  14. UO2 Grain Growth: Developing Phase Field Models for Pore Dragging, Solute Dragging and Anisotropic Grain Boundary Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonks, M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Biner, B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-28

    A detailed phase field model for the effect of pore drag on grain growth kinetics was implemented in MARMOT. The model takes into consideration both the curvature-driven grain boundary motion and pore migration by surface diffusion. As such, the model accounts for the interaction between pore and grain boundary kinetics, which tends to retard the grain growth process. Our 2D and 3D simulations demonstrate that the model capture all possible pore-grain boundary interactions proposed in theoretical models. For high enough surface mobility, the pores move along with the migrating boundary as a quasi-rigid-body, albeit hindering its migration rate compared to the pore-free case. For less mobile pores, the migrating boundary can separate from the pores. For the pore-controlled grain growth kinetics, the model predicts a strong dependence of the growth rate on the number of pores, pore size, and surface diffusivity in agreement with theroretical models. An evolution equation for the grain size that includes these parameters was derived and showed to agree well with numerical solution. It shows a smooth transition from boundary-controlled kinetics to pore-controlled kinetics as the surface diffusivity decreases or the number of pores or their size increases. This equation can be utilized in BISON to give accurate estimate for the grain size evolution. This will be accomplished in the near future. The effect of solute drag and anisotropy of grain boundary on grain growth will be investigated in future studies.

  15. Holocene record of precipitation seasonality from lake calcite δ18O in the central Rocky Mountains, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lesleigh

    2011-01-01

    A context for recent hydroclimatic extremes and variability is provided by a ~10 k.y. sediment carbonate oxygen isotope (??18O) record at 5-100 yr resolution from Bison Lake, 3255 m above sea level, in northwestern Colorado (United States). Winter precipitation is the primary water source for the alpine headwater lake in the Upper Colorado River Basin and lake water ??18O measurements reflect seasonal variations in precipitation ??18O. Holocene lake water ??18O variations are inferred from endogenic sedimentary calcite ??18O based on comparisons with historic watershed discharge records and tree-ring reconstructions. Drought periods (i.e., drier winters and/or a more rain-dominated seasonal precipitation balance) generally correspond with higher calcite ??18O values, and vice-versa. Early to middle Holocene ??18O values are higher, implying a rain-dominated seasonal precipitation balance. Lower, more variable ??18O values after ca. 3500 yr ago indicate a snow-dominated but more seasonally variable precipitation balance. The middle to late Holocene ??18O record corresponds with records of El Ni??o Southern Oscillation intensification that supports a teleconnection between Rocky Mountain climate and North Pacific sea-surface temperatures at decade to century time scales. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  16. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF FeCrAl CLADDING AND U-Si FUEL FOR ACCIDENT TOLERANT FUEL CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, J. D.; Gamble, K. A.

    2015-09-01

    Since the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, enhancing the accident tolerance of light water reactors (LWRs) has become an important research topic. In particular, the community is actively developing enhanced fuels and cladding for LWRs to improve safety in the event of accidents in the reactor or spent fuel pools. Fuels with enhanced accident tolerance are those that, in comparison with the standard UO2-zirconium alloy system, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer time period during design-basis and beyond design-basis events while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations and operational transients. This paper presents early work in developing thermal and mechanical models for two materials that may have promise: U-Si for fuel, and FeCrAl for cladding. These materials would not necessarily be used together in the same fuel system, but individually have promising characteristics. BISON, the finite element-based fuel performance code in development at Idaho National Laboratory, was used to compare results from normal operation conditions with Zr-4/UO2 behavior. In addition, sensitivity studies are presented for evaluating the relative importance of material parameters such as ductility and thermal conductivity in FeCrAl and U-Si in order to provide guidance on future experiments for these materials.

  17. Analysis of the stress-strain state in single overlap joints using piezo-ceramic actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pǎltânea, Veronica; Pǎltânea, Gheorghe; Popovici, Dorina; Jiga, Gabriel; Papanicolaou, George

    2014-05-01

    In this paper is presented a 2D approach to finite element modeling and an analytical calculus of a single lap bonded joint. As adherent material were selected a sheet of wood, aluminum and titanium. For adhesive part were selected Bison Super Wood D3 in case of the wood single lap joint and an epoxy resin type DGEBA-TETA for gluing together aluminum and titanium parts. In the article is described a combined method, which consists in the placement of the piezoelectric actuator inside of the adhesive part, in order to determine the tensile stress in the overlap joint. A comparison between the analytical and numerical results has been achieved through a multiphysics modeling - electrical and mechanical coupled problem. The technique used to calculate the mechanical parameters (First Principal Stress, displacements) was the three-point bending test, where different forces were applied in the mid-span of the structure, in order to maintain a constant displacement rate. The length of the overlap joint was modified from 20 to 50 mm.

  18. Grasshopper fecundity responses to grazing and fire in a tallgrass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Angela N; Joern, Anthony

    2011-10-01

    Grasshopper abundance and diversity vary with management practices such as fire and grazing. Understanding how grasshopper life history traits such as fecundity respond to management practices is key to predicting grasshopper population dynamics in heterogeneous environments. Landscape-level experimental fire and bison grazing treatments at the Konza Prairie Biological Station (Manhattan, KS) provide an opportunity to examine how management affects grasshopper fecundity. Here we report on grasshopper fecundity for nine common species at Konza Prairie. From 2007 to 2009, adult female grasshoppers were collected every 3 wk from eight watersheds that varied in fire and grazing treatments. Fecundity was measured by examining female reproductive tracts, which contain a record of past and current reproductive activity. Body size was a poor predictor of fecundity for all species. Despite large differences in vegetation structure and composition with management regime (grazing and fire interval), we observed little effect of management on grasshopper fecundity. Habitat characteristics (grasshopper density, vegetation biomass, and vegetation quality; measured in 2008 and 2009) were better predictors of past fecundity than current fecundity, with species-specific responses. Fecundity increased throughout the summer, indicating that grasshoppers were able to acquire sufficient nutritional resources for egg production in the early fall when vegetation quality is generally low. Because fecundity did not vary across management treatments, population stage structure may be more important for determining population level reproduction than management regime at Konza Prairie.

  19. Preliminary Results for the OECD/NEA Time Dependent Benchmark using Rattlesnake, Rattlesnake-IQS and TDKENO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, Mark D.; Mausolff, Zander; Weems, Zach; Popp, Dustin; Smith, Kristin; Shriver, Forrest; Goluoglu, Sedat; Prince, Zachary; Ragusa, Jean

    2016-01-01

    One goal of the MAMMOTH M&S project is to validate the analysis capabilities within MAMMOTH. Historical data has shown limited value for validation of full three-dimensional (3D) multi-physics methods. Initial analysis considered the TREAT startup minimum critical core and one of the startup transient tests. At present, validation is focusing on measurements taken during the M8CAL test calibration series. These exercises will valuable in preliminary assessment of the ability of MAMMOTH to perform coupled multi-physics calculations; calculations performed to date are being used to validate the neutron transport solver Rattlesnake\\citelesnake) and the fuels performance code BISON. Other validation projects outside of TREAT are available for single-physics benchmarking. Because the transient solution capability of Rattlesnake is one of the key attributes that makes it unique for TREAT transient simulations, validation of the transient solution of Rattlesnake using other time dependent kinetics benchmarks has considerable value. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has recently developed a computational benchmark for transient simulations. This benchmark considered both two-dimensional (2D) and 3D configurations for a total number of 26 different transients. All are negative reactivity insertions, typically returning to the critical state after some time.

  20. Rediscovering traditional vegetation management in preserves: trading experiences between cultures and continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Land managers are grappling with massive changes in vegetation structure, particularly in protected areas formerly subjected to fire and grazing. The objective of this review was to compare notes on the historical and current management of ecosystems around the world (especially in wet to dry grasslands in the Americas, Australia, Africa, Europe and Asia) with respect to the usage of fire, grazing and cutting to reduce dominance and support the biodiversity of rare species. This review suggests that former disturbances, which are now often lost, may have once kept tall vegetation from pushing out rarer subdominant species. In cases where prehistoric biodiversity depended on fire or large ungulate grazing, traditional agricultural and indigenous practices may have carried biodiversity forward to historical times by mimicking pre-cultural disturbances (e.g., lightning fire and bison grazing). Ironically, biodiversity related to species richness, landscape heterogeneity and function may decline in preserves, especially if traditional management once maintained this biodiversity. Managers can benefit from a cross-continental comparison of the full arsenal of management techniques used to control encroaching vegetation.

  1. Characterization of vibration and noise exposure in Canadian Forces armored vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Ann M.; Borland, Matthew J.; Abel, Sharon M.

    2005-09-01

    A study to characterize the vibration and noise exposure in several Canadian Forces (CF) armored vehicles is in progress. Measurements of whole-body vibration and ambient noise levels are being made in the LAV III, Bison, Coyote, and M113 vehicles at three different positions: driver, crew commander, and passenger bench (or navigator seat in the case of the Coyote). The measurements are being made while the vehicles are idling, driven over rough terrain, and driven at a high speed on paved highways. There are several standards that provide guidance on the measurement and assessment of whole-body vibration, but they are difficult to implement in practice, particularly in adverse environments. The whole-body vibration measurements in this study are particularly difficult to interpret in the case of the crew commander, who often stands on the seat, and the passenger, who is seated but unrestrained by a seatbelt. The preliminary results-suggest, that according to the International Organization for Standardization guidelines (ISO 2631-1:1997), there may be potential health risks for the driver and passenger after driving on rough terrain for less than 10 min. Noise levels were as high as 100 dBA during high-speed highway driving.

  2. Ungulates from Atapuerca TD6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Made, J

    1999-01-01

    The ungulates from unit 6 of Gran Dolina (TD6) in the Sierra de Atapuerca (northern Spain) are studied. They include Stephanorhinus etruscus, Equus cf. altidens, Sus scrofa, Dama nestii? vallonetensis, Cervus elaphus, Eucladoceros giulii, Cervidae indet. and Bovini cf. "Bison voigtstedtensis." The taxonomy and stratigraphical distribution of most of these taxa are not universally accepted. S. etruscus, D. n.? vallonetensis, E. giulii and "B. voigtstedtensis" are late Early and early Middle Pleistocene elements. S. scrofa and C. elaphus range from the late Early Pleistocene to Recent. The fauna indicates a late Early or earliest Middle Pleistocene age, which fits the latest Early Pleistocene age suggested by palaeomagnetism. The faunal assemblage does not indicate extreme climatic conditions. The virtual absence of "glacial" taxa from the Spanish Early and Middle Pleistocene suggests that glaciations did not have a great impact on the fauna, suggesting that climate was no impediment to a continuous human occupation of Spain from the late Early Pleistocene onwards. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Recycling of Badger/Fox Burrows in Late Pleistocene Loess by Hyenas at the Den Site Bad Wildungen-Biedensteg (NW, Germany: Woolly Rhinoceros Killers and Scavengers in a Mammoth Steppe Environment of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cajus Diedrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Late Pleistocene (MIS 5c-d Ice Age spotted hyena open air den and bone accumulation site Bad Wildungen-Biedensteg (Hesse, NW, Germany represents the first open air loess fox/badger den site in Europe, which must have been recycled by Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823 as a birthing den. Badger and fox remains, plus remains of their prey (mainly hare, have been found within the loess. Hyena remains from that site include parts of cub skeletons which represent 10% of the megafauna bones. Also a commuting den area existed, which was well marked by hyena faecal pellets. Most of the hyena prey bones expose crack, bite, and nibbling marks, especially the most common bones, the woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis (NISP  =  32%. The large amount of woolly rhinoceros bones indicate hunting/scavenging specializing on this large prey by hyenas. Other important mammoth steppe hyena prey remains are from Mammuthus primigenius, Equus caballus przewalskii, Bison/Bos, Megaloceros giganteus, Cervus elaphus, and Rangifer tarandus. The few damaged bone remains of a scavenged cave bear Ursus spelaeus subsp. are unique for an open air situation. Abundant micromammal, frog, and some fish remains were concentrated in “pellets” that contain mainly mammoth steppe micromammals and also frog and fish remains that seem to originate from the nearby river/lake.

  4. Human paleoecological integration in subarctic eastern Beringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoë, François B.; Reuther, Joshua D.; Holmes, Charles E.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2017-11-01

    We contribute to the understanding of megafauna extinction and human dispersal in subarctic eastern Beringia by focusing on changes in the trophic dynamics of the large mammal community as well as the ecological role of humans as a predator and competitor. We reconstruct habitat use by megafauna and humans throughout the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary based on zooarchaeological data and stable isotope ratios of collagen. Our results are consistent with habitat heterogeneity and availability being important factors in the changing abundance of large herbivores. We argue that an increase in herbivore diversity and biomass at the beginning of the Bølling-Allerød interstadial and a relative lack of competitors favored the initial human colonization of subarctic eastern Beringia. As herbivore resources dwindled later in the Late Glacial, people increasingly relied on bison and wapiti. By efficiently extracting some of the highest-ranked resources in the landscape, people are likely to have contributed to the trophic displacement or regional extirpation of other large predators. The ecological patterns that we observe in subarctic eastern Beringia are consistent with a mixture of both top-down and bottom-up controls over biotic turnover.

  5. Utilization potential of wood clones of Eucalyptus urophylla in the production of wood-cement panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using clones of Eucalyptus urophylla in the production of wood-cement panels. The study used six clones of Eucalyptus urophylla with 8 years of age, from the Companhia Mineira de Metais, located in Paracatu - MG. For the formation of the panels it was used Portland cement CP V - ARI / Plus, possessing high initial resistance to mineral binder and calcium chloride (CaCl2 as accelerator for the cement curing. The panels were produced with the following parameters: dimensions of 49.5 x 49.5 x 1.5 cm, nominal density of 1.2 g/cm ³, relation wood: cement (1:2.5 and relation water: cement (1:1.5. The results can showed that: (1 for thickness swelling in two and twenty-four hours, only clones 19.28 and 58 attended the specifications, (2 for water absorption, clone 62 showed the best results, (3 to internal bond, only clone 58 didn`t attend specifications, (4 for the compression, clones 19.36 and 58 showed the best results, (5 for MOE and MOR, none of the clones presented values compatible to the bison process. It is suggested the continuation of this line of research, including the manipulation of variables of production, so that all properties be compatible to the minimum required standards.

  6. Experimental studies of Micro- and Nano-grained UO2: Grain Growth Behavior, Sufrace Morphology, and Fracture Toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mo, Kun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jamison, Laura M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Yao, Tiankai [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Bhattacharya, Sumit [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This activity is supported by the US Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Product Line (FPL) and aims at providing experimental data for the validation of the mesoscale simulation code MARMOT. MARMOT is a mesoscale multiphysics code that predicts the coevolution of microstructure and properties within reactor fuel during its lifetime in the reactor. It is an important component of the Moose-Bison-Marmot (MBM) code suite that has been developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to enable next generation fuel performance modeling capability as part of the NEAMS Program FPL. In order to ensure the accuracy of the microstructure-based materials models being developed within the MARMOT code, extensive validation efforts must be carried out. In this report, we summarize the experimental efforts in FY16 including the following important experiments: (1) in-situ grain growth measurement of nano-grained UO2; (2) investigation of surface morphology in micrograined UO2; (3) Nano-indentation experiments on nano- and micro-grained UO2. The highlight of this year is: we have successfully demonstrated our capability to in-situ measure grain size development while maintaining the stoichiometry of nano-grained UO2 materials; the experiment is, for the first time, using synchrotron X-ray diffraction to in-situ measure grain growth behavior of UO2.

  7. Parametric Thermal Models of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley K. Heath

    2014-03-01

    This work supports the restart of transient testing in the United States using the Department of Energy’s Transient Reactor Test Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. It also supports the Global Threat Reduction Initiative by reducing proliferation risk of high enriched uranium fuel. The work involves the creation of a nuclear fuel assembly model using the fuel performance code known as BISON. The model simulates the thermal behavior of a nuclear fuel assembly during steady state and transient operational modes. Additional models of the same geometry but differing material properties are created to perform parametric studies. The results show that fuel and cladding thermal conductivity have the greatest effect on fuel temperature under the steady state operational mode. Fuel density and fuel specific heat have the greatest effect for transient operational model. When considering a new fuel type it is recommended to use materials that decrease the specific heat of the fuel and the thermal conductivity of the fuel’s cladding in order to deal with higher density fuels that accompany the LEU conversion process. Data on the latest operating conditions of TREAT need to be attained in order to validate BISON’s results. BISON’s models for TREAT (material models, boundary convection models) are modest and need additional work to ensure accuracy and confidence in results.

  8. Climate, CO2, and the history of North American grasses since the Last Glacial Maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Jennifer M; Cerling, Thure E; Hoppe, Kathryn A; Mosier, Thomas M; Still, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    The spread of C4 grasses in the late Neogene is one of the most important ecological transitions of the Cenozoic, but the primary driver of this global expansion is widely debated. We use the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ(13)C) of bison and mammoth tissues as a proxy for the relative abundance of C3 and C4 vegetation in their grazing habitat to determine climatic and atmospheric CO2 controls on C4 grass distributions from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the present. We predict the spatial variability of grass δ(13)C in North America using a mean of three different methods of classification and regression tree (CART) machine learning techniques and nine climatic variables. We show that growing season precipitation and temperature are the strongest predictors of all single climate variables. We apply this CART analysis to high-resolution gridded climate data and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) mean paleoclimate model outputs to produce predictive isotope landscape models ("isoscapes") for the current, mid-Holocene, and LGM average δ(13)C of grass-dominated areas across North America. From the LGM to the present, C4 grass abundances substantially increased in the Great Plains despite concurrent increases in atmospheric CO2. These results suggest that changes in growing season precipitation rather than atmospheric CO2 were critically important in the Neogene expansion of C4 grasses.

  9. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in exotic ruminants and camelids in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártová, Eva; Kobédová, Kateřina; Lamka, Jiří; Kotrba, Radim; Vodička, Roman; Sedlák, Kamil

    2017-07-01

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are the protozoan parasites with definitive hosts from order Carnivora. Due to vertical transmission, both parasites can cause abortions and neonatal mortality that lead to significant productive and economic losses in the domestic ruminants. The aim of this study was to describe N. caninum and T. gondii seroprevalence in the group of frequently farmed captive exotic ruminants (n = 184) including Bovidae (barbary sheep, bezoar goat, common eland, American bison, water buffalo, and yak) and Camelidae (bactrian camel, guanaco, llama, and alpaca). Antibodies were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Higher prevalence of T. gondii antibodies (31% in IFAT and 52% in ELISA) was detected compared to N. caninum (24% in IFAT and 17% in cELISA). Mixed infection was found in 18 (10%) and 22 (12%) animals by IFAT and ELISA, respectively. Higher seroprevalence of both N. caninum and T. gondii was found in Camelidae compared to Bovidae. To author knowledge, this is the first detection of T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies in common elands and bezoar goats.

  10. Beyond mice and men: environmental change, immunity and infections in wild ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, A E; Beechler, B R; Dolan, B P

    2015-05-01

    In the face of rapid environmental change, anticipating shifts in microparasite and macroparasite dynamics, including emergence events, is an enormous challenge. We argue that immunological studies in natural populations are pivotal to meeting this challenge: many components of environmental change--shifts in biotic assemblages, altered climate patterns and reduced environmental predictability--may affect host immunity. We suggest that wild ungulates can serve as model systems aiding the discovery of immunological mechanisms that link environmental change with parasite transmission dynamics. Our review of eco-immunological studies in wild ungulates reveals progress in understanding how co-infections affect immunity and parasite transmission and how environmental and genetic factors interact to shape immunity. Changes in bioavailability of micronutrients have been linked to immunity and health in wild ungulates. Although physiological stress in response to environmental change has been assessed, downstream effects on immunity have not been studied. Moreover, the taxonomic range of ungulates studied is limited to bovids (bighorn sheep, Soay sheep, chamois, musk oxen, bison, African buffalo) and a few cervids (red deer, black-tailed deer). We discuss areas where future studies in ungulates could lead to significant contributions in understanding the patterns of immunity and infection in natural populations and across species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Determine Operating Reactor to Use for the 2016 PCI Level 1 Milestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarno, Kevin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-30

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) (CASL) Level 1 milestone to “Assess the analysis capability for core-wide [pressurized water reactor] PWR Pellet- Clad Interaction (PCI) screening and demonstrate detailed 3-D analysis on selected sub-region” (L1:CASL.P13.03) requires a particular type of nuclear power plant for the assessment. This report documents the operating reactor and cycles chosen for this assessment in completion of the physics integration (PHI) milestone to “Determine Operating Reactor to use for PCI L1 Milestone” (L3:PHI.CMD.P12.02). Watts Bar Unit 1 experienced (at least) one fuel rod failure in each of cycles 6 and 7, and at least one was deemed to be duty related rather than being primarily related to a manufacturing defect or grid effects. This brief report documents that the data required to model cycles 1–12 of Watts Bar Unit 1 using VERA-CS contains sufficient data to model the PHI portion of the PCI challenge problem. A list of additional data needs is also provided that will be important for verification and validation of the BISON results.

  12. Nitrogen cycling in Hot Spring Sediments and Biofilms (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Burton, M. S.; Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past several decades, gene-targeted analyses have revealed that microbial communities in hydrothermal environments can be surprisingly diverse. However, we know shockingly little about basic ecological functions such as carbon and nitrogen cycling or community shifts over time, or environmental parameters such as growth criteria. Previous work has shown that carbon cycling in one hot spring in Yellowstone National Park [“Bison Pool”] and its associated runoff channel functions as a complex system. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in biofilms across a temperature and chemical gradient at this location revealed that multiple autotrophic carbon fixation pathways are functioning in this system, and nitrogen fixation varies across the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone [1]. Further, sequencing of metagenomes from multiple locations at “Bison Pool” has indicated the presence of genes involved in carbon fixation [both phototrophic and autotrophic], and heterotrophy, as well as nitrogen fixation [2]. Studies from other Yellowstone locations have also found genetic evidence for carbon and nitrogen fixation [3-5]. The role of individual microbes in nitrogen cycling as environmental conditions vary over space and time is the focus of this study. Here, we explore the diversity of nifH [nitrogen fixation], nirK [nitrite reduction] and amoA [ammonia oxidation] genes across a variety of Yellowstone environments. Environmental nucleic acids were extracted, and the presence/absence of Bacteria and Archaea determined by PCR. In addition, PCR-directed screens reveal the presence or absence of the aforementioned functional genes, indicating genetic capacity for nitrogen cycling. We have examined the transition of genetic diversity and genetic capacity within sediments and biofilms at the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone in several hot springs spanning ranges of pH and geochemical conditions. By sampling across this ecotone, changes in the genetic

  13. Estudio tafonómico y tecnológico de un útil doble “cincel/retocador”, proveniente del nivel C (Musteriense de Axlor –Dima, Bizkaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millán MOZOTA HOLGUERAS

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La industria en hueso del Paleolítico medio es una realidad compleja, que requiere de un enfoque distinto al aplicado hasta el momento, heredero de los estudios del Paleolítico superior. La existencia de esta clase de utillaje en hueso, a menudo llamado “poco elaborado”, es una realidad constatada en numerosos yacimientos de Paleolítico medio. Debido a inercias investigadoras, dicho utillaje no ha recibido la atención debida, para comprender su dimensión económica y social, en las actividades cotidianas de los grupos neandertales. El yacimiento de Paleolítico medio de Axlor (Dima, Bizkaia ha proporcionado un conjunto de útiles en hueso, en el marco de las excavaciones en curso. Este trabajo presenta el estudio de un útil óseo de doble función, hallado en el nivel C –Musteriense– de Axlor. Dicho útil se utilizó a modo de “cincel”, en tareas que implican movimientos de percusión y flexión, y –asimismo– como retocador, para trabajar la industria lítica. El análisis realizado combina aspectos tafonómicos, morfométricos y traceológicos (huellas de uso, para ofrecer una visión tecnológica de la obtención y utilización del soporte. Se ha establecido un desarrollo diacrónico para los trabajos que fueron realizados con el útil (una esquirla alargada y plana de húmero de Bos/Bison. La utilización como “cincel” se interrumpe con la fractura del extremo proximal del soporte, y el uso como retocador es posterior.ABSTRACT: Middle Palaeolithic bone tools are a complex reality. The most usual approach derives from the studies of Upper Palaeolithic bone industries, and there is a need for a different one. Those bone tools, often called “sparsely elaborated”, actually appear in many Middle Palaeolithic archaeological sites. Due to research biases, those asemblages haven’t received the propper attention, wich makes imposible to understand its true economic and social relevance (within the context of

  14. Two approaches for incorporating climate change into natural resource management planning at Wind Cave National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Long, Andrew J.; Stamm, John; King, David A.; Bachelet, Dominque M.; Norton, Parker A.

    2014-01-01

    Wind Cave National Park (WICA) protects one of the world’s longest caves, has large amounts of high quality, native vegetation, and hosts a genetically important bison herd. The park’s relatively small size and unique purpose within its landscape requires hands-on management of these and other natural resources, all of which are interconnected. Anthropogenic climate change presents an added challenge to WICA natural resource management because it is characterized by large uncertainties, many of which are beyond the control of park and National Park Service (NPS) staff. When uncertainty is high and control of this uncertainty low, scenario planning is an appropriate tool for determining future actions. In 2009, members of the NPS obtained formal training in the use of scenario planning in order to evaluate it as a tool for incorporating climate change into NPS natural resource management planning. WICA served as one of two case studies used in this training exercise. Although participants in the training exercise agreed that the scenario planning process showed promise for its intended purpose, they were concerned that the process lacked the scientific rigor necessary to defend the management implications derived from it in the face of public scrutiny. This report addresses this concern and others by (1) providing a thorough description of the process of the 2009 scenario planning exercise, as well as its results and management implications for WICA; (2) presenting the results of a follow-up, scientific study that quantitatively simulated responses of WICA’s hydrological and ecological systems to specific climate projections; (3) placing these climate projections and the general climate scenarios used in the scenario planning exercise in the broader context of available climate projections; and (4) comparing the natural resource management implications derived from the two approaches. Wind Cave National Park (WICA) protects one of the world’s longest caves

  15. Analysis of pellet cladding interaction and creep of U 3SIi2 fuel for use in light water reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Kathryn E.

    Following the accident at the Fukushima plant, enhancing the accident tolerance of the light water reactor (LWR) fleet became a topic of serious discussion. Under the direction of congress, the DOE office of Nuclear Energy added accident tolerant fuel development as a primary component to the existing Advanced Fuels Program. The DOE defines accident tolerant fuels as fuels that "in comparison with the standard UO2- Zircaloy system currently used by the nuclear industry, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, as well as design-basis and beyond design-basis events." To be economically viable, proposed accident tolerant fuels and claddings should be backward compatible with LWR designs, provide significant operating cost improvements such as power uprates, increased fuel burnup, or increased cycle length. In terms of safety, an alternative fuel pellet must have resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, thermal conductivity equal to or larger than that of UO2, and a melting temperature that allows the material to remain solid under power reactor conditions. Among the candidates, U3Si2 has a number of advantageous thermophysical properties, including; high density, high thermal conductivity at room temperature, and a high melting temperature. These properties support its use as an accident tolerant fuel while its high uranium density is capable of supporting uprates to the LWR fleet. This research characterizes U3Si2 pellets and analyzes U3Si2 under light water reactor conditions using the fuel performance code BISON. While some thermophysical properties for U3Si2 have been found in the literature, the irradiation behavior is sparse and limited to experience with dispersion fuels. Accordingly, the creep behavior for U3Si2 has been unknown, making it

  16. VERA-CS Verification & Validation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downar, Thomas [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report summarizes the current status of VERA-CS Verification and Validation for PWR Core Follow operation and proposes a multi-phase plan for continuing VERA-CS V&V in FY17 and FY18. The proposed plan recognizes the hierarchical nature of a multi-physics code system such as VERA-CS and the importance of first achieving an acceptable level of V&V on each of the single physics codes before focusing on the V&V of the coupled physics solution. The report summarizes the V&V of each of the single physics codes systems currently used for core follow analysis (ie MPACT, CTF, Multigroup Cross Section Generation, and BISON / Fuel Temperature Tables) and proposes specific actions to achieve a uniformly acceptable level of V&V in FY17. The report also recognizes the ongoing development of other codes important for PWR Core Follow (e.g. TIAMAT, MAMBA3D) and proposes Phase II (FY18) VERA-CS V&V activities in which those codes will also reach an acceptable level of V&V. The report then summarizes the current status of VERA-CS multi-physics V&V for PWR Core Follow and the ongoing PWR Core Follow V&V activities for FY17. An automated procedure and output data format is proposed for standardizing the output for core follow calculations and automatically generating tables and figures for the VERA-CS Latex file. A set of acceptance metrics is also proposed for the evaluation and assessment of core follow results that would be used within the script to automatically flag any results which require further analysis or more detailed explanation prior to being added to the VERA-CS validation base. After the Automation Scripts have been completed and tested using BEAVRS, the VERA-CS plan proposes the Watts Bar cycle depletion cases should be performed with the new cross section library and be included in the first draft of the new VERA-CS manual for release at the end of PoR15. Also, within the constraints imposed by the proprietary nature of plant data, as many as possible of the FY17

  17. Wolves on the hunt: The behavior of wolves hunting wild prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Smith, Douglas W.; MacNulty, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between apex predators and their prey are some of the most awesome and meaningful in nature—displays of strength, endurance, and a deep coevolutionary history. And there is perhaps no apex predator more impressive and important in its hunting—or more infamous, more misjudged—than the wolf. Because of wolves’ habitat, speed, and general success at evading humans, researchers have faced great obstacles in studying their natural hunting behaviors. The first book to focus explicitly on wolf hunting of wild prey, Wolves on the Hunt seeks to fill these gaps in our knowledge and understanding. Combining behavioral data, thousands of hours of original field observations, research in the literature, a wealth of illustrations, and—in the e-book edition and online—video segments from cinematographer Robert K. Landis, the authors create a compelling and complex picture of these hunters. The wolf is indeed an adept killer, able to take down prey much larger than itself. While adapted to hunt primarily hoofed animals, a wolf—or especially a pack of wolves—can kill individuals of just about any species. But even as wolves help drive the underlying rhythms of the ecosystems they inhabit, their evolutionary prowess comes at a cost: wolves spend one-third of their time hunting—the most time consuming of all wolf activities—and success at the hunt only comes through traveling long distances, persisting in the face of regular failure, detecting and taking advantage of deficiencies in the physical condition of individual prey, and through ceaseless trial and error, all while risking injury or death. By describing and analyzing the behaviors wolves use to hunt and kill various wild prey—including deer, moose, caribou, elk, Dall sheep, mountain goats, bison, musk oxen, arctic hares, beavers, and others—Wolves on the Hunt provides a revelatory portrait of one of nature’s greatest hunters.

  18. Parametric Evaluation of SiC/SiC Composite Cladding with UO2 Fuel for LWR Applications: Fuel Rod Interactions and Impact of Nonuniform Power Profile in Fuel Rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G.; Sweet, R.; Brown, N. R.; Wirth, B. D.; Katoh, Y.; Terrani, K.

    2018-02-01

    SiC/SiC composites are candidates for accident tolerant fuel cladding in light water reactors. In the extreme nuclear reactor environment, SiC-based fuel cladding will be exposed to neutron damage, significant heat flux, and a corrosive environment. To ensure reliable and safe operation of accident tolerant fuel cladding concepts such as SiC-based materials, it is important to assess thermo-mechanical performance under in-reactor conditions including irradiation and realistic temperature distributions. The effect of non-uniform dimensional changes caused by neutron irradiation with spatially varying temperatures, along with the closing of the fuel-cladding gap, on the stress development in the cladding over the course of irradiation were evaluated. The effect of non-uniform circumferential power profile in the fuel rod on the mechanical performance of the cladding is also evaluated. These analyses have been performed using the BISON fuel performance modeling code and the commercial finite element analysis code Abaqus. A constitutive model is constructed and solved numerically to predict the stress distribution in the cladding under normal operating conditions. The dependence of dimensions and thermophysical properties on irradiation dose and temperature has been incorporated into the models. Initial scoping results from parametric analyses provide time varying stress distributions in the cladding as well as the interaction of fuel rod with the cladding under different conditions of initial fuel rod-cladding gap and linear heat rate. It is found that a non-uniform circumferential power profile in the fuel rod may cause significant lateral bowing in the cladding, and motivates further analysis and evaluation.

  19. Climatic variability and plant food distribution in Pleistocene Europe: Implications for Neanderthal diet and subsistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bruce L.

    2010-03-01

    Contrary to their cold-adapted image, Neanderthals inhabited Pleistocene Europe during a time of great climatic fluctuation with temperatures ranging from as warm as present-day during the last interglacial to as cold as those of the last glacial maximum. Cold-adapted Neanderthals are similarly most often associated with the exploitation of large mammals who are themselves cold-adapted (mammoth, bison, reindeer, etc.). Cold, high-latitude environments are typically seen as lacking in plants generally and in plant foods in particular. Plant foods are therefore usually ignored and Neanderthals are increasingly being viewed as top carnivores who derived the vast majority of their diet from meat. Support for this hypothesis comes largely from stable isotope analysis which tracks only the protein portion of the diet. Diets high in lean meat largely fulfill micronutrient needs but can pose a problem at the macronutrient level. Lean meat can compose no more than 35% of dietary energy before a protein ceiling is reached. Exceeding the protein ceiling can have detrimental physiological effects on the individual. Neanderthals would have needed energy from alternative sources, particularly when animals are fat-depleted and lean meat intake is high. Underground storage organs (USOs) of plants offer one such source, concentrating carbohydrates and energy. USOs could also provide an important seasonal energy source since they are at their maximum energy storage in late fall/winter. Although Paleolithic sites are increasingly yielding plant remains, their presence is rare and they are often given only passing mention in Neanderthal dietary reconstructions. The complexity and number of potential wild plant foods, however, defies easy discussion. Native European wild edible plants with starchy USOs would have been potentially available throughout the Neanderthal range, even during the coldest periods of the Late Pleistocene.

  20. In situ Raman characterization of minerals and degradation processes in a variety of cultural and geological heritage sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gázquez, F; Rull, F; Sanz-Arranz, A; Medina, J; Calaforra, J M; de Las Heras, C; Lasheras, J A

    2017-02-05

    We test the capabilities of in situ Raman spectroscopy for non-destructive analysis of degradation processes in invaluable masterpieces, as well as for the characterization of minerals and prehistoric rock-art in caves. To this end, we have studied the mechanism of decay suffered by the 15th-century limestone sculptures that decorate the retro-choir of Burgos Cathedral (N Spain). In situ Raman probe detected hydrated sulfate and nitrate minerals on the sculptures, which are responsible for the decay of the original limestone. In addition, in situ Raman analyses were performed on unique speleothems in El Soplao Cave (Cantabria, N Spain) and in the Gruta de las Maravillas (Aracena, SW Spain). Unusual cave minerals were detected in El Soplao Cave, such as hydromagnesite (Mg 5 (CO 3 ) 4 (OH) 2 ·4H 2 O), as well as ferromanganese oxides in the black biogenic speleothems recently discovered in this cavern. In the Gruta de las Maravillas, gypsum (CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O) was identified for the first time, as part of the oldest cave materials, so providing additional evidence of hypogenic mechanisms that occurred in this cave during earlier stages of its formation. Finally, we present preliminary analyses of several cave paintings in the renowned "Polychrome Hall" of Altamira Cave (Cantabria, N. Spain). Hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) is the most abundant mineral phase, which provides the characteristic ochre-reddish color to the Altamira bison and deer paintings. Thus, portable Raman spectroscopy is demonstrated to be an analytical technique compatible with preserving our cultural and natural heritage, since the analysis does not require physical contact between the Raman head and the analyzed items. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Isotopes in North American Rocky Mountain snowpack 1993–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lesleigh; Max Berkelhammer,; Mast, M. Alisa

    2015-01-01

    We present ∼1300 new isotopic measurements (δ18O and δ2H) from a network of snowpack sites in the Rocky Mountains that have been sampled since 1993. The network includes 177 locations where depth-integrated snow samples are collected each spring near peak accumulation. At 57 of these locations snowpack samples were obtained for 10–21 years and their isotopic measurements provide unprecedented spatial and temporal documentation of snowpack isotope values at mid-latitudes. For environments where snowfall accounts for the majority of annual precipitation, snowmelt is likely to have the strongest influence on isotope values retained in proxy archives. In this first presentation of the dataset we (1) describe the basic features of the isotope values in relation to the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL), (2) evaluate space for time substitutions traditionally used to establish δ18O-temperature relations, (3) evaluate site-to-site similarities across the network and identify those that are the most regionally representative, (4) examine atmospheric circulation patterns for several years with spatially coherent isotope patterns, and (5) provide examples of the implications this new dataset has for interpreting paleoclimate records (Bison Lake, Colorado and Minnetonka Cave, Idaho). Results indicate that snowpack δ18O is rarely a simple proxy of temperature. Instead, it exhibits a high degree of spatial heterogeneity and temporal variance that reflect additional processes such as vapor transport and post-depositional modification. Despite these complexities we identify consistent climate-isotope patterns and regionally representative locations that serve to better define Holocene hydroclimate estimates and their uncertainty. Climate change has and will affect western U.S. snowpack and we suggest these changes can be better understood and anticipated by oxygen and hydrogen isotope-based reconstructions of Holocene hydroclimate using a process-based understanding of the

  2. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host–parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection. PMID:16548330

  3. Rate Theory Modeling and Simulation of Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Ye, Bei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Hofman, Gerard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Gamble, Kyle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Fuel Modeling and Simulation; Mei, Zhi-Gang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-08-29

    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U3Si2) at LWR conditions needs to be well understood. In this report, rate theory model was developed based on existing experimental data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations so as to predict the fission gas behavior in U3Si2 at LWR conditions. The fission gas behavior of U3Si2 can be divided into three temperature regimes. During steady-state operation, the majority of the fission gas stays in intragranular bubbles, whereas the dominance of intergranular bubbles and fission gas release only occurs beyond 1000 K. The steady-state rate theory model was also used as reference to establish a gaseous swelling correlation of U3Si2 for the BISON code. Meanwhile, the overpressurized bubble model was also developed so that the fission gas behavior at LOCA can be simulated. LOCA simulation showed that intragranular bubbles are still dominant after a 70 second LOCA, resulting in a controllable gaseous swelling. The fission gas behavior of U3Si2 at LWR conditions is benign according to the rate theory prediction at both steady-state and LOCA conditions, which provides important references to the qualification of U3Si2 as a LWR fuel material with excellent fuel performance and enhanced accident tolerance.

  4. Live RB51 vaccine lyophilized hydrogel formulations with increased shelf life for practical ballistic delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Jonathan L; Christie, R James; Pollard, Emily J; Olsen, Steven C; Grainger, David W

    2016-02-10

    Ballistic delivery capability is essential to delivering vaccines and other therapeutics effectively to both livestock and wildlife in many global scenarios. Here, lyophilized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-glycolide dimethacrylate crosslinked but degradable hydrogels were assessed as payload vehicles to protect and deliver a viable bacterial vaccine, Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51), ballistically using commercial thermoplastic cellulosic degradable biobullets. Degradable PEG hydrogel rods loaded with ∼10(10) live RB51 bacteria (CFUs) were fabricated using three different polymerization methods, cut into fixed-sized payload segments, and lyophilized. Resulting dense, glassy RB51 vaccine-loaded monoliths were inserted into thermoplastic biobullet 100-μL payload chambers. Viability studies of lyophilized formulations assessed as a function of time and storage temperature supported the abilities of several conditions to produce acceptable vaccine shelf-lives. Fired from specifically designed air rifles, gel-loaded biobullets exhibit down-range ballistic properties (i.e., kinetic energy, trajectory, accuracy) similar to unloaded biobullets. Delivered to bovine tissue, these hydrogels rehydrate rapidly by swelling in tissue fluids, with complete hydration observed after 5h in serum. Live RB51 vaccine exhibited excellent viability following carrier polymerization, lyophilization, and storage, at levels sufficient for vaccine dosing to wild range bison, the intended target. These data validate lyophilized degradable PEG hydrogel rods as useful drug carriers for remote delivery of both live vaccines and other therapeutics to livestock, wildlife, or other free-range targets using ballistic technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Year End Progress Report on Rattlesnake Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yaqi [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); DeHart, Mark David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gleicher, Frederick Nathan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ortensi, Javier [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schunert, Sebastian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Rattlesnake is a MOOSE-based radiation transport application developed at INL to support modern multi-physics simulations. At the beginning of the last year, Rattlesnake was able to perform steady-state, transient and eigenvalue calculations for the multigroup radiation transport equations. Various discretization schemes, including continuous finite element method (FEM) with discrete ordinates method (SN) and spherical harmonics expansion method (PN) for the self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) formulation, continuous FEM (CFEM) with SN for the least square (LS) formulation, diffusion approximation with CFEM and discontinuous FEM (DFEM), have been implemented. A separate toolkit, YAKXS, for multigroup cross section management was developed to support Rattlesnake calculations with feedback both from changes in the field variables, such as fuel temperature, coolant density, and etc., and in isotope inventory. The framework for doing nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) within Rattlesnake has been set up, and both NDA calculations with SAAF-SN-CFEM scheme and Monte Carlo with OpenMC have been performed. It was also used for coupling BISON and RELAP-7 for the full-core multiphysics simulations. Within the last fiscal year, significant improvements have been made in Rattlesnake. Rattlesnake development was migrated into our internal GITLAB development environment at the end of year 2014. Since then total 369 merge requests has been accepted into Rattlesnake. It is noted that the MOOSE framework that Rattlesnake is based on is under continuous developments. Improvements made in MOOSE can improve the Rattlesnake. It is acknowledged that MOOSE developers spent efforts on patching Rattlesnake for the improvements made on the framework side. This report will not cover the code restructuring for better readability and modularity and documentation improvements, which we have spent tremendous effort on. It only details some of improvements in the following sections.

  6. Coordinating environmental genomics and geochemistry reveals metabolic transitions in a hot spring ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley D Swingley

    Full Text Available We have constructed a conceptual model of biogeochemical cycles and metabolic and microbial community shifts within a hot spring ecosystem via coordinated analysis of the "Bison Pool" (BP Environmental Genome and a complementary contextual geochemical dataset of ~75 geochemical parameters. 2,321 16S rRNA clones and 470 megabases of environmental sequence data were produced from biofilms at five sites along the outflow of BP, an alkaline hot spring in Sentinel Meadow (Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. This channel acts as a >22 m gradient of decreasing temperature, increasing dissolved oxygen, and changing availability of biologically important chemical species, such as those containing nitrogen and sulfur. Microbial life at BP transitions from a 92 °C chemotrophic streamer biofilm community in the BP source pool to a 56 °C phototrophic mat community. We improved automated annotation of the BP environmental genomes using BLAST-based Markov clustering. We have also assigned environmental genome sequences to individual microbial community members by complementing traditional homology-based assignment with nucleotide word-usage algorithms, allowing more than 70% of all reads to be assigned to source organisms. This assignment yields high genome coverage in dominant community members, facilitating reconstruction of nearly complete metabolic profiles and in-depth analysis of the relation between geochemical and metabolic changes along the outflow. We show that changes in environmental conditions and energy availability are associated with dramatic shifts in microbial communities and metabolic function. We have also identified an organism constituting a novel phylum in a metabolic "transition" community, located physically between the chemotroph- and phototroph-dominated sites. The complementary analysis of biogeochemical and environmental genomic data from BP has allowed us to build ecosystem-based conceptual models for this hot

  7. Calculation of the relative chemical stabilities of proteins as a function of temperature and redox chemistry in a hot spring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Dick

    Full Text Available Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of proteins whose sequences were derived from metagenomic data also exhibit an increase in average oxidation state of carbon in the protein molecules with distance from the hot-spring source. The energetic requirements of reactions to form selected proteins used in the model were computed using amino-acid group additivity for the standard molal thermodynamic properties of the proteins, and the relative chemical stabilities of the proteins were investigated by varying temperature, pH and oxidation state, expressed as activity of dissolved hydrogen. The relative stabilities of the proteins were found to track the locations of the sampling sites when the calculations included a function for hydrogen activity that increases with temperature and is higher, or more reducing, than values consistent with measurements of dissolved oxygen, sulfide and oxidation-reduction potential in the field. These findings imply that spatial patterns in the amino acid compositions of proteins can be linked, through energetics of overall chemical reactions representing the formation of the proteins, to the environmental conditions at this hot spring, even if microbial cells maintain considerably different internal conditions. Further applications of the thermodynamic calculations are possible for other natural microbial ecosystems.

  8. A metastable equilibrium model for the relative abundances of microbial phyla in a hot spring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Dick

    Full Text Available Many studies link the compositions of microbial communities to their environments, but the energetics of organism-specific biomass synthesis as a function of geochemical variables have rarely been assessed. We describe a thermodynamic model that integrates geochemical and metagenomic data for biofilms sampled at five sites along a thermal and chemical gradient in the outflow channel of the hot spring known as "Bison Pool" in Yellowstone National Park. The relative abundances of major phyla in individual communities sampled along the outflow channel are modeled by computing metastable equilibrium among model proteins with amino acid compositions derived from metagenomic sequences. Geochemical conditions are represented by temperature and activities of basis species, including pH and oxidation-reduction potential quantified as the activity of dissolved hydrogen. By adjusting the activity of hydrogen, the model can be tuned to closely approximate the relative abundances of the phyla observed in the community profiles generated from BLAST assignments. The findings reveal an inverse relationship between the energy demand to form the proteins at equal thermodynamic activities and the abundance of phyla in the community. The distance from metastable equilibrium of the communities, assessed using an equation derived from energetic considerations that is also consistent with the information-theoretic entropy change, decreases along the outflow channel. Specific divergences from metastable equilibrium, such as an underprediction of the relative abundances of phototrophic organisms at lower temperatures, can be explained by considering additional sources of energy and/or differences in growth efficiency. Although the metabolisms used by many members of these communities are driven by chemical disequilibria, the results support the possibility that higher-level patterns of chemotrophic microbial ecosystems are shaped by metastable equilibrium states that

  9. Tocuila Mammoths, Basin of Mexico: Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene stratigraphy and the geological context of the bone accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Silvia; Huddart, David; Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Dominguez-Vazquez, Gabriela; Bischoff, James

    2014-07-01

    We report new stratigraphic, tephrochronology and dating results from the Tocuila Mammoth site in the Basin of Mexico. At the site there is evidence for a thin meteorite airburst layer dated between 10,878 and 10,707 cal BC at the onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) cool period. The Upper Toluca Pumice (UTP) tephra marker, caused by a Plinian eruption of the Nevado de Toluca volcano, dated from 10,666 to 10,612 cal BC, is above that layer. The eruption must have caused widespread environmental disruption in the region with evidence of extensive reworking and channelling by the Lake Texcoco shoreline and contributed to the widespread death and/or extinction of megafaunal populations, as suggested by earlier authors, but the new work reinforces the view that both catastrophic events must have caused large environmental disruption in a short time period of around two hundred years. There is no evidence for megafauna (mammoths, sabre toothed cats, camels, bison, glyptodonts) after the UTP volcanic event and subsequent lahars in the Basin of Mexico. At Tocuila, although there are some in situ tephra markers in nearshore lake sediments, such as the Great Basaltic Ash (GBA) and the UTP Ash, there is evidence of much reworking of several tephra populations in various combinations. The mammoth bone accumulation is reworked in a lahar sequence (volcanic mudflow) derived from several source sediments but associated with the major UTP Plinian eruption. Paleoindian populations were also present in the Basin of Mexico during the YD period, where several Paleoindian skeletons were found associated with the UTP ash deposits, e.g. Metro Man, Chimalhuacan Man and Tlapacoya Man.

  10. SINE retrotransposition during the evolution of the Pecoran ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Isaäc J; van Tessel, Patrick; Lenstra, Johannes A

    2002-01-01

    SINE retrotransposition events have proven their value as phylogenetic markers in several eukaryotic taxa at different taxonomic levels. The genomes of ruminants contain three related SINE elements, Bov-tA, Bov-A2, and Bov-B. To estimate the time points of retrotransposition of individual copies of these SINEs, we designed PCR primers on database sequences containing SINE insertions in cattle, sheep, or goat genomes and tested for the presence of these copies in the genomes of other ruminants. It was checked by sequencing whether length variation of the PCR products reflected a SINE retrotransposition. One Bov-B and nine Bov-tA insertions were shared by cattle, sheep, goat, and giraffe, indicating an early retrotransposition event before the radiation of the Pecora, while three other Bov-tA and two Bov-B elements were apparently inserted later. The ruminant alpha-lactalbumine gene contains a hotspot of early and more recent Bov-tA insertions, a Bov-tA replacement as well as a recent Bov-B insertion. Three Bov-A2 insertions were found to be shared only by the Bovidae, the Bovini, and the Bos and Bison species, respectively, indicating that most Bov-A2 insertions are relatively recent. The time elapsed since the retrotransposition was also reflected in the degeneration of the direct repeats that flank SINE inserts. We suggest that retrotransposition of SINEs may serve as phylogenetic markers in the ruminant families, subfamilies, and even tribes. In addition, sequencing of SINE insertions revealed several other unique deletions/insertions that also may be informative for phylogenetic reconstructions of ruminants.

  11. Assessing accumulation and biliary excretion of naphthenic acids in yellow perch exposed to oil sands-affected waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Michael R; Hogan, Natacha S; MacDonald, Gillian Z; Berrue, Fabrice; Young, Rozlyn F; Arens, Collin J; Kerr, Russell G; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2014-01-01

    Naphthenic acids are known to be the most prevalent group of organic compounds in oil sands tailings-associated waters. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were exposed for four months to oil sands-influenced waters in two experimental systems located on an oil sands lease 30 km north of Fort McMurray Alberta: the Demonstration Pond, containing oil sands tailings capped with natural surface water, and the South Bison Pond, integrating lean oil sands. Yellow perch were also sampled from three lakes: Mildred Lake that receives water from the Athabasca River, Sucker Lake, at the edge of oil sands extraction activity, and Kimowin Lake, a distant reference site. Naphthenic acids were measured in perch muscle tissue using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Bile metabolites were measured by GC-MS techniques and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection at phenanthrene wavelengths. A method was developed using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) to evaluate naphthenic acids in bile. Tissue analysis did not show a pattern of naphthenic acids accumulation in muscle tissue consistent with known concentrations in exposed waters. Bile fluorescence and LC-HRMS methods were capable of statistically distinguishing samples originating from oil sands-influenced waters versus reference lakes. Although the GC-MS and HPLC fluorescence methods were correlated, there were no significant correlations of these methods and the LC-HRMS method. In yellow perch, naphthenic acids from oil sands sources do not concentrate in tissue at a measurable amount and are excreted through a biliary route. LC-HRMS was shown to be a highly sensitive, selective and promising technique as an indicator of exposure of biota to oil sands-derived naphthenic acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Tule Springs local fauna: Rancholabrean vertebrates from the Las Vegas Formation, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eric; Springer, Kathleen; Sagebiel, James C.

    2017-01-01

    A middle to late Pleistocene sedimentary sequence in the upper Las Vegas Wash, north of Las Vegas, Nevada, has yielded the largest open-site Rancholabrean vertebrate fossil assemblage in the southern Great Basin and Mojave Deserts. Recent paleontologic field studies have led to the discovery of hundreds of fossil localities and specimens, greatly extending the geographic and temporal footprint of original investigations in the early 1960s. The significance of the deposits and their entombed fossils led to the preservation of 22,650 acres of the upper Las Vegas Wash as Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument. These discoveries also warrant designation of the assemblage as a local fauna, named for the site of the original paleontologic studies at Tule Springs.The large mammal component of the Tule Springs local fauna is dominated by remains of Mammuthus columbi as well as Camelops hesternus, along with less common remains of Equus (including E. scotti) and Bison. Large carnivorans including Canis dirus, Smilodon fatalis, and Panthera atrox are also recorded. Micromammals, amphibians, lizards, snakes, birds, invertebrates, plant macrofossils, and pollen also occur in the deposits and provide important and complementary paleoenvironmental information. The fauna occurs within the Las Vegas Formation, an extensive and stratigraphically complex sequence of groundwater discharge deposits that represent a mosaic of desert wetland environments. Radiometric and luminescence dating indicates the sequence spans the last ∼570 ka, and records hydrologic changes in a dynamic and temporally congruent response to northern hemispheric abrupt climatic oscillations. The vertebrate fauna occurs in multiple stratigraphic horizons in this sequence, with ages of the fossils spanning from ∼100 to ∼12.5 ka.

  13. A multi-proxy record of hydroclimate, vegetation, fire, and post-settlement impacts for a subalpine plateau, Central Rocky Mountains U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lesleigh; Brunelle, Andrea; Thompson, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Apparent changes in vegetation distribution, fire, and other disturbance regimes throughout western North America have prompted investigations of the relative importance of human activities and climate change as potential causal mechanisms. Assessing the effects of Euro-American settlement is difficult because climate changes occur on multi-decadal to centennial time scales and require longer time perspectives than historic observations can provide. Here, we report vegetation and environmental changes over the past ~13,000 years as recorded in a sediment record from Bison Lake, a subalpine lake on a high plateau in northwestern Colorado. Results are based on multiple independent proxies, which include pollen, charcoal, and elemental geochemistry, and are compared with previously reported interpretations of hydroclimatic changes from oxygen isotope ratios. The pollen data indicate a slowly changing vegetation sequence from sagebrush steppe during the late glacial to coniferous forest through the late Holocene. The most dramatic vegetation changes of the Holocene occurred during the ‘Medieval Climate Anomaly’ (MCA) and ‘Little Ice Age’ (LIA) with rapid replacement of conifer forest by grassland followed by an equally rapid return to conifer forest. Late Holocene vegetation responses are mirrored by changes in fire, lake biological productivity, and watershed erosion. These combined records indicate that subsequent disturbance related to Euro-American settlement, although perhaps significant, had acted upon a landscape that was already responding to MCA-LIA hydroclimatic change. Results document both rapid and long-term subalpine grassland ecosystem dynamics driven by agents of change that can be anticipated in the future and simulated by ecosystem models.

  14. Yellowstone and the biology of time: Photographs across a century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Mary; Houston, Douglas B.

    1999-01-01

    Established in 1872, Yellowstone National Park is the oldest and one of the largest national parks in the world. In this remarkable book, scientists Mary Meagher and Douglas B. Houston present 100 sets of photographs that compare the Yellowstone of old with the park of today.Most of the photo sets include three pictures-not the usual two-with many of the original views dating back to the 1870s and 1880s. From the same photo points used by early photographers, Meagher and Houston rephotographed the scenes in the 1970s, and then, following the great fires of 1988, again in the 1990s. The result is an illuminating record of Yellowstone’s dynamic ecosystem and its changes over time.Through close analysis of the photos and reference to the vast amount of available data, Meagher and Houston describe changes in vegetation, growth of wildlife populations, the effect of beaver occupancy on wetland areas, and geothermal and elevational shifts. At the same time they point out the extent to which many sites have not changed-despite important switches in park policy and an increase in human activity.Yellowstone National Park has long been the focus of major ecological debates. Should managers allow wildfires to burn? Should the elk and bison populations be controlled? Are too many people visiting the park? Yellowstone And The Biology Of Time offers a wealth of information to help us answer these questions. A visual treasure, this book will be of value to scientists from various disciplines as well as to the many people who care about Yellowstone and other protected wilderness areas around the world.

  15. EXONSAMPLER: a computer program for genome-wide and candidate gene exon sampling for targeted next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosart, Ted; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Luikart, Gordon

    2014-11-01

    The computer program EXONSAMPLER automates the sampling of thousands of exon sequences from publicly available reference genome sequences and gene annotation databases. It was designed to provide exon sequences for the efficient, next-generation gene sequencing method called exon capture. The exon sequences can be sampled by a list of gene name abbreviations (e.g. IFNG, TLR1), or by sampling exons from genes spaced evenly across chromosomes. It provides a list of genomic coordinates (a bed file), as well as a set of sequences in fasta format. User-adjustable parameters for collecting exon sequences include a minimum and maximum acceptable exon length, maximum number of exonic base pairs (bp) to sample per gene, and maximum total bp for the entire collection. It allows for partial sampling of very large exons. It can preferentially sample upstream (5 prime) exons, downstream (3 prime) exons, both external exons, or all internal exons. It is written in the Python programming language using its free libraries. We describe the use of EXONSAMPLER to collect exon sequences from the domestic cow (Bos taurus) genome for the design of an exon-capture microarray to sequence exons from related species, including the zebu cow and wild bison. We collected ~10% of the exome (~3 million bp), including 155 candidate genes, and ~16,000 exons evenly spaced genomewide. We prioritized the collection of 5 prime exons to facilitate discovery and genotyping of SNPs near upstream gene regulatory DNA sequences, which control gene expression and are often under natural selection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Climate and Sedentism in the Middle Missouri Subarea of the Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toom, Dennis Lee

    1992-01-01

    , especially the opportunity to maintain subsistence economies based on both garden agriculture and bison hunting, was the stabilizing factor that allowed Plains Village peoples to flourish in the Middle Missouri subarea until the Post-Contact period.

  17. Co-producing simulation models to inform resource management: a case study from southwest South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W.; Symstad, Amy J.; Frid, Leonardo; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Schuurman, Gregor W.

    2017-01-01

    Simulation models can represent complexities of the real world and serve as virtual laboratories for asking “what if…?” questions about how systems might respond to different scenarios. However, simulation models have limited relevance to real-world applications when designed without input from people who could use the simulated scenarios to inform their decisions. Here, we report on a state-and-transition simulation model of vegetation dynamics that was coupled to a scenario planning process and co-produced by researchers, resource managers, local subject-matter experts, and climate change adaptation specialists to explore potential effects of climate scenarios and management alternatives on key resources in southwest South Dakota. Input from management partners and local experts was critical for representing key vegetation types, bison and cattle grazing, exotic plants, fire, and the effects of climate change and management on rangeland productivity and composition given the paucity of published data on many of these topics. By simulating multiple land management jurisdictions, climate scenarios, and management alternatives, the model highlighted important tradeoffs between grazer density and vegetation composition, as well as between the short- and long-term costs of invasive species management. It also pointed to impactful uncertainties related to the effects of fire and grazing on vegetation. More broadly, a scenario-based approach to model co-production bracketed the uncertainty associated with climate change and ensured that the most important (and impactful) uncertainties related to resource management were addressed. This cooperative study demonstrates six opportunities for scientists to engage users throughout the modeling process to improve model utility and relevance: (1) identifying focal dynamics and variables, (2) developing conceptual model(s), (3) parameterizing the simulation, (4) identifying relevant climate scenarios and management

  18. Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of the TREAT Multi-SERTTA for Reactivity Initiated Accident Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Colby B.; Folsom, Charles P.; Davis, Cliff B.; Woolstenhulme, Nicolas E.; Bess, John D.; O' Brien, Robert C.; Ban, Heng; Wachs, Daniel M.

    2016-08-01

    Experimental testing in the Multi-Static Environment Rodlet Transient Test Apparatus (SERTTA) will lead the rebirth of transient fuel testing in the United States as part of the Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) progam. The Multi-SERTTA is comprised of four isolated pressurized environments capable of a wide variety of working fluids and thermal conditions. Ultimately, the TREAT reactor as well as the Multi-SERTTA test vehicle serve the purpose of providing desired thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions to the test specimen. The initial ATF testing in TREAT will focus on reactivity insertion accident (RIA) events using both gas and water environments including typical PWR operating pressures and temperatures. For the water test environment, a test configuration is envisioned using the expansion tank as part of the gas-filled expansion volume seen by the test to provide additional pressure relief. The heat transfer conditions during the high energy power pulses of RIA events remains a subject of large uncertainty and great importance for fuel performance predictions. To support transient experiments, the Multi-SERTTA vehicle has been modeled using RELAP5 with a baseline test specimen composed of UO2 fuel in zircaloy cladding. The modeling results show the influence of the designs of the specimen, vehicle, and transient power pulses. The primary purpose of this work is to provide input and boundary conditions to fuel performance code BISON. Therefore, studies of parameters having influence on specimen performance during RIA transients are presented including cladding oxidation, power pulse magnitude and width, cladding-to-coolant heat fluxes, fuel-to-cladding gap, transient boiling effects (modified CHF values), etc. The results show the great flexibility and capacity of the TREAT Multi-SERTTA test vehicle to provide testing under a wide range of prototypic thermal-hydraulic conditions as never done before.

  19. Mineralogical and Geochemical Studies of Bone Detritus of Pleistocene Mammals, Including the Earliest in Northern Eurasia Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Silaev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the preliminary results of mineralogical and geochemical studies of the primary and epigenetic properties of the bio-mineral and protein components in the fossil bone detritus as an example of first step of continued interdisciplinary research program. During the further implementation of this program, it is expected not only to solve a set of interrelated mineralogical, paleontological, paleoecological, paleoclimatic, and archaeological problems, but also to obtain new knowledge about the coevolution of organic, organo-mineral and inorganic substances in the geological history. The main objects of study are the fossil remains of the large Pleistocene mammals (mammoths, woolly rhinoceroses, deer, elk, horses, bison, cave and brown bear found on the territory of the Pechora Urals (62-67 ° N , South Pri-Irtyshie in Western Siberia (57-58 ° N, and Northern Taymyr (75-77 ° N. The oldest bone of Homo sapiens (Ust-Ishim human found in Northern Eurasia and remains of medieval Tobol and Irtysh Turk will be investigated as well. The results of previous studies of skin and hair of biological material from today's wild fisheries (analogues Pleistocene mammals, wild and domestic animals are considered as the reliable prerequisites for planned isotopic and geochemical studies. Use of cutting-edge research techniques will allow determining the chemical composition of bones; the elemental composition of bone collagen and bone proteins; the degree of crystallinity of bone bioapatite, and phase composition of xenomineral impurities; the isotopic composition of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen in bioapatite and collagen; the actual molecular and crystal structure of the protein biomineral, and bone substance; the concentration of trace elements; the conditions and duration of burial and reburial of bone detritus; bone collagen bacterial degradation at an early stage of fossilization. It is expected that the implementation of the proposed project

  20. Experimental induction of malignant catarrhal fever in pigs with ovine herpesvirus 2 by intranasal nebulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Brooking, Angela; Cunha, Cristina W; Highland, Margaret A; O'Toole, Donal; Knowles, Donald P; Taus, Naomi S

    2012-10-12

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a frequently fatal herpesviral disease primarily of ruminant species, has been sporadically reported in pigs. All cases of naturally occurring porcine MCF reported to date have been linked to ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a gammaherpesvirus in the genus Macavirus carried by sheep. Experimental induction of MCF by aerosolization of the virus in nasal secretions collected from infected sheep has been successful in bison, cattle and rabbits. The goals of this study were to determine the susceptibility of pigs to MCF following experimental intranasal inoculation of OvHV-2, and to characterize the disease. Twelve pigs in four groups were nebulized with 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), or 10(8) DNA copies of OvHV-2 from sheep nasal secretions. Three control pigs were nebulized with nasal secretions from uninfected sheep. Three additional pigs were inoculated intravenously with 10(7) DNA copies of OvHV-2 to evaluate this route of infection with cell-free virus. Seven of twelve intranasally challenged pigs became infected with OvHV-2. Five of these seven, all in higher dose groups, developed MCF. Lesions resembled those reported in natural cases of porcine MCF. The most striking and consistent histological lesions were in trachea, lung, kidney and brain. These comprised mucopurulent tracheitis, interstitial pneumonia, necrotizing arteritis-periarteritis, and nonpurulent meningoencephalitis. No infection was established in the intravenously challenged or control groups. The study showed that MCF can be experimentally induced in pigs by aerosol challenge using sheep nasal secretions containing OvHV-2. Domestic pigs are a natural clinically susceptible host for sheep-associated MCF. They represent a useful, cost-effective model for MCF research. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alton C S; Weiser, Glen C; Anderson, Bruce C; Cummings, Patrick J; Arnold, Karen F; Corbeil, Lynette B

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host-parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection.

  2. Genetic signature of strong recent positive selection at interleukin-32 gene in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Rasool Asif

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Identification of the candidate genes that play key roles in phenotypic variations can provide new information about evolution and positive selection. Interleukin (IL-32 is involved in many biological processes, however, its role for the immune response against various diseases in mammals is poorly understood. Therefore, the current investigation was performed for the better understanding of the molecular evolution and the positive selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-32 gene. Methods By using fixation index (FST based method, IL-32 (9375 gene was found to be outlier and under significant positive selection with the provisional combined allocation of mean heterozygosity and FST. Using nucleotide sequences of 11 mammalian species from National Center for Biotechnology Information database, the evolutionary selection of IL-32 gene was determined using Maximum likelihood model method, through four models (M1a, M2a, M7, and M8 in Codeml program of phylogenetic analysis by maximum liklihood. Results IL-32 is detected under positive selection using the FST simulations method. The phylogenetic tree revealed that goat IL-32 was in close resemblance with sheep IL-32. The coding nucleotide sequences were compared among 11 species and it was found that the goat IL-32 gene shared identity with sheep (96.54%, bison (91.97%, camel (58.39%, cat (56.59%, buffalo (56.50%, human (56.13%, dog (50.97%, horse (54.04%, and rabbit (53.41% respectively. Conclusion This study provides evidence for IL-32 gene as under significant positive selection in goat.

  3. Nuclear Fuels & Materials Spotlight Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As the nation's nuclear energy laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory brings together talented people and specialized nuclear research capability to accomplish our mission. This edition of the Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division Spotlight provides an overview of some of our recent accomplishments in research and capability development. These accomplishments include: • Evaluation and modeling of light water reactor accident tolerant fuel concepts • Status and results of recent TRISO-coated particle fuel irradiations, post-irradiation examinations, high-temperature safety testing to demonstrate the accident performance of this fuel system, and advanced microscopy to improve the understanding of fission product transport in this fuel system. • Improvements in and applications of meso and engineering scale modeling of light water reactor fuel behavior under a range of operating conditions and postulated accidents (e.g., power ramping, loss of coolant accident, and reactivity initiated accidents) using the MARMOT and BISON codes. • Novel measurements of the properties of nuclear (actinide) materials under extreme conditions, (e.g. high pressure, low/high temperatures, high magnetic field) to improve the scientific understanding of these materials. • Modeling reactor pressure vessel behavior using the GRIZZLY code. • New methods using sound to sense temperature inside a reactor core. • Improved experimental capabilities to study the response of fusion reactor materials to a tritium plasma. Throughout Spotlight, you'll find examples of productive partnerships with academia, industry, and government agencies that deliver high-impact outcomes. The work conducted at Idaho National Laboratory helps spur innovation in nuclear energy applications that drive economic growth and energy security. We appreciate your interest in our work here at Idaho National Laboratory, and hope that you find this issue informative.

  4. Exploring the influence of ancient and historic megaherbivore extirpations on the global methane budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Felisa A.; Hammond, John I.; Balk, Meghan A.; Elliott, Scott M.; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Pardi, Melissa I.; Tomé, Catalina P.; Wagner, Peter J.; Westover, Marie L.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, large-bodied wild mammals are in peril. Because "megamammals" have a disproportionate influence on vegetation, trophic interactions, and ecosystem function, declining populations are of considerable conservation concern. However, this is not new; trophic downgrading occurred in the past, including the African rinderpest epizootic of the 1890s, the massive Great Plains bison kill-off in the 1860s, and the terminal Pleistocene extinction of megafauna. Examining the consequences of these earlier events yields insights into contemporary ecosystem function. Here, we focus on changes in methane emissions, produced as a byproduct of enteric fermentation by herbivores. Although methane is ∼200 times less abundant than carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the greater efficiency of methane in trapping radiation leads to a significant role in radiative forcing of climate. Using global datasets of late Quaternary mammals, domestic livestock, and human population from the United Nations as well as literature sources, we develop a series of allometric regressions relating mammal body mass to population density and CH4 production, which allows estimation of methane production by wild and domestic herbivores for each historic or ancient time period. We find the extirpation of megaherbivores reduced global enteric emissions between 2.2-69.6 Tg CH4 y-1 during the various time periods, representing a decrease of 0.8-34.8% of the overall inputs to tropospheric input. Our analyses suggest that large-bodied mammals have a greater influence on methane emissions than previously appreciated and, further, that changes in the source pool from herbivores can influence global biogeochemical cycles and, potentially, climate.

  5. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the "mammoth fauna" in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinovyev, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called "mammoth fauna" with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a "mixed" type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called "mammoth savannas".

  6. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the “mammoth fauna” in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinovyev, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called “mammoth fauna” with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a “mixed” type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called “mammoth savannas”. PMID:21738409

  7. A Metastable Equilibrium Model for the Relative Abundances of Microbial Phyla in a Hot Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jeffrey M.; Shock, Everett L.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies link the compositions of microbial communities to their environments, but the energetics of organism-specific biomass synthesis as a function of geochemical variables have rarely been assessed. We describe a thermodynamic model that integrates geochemical and metagenomic data for biofilms sampled at five sites along a thermal and chemical gradient in the outflow channel of the hot spring known as “Bison Pool” in Yellowstone National Park. The relative abundances of major phyla in individual communities sampled along the outflow channel are modeled by computing metastable equilibrium among model proteins with amino acid compositions derived from metagenomic sequences. Geochemical conditions are represented by temperature and activities of basis species, including pH and oxidation-reduction potential quantified as the activity of dissolved hydrogen. By adjusting the activity of hydrogen, the model can be tuned to closely approximate the relative abundances of the phyla observed in the community profiles generated from BLAST assignments. The findings reveal an inverse relationship between the energy demand to form the proteins at equal thermodynamic activities and the abundance of phyla in the community. The distance from metastable equilibrium of the communities, assessed using an equation derived from energetic considerations that is also consistent with the information-theoretic entropy change, decreases along the outflow channel. Specific divergences from metastable equilibrium, such as an underprediction of the relative abundances of phototrophic organisms at lower temperatures, can be explained by considering additional sources of energy and/or differences in growth efficiency. Although the metabolisms used by many members of these communities are driven by chemical disequilibria, the results support the possibility that higher-level patterns of chemotrophic microbial ecosystems are shaped by metastable equilibrium states that depend on both the

  8. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the “mammoth fauna” in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Zinovyev

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called “mammoth fauna” with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a “mixed” type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called “mammoth savannas”.

  9. Preliminary Modeling of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts under Accident Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Kyle A.; Hales, Jason D.

    2016-12-01

    The catastrophic events that occurred at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have led to widespread interest in research of alternative fuels and claddings that are proposed to be accident tolerant. Thus, the United States Department of Energy through its NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) program has funded an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The ATF HIP is funded for a three-year period. The purpose of the HIP is to perform research into two potential accident tolerant concepts and provide an in-depth report to the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) describing the behavior of the concepts, both of which are being considered for inclusion in a lead test assembly scheduled for placement into a commercial reactor in 2022. The initial focus of the HIP is on uranium silicide fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy cladding. Utilizing the expertise of three national laboratory participants (INL, LANL, and ANL) a comprehensive mulitscale approach to modeling is being used including atomistic modeling, molecular dynamics, rate theory, phase-field, and fuel performance simulations. In this paper, we present simulations of two proposed accident tolerant fuel systems: U3Si2 fuel with Zircaloy-4 cladding, and UO2 fuel with FeCrAl cladding. The simulations investigate the fuel performance response of the proposed ATF systems under Loss of Coolant and Station Blackout conditions using the BISON code. Sensitivity analyses are completed using Sandia National Laboratories’ DAKOTA software to determine which input parameters (e.g., fuel specific heat) have the greatest influence on the output metrics of interest (e.g., fuel centerline temperature). Early results indicate that each concept has significant advantages as well as areas of concern. Further work is required prior to formulating the proposition report for the Advanced Fuels Campaign.

  10. Genetic signature of strong recent positive selection at interleukin-32 gene in goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Akhtar Rasool; Qadri, Sumayyah; Ijaz, Nabeel; Javed, Ruheena; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Awais, Muhammd; Younus, Muhammad; Riaz, Hasan; Du, Xiaoyong

    2017-07-01

    Identification of the candidate genes that play key roles in phenotypic variations can provide new information about evolution and positive selection. Interleukin (IL)-32 is involved in many biological processes, however, its role for the immune response against various diseases in mammals is poorly understood. Therefore, the current investigation was performed for the better understanding of the molecular evolution and the positive selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-32 gene. By using fixation index ( F ST ) based method, IL-32 (9375) gene was found to be outlier and under significant positive selection with the provisional combined allocation of mean heterozygosity and F ST . Using nucleotide sequences of 11 mammalian species from National Center for Biotechnology Information database, the evolutionary selection of IL-32 gene was determined using Maximum likelihood model method, through four models (M1a, M2a, M7, and M8) in Codeml program of phylogenetic analysis by maximum liklihood. IL-32 is detected under positive selection using the F ST simulations method. The phylogenetic tree revealed that goat IL-32 was in close resemblance with sheep IL-32. The coding nucleotide sequences were compared among 11 species and it was found that the goat IL-32 gene shared identity with sheep (96.54%), bison (91.97%), camel (58.39%), cat (56.59%), buffalo (56.50%), human (56.13%), dog (50.97%), horse (54.04%), and rabbit (53.41%) respectively. This study provides evidence for IL-32 gene as under significant positive selection in goat.

  11. Development of Cr cold spray–coated fuel cladding with enhanced accident tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ševeček

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Accident-tolerant fuels (ATFs are currently of high interest to researchers in the nuclear industry and in governmental and international organizations. One widely studied accident-tolerant fuel concept is multilayer cladding (also known as coated cladding. This concept is based on a traditional Zr-based alloy (Zircaloy-4, M5, E110, ZIRLO etc. serving as a substrate. Different protective materials are applied to the substrate surface by various techniques, thus enhancing the accident tolerance of the fuel. This study focuses on the results of testing of Zircaloy-4 coated with pure chromium metal using the cold spray (CS technique. In comparison with other deposition methods, e.g., Physical vapor deposition (PVD, laser coating, or Chemical vapor deposition techniques (CVD, the CS technique is more cost efficient due to lower energy consumption and high deposition rates, making it more suitable for industry-scale production. The Cr-coated samples were tested at different conditions (500°C steam, 1200°C steam, and Pressurized water reactor (PWR pressurization test and were precharacterized and postcharacterized by various techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, or nanoindentation; results are discussed. Results of the steady-state fuel performance simulations using the Bison code predicted the concept's feasibility. It is concluded that CS Cr coating has high potential benefits but requires further optimization and out-of-pile and in-pile testing. Keywords: Accident-Tolerant Fuel, Chromium, Cladding, Coating, Cold Spray, Nuclear Fuel

  12. Calculation of the Relative Chemical Stabilities of Proteins as a Function of Temperature and Redox Chemistry in a Hot Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jeffrey M.; Shock, Everett L.

    2011-01-01

    Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of proteins whose sequences were derived from metagenomic data also exhibit an increase in average oxidation state of carbon in the protein molecules with distance from the hot-spring source. The energetic requirements of reactions to form selected proteins used in the model were computed using amino-acid group additivity for the standard molal thermodynamic properties of the proteins, and the relative chemical stabilities of the proteins were investigated by varying temperature, pH and oxidation state, expressed as activity of dissolved hydrogen. The relative stabilities of the proteins were found to track the locations of the sampling sites when the calculations included a function for hydrogen activity that increases with temperature and is higher, or more reducing, than values consistent with measurements of dissolved oxygen, sulfide and oxidation-reduction potential in the field. These findings imply that spatial patterns in the amino acid compositions of proteins can be linked, through energetics of overall chemical reactions representing the formation of the proteins, to the environmental conditions at this hot spring, even if microbial cells maintain considerably different internal conditions. Further applications of the thermodynamic calculations are possible for other natural microbial ecosystems. PMID:21853048

  13. Analysis of Double-encapsulated Fuel Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory; Medvedev, Pavel G [Idaho National Laboratory; Novascone, Stephen Rhead [Idaho National Laboratory; Perez, Danielle Marie [Idaho National Laboratory; Williamson, Richard L [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    In an LWR fuel rod, the cladding encapsulates the fuel, contains fission products, and transfers heat directly to the water coolant. In some situations, it may be advantageous to separate the cladding from the coolant through use of a secondary cladding or capsule. This may be done to increase confidence that the fuel or fission products will not mix with the coolant, to provide a mechanism for controlling the rod temperature, or to place multiple experimental rodlets within a single housing. With an axisymmetric assumption, it is possible to derive closed-form expressions for the temperature profile in a fuel rod using radially-constant thermal conductivity in the fuel. This is true for both a traditional fuel-cladding rod and a double-encapsulated fuel (fuel, cladding, capsule) configuration. Likewise, it is possible to employ a fuel performance code to analyse both a traditional and a double-encapsulated fuel. In the case of the latter, two sets of gap heat transfer conditions must be imposed. In this work, we review the equations associated with radial heat transfer in a cylindrical system, present analytic and computational results for a postulated power and gas mixture history for IFA-744, and describe the analysis of the AFC-2A, 2B metallic fuel alloy experiments at the Advanced Test Reactor, including the effect of a release of fission products into the cladding-capsule gap. The computational results for these two cases were obtained using BISON, a fuel performance code under development at Idaho National Laboratory.

  14. State of art in FE-based fuel performance codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Chan; Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, Dae Ho; Bang, Je Geon; Kim, Sun Ki; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Fuel performance codes approximate this complex behavior using an axisymmetric, axially-stacked, one-dimensional radial representation to save computation cost. However, the need for improved modeling of PCMI and, particularly, the importance of multidimensional capability for accurate fuel performance simulation has been identified as safety margin decreases. Finite element (FE) method that is reliable and proven solution in mechanical field has been introduced into fuel performance codes for multidimensional analysis. The present state of the art in numerical simulation of FE-based fuel performance predominantly involves 2-D axisymmetric model and 3-D volumetric model. The FRAPCON and FRAPTRAN own 1.5-D and 2-D FE model to simulate PCMI and cladding ballooning. In 2-D simulation, the FALCON code, developed by EPRI, is a 2-D (R-Z and R-θ) fully thermal-mechanically coupled steady-state and transient FE-based fuel behavior code. The French codes TOUTATIS and ALCYONE which are 3-D, and typically used to investigate localized behavior. In 2008, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing multidimensional (2-D and 3-D) nuclear fuel performance code called BISON. In this paper, the current state of FE-based fuel performance code and their models are presented. Based on investigation into the codes, requirements and direction of development for new FE-based fuel performance code can be discussed. Based on comparison of models in FE-based fuel performance code, status of art in the codes can be discussed. A new FE-based fuel performance code should include typical pellet and cladding models which all codes own. In particular, specified pellet and cladding model such as gaseous swelling and high burnup structure (HBS) model should be developed to improve accuracy of code as well as consider AC condition. To reduce computation cost, the approximated gap and the optimized contact model should be also developed

  15. The challenge of climate to man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Alan D.

    Around 900 A.D. a group of small villages was established in northwest Iowa by Indians of what we now call the Mill Creek culture. Around 1400 A.D., after many prosperous years, the villages were abandoned. In the summer of 1963, archeological and geological excavations of several sites of the Mill Creek culture began. While three major sites were excavated, one known as Phipps site provided the clearest historical record of civilization in the area. To reconstruct both the habits of the Mill Creek people and the environment in which they lived, scientists have studied a wide assortment of remains preserved in the strata of northwestern Iowa. Unnoticed without the aid of a microscope are the remains of pollen grains blown into the area from surrounding trees. The pollen preserved in the strata can be read as an historic log of changes in the vegetation and climate surrounding the Mill Creek area. The village was occupied about 900 A.D. on the flood plain of Mill Creek. The pollen evidence shows that during the 10th and 11th centuries, the Indians lived in a region with tall-grass prairie on the uplands and woods on the valley terraces and valley floors. This vegetation is not very different from today's if one substitutes ‘cornfield’ for ‘prairie.’ From evidence given by fossil bones found in the strata, it seems that deer and elk were abundant and were hunted by these Indians. The Indian meat diet appears to have been dominated by these animals, supplemented only occasionally by bison. Maize was the main agricultural product.

  16. Detection of quinolones in poultry meat obtained from retail centers in Santiago Province, the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfrany, R O; Caba, R E; Solís de Los Santos, F; Hanning, I

    2013-02-01

    In the Dominican Republic, poultry consumption per capita is greater than 34 kg of poultry meat per year. However, antibiotics, specifically the quinolone group, may be overused and can result in residues in the poultry meat. These residues are of concern because consumers may have allergies to antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can develop from overuse of antibiotics in production. Little is known concerning this issue specifically for Santiago Province in the Dominican Republic. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the incidence of residual quinolones in poultry meat and determine whether any residues detected were higher than the residue maximum limits (100 μg/kg) established by food industry authorities, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority. A total of 135 samples of chicken breast were taken from different retail meat centers in the nine municipalities of Santiago Province (Santiago, Tamboril, Sabana Iglesia, Villa Bisonó, Puñal, Villa González, Licey, Jánico, and San José De Las Matas) and were analyzed using the Equinox test (Immunotec, Swanton, VT). Of the 135 samples analyzed, 50% from Sabana Iglesia, 20% from Licey, 20% from San Jose De Las Matas, and 6.25% from Santiago contained residues of quinolones higher than the residue maximum limits. No quinolone residues were detected in samples obtained from Janico, Punal, Tamboril, Villa Bisono, or Villa Gonzalez. The results of this investigation suggest that some poultry meat sold for human consumption in Santiago Province of the Dominican Republic contains quinolone residues and may represent a health risk to some consumers.

  17. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (I): A citizen-science based risk model for bovine brucellosis transmission from elk to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Scurlock, Brandon; Logan, Jim; Robinson, Timothy; Cook, Walt; Boroff, Kari; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-09-15

    Livestock producers and state wildlife agencies have used multiple management strategies to control bovine brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). However, spillover from elk to domestic bison and cattle herds continues to occur. Although knowledge is increasing about the location and behavior of elk in the SGYA, predicting spatiotemporal overlap between elk and cattle requires locations of livestock operations and observations of elk contact by producers. We queried all producers in a three-county area using a questionnaire designed to determine location of cattle and whether producers saw elk comingle with their animals. This information was used to parameterize a spatially-explicit risk model to estimate the number of elk expected to overlap with cattle during the brucellosis transmission risk period. Elk-cattle overlap was predicted in areas further from roads and forest boundaries in areas with wolf activity, with higher slopes, lower hunter densities, and where the cost-distance to feedgrounds was very low or very high. The model was used to estimate the expected number of years until a cattle reactor will be detected, under alternative management strategies. The model predicted cattle cases every 4.28 years in the highest risk herd unit, a higher prediction than the one case in 26 years we have observed. This difference likely indicates that ongoing management strategies are at least somewhat effective in preventing potential elk-cattle brucellosis transmission in these areas. Using this model, we can infer the expected effectiveness of various management strategies for reducing the risk of brucellosis spillover from elk to cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bovine papillomavirus E5 and E7 oncoproteins in naturally occurring tumors: are two better than one?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corteggio Annunziata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs are oncogenic DNA viruses, which mainly induce benign lesions of cutaneous and/or mucosal epithelia in cattle. Thirteen (BPV 1–13 different viral genotypes have been characterized so far. BPVs are usually species-specific but BPV 1/2 may also infect equids as well as buffaloes and bison and cause tumors in these species. BPV-induced benign lesions usually regress, however occasionally they develop into cancer particularly in the presence of environmental carcinogenic co-factors. The major transforming protein of BPV is E5, a very short hydrophobic, transmembrane protein with many oncogenic activities. E5 contributes to cell transformation through the activation of the cellular β receptor for the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFβ-r, it also decreases cell surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI causing viral escape from immunosurveillance, and plays a role in the inhibition of the intracellular communication by means of aberrant connexin expression. E7 is considered as a weak transforming gene, it synergies with E5 in cell transformation during cancer development. E7 expression correlates in vivo with the over-expression of β1-integrin, which plays a role in the regulation of keratinocytes proliferation and differentiation. Additionally, E7 is involved in cell-mediated immune responses leading to tumour rejection, in anoikis process by direct binding to p600, and in invasion process by upregulation of Matrix metalloproteinase1 (MMP-1 expression. Studies on the role of BPV E5 and E7 oncoproteins in naturally occurring tumours are of scientific value, as they may shed new light on the biological role of these two oncogenes in cell transformation.

  19. Recruiting first generation college students into the Geosciences: Alaska's EDGE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, A.; Connor, C.

    2008-12-01

    Funded in 2005-2008, by the National Science Foundation's Geoscience Education Division, the Experiential Discoveries in Geoscience Education (EDGE) project was designed to use glacier and watershed field experiences as venues for geospatial data collected by Alaska's grade 6-12 middle and high school teachers and their students. EDGE participants were trained in GIS and learned to analyze geospatial data to answer questions about the warming Alaska environment and to determine rates of ongoing glacier recession. Important emphasis of the program was the recruitment of Alaska Native students of Inupiat, Yup'ik, Athabascan, and Tlingit populations, living in both rural and urban areas around the state. Twelve of Alaska's 55 school districts have participated in the EDGE program. To engage EDGE students in the practice of scientific inquiry, each was required to carry out a semester scale research project using georeferenced data, guided by their EDGE teacher and mentor. Across Alaska students investigated several Earth systems processes including freezing conditions of lake ice; the changes in water quality in storm drains after rainfall events; movements of moose, bears, and bison across Alaskan landscapes; changes in permafrost depth in western Alaska; and the response of migrating waterfowl to these permafrost changes. Students correlated the substrate beneath their schools with known earthquake intensities; measured cutbank and coastal erosion on northern rivers and southeastern shorelines; tracked salmon infiltration of flooded logging roads; noted the changing behavior of eagles during late winter salmon runs; located good areas for the use of tidal power for energy production; tracked the extent and range of invasive plant species with warming; and the change of forests following deglaciation. Each cohort of EDGE students and teachers finished the program by attended a 3-day EDGE symposium at which students presented their research projects first in a

  20. Nutrient cycling potential of camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz.) as a cover crop in the US Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Marisol; Samarappuli, Dulan

    2017-04-01

    Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.] is an industrial oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family with multiple uses. Currently, camelina is not used as a cover crop, but it has the potential to be used as such in maize-soybean-wheat cropping systems. The objectives of this study were to determine the agronomic performance and nutrient scavenging potential of winter camelina in comparison with other common cover crops. Experiments were conducted in Fargo, ND in 2015 and 2016, and in Prosper, ND in 2015. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. The main plot was the sowing date and the subplot were camelina cultivars as well as other common cover crops in the area. Sowing dates were targeted to 15 August and September 1, although the final dates varied slightly each year. Biomass yield, N content of the biomass N uptake and P uptake was evaluated. Winter camelina N and P uptake ranged between 21 and 30.5 kg N ha-1 and 3.4 to 5.3 kg P ha-1. The nutrient scavenging potential of winter camelina was similar to other cover crops although slightly lower than turnip (Brassica rapa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars which had significantly higher P uptake than winter camelina and the other cover crops in the study. An evaluation of spring regrowth and cover indicated that only rye, winter camelina, and pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) survived the winter, although a few plants of triticale (x Trticosecale Witt.) and rape were found on a few plots. Because of the high variability on the plots there were no significant differences among the surviving cover crops on soil coverage. The soil coverage for rye cultivars was 25 and 35% and for camelina cv. Bison was 27%.In 2016, biomass yield was not significant for sowing date, cultivars, or their interaction. Winter camelina cultivars biomass yield fluctuated between 1.15 and 2.33 Mg dry matter ha-1 on the first sowing

  1. Glacial and Quaternary geology of the northern Yellowstone area, Montana and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Licciardi, Joseph M.; Krause, Teresa R.; Whitlock, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    This field guide focuses on the glacial geology and paleoecology beginning in the Paradise Valley and progressing southward into northern Yellowstone National Park. During the last (Pinedale) glaciation, the northern Yellowstone outlet glacier flowed out of Yellowstone Park and down the Yellowstone River Valley into the Paradise Valley. The field trip will traverse the following Pinedale glacial sequence: (1) deposition of the Eightmile terminal moraines and outwash 16.5 ± 1.4 10Be ka in the Paradise Valley; (2) glacial recession of ~8 km and deposition of the Chico moraines and outwash 16.1 ± 1.7 10Be ka; (3) glacial recession of 45 km to near the northern Yellowstone boundary and moraine deposition during the Deckard Flats readjustment 14.2 ± 1.2 10Be ka; and (4) glacial recession of ~37 km and deposition of the Junction Butte moraines 15.2 ± 1.3 10Be ka (this age is a little too old based on the stratigraphic sequence). Yellowstone's northern range of sagebrush-grasslands and bison, elk, wolf, and bear inhabitants is founded on glacial moraines, sub-glacial till, and outwash deposited during the last glaciation. Floods released from glacially dammed lakes and a landslide-dammed lake punctuate this record. The glacial geologic reconstruction was evaluated by calculation of basal shear stress, and yielded the following values for flow pattern in plan view: strongly converging—1.21 ± 0.12 bars (n = 15); nearly uniform—1.04 ± 0.16 bars (n = 11); and strongly diverging—0.84 ± 0.14 bars (n = 16). Reconstructed mass balance yielded accumulation and ablation each of ~3 km3/yr, with glacial movement near the equilibrium line altitude dominated by basal sliding. Pollen and charcoal records from three lakes in northern Yellowstone provide information on the postglacial vegetation and fire history. Following glacial retreat, sparsely vegetated landscapes were colonized first by spruce parkland and then by closed subalpine forests. Regional fire activity

  2. Cattle producers' economic incentives for preventing bovine brucellosis under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Trenton W; Peck, Dannele E; Ritten, John P

    2012-12-01

    Cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem occasionally contract bovine brucellosis from free-ranging elk and bison. Cattle producers use a variety of brucellosis prevention activities to reduce their herds' risk of contracting brucellosis, such as: (1) having state agency personnel haze elk off private land, (2) fencing haystacks, (3) administering adult booster vaccination, (4) spaying heifers, (5) altering the winter-feeding schedule of cattle, (6) hiring riders to prevent cattle-elk commingling, and (7) delaying grazing on high-risk allotments. Their brucellosis prevention decisions are complicated, however, by several sources of uncertainty, including the following: a cattle herd's baseline risk of contracting brucellosis, the inherent randomness of brucellosis outbreaks, the cost of implementing prevention activities, and the activities' effectiveness. This study eliminates one source of uncertainty by estimating the cost of implementing brucellosis prevention activities on a representative cow/calf-long yearling operation in the southern GYE. It then reports the minimum level of effectiveness each prevention activity must achieve to justify investment by a risk-neutral producer. Individual producers face different levels of baseline risk, however, and the US government's brucellosis-response policy is constantly evolving. We therefore estimate breakeven levels of effectiveness for a range of baseline risks and government policies. Producers, animal health experts, and policymakers can use this study's results to determine which brucellosis prevention activities are unlikely to generate sufficient expected benefits to cover their cost of implementation. Results also demonstrate the influence of government policy on producers' incentives to prevent brucellosis. Policies that increase the magnitude of economic loss a producer incurs when their herd contracts brucellosis subsequently decrease prevention activities' breakeven levels of effectiveness, and

  3. Mapping whole genome shotgun sequence and variant calling in mammalian species without their reference genomes [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2x3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Kalbfleisch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genomics research in mammals has produced reference genome sequences that are essential for identifying variation associated with disease.  High quality reference genome sequences are now available for humans, model species, and economically important agricultural animals.  Comparisons between these species have provided unique insights into mammalian gene function.  However, the number of species with reference genomes is small compared to those needed for studying molecular evolutionary relationships in the tree of life.  For example, among the even-toed ungulates there are approximately 300 species whose phylogenetic relationships have been calculated in the 10k trees project.  Only six of these have reference genomes:  cattle, swine, sheep, goat, water buffalo, and bison.  Although reference sequences will eventually be developed for additional hoof stock, the resources in terms of time, money, infrastructure and expertise required to develop a quality reference genome may be unattainable for most species for at least another decade.  In this work we mapped 35 Gb of next generation sequence data of a Katahdin sheep to its own species’ reference genome (Ovis aries Oar3.1 and to that of a species that diverged 15 to 30 million years ago (Bos taurus UMD3.1.  In total, 56% of reads covered 76% of UMD3.1 to an average depth of 6.8 reads per site, 83 million variants were identified, of which 78 million were homozygous and likely represent interspecies nucleotide differences. Excluding repeat regions and sex chromosomes, nearly 3.7 million heterozygous sites were identified in this animal vs. bovine UMD3.1, representing polymorphisms occurring in sheep.  Of these, 41% could be readily mapped to orthologous positions in ovine Oar3.1 with 80% corroborated as heterozygous.  These variant sites, identified via interspecies mapping could be used for comparative genomics, disease association studies, and ultimately to understand

  4. Effects of Conversion from Boreal Forest to Arctic Steppe on Soil Communities and Ecosystem Carbon Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, P. D.; Natali, S.; Schade, J. D.; Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    The end of the Pleistocene marked the extinction of a great variety of arctic megafauna, which, in part, led to the conversion of arctic grasslands to modern Siberian larch forest. This shift may have increased the vulnerability of permafrost to thawing because of changes driven by the vegetation shift; the higher albedo of grassland and low insulation of snow trampled by animals may have decreased soil temperatures and reduced ground thaw in the grassland ecosystem, resulting in protection of organic carbon in thawed soil and permafrost. To test these hypothesized impacts of arctic megafauna, we examined an experimental reintroduction of large mammals in northeast Siberia, initiated in 1988. Pleistocene Park now contains 23 horses, three musk ox, one bison, and several moose in addition to the native fauna. The park is 16 square km with a smaller enclosure (animals spend most of their time and our study was focused. We measured carbon-pools in forested sites (where scat surveys showed low animal use), and grassy sites (which showed higher use), within the park boundaries. We also measured thaw depth and documented the soil invertebrate communities in each ecosystem. There was a substantial difference in number of invertebrates per kg of organic soil between the forest (600 ± 250) and grassland (300 ± 250), though these differences were not statistically significant they suggest faster nutrient turnover in the forest or a greater proportion of decomposition by invertebrates than other decomposers. While thaw depth was deeper in the grassland (60 ± 4 cm) than in the forest (40 ± 6 cm), we did not detect differences in organic layer depth or percent organic matter between grassland and forest. However, soil in the grassland had higher bulk density, and higher carbon stocks in the organic and mineral soil layers. Although deeper thaw depth in the grassland suggests that more carbon is available to microbial decomposers, ongoing temperature monitoring will help

  5. Transient Simulation of the Multi-SERTTA Experiment with MAMMOTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortensi, Javier [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Baker, Benjamin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Yaqi [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schunert, Sebastian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); deHart, Mark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-11

    control rod models in MAMMOTH and adding the BISON thermo-elastic models and thermal-fluids heat transfer.

  6. R&D Plan for RISMC Industry Application #1: ECCS/LOCA Cladding Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Epiney, Aaron Simon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tu, Lei [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    plant safety and operational margins. Advanced MOOSE tools that are needed to complete this integrated evaluation model are: RAVEN, RELAP-7, BISON, and MAMMOTH.

  7. State of art in FE-based fuel performance codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Chan; Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, Dae Ho; Bang, Je Geon; Kim, Sun Ki; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Finite element (FE) method that is reliable and proven solution in mechanical field has been introduced into fuel performance codes for multidimensional analysis. The present state of the art in numerical simulation of FE-based fuel performance predominantly involves 2-D axisymmetric model and 3-D volumetric model. The FRAPCON and FRAPTRAN own 1.5-D and 2-D FE model to simulate PCMI and cladding ballooning. In 2-D simulation, the FALCON code, developed by EPRI, is a 2-D (R-Z and R-θ) fully thermal-mechanically coupled steady-state and transient FE-based fuel behavior code. The French codes TOUTATIS and ALCYONE which are 3-D, and typically used to investigate localized behavior. In 2008, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing multidimensional (2-D and 3-D) nuclear fuel performance code called BISON. In this paper, the current state of FE-based fuel performance code and their models are presented. Based on investigation into the codes, requirements and direction of development for new FE-based fuel performance code can be discussed. Based on comparison of models in FE-based fuel performance code, status of art in the codes can be discussed. A new FE-based fuel performance code should include typical pellet and cladding models which all codes own. In particular, specified pellet and cladding model such as gaseous swelling and high burnup structure (HBS) model should be developed to improve accuracy of code as well as consider AC condition. To reduce computation cost, the approximated gap and the optimized contact model should be also developed. Nuclear fuel operates in an extreme environment that induces complex multiphysics phenomena, occurring over distances ranging from inter-atomic spacing to meters, and times scales ranging from microseconds to years. This multiphysics behavior is often tightly coupled, a well known example being the thermomechanical behavior. Adding to this complexity, important aspects of fuel behavior are inherently

  8. Development of Multidimensional Gap Conductance model using Virtual Link Gap Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Chan; Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, Dae Ho; Bang, Je Geon; Kim, Sun Ki; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The gap conductance that determines temperature gradient between pellet and cladding can be quite sensitive to gap thickness. For instance, once the gap size increases up to several micrometers in certain region, difference of pellet surface temperatures increases up to 100 Kelvin. Therefore, iterative thermo-mechanical coupled analysis is required to solve temperature distribution throughout pellet and cladding. Recently, multidimensional fuel performance codes have been being developed in the advanced countries to evaluate thermal behavior of fuel for off normal conditions and DBA(design based accident) conditions using the Finite Element Method (FEM). FRAPCON-FRAPTRAN code system, which is well known as the verified and reliable code, incorporates 1D thermal module and multidimensional mechanical module. In this code, multidimensional gap conductance model is not applied. ALCYONE developed by CEA introduces equivalent heat convection coefficient that represents multidimensional gap conductance as a function of gap thickness. BISON, which is multidimensional fuel performance code developed by INL, owns multidimensional gap conductance model using projected thermal contact. In general, thermal contact algorithm is nonlinear calculation which is expensive approach numerically. The gap conductance model for multi-dimension is difficult issue in terms of convergence and nonlinearity because gap conductance is function of gap thickness which depends on mechanical analysis at each iteration step. In this paper, virtual link gap (VLG) element has been proposed to resolve convergence issue and nonlinear characteristic of multidimensional gap conductance. In terms of calculation accuracy and convergence efficiency, the proposed VLG model was evaluated. LWR fuel performance codes should incorporate thermo-mechanical loop to solve gap conductance problem, iteratively. However, gap conductance in multidimensional model is difficult issue owing to its nonlinearity and

  9. Size and shape stasis in late Pleistocene mammals and birds from Rancho La Brea during the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R.; Syverson, Valerie J.; Raymond, Kristina R.; Madan, Meena; Molina, Sarah; Fragomeni, Ashley; DeSantis, Sylvana; Sutyagina, Anastasiya; Gage, Gina L.

    2012-11-01

    Conventional neo-Darwinian theory views organisms as infinitely sensitive and responsive to their environments, and considers them able to readily change size or shape when they adapt to selective pressures. Yet since 1863 it has been well known that Pleistocene animals and plants do not show much morphological change or speciation in response to the glacial-interglacial climate cycles. We tested this hypothesis with all of the common birds (condors, golden and bald eagles, turkeys, caracaras) and mammals (dire wolves, saber-toothed cats, giant lions, horses, camels, bison, and ground sloths) from Rancho La Brea tar pits in Los Angeles, California, which preserves large samples of many bones from many well-dated pits spanning the 35,000 years of the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle. Pollen evidence showed the climate changed from chaparral/oaks 35,000 years ago to snowy piñon-juniper forests at the peak glacial 20,000 years ago, then back to the modern chaparral since the glacial-interglacial transition. Based on Bergmann's rule, we would expect peak glacial specimens to have larger body sizes, and based on Allen's rule, peak glacial samples should have shorter and more robust limbs. Yet statistical analysis (ANOVA for parametric samples; Kruskal-Wallis test for non-parametric samples) showed that none of the Pleistocene pit samples is statistically distinct from the rest, indicating complete stasis from 35 ka to 9 ka. The sole exception was the Pit 13 sample of dire wolves (16 ka), which was significantly smaller than the rest, but this did not occur in response to climate change. We also performed a time series analysis of the pit samples. None showed directional change; all were either static or showed a random walk. Thus, the data show that birds and mammals at Rancho La Brea show complete stasis and were unresponsive to the major climate change that occurred at 20 ka, consistent with other studies of Pleistocene animals and plants. Most explanations for such

  10. In situ characterization of the black pigment from parietal art of the Rouffignac Cave with a portable XRF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanoit, J. de; Chambellan, D.; Plassard, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Rouffignac cave in Dordogne (France) is a palaeolithic site which contains, among others, an important patrimony of cave art realized with black pigment (mammoths, bisons, woolly rhinoceros, horses, ibexes). Although no direct dating has ever been realized to date, the graphic works of this cave are generally connected to the Magdalenian age by cross-dating (stylistic comparison). For the first time, in situ non destructive analyses of this pigment were able to be made due to the use of a portable XRF system (X-Ray Fluorescence). The experimental set-up is mainly constituted with a small X-ray generator (Bullet TM 40 kV, Moxtek), a SDD detector (silicon drift detector, Rontec 1102) cooled by a Peltier cryostat and an optical system, the whole being connected to a portable system for acquisition of spectrometric data. The experimental spectra obtained on the three rhinoceros frieze, the horse over the flint nodule, the ten mammoths frieze and some animals of the Grand Plafond showed a systematic presence of manganese in all figures. This hypothesis had been already suggested by Graziosi in 1956 in the review 'La Nature' after a destructive analysis of a sample taken on one of the horses of the Grand Plafond. A Monte-Carlo simulation allowed a first quantitative approach in the analysis of the black pigment of the drawings. We can assess that the used manganese ore does not only result from a unique source because variable ratios of manganese, barium and iron were probed in the black pigment. None of the studied drawing was executed exclusively with black charcoal that would have made the selection of a sample suitable for radiocarbon dating less complicated. Additional non destructive in situ analysis using a portable PIXE set-up (Particles Induced X-ray Emission) equipped with a 210 Po as radiation source can be foreseen to allow the detection of elements with atomic numbers (Z) between 11 and 16 in the first layers of the black pigment, there where the XRF

  11. Molecular evolution of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae: Is there evidence of rapid evolution or reduced selective constraint in Domestic cattle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCulloch Alan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If mutation within the coding region of the genome is largely not adaptive, the ratio of nonsynonymous (dN to synonymous substitutions (dS per site (dN/dS should be approximately equal among closely related species. Furthermore, dN/dS in divergence between species should be equivalent to dN/dS in polymorphisms. This hypothesis is of particular interest in closely related members of the Bovini tribe, because domestication has promoted rapid phenotypic divergence through strong artificial selection of some species while others remain undomesticated. We examined a number of genes that may be involved in milk production in Domestic cattle and a number of their wild relatives for evidence that domestication had affected molecular evolution. Elevated rates of dN/dS were further queried to determine if they were the result of positive selection, low effective population size (Ne or reduced selective constraint. Results We have found that the domestication process has contributed to higher dN/dS ratios in cattle, especially in the lineages leading to the Domestic cow (Bos taurus and Mithan (Bos frontalis and within some breeds of Domestic cow. However, the high rates of dN/dS polymorphism within B. taurus when compared to species divergence suggest that positive selection has not elevated evolutionary rates in these genes. Likewise, the low rate of dN/dS in Bison, which has undergone a recent population bottleneck, indicates a reduction in population size alone is not responsible for these observations. Conclusion The effect of selection depends on effective population size and the selection coefficient (Nes. Typically under domestication both selection pressure for traits important in fitness in the wild and Ne are reduced. Therefore, reduced selective constraint could be responsible for the observed elevated evolutionary ratios in domesticated species, especially in B. taurus and B. frontalis, which have the highest dN/dS in the

  12. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile homogeneity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from cattle and heterogeneity of those from sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geijo Marivi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map causes paratuberculosis in animals and is suspected of causing Crohn's Disease in humans. Characterization of strains led to classify paratuberculosis isolates in two main types, cattle type strains, found affecting all host species, and sheep type strains, reported affecting mainly sheep. In order to get a better understanding of the epidemiology of paratuberculosis a large set of Map isolates obtained from different species over the last 25 years have been characterized. Five-hundred and twenty isolates from different hosts (cattle, sheep, goats, bison, deer and wild boar and origins had been cultured and typed by IS1311 restriction-endonuclease-analysis. Two-hundred and sixty-nine isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using SnaBI and SpeI endonucleases. Differences in strain isolation upon various media conditions were also studied. Results All bovines, 4 and 26% of Spanish sheep and goats, respectively, and the deer and wild boar studied, carried IS1311-Cattle type strains. IS1311-Sheep type encompassed 96% and 74% of Spanish sheep and goats, and all three Portuguese sheep. Thirty-seven distinct multiplex PFGE profiles were found, giving 32 novel profiles. Profiles 2-1 and 1-1 accounted for the 85% of cattle isolates. Ten distinct profiles were detected in Spanish sheep, none of them with an incidence higher than 25%. Profile 16-11 (43% and another three profiles were identified in Spanish caprine cultures. The hierarchical analysis, clustered all profiles found in cattle, "wild" hosts and some small ruminants within the same group. The other group included 11 profiles only found in Spanish sheep and goats, including Spanish pigmented profiles. Differences in growth requirements associated with isolate genotype were observed. Conclusion Cattle in Spain are infected with cattle type strains, while sheep and goats are mainly infected

  13. First occurrence of Panthera atrox (Felidae, Pantherinae in the Mexican state of Hidalgo and a review of the record of felids from the Pleistocene of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bravo-Cuevas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Panthera atrox was a common large-sized cat in North America during the late Pleistocene. An isolated lower canine and a fifth metacarpal bone referable to this species were recovered from fluvial Quaternary deposits that outcrop in southeastern Hidalgo, central Mexico. Associated fossil material belonging to Bison indicates a Rancholabrean North American Land Mammal Age; the age assignment is corroborated by the presence of P. atrox. A comparative study with selected specimens of Panthera and Smilodon indicates that the Hidalgoan sample shares the following diagnostic features with P. atrox: a large, robust, and non-strongly curved lower canine; a large and relatively slender fifth metacarpal with a well-developed projection on the palmar side at the proximal end, narrow articulating surface for the unciform; a narrow notch on the articulating surface for the fourth metacarpal; and a diaphysis that at the middle is oval in cross section. The record supplements the evidence of P. atrox in central Mexico and represents the first reported occurrence of this cat species in the state of Hidalgo. By the same token, the known geographic distribution of P. atrox in the Mexican territory suggests that it was relatively common in temperate areas of central Mexico between 19 and 24° N at an altitudinal range from 1500 to 2250 m a.s.l. The large size (mean body mass of 300 kg and hypercarnivorous adaptations of the American lion suggest it was the top predator of the mammalian community recorded at southeastern Hidalgo, displacing other members of the carnivore guild at the mesopredator level, such as the dire wolf (Canis dirus , which has been also reported in the area. The high diversity of large herbivores recorded at southeastern Hidalgo, which in turn could represent potential prey of P. atrox, suggests that some areas that now are part of central Mexico were suitable hunting sites for this large-sized cat. A review of the Pleistocene record

  14. VERA and VERA-EDU 3.5 Release Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieger, Matt [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kochunas, Brendan M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Adams, Brian M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williamson, Richard L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-26

    The Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications components included in this distribution include selected computational tools and supporting infrastructure that solve neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, fuel performance, and coupled neutronics-thermal hydraulics problems. The infrastructure components provide a simplified common user input capability and provide for the physics integration with data transfer and coupled-physics iterative solution algorithms. Neutronics analysis can be performed for 2D lattices, 2D core and 3D core problems for pressurized water reactor geometries that can be used to calculate criticality and fission rate distributions by pin for input fuel compositions. MPACT uses the Method of Characteristics transport approach for 2D problems. For 3D problems, MPACT uses the 2D/1D method which uses 2D MOC in a radial plane and diffusion or SPn in the axial direction. MPACT includes integrated cross section capabilities that provide problem-specific cross sections generated using the subgroup methodology. The code can be executed both 2D and 3D problems in parallel to reduce overall run time. A thermal-hydraulics capability is provided with CTF (an updated version of COBRA-TF) that allows thermal-hydraulics analyses for single and multiple assemblies using the simplified VERA common input. This distribution also includes coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics capabilities to allow calculations using MPACT coupled with CTF. The VERA fuel rod performance component BISON calculates, on a 2D or 3D basis, fuel rod temperature, fuel rod internal pressure, free gas volume, clad integrity and fuel rod waterside diameter. These capabilities allow simulation of power cycling, fuel conditioning and deconditioning, high burnup performance, power uprate scoping studies, and accident performance. Input/Output capabilities include the VERA Common Input (VERAIn) script which converts the ASCII common input file to the intermediate XML used to drive all of the physics

  15. The Last Glacial Ecosystems of North Siberia: Permafrost-Sealed Evidence from Fossiliferous Cryolithic Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlachula, Jiri

    2017-04-01

    Multi-proxy palaeoecology and geoarchaeology records released from degrading permafrost in the Yana River Basin and the tributary valleys (66-67°N) confirm the past existence of natural conditions for sustainment of the Pleistocene megafauna as well as the last glacial peopling of this sub-polar area. Well-preserved and taxonomically diverse large fossil fauna skeletal remains sealed in the Pleistocene colluvial and alluvial-plain formations in intact geological positions 10-20 m above the present river and scattered on gravelly river banks after their erosion from the primary geo-contexts attest to a high biotic potential of the Late Pleistocene (MIS 3-2) sub-Arctic forest-tundra. Pollen records from the ancient interstratified boggy sediments and megafauna coprolites (14C-dated to 41-38 ka BP) show a predominance of the Siberian larch, dwarf birch and willow in the local vegetation cover accompanied by grassy communities during the mid-Last Glacial stage not dissimilar from the present northern taiga forest. Articulated and humanly used/worked fauna bones (mammoth, rhinoceros, horse, bison and reindeer among other species) point to co-existence of the large animals with the Upper Palaeolithic people within the mosaic open riverine ecosystems of the late Last Ice Age. The time-trangressive macro-lithic stone industry produced from pre-selected river gravel cobbles document some specific ways of human environmental adjustment to past periglacial settings. Geomorphology and hydrogeology indices of field mappings in congruence with the long-term statistical meteorology data illustrate a steadily increasing annual temperature trend in the broader Yana-Adycha Basins (current MAT -14.5°C) that triggers accelerated permafrost thaw across the Verkhoyansk Region of NE Siberia, particularly the lowlands, similarly as in the Indigirka and Kolyma Basins further East. The regional fluvial discharge is most dynamic during late spring due to the cumulative effects of snow

  16. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Accident Tolerant Fuels High Impact Problem: Coordinate Multiscale FeCrAl Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, K. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, J. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andersson, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Capolungo, L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wirth, B. D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-07-26

    utilize lower length scale approaches (e.g., density functional theory, cluster dynamics, rate theory, phase field, and Visco-Plastic- Self-Consistent (VPSC)) to develop more physically informed models at the engineering scale for use in the BISON [9] fuel performance code.

  17. INITIAL ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT POWER TIME LAG DUE TO HETEROGENEITY WITHIN THE TREAT FUEL MATRIX.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.M. Wachs; A.X. Zabriskie, W.R. Marcum

    2014-06-01

    The topic Nuclear Safety encompasses a broad spectrum of focal areas within the nuclear industry; one specific aspect centers on the performance and integrity of nuclear fuel during a reactivity insertion accident (RIA). This specific accident has proven to be fundamentally difficult to theoretically characterize due to the numerous empirically driven characteristics that quantify the fuel and reactor performance. The Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility was designed and operated to better understand fuel behavior under extreme (i.e. accident) conditions; it was shutdown in 1994. Recently, efforts have been underway to commission the TREAT facility to continue testing of advanced accident tolerant fuels (i.e. recently developed fuel concepts). To aid in the restart effort, new simulation tools are being used to investigate the behavior of nuclear fuels during facility’s transient events. This study focuses specifically on the characterizing modeled effects of fuel particles within the fuel matrix of the TREAT. The objective of this study was to (1) identify the impact of modeled heterogeneity within the fuel matrix during a transient event, and (2) demonstrate acceptable modeling processes for the purpose of TREAT safety analyses, specific to fuel matrix and particle size. Hypothetically, a fuel that is dominantly heterogeneous will demonstrate a clearly different temporal heating response to that of a modeled homogeneous fuel. This time difference is a result of the uniqueness of the thermal diffusivity within the fuel particle and fuel matrix. Using MOOSE/BISON to simulate the temperature time-lag effect of fuel particle diameter during a transient event, a comparison of the average graphite moderator temperature surrounding a spherical particle of fuel was made for both types of fuel simulations. This comparison showed that at a given time and with a specific fuel particle diameter, the fuel particle (heterogeneous) simulation and the homogeneous simulation

  18. Syncrude's commitment to Aboriginal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loader, R. K.

    1999-01-01

    Syncrude's program designed to maintain good relations with Aboriginal communities in all areas where Syncrude operation impact upon Aboriginal peoples and their traditional ways of life are described. The program extends from employment through education to business and community development, the preservation of traditional lifestyles, and the protection of the environment. As examples, some 13 per cent of Syncrude's workforce is made up of Aboriginal people, at an average annual salary of $58,000. The company offers $ 2,000 each, specifically to Aboriginal persons, wanting to further their education particularly in disciplines related to oil sands. A five-year $ 500,000 program has been established by Syncrude at the University of Alberta specifically for Aboriginal people to pursue careers in engineering, medicine , education and business. Other career programs are also offered through Keyano College, Athabasca University and the Northern Alberta Development Council, and there is a strong commitment by the company to encouraging adults to go back to school and for kids to stay in school. Last year the company spent $ 54 million with Aboriginal-owned and operated businesses; the company also support several programs to foster the appreciation of Aboriginal culture not only in Alberta but throughout the country. Environment is the fifth and final element of the Aboriginal Development Program. It involves consultation and working with local communities on environmental matters involving issues ranging from land reclamation to emission reduction. Some six million dollars are spent annually on reclaiming land and reintroducing native animal and plant species wherever possible. An outstanding example of this is the Wood Bison Trail on 210 hectares of reclaimed land managed by the Fort McKay First Nations. It is readily acknowledged that dealing with Aboriginal concerns has not been an easy road to travel and that there are still many things to do. Nevertheless, there

  19. Benthic and Sedimentological Studies of the Georgetown Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    fasciatus; the cownose Grab samples from control, disposal, and ray, Rhinoptera bonasus ; the portunid crabs "down current" stations yielded more than...Group K 0 Sclerodacty birus (Ech) Sargassum natans (Al) Microporella ciliata (Bry) Aplidium sp. (ch) Polinices duplicatus; (Mo) Rhinoptera bonasue (Ch

  20. Detailed Project Report. Liza Jackson Park. Shoreline Erosion Control at Fort Walton Beach, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Nt (,;’own goby (Microgobius gulus F, R, Nu, P Co’jia3 (Rachycentron canadum) F Code jzoby (Gobiosoma robustum) F, R, Nu, P Cowaose ray ( Rhinoptera ... bonasus ) F C:rcvalle jack (Caranx hipos F 1.)rida !LIennv (Chasmodes saburrae) F, R, Nu, P riorida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) F, R, Nu, P Vringed

  1. Natural antioxidants in the stability of ray liver oil

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro-García, Gerardo; Gámez-Meza, Nohemí; Medina-Juárez, Luis Angel; Ortega-García, Jesús; Cota-Quiñones, Elizabeth; Ramirez-Suarez, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The effect of the addition of natural antioxidants on oxidative stability of ray ( Rhinoptera bonasus) liver oil was evaluated. Different concentrations of rosemary extract, α-tocopherol, and caffeic acid (w/w) were added to the oil. Afterwards, concentration of each antioxidant that gave the highest stability was used in an accelerated stability test (Schaal method). The protective effect was established by the retention in the oil of fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahe...

  2. Visual fields of four batoid fishes: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, D Michelle; Kajiura, Stephen M

    2008-02-01

    The visual fields of elasmobranch fishes are not well characterized even though this is a fundamental element of the visual system. The batoid fishes (skates, rays) form a monophyletic clade within the subclass Elasmobranchii and exhibit a broad range of morphologies and corresponding ecologies. We hypothesized that their visual field characteristics would reflect their diverse morphology and ecology. This was tested by quantifying the monocular, binocular and cyclopean horizontal and vertical visual fields of four batoid species (Raja eglanteria, Urobatis jamaicensis, Dasyatis sabina and Rhinoptera bonasus) that encompassed a range from a basal skate to a more derived ray. The horizontal and vertical visual fields differed significantly among species; however, all species possessed horizontal anterior and dorsal binocular overlaps. Urobatis jamaicensis, a small reef-associated stingray, demonstrated a 360 degrees panoramic visual field in the horizontal plane, and R. bonasus, a schooling benthopelagic ray, a 360 degrees panoramic view in the vertical plane. Large anterior binocular overlaps were measured in D. sabina (72 degrees ) and R. bonasus (46 degrees ) but came at the expense of large posterior blind areas. The anterior binocular overlaps in R. eglanteria (28 degrees ) and U. jamaicensis (34 degrees ) were smaller but were coupled with large monocular fields that provided expansive peripheral views. The most phylogenetically basal species, the clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria), had the most reduced visual field in contrast to the more derived ray species. To our knowledge, this study represents the first comparative assessment of visual fields in basal vertebrates.

  3. Pectoral fin locomotion in batoid fishes: undulation versus oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, L J

    2001-01-01

    This study explores the dichotomy between undulatory (passing multiple waves down the fin or body) and oscillatory (flapping) locomotion by comparing the kinematics of pectoral fin locomotion in eight species of batoids (Dasyatis americana, D. sabina, D. say, D. violacea, Gymnura micrura, Raja eglanteria, Rhinobatos lentiginosus and Rhinoptera bonasus) that differ in their swimming behavior, phylogenetic position and lifestyle. The goals of this study are to describe and compare the pectoral fin locomotor behavior of the eight batoid species, to clarify how fin movements change with swimming speed for each species and to analyze critically the undulation/oscillation continuum proposed by Breder using batoids as an example. Kinematic data were recorded for each species over a range of swimming velocities (1-3 disc lengths s(-1)). The eight species in this study vary greatly in their swimming modes. Rhinobatos lentiginosus uses a combination of axial-based and pectoral-fin-based undulation to move forward through the water, with primary thrust generated by the tail. The pectoral fins are activated in short undulatory bursts for increasing swimming speed and for maneuvering. Raja eglanteria uses a combination of pectoral and pelvic locomotion, although only pectoral locomotion is analyzed here. The other six species use pectoral locomotion exclusively to propel themselves through the water. Dasyatis sabina and D. say have the most undulatory fins with an average of 1.3 waves per fin length, whereas Rhinoptera bonasus has the most oscillatory fin behavior with 0.4 waves per fin length. The remaining species range between these two extremes in the degree of undulation present on their fins. There is an apparent trade-off between fin-beat frequency and amplitude. Rhinoptera bonasus has the lowest frequency and the highest fin amplitude, whereas Rhinobatos lentiginosus has the highest frequency and the lowest amplitude among the eight species examined. The kinematic

  4. Bridge deck surface temperature monitoring by infrared thermography and inner structure identification using PPT and PCT analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Jean

    2013-04-01

    basis of the mast and at a same elevation than the bridge deck surface. This trial took place during 4 days, but our system was leaved in stand alone acquisition mode only during 3 days. Thanks to the software developed and the small computer hardware used, thermal image were acquired at a frame rate of 0.1 Hz by averaging 50 thermal images leaving the original camera frame rate fixed at 5 Hz. Each hour, a thermal image sequence was stored on the internal hard drive and data were also retrieved, on demand, by using a wireless connection and a tablet PC. In the second part of this work, thermal image sequences analysis was carried out. Two analysis approaches were studied: one based on the use of the Fast Fourier Transform [2] and the second one based on the Principal Component Analysis [3-4]. Results obtained show that the inner structure of the deck was identified though thermal images were affected by the fact that the bridge was open to traffic during the whole experiments duration. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT - The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement n° 225663. References [1] Dumoulin J. and Averty R., « Development of an infrared system coupled with a weather station for real time atmospheric corrections using GPU computing: Application to bridge monitoring", QIRT 2012, Naples, Italy, June 2012. [2] Cooley J.W., Tukey J.W., "An algorithm for the machine calculation of complex Fourier series", Mathematics of Computation, vol. 19, n° 90, 1965, p. 297-301. [3] Rajic N., "Principal component thermography for flaw contrast enhancement and flaw depth characterization in composite structures", Composite Structures, vol 58, pp 521-528, 2002. [4] Marinetti S., Grinzato E., Bison P. G., Bozzi E., Chimenti M., Pieri G. and Salvetti O. "Statistical analysis of IR thermographic sequences by PCA," Infrared Physics & Technology vol 46 pp 85-91, 2004.

  5. A Statewide Private Microwave Wide Area Network for Real-time Natural Hazard Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. C.; Kent, G.; Smith, K. D.; Plank, G.; Slater, D.; Torrisi, J.; Presser, R.; Straley, K.

    2013-12-01

    datalogger in our seismic network not only for data collection, but also for maintenance and quality control. This has resulted in several partnerships with other agencies. In addition to our seismic station network for earthquake monitoring, we currently manage ~400 more channels of data (many running at 500 Hz) for the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) Source Physics Experiments, a series of chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site. Some of our mountaintop stations have been experimentally equipped with near-infrared high-definition fire cameras for wildfire monitoring, and have recently recorded the Bison and Pedlar fires in northwest Nevada. Data for the Nevada EPSCor climate program also utilizes the NSL WAN. Real-time access to data for these experiments greatly reduces the effort required for data archival, quality control, and monitoring equipment failures. Future plans include increasing density of stations in urban areas such as Reno and Las Vegas, and expanding coverage to Tahoe and eastern Nevada.

  6. Identification of the recently described new type of bovine papillomavirus (BPV-8 in a Brazilian beef cattle herd Identificação do novo tipo de papilomavírus bovino (BPV-8 recentemente descrito num rebanho bovino no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise P. Claus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine papillomavirus type 8 (BPV-8 was first detected and described in teat warts as well as in healthy teat skin from cattle raised in Japan. The entire viral genome was sequenced in 2007. Additionally, a variant of BPV-8, BPV-8-EB, was also identified from papillomatous lesions of a European bison in Slovakia. In Brazil, despite the relatively common occurrence of BPV infections, the identification and determination of viral types present in cattle is still sporadic. The aim of this study is to report the occurrence of the recently described BPV-8 in Brazil. The virus was identified in a skin warts obtained from a beef cattle herd located in Parana state, southern Brazil. The papilloma had a macular, non-verrucous gross aspect and was located on the dorsal thorax of a cow. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed using generic primers for partial amplification of L1 gene. The obtained amplicon (480bp was cloned and two selected clones were sequenced. The nucleotide sequence was compared to existing papillomaviral genomic sequences, identifying the virus as BPV type 8. This study represents the first report of BPV-8 occurrence in Brazil, what suggests its presence among Brazilian cattle.A primeira descrição do papilomavírus bovino tipo 8 (BPV-8 foi realizada em amostras de papilomas de teto e de pele saudável de tetos de bovinos no Japão. Em 2007, a seqüência genômica completa do BPV-8 foi determinada. Ainda em 2007, uma variante do BPV-8 (BPV-8-EB foi identificada em lesões papilomatosas de um bisão europeu na Eslováquia. No Brasil, apesar da infecção pelo BPV ser comumente observada em bovinos, a determinação dos tipos virais associados com a infecção ainda é esporádica. Este estudo tem o objetivo de relatar a ocorrência do BPV-8 no país. A amostra clínica foi obtida em um rebanho de corte do estado do Paraná, região sul do Brasil. O papiloma cutâneo, de aspecto macular e não-verrucoso, estava localizado na regi

  7. The Snowmastodon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kirk R.; Miller, Ian M.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of terrestrial biotic and environmental dynamics of the last interglacial period, Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5, provide insight into the effects of long-term climate change on Pleistocene ecosystems. In North America, however, there are relatively few fossil sites that definitively date to MIS 5. Even fewer contain multiple ecosystem components (vertebrates, invertebrates, plants) that have been studied in detail, and none are located at high elevation. Thus, our view of North American ecosystems during MIS 5 is, at best, an incomplete composite view, and alpine ecosystems are entirely undocumented. The Ziegler Reservoir fossil site allows us to begin filling these gaps. Discovered on October 14, 2010 by a construction crew while enlarging a small reservoir near Snowmass Village, Colorado (USA), the site is situated high in the Rocky Mountains at an elevation of ~ 2705 m. Initial excavations exposed a series of stacked fossil ecosystems, including abundant faunal and floral components. Subsequent work revealed an exceptionally diverse biota composed of nearly 6000 large bones of late Pleistocene megafauna, including mastodons, mammoths, ground sloths, horses, camels, deer, bison, black bear, coyotes, and big horn sheep. This collection is complemented by more than 200 bones from at least 40 species of small animals including otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds, and more than 20,000 salamander bones. Geomorphic evidence and multiple dating techniques show that the small, ridge-top basin containing the site was formed by a lateral lobe of a valley glacier that filled, and ultimately overtopped, the Snowmass Creek drainage during the Bull Lake glaciation (MIS 6). When the glacier receded, a lake that occupied the basin began to fill slowly with what is hypothesized to be eolian sediment and occasional input from slope failures of the impounding moraine. As sedimentation continued, the lake transformed first

  8. SiC-CMC-Zircaloy-4 Nuclear Fuel Cladding Performance during 4-Point Tubular Bend Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IJ van Rooyen; WR Lloyd; TL Trowbridge; SR Novascone; KM Wendt; SM Bragg-Sitton

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE NE) established the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to develop technologies and other solutions to improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development Pathway in the LWRS program encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. Recent investigations of potential options for “accident tolerant” nuclear fuel systems point to the potential benefits of silicon carbide (SiC) cladding. One of the proposed SiC-based fuel cladding designs being investigated incorporates a SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) as a structural material supplementing an internal Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) liner tube, referred to as the hybrid clad design. Characterization of the advanced cladding designs will include a number of out-of-pile (nonnuclear) tests, followed by in-pile irradiation testing of the most promising designs. One of the out-of-pile characterization tests provides measurement of the mechanical properties of the cladding tube using four point bend testing. Although the material properties of the different subsystems (materials) will be determined separately, in this paper we present results of 4-point bending tests performed on fully assembled hybrid cladding tube mock-ups, an assembled Zr-4 cladding tube mock-up as a standard and initial testing results on bare SiC-CMC sleeves to assist in defining design parameters. The hybrid mock-up samples incorporated SiC-CMC sleeves fabricated with 7 polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) cycles. To provide comparative information; both 1- and 2-ply braided SiC-CMC sleeves were used in this development study. Preliminary stress simulations were performed using the BISON nuclear fuel performance code to show the stress distribution differences for varying lengths between loading points

  9. Active and passive infrared thermography applied to the detection and characterization of hidden defects in structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Jean

    2013-04-01

    direct thermal modelling or inverse thermal modelling will be presented and discussed. Conclusion and perspectives will be proposed in link with structure monitoring or cultural heritage applications. References [1] Maldague, X.P.V. "Theory and practice of infrared technology for non-destructive testing", John Wiley & sons Inc., 2001. [2] Dumoulin J. and Averty R., « Development of an infrared system coupled with a weather station for real time atmospheric corrections using GPU computing: Application to bridge monitoring", QIRT 2012, Naples, Italy, June 2012. [3] J. Dumoulin, L. Ibos, C. Ibarra-Castanedo, A Mazioud, M. Marchetti, X. Maldague and A. Bendada, « Active infrared thermography applied to defect detection and characterization on asphalt pavement samples: comparison between experiments and numerical simulations », Journal of Modern Optics, Special Issue on Advanced Infrared Technology and Applications, Volume 57, Issue 18, October 2010 , pages 1759 - 1769, doi:10.1080/09500340.2010.522738 [4] F. Taillade, M. Quiertant, K. Benzarti, J. Dumoulin, Ch. Aubagnac, Chapter 9: "Nondestructive Evaluation of FRP Strengthening Systems Bonded on Concrete Structures using Pulsed Stimulated Infrared Thermography ", pp 193-208, Book title "Infrared Thermography", Editeur Raghu V. Prakash, ISBN 978-953-51-0242-7, Intech, open access at the following address http://www.intechopen.com/books/editor/infrared-thermography, march 2012. [5] Cooley J.W., Tukey J.W., "An algorithm for the machine calculation of complex Fourier series", Mathematics of Computation, vol. 19, n° 90, 1965, p. 297-301. [6] Rajic N., "Principal component thermography for flaw contrast enhancement and flaw depth characterization in composite structures", Composite Structures, vol 58, pp 521-528, 2002. [7] Marinetti S., Grinzato E., Bison P. G., Bozzi E., Chimenti M., Pieri G. and Salvetti O. "Statistical analysis of IR thermographic sequences by PCA," Infrared Physics & Technology vol 46 pp 85-91, 2004.

  10. (Project 14-6770) An Investigation to Establish Multiphysical Property Dataset of Nuclear Materials Based on in-situ Observations and Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomar, Vikas [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Haque, Aman [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept of Physics; Hattar, Khalid [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-10

    tempurature and stress distribution in cladding and pellet at normal operating condition was analyzed. Later the data was fitted to find constants for a viscoplastic strain gradient model. The developed model still needs to be refined and calibrated using various experimental results. That remains the focus of future work. Overall, a major thrust of the work was therefore on active control of the microstructure (grain size, defect density and types) exploiting the multi-physics coupling in materials. In particular, using experiments the synergy of current density, mechanical stress and temperature were studied to annihilate defects and recrystallize grains. The developed model is being examined for implementation in BISON. Multiple invited talks, international journal publications, and conference publications were performed by students supported on this work. Another output is support multiple PhD and masters thesis students who will be an important asset for future basic nuclear research. Future Work Recommendations: A nuclear reactor operates under significant variations of thermal loads due to energy cycling and mechanical loads due to constraint effects. Significant thermal and chemical diffusion takes place at the pallet-cladding level. While the proposed work established new experimental approach and new dataset for Zircaloy-4, the irradiation level was in the range of 1-2 dpa. Samples with higher dpa need to be examined. Therefore, a continual of support of the performed work is essential. Currently, these are the only experiments that can measure the produced data. The work also needs to be extended to different fuel types and cladding types such as SiC and FeCrAl based claddings. A combination of datasets for these materials can then be used to analyze accurately predict behavior of critical pellet cladding systems in accident scenario with high heat flux and high thermal loads. This is a BIG unknown as if now.

  11. Environmental water requirements of groundwater dependent ecosystems: conflict between nature and man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, S.; Kania, J.; Rozanski, K.; Wachniew, P.; Zurek, A.; Dulinski, M.

    2012-04-01

    The presented study was aimed at investigating possible interactions between the porous sandy aquifer intensively exploited for drinking water purposes and the groundwater dependent ecosystem (GDE) consisting of a valuable forest stand. The investigated aquifer (Bogucice Sands) and the associated GDE (Niepolomice Forest) are located in the south of Poland. The aquifer covers the area of ca. 200 km2 and belongs to the category of medium groundwater basins in Poland. The Niepolomice Forest is a lowland forest covering around 110 km2. This relic of once vast forests is protected as a Natura 2000 Special Protection Area "Puszcza Niepolomicka" (PLB120002) that supports bird populations of European importance. Additionally, a fen in the western part of the Niepolomice Forest comprises a separate Natura 2000 area "Torfowisko Wielkie Bloto" (PLH120080), a significant habitat of endangered butterfly species associated with wet meadows. The Niepolomice Forest contains also several nature reserves and the European bison breeding centre and has an important recreational value as the largest forest complex in the vicinity of Krakow. Due to spatially variable lithologies and groundwater levels, the Niepolomice Forest is a mosaic of various forest and non-forest habitats, including wetlands, marsh forests, humid forests and fresh forests. Dependence of the Niepolomice Forest stands on groundwater is enhanced by low available water capacity and low capillary rise of soils in the area. Groundwater conditions in the Niepolomice Forest, including Wielkie Bloto fen have been affected by meliorations carried out mostly in the period 1900-1930 and after the Second World War and by forest management. Due to artesian conditions in the area and relatively thin clay layer separating Tertiary aquifer layers from shallow Quaternary aquifer, the upward leaching of deeper groundwater may contribute in a significant way to the water balance of the investigated GDE. In September 2009 a cluster of

  12. Studies of Lanthanide Transport in Metallic Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinsuo; Taylor, Christopher

    2018-04-02

    result, Ln could transport to the fuel surface through pores filled with liquid cesium fission products. At the fuel slug surface, the lanthanides would undergo rapid precipitation when swamped with the large increase in liquid sodium content and cooler temperatures, which would lead to the observed sludge-like deposit. Prior PIE data also show that lanthanide deposits were found on the cold sides of closed and isolated pores, i.e., on pore surfaces directed away from the center, which can also be explained by the liquid-like transport theory. Since the total amount of lanthanides exceeds their solubility limit in liquid cesium, the small temperature gradient across a pore combined with the long durations is sufficient to drive cesium-mediated transport of lanthanides to the cold side of the pore. The liquid-like transport mechanism can qualitatively account for the migration and redistribution of lanthanides fission products in metallic fuels. The present project studied the mechanisms of lanthanide transport in metallic fuels based on the novel interpretation of ‘liquid-like’ transport mechanism experimentally and analytically. The project completed all the proposed research tasks by using an integral approach: (1) experimental studies for measurements of key parameters and first principles calculations to determine, for example, lanthanide solubility and diffusion coefficient in liquid cesium, sodium and cesium-sodium alloy; (2) theoretical model development for lanthanide transport in a non-isothermal single pore and porous medium to understand the observed behavior (deposition, dissolution and migration) in a single closed or open pore and porous medium; (3) further development of the multi-phase/physics BISON model. The key goal of the project is to develop fundamental understanding of the lanthanide fission product migration and redistribution in advanced metallic nuclear fuels, and then to provide fundamental theory/data for mitigating FCCI of advanced

  13. Occurrence of Rhinoptericola megacantha (CESTODA, TRYPANORHYNCHA in new host and new location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Napoleão

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência de Rhinoptericola megacantha (Cestoda, Trypanorhyncha parasitando duas raias da espécie Rhinoptera brasiliensis, de um total de sete espécimes analisados. Foram encontrados três espécimes do cestóide, que havia sido descrito ocorrendo apenas no hospedeiro Rhinoptera bonasus capturado em Virginia (EUA, Golfo Venezuelano e Golfo do México. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de R. megacantha no hospedeiro R. brasiliensis e primeira ocorrência no Brasil deste cestóide.

  14. Occurrence of Rhinoptericola megacantha (CESTODA, TRYPANORHYNCHA) in new host and new location

    OpenAIRE

    Napoleão,S.R.; Antonucci,A.M.; Amorim,A.F.; Takemoto,R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Relata-se a ocorrência de Rhinoptericola megacantha (Cestoda, Trypanorhyncha) parasitando duas raias da espécie Rhinoptera brasiliensis, de um total de sete espécimes analisados. Foram encontrados três espécimes do cestóide, que havia sido descrito ocorrendo apenas no hospedeiro Rhinoptera bonasus capturado em Virginia (EUA), Golfo Venezuelano e Golfo do México. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de R. megacantha no hospedeiro R. brasiliensis e primeira ocorrência no Brasil deste cestóide...

  15. A Numerical Study on Hydrodynamics of Pectoral Fin Locomotion in Batoid Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W. R.

    The mechanics of aquatic locomotion are of interest to biologists, dynamicists and engineers. Batoid fishes (skates and rays) propel themselves through the water primarily with their greatly expanded pectoral fins (pectoral-fin-based locomotion). Batoids exhibit two modes of pectoral swiminng behavior: (1) undulatory locomotion, termed ‘rajiform’, and (2) oscillatory locomotion, termed ‘mobuliform’. A computational study on the unsteady hydrodynamics of pectoral fin locomotion of Rhinoptera Bonasus and Dasyatis Sabina is carried out and presented, which represent the undulatory and oscillatory locomotion, respectively. Unsteady hydrodynamics around a pectoral fin is solved by a time-accurate solution of incompressible, laminar Navier-Stokes equations. Kinematic data of the pectoral fin locomotion used in the computational modeling are based on the experimental results. The pressure distribution of the pectoral fin was computed and integrated to give forces which were decomposed into lift and thrust. The velocity and vorticity field variation on the surface of pectoral fins and in the near-wake was computed throughout the swimming cycle. In the present study, we analyzed and compared the hydrodynamics and mechanmism of the Batoid pectoral fin locomotion between the two modes, and discovered how these patterns change with controllable factors, such as Renolds number, frequency, amplitude etc. The results show that forces on the fins of Rhinoptera Bonasus are much larger than that of Dasyatis Sabina. The load-bearing areas of Rhinoptera Bonasus are at the areas from the leading edge to the medial of the wing; while the load-bearing area of Dasyatis Sabina is the whole wavy fin. These characters are associated with the morphology of the wing skeleton. The propulsive mechanism of pectoral-fin-based locomotion is similar to that of the caudal-fin-based locomotion. A strong backward jet-stream in the wake contributes the net thrust, which is induced by the

  16. Nutritional value of various ray fish liver oils to the pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Velazquez, Martin; González-Félix, Mayra L; Navarro-García, Gerardo; Valenzuela-Escalante, Erasmo

    2008-11-01

    A 32-day comparative feeding trial was performed to evaluate the nutritional value of four different ray fish liver oils to the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Four feeds were prepared with liver oil extracted from Dasyatis brevis, Rhinoptera steindachneri, Aetobatus narinari, and R. bonasus. A control feed was prepared with Menhaden fish oil. Ray fish liver oils were mainly composed of poly- and highly unsaturated fatty acids and contained levels of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 comparable in magnitude to those of Menhaden fish oil, except for A. narinari liver oil, which had moderately low concentrations of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 but showed a particularly high level of 20:4n-6, more than six times greater than that of Menhaden fish oil. Dietary fatty acids significantly influenced the fatty acid composition of shrimp muscle tissue, e.g., the diet with Menhaden fish oil elicited significantly higher shrimp muscle DHA level than diets with oil from D. brevis, and A. narinari, but not than diets with oil from R. steindachneri and R. bonasus. In spite of these differences, all four ray fish liver oils evaluated were as efficient in promoting growth and survival of L. vannamei as Menhaden fish oil, an ingredient known for its adequate nutritional quality to shrimp and fish. This study demonstrated one of the many possible applications of a locally-available resource that is currently being wasted.

  17. Molecular evidence supporting the expansion of the geographical distribution of the Brazilian cownose ray Rhinoptera brasiliensis (Myliobatiformes: Rhinopteridae) in the western Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Barreto, Paola; Cruz, Vanessa P; Foresti, Fausto; Rangel, Bianca DE S; Uribe-Alcocer, Manuel; Díaz-Jaimes, Píndaro

    2017-11-01

    The genus Rhinoptera is composed of eight species widely distributed in tropical, subtropical and temperate coastal waters, which inhabit bays, estuaries and river mouths. Cownose ray Rhinoptera bonasus has been reported to inhabit the Western Atlantic including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, whereas the Brazilian cownose ray R. brasiliensis has been considered endemic to the coast of Brazil. Recent reports of R. brasiliensis in the Gulf of Mexico bring about the question of whether the species has a wider range than previously reported. Here, the mitochondrial genes COI, Cytb, NADH2 and the nuclear gene RAG1 were used to distinguish among species and to confirm the presence of R. brasiliensis in the Gulf of Mexico. R. brasiliensis specimens collected along the southern Gulf of Mexico showed a remarkable genetic and morphological affinity when compared with R. brasiliensis specimens from Brazil, supporting the presence of the species in Mexico (from Veracruz through Campeche) and providing evidence that its distribution ranges from Brazil to the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. Both species overlap geographically to a large degree, leading to a reassessment of their conservation status. Our results also show that R. bonasus distribution in the Gulf of Mexico may be restricted to the northern portion, in US waters.

  18. Common Cause Failure Analysis of Control Rods and Drives in the Swedish and Finnish BWR Plants. Operating Experiences in 1983 - 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, Tuomas

    2006-11-01

    analyze and to resolve the behavior of the thermal hydraulics codes used by the licensees and fuel vendors (e.g., POLCA, RELAP, BISON) to estimate influences and impact of reactor physics (e.g., fuel temperature, fuel cladding temperature, influence of void for core cooling) at failed insertion of adjacent control rods due to CCFs

  19. Common Cause Failure Analysis of Control Rods and Drives in the Swedish and Finnish BWR Plants. Operating Experiences in 1983 - 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankamo, Tuomas [Avaplan Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2006-11-15

    analyze and to resolve the behavior of the thermal hydraulics codes used by the licensees and fuel vendors (e.g., POLCA, RELAP, BISON) to estimate influences and impact of reactor physics (e.g., fuel temperature, fuel cladding temperature, influence of void for core cooling) at failed insertion of adjacent control rods due to CCFs.

  20. NEAMS Update. Quarterly Report for October - December 2011.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, K. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-02-16

    -December 2011 are: (1) Version 1.0 of AMP, the fuel assembly performance code, was tested on the JAGUAR supercomputer and released on November 1, 2011, a detailed discussion of this new simulation tool is given; (2) A coolant sub-channel model and a preliminary UO{sub 2} smeared-cracking model were implemented in BISON, the single-pin fuel code, more information on how these models were developed and benchmarked is given; (3) The Object Kinetic Monte Carlo model was implemented to account for nucleation events in meso-scale simulations and a discussion of the significance of this advance is given; (4) The SHARP neutronics module, PROTEUS, was expanded to be applicable to all types of reactors, and a discussion of the importance of PROTEUS is given; (5) A plan has been finalized for integrating the high-fidelity, three-dimensional reactor code SHARP with both the systems-level code RELAP7 and the fuel assembly code AMP. This is a new initiative; (6) Work began to evaluate the applicability of AMP to the problem of dry storage of used fuel and to define a relevant problem to test the applicability; (7) A code to obtain phonon spectra from the force-constant matrix for a crystalline lattice has been completed. This important bridge between subcontinuum and continuum phenomena is discussed; (8) Benchmarking was begun on the meso-scale, finite-element fuels code MARMOT to validate its new variable splitting algorithm; (9) A very computationally demanding simulation of diffusion-driven nucleation of new microstructural features has been completed. An explanation of the difficulty of this simulation is given; (10) Experiments were conducted with deformed steel to validate a crystal plasticity finite-element code for bodycentered cubic iron; (11) The Capability Transfer Roadmap was completed and published as an internal laboratory technical report; (12) The AMP fuel assembly code input generator was integrated into the NEAMS Integrated Computational Environment (NiCE). More details on

  1. Space Radar Image of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    These two radar images show the majestic Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, the oldest national park in the United States and home to the world's most spectacular geysers and hot springs. The region supports large populations of grizzly bears, elk and bison. In 1988, the park was burned by one of the most widespread fires to occur in the northern Rocky Mountains in the last 50 years. Surveys indicated that 793,880 acres of land burned. Of that, 41 percent was burned forest, with tree canopies totally consumed by the fire; 35 percent was a combination of unburned, scorched and blackened trees; 13 percent was surface burn under an unburned canopy; 6 percent was non-forest burn; and 5 percent was undifferentiated burn. Six years later, the burned areas are still clearly visible in these false-color radar images obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The image at the left was obtained using the L-band radar channel, horizontally received and vertically transmitted, on the shuttle's 39th orbit on October 2, 1994. The area shown is 45 kilometers by 71 kilometers (28 miles by 44 miles) in size and centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 110.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top of the image (to the right). Most trees in this area are lodge pole pines at different stages of fire succession. Yellowstone Lake appears as a large dark feature at the bottom of the scene. At right is a map of the forest crown, showing its biomass, or amount of vegetation, which includes foliage and branches. The map was created by inverting SIR-C data and using in situ estimates of crown biomass gathered by the Yellowstone National Biological Survey. The map is displayed on a color scale from blue (rivers and lakes with no biomass) to brown (non-forest areas with crown biomass of less than 4 tons per hectare) to light brown (areas of canopy burn with biomass of between 4 and 12 tons per hectare). Yellow

  2. The morphology of the cephalic lobes and anterior pectoral fins in six species of batoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvany, Samantha; Motta, Philip J

    2013-09-01

    Many benthic batoids utilize their pectoral fins for both undulatory locomotion and feeding. Certain derived, pelagic species of batoids possess cephalic lobes, which evolved from the anterior pectoral fins. These species utilize the pectoral fins for oscillatory locomotion while the cephalic lobes are used for feeding. The goal of this article was to compare the morphology of the cephalic lobes and anterior pectoral fins in species that possess and lack cephalic lobes. The skeletal elements (radials) of the cephalic lobes more closely resembled the radials in the pectoral fin of undulatory species. Second moment of area (I), calculated from cephalic lobe radial cross sections, and the number of joints revealed greater flexibility and resistance to bending in multiple directions as compared to pectoral fin radials of oscillatory species. The cephalic lobe musculature was more complex than the anterior pectoral fin musculature, with an additional muscle on the dorsal side, with fiber angles running obliquely to the radials. In Rhinoptera bonasus, a muscle presumably used to help elevate the cephalic lobes is described. Electrosensory pores were found on the cephalic lobes (except Mobula japonica) and anterior pectoral fins of undulatory swimmers, but absent from the anterior pectoral fins of oscillatory swimmers. Pore distributions were fairly uniform except in R. bonasus, which had higher pore numbers at the edges of the cephalic lobes. Overall, the cephalic lobes are unique in their anatomy but are more similar to the anterior pectoral fins of undulatory swimmers, having more flexibility and maneuverability compared to pectoral fins of oscillatory swimmers. The maneuverable cephalic lobes taking on the role of feeding may have allowed the switch to oscillatory locomotion and hence, a more pelagic lifestyle. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Trace element concentration in soils and plants in the vicinity of Miduk copper mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Moore

    2014-10-01

    ., Arambarri, R. and Garcia, E.M., 2000. Evaluation of Heavy Metal Availability in Polluted Soils by two Sequential Extraction Procedures using Factor Analysis. Environmental Pollution, 110(1: 3- 9. Reinmann, C. and Caritat, P.D., 1998. Chemical Elements in the Environment. Factsheets for the Geochemist and Environmental Scientist. Springer, Verlag, 596 pp. Tessier, A., Campbell, P.G.C. and Bison, M., 1979. Sequential Extraction Procedure for the Speciation of Particulate Metals. Analytical chemistry, 51(7: 844-851.

  4. Granulated peripolar epithelial cells in the renal corpuscle of marine elasmobranch fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, E R; Reale, E

    1989-07-01

    Granulated epithelial cells at the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle, peripolar cells, have been found in the kidneys of five species of elasmobranchs, the little skate (Raja erinacea), the smooth dogfish shark (Mustelus canis), the Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini), and the cow-nosed ray (Rhinoptera bonasus). In a sixth elasmobranch, the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias), the peripolar cells could not be identified among numerous other granulated epithelial cells. The peripolar cells are located at the transition between the parietal epithelium of Bowman's capsule and the visceral epithelium (podocytes) of the glomerulus, thus forming a cuff-like arrangement surrounding the hilar vessels of the renal corpuscle. These cells may have granules and/or vacuoles. Electron microscopy shows that the granules are membrane-bounded, and contain either a homogeneous material or a paracrystalline structure with a repeating period of about 18 nm. The vacuoles are electron lucent or may contain remnants of a granule. These epithelial cells lie close to the granulated cells of the glomerular afferent arteriole. They correspond to the granular peripolar cells of the mammalian, avian and amphibian kidney. The present study is the first reported occurrence of peripolar cells in a marine organism or in either bony or cartilagenous fish.

  5. A physiological analysis of color vision in batoid elasmobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedore, Christine N; Loew, Ellis R; Frank, Tamara M; Hueter, Robert E; McComb, D Michelle; Kajiura, Stephen M

    2013-12-01

    The potential for color vision in elasmobranchs has been studied in detail; however, a high degree of variation exists among the group. Evidence for ultraviolet (UV) vision is lacking, despite the presence of UV vision in every other vertebrate class. An integrative physiological approach was used to investigate color and ultraviolet vision in cownose rays and yellow stingrays, two batoids that inhabit different spectral environments. Both species had peaks in UV, short, medium, and long wavelength spectral regions in dark-, light-, and chromatic-adapted electroretinograms. Although no UV cones were found with microspectrophotometric analysis, both rays had multiple cone visual pigments with λ max at 470 and 551 nm in cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) and 475, 533, and 562 nm in yellow stingrays (Urobatis jamaicensis). The same analysis demonstrated that both species had rod λ max at 500 and 499 nm, respectively. The lens and cornea of cownose rays maximally transmitted wavelengths greater than 350 nm and greater than 376 nm in yellow stingrays. These results support the potential for color vision in these species and future investigations should reveal the extent to which color discrimination is significant in a behavioral context.

  6. Phylogenetic evidence for an ancestral coevolution between a major clade of coccidian parasites and elasmobranch hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Raquel; Santos, Joana L; Veríssimo, Ana

    2018-03-16

    Cartilaginous fishes are the oldest jawed vertebrates and are also reported to be the hosts of some of the most basal lineages of Cestoda and Aporocotylidae (Digenea) parasites. Recently a phylogenetic analysis of the coccidia (Apicomplexa) infecting marine vertebrates revealed that the lesser spotted dogfish harbours parasite lineages basal to Eimeria Schneider, 1875 and the group formed by Schellackia Reichenow, 1919, Lankesterella Ames, 1923, Caryospora Leger, 1904 and Isospora Schneider, 1881. In the present study we have found additional lineages of coccidian parasites infecting the cownose ray Rhinoptera bonasus Mitchill and the blue shark Prionace glauca Linnaeus. These lineages were also found as basal to species from the genera Lankesterella, Schellackia, Caryospora and Isospora infecting higher vertebrates. These results confirm previous phylogenetic assessments and suggest that these parasitic lineages first evolved in basal vertebrate hosts (i.e. Chondrichthyes), and that the more derived lineages infect higher vertebrates (e.g. birds and mammals) conforming to the evolution of their hosts. We hypothesise that elasmobranchs might host further ancestral parasite lineages harbouring unknown links of parasite evolution.

  7. Natural antioxidants in the stability of ray liver oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Navarro-García

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The effect of the addition of natural antioxidants on oxidative stability of ray ( Rhinoptera bonasus liver oil was evaluated. Different concentrations of rosemary extract, α-tocopherol, and caffeic acid (w/w were added to the oil. Afterwards, concentration of each antioxidant that gave the highest stability was used in an accelerated stability test (Schaal method. The protective effect was established by the retention in the oil of fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA, and concentration of volatile compounds. The best concentrations were: 2.5% of rosemary extract, 0.5% of α-tocopherol, and 0.06% of caffeic acid. Rosemary extract showed to be the product with the greatest ability to retard oxidation, followed by α-tocopherol, and caffeic acid. A high correlation between the peroxide value and the concentration of the 2-decenal, 1-penten-3-ol, and 2-octenal, was reported, suggesting that this can be used to assess the development of oxidative rancidity in the ray liver oil.

  8. Organization of peripheral nerves and spinal roots of the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggeshall, R E; Leonard, R B; Applebaum, M L; Willis, W D

    1978-01-01

    1. The sizes and numbers of axons in peripheral nerves and spinal roots were investigated in the stingray, Dasyatis sabina. 2. The axons of the dorsal and ventral roots do not mingle in peripheral nerves of this animal as they do in higher vertebrates. Thus, it was usually possible to split the peripheral nerve into two portions, one containing only dorsal root axons, the other containing only ventral root axons. This feature was useful for the analysis of certain aspects of spinal cord organization. 3. The fact that dorsal and ventral root axons were segregated in peripheral nerves enabled us to demonstrate, without experimental surgery, that the central processes of the dorsal root ganglion cells and the proximal ventral root axons were 10-20% narrower, on the average, than the distal processes of the same dorsal root ganglion cells or the distal parts of the same ventral root axons. 4. The stingray is remarkable in having very few unmyelinated axons in the dorsal roots, ventral roots, or peripheral nerves. This paucity of unmyelinated axons distinguishes the Atlantic stingrays from all other vertebrates whose roots and nerves have been examined for unmyelinated fibers. 5. Similar findings were obtained for one spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari) and two cow-nose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus).

  9. Fish's Muscles Distortion and Pectoral Fins Propulsion of Lift-Based Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. B.; Han, X. Y.; Qiu, J.

    As a sort of MPF(median and/or paired fin propulsion), pectoral fins propulsion makes fish easier to maneuver than other propulsion, according to the well-established classification scheme proposed by Webb in 1984. Pectoral fins propulsion is classified into oscillatory propulsion, undulatory propulsion and compound propulsion. Pectoral fins oscillatory propulsion, is further ascribable to two modes: drag-based mode and lift-based mode. And fish exhibits strong cruise ability by using lift-based mode. Therefore to robot fish design using pectoral fins lift-based mode will bring a new revolution to resources exploration in blue sea. On the basis of the wave plate theory, a kinematic model of fish’s pectoral fins lift-based mode is established associated with the behaviors of cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus) in the present work. In view of the power of fish’s locomotion from muscle distortion, it would be helpful benefit to reveal the mechanism of fish’s locomotion variation dependent on muscles distortion. So this study puts forward the pattern of muscles distortion of pectoral fins according to the character of skeletons and muscles of cownose ray in morphology and simulates the kinematics of lift-based mode using nonlinear analysis software. In the symmetrical fluid field, the model is simulated left-right symmetrically or asymmetrically. The results qualitatively show how muscles distortion determines the performance of fish locomotion. Finally the efficient muscles distortion associated with the preliminary dynamics is induced.

  10. Emendation of the generic diagnosis of Tylocephalum (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea: Tetragonocephalidae), and description of Tylocephalum brooksi n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V A; Campbell, R A

    2000-10-01

    A new species of Tylocephalum is described from the spiral intestine of the cownose ray Rhinoptera bonasus taken off Venezuela. Tylocephalum brooksi n. sp. is the third species described parasitizing this host species, along with T. pingue and T. bonasum. T. brooksi is similar to congeners in the possession of a scolex with a fungiform pars apicalis, craspedote segmentation, circummedullary vitellarium, external seminal vesicle, bilobed ovary, and medioventral uterus. However, this species differs from all previously described species of Tylocephalum in having a collar around the base of the pars apicalis densely covered by large digitiform processes (microtriches?), and an internal seminal vesicle. The internal seminal vesicle is a feature currently used to differentiate Tetragonocephalum from Tylocephalum. Its presence in T. brooksi indicates that it should be considered a specific instead of a generic character. An emended diagnosis of Tylocephalum is proposed excluding this feature, along with distribution of the testes in the preovarian field and circummedullary distribution of vitelline follicles. Species of Tylocephalum and Tetragonocephalum are reviewed on the basis of original descriptions, and 2 distinct morphological groups of species defined. Species of the Tetragonocephalum group possess a combination of an acraspedote strobila, segments much longer than wide, testes limited to the region anterior to the cirrus sac, vitellarium of lateral bands, conspicuously enlarged genital atrium and pore, cirrus sac dorsal to genital atrium, and bisaccate uterus. Species of the Tylocephalum group differ from Tetragonocephalum in possession of a craspedote strobila, segments more quadrangular, testes distributed throughout the preovarian field, inconspicuous genital atrium, uniformly saccate uterus, cirrus sac lateral to genital atrium, and probable circummedullary vitellaria in all species.

  11. A retrospective study of disease in elasmobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, M M

    2013-05-01

    This report reviews diseases of 1546 elasmobranchs representing at least 60 species submitted to Northwest ZooPath from 1994 to 2010. Cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) (78), southern rays (Dasyatis americana) (75), dusky smooth-hounds (Mustelus canis) (74), bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo) (66), and bamboo sharks (Hemiscylliidae) (56) were the most commonly submitted species. Infectious/inflammatory disease was most common (33.5%) followed by nutritional (11.9%, mostly emaciation), traumatic (11.3%), cardiovascular (5.5%, mostly shock), and toxin-associated disease (3.7%). Bacterial infections (518/1546, 15%) included sepsis (136/518, 26%), dermatitis (7%), branchitis (6%), and enteritis (4%). Fungal infections (10/1546, 0.6%) included dermatitis (30%), hepatitis (30%), and branchitis (20%). Viral or suspected viral infections or disease processes (15/1546, 1%) included papillomatosis (47%), herpesvirus (20%), and adenovirus (7%). Parasitic infections (137/1546, 9%) included nematodiasis (36/137, 26%), ciliate infections (23%), trematodiasis (20%), coccidiosis (6%), myxozoanosis (5%), amoebiasis (4%), cestodiasis (1%), and flagellate infections (1%). Inflammation of unknown cause (401/1546, 26%) included enteritis (55/401, 14%), branchitis (9%), encephalitis (9%), and dermatitis (7%). Traumatic diseases (174/1546, 11.3%) included skin trauma (103/174, 60%), stress/maladaptation (9%), and gut trauma (7%). Toxicoses (57/1546, 4%) included toxic gill disease (16/57, 26%), gas bubble disease (19%), fenbendazole (7%), ammonia (7%), chlorine (5%), and chloramine (3%). Species trends included visceral nematodiasis in black-nosed sharks (Carcharhinus acronotus) (55%); sepsis in dusky smooth-hounds (41%), blue-spotted stingrays (36%), southern rays (36%), and wobeggong sharks (Orectolobus spp) (69%); emaciation in bamboo (33%) and bonnethead (32%) sharks and freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygon motoro) (32%); and trauma in bonnethead sharks (30%).

  12. Biomechanical model of batoid (skates and rays) pectoral fins predicts the influence of skeletal structure on fin kinematics: implications for bio-inspired design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, R S; Blemker, S S; Fish, F E; Bart-Smith, H

    2015-06-16

    Growing interest in the development of bio-inspired autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) has motivated research in understanding the mechanisms behind the propulsion systems of marine animals. For example, the locomotive behavior of rays (Batoidea) by movement of the pectoral fins is of particular interest due to their superior performance characteristics over contemporary AUV propulsion systems. To better understand the mechanics of pectoral fin propulsion, this paper introduces a biomechanical model that simulates how batoid skeletal structures function to achieve the swimming locomotion observed in nature. Two rays were studied, Dasyatis sabina (Atlantic ray), and Rhinoptera bonasus (cownose ray). These species were selected because they exhibit very different swimming styles (undulation versus oscillation), but all use primarily their pectoral fins for propulsion (unlike electric rays or guitarfishes). Computerized tomography scans of each species were taken to image the underlying structure, which reveal a complex system of cartilaginous joints and linkages. Data collected from these images were used to quantify the complete skeletal morphometry of each batoid fin. Morphological differences were identified in the internal cartilage arrangement between each species including variations in the orientation of the skeletal elements, or radials, and the joint patterns between them, called the inter-radial joint pattern. These data were used as the primary input into the biomechanical model to couple a given ray skeletal structure with various swimming motions. A key output of the model is an estimation of the uniaxial strain that develops in the skeletal connective tissue in order for the structure to achieve motions observed during swimming. Tensile load tests of this connective tissue were conducted to further investigate the implications of the material strain predictions. The model also demonstrates that changes in the skeletal architecture (e.g., joint

  13. The presence of a juxtaglomerular apparatus in elasmobranch fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, E R; Reale, E

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have concluded that a juxtaglomerular apparatus evolved in phylogenetic groups "higher" than elasmobranch fishes. The present study shows for the first time a distinct juxtaglomerular apparatus in four marine elasmobranchs, the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias), the smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), the little skate (Raja erinacea), and the cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus). Serial semithin sections of these fishes' kidneys reveal the four morphological components of a juxtaglomerular apparatus at the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle: (1) an afferent arteriole surrounded by smooth muscle cells which have granules containing a material exhibiting a periodic substructure comparable to that of renin granules in higher vertebrates; (2) an efferent arteriole usually devoid of smooth muscle cells but having pericyte-like cells; (3) a macula densa portion of the distal tubule juxtaposed between the afferent and efferent arterioles; and (4) elongated, fusiform cells (Goormaghtigh cells), which are in continuity with similar cells of the abundant intra-glomerular mesangium, and fill the space bordered by the distal tubule and by the afferent and efferent vessels. The distal tubule, from the site where it lies close to the afferent arteriole, moves directly toward the urinary pole, frequently indenting the renal corpuscle. Within this indentation, the tubule may be flanked by the efferent vessel, by the extraglomerular mesangium, or by Bowman's capsule only. Facing these structures the tubular epithelial cells possess basally dilated intercellular spaces. Endothelial cells of the efferent vessel(s) are fenestrated, possessing pores which are closed by a diaphragm. marine elasmobranch fish possess the morphological components of a juxtaglomerular apparatus which suggests that these fishes, like most other vertebrates, possess a renin-angiotensin system and a glomerular-tubular feedback mechanism.

  14. Stability Design and Response to Waves by Batoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Frank E; Hoffman, Jessica L

    2015-10-01

    Unsteady flows in the marine environment can affect the stability and locomotor costs of animals. For fish swimming at shallow depths, waves represent a form of unsteady flow. Waves consist of cyclic oscillations, during which the water moves in circular or elliptical orbits. Large gravity waves have the potential to displace fish both cyclically and in the direction of wave celerity for animals floating in the water column or holding station on the bottom. Displacement of a fish can exceed its stability control capability when the size of the wave orbit is equivalent to the size of the fish. Previous research into compensatory behaviors of fishes to waves has focused on pelagic osteichthyan fishes with laterally compressed bodies. However, dorsoventrally compressed batoid rays must also contend with waves. Examination of rays subjected to waves showed differing strategies for stability between pelagic and demersal species. Pelagic cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) would glide through or be transported by waves, maintaining a positive dihedral of the wing-like pectoral fins. Demersal Atlantic stingrays (Dasyatis sabina) and freshwater rays (Potamotrygon motoro) maintained contact with the bottom and performed compensatory fin motions and body postures. The ability to limit displacement due to wave action by the demersal rays was also a function of the bottom texture. The ability of rays to maintain stability due to wave action suggests mechanisms to compensate for the velocity flux of the water impinging on the large projected area of the enlarged pectoral fins of rays. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Digitonthophagus Balthasar, 1959: taxonomy, systematics, and morphological phylogeny of the genus revealing an African species complex (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génier, François; Moretto, Philippe

    2017-03-31

    The taxonomy and systematics of the genus Digitonthophagus Balthasar (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Onthophagini) is revised. A detailed study of the male genitalia combined with external morphology suggests that the variability, previously recognized, for D. gazella is hiding a species complex within the Afrotropical region and the Arabian Peninsula. The current study recognizes 16 species; 13 from the Afrotropical region and Arabian Peninsula and three from the eastern portion of the Saharo-Arabian region and the continental Indomalayan region. Species are organized into six species groups based on the results of the morphology-based phylogenetic analysis. The following 12 species are described as new: D. aksumensis Génier new species; D. biflagellatus Génier new species; D. dilatatus Génier new species; D. eucatta Génier new species; D. falciger Génier new species; D. fimator Génier new species; D. namaquensis Génier new species; D. petilus Génier new species; D. sahelicus Moretto new species; D. uks Génier new species; D. ulcerosus Génier new species; and D. viridicollis Génier new species. In order to stabilize nomenclature, lectotypes are designated for Scarabaeus bonasus Fabricius, 1775; Scarabaeus catta Fabricius, 1787, and Onthophagus gazella lusinganus d'Orbigny. A neotype is designated for Scarabaeus dorcas Olivier, 1789 whose status and synonymy need to be altered in order to clarify the status of Scarabaeus gazella auctorum, the widely introduced species with economic importance. A naming scheme is presented for the sclerites of the internal sac. External and male genitalia are illustrated and distribution maps are provided for each species.

  16. Disappearance of the last lions and hyenas of Europe in the Late Quaternary - a chain reaction of large mammal prey migration, extinction and human antagonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    there are no records of indirectly dated hyena and lion remains being younger then even Aurignacian/Early Gravettian (35.000-28.000 BP). Those largest Late Quaternary predators must have got extinct in northern Germany with the Late Weichselian/Wuermian extending Skandinavian Glacier, which reached northern Europe between Hamburg and Berlin its maximum extension about 24.000 BP (Skupin et al. 1993). The two largest predators of the Late Quaternary of Europe seem to have been well represented in the Gravettian and up to Magdalénian Late Palaeolithic of southern Europe, in which mainly lions, but only rarely hyenas are well documented within the cave and mobile art (e.g Breuil 1952, Begouen and Clottes 1987, Chauvet et al. 1995, Diedrich and Rathgeber in review, Diedrich 2005). Hyenas and lions must have been represented in the Gravettian, Early and Middle and possibly even ?Late Magdalenian in southern Europe, which must have resulted from a southern migration of those predators during the Late Weichselian/Wuermian together with the megafauna and humans. The disappearance of hyenas and lions also correlate with the extinction of mammoth and woolly rhinoceros in northern Germany. The large mammals such as elephants and rhinoceroses were highly important for hyenas and lions during the Late Quaternary. Hyenas had a systematic scavenging strategy on both large prey which was even "transferred" until today compared to modern spotted hyenas and lions of Africa (Diedrich 2010d, e, in prep). Where those Late Quaternary giant mammals such as woolly mammoth and woolly rhinoceros were absent in middle mountainous regions (e.g. Sauerland Karst, Harz Mountain Karst, Bohemian Karst, Thuringian Karst) those had to kill other medium sized animals such as horse or steppe bison and those in larger amounts (Diedrich 2008, 2010c). Woolly rhinoceros and woolly mammoth seem to be not known in northern Germany after Aurignacian/?Early Gravettian times (Sauerland Karst and Münsterland Bay

  17. Hematological and plasma biochemical parameters of aquarium-maintained cownose rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Claudia M; Field, Cara L; Tuttle, Allison D

    2010-06-01

    There is generally a dearth of information involving reference ranges of health variables for numerous elasmobranch species commonly housed in zoos and aquaria; thus, extrapolation from a few existing elasmobranch studies is commonly used to assess health parameters in these species. The primary objective of this study was to establish baseline complete blood cell count and plasma chemistry reference ranges for captive individuals of the cownose ray Rhinoptera bonasus, an elasmobranch that is widely displayed in zoos and aquaria worldwide. This study was conducted using 18 adult cownose rays currently housed at the Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration in Connecticut. Median blood and plasma values were 550 cells/microL for total white blood cell count; 511,250 cells/microL for total red blood cell count; 31% for packed cell volume; 5.8 g/L for total solids; 2.85 g/dL for total protein; 33 units (U)/L for aspartate aminotransferase; 34 U/L for alkaline phosphatase; 0.2 mg/dL for total bilirubin; 1,155 mg/dL for urea nitrogen; 0.1 mg/dL for creatinine; 0.6 g/dL for albumin; 2.15 g/dL for globulins; 144 mg/dL for cholesterol; 157 mg/dL for triglycerides; 45 mg/dL for glucose; 16.9 mg/dL for calcium; 5.8 mg/dL for phosphorus; 294 mmol/L for sodium; 1.55 mmol/L for potassium; and 270 mmol/L for chloride. Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, amylase, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase were below the detectable limits for several samples. In nine samples, alanine aminotransferase levels were below the instrument range (< 4 U/L). No significant differences between sexes were detected. The reference ranges reported in this study should provide a useful guide for routine health monitoring of captive cownose rays.

  18. Community structure of elasmobranchs in estuaries along the northwest Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Jeffrey D.; Dance, Kaylan M.; Matich, Philip; Mohan, John A.; Richards, Travis M.; TinHan, Thomas C.; Fisher, Mark R.; Wells, R. J. David

    2018-05-01

    Estuaries promote high levels of productivity and biodiversity by providing habitat for many biological communities due to their wide range of environmental conditions. Estuarine systems serve as nurseries, areas for parturition, and feeding grounds for elasmobranchs. However, estuaries face an array of anthropogenic pressures, including overfishing, altered flow regimes, pollution, and habitat destruction. Given the vulnerability of estuarine ecosystems, observing long-term changes in community structure is essential to understanding the effects of anthropogenic stressors. Elasmobranch community structure was analyzed among eight estuaries in the northwest Gulf of Mexico to evaluate spatial and temporal variability in species abundance and diversity using bi-annual fisheries independent gillnet survey data over three decades (1985-2014). Ten species comprised 99.4% of elasmobranchs caught which included 35.3% bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas), 18.1% bonnetheads (Sphyrna tiburo), 17.0% cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus), 13.4% blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus), 5.9% Atlantic stingrays (Dasyatis sabina), 3.1% Atlantic sharpnose sharks (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), 2.7% spinner sharks (Carcharhinus brevipinna), 2.1% scalloped hammerheads (Sphyrna lewini), 1.7% finetooth sharks (Carcharhinus isodon), and 0.7% lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris). During the study period, elasmobranch community structure changed among estuaries and among decades. Bull sharks, bonnetheads, cownose rays, blacktip sharks, and spinner sharks all increased in abundance during the study period, whereas finetooth sharks and lemon sharks decreased over time. Higher latitude estuaries were dominated by bull sharks while lower latitude estuaries were dominated by cownose rays. Salinity was the most important environmental variable in predicting individual elasmobranch species abundance (deviance explained: 14.4 ± 6.5 SD), while temperature and depth also played a role in shaping community