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Sample records for bismuth film electrodes

  1. Exploiting Chemistry to Improve Performance of Screen-Printed, Bismuth Film Electrodes (SP-BiFE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossi, Carlo; Monticelli, Damiano; Pozzi, Andrea; Recchia, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Mercury substitution is a big issue in electroanalysis, and the search for a suitable, and less toxic, replacement is still under development. Of all the proposed alternatives, bismuth films appear to be the most viable solution, although they are still suffering some drawbacks, particularly the influence of deposition conditions and linearity at low concentrations. In this paper, the most promising strategies for bismuth film deposition on screen-printed electrodes (surface modifications, polymeric film deposition, insoluble salt precursors) will be evaluated for trace metal analysis. Particular attention will be devoted to bismuth chemistry, aiming to rationalize their electroanalytic performance. PMID:27455338

  2. Exploiting Chemistry to Improve Performance of Screen-Printed, Bismuth Film Electrodes (SP-BiFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Dossi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mercury substitution is a big issue in electroanalysis, and the search for a suitable, and less toxic, replacement is still under development. Of all the proposed alternatives, bismuth films appear to be the most viable solution, although they are still suffering some drawbacks, particularly the influence of deposition conditions and linearity at low concentrations. In this paper, the most promising strategies for bismuth film deposition on screen-printed electrodes (surface modifications, polymeric film deposition, insoluble salt precursors will be evaluated for trace metal analysis. Particular attention will be devoted to bismuth chemistry, aiming to rationalize their electroanalytic performance.

  3. Lead migration from toys by anodic stripping voltammetry using a bismuth film electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, M Fernanda C; Catarino, Rita I L; Pimenta, Adriana M; Souto, M Renata S; Afonso, Christelle S; Fernandes, Ana F Q

    2016-09-02

    Metals may be released from toys via saliva during mouthing, via sweat during dermal contact, or via gastric and intestinal fluids after partial or whole ingestion. In this study, we determined the lead migration from toys bought on the Portuguese market for children below 3 years of age. The lead migration was performed according to the European Committee for Standardization EN 71-3, which proposes a 2-hour migration test that simulates human gastric conditions. The voltammetric determination of migrated lead was performed by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) at a bismuth film electrode (BiFE). For all the analyzed toys, the values of migrated lead did not exceed the limits imposed by the European Committee for Standardization EN 71-3 (90 mg kg(-1)) and by the EU Directive 2009/48/EC (13.5 mg kg(-1)) on the safety of toys.

  4. Determination of trace amounts of Ga(III) by adsorptive stripping voltammetry with in situ plated bismuth film electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabarczyk, Malgorzata; Wasąg, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    The determination of trace gallium using adsorptive stripping voltammetry at an in situ plated bismuth film electrode was described. The method was based on simultaneous film formation and the Ga(III)-cupferron complex preconcentration at -0.65 V and its cathodic stripping during the potential scan. The effect of Bi(III) and cupferron concentration, the influence of deposition potential and time, and the scan rate on the determination of Ga(III) were studied. A linear response in the concentration range of 3×10(-10) to 3×10(-7) mol L(-1) (r=0.998) was obtained with detection limit of 1.05×10(-10) mol L(-1) using accumulation time of 180 s. Finally, the bismuth film electrode was successfully applied for the determination of Ga(III) in certified reference material seawater NASS-5 with satisfactory results.

  5. Development of an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified disposable bismuth film electrode and its application for stripping analysis of heavy metals in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jianfeng; Wang, Yixian; Wu, Jian; Ying, Yibin

    2014-05-15

    A novel electrochemical sensing platform based on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide film modified screen-printed electrode was developed. This disposable electrode shows excellent conductivity and fast electron transfer kinetics. By in situ plating bismuth film, the developed electrode exhibited well-defined and separate stripping peaks for cadmium and lead. Several parameters, including electrolytes environment and electrodeposition conditions, were carefully optimized to achieve best stripping performance. The linear range for both metal ions at the disposable bismuth film electrode was from 1.0 μg L(-1) to 60.0 μg L(-1). The detection limit was 0.5 μg L(-1) for cadmium ion and 0.8 μg L(-1) for lead ion. Milk sample analysis demonstrates that the developed electrode could be effectively used to detect low levels (μg L(-1)) of cadmium ion and lead ion. Graphene based disposable bismuth film electrode is a sensitive, stable, and reliable sensing platform for heavy metals determination.

  6. Lab-on-a-Chip Sensor with Evaporated Bismuth Film Electrode for Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wenjing; Pei, Xing; Yue, Wei; Bange, Adam; Heineman, William R.; Papautsky, Ian

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we report on the development of a lab-on-a-chip electrochemical sensor that uses an evaporated bismuth electrode to detect zinc using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The microscale electrochemical cell consists of a bismuth working electrode, an integrated silver/silver chloride reference electrode, and a gold auxiliary electrode. The sensor demonstrated linear response in 0.1 M acetate buffer at pH 6 with zinc concentrations ranging from 1 μM to 30 μM and a calculated detection limit of 60 nM. The sensor was also able to successfully detect zinc in a bovine serum extract and the results were verified with independent AAS measurements. These results demonstrate the advantageous qualities of this lab-on-a-chip electrochemical sensor for clinical applications, which include a small sample volume (μL scale), reduced cost, short response time and high accuracy at low concentrations of analyte. PMID:24436575

  7. Graphene ultrathin film electrodes modified with bismuth nanoparticles and polyaniline porous layers for detection of lead and cadmium ions in acetate buffer solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhaomeng; Li, Lin; Liu, Erjia, E-mail: mejliu@ntu.edu.sg

    2013-10-01

    Graphene ultrathin films were synthesized by means of solid-state carbon diffusion from amorphous carbon (a-C) thin layers deposited on silicon substrates, which was catalyzed by nickel layers coated on the top of the a-C layers. The graphene films were used as working electrodes that were modified by a polyaniline (PANI) porous layer together with in-situ deposited bismuth (Bi) nanoparticles for the detection of trace heavy metal ions (Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}) in acetate buffer solutions (pH 5.3) with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The graphene electrodes modified with PANI porous layers and Bi nanoparticles had excellent repeatability, ultrahigh sensitivity (as low as 0.33 nM) and good resistance to passivation caused by the surface active species adsorbed on the electrode surfaces. - Highlights: • Graphene fabricated by nickel-catalyzed carbon diffusion in solid state • Graphene electrodes modified by bismuth nanoparticles and polyaniline layers • High resistance of modified graphene electrodes to passivation in acetate solutions • Ultra-low detection limits of lead and cadmium ions by modified graphene electrodes.

  8. Preparation of dendritic bismuth film electrodes and their application for detection of trace Pb (II) and Cd (II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huizhu Zhou; Huanhuan Hou; Lei Dai; Yuehua Li; Jing Zhu; Ling Wang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, dendritic Bi film electrodes with porous structure had successfully been prepared on glassy carbon electrode using a constant current electrolysis method based on hydrogen bubble dynamic templates. The elec-trode prepared using a large applied current density showed an increased internal electroactive area and a signif-icantly improved electrochemical performance. The analytical utility of the prepared dendritic Bi film electrodes for the determination of Pb (II) and Cd (II) in the range of 5–50μg·L−1 were presented in combination with square wave stripping voltammetry in model solution. Compared with non-porous Bi film electrode, the dendrit-ic Bi film electrode exhibited higher sensitivity and lower detection limit. The prepared Bi film electrode with dendritic structure was also successfully applied to real water sample analysis.

  9. Electrochemical properties of porous bismuth electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romann, T., E-mail: tavo.romann@ut.e [Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Lust, E. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2010-08-01

    The properties of Bi surfaces with different roughnesses were characterized by electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy. Two different strategies were used for preparation of porous bismuth layers onto Bi microelectrode surface in aqueous 0.1 M LiClO{sub 4} solution. Firstly, treatment at potential E < -2 V (vs. Ag|AgCl in sat. KCl) has been applied, resulting in bismuth hydride formation and decomposition into Bi nanoparticles which deposit at the electrode surface. Secondly, porous Bi layer was prepared by anodic dissolution (E = 1 V) of bismuth electrode followed by fast electroreduction of formed Bi{sup 3+} ions at cathodic potentials E = -2 V. The nanostructured porous bismuth electrode, with surface roughness factor up to 220, has negligible frequency dispersion of capacitance and higher hydrogen evolution overvoltage than observed for smooth Bi electrodes.

  10. Electrocatalytic activity of bismuth doped silver electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Amjad, M

    2002-01-01

    Investigation of redox reactions on silver, and bismuth doped silver electrodes in aqueous KOH solutions, by using potentiostatic steady-state polarization technique, has been carried out. The redox wave potential and current displacements along with multiplicity of the latter have been examined. These electrodes were employed for the oxidation of organic molecules such as ethylamine in alkaline media. Subsequently, these electrodes were ranked with respect to their activity for the redox reactions. (author)

  11. Trace vanadium analysis by catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry using mercury-coated micro-wire and polystyrene-coated bismuth film electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dansby-Sparks, Royce; Chambers, James Q. [Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1600 (United States); Xue Ziling, E-mail: xue@ion.chem.utk.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1600 (United States)

    2009-06-08

    An electrochemical technique has been developed for ultra-trace (ng L{sup -1}) vanadium (V) measurement. Catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry for V analysis was developed at mercury-coated gold micro-wire electrodes (MWEs, 100 {mu}m) in the presence of gallic acid (GA) and bromate ion. A potential of -0.275 V (vs Ag/AgCl) was used to accumulate the complex in acetate buffer (pH 5.0) at the electrode surface followed by a differential pulse voltammetric scan. Parameters affecting the electrochemical response, including pH, concentration of GA and bromate, deposition potential and time have been optimized. Linear response was obtained in the 0-1000 ng L{sup -1} range (2 min deposition), with a detection limit of 0.88 ng L{sup -1}. The method was validated by comparison of results for an unknown solution of V by atomic absorption measurement. The protocol was evaluated in a real sample by measuring the amount of V in river water samples. Thick bismuth film electrodes with protective polystyrene films have also been made and evaluated as a mercury free alternative. However, ng L{sup -1} level detection was only attainable with extended (10 min) deposition times. The proposed use of MWEs for the detection of V is sensitive enough for future use to test V concentration in biological fluids treated by the advanced oxidation process (AOP).

  12. Trace vanadium analysis by catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry using mercury-coated micro-wire and polystyrene-coated bismuth film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansby-Sparks, Royce; Chambers, James Q; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2009-06-08

    An electrochemical technique has been developed for ultra-trace (ng L(-1)) vanadium (V) measurement. Catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry for V analysis was developed at mercury-coated gold micro-wire electrodes (MWEs, 100 microm) in the presence of gallic acid (GA) and bromate ion. A potential of -0.275 V (vs Ag/AgCl) was used to accumulate the complex in acetate buffer (pH 5.0) at the electrode surface followed by a differential pulse voltammetric scan. Parameters affecting the electrochemical response, including pH, concentration of GA and bromate, deposition potential and time have been optimized. Linear response was obtained in the 0-1000 ng L(-1) range (2 min deposition), with a detection limit of 0.88 ng L(-1). The method was validated by comparison of results for an unknown solution of V by atomic absorption measurement. The protocol was evaluated in a real sample by measuring the amount of V in river water samples. Thick bismuth film electrodes with protective polystyrene films have also been made and evaluated as a mercury free alternative. However, ng L(-1) level detection was only attainable with extended (10 min) deposition times. The proposed use of MWEs for the detection of V is sensitive enough for future use to test V concentration in biological fluids treated by the advanced oxidation process (AOP).

  13. Determination of Total Germanium in Chinese Herbal Remedies by Square-Wave Catalytic Adsorptive Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry at an Improved Bismuth Film Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangwei Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A catalytic adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetric method on an improved bismuth film electrode (BiFE for the determination of trace germanium in the presence of pyrogallol has been investigated. A well-defined and sensitive stripping peak of Ge(IV-pyrogallol complex was observed at −0.79 V (versus SCE in a 0.1 M acetate buffer solution (pH 4.8 at a deposition potential of −0.34 V. The reduction current is catalytically enhanced by adding KBrO3. The experimental variables and potential interference were studied. Compared with the BiFE plated in the solution prepared based on HAc-NaAc without trisodium citrate, the improved BiFE electrodeposited in the solution of HAc-NaAc containing trisodium citrate displayed a better electroanalytical performance for the determination of germanium(IV. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit of Ge(IV was 60 ng L−1, and the relative standard deviation (RSD was 3.73% at 5 μg L−1 level (n=9. This method was successfully applied to determine the total germanium in several Chinese herbal remedies.

  14. Aerosol deposition of (Cu,Ti) substituted bismuth vanadate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Exner, Jörg, E-mail: Functional.Materials@Uni-Bayreuth.de [University of Bayreuth, Department of Functional Materials, Universitätsstraße 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Fuierer, Paul [Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Moos, Ralf [University of Bayreuth, Department of Functional Materials, Universitätsstraße 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2014-12-31

    Bismuth vanadate, Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2}O{sub 11}, and related compounds with various metal (Me) substitutions, Bi{sub 4}(Me{sub x}V{sub 1−x}){sub 2}O{sub 11−δ}, show some of the highest ionic conductivities among the known solid oxide electrolytes. Films of Cu and Ti substituted bismuth vanadate were prepared by an aerosol deposition method, a spray coating process also described as room temperature impact consolidation. Resultant films, several microns in thickness, were dense with good adhesion to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy and high temperature X-ray diffraction were used to monitor the effects of temperature on the structure and microstructure of the film. The particle size remained nano-scale while microstrain decreased rapidly up to 500 °C, above which coarsening and texturing increased rapidly. Impedance measurements of films deposited on inter-digital electrodes revealed an annealing effect on the ionic conductivity, with the conductivity exceeding that of a screen printed film, and approaching that of bulk ceramic. - Highlights: • Cu and Ti doped bismuth vanadate films were prepared by aerosol deposition (AD). • Dense 3–5 μm thick films were deposited on alumina, silicon and gold electrodes. • Annealing of the AD-layer increases the conductivity by 1.5 orders of magnitude. • Effect of temperature on structure and microstructure was investigated.

  15. Effect of phase stability degradation of bismuth on sensor characteristics of nano-bismuth fixed electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Kim, Chang Kyu; Lee, Min Ku; Rhee, Chang Kyu

    2010-12-15

    Effect of phase stability degradation of bismuth on sensor characteristics of nano-bismuth fixed electrode has been investigated using square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry technique, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. From the analyses of square-wave anodic stripping voltammograms (SWASV) repetitively measured on the nano-bismuth fixed electrode, it was found that the oxidation peak currents dropped by 81%, 68% and 59% for zinc, cadmium and lead, respectively, after the 100th measurement (about 400 min of operation time). The sphere bismuth nanoparticles gradually changed to the agglomerates with petal shape as the operation time increased. From the analyses of SEM images and XRD patterns, it is confirmed that the oxidation of Bi into BiOCl/Bi(2)O(2)CO(3) and the agglomeration of bismuth nanoparticles caused by the phase change decrease a reproducibility of the stripping voltammetric response. Moreover, most of the bismuth becomes BiOCl at pH 3.0 and bismuth hydroxide, Bi(OH)(3) at pH 7.0, which results in a significant decrease in sensitivity of the nano-bismuth fixed electrode.

  16. Bismuth Modified Carbon-Based Electrodes for the Determination of Selected Neonicotinoid Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Rodić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Two types of bismuth modified electrodes, a bismuth-film modified glassy carbon (BiF-GCE and a bismuth bulk modified carbon paste, were applied for the determination of selected nitroguanidine neonicotinoid insecticides. The method based on an ex situ prepared BiF-GCE operated in the differential pulse voltammetric (DPV mode was applied to determine clothianidin in the concentration range from 2.5 to 23 μg cm−3 with a relative standard deviation (RSD not exceeding 1.5%. The tricresyl phosphate-based carbon paste electrodes (TCP-CPEs, bulk modified with 5 and 20 w/w% of bismuth, showed a different analytical performance in the determination of imidacloprid, regarding the peak shape, potential window, and noise level. The TCP-CPE with 5% Bi was advantageous, and the developed DPV method based on it allowed the determination in the concentration range from 1.7 to 60 μg cm−3 with an RSD of 2.4%. To get a deeper insight into the morphology of the bismuth-based sensor surfaces, scanning electron microscopic measurements were performed of both the surface film and the bulk modified electrodes.

  17. Electrical resistivity of thin bismuth films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Katyal, O. P.

    1990-05-01

    The effect of the film thickness of a bismuth film deposited on glass substrate on its electrical resistivity was investigated for films from 41 to 225 nm thickness, in the temperature range 77-350 K. Results show that the electrical resistivity decreases with increasing temperature and that, for films 98.3 and 225.9 nm thick there exists a minimum (between 260 and 350 K) in resistivity at some temperature, Tc. This minimum shifts toward higher temperature for thinner samples, and lies above 350 K. The thickness dependence of the bismuth film resistivity, obtained at 77, 150, and 300 K, can be explained by a modified Fuchs model, which takes into account the thickness dependence of carrier density.

  18. Electrodeposition of bismuth telluride thermoelectric films from a nonaqueous electrolyte using ethylene glycol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.P.; Wu, M.; Su, J.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Vereecken, P.M.; Fransaer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene glycol was studied as an electrolyte for the electrodeposition of thermoelectric bismuth telluride films by cyclic voltammetry, rotating ring disk electrode and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM). The reduction of both Bi3+ and Te4+ ions proceeds in one step without the form

  19. Focused ion beam processing to fabricate ohmic contact electrodes on a bismuth nanowire for Hall measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Ohmic contact electrodes for four-wire resistance and Hall measurements were fabricated on an individual single-crystal bismuth nanowire encapsulated in a cylindrical quartz template. Focused ion beam processing was utilized to expose the side surfaces of the bismuth nanowire in the template, and carbon and tungsten electrodes were deposited on the bismuth nanowire in situ to achieve electrical contacts. The temperature dependence of the four-wire resistance was successfully measured for the ...

  20. Determination of cytosine using differential pulse voltammetry at a bismuth film electrode%铋膜修饰电极示差脉冲伏安法测定胞嘧啶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴淑芳; 梁玲; 徐茂田

    2013-01-01

    In this paper , the direct electrochemical behavior of cytosine is studied at a bismuth film electrode . Cytosine gives a well -defined oxidation peak at ca.-0.23V in a 0.1M PBS buffer (pH6.64).The peak currents increase linearly with the increasement of cytosine concentration ranging from 4.98 ×10 -6 mol/L to 3.38 ×10 -5 mol/L.The detection limit of cytosine is 5.6 ×10 -7 mol/L.The results show that the method has good selectivity to determine cytosine .%利用铋膜修饰电极对胞嘧啶的电化学行为进行了研究.结果表明,在0.1mol/L 的PBS 缓冲溶液( pH6.64)中,胞嘧啶于-0.23 V电位处有一良好的氧化峰,峰电流与胞嘧啶在4.98×10-6~3.38×10-5 mol/L浓度范围内呈良好的线性关系,检出限为5.6×10-7 mol/L.实验显示,铋膜修饰电极性质稳定,对胞嘧啶的测定具有良好的选择性.

  1. Using nanostructured conductive carbon tape modified with bismuth as the disposable working electrode for stripping analysis in paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qiu-Mei; Zhang, Qing; Shi, Chuan-Guo; Xu, Jing-Juan; Bao, Ning; Gu, Hai-Ying

    2013-10-15

    Low cost disposable working electrodes are specifically desired for practical applications of electrochemical detection considering maturity of electrochemical stations and data collection protocols. In this paper double-sided conductive adhesive carbon tape with nanostructure was applied to fabricate disposable working electrodes. Being supported by indium tin oxide glass, the prepared carbon tape electrodes were coated with bismuth film for stripping analysis of heavy metal ions. By integrating the bismuth modified electrodes with paper-based analytical devices, we were able to differentiate Zn, Cd and Pb ions with the sample volume of around 15 μL. After the optimization of parameters, including modification of bismuth film and the area of the electrodes, etc., Pb ions could be measured in the linear range from 10 to 500 μg/L with the detection limit of 2 μg/L. Our experimental results revealed that the disposable modified electrodes could be used to quantify migrated lead from toys with the results agreed well with that using atomic absorption spectrometry. Although bismuth modification and stripping analysis could be influenced by the low conductivity of the carbon tape, the low cost disposable carbon tape electrodes take the advantages of large-scaled produced double-sided carbon tape, including its reproducible nanostructure and scaled-up fabrication process. In addition, the preparation of disposable electrodes avoids time-consuming pretreatment and experienced operation. This study implied that the carbon tape might be an alternative candidate for practical applications of electrochemical detection.

  2. Inexpensive laser-induced surface modification in bismuth thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, A. Reyes [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Carretera Toluca, Ixtlahuaca Kilómetro 15.5, C.P. 50200 Edo. de México (Mexico); Hautefeuille, M., E-mail: mathieu_h@ciencias.unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Universidad 3000, Circuito Exterior S/N, Coyoacán, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510 D.F. Mexico (Mexico); García, A. Esparza [Fotofísica y Películas Delgadas, Departamento de Tecnociencias, CCADET-UNAM, Circuito exterior s/n C.P. 04510 Cd. Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Mejia, O. Olea [Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, Km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, 50200 San Cayetano, Estado de México (Mexico); López, M.A. Camacho [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Tollocan s/n, esq. Paseo Colón, Toluca, Estado de México 50110 (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Laser-induced microbumps were formed on bismuth films using a simple, low-cost, laser setup. • The patterns, similar to those typically obtained with high-power lasers, were characterized. • Control of laser ablation conditions is critical in the fabrication of surface microbumps. - Abstract: In this work, we present results on texturing a 500 nm thick bismuth film, deposited by sputtering onto a glass slide using a low-cost homemade, near-infrared pulsed laser platform. A 785 nm laser diode of a CD–DVD pickup head was precisely focused on the sample mounted on a motorized two-axis translation stage to generate localized surface microbumps on the bismuth films. This simple method successfully transferred desired micropatterns on the films in a computer-numerical control fashion. Irradiated zones were characterized by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that final results are strongly dependent on irradiation parameters.

  3. Zinc Detection in Serum by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry on Microfabricated Bismuth Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothimuthu, Preetha; Wilson, Robert A; Herren, Josi; Pei, Xing; Kang, Wenjing; Daniels, Rodney; Wong, Hector; Beyette, Fred; Heineman, William R; Papautsky, Ian

    2013-02-01

    Zinc (Zn) homeostasis is required for a functional immune system. Critically ill patients often exhibit decreased Zn serum concentrations and could potentially benefit from Zn supplementation as a therapeutic strategy. However, the conventional approaches to monitoring Zn are time consuming and costly. This work reports on detection of Zn by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) on bismuth electrodes in a microfabricated electrochemical cell. The working potential window of the electrodeposited bismuth film electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, while square wave ASV was used for measuring Zn in acetate buffer and blood serum. Conditions critical to sensing, such as preconcentration potential, preconcentration time, and buffer pH, were optimized for Zn detection. The sensor was successfully calibrated with pH 6 acetate buffer in the physiologically-relevant range of 5 μM to 50μM Zn and exhibited well-defined and highly repeatable peaks. The sensor was used to demonstrate measurement of Zn in blood serum digested in HCl. The results of this work show that Zn detection in serum is possible with smaller sample volumes (μL vs. μL) and faster turnaround time (hours vs. days) as compared with the conventional spectroscopic methods.

  4. Bismuth(III) dialkyldithiophosphates: Facile single source precursors for the preparation of bismuth sulfide nanorods and bismuth phosphate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswal, Jasmine B. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400098 (India); Garje, Shivram S., E-mail: ssgarje@chem.mu.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400098 (India); Nuwad, Jitendra; Pillai, C.G.S. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2013-08-15

    Two different phase pure materials (Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13}) have been prepared under different conditions using the same single source precursors. Solvothermal decomposition of the complexes, Bi(S{sub 2}P(OR){sub 2}){sub 3} [where, R=Methyl (Me) (1), Ethyl (Et) (2), n-Propyl (Pr{sup n}) (3) and iso-Propyl (Pr{sup i}) (4)] in ethylene glycol gave orthorhombic bismuth sulfide nanorods, whereas aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) of the same precursors deposited monoclinic bismuth tetraphosphate (Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13}) thin films on glass substrates. Surface study of the thin films using SEM illustrated the formation of variety of nanoscale morphologies (spherical-, wire-, pendent-, doughnut- and flower-like) at different temperatures. AFM studies were carried out to evaluate quality of the films in terms of uniformity and roughness. Thin films of average roughness as low as 1.4 nm were deposited using these precursors. Photoluminescence studies of Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films were also carried out. - Graphical abstract: Solvothermal decomposition of bismuth(III) dialkyldithiophosphates in ethylene glycol gave Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles, whereas aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition of these single source precursors deposited Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Preparation of phase pure orthorhombic Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and monoclinic Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films. • Use of single source precursors for deposition of bismuth phosphate thin films. • Use of solvothermal decomposition and AACVD methods. • Morphology controlled synthesis of Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films. • Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films using same single source precursors.

  5. Anodic stripping voltammetry at in situ bismuth-plated carbon and gold microdisc electrodes in variable electrolyte content unstirred solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrianova, L; Svancara, I; Economou, A; Sotiropoulos, S

    2006-10-27

    Carbon and gold microdisc electrodes (30 and 10 microm, respectively) have been tested as substrates for in situ bismuth film plating from unstirred solutions of variable acetate buffer content and were subsequently used in the anodic stripping voltammetry determination of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions. The effects of Bi(III) concentration, analyte accumulation time, stirring as well as supporting electrolyte content have been studied. Under optimal conditions good voltammetric responses were obtained by means of square wave anodic stripping voltammetry in unstirred analyte solutions of 5 x 10(-8) to 10(-6)M, even in the absence of added buffer. In an indicative application, Pb(II) ion levels were determined in tap water using bismuth-plated carbon microdisc electrodes.

  6. DETERMINATION OF LEAD IN KEROSEN AND IN LUBRICATING OIL BY ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY USING BISMUTH-FILM ELECTRODE AND SAMPLE PREPARATION AS MICROEMULSION

    OpenAIRE

    ELIANE MONSORES MIGUEL

    2008-01-01

    Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma metodologia analítica visando determinar chumbo em querosene e em óleo lubrificante. A voltametria de redissolução anódica com o eletrodo de filme de bismuto (BiFE) foi empregada com a medição do analito nas amostras realizada em meio microemulsionado. O modo de varredura utilizado foi o de onda quadrada (SWV) sendo o desempenho do BiFE comparado com o desempenho observado com o uso do eletrodo de gota pendente de mercúrio (HMDE), es...

  7. Low temperature Hall effect in bismuth chalcogenides thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Gabdullin, A. A.; Prudkogliad, V. A.; Selivanov, Yu. G.; Chizhevskii, E. G.; Pudalov, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth chalcogenides are the most studied 3D topological insulators. As a rule, at low temperatures thin films of these materials demonstrate positive magnetoresistance due to weak antilocalization. Weak antilocalization should lead to resistivity decrease at low temperatures; in experiments, however, resistivity grows as temperature decreases. From transport measurements for several thin films (with various carrier density, thickness, and carrier mobility), and by using purely phenomenologi...

  8. Facile preparation of Bi nanoparticles by novel cathodic dispersion of bulk bismuth electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xin [Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Reactive Chemistry on Solid Surfaces, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Chen Shu; Huang Wei [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Lushan Road, Changsha 410081 (China); Zheng Jufang [Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Reactive Chemistry on Solid Surfaces, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Li Zelin, E-mail: lizelin@zjnu.c [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Lushan Road, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2009-12-01

    A novel electrochemical approach has been developed to prepare clean bismuth nanoparticles (NPs) with a bulk Bi electrode in a 0.5 mol dm{sup -3} NaOH solution under highly cathodic polarization of -8 V versus a saturated mercurous sulfate electrode, requiring no any precursor ions and organic protective agents. The bulk Bi electrode can be facilely dispersed into Bi NPs at the condition of intensive hydrogen evolution. This cathodic dispersion of the bulk Bi electrode involves the formation and decomposition of unstable bismuth hydrides and the aggregation of atomic bismuth from the decomposition. Moreover, Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs have also been achieved by heating the precursor Bi NPs. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize these NPs. The as-prepared Bi NPs mainly existed in rhombohedral phase.

  9. Magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin bismuth iron garnet films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, Elena, E-mail: popova@physique.uvsq.fr [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS/Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Franco Galeano, Andres Felipe [Laboratoire PROcédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), CNRS/Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Deb, Marwan [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS/Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [Centre d' Elaboration de Matériaux et d' Etudes Structurales (CEMES), CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (TALEM), CEMES-INA, CNRS–Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Kachkachi, Hamid [Laboratoire PROcédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), CNRS/Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Gendron, François [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris (INSP), CNRS/Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, Boîte courrier 840, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ott, Frédéric [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin (LLB), CNRS/CEA, Bâtiment 563, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2013-06-15

    Ultrathin bismuth iron garnet Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were grown epitaxially on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. Film thickness varied from two to three dozens of unit cells. Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films grow pseudomorphically on substrates up to a thickness of 20 nm, and then a lattice relaxation occurs. Magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of bismuth iron garnet thickness. The magnetization and cubic anisotropy decrease with decreasing film thickness. The uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy is constant for all film thicknesses. For two unit cell thick films, the easy magnetization axis changes from in-plane to perpendicular to the plane direction. Such a reorientation takes place as a result of the competition of constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy with weakening film magnetization. - Highlights: ► Ultrathin Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were grown epitaxially on structure-matching substrates. ► Magnetic properties of Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} were studied down to the thickness of 2.5 nm. ► Reorientation of easy magnetization axis as a function of film thickness was observed.

  10. Focused ion beam processing to fabricate ohmic contact electrodes on a bismuth nanowire for Hall measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2013-09-26

    Ohmic contact electrodes for four-wire resistance and Hall measurements were fabricated on an individual single-crystal bismuth nanowire encapsulated in a cylindrical quartz template. Focused ion beam processing was utilized to expose the side surfaces of the bismuth nanowire in the template, and carbon and tungsten electrodes were deposited on the bismuth nanowire in situ to achieve electrical contacts. The temperature dependence of the four-wire resistance was successfully measured for the bismuth nanowire, and a difference between the resistivities of the two-wire and four-wire methods was observed. It was concluded that the two-wire method was unsuitable for estimation of the resistivity due to the influence of contact resistance, even if the magnitude of the bismuth nanowire resistance was greater than the kilo-ohm order. Furthermore, Hall measurement of a 4-μm-diameter bismuth microwire was also performed as a trial, and the evaluated temperature dependence of the carrier mobility was in agreement with that for bulk bismuth, which indicates that the carrier mobility was successfully measured using this technique. PACS: 81.07.Gf.

  11. Bismuth iron oxide thin films using atomic layer deposition of alternating bismuth oxide and iron oxide layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, Manjunath; Vehkamäki, Marko [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kukli, Kaupo, E-mail: kaupo.kukli@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, W. Ostwald 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Dimri, Mukesh Chandra [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Kemell, Marianna; Hatanpää, Timo; Heikkilä, Mikko J. [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Mizohata, Kenichiro [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Stern, Raivo [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-29

    Bismuth iron oxide films with varying contributions from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared using atomic layer deposition. Bismuth (III) 2,3-dimethyl-2-butoxide, was used as the bismuth source, iron(III) tert-butoxide as the iron source and water vapor as the oxygen source. The films were deposited as stacks of alternate Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Films grown at 140 °C to the thickness of 200–220 nm were amorphous, but crystallized upon post-deposition annealing at 500 °C in nitrogen. Annealing of films with intermittent bismuth and iron oxide layers grown to different thicknesses influenced their surface morphology, crystal structure, composition, electrical and magnetic properties. Implications of multiferroic performance were recognized in the films with the remanent charge polarization varying from 1 to 5 μC/cm{sup 2} and magnetic coercivity varying from a few up to 8000 A/m. - Highlights: • Bismuth iron oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition at 140 °C. • The major phase formed in the films upon annealing at 500 °C was BiFeO{sub 3}. • BiFeO{sub 3} films and films containing excess Bi favored electrical charge polarization. • Slight excess of iron oxide enhanced saturative magnetization behavior.

  12. Thin film bismuth iron oxides useful for piezoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeches, Robert J.; Martin, Lane W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2016-05-31

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a thin film of BiFeO.sub.3 having a thickness ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm, a first electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film, and a second electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film; wherein the first and second electrodes are in electrical communication. The composition is free or essentially free of lead (Pb). The BFO thin film is has the piezoelectric property of changing its volume and/or shape when an electric field is applied to the BFO thin film.

  13. Bismuth pyrochlore-based thin films for dielectric energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Elizabeth K.

    The drive towards the miniaturization of electronic devices has created a need for dielectric materials with large energy storage densities. These materials, which are used in capacitors, are a critical component in many electrical systems. Here, the development of dielectric energy storage materials for pulsed power applications, which require materials with the ability to accumulate a large amount of energy and then deliver it to the system rapidly, is explored. The amount of electrostatic energy that can be stored by a material is a function of the induced polarization and the dielectric breakdown strength of the material. An ideal energy storage dielectric would possess a high relative permittivity, high dielectric breakdown strength, and low loss tangent under high applied electric fields. The bismuth pyrochlores are a compositionally tunable family of materials that meet these requirements. Thin films of cubic pyrochlore bismuth zinc niobate, bismuth zinc tantalate, and bismuth zinc niobate tantalate, were fabricated using a novel solution chemistry based upon the Pechini method. This solution preparation is advantageous because it avoids the use of teratogenic solvents, such as 2-methoxyethanol. Crystalline films fabricated using this solution chemistry had very small grains that were approximately 27 nm in lateral size and 35 nm through the film thickness. Impedance measurements found that the resistivity of the grain boundaries was two orders of magnitude higher than the resistivity of the grain interior. The presence of many resistive grain boundaries impeded conduction through the films, resulting in high breakdown strengths for these materials. In addition to high breakdown strengths, this family of materials exhibited moderate relative permittivities of between 55 +/- 2 and 145 +/- 5, for bismuth zinc tantalate and bismuth zinc niobate, respectively, and low loss tangents on the order of 0.0008 +/- 0.0001. Increases in the concentration of the tantalum

  14. 有机-无机杂化复合铋膜电极溶出伏安法测痕量镉、铅离子%Fabrication of an organic-inorganic hybrid composite bismuth film electrode for stripping analysis of trace Cd( Ⅱ )and Pb( Ⅱ )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌玉; 尹丽君; 刘刚; 李萍; 吴守国

    2011-01-01

    将铋和聚苯胺共沉积在玻碳电极上制备了杂化膜,然后在杂化膜上沉积一层铋膜,制备了一种新颖的电化学传感器——有机-无机杂化复合铋膜电极(HCBiFE),用于痕量重金属离子Cd(Ⅱ)和Pb(Ⅱ)的检测(0.1mol/L醋酸缓冲溶液,pH 4.7).优化了镀膜条件、离子测试参数.在1~90 μg·L-1的浓度范围内,两离子溶出峰电流与浓度呈现出良好的线性关系,富集时间120 s时,Cd(Ⅱ)和Pb(Ⅱ)的检测限分别低至0.2,0.5μg·L-1.该复合膜具有很好的稳定性和重现性,能够抗机械剥蚀、不易脱落,对50 μg·L-1的Cd(Ⅱ)和Pb(Ⅱ)连续测定50次,相对标准偏差分别为4.3%,6.1%.30 d后,该复合膜电极对Cd(Ⅱ)和Pb(Ⅱ)溶出峰电流分别下降3.2%,4.9%,表明该复合膜电极性能稳定,有望应用于环境水体的现场监测.%A novel electrochemical sensor(organic-inorganic hybrid composite bismuth film electrode)was fabricated on a glassy carbon substrate electrode by an electrochemical co-deposition of polyaniline and bismuth followed by plating a thin layer of bismuth on the hybrid film.The hybrid composite bismuth film electrode was applied to detect trace Cd(Ⅱ)and Pb( Ⅱ )in 0.1 mol/L acetate buffer solution(pH 4.7 )by square ware anodic stripping voltammetry.The influencing factors of stripping signals and the operational parameters were investigated in detail.The newly developed electrode revealed highly linear behavior in the examined concentration range from 1 to 90μg · L-1 for both test metal ions,with the detection limits of 0.2 μg · L-1 and 0.5 μg · L-1 for Cd( Ⅱ )and Pb( Ⅱ )respectively,offering good coefficients of variation(CVs)of 4.3% and 6.1% for Cd( Ⅱ )and Pb( Ⅱ )(50 μg · L-1,n=50)respectively.After 30 d,the stripping peak currents for 50 μg · L-1 Pb( Ⅱ )and Cd(Ⅱ)on the composite film were detected decreasing 3.2% and 4.9%,respectively.The long term stability makes it possible to be applied in on

  15. Low-temperature Hall effect in bismuth chalcogenides thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Gabdullin, A. A.; Prudkogliad, V. A.; Selivanov, Yu. G.; Chizhevskii, E. G.; Pudalov, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    Bismuth chalcogenides are the most studied 3D topological insulators. As a rule, at low temperatures, thin films of these materials demonstrate positive magnetoresistance due to weak antilocalization. Weak antilocalization should lead to resistivity decrease at low temperatures; in experiments, however, resistivity grows as temperature decreases. From transport measurements for several thin films (with various carrier density, thickness, and carrier mobility), and by using a purely phenomenological approach, with no microscopic theory, we show that the low-temperature growth of the resistivity is accompanied by growth of the Hall coefficient, in agreement with the diffusive electron-electron interaction correction mechanism. Our data reasonably explain the low-temperature resistivity upturn.

  16. Graphite felt modified with bismuth nanoparticles as negative electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, David J; González, Zoraida; Blanco, Clara; Granda, Marcos; Menéndez, Rosa; Santamaría, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    A graphite felt decorated with bismuth nanoparticles was studied as negative electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The results confirm the excellent electrochemical performance of the bismuth modified electrode in terms of the reversibility of the V(3+) /V(2+) redox reactions and its long-term cycling performance. Moreover a mechanism that explains the role that Bi nanoparticles play in the redox reactions in this negative half-cell is proposed. Bi nanoparticles favor the formation of BiHx , an intermediate that reduces V(3+) to V(2+) and, therefore, inhibits the competitive irreversible reaction of hydrogen formation (responsible for the commonly observed loss of Coulombic efficiency of VRFBs). Thus, the total charge consumed during the cathodic sweep in this electrode is used to reduce V(3+) to V(2+) , resulting in a highly reversible and efficient process.

  17. Thin film fuel cell electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, W. J.; Batzold, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Earlier work shows that fuel cell electrodes prepared by sputtering thin films of platinum on porous vycor substrates avoid diffusion limitations even at high current densities. The presented study shows that the specific activity of sputtered platinum is not unusually high. Performance limitations are found to be controlled by physical processes, even at low loadings. Catalyst activity is strongly influenced by platinum sputtering parameters, which seemingly change the surface area of the catalyst layer. The use of porous nickel as a substrate shows that pore size of the substrate is an important parameter. It is noted that electrode performance increases with increasing loading for catalyst layers up to two microns thick, thus showing the physical properties of the sputtered layer to be different from platinum foil. Electrode performance is also sensitive to changing differential pressure across the electrode. The application of sputtered catalyst layers to fuel cell matrices for the purpose of obtaining thin total cells appears feasible.

  18. Carbon nanotubes paste sensor modified with bismuth film for determination of metallic ions in ethanol fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Augusto Gorla

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study an anodic stripping voltammetric method using a bismuth film modified carbon nanotubes paste electrode for simultaneous determination of metals Zn2+, Cd2+and Pb2+in ethanol fuel is described. The metallic ions were preconcentrated on the bismuth film in the time and deposition potential of 500 s and -1.2 V and the stripping step was carried out by square wave voltammetry (frequency of 15 Hz, pulse amplitude of 25 mV and potential step of 5 mV. Acetate buffer at 0.1 mol L-1concentration and pH 4.5 was used as support electrolyte. The method showed linearity including the analytical blank up to 48.39 ?g L-1 for the metals and the obtained limits of detection were 3.36, 0.32 and 0.47 ?g L-1for Zn2+, Cd2+and Pb2+, respectively. The proposed method was applied in ethanol fuel samples.

  19. Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance Depending on Morphology of Bismuth Vanadate Thin Film Synthesized by Pulsed Laser Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sang Yun; Choi, Kyoung Soon; Shin, Hye-Min; Kim, Taemin Ludvic; Song, Jaesun; Yoon, Sejun; Jang, Ho Won; Yoon, Myung-Han; Jeon, Cheolho; Lee, Jouhahn; Lee, Sanghan

    2017-01-11

    We have fabricated high quality bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) polycrystalline thin films as photoanodes by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) without a postannealing process. The structure of the grown films is the photocatalytically active phase of scheelite-monoclinic BiVO4 which was obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The change of surface morphology for the BIVO4 thin films depending on growth temperature during synthesis has been observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and its influence on water splitting performance was investigated. The current density of the BiVO4 film grown on a glass substrate covered with fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) at 230 °C was as high as 3.0 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 V versus the potential of the reversible hydrogen electrode (VRHE) under AM 1.5G illumination, which is the highest value so far in previously reported BiVO4 films grown by physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods. We expect that doping of transition metal or decoration of oxygen evolution catalyst (OEC) in our BiVO4 film might further enhance the performance.

  20. Large-Area Dry Transfer of Single-Crystalline Epitaxial Bismuth Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Emily S; Na, Seung Ryul; Jung, Daehwan; March, Stephen D; Kim, Joon-Seok; Trivedi, Tanuj; Li, Wei; Tao, Li; Lee, Minjoo L; Liechti, Kenneth M; Akinwande, Deji; Bank, Seth R

    2016-11-09

    We report the first direct dry transfer of a single-crystalline thin film grown by molecular beam epitaxy. A double cantilever beam fracture technique was used to transfer epitaxial bismuth thin films grown on silicon (111) to silicon strips coated with epoxy. The transferred bismuth films retained electrical, optical, and structural properties comparable to the as-grown epitaxial films. Additionally, we isolated the bismuth thin films on freestanding flexible cured-epoxy post-transfer. The adhesion energy at the bismuth/silicon interface was measured to be ∼1 J/m(2), comparable to that of exfoliated and wet transferred graphene. This low adhesion energy and ease of transfer is unexpected for an epitaxially grown film and may enable the study of bismuth's unique electronic and spintronic properties on arbitrary substrates. Moreover, this method suggests a route to integrate other group-V epitaxial films (i.e., phosphorus) with arbitrary substrates, as well as potentially to isolate bismuthene, the atomic thin-film limit of bismuth.

  1. 预镀铋膜修饰碳糊电极差分脉冲伏安法测定废水中铅和镉%Ex-situ Plating Bismuth Film Modified Carbon Paste Electrode for the Determination of Trace Lead and Cadmium by Differential Pulse Voltammetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷存喜; 刘蓉; 沈毓儒; 赵运林; 董萌; 曾戴弟

    2014-01-01

    采用预镀铋膜法制得铋膜修饰碳糊电极,当沉积时间为540 s得到最优铋膜.采用差分脉冲伏安法(DPV)实现了对痕量Pb2+、Cd2+的同时测定.优化了DPV测定条件,当富集时间为150 s、富集电位为-1.25 V、HAc-NaAc缓冲底液的pH为4.5时,Pb2+、Cd2+的峰电流最大.在最优的实验条件下,Pb2+和Cd2+的峰电流与其浓度呈良好的线性关系,线性相关系数R分别为0.9912和0.9937,线性范围分别为1~10μmol/L和5~50 μmol/L,Pb2+和Cd2+的检出限分别为0.32 μmol/L和2.01 μmol/L.对实际废水样品进行了加标回收实验,其中Pb2+和Cd2+的回收率分别为98.4%~102.6%和95.4%~104.6%.%Ex-situ plating bismuth film modified carbon paste electrode was prepared for the measurement of Pb2+ and Cd2+ by differential pulse voltammetry(DPV).Pb and Cd were deposited on the surface of bismuth and displayed well defined peaks when the preconcentration time of bismuth was 540 s.The conditions of several key operational parameters were optimized.Under the optimum conditions,the oxidation peak currents changed linearly with the concentration of Pb2+ and Cd2+ at the range of 1-10 μmol/L and 5-50 μmol/L,with the detection limits of 0.32 μmol/L for Pb2+ and 2.01 μmol/L for Cd2+,and the recoveries of Pb2+ and Cd2+ in electroplating waste water were 98.4%-102.6% and 95.4%-104.6%,respectively.

  2. Underpotential Deposition Study and Determination of Bismuth on Gold Electrode by Using Voltammetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU,Yong-Ling(杜永令); WANG,Chun-Ming(王春明)

    2002-01-01

    The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the semidifferential anodic stripping voltanmetry (SdASV) were used for investigation of bismuth(Ⅲ) underpotential deposition (UPD) on gold electrode. Based on the excellent electrochemical properties of Au/Bi UPD system, a new method for determining bismuth (Ⅲ)was established. A solution of 0.1 mol/L HNO3 was selected as the supporting electrolyte. Factors affecting the Bi(Ⅲ) UPD and stripping steps were investigated and an opthmized analytical procedure was developed. The calibration plots for Bi(Ⅲ) concentration in the range 1.25 × 10-8-1.0 × 10-7 mol/L were obtained. The detection limit, calculated as three times the standard deviation of the analytical signal of 8.3×10-8 mol/L for a 90 s electrodeposition at 0.00 V (while the solution magnetically stirred at a speed of 300 rpm), was 7.5× 10-9 mol/ L. For8 successive determinations of 1.25 × 10-7 mol/L Bi(Ⅲ), the obtained RSD (relative standard deviation) was 0.4%. The developed method was applied to bismuth determining in medicine and urine samples. The analytical results were compared with that of atomic emission spectrometry (AES) method.

  3. Improving Reproducibility of Lab-on-a-Chip Sensor with Bismuth Working Electrode for Determining Zn in Serum by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xing; Kang, Wenjing; Yue, Wei; Bange, Adam; Heineman, William R.; Papautsky, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This work reports on the continuing development of a lab-on-a-chip electrochemical sensor for determination of zinc in blood serum using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The microscale sensor consists of a three electrode system, including an environmentally friendly bismuth working electrode, an integrated silver/silver chloride reference electrode, and a gold auxiliary electrode. The sensor demonstrates a linear response in 0.1 M acetate buffer at pH 6 for zinc concentrations in the 1–30 μM range. By optimizing bismuth film deposition and better control of the fabrication process, repeatability of the sensor was improved, reducing variability from 42% to <2%. Through optimization of electrolyte and stripping voltammetry parameters, limit of detection was greatly improved to 60 nM. The optimized sensor was also able to measure zinc in the extracted blood serum. Ultimately, with integrated sample preparation, the sensor will permit rapid (min) measurements of zinc from a sub-mL sample (a few drops of blood) for clinical applications. PMID:24729629

  4. Bismuth Oxide Thin Films Deposited on Silicon Through Pulsed Laser Ablation, for Infrared Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condurache-Bota, Simona; Constantinescu, Catalin; Tigau, Nicolae; Praisler, Mirela

    2016-12-01

    Infrared detectors are used in many human activities, from industry to military, telecommunications, environmental studies and even medicine. Bismuth oxide thin films have proved their potential for optoelectronic applications, but their uses as infrared sensors have not been thoroughly studied so far. In this paper, pulsed laser ablation of pure bismuth targets within a controlled oxygen atmosphere is proposed for the deposition of bismuth oxide films on Si (100) substrates. Crystalline films were obtained, whose uniformity depends on the deposition conditions (number of laser pulses and the use of a radio-frequency (RF) discharge of the oxygen inside the deposition chamber). The optical analysis proved that the refractive index of the films is higher than 3 and that their optical bandgap is around 1eV, recommending them for infrared applications.

  5. Group III-nitride thin films grown using MBE and bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisielowski, Christian K.; Rubin, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The present invention comprises growing gallium nitride films in the presence of bismuth using MBE at temperatures of about 1000 K or less. The present invention further comprises the gallium nitride films fabricated using the inventive fabrication method. The inventive films may be doped with magnesium or other dopants. The gallium nitride films were grown on sapphire substrates using a hollow anode Constricted Glow Discharge nitrogen plasma source. When bismuth was used as a surfactant, two-dimensional gallium nitride crystal sizes ranging between 10 .mu.m and 20 .mu.m were observed. This is 20 to 40 times larger than crystal sizes observed when GaN films were grown under similar circumstances but without bismuth. It is thought that the observed increase in crystal size is due bismuth inducing an increased surface diffusion coefficient for gallium. The calculated value of 4.7.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.2 /sec. reveals a virtual substrate temperature of 1258 K which is 260 degrees higher than the actual one.

  6. Opto-electronic properties of bismuth oxide films presenting different crystallographic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Celia L. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, UNAM, Unidad de Posgrado, Edificio C, Piso 1, Zona Cultural de CU, México, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Depablos-Rivera, Osmary, E-mail: osmarydep@yahoo.com [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, UNAM, Unidad de Posgrado, Edificio C, Piso 1, Zona Cultural de CU, México, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación, Calz. México Xochimilco No. 289 Col. Arenal de Guadalupe, C.P.14389, Ciudad de México, D.F. (Mexico); Muhl, Stephen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Zeinert, Andreas; Lejeune, Michael; Charvet, Stephane; Barroy, Pierre [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex 1 (France); Camps, Enrique [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, kilómetro 36.5. La Marquesa, Municipio de Ocoyoacac, CP 52750, Estado de México (Mexico); Rodil, Sandra E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2015-03-02

    The optical, electrical and structural properties of bismuth oxide thin films deposited by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering were studied. The Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were grown on Si and glass substrates under different power and substrate temperatures in an oxygen-enriched plasma leading to films with different crystalline phase as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The optical properties of the films were measured using ellipsometric spectroscopy and optical transmission spectra. In order to parameterize the optical dispersion functions (n, k) of the films, the Tauc–Lorentz dispersion model was used. The optical bandgap was then assessed by different methods and the results are compared to the thermal variations of the electrical resistivity of the films. It was found that the refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical gap strongly depend on the deposition conditions and the crystalline phase; the fluorite defect cubic δ-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase showed the lowest optical gap and lower resistivity. - Highlights: • Different bismuth oxide phases were obtained by sputtering. • The power and substrate temperature were the two key parameters. • Room temperature delta-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were obtained. • The optical bandgap was around 1.5 and 2.2 eV, depending on the phase. • The bismuth oxide films presented activation energies around 1 eV.

  7. Highly selective amperometric sensor for the trace level detection of hydrazine at bismuth nanoparticles decorated graphene nanosheets modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Mani, Veerappan; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2014-06-01

    A highly selective amperometric sensor was developed for the trace level determination of hydrazine at bismuth nanoparticles (Bi) decorated graphene nanosheets (GR) composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). GR-Bi nanocomposite has been successfully prepared via simple and facile chemical reduction approach and its structure was characterized by various techniques. Surface morphological and X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation and high loading of Bi nanoparticles on graphene sheets. GR-Bi nanocomposite modified GCE exhibited greatly enhanced electrocatalytic performance towards electro-oxidation of hydrazine in terms of decrease in overpotential and increase in oxidation peak current (Ip). The kinetic parameters such as electron transfer coefficient (α) and diffusion coefficient (Do) of the hydrazine oxidation were determined to be 0.70 and 2.65×10(-5) cm(2) s(-1), respectively. An amperometric sensor has been fabricated which detects trace level concentration of hydrazine. The sensor exhibited a wide linear range from 20 nM to 0.28 mM and a very low detection limit (LOD) of 5 nM. Remarkably, this is the lowest LOD achieved for the determination of hydrazine in neutral pH among other reported electrochemical hydrazine sensors. In addition, the sensor selectively detects hydrazine even in the presence of 1000 fold excess quantity of common interferrants. The practical feasibility of the sensor has been assessed in water and urine samples with good recoveries. Furthermore, the sensor exhibited appreciable stability, repeatability and reproducibility results.

  8. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetric determination of Cd²⁺ and Pb²⁺ at bismuth-film electrode modified with electroreduced graphene oxide-supported thiolated thionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zou; Chen, Li; He, Fang; Bu, Lijuan; Qin, Xiaoli; Xie, Qingji; Yao, Shouzhuo; Tu, Xinman; Luo, Xubiao; Luo, Shenglian

    2014-05-01

    Graphene oxide (GO)-thionine (TH) nanocomposite was prepared by π-π stacking. The nanocomposite was cast-coated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to prepare an electroreduced GO (ERGO)-TH/GCE, then 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (MES) was covalently tethered to ERGO-TH by potentiostatic anodization to form an ERGO-TH-MES/GCE. The thiolation reaction was monitored by electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM). Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was used to determine Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) at the ERGO-TH-MES/GCE further modified with Nafion and Bi. Under the optimal conditions, the linear calibration curves for Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) are from 1 to 40 μg L(-1), with limits of detection (S/N=3) of 0.1 μg L(-1) for Cd(2+) and 0.05 μg L(-1) for Pb(2+), respectively. The electrode was used for the simultaneous analysis of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) in water samples with satisfactory recovery.

  9. Ultrafast electron diffraction studies of optically excited thin bismuth films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkovic, Ivan

    2008-10-21

    This thesis contains work on the design and the realization of an experimental setup capable of providing sub-picosecond electron pulses for ultrafast electron diffraction experiments, and performing the study of ultrafast dynamics in bismuth after optical excitation using this setup. (orig.)

  10. Phase transition of bismuth telluride thin films grown by MBE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fülöp, Attila; Song, Yuxin; Charpentier, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    A previously unreported phase transition between Bi2Te3 and Bi4Te3 in bismuth telluride grown by molecular beam epitaxy is recorded via XRD, AFM, and SIMS observations. This transition is found to be related to the Te/Bi beam equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio. BEP ratios below 17 favor the formation...

  11. Chemically deposited thin films of sulfides and selenides of antimony and bismuth as solar energy materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M. T. S.; Nair, Padmanabhan K.; Garcia, Victor M.; Pena, Y.; Arenas, O. L.; Garcia, J. C.; Gomez-Daza, O.

    1997-10-01

    Chemical bath deposition techniques for bismuth sulfide, bismuth selenide, antimony sulfide, and antimony selenide thin films of about 0.20 - 0.25 micrometer thickness are reported. All these materials may be considered as solar absorber films: strong optical absorption edges, with absorption coefficient, (alpha) , greater than 104 cm-1, are located at 1.31 eV for Bi2Se3, 1.33 eV for Bi2S3, 1.8 eV for Sb2S3, and 1.35 eV for Sb2Se3. As deposited, all the films are nearly amorphous. However, well defined crystalline peaks matching bismuthinite (JCPDS 17- 0320), paraguanajuatite (JCPDS 33-0214), and stibnite (JCPDS 6-0474) and antimony selenide (JCPDS 15-0861) for Bi2S3, Bi2Se3, Sb2S3 and Sb2Se3 respectively, are observed when the films are annealed in nitrogen at 300 degrees Celsius. This is accompanied by a substantial modification of the electrical conductivity in the films: from 10-7 (Omega) -1 cm-1 (in as prepared films) to 10 (Omega) -1 cm-1 in the case of bismuth sulfide and selenide films, and enhancement of photosensitivity in the case of antimony sulfide films. The chemical deposition of a CuS/CuxSe film on these Vx- VIy films and subsequent annealing at 300 degrees Celsius for 1 h at 1 torr of nitrogen leads to the formation of p-type films (conductivity of 1 - 100 (Omega) -1 cm-1) of multinary composition. Among these, the formation of Cu3BiS3 (JCPDS 9-0488) and Cu3SbS4 (JCPDS 35- 0581), CuSbS2 (JCPDS 35-0413) have been clearly detected. Solar energy applications of these films are suggested.

  12. Response of Ag Thick Film Microstripline due to Superstrate Strontium Substituted Bismuth Manganites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Mathad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of strontium-substituted bismuth manganites bulk ceramic superstrate on Ag thick film microstripline, to modify its response and measure complex permittivity as a function of strontium. Bismuth strontium manganites (Bi1 − xSrxMnO3 have been synthesized by solid state sintering technique. The perturbation obtained in the transmittance and reflectance of thick film microstripline due to the Bi1 − xSrxMnO3 (0.20  x  0.50 overlay has been used to obtain the permittivity at microwave frequencies in X and Ku band range. Due to the overlay of Bismuth strontium manganites (BSM pellets a substantial increase in the effective dielectric constant was observed in X band more compared to Ku band. The in-touch overlay method provides ease loading and unloading. The perturbation obtained in the transmittance and reflectance of thick film microstripline due to the bismuth strontium manganites overlay has been used to obtain the permittivity.

  13. Amperometric Noise at Thin Film Band Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon T.; Heien, Michael L.; Taboryski, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Background current noise is often a significant limitation when using constant-potential amperometry for biosensor application such as amperometric recordings of transmitter release from single cells through exocytosis. In this paper, we fabricated thin-film electrodes of gold and conductive...

  14. Sandwich heterostructures of antimony trioxide and bismuth trioxide films: Structural, morphological and optical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condurache-Bota, Simona; Praisler, Mirela; Gavrila, Raluca; Tigau, Nicolae

    2017-01-01

    Thin film heterostructures can be advantageous since they either exhibit novel or a combination of the properties of their components. Here we propose sandwich-type of heterostructures made of antimony trioxide and bismuth trioxide thin films, which were deposited on glass substrates by thermal vacuum deposition at three substrate temperatures, 50° Celsius apart. Their morphology and optical properties are studied as compared to the corresponding monolayers. It was found that even small substrate temperature changes strongly influence their morphology, increasing their roughness, while the optical transmittance shows a slight decrease as compared with the individual layers. The corresponding absorption coefficient exhibits intermediate values as compared to the component oxides, while the energy bandgaps for the indirect allowed transitions move towards the Infrared when overlapping the antimony and bismuth trioxides.

  15. Improving the photoactivity of bismuth vanadate thin film photoanodes through doping and surface modification strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Quiñonero, Javier; Lana Villarreal, Teresa; Gómez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Currently, one of the most attractive and desirable ways to solve the energy challenge is harvesting energy directly from the sunlight through the so-called artificial photosynthesis. Among the ternary oxides based on earth–abundant metals, bismuth vanadate has recently emerged as a promising photoanode. Herein, BiVO4 thin film photoanodes have been successfully synthesized by a modified metal-organic precursor decomposition method, followed by an annealing treatment. In an attempt to improve...

  16. Facile production of thermoelectric bismuth telluride thick films in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, C; Burton, M R; Nandhakumar, I S

    2016-06-01

    Bismuth telluride is currently the best performing thermoelectric material for room temperature operations in commercial thermoelectric devices. We report the reproducible and facile production of 600 micron thick bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) layers by low cost and room temperature pulsed and potentiostatic electrodeposition from a solution containing bismuth and tellurium dioxide in 2 M nitric acid onto nickel in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). This was added to the electrolyte to promote thick layer formation and its effect on the structure, morphology and composition of the electrodeposits was investigated by SEM and EDX. Well adherent, uniform, compact and stoichiometric n-type Bi2Te3 films with a high Seebeck coefficient of up to -200 μV K(-1) and a high electrical conductivity of up to 400 S cm(-1) resulting in a power factor of 1.6 × 10(-3) W m(-1) K(-2) at film growth rates of 100 μm h(-1) for potentiostatic electrodeposition were obtained. The films also exhibited a well defined hexagonal structure as determined by XRD.

  17. Bismuth thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Teresa; Arronte, Miguel; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Ponce, Luis; Alonso, J. C.; Garcia, C.; Fernandez, M.; Haro, E.

    1999-07-01

    In the present work Bi thin films were obtained by Pulsed Laser Deposition, using Nd:YAG lasers. The films were characterized by optical microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and X-rays diffraction. It was accomplished the real time spectral emission characterization of the plasma generated during the laser evaporation process. Highly oriented thin films were obtained.

  18. Thin Film Electrodes for Rare Event Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Kelly; Brown, Ethan; Lewis, Kim; Giordano, Mike; Freedberg, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    In detectors for rare physics processes, such as neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter, high sensitivity requires careful reduction of backgrounds due to radioimpurities in detector components. Ultra pure cylindrical resistors are being created through thin film depositions onto high purity substrates, such as quartz glass or sapphire. By using ultra clean materials and depositing very small quantities in the films, low radioactivity electrodes are produced. A new characterization process for cylindrical film resistors has been developed through analytic construction of an analogue to the Van Der Pauw technique commonly used for determining sheet resistance on a planar sample. This technique has been used to characterize high purity cylindrical resistors ranging from several ohms to several tera-ohms for applications in rare event detectors. The technique and results of cylindrical thin film resistor characterization will be presented.

  19. Magnetoelectric thin film composites with interdigital electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorra, A.; Jahns, R.; Teliban, I.; Gugat, J. L.; Gerken, M.; Knöchel, R.; Quandt, E.

    2013-07-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) thin film composites on silicon cantilevers are fabricated using Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.45)O3 (PZT) films with interdigital transducer electrodes on the top side and FeCoSiB amorphous magnetostrictive thin films on the backside. These composites without any direct interface between the piezoelectric and magnetostrictive phase are superior to conventional plate capacitor-type thin film ME composites. A limit of detection of 2.6 pT/Hz1/2 at the mechanical resonance is determined which corresponds to an improvement of a factor of approximately 2.8 compared to the best plate type sensor using AlN as the piezoelectric phase and even a factor of approximately 4 for a PZT plate capacitor.

  20. Synthesis of mercuric iodide and bismuth tri-iodide nanoparticles for heavy metal iodide films nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornaro, L.; Pereira, H.Bentos [Compound Semiconductors Group, CURE, Universidad de la Republica, Rocha (Uruguay); Aguiar, I.; Perez Barthaburu, M. [Compound Semiconductors Group, Facultad de Quimica, Univ. de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2011-12-15

    We synthesized mercuric iodide and bismuth tri-iodide nanoparticles by suspension in octadecene, from Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O and I{sub 2}, and from Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.5H{sub 2}O and I{sub 2}, respectively. The best synthesis conditions were 2 h at 70-80 C, followed by 10 min at 110 C for mercuric iodide nanoparticles, and 4 h at 80-110 C, followed by 10 min at 180-210 C for bismuth tri-iodide ones. Nanoparticles were then washed and centrifuged with ether repeatedly. Compounds identity was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). We found shifts of the X-ray diffraction maxima for nanoparticles of both compounds. We characterized the nanoparticles by transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy. We obtained disk-like and squared mercuric iodide nanostructures, 80-140 nm and 100-125 nm in size respectively. We also obtained rounded and rod-like bismuth tri-iodide nanoparticles, 30-500 nm in size. Acetonitrile and isopropanol suspensions of mercuric iodide nanoparticles, and acetonitrile suspension of bismuth tri-iodide nanoparticles exhibited peak maxima shifts in their UV-Vis spectra. We synthesized for the first time mercuric iodide and bismuth tri-iodide nanoparticles by the suspension method, although we have not yet obtained uniform shape and size distributions. They offer interesting perspectives for crystalline film nucleation and for improving current applications of these materials, as well as for opening new ones. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Optical characterization of antimony-based bismuth-doped thin films with different annealing temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinmiao Lu; Yiqun Wu; Yang Wang; Jinsong Wei

    2011-01-01

    Antimony-b ased bismuth-doped thin film,a new kind of super-resolution mask layer,is prepared by magnetron sputtering.The structures and optical constants of the thin films before and after annealing are examined in detail.The as-deposited film is mainly in an amorphous state.After annealing at 170-370℃,it is converted to the rhombohedral-type of structure.The extent of crystallization increased with the annealing temperature.When the thin film is annealed,its refractive index decreased in the most visible region,whereas the extinction coefficient and reflectivity are markedly increased.The results indicate that the optical parameters of the film strongly depend on its microstructure and the bonding of the atoms.As demand for ultrahigh-density information storage continues to grow the recording mark size in optical memory is reduced to the nanometer scale [1- 4].Exceeding the optical diffraction limit with traditional optical storage technology has become a challenge[5-6].%Antimony-based bismuth-doped thin film, a new kind of super-resolution mask layer, is prepared by magnetron sputtering. The structures and optical constants of the thin films before and after annealing are examined in detail. The as-deposited film is mainly in an amorphous state. After annealing at 170-370℃, it is converted to the rhombohedral-type of structure. The extent of crystallization increased with the annealing temperature. When the thin film is annealed, its refractive index decreased in the most visible region, whereas the extinction coefficient and reflectivity are markedly increased. The results indicate that the optical parameters of the film strongly depend on its microstructure and the bonding of the atoms.

  2. Bismuth nanoparticle decorating graphite felt as a high-performance electrode for an all-vanadium redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Shao, Yuyan; Luo, Qingtao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Xiaolin; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chongmin; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2013-03-13

    Employing electrolytes containing Bi(3+), bismuth nanoparticles are synchronously electrodeposited onto the surface of a graphite felt electrode during operation of an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The influence of the Bi nanoparticles on the electrochemical performance of the VRFB is thoroughly investigated. It is confirmed that Bi is only present at the negative electrode and facilitates the redox reaction between V(II) and V(III). However, the Bi nanoparticles significantly improve the electrochemical performance of VRFB cells by enhancing the kinetics of the sluggish V(II)/V(III) redox reaction, especially under high power operation. The energy efficiency is increased by 11% at high current density (150 mA·cm(-2)) owing to faster charge transfer as compared with one without Bi. The results suggest that using Bi nanoparticles in place of noble metals offers great promise as high-performance electrodes for VRFB application.

  3. Thickness dependence of temperature coefficient of resistivity of polycrystalline bismuth films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Katyal, O. P.

    1991-04-01

    Results for the temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) of polycrystalline bismuth films deposited on to glass substrate are reported for the thickness range 30 300 nm. The film TCR is found to be negative for all thicknesses studied and its absolute value exhibits a maximum of 3.70×10-3 K-1 near 72.5 nm. The variation of charge carrier density with film thickness has been estimated from the presence of surface states. To include the thickness dependence of charge carrier density, a modified theory has been used to explain the observed behaviour of the TCR. The experimental results for the TCR of Bi films are found to be consistent with the theoretical values. The existence of the extremum is theoretically verified. From the analysis, the specularity parameter p is about 0.44 and the reflection coefficient R is 0.1.

  4. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride-organic hybrid films via graphene doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Airul Azha Abd [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia UKM, Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Technology Park Malaysia, Malaysia Institute of Microelectronics and System, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Umar, Akrajas Ali; Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia UKM, Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Chen, Xiaomei [Jimei University, College of Food and Biological Engineering, Jimei, Xiamen (China); Oyama, Munetaka [Kyoto University, Graduate School of Engineering, Nishikyoku, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    The thermoelectric properties of graphene-doped bismuth telluride-PEDOT:PSS-glycerol (hybrid) films were investigated. Prior to the study, p-type and n-type hybrid films were prepared by doping the PEDOT:PSS-glycerol with the p- and n-type bismuth telluride. Graphene-doped hybrid films were prepared by adding graphene particles of concentration ranging from 0.02 to 0.1 wt% into the hybrid films. Films of graphene-doped hybrid system were then prepared on a glass substrate using a spin-coating technique. It was found that the electrical conductivity of the hybrid films increases with the increasing of the graphene-dopant concentration and optimum at 0.08 wt% for both p- and n-type films, namely 400 and 195 S/cm, respectively. Further increasing in the concentration caused a decreasing in the electrical conductivity. Analysis of the thermoelectric properties of the films obtained that the p-type film exhibited significant improvement in its thermoelectric properties, where the thermoelectric properties increased with the increasing of the doping concentration. Meanwhile, for the case of n-type film, graphene doping showed a negative effect to the thermoelectrical properties, where the thermoelectric properties decreased with the increasing of doping concentration. Seebeck coefficient (and power factor) for optimum p-type and n-type hybrid thin films, i.e., doped with 0.08 wt% of graphene, is 20 μV/K (and 160 μW m{sup -1} K{sup -2}) and 10 μV/K (and 19.5 μW m{sup -1} K{sup -2}), respectively. The obtained electrical conductivity and thermoelectric properties of graphene-doped hybrid film are interestingly several orders higher than the pristine hybrid films. A thermocouple device fabricated utilizing the p- and n-type graphene-doped hybrid films can generate an electric voltage as high as 2.2 mV under a temperature difference between the hot-side and the cold-side terminal as only low as 55 K. This is equivalent to the output power as high as 24.2 nW (for output

  5. Magnetic hysteresis of cerium doped bismuth ferrite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Surbhi [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi (India); Tomar, Monika [Physics Department, Miranda House, University of Delhi (India); Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drguptavinay@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi (India)

    2015-03-15

    The influence of Cerium doping on the structural and magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} thin films have been investigated. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data and successive de-convolution of Raman scattering spectra of Bi{sub 1−x}Ce{sub x}FeO{sub 3} (BCFO) thin films with x=0–0.20 reflect the single phase rhombohedral (R3c) formation for x<0.08, whereas concentration-driven gradual structural phase transition from rhombohedral (R3c) to partial tetragonal (P4mm) phase follows for x≥0.08. All low wavenumber Raman modes (<300 cm{sup −1}) showed a noticeable shift towards higher wavenumber with increase in doping concentration, except Raman E-1 mode (71 cm{sup −1}), shows a minor shift. Sudden evolution of Raman mode at 668 cm{sup −1}, manifested as A{sub 1}-tetragonal mode, accompanied by the shift to higher wavenumber with increase in doping concentration (x) affirm partial structural phase transition. Anomalous wasp waist shaped (M–H) hysteresis curves with improved saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) for BCFO thin films is attributed to antiferromagnetic interaction/hybridization between Ce 4f and Fe 3d electronic states. The contribution of both hard and soft phase to the total coercivity is calculated. Polycrystalline Bi{sub 0.88}Ce{sub 0.12}FeO{sub 3} thin film found to exhibit better magnetic properties with M{sub s}=15.9 emu/g without any impure phase. - Highlights: • Synthesis of single phase Bi{sub 1−x}Ce{sub x}FeO{sub 3} thin films with (x=0–0.2) on cost effective corning glass and silicon substrates using CSD technique. • Structural modification studies using Rietveld refinement of XRD and de-convolution of Raman spectra revealed partial phase transition from rhombohedral (R3c) to tetragonal (P4mm) phase. • Possible reasons for origin of pinched magnetic behavior of BCFO thin films are identified. • Contribution of both hard and soft magnetic phase in coercivity of BCFO thin films is calculated and practical

  6. Bismuth Nanoparticle Decorating Graphite Felt as a High-Performance Electrode for an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Shao, Yuyan; Luo, Qingtao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Xiaolin; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2013-02-04

    The selection of electrode materials plays a great role in improving performances of all vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs). Low-cost graphite felt (GF) as traditional electrode material has to be modified to address its issue of low electrocatalytic activity. In our paper, low-cost and highly conductive bismuth nanoparticles, as a powerful alternative electrocatalyst to noble metal, are proposed and synchronously electro-deposited onto the surface of GF while running flow cells employing the electrolytes containing suitable Bi3+. Although bismuth is proved to only take effect on the redox reaction of V(II)/V(III) and present at negative half-cell side, the whole cell electrochemical performances are significantly improved. In particular, the energy efficiency is increased by 11% owing to faster charge transfer as compared with one without Bi at high charge/discharge rate of 150 mA/cm2, which is prone to reduce stack size, thus dramatically reducing the cost. The excellent results show great promise of Bi nano-catalysts in the commercialization of VRBs in terms of product cost as well as electrochemical properties.

  7. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured copper bismuth diselenide thin films from a chemical route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R H Bari; L A Patil

    2010-12-01

    Thin films of copper bismuth diselenide were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique onto glass substrate below 60°C. The deposition parameters such as time, temperature of deposition and pH of the solution, were optimized. The set of films having different elemental compositions was prepared by varying Cu/Bi ratio from 0.13–1.74. Studies on structure, composition, morphology, optical absorption and electrical conductivity of the films were carried out and discussed. Characterization includes X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), absorption spectroscopy, and electrical conductivity. The results are discussed and interpreted.

  8. Faraday effect of polycrystalline bismuth iron garnet thin film prepared by mist chemical vapor deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2017-01-01

    We have synthesized polycrystalline thin film composed of a single phase of metastable bismuth iron garnet, Bi3Fe5O12, on a fused silica substrate, one of the most widely utilized substrates in the solid-state electronics, by using mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) method. The phase purity and stoichiometry are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The resultant thin film shows a small surface roughness of 3.251 nm. The saturation magnetization at room temperature is 1200 G, and the Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm reaches -5.2 deg/μm. Both the magnetization and the Faraday rotation angles are somewhat higher than those of polycrystalline BIG thin films prepared by other methods.

  9. Ultrafast optical control of magnetization dynamics in polycrystalline bismuth doped iron garnet thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deb, Marwan, E-mail: marwan.deb@ipcms.unistra.fr; Vomir, Mircea; Rehspringer, Jean-Luc; Bigot, Jean-Yves [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504, CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, BP 43, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 02 (France)

    2015-12-21

    Controlling the magnetization dynamics on the femtosecond timescale is of fundamental importance for integrated opto-spintronic devices. For industrial perspectives, it requires to develop simple growth techniques for obtaining large area magneto-optical materials having a high amplitude ultrafast Faraday or Kerr response. Here we report on optical pump probe studies of light induced spin dynamics in high quality bismuth doped iron garnet polycrystalline film prepared by the spin coating method. We demonstrate an ultrafast non-thermal optical control of the spin dynamics using both circularly and linearly polarized pulses.

  10. Mechanical properties of bismuth implanted amorphous Ge film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhasz, A.; Szommer, P.; Lendvai, J.; Vertesy, Z.; Peto, G. E-mail: peto@mfa.kfki.hu

    1999-01-02

    Mechanical properties of Bi ion implanted a-Ge film were studied by dynamic microhardness tests and compared to those of unimplanted a-Ge film. 400 nm thick films were evaporated in units of 30 nm thick layers and bombarded with Bi ions at 60 keV energy and 2 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} current. Cyclic load-unload indentation tests and indentation creep tests were performed to determine the hardness and ductility of the ion implanted and unimplanted specimens, respectively. The brittleness of the materials was characterised by scanning electron microscopic observation of crack formation around the Vickers indentations. The dynamic hardness was much larger, the ductility lower, the crack formation was significantly larger in the case of the unimplanted than in the ion bombarded specimens. The observed differences in the mechanical properties indicate structural differences between the two types of a-Ge are in agreement with the earlier reported formation of a new amorphous phase of Ge induced by ion implantation (G. Peto, J. Kanski, U. Sodervall, Phys. Lett. 124 (1987) 510)

  11. Mechanical properties of bismuth implanted amorphous Ge film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, A.; Szommer, P.; Lendvai, J.; Vértesy, Z.; Pető, G.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical properties of Bi ion implanted a-Ge film were studied by dynamic microhardness tests and compared to those of unimplanted a-Ge film. 400 nm thick films were evaporated in units of 30 nm thick layers and bombarded with Bi ions at 60 keV energy and 2 μA/cm 2 current. Cyclic load-unload indentation tests and indentation creep tests were performed to determine the hardness and ductility of the ion implanted and unimplanted specimens, respectively. The brittleness of the materials was characterised by scanning electron microscopic observation of crack formation around the Vickers indentations. The dynamic hardness was much larger, the ductility lower, the crack formation was significantly larger in the case of the unimplanted than in the ion bombarded specimens. The observed differences in the mechanical properties indicate structural differences between the two types of a-Ge are in agreement with the earlier reported formation of a new amorphous phase of Ge induced by ion implantation (G. Pető, J. Kanski, U. Sodervall, Phys. Lett. 124 (1987) 510 [6]).

  12. Faraday effect of bismuth iron garnet thin film prepared by mist CVD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Situ; Sato, Takafumi; Kaneko, Kentaro; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2015-06-01

    Metastable bismuth iron garnet (BIG, an abbreviation of Bi3Fe5O12), one kind of garnet-type ferrites, is known to manifest very large Faraday rotation as well as low optical absorption in the visible to infrared region. We report on successful synthesis of thin film composed of single-phase BIG epitaxially grown on single-crystalline gadolinium gallium garnet (Gd3Ga5O12, GGG) substrate by using mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, which is an emerging technique for preparation of thin films. The crystal structure, surface morphology, and magnetic, optical and magneto-optical properties of the resultant thin films have been explored. The BIG thin film has a relatively flat surface free from roughness compared to those prepared by other vapor deposition methods. Saturation magnetization is about 1620 G at room temperature, which is close to that expected from the ideal magnetic structure of BIG. The maximum value of Faraday rotation angle reaches 54.3 deg/µm at a wavelength of 424 nm. This value is rather large when compared with those reported for BIG thin films prepared by other techniques. The wavelength dependence of Faraday rotation angle is analyzed well in terms of the crystal electric field (CEF) level schema. Our result suggests that the mist CVD method is a simple and effective technique to synthesize BIG thin film with excellent magneto-optical properties.

  13. Bismuth Substituted Yttrium Iron Garnet Single Crystal Films Prepared by Sol-gel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Magneto-optic Faraday rotation effect and the amount of bismuth substituted in yttrium iron garnet single crystal films prepared by gel-coating on modified gadolinium-gallium garnet substrates are investigated, where the gel is synthesized by a sol-gel reaction of nitrates and ethylene glycol. The coated gel is annealed in air at temperatures up to 660℃ for 4h, which is about 300℃ lower than that of liquid-phase epitaxy. The maximum amount of Bi substitution is x=2.7 and the crystallization temperature of garnet phase decreases with the increase of x down to 520℃ for x=2.7. In this film, a huge Faraday rotation of -8.1×104 (°)/cm at λ=0.633μm is obtained.

  14. Studies of electrochemical behavior of SWNT-film electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M. Muzibur; Jeon,I. Cheol

    2007-01-01

    The redox reactions of 4 mmol L-1 K4[Fe(CN)6] species have been studied with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (SWNT)-coated Glassy Carbon Electrode (GCE), SWNT-coated Gold Electrode (GE) and lab-made SWNT-film (SWNT-Thin-Paper-Like-Film) Electrodes individually. The SWNT-modified (physically) electrode has shown a well-defined redox peak compared with bare electrodes. CV is used in 50.0 mmol L-1 KCl containing K4[Fe(CN)6] to obtain information on both the capacitive background and electron trans...

  15. Determination of Sb(III) using an ex-situ bismuth screen-printed carbon electrode by adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Romo, Carlos; Serrano, Núria; Ariño, Cristina; Arancibia, Verónica; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2016-08-01

    The determination of Sb(III) on an ex-situ bismuth screen-printed carbon electrode (ex-situ BiSPCE) by means of adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) using quercetin-5'-sulfonic acid as chelating agent was optimized. The effect of different experimental parameters such pH, ligand concentration (CQSA), accumulation potential (Eacc) and accumulation time (tacc) were studied to obtain a wide linear range, the highest sensitivity and the lowest detection limit. Ex-situ BiSPCE was analytically compared with a sputtered bismuth screen-printed electrode (BispSPE) under optimal conditions. The obtained analytical parameters suggest that ex-situ BiSPCE behaves much better than BispSPE and the first was selected for this study. Optimal parameters were pH=4.6; CQSA=10.0 to 20.0×10(-6)molL(-1); Eacc=-0.5V and tacc=60s. Peak area is proportional to Sb(III) concentration up to 100.0μgL(-1) (tacc 60s) and 45.0μgL(-1) (tacc 120s) range, with detection limits of 1.2μgL(-)(1) (tacc 60s) and 0.8μgL(-1) (tacc 120s). The relative standard deviation for a Sb(III) solution (20.0μgL(-1)) was 3.9% for ten successive assays. Thus, the effect of various interfering metal ions was studied and the methodology was validated using a spiked groundwater reference material with very satisfactory results.

  16. Potentiometric stripping analysis of bismuth based on carbon paste electrode modified with cryptand [2.2.1]and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadhari, Nayan S.; Sanghavi, Bankim J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400 098 (India); Karna, Shashi P. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ATTN: RDRL-WM, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 (United States); Srivastava, Ashwini K., E-mail: aksrivastava@chem.mu.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400 098 (India)

    2010-12-30

    An electrochemical method based on potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) employing a cryptand [2.2.1](CRY) and carbon nanotube (CNT) modified paste electrode (CRY-CNT-PE) has been proposed for the subnanomolar determination of bismuth. The characterization of the electrode surface has been carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronocoulometry (CC). It was observed that by employing CRY-CNT-PE, a 9-fold enhancement in the PSA signal (dt/dE) was observed as compared to plain carbon paste electrode (PCPE). Under the optimized conditions, dt/dE (s/V) was proportional to the Bi(III) concentration in the range of 5.55 x 10{sup -8} to 9.79 x 10{sup -11} M (r = 0.9990) with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 3.17 x 10{sup -11} M. The practical analytical utilities of the modified electrode were demonstrated by the determination of bismuth in pharmaceutical formulations, human hair, sea water, urine and blood serum samples. The prepared modified electrode showed several advantages, such as a simple preparation method, high sensitivity, very low detection limits and excellent reproducibility. Moreover, the results obtained for bismuth analysis in commercial and real samples using CRY-CNT-PE and those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) are in agreement at the 95% confidence level.

  17. Deposition of Visible Light Active Photocatalytic Bismuth Molybdate Thin Films by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ratova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth molybdate thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering from two metallic targets in an argon/oxygen atmosphere, reportedly for the first time. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX analysis showed that the ratio of bismuth to molybdenum in the coatings can be effectively controlled by varying the power applied to each target. Deposited coatings were annealed in air at 673 K for 30 min. The crystalline structure was assessed by means of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Oxidation state information was obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Photodegradation of organic dyes methylene blue and rhodamine B was used for evaluation of the photocatalytic properties of the coatings under a visible light source. The photocatalytic properties of the deposited coatings were then compared to a sample of commercial titanium dioxide-based photocatalytic product. The repeatability of the dye degradation reactions and photocatalytic coating reusability are discussed. It was found that coatings with a Bi:Mo ratio of approximately 2:1 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity of the coatings studied; its efficacy in dye photodegradation significantly outperformed a sample of commercial photocatalytic coating.

  18. INFLUENCE OF ANNEALING TEMPERATURE ON CHARACTERISTICS OF BISMUTH DOPED ZINC OXIDE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirirat Tubsungnoen Rattanachan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Bismuth (Bi doped ZnO thin films were deposited on quartz substrates by a sol-gel spin coating method and annealed at different annealing temperatures of 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700°C, respectively. Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline Bi-doped ZnO film on quartz were investigated by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The high annealing temperature of 700°C as a critical temperature causes the crystallographic reorientation plane in ZnO:Bi nanostructure mostly due to the initial formation of the polycrystalline phase with the inter-grain segregation of Bi dopant atoms. Bi-incorporating ZnO films with an increase in annealing temperature resulted in a blue wavelength shift of the photon absorption edge. The optical band gap of the films was increased from 3.27 eV to 3.34 eV. By decreasing the annealing temperatures from 700 to 200°C, the grain size of Bi-doped ZnO decreased from 18 nm to 8 nm. The effect of the annealing temperature on the electrical conductivity had been considered. The low electrical conductivity of 0.9 (Ω.cm-1 was obtained for ZnO:0.2 film annealed at 600°C with good nano-crystallization. However, the Bi-doped ZnO films prepared by cost-effective spin coating technique provided to have a very high photon absorption coefficient (104-105 cm-1 and did not appreciably affect the optical transparency. ZnO films doped with 0.2% at. Bi can be used as a high resistive buffer layer for solar cell application.

  19. Surface Landau levels and spin states in bismuth (111) ultrathin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongjian; Sun, Xia; Liu, Xiaogang; Wu, Xiaojun; Wang, Jufeng; Tian, Mingyang; Zhao, Aidi; Luo, Yi; Yang, Jinlong; Wang, Bing; Hou, J G

    2016-03-11

    The development of next-generation electronics is much dependent on the discovery of materials with exceptional surface-state spin and valley properties. Because of that, bismuth has attracted a renewed interest in recent years. However, despite extensive studies, the intrinsic electronic transport properties of Bi surfaces are largely undetermined due to the strong interference from the bulk. Here we report the unambiguous determination of the surface-state Landau levels in Bi (111) ultrathin films using scanning tunnelling microscopy under magnetic fields perpendicular to the surface. The Landau levels of the electron-like and the hole-like carriers are accurately characterized and well described by the band structure of the Bi (111) surface from density functional theory calculations. Some specific surface spin states with a large g-factor are identified. Our findings shed light on the exploiting surface-state properties of Bi for their applications in spintronics and valleytronics.

  20. Preparation of bismuth telluride thin film by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy(ECALE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wen; YANG Junyou; GAO Xianhui; HOU Jie; BAO Siqian; FAN Xian

    2007-01-01

    Thin-layer electrochemical studies of the underpotential deposition(UPD)of Bi and Te on cold rolled silver substrate have been performed.The voltammetric analysis of underpotential shift demonstrates that the initial Te UPD on Bi-covered Ag and Bi UPD on Te-covered Ag fitted UPD dynamics mechanism.A thin film of bismuth telluride was formed by alternately depositing Te and Bi via an automated flow deposition system.X-ray diffraction indicated the deposits of Bi2Te3.Energy Dispersive X-ray Detector quantitative analysis gave a 2:3 stoichiornetric ratio of Bi to Te,which was consistent with X-ray Diffraction results.Electron probe microanalysis of the deposits showed a network structure that results from the surface defects of the cold rolled Ag substrate and the lattice mismatch between substrate and deposit.

  1. Structural, optical, and transport properties of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride thin films treated with homogeneous electron beam irradiation and thermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashiri, Masayuki; Asai, Yuki; Yamauchi, Kazuki

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of homogeneous electron beam (EB) irradiation and thermal annealing treatments on the structural, optical, and transport properties of bismuth telluride thin films. Bismuth telluride thin films were prepared by an RF magnetron sputtering method at room temperature. After deposition, the films were treated with homogeneous EB irradiation, thermal annealing, or a combination of both the treatments (two-step treatment). We employed Williamson-Hall analysis for separating the strain contribution from the crystallite domain contribution in the x-ray diffraction data of the films. We found that strain was induced in the thin films by EB irradiation and was relieved by thermal annealing. The crystal orientation along c-axis was significantly enhanced by the two-step treatment. Scanning electron microscopy indicated the melting and aggregation of nano-sized grains on the film surface by the two-step treatment. Optical analysis indicated that the interband transition of all the thin films was possibly of the indirect type, and that thermal annealing and two-step treatment methods increased the band gap of the films due to relaxation of the strain. Thermoelectric performance was significantly improved by the two-step treatment. The power factor reached a value of 17.2 μW (cm-1 K-2), approximately 10 times higher than that of the as-deposited thin films. We conclude that improving the crystal orientation and relaxing the strain resulted in enhanced thermoelectric performance.

  2. Structural, optical, and transport properties of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride thin films treated with homogeneous electron beam irradiation and thermal annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashiri, Masayuki; Asai, Yuki; Yamauchi, Kazuki

    2016-08-19

    We investigated the effects of homogeneous electron beam (EB) irradiation and thermal annealing treatments on the structural, optical, and transport properties of bismuth telluride thin films. Bismuth telluride thin films were prepared by an RF magnetron sputtering method at room temperature. After deposition, the films were treated with homogeneous EB irradiation, thermal annealing, or a combination of both the treatments (two-step treatment). We employed Williamson-Hall analysis for separating the strain contribution from the crystallite domain contribution in the x-ray diffraction data of the films. We found that strain was induced in the thin films by EB irradiation and was relieved by thermal annealing. The crystal orientation along c-axis was significantly enhanced by the two-step treatment. Scanning electron microscopy indicated the melting and aggregation of nano-sized grains on the film surface by the two-step treatment. Optical analysis indicated that the interband transition of all the thin films was possibly of the indirect type, and that thermal annealing and two-step treatment methods increased the band gap of the films due to relaxation of the strain. Thermoelectric performance was significantly improved by the two-step treatment. The power factor reached a value of 17.2 μW (cm(-1) K(-2)), approximately 10 times higher than that of the as-deposited thin films. We conclude that improving the crystal orientation and relaxing the strain resulted in enhanced thermoelectric performance.

  3. Application of bismuth bulk annular band electrode for determination of ultratrace concentrations of thallium(I) using stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Węgiel, Krystian; Jedlińska, Katarzyna; Baś, Bogusław

    2016-06-05

    A study of a new type of mercury-free working electrode - the bismuth bulk annular band working electrode (BiABE) - applied for thallium(I) detection via differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DP ASV), preceded by the complexation of interfering ions (Cd(2+), Pb(2+)) with EDTA in an acetate buffer (pH 4.5), is reported. The optimisation of experimental conditions included selection of the appropriate supporting electrolyte solution, potential and time of preconcentration, and DP mode parameters. The peak current was proportional to the concentration of Tl(I) in the range from 0.5 to 49nmolL(-1) (R=0.9992) and from 0.05 to 1.4nmolL(-1) (R=0.9987) for accumulation times of 60s and 300s, respectively. For 60s of accumulation time, the LOD was 0.005nmolL(-1) (1ngL(-1)) (at S/N=3), and the sensitivity of 18.5nA/nM was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 4.9nmolL(-1) of Tl(I) was 4.3% (n=5). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to determine Tl(I) in the certified reference materials-waters (SPS-SW1 and SPS-SW2) as well as the spiked tap and river water samples.

  4. Chiral Recognition of Amino Acids by Magnetoelectrodeposited Cu Film Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwao Mogi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral behavior of magnetoelectrodeposited (MED Cu film electrodes was investigated for the electrochemical reactions of amino acids. The Cu films were electrodeposited under a magnetic field of 5 T perpendicular to the electrode surface. Such MED Cu films were employed as an electrode, and cyclic voltammograms were measured for the electrochemical reactions of several kinds of amino acids. Chiral behavior was clearly observed as oxidation current difference between the enantiomers of alanine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. The MED film electrodes with the thickness of 50~500 nm exhibited such chiral behavior, and their surface morphologies had network structures, which could be induced by the micro-MHD effect.

  5. Microscopic and voltammetric properties of lustrous bismuth deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Krolicka, Agnieszka; Bobrowski, Andrzej; Pamuła, Elżbieta

    2010-01-01

    A comparison of lustrous bismuth films, plated at glassy carbon, platinum and gold supports, is presented. The voltammetric performance of preplated bismuth film electrodes was tested using 50 μg/L In(III) and 50 μg/L Pb(II) solutions in 0.1 M acetic buffer in square wave and differential pulse modes. The influence of support material, plating solution concentration and storing conditions on the voltammetric response of BiFEs is discussed. The results of microscopic examination...

  6. Investigation of quantum confinement within the tunneling-percolation transition for ultrathin bismuth films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oller, Declan, E-mail: declan_oller@brown.edu; Fernandes, Gustavo E.; Kim, Jin Ho; Xu, Jimmy

    2015-10-15

    We investigate conduction phenomena in ultrathin bismuth (Bi) films that are thermally evaporated onto flat quartz. Critical points in the conductance as a function of deposition time are identified and used to scale the data from time dependence to coverage dependence. The resulting nonlinear coverage scaling equation is verified independently via analysis done on transmission electron microscope images of the evaporated films. The scaled data yields critical exponents in very good agreement with classical percolation theory, and clearly shows the transition from the tunneling regime into percolation. Surprisingly, no noticeable signatures of size-quantization effects in the nucleation sites as a function of deposition time is observed in either regime. We discuss our findings in light of Boltzmann transport modeling of 1D conduction as an approximation to the narrow percolative paths that form at the onset of percolation. Our results suggest that lack of a preferred crystallite orientation in the nucleation process may indeed cause quantum-confinement to be too smeared out to be observable in the tunneling to percolation transition.

  7. Bismuth induced enhanced green emission from terbium ions and their complex in thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Kumar, Brijesh; Verma, R K; Rai, S B

    2014-07-28

    Bismuth nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared by the pulsed laser ablation technique using the third harmonics of a Nd-YAG laser. UV-absorption and TEM micrographs show Bi NPs of spherical shape with the average particle size ranging from 15 to 20 nm. These NPs were dispersed with Tb(3+) ions and their complex with salicylic acid (Sal) in polyvinyl alcohol to obtain thin films. The influence of Bi NPs on the emissive properties of Tb(3+) ions and the [Tb(Sal)3(phen)] complex has been studied by luminescence spectroscopy using 266 nm and 355 nm as excitation wavelengths. The luminescence intensity of Tb(3+) ions complexed with Sal in the thin polymer films increased significantly as compared to the Tb(3+) ions in the presence of Bi NPs on excitation at 355 nm. However, terbium ions in the case of the [Tb(Sal)3(phen)] complex together with NPs show an intense and extended emission spectrum in the 375-700 nm range for transitions arising from (5)D3 and (5)D4 levels to different (7)F(J) levels on 266 nm excitation. The luminescence enhancement has also been supported by lifetime measurements.

  8. Film stresses and electrode buckling in organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brand, Vitali

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the film stresses that develop in the polymer films and metal electrodes of poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells. A compressive biaxial stress of ∼-36 MPa was measured in PEDOT:PSS while a tensile stress of ∼6 MPa was measured in the BHJ layer. We then analyze the effect of electrode deposition rate on the film stresses in the Al electrode. Compressive stresses of ∼-100 to -145 MPa in the Al electrode lead to a buckling instability resulting in undulating electrode surface topography. The BHJ layer was found to have the lowest cohesion (∼1.5-1.8 J/m 2) among the layers of the solar cell and dependent on the Al electrode deposition rate. The cohesive failure path in the BHJ layer exhibited the same periodicity and orientation of the Al electrode buckling topography. We discuss the implications of the film stresses on damage processes during device fabrication and operation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. HIGHLY SENSITIVE CATALASE ELECTRODE BASED ON POLYPYRROLE FILMS WITH MICROCONTAINERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-ying Gao; Gao-quan Shi

    2006-01-01

    Highly sensitive catalase electrodes for sensing hydrogen peroxide have been fabricated based on polypyrrole films with microcontainers. The microcontainers have a cup-like morphology and are arranged in a density of 4000 units cm-2.Catalase was immobilized into the polypyrrole films with microcontainers (Ppy-mc), which were coated on a Pt substrate electrode. The catalase/Ppy-mc/Pt electrode showed linear response to hydrogen peroxide in the range of 0-18 mmol/L at a potential of -0.3 V (versus SCE). Its sensitivity was measured to be approximately 3.64 μA (mmol/L)-1 cm-2, which is about two times that of the electrode fabricated from a flat Ppy film (catalase/Ppy-flat/Pt electrode). The electrode is highly selective for hydrogen peroxide and its sensitivity is interfered by potential interferents such as ascorbic acid, urea and fructose. Furthermore, such catalase electrodes showed long-term storage stability of 15 days under dry conditions at 4℃.

  10. Nanotube Film Electrode and an Electroactive Device Fabricated with the Nanotube Film Electrode and Methods for Making Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed is a single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film electrode (FE), all-organic electroactive device systems fabricated with the SWNT-FE, and methods for making same. The SWCNT can be replaced by other types of nanotubes. The SWCNT film can be obtained by filtering SWCNT solution onto the surface of an anodized alumina membrane. A freestanding flexible SWCNT film can be collected by breaking up this brittle membrane. The conductivity of this SWCNT film can advantageously be higher than 280 S/cm. An electroactive polymer (EAP) actuator layered with the SWNT-FE shows a higher electric field-induced strain than an EAP layered with metal electrodes because the flexible SWNT-FE relieves the restraint of the displacement of the polymeric active layer as compared to the metal electrode. In addition, if thin enough, the SWNT-FE is transparent in the visible light range, thus making it suitable for use in actuators used in optical devices.

  11. Microstructure, morphology, adhesion and tribological behavior of sputtered niobium carbide and bismuth films on tool steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Angélica Ardila Rodríguez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE AR-SA Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE AR-SA NbC, Bi and Bi/NbC coatings were deposited on AISI M2 steel substrates using unbalanced magnetron sputtering at room temperature with zero bias voltage. Were studied the phase structure, the morphology, the adhesion and the tribological behavior of the three coatings. The niobium carbide film crystallized in the NbC cubic structure, and the bismuth layers had a rhombohedral phase with random orientation. The NbC coating had a smooth surface with low roughness, while the Bi layers on steel and on NbC coating had higher roughness and a morphology composed of large particles. By using a ductile Nb interlayer good adhesion between the NbC coating and the steel substrate was achieved. The Bi coating had better adhesion with the NbC layer than with the steel substrate. The tribological performance of the Bi coating on steel was not satisfactory, but according to the preliminary results, the produced NbC and Bi/NbC coatings have the potential to improve the tribological performance of the steel.

  12. Sputtered iridium oxide films (SIROFs) for neural stimulation electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Ehrlich, Julia; Plante, Timothy D.; Smirnov, Anton; Shire, Douglas B.; Gingerich, Marcus; Rizzo, Joseph F

    2004-01-01

    Sputtered iridium oxide films (SIROFs) deposited by DC reactive sputtering from an iridium metal target have been characterized in vitro for their potential as neural recording and stimulation electrodes. SIROFs were deposited over gold metallization on flexible multielectrode arrays fabricated on thin (15 µm) polyimide substrates. SIROF thickness and electrode areas of 200–1300 nm and 1960–125600 µm2, respectively, were investigated. The charge-injection capacities of the SIROFs were evaluat...

  13. Method for producing thin film electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, Manoj; Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Dorris, Stephen

    2016-06-07

    The invention provides for A method for producing pure phase strontium ruthenium oxide films, the method comprising solubilizing ruthenium-containing and strontium-containing compounds to create a mixture; subjecting the mixture to a first temperature above that necessary for forming RuO.sub.2 while simultaneously preventing formation of RuO.sub.2; maintaining the first temperature for a time to remove organic compounds from the mixture, thereby forming a substantially dry film; and subjecting the film to a second temperature for time sufficient to crystallize the film. Also provided is pure phase material comprising strontium ruthenium oxide wherein the material contains no RuO.sub.2.

  14. Mercury film electrodes: developments, trends and potentialities for electroanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, A; Fielden, P R

    2003-03-01

    In this article, the field of mercury film electrodes (MFE's) as electroanalytical devices is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the area of new materials as substrates for the mercury coating and the mercury plating process as well as on the developments related to the electrode modification used to achieve an increase in either the selectivity and/or the sensitivity of the analysis. Other topics discussed are microelectrodes, disposable electrodes and some novel, innovative or less well explored applications of electroanalytical methods using MFE's. The future prospects, potential uses and alternatives for MFE's in electroanalysis are finally discussed.

  15. Magnetism and electrode dependant resistive switching in Ca-doped ceramic bismuth ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubi, D., E-mail: rubi@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [GIA and INN, CAC-CNEA, 1650, San Martin (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); ECyT, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Marlasca, F.G. [GIA and INN, CAC-CNEA, 1650, San Martin (Argentina); Reinoso, M. [GIA and INN, CAC-CNEA, 1650, San Martin (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bonville, P. [CEA Saclay, IRAMIS, SPEC (CNRS URA 2464), F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Levy, P. [GIA and INN, CAC-CNEA, 1650, San Martin (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized ceramic samples of BiFeO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy that the Fe valence remains 3+ upon Ca-doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Ca-doping reduces the transition field from the spatially modulated to the collinear magnetic state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We suggest that resistive switching in Ag/Bi{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} system is related to the formation of AgO{sub x} at the interface. - Abstract: Here we report on the preparation and structural, magnetic and electrical characterization of BiFeO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} ceramic multiferroic samples. We suggest that Ca-doping creates oxygen vacancies and destabilizes the BiFeO{sub 3} spiral magnetic structure. We also study resistive switching effects in Bi{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} with metallic electrodes, finding that the appearance of the effect is dependant on the fabrication procedure of the metallic electrode. On the basis of these observations, we critically revise some assumptions in currently available models of resistive switching of complex oxides.

  16. Facile synthesis and thermoelectric studies of n-type bismuth telluride nanorods with cathodic stripping Te electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Guoqiu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, Jiangsu (China); Li, Yusong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, Jiangsu (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, 210092 Jiangsu (China); Bao, Ning [School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, Jiangsu (China); Miao, Jianwen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, Jiangsu (China); Ge, Cunwang, E-mail: gecunwang@ntu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Yihong [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, 210092 Jiangsu (China)

    2014-01-15

    Bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) nanorods (NRs) of n-type thermoelectric materials were prepared using an electrogenerated precursor of tellurium electrode in the presence of Bi{sup 3+} and mercapto protecting agent in aqueous solution under atmosphere condition. The optimal preparation conditions were obtained with ratio of Bi{sup 3+} to mercapto group and Te coulomb by photoluminescence spectra. The mechanism for generation of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} precursor was investigated via the cyclic voltammetry. The highly crystalline rhombohedral structure of as-prepared Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} NRs with the shell of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} was evaluated with high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The near-infrared absorption of synthetic Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} NRs was characterized with spectrophotometer to obtain information of electron at interband transition. The thermoelectric performance of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} NRs was assessed with the result of electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and the figure of merit ZT parameters, indicating that thermoelectric performance of as-prepared Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanocrystals was improved by reducing thermal conductivity while maintaining the power factor. - Graphical abstract: The nanorods of n-type chalcogenides semiconductors of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} are prepared using electrochemical technique with Te electrode. The highly crystalline rhombohedral structure of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanorods with the shell of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} is demonstrated. The thermoelectric measurement indicated that thermoelectric performance of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} NRs was improved by a highly reduced thermal conductivity while maintaining the power factor. - Highlights: • The n-type Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanorods are prepared using an electrogenerated precursor. • The rhombohedral structure of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanorods with the shell of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} is demonstrated. • Bi

  17. Voltammetry at the Thin-Film Mercury Electrode (TFME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, R. S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed is the use of the Thin-Film Mercury Electrode for anodic stripping voltammetry, simple voltammetry of solution cations and cathodic stripping voltammetry for the determination of an environmentally important molecule, thiourea. The construction of a simple potentiostat and applications for student laboratory courses are included. (CW)

  18. Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg M. Swain, PI

    2009-03-10

    The DOE-funded research conducted by the Swain group was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder. (Note: All potentials are reported versus Ag/AgCl (sat'd KCl) and cm{sup 2} refers to the electrode geometric area, unless otherwise stated).

  19. Electrochemical co-detection of As(III), Hg(II) and Pb(II) on a bismuth modified exfoliated graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafa, Potlako J; Idris, Azeez O; Mabuba, Nonhlangabezo; Arotiba, Omotayo A

    2016-06-01

    The applicability of a bismuth modified exfoliated graphite (EG) electrode for the co-detection of heavy metal ions -As(III), Hg(II) and Pb(II)-in water samples using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) is reported. Bismuth nanoparticles were deposited on an EG electrode potentiostatically at -1000mV for 300s to form EG-Bi electrode. The Bi modified EG electrode was characterised in 5mM ferrocene and used to as an electrochemical sensor for Pb(II) and Hg(II) individually in 0.1M acetate buffer solution (pH 5) with detection limits (LODs) of 0.83μgL(-1)., 0.46μgL(-1) and limit of quantification of 2.8μgL(-1) and 1.5μgL(-1) respectively. Simultaneous detection of Pb(II), As(III) and Hg(II) was also performed with LODs of 0.053μgL(-1), 0.014μgL(-1), 0.081μgL(-1) and LOQs of 0.18μgL(-1), 0.047μgL(-1) and 0.27μgL(-1) for Pb(II), As(III) and Hg(II) respectively. All the detections were performed under optimised experimental conditions. The stability of the EG-Bi sensor was tested and the electrode was applied to environmental samples. The results found with this method were comparable with those obtained with inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometric technique.

  20. Construção e aplicação de um minissensor de filme de bismuto utilizando materiais de baixo custo para determinações voltamétricas in loco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos S. Figueiredo-Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a low cost mini sensor containing a bismuth-film electrode (BiFE, as work electrode, a silver electrode as pseudo reference electrode, and copper as counter electrode is proposed. The application of this mini sensor using a low cost electrochemical cell for in loco voltammetric determinations of inorganic and organic analytes is also described.

  1. Nanocalorimetry of bismuth nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Eric Ashley

    The properties of nanosized bismuth particles are investigated using a nanocalorimetric technique. A brief description of the experimental method and data analysis procedures is reported. Bismuth nanoparticles are found to melt at a temperature below that of bulk material, but higher than expected using the standard model. Also included is the results of a finite element analysis and simulated melting of bismuth films on various kinds of sensors. Temperature distributions are found to be nonuniform for calorimetric sensors with Al metallizations, but much more uniform for Pt metallized sensors. The consequences of this nonuniformity on caloric data are discussed.

  2. Sputtering and surface topography modification of bismuth thin films under swift {sup 84}Kr{sup 15+} ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammeri, S. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, CRNA, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Ouichaoui, S., E-mail: souchaoui@gmail.com [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie H. Boumediene (USTHB), Faculte de Physique, Laboratoire SNIRM, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Ammi, H. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, CRNA, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, P.O. Box 1906, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Dib, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, CRNA, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Msimanga, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)

    2012-12-01

    The sputtering and surface topography modification of bismuth thin films deposited onto Si substrates and irradiated by 27.5 MeV {sup 84}Kr{sup 15+} ions over the fluence range 10{sup 12}-10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} have been studied using three complementary techniques: Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The RBS analysis reveals a linear reduction of the initial thickness of the irradiated bismuth samples by {approx}4% up to 7% with increasing ion fluence corresponding to a mean sputtering yield of {approx}2.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2} at/ion. Besides, significant sample surface topography changes occur upon ion irradiation consisting in grain growth and surface roughening clearly pointed out by performed AFM and XRD analyses. Moreover, a close correlation is observed between the variations versus ion fluence of the measured sputtering yield and the determined Bi surface grain size and compressive strain. These moderate Bi surface effects are similar to those pointed out previously for thin films irradiated by MeV heavy ions. They can be mainly caused by inelastic electronic collision mechanisms taking place within the Bi material electronic stopping power regime below the threshold for latent track formation.

  3. Growth morphology and structure of bismuth thin films on GaSb(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemmeren, T. van; Lottermoser, L.; Falkenberg, G.

    1998-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy and surface X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the growth of thin layers of bismuth on GaSb(110). At submonolayer coverages, growth of two-dimensional islands occurs. A uniform (1 x I)-reconstructio...... that the (1 x 1)-phases formed by antimony and bismuth adsorbates on (110) surfaces of other III-V compound semiconductors are also described by the epitaxial continued layer model. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  4. Growth of bismuth telluride thin film on Pt by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wen; YANG Jun-you; GAO Xian-hui; HOU Jie; ZHANG Tong-jun; CUI Kun

    2005-01-01

    An automated thin-layer flow cell electrodeposition system was developed for growing Bi2 Te3 thin film by ECALE. The dependence of the Bi and Te deposition potentials on Pt electrode was studied. In the first attempt,this reductive Te underpotential deposition (UPD)/reductive Bi UPD cycle was performed to 100 layers. A better linearity of the stripping charge with the number of cycles has been shown and confirmed a layer-by-layer growth mode, which is consistent with an epitaxial growth. The 4: 3 stoichiometric ratio of Bi to Te suggests that the incomplete charge transfer in HTeO2+ reduction excludes the possibility of Bi2 Te3 formation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis also reveals that the incomplete charge transfer in HTeO2+ occurs in Te direct deposition. The effective way of depositing Bi2 Te3 on Pt consists in oxidative Te UPD and reductive Bi UPD. The thin film deposited by this procedure was characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). A polycrystalline characteristic was confirmed by XRD. The 2 : 3 stoichiometric ratio was confirmed by XPS. The SEM image indicates that the deposit looks like a series of buttons about 0.3 - 0.4 μm in diameter, which is corresponding with calculated thickness of the epitaxial film. This suggests that the particle growth appears to be linear with the number of cycles, as it is consistent with a layer by layer growth mode.

  5. Dielectric, impedance and ferroelectric characteristics of c-oriented bismuth vanadate films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, Neelam [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Krupanidhi, S.B. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Varma, K.B.R. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)]. E-mail: kbrvarma@mrc.iisc.ernet.in

    2007-03-15

    Ferroelectric bismuth vandante, Bi{sub 2}VO{sub 5.5} (BVO) thin films with layered perovskite structure were deposited by pulsed excimer laser ablation technique on (1 1 1) Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. The polarization hysteresis (P versus E) studies on the BVO thin films at 300 K confirmed the remnant polarization (P {sub r}) and coercive field (E {sub c}) to be 5.6 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} and 113 kV/cm, respectively. The same was corroborated via the capacitance-voltage measurements. The dielectric response and conduction mechanism of BVO thin films under small ac fields were analyzed using impendence spectroscopy. A strong low frequency dielectric dispersion (LFDD) was found to exist in these films, which was ascribed to the presence of the ionized space charge carriers such as oxygen ion vacancies and interfacial polarization. The room temperature dielectric constant and the loss (D) at 100 kHz were 233 and 0.07, respectively. The thermal activation energy for the relaxation process of the ionized space charge carriers was 0.85 eV. The frequency characteristics of BVO thin films under study showed universal dynamic response that was proposed by Jonscher for the systems associated with quasi-free charges.

  6. Effect of Bi content in precursor solutions on microstructure and ferroelectric properties of bismuth cerium titanate thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sol-gel derived bismuth cerium titanate (BCT) thin films with different Bi contents in precursor solu- tions were deposited on the Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates. The effect of Bi content in the precursor solutions on the microstructure and ferroelectric properties of the films was investigated. It is found that with Bi content increasing from 90% to 110% of the nominal value in the precursor solutions, the dissipation factor and leakage current density of the BCT films obtained decrease, while the grain sizes, dielectric constant and remanent polarizations (2Pr) increase, and concurrently, a Bi-deficient phase of Bi2Ti2O7 gradually disappears. The film prepared from solution with 110% of the nominal Bi content exhibits pure Bi-layered Aurivillius polycrystalline phase, and the 2Pr value and coercive field value are 67.1 μC/cm2 and 299.7 kV/cm, respectively. Their dielectric constant and the dissipation factor are about 172 and 0.033 at 1 kHz, respectively. Moreover, this film shows no polarization fatigue after 4.46×109 switching cycles.

  7. Transferred metal electrode films for large-area electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jin-Guo [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore S117543 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering (NGS), National University of Singapore, Medical Drive, Singapore S117456 (Singapore); Kam, Fong-Yu [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore S117543 (Singapore); Chua, Lay-Lay [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore S117543 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore S117543 (Singapore)

    2014-11-10

    The evaporation of metal-film gate electrodes for top-gate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) limits the minimum thickness of the polymer gate dielectric to typically more than 300 nm due to deep hot metal atom penetration and damage of the dielectric. We show here that the self-release layer transfer method recently developed for high-quality graphene transfer is also capable of giving high-quality metal thin-film transfers to produce high-performance capacitors and OFETs with superior dielectric breakdown strength even for ultrathin polymer dielectric films. Dielectric breakdown strengths up to 5–6 MV cm{sup −1} have been obtained for 50-nm thin films of polystyrene and a cyclic olefin copolymer TOPAS{sup ®} (Zeon). High-quality OFETs with sub-10 V operational voltages have been obtained this way using conventional polymer dielectrics and a high-mobility polymer semiconductor poly[2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophene-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-2,5-diyl]. The transferred metal films can make reliable contacts without damaging ultrathin polymer films, self-assembled monolayers and graphene, which is not otherwise possible from evaporated or sputtered metal films.

  8. Electrochemically driven, electrode-addressable formation of functionalized polydopamine films for neural interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyungtae; Lee, Seokyoung; Kim, Raeyoung; Choi, Insung S; Nam, Yoonkey

    2012-12-21

    The electrode-specific formation of polydopamine films is achieved by applying positive voltage to the target electrodes at pH 6.0. The functionalization of the films is simultaneously carried out by co-depositing dopamine with molecules of interest onto the electrode.

  9. A novel antifuse structure based on amorphous bismuth zinc niobate thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Gang; Li Wei; Li Ping; Li Zuxiong; Fan Xue; Jiang Jing

    2012-01-01

    A novel antifuse structure with amorphous bismuth zinc niobate (a-BZN) dielectrics was proposed.The characteristics of the a-BZN antifuse were investigated.Programming direction of up to down was chosen to rupture the a-BZN antifuse.The breakdown voltage of the a-BZN antifuse was obtained at a magnitude of 6.56 V.A large off-state resistance of more than 1 GΩ for the a-BZN antifuse was demonstrated.The surface micrograph of the ruptured a-BZN antifuses was illustrated.Programming characteristics with the programming time of 0.46 ms and on-state properties with the average resistance value of 26.1 Ω of the a-BZN antifuse were exhibited.The difference of characteristics of the a-BZN antifuse from that of a cubic pyrochlore bismuth zinc niobate (cp-BZN) antifuse and gate oxide antifuse was compared and analyzed.

  10. Anthocyanin-sensitized solar cells using carbon nanotube films as counter electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongwei; Zeng, Haifeng; Subramanian, Venkatachalam; Masarapu, Charan; Hung, Kai-Hsuan; Wei, Bingqing

    2008-11-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) films have been used as counter electrodes in natural dye-sensitized (anthocyanin-sensitized) solar cells to improve the cell performance. Compared with conventional cells using natural dye electrolytes and platinum as the counter electrodes, cells with a single-walled nanotube (SWNT) film counter electrode show comparable conversion efficiency, which is attributed to the increase in short circuit current density due to the high conductivity of the SWNT film.

  11. Voltage-Induced Buckling of Dielectric Films using Fluid Electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Tavakol, Behrouz

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and integrable control of different flows within microfluidic channels is crucial to further development of lab-on-a-chip and fully integrated adaptable structures. Here we introduce a flexible microactuator that buckles at a high deformation rate and alters the downstream fluid flow. The microactuator consists of a confined, thin, dielectric film that buckles into the microfluidic channel when exposed to voltage supplied through conductive fluid electrodes. We estimate the critical buckling voltage, and characterize the buckled shape of the actuator. Finally, we investigate the effects of frequency, flow rate, and the pressure differences on the behavior of the buckling structure and the resulting fluid flow. These results demonstrate that the voltage--induced buckling of embedded microstructures using fluid electrodes provides a means for high speed attenuation of microfluidic flow.

  12. BaPbO3 perovskite electrode for lead zirconate titanate ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yih-Rong; Wu, Jenn-Ming

    2001-11-01

    BaPbO3 (BPO) films were prepared by rf-magnetron sputtering at temperatures as low as 350 °C. These films possessed low electrical resistivity of 1.4×10-3 Ω cm, which is appropriate for electrodes. The BPO electrode has an advantage over a Pt electrode in that it lowers the crystallization temperature of Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 (PZT) films from 600 to 550 °C. The coercive fields of the PZT films deposited on a BPO/Pt electrode are significantly lower than those deposited on the Pt electrode, but the remanent polarization remained essentially unchanged. The BPO electrode also improved the fatigue resistance and decreased the leakage current of the PZT films deposited.

  13. ELECTROANALYTICAL APPLICATIONS OF CARBOXYL-MODIFIED CARBON NANOTUBE FILM ELECTRODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.G. Hu; W.L. Wang; K.J. Liao; W. Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of a carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube films was investigated to explore its possibility in electroanalytical applicaton. Cyclic voltammetry of quinone was conducted in 1mol/L Na2SO4, which showed a stable, quasi-reversible voltammetric response for quinone / hydroquinone, and the anodic and the cathodic peak potentials were 0.657V and -0.029V (vs. SCE) at a scan rate of 0.1V.s-1, respectively. Both anodic and cathodic peak currents depended linearly on the square root of the scan rate over the range of 0.01-0. 5 V.s-1, which suggested that the process of the electrode reactions was diffusion-controlled. Carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube electrodes made it possible to determine low level of dopamine selectively in the presence of a large excess of ascorbic acid in acidic media using derivative voltammetry.The results obtained were discussed in details. This work demonstrates the potential of carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube electrodes for electroanalytical applications.

  14. Synthesis and Electrochemical Sensing Toward Heavy Metals of Bunch-like Bismuth Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large-scale bunch-like bismuth (Bi nanostructures were the first time to be synthesized via two-step electrochemical deposition. The growth mechanism of the nanostructures was discussed. Such a designed bunch-like Bi electrode has high sensitivity to detect the heavy metal ions due to its unique three-dimensional structures and strong ability of adsorbing the heavy metal ions. The bunch-like Bi electrode’s detection of heavy metals was statically performed using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV. The detection in the Pb(II concentration range of 2.5–50 μg/l was also performed. Based on the experimental results, this bunch-like Bi electrode can be considered as an interesting alternative to common mercury electrodes and bismuth film electrodes for possible use in electrochemical studies and electroanalytical applications.

  15. Ultra high sensitivity, room temperature magneto-optic field sensor made of ferromagnetic bismuth rare-earth iron garnet thick films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong Ho; Garzarella, Anthony; Fratello, Vince

    2011-03-01

    The ferrimagnetic bismuth rare-earth iron garnet (BiGdLu)3 (FeGa)5 O12 thick film has a specific Faraday rotation θS of 0.09 °/mm at 1550 nm and excellent transparency at infrared wavelengths. Using the thick film we recently have demonstrated a magneto-optic (MO) field sensor with a sensitivity of about 10-14 T/ Hz 1/2 , comparable with SQUID. The sensor is made of all dielectric materials including the bismuth rare-earth iron garnet and optical fibers, and is operated at room temperature without any cooling requirement. The MO field sensor is capable to measure a magnetic field over a very large dynamic range (from a very weak field to a very high magnetic field exceeding several hundred Tesla) and over a very wide frequency range, which may be from DC to a few hundred GHz. However, presently, our MO sensor's frequency range is limited from DC to 2 GHz. We think that this limited frequency range is due to the presence of magnetic domains in the bismuth rare-earth iron garnet film. In this presentation we will report our experimental results obtained from this MO field sensor as well as the effect of magnetic domains.

  16. Investigation of Top/Bottom electrode and Diffusion Barrier Layer for PZT Thick Film MEMS Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Pedersen, Thomas; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2008-01-01

    Top and bottom electrodes for screen printed piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate, Pb(ZrxTi1 - x)O3 (PZT) thick film are investigated with respect to future MEMS devices. Down to 100 nm thick E-beam evaporated Al and Pt films are patterned as top electrodes on the PZT using a lift-off process...

  17. Polymyxin-coated Au and carbon nanotube electrodes for stable [NiFe]-hydrogenase film voltammetry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeben, F.J.M.; Heller, I.; Albracht, S.P.J.; Dekker, C.; Lemay, S.G.; Heering, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the use of polymyxin (PM), a cyclic cationic lipodecapeptide, as an electrode modifier for studying protein film voltammetry (PFV) on Au and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) electrodes. Pretreating the electrodes with PM allows for the subsequent immobilization of an active submonol

  18. Polyaniline/polysulfone composite film electrode for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Xiaojuan, E-mail: fengxiaojuan820@yahoo.cn [Chemistry Department of HeXi University, Zhangye 734000 (China); Shi Yanlong [Chemistry Department of HeXi University, Zhangye 734000 (China); Hu Zhongai [Key Laboratory of Polymer, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared a composite film which has bi-layers with asymmetric microstructure and relatively rich porosity which provides larger surface area for electrochemical reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The outer polysulfone layer is propitious for the organic molecules to enrich on the composite film, which brings great enhancement in electron transfer kinetics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite film electrode can be used to detect qualitatively or quantitatively hydroquinone and catechol in the single solute or mixed systems. - Abstract: Polyaniline (PAN)/polysulfone (PSF) composite film electrodes were successfully prepared by electropolymerization using cyclic votammetry technique. The composite film electrodes show a great enhancement in electron transfer kinetics, and the separation between oxidation and reduction peaks ({Delta}E{sub p}) decreases from 200 to 35 mV for hydroquinone (H{sub 2}Q) and from 275 to 42 mV for catechol (CC) at bare Pt and composite film electrodes respectively. In their mixed systems, the redox peak of H{sub 2}Q and two pairs of redox peaks of CC on this composite film electrode could be obviously distinguished which indicates the composite film electrodes have excellent electrocatalytic activity and reversibility towards the oxidation of two diphenols (hydroquinone and catechol). The linear relationships between the peak current and concentration are observed for single solute and mixed systems within the certain concentration range, implying that the composite film electrodes have potential application in the qualitative or quantitative analysis of diphenol.

  19. Current distribution effects in AC impedance spectroscopy of electroceramic point contact and thin film model electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Jacobsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The Finite-Element-Method (FEM) was used for the simulations of the effect of a changing current distribution during AC impedance spectrum recording on electroceramic point contact and thin film model electrodes. For pure electronic conducting point contact electrodes the transition from...... regarding its significance is provided. The associated characteristic impedance spectrum shape change is simulated and its origin discussed. Furthermore, the characteristic shape of impedance spectra of thin electroceramic film electrodes with lateral ohmic resistance is studied as a function...

  20. Charge transport in films of Geobacter sulfurreducens on graphite electrodes as a function of film thickness

    KAUST Repository

    Jana, Partha Sarathi

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing, and understanding the mechanisms of growth and activity of, biofilms of electroactive bacteria (EAB) on solid electrodes is of increasing interest, for application to microbial fuel and electrolysis cells. Microbial electrochemical cell technology can be used to generate electricity, or higher value chemicals, from organic waste. The capability of biofilms of electroactive bacteria to transfer electrons to solid anodes is a key feature of this emerging technology, yet the electron transfer mechanism is not fully characterized as yet. Acetate oxidation current generated from biofilms of an EAB, Geobacter sulfurreducens, on graphite electrodes as a function of time does not correlate with film thickness. Values of film thickness, and the number and local concentration of electrically connected redox sites within Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms as well as a charge transport diffusion co-efficient for the biofilm can be estimated from non-turnover voltammetry. The thicker biofilms, of 50 ± 9 μm, display higher charge transport diffusion co-efficient than that in thinner films, as increased film porosity of these films improves ion transport, required to maintain electro-neutrality upon electrolysis. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  1. Applications of Silver Nanowires on Transparent Conducting Film and Electrode of Electrochemical Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Jun Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanowire has potential applications on transparent conducting film and electrode of electrochemical capacitor due to its excellent conductivity. Transparent conducting film (G-film was prepared by coating silver nanowires on glass substrate using Meyer rod method, which exhibited better performance than carbon nanotube and graphene. The conductivity of G-film can be improved by increasing sintering temperature. Electrode of electrochemical capacitor (I-film was fabricated through the same method with G-film on indium tin oxide (ITO. CV curves of I-film under different scanning rates had obvious redox peaks, which indicated that I-film exhibited excellent electrochemical pseudocapacitance performance and good reversibility during charge/discharge process. In addition, the specific capacitance of I-film was measured by galvanostatic charge/discharge experiments, indicating that I-film exhibits high special capacitance and excellent electrochemical stability.

  2. Novel p-Type Conductive Semiconductor Nanocrystalline Film as the Back Electrode for High-Performance Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Lin, Qinxian; Yang, Xiaoyang; Mei, Zongwei; Liang, Jun; Lin, Yuan; Pan, Feng

    2016-02-10

    Thin film solar cells, due to the low cost, high efficiency, long-term stability, and consumer applications, have been widely applied for harvesting green energy. All of these thin film solar cells generally adopt various metal thin films as the back electrode, like Mo, Au, Ni, Ag, Al, graphite, and so forth. When they contact with p-type layer, it always produces a Schottky contact with a high contact potential barrier, which greatly affects the cell performance. In this work, we report for the first time to find an appropriate p-type conductive semiconductor film, digenite Cu9S5 nanocrystalline film, as the back electrode for CdTe solar cells as the model device. Its low sheet resistance (16.6 Ω/sq) could compare to that of the commercial TCO films (6-30 Ω/sq), like FTO, ITO, and AZO. Different from the traditonal metal back electrode, it produces a successive gradient-doping region by the controllable Cu diffusion, which greatly reduces the contact potential barrier. Remarkably, it achieved a comparable power conversion efficiency (PCE, 11.3%) with the traditional metal back electrode (Cu/Au thin films, 11.4%) in CdTe cells and a higher PCE (13.8%) with the help of the Au assistant film. We believe it could also act as the back electrode for other thin film solar cells (α-Si, CuInS2, CIGSe, CZTS, etc.), for their performance improvement.

  3. Resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements of a bismuth microwire array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 338-8570 (Japan)]. E-mail: ishikawa@kan.env.gse.saitama-u.ac.jp; Hasegawa, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 338-8570 (Japan); Morita, H. [Saitama Industrial Technology Center, Saitama Prefecture, 333-0844 (Japan); Kurokouchi, A. [Saitama Industrial Technology Center, Saitama Prefecture, 333-0844 (Japan); Wada, K. [Saitama Industrial Technology Center, Saitama Prefecture, 333-0844 (Japan); Komine, T. [Department of Media and Telecommunications Engineering, Ibaraki University, 316-8511 (Japan); Nakamura, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5252 (Japan)

    2005-11-01

    The resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of a bismuth microwire array (wire diameter: 25 {mu}m) were successfully measured from 25 to 300 K. To eliminate the influence of the contact resistance between the wire edges of the microwire array and copper electrodes, the titanium (100 nm)/copper (500 nm) film layers were deposited as interlayer on the wire edge by ion plating method. Copper electrodes were glued by using Pb-Sn solder. The resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient at 300 K were approximately 1.8x10{sup -6} {omega}m and -54x10{sup -6} V/K, respectively. The value of the resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient were in good agreement with those of bulk polycrystalline bismuth reported previously. Thus, the effects of the contact resistance for the microwire array were almost resolved, and the chemical reaction of the Pb-Sn solder and bismuth was prevented by using the thin-film layer. The technique is expected to be applicable to nanowire arrays as well.

  4. Pr and Gd co-doped bismuth ferrite thin films with enhanced multiferroic properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chang Chun Chen; Zi Xuan Liu; Gui Wang; Yi Lin Yan

    2014-12-01

    Pr and Gd co-modified Bi0.95−PrGd0.05FeO3 ( = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10) (BPGFO) thin films on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates were prepared by a sol-gel together with spin coating technique. A detailed study of electrical and magnetic properties of these thin films is reported. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that, with an increase in Pr content, the crystal structures of BPGFO thin films retain rhombohedral (R3c) symmetry accompanied by structure distortion. Polarization-electric field hysteresis loops of these thin films demonstrate that the incorporation of Pr and Gd into the Bi site of BiFeO3 thin film could enhance the ferroelectric performance. Compared to other thin films, the optimal ferroelectric behaviours in Bi0.85Pr0.1Gd0.05FeO3 thin film are ascribed to its large dielectric constant, low dissipation factor and low leakage current density. Room temperature magnetization-magnetic field curves of these thin films indicate that all the samples are of paramagnetic behaviours and the enhanced saturation magnetic properties can be found.

  5. Efficient water-splitting device based on a bismuth vanadate photoanode and thin-film silicon solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lihao; Abdi, Fatwa F; van de Krol, Roel; Liu, Rui; Huang, Zhuangqun; Lewerenz, Hans-Joachim; Dam, Bernard; Zeman, Miro; Smets, Arno H M

    2014-10-01

    A hybrid photovoltaic/photoelectrochemical (PV/PEC) water-splitting device with a benchmark solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 5.2% under simulated air mass (AM) 1.5 illumination is reported. This cell consists of a gradient-doped tungsten-bismuth vanadate (W:BiVO4 ) photoanode and a thin-film silicon solar cell. The improvement with respect to an earlier cell that also used gradient-doped W:BiVO4 has been achieved by simultaneously introducing a textured substrate to enhance light trapping in the BiVO4 photoanode and further optimization of the W gradient doping profile in the photoanode. Various PV cells have been studied in combination with this BiVO4 photoanode, such as an amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) single junction, an a-Si:H/a-Si:H double junction, and an a-Si:H/nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) micromorph junction. The highest conversion efficiency, which is also the record efficiency for metal oxide based water-splitting devices, is reached for a tandem system consisting of the optimized W:BiVO4 photoanode and the micromorph (a-Si:H/nc-Si:H) cell. This record efficiency is attributed to the increased performance of the BiVO4 photoanode, which is the limiting factor in this hybrid PEC/PV device, as well as better spectral matching between BiVO4 and the nc-Si:H cell.

  6. Nanoscale magnetism and novel electronic properties of a bilayer bismuth(111) film with vacancies and chemical doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, M P K; Zhang, Yajun; Wang, Jie

    2016-07-27

    Magnetically doped topological insulators (TIs) exhibit several exotic phenomena including the magnetoelectric effect and quantum anomalous Hall effect. However, from an experimental perspective, incorporation of spin moment into 3D TIs is still challenging. Thus, instead of 3D TIs, the 2D form of TIs may open up new opportunities to induce magnetism. Based on first principles calculations, we demonstrate a novel strategy to realize robust magnetism and exotic electronic properties in a 2D TI [bilayer Bi(111) film: abbreviated as Bi(111)]. We examine the magnetic and electronic properties of Bi(111) with defects such as bismuth monovacancies (MVs) and divacancies (DVs), and these defects decorated with 3d transition metals (TMs). It has been observed that the MV in Bi(111) can induce novel half metallicity with a net magnetic moment of 1 μB. The origin of half metallicity and magnetism in MV/Bi(111) is further explained by the passivation of the σ-dangling bonds near the defect site. Furthermore, in spite of the nonmagnetic nature of DVs, the TMs (V, Cr, Mn, and Fe) trapped at the 5/8/5 defect structure of DVs can not only yield a much higher spin moment than those trapped at the MVs but also display intriguing electronic properties such as metallic, semiconducting and spin gapless semiconducting properties. The predicted magnetic and electronic properties of TM/DV/Bi(111) systems are explained through density of states, spin density distribution and Bader charge analysis.

  7. Photo-Corrosion of CdSe Film Electrode by Electrochemical Modulation Reflectance Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单忠强; 田建华; 刘义平; 田文娟

    2004-01-01

    The photo-corrosion of electrodeposited polycrystalline CdSe electrode was inhibited effectively by coating a thin layer of the conductive polyaniline (PAN) film. The relation between the performance and internal band structure of such film-covered PAN/CdSe electrode was studied by the electrochemical modulation reflectance spectrum (EMRS). EMRS of both CdSe and PAN/CdSe electrodes in K4Fe(CN)6/K3Fe(CN)6 solution exhibited typical France-Keidysh oscillations, by which the values of the energy gap and flat band potential were determined. The EMRS results indicated that the energy band structure of CdSe electrode was not changed after coated with PAN film, so that the photoelectrochemical characteristic of PAN/CdSe electrode was rather similar to that of CdSe electrode.

  8. 掺杂硒碳糊电极阳极溶出法测定铋%Determination of bismuth at carbon paste electrodes doped with selenium by anodic stripping voltammetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦革; 魏小平; 李建平

    2011-01-01

    A new anodic stripping voltammetric method for the determination trace bismuth of was developed by using carbon paste electrodes doped with selenium as a working electrode. In 0.1 mol/L HC1, a sensitive oxidation peak of the Bi3+ were obtained with the peak potential of + 0.05 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The oxidation peak current linearly changed with the logarithmic value of bismuth ion concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10-9 ~ 1. 0 × 10-5 mol/L. The detection limit was 1. 0 × 10 -10 mol/L. The method has been applied to the determination of the content of bismuth in water samples and the drugs of Bismuth Potassium Citrate Granules. The recoveries were found to be in the range of 93.3% ~ 105.4%. The proposed electrode is simple in fabrication, and cheap renewal in use. It is valuable in practical application.%建立了一种测定痕量铋的新方法,即利用掺杂硒碳糊电极作为工作电极的阳极溶出法.在0.1 mol/L的HCl底液中,Bi3+于+0.05V(vs.Ag/AgCl)出现灵敏的氧化溶出峰,铋离子的浓度在1.0×10-5~1.0×10-9 mol/L范围内其对数值lgc与铋的氧化峰电流值呈线性关系,检出限达1.0×10 -10 mol/L.本法已用于药物枸橼铋钾颗粒中铋含量的测定,回收率为95.5%~104.9%.

  9. Four point probe structures with buried electrodes for the electrical characterization of ultrathin conducting films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, A.W.; Wolters, R.A.M.; Kovalgin, A.Y.; Schmitz, J.

    2009-01-01

    Test structures for the electrical characterization of ultrathin conductive (ALD) films are presented based on buried electrodes on which the ultrathin film is deposited. This work includes test structure design and fabrication, and the electrical characterization of ALD TiN films down to 4 nm. It i

  10. GALVANIC MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF BISMUTH THIN FILMS DOPED WITH TELLURIUM MADE BY THERMAL VACUUM EVAPORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Komarov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of n-type impurity of tellurium (concentration range from 0.005 atomic % Te to 0.15 atomic % Te on galvanic magnetic properties (resistivity, magnetic resistance and Hall constant of Bi thin films with various thicknesses was studied. The properties were measured in temperature range from 77 to 300 K. It was established that the classical size effect in the films is significant and decreases with higher concentration of Te impurity. The analysis of experimental results was carried out in approximation of the law of Jones-Schoenberg dispersion for Bi films doped with tellurium. Calculation of concentration and mobility of charge carriers in the studied films was made.

  11. Growth and ferroelectric properties of Bi2VO5.5 thin films with metallic LaNiO3 electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K. V. R.; Varma, K. B. R.; Raju, A. R.; Satyalakshmi, K. M.; Mallya, R. M.; Hegde, M. S.

    1993-10-01

    Novel ferroelectric bismuth vanadate, Bi2VO5.5 (BVO), thin films have been grown between lattice matched metallic LaNiO3 (LNO) layers deposited on SrTiO3 (STO) by the pulsed laser deposition technique. LNO/BVO/LNO/STO and Au/BVO/LNO/STO trilayer structures exhibited c-oriented (001) growth of BVO. LNO has been found to be a good metallic electrode with sheet resistance ˜20 Ω in addition to aiding c-axis oriented BVO growth. The dielectric constant, ɛr of LNO/BVO/LNO/STO, at 300 K was about 12. However, when an Au electrode was used on top of BVO/LNO/STO film, it showed a significant improvement in the dielectric constant (ɛr=123). The ferroelectric properties of BVO thin films have been confirmed by hysteresis behavior with a remnant polarization, Pr=4.6×10-8 C/cm2 and coercive field, Ec=23 kV/cm at 300 K.

  12. Fabrication and photoelectrocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline monoclinic BiVO4 thin-film electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Qu, Jiuhui; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Huijuan

    2011-01-01

    Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin film was fabricated on indium-tin oxide glass from an amorphous heteronuclear complex via dip-coating. After annealation at 400, 500, and 600 degrees C, the thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The BiVO4 particles on the ITO glass surface had a monoclinic structure. The UV-Visible diffuse reflection spectra showed the BiVO4 thin film had photoabsorption properties, with a band gap around 2.5 eV. In addition, the thin film showed high visible photocatalytic activities towards 2,4-dichlorophenol and Bisphenol A degradation under visible light irradiation (lambda > 420 nm). Over 90% of the two organic pollutants were removed in 5 hr. A possible degradation mechanism of 2,4-dichlorophenol were also studied.

  13. Fabrication and photoelectrocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline monoclinic BiVO4 thin-film electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Zhou; Jiuhui Qu; Xu Zhao; Huijuan Liu

    2011-01-01

    Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin film was fabricated on indium-tin oxide glass from an amorphous heteronuclear complex via dip-coating.After annealation at 400, 500, and 600℃, the thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry.The BiVO4 particles on the ITO glass surface had a monoclinic structure.The UV-Visible diffuse reflection spectra showed the BiVO4 thin film had photoabsorption properties, with a band gap around 2.5 eV.In addition, the thin film showed high visible photocatalytic activities towards 2,4-dichiorophenol and Bisphenol A degradation under visible light irradiation (λ.> 420 nm).Over 90% of the two organic pollutants were removed in 5 hr.A possible degradation mechanism of 2,4-dichlorophenol were also studied.

  14. On the doping problem of CdTe films: The bismuth case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Galan, O. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Edif. 9, UPALM, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Brown, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, 43606 Toledo, OH (United States); Ruiz, C.M. [Depto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vidal-Borbolla, M.A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Av. Karakorum 1470, Lomas 4a. Secc., 78210 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico); Ramirez-Bon, R. [CINVESTAV-IPN, U. Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, 76230 Santiago de Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Sanchez-Meza, E. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Edif. 9, UPALM, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Tufino-Velazquez, M. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Edif. 9, UPALM, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)], E-mail: mtufinovel@yahoo.com.mx; Calixto, M. Estela [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Edif. 9, UPALM, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Compaan, A.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, 43606 Toledo, OH (United States); Contreras-Puente, G. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Edif. 9, UPALM, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-08-30

    The controlled increase of hole concentration is an important issue and still an unsolved problem for polycrystalline CdTe-based solar cells. The typical hole concentration of as-grown CdTe thin-films goes up to 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}, depending on the specific growth technique. The highest electron concentration obtained for CdS, the suitable window partner material of CdTe, is around 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. Thus, the PV-performance of a CdS/CdTe device can be optimized if the hole concentration in CdTe is increased. We have faced up this problem by studying the electrical properties of two types of CdTe films: CdTe films grown by Close Space Vapor Transport using a CdTe:Bi powder as the starting material and CdTe sputtered films doped by implantation with different Bi-doses. Temperature-dependent resistivity and Hall effect measurements and a discussion on the efficiency of both doping processes are presented.

  15. Magnetic, ferroelectric and leakage current properties of gadolinium doped bismuth ferrite thin films by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hone-Zern; Kao, Ming-Cheng; Young, San-Lin; Hwang, Jun-Dar; Chiang, Jung-Lung; Chen, Po-Yen

    2015-05-01

    Bi0.9Gd0.1FeO3 (BGFO) thin films were fabricated on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates by using the sol-gel technology. The effects of annealing temperature (400-700 °C) on microstructure and multiferroic properties of thin films were investigated. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the BGFO thin films had an orthorhombic structure. The thin films showed ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties with remanent polarization (2Pr) of 10 μC/cm2, remnant magnetization (2Mr) of 2.4 emu/g and saturation magnetization (Ms) of 5.3 emu/g. A small leakage current density (J) was 4.64×10-8 A/cm2 under applied field 100 kV/cm. It was found that more than one conduction mechanism is involved in the electric field range used in these experiments. The leakage current mechanisms were controlled by Poole-Frenkel emission in the low electric field region and by Schottky emission from the Pt electrode in the high field region.

  16. Wet-spun, porous, orientational graphene hydrogel films for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Liang; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Tieqi; Zheng, Bingna; Tian, Zhanyuan; Deng, Zengshe; Gao, Chao

    2015-02-01

    Supercapacitors with porous electrodes of graphene macroscopic assembly are supposed to have high energy storage capacity. However, a great number of ``close pores'' in porous graphene electrodes are invalid because electrolyte ions cannot infiltrate. A quick method to prepare porous graphene electrodes with reduced ``close pores'' is essential for higher energy storage. Here we propose a wet-spinning assembly approach based on the liquid crystal behavior of graphene oxide to continuously spin orientational graphene hydrogel films with ``open pores'', which are used directly as binder-free supercapacitor electrodes. The resulting supercapacitor electrodes show better electrochemical performance than those with disordered graphene sheets. Furthermore, three reduction methods including hydrothermal treatment, hydrazine and hydroiodic acid reduction are used to evaluate the specific capacitances of the graphene hydrogel film. Hydrazine-reduced graphene hydrogel film shows the highest capacitance of 203 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and maintains 67.1% specific capacitance (140 F g-1) at 50 A g-1. The combination of scalable wet-spinning technology and orientational structure makes graphene hydrogel films an ideal electrode material for supercapacitors.Supercapacitors with porous electrodes of graphene macroscopic assembly are supposed to have high energy storage capacity. However, a great number of ``close pores'' in porous graphene electrodes are invalid because electrolyte ions cannot infiltrate. A quick method to prepare porous graphene electrodes with reduced ``close pores'' is essential for higher energy storage. Here we propose a wet-spinning assembly approach based on the liquid crystal behavior of graphene oxide to continuously spin orientational graphene hydrogel films with ``open pores'', which are used directly as binder-free supercapacitor electrodes. The resulting supercapacitor electrodes show better electrochemical performance than those with disordered graphene

  17. Magnetic, ferroelectric and leakage current properties of gadolinium doped bismuth ferrite thin films by sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hone-Zern, E-mail: hzc@hust.edu.tw [Department of Electronic Engineering, Hsiuping University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Kao, Ming-Cheng, E-mail: kmc@hust.edu.tw [Department of Electronic Engineering, Hsiuping University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Young, San-Lin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Hsiuping University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Jun-Dar [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Jung-Lung [Department of Mobile Technology, Toko University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Chen, Po-Yen [Department of Electronic Engineering, Hsiuping University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-01

    Bi{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} (BGFO) thin films were fabricated on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) substrates by using the sol–gel technology. The effects of annealing temperature (400–700 °C) on microstructure and multiferroic properties of thin films were investigated. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the BGFO thin films had an orthorhombic structure. The thin films showed ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties with remanent polarization (2P{sub r}) of 10 μC/cm{sup 2}, remnant magnetization (2M{sub r}) of 2.4 emu/g and saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of 5.3 emu/g. A small leakage current density (J) was 4.64×10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2} under applied field 100 kV/cm. It was found that more than one conduction mechanism is involved in the electric field range used in these experiments. The leakage current mechanisms were controlled by Poole–Frenkel emission in the low electric field region and by Schottky emission from the Pt electrode in the high field region. - Highlights: • Bi{sub 3.96}Pr{sub 0.04}Ti{sub 2.95}Nb{sub 0.05}O{sub 12} thin films were prepared by sol–gel technology. • Thin films showed 2P{sub r} of 10 μC/cm{sup 2}, 2M{sub r} of 2.4 emu/g and M{sub s} of 5.3 emu/g. • Leakage current mechanisms were controlled by Poole–Frenkel and Schottky emission.

  18. Conical surface structures on model thin-film electrodes and tape-cast electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, R.; Proell, J.; Bruns, M.; Ulrich, S.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

    2013-07-01

    Three-dimensional structures in cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated in this study. For this purpose, laser structuring of lithium cobalt oxide was investigated at first for a thin-film model system and in a second step for conventional tape-cast electrode materials. The model thin-film cathodes with a thickness of 3 μm were deposited using RF magnetron sputtering on stainless steel substrates. The films were structured via excimer laser radiation with a wavelength of 248 nm. By adjusting the laser fluence, self-organized conical microstructures were formed. Using conventional electrodes, tape-cast cathodes made of LiCoO2 with a film thickness of about 80 μm on aluminum substrates were studied. It was shown that self-organizing surface structures could be formed by adjustment of the laser parameters. To investigate the formation mechanisms of the conical topography, the element composition was studied by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrochemical cycling using a lithium anode and conventional electrolyte was applied to study the influence of the laser processing procedures on cell performance. For the model electrode system, a significantly higher discharge capacity of 80 mAh/g could be obtained after 110 cycles by laser structuring compared to 8 mAh/g of the unstructured thin film. On conventional tape-cast electrodes self-organized surface structures could also increase the cycling stability resulting in an 80 % increase in capacity after 110 cycles in comparison to the unstructured electrode.

  19. Post-CMOS FinFET integration of bismuth telluride and antimony telluride thin-film-based thermoelectric devices on SoI substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    2013-10-01

    This letter reports, for the first time, heterogeneous integration of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and antimony telluride (Sb 2Te3) thin-film-based thermoelectric ffect transistors) via a characterized TE-film coevaporationand shadow-mask patterning process using predeposition surface treatment methods for reduced TE-metal contact resistance. As a demonstration vehicle, a 2 × 2 mm2-sized integrated planar thermoelectric generator (TEG) is shown to harvest 0.7 μ W from 21-K temperature gradient. Transistor performance showed no significant change upon post-CMOS TEG integration, indicating, for the first time, the CMOS compatibility of the Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 thin films, which could be leveraged for realization of high-performance integrated micro-TE harvesters and coolers. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. Electrochemical Impedance Characterization of Nafion-Coated Carbon Film Resistor Electrodes for Electroanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia-Caridade, Carla; Brett, Christopher M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon film disk electrodes with Nafion coatings have been characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with a view to a better understanding of their advantages and limitations in electroanalysis, particularly in anodic stripping voltammetry of metal ions. After initial examination by cyclic voltammetry, spectra were recorded over the full potential range in acetate buffer solution at the bare electrodes, electrodes electrochemically pretreated in acid solution, and Nafion-c...

  1. Systematic experimental study of pure shear type dielectric elastomer membranes with different electrode and film thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, M.; Seelecke, S.

    2016-09-01

    An approach to reduce the voltage required for dielectric elastomer actuators is to reduce film thickness. However, if the electrode thickness is not similarly reduced, the electrode’s mechanical behavior can increasingly and negatively impact the overall actuator behavior. This effect is yet to be studied and quantified for pure shear type specimens; a type recommended in a recent DE standardization journal publication. Therefore, in this work, using pure shear specimens, a comparative study of membrane actuators of different film thickness (20, 50 and 100 μm) is performed. Electrodes of different thicknesses are screen printed and tested in a uniaxial test device. The stiffening effect due to the solid-state electrodes is demonstrated by performing force-elongation tests for specimens with and without electrodes. Additionally the importance of thin electrodes (relative to film thickness) was demonstrated through a number of electromechanical tests. Isotonic tests revealed a lower electro-mechanical sensitivity for the 20 μm film when compared with the 50 and 100 μm films. This was attributed to the relatively thick electrodes. Best actuation results were achieved when the total electrode thickness was at least 15x thinner than the dielectric membrane thickness.

  2. Spectroscopic ellipsometry investigations of the optical properties of manganese doped bismuth vanadate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, Neelam; Krupanidhi, S.B. [Materials Research Center, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Varma, K.B.R., E-mail: kbrvarma@mrc.iisc.ernet.in [Materials Research Center, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2010-04-15

    The optical properties of Bi{sub 2}V{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 5.5-x} {l_brace}x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 at.%{r_brace} thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on platinized silicon substrates were studied in UV-visible spectral region (1.51-4.17 eV) using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The optical constants and thicknesses of these films have been obtained by fitting the ellipsometric data ({Psi} and {Delta}) using a multilayer four-phase model system and a relaxed Lorentz oscillator dispersion relation. The surface roughness and film thickness obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry were found to be consistent with the results obtained by atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. The refractive index measured at 650 nm does not show any marginal increase with Mn content. Further, the extinction coefficient does not show much decrease with increasing Mn content. An increase in optical band gap energy from 2.52 to 2.77 eV with increasing Mn content from x = 0.05 to 0.15 was attributed to the increase in oxygen ion vacancy disorder.

  3. Ferroelectric properties of Bi2VO5.5 thin films on LaAlO3 and SiO2/Si substrates with LaNiO3 base electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyalakshmi, K. M.; Varma, K. B. R.; Hegde, M. S.

    1995-07-01

    Ferroelectric bismuth vanadate Bi2VO5.5 (BVO) thin films have been grown on LaAlO3 (LAO) and SiO2/Si substrates with LaNiO3 (LNO) base electrodes by the pulsed laser deposition technique. The effect of substrate temperature on the ferroelectric properties of BVO thin films, has been studied by depositing the thin films at different temperatures. The BVO thin films grown on LNO/LAO were textured whereas the thin films grown on LNO/SiO2/Si were polycrystalline. The BVO thin films grown at 450 °C exhibited good ferroelectric properties indicating that LNO acts as a good electrode material. The remanent polarization Pr and coercive field Ec obtained for the BVO thin films grown at 450 °C on LNO/LAO and LNO/SiO2/Si were 2.5 μC/cm2, 37 kV/cm and 4.6μC/cm2, 93 kV/cm, respectively.

  4. Four point probe structures with buried and surface electrodes for the electrical characterization of ultrathin conducting films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, A.W.; Wolters, R.A.M.; Kovalgin, A.Y.; Schmitz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Test structures for the electrical characterization of ultrathin conductive films are presented based on electrodes on which the ultrathin film is deposited. Two different designs are discussed: a novel design with buried electrodes and a conventional design with electrodes at the surface. This work

  5. In and Ga Codoped ZnO Film as a Front Electrode for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Duy Phong Pham; Huu Truong Nguyen; Bach Thang Phan; Thi My Dung Cao; Van Dung Hoang; Vinh Ai Dao; Junsin Yi; Cao Vinh Tran

    2014-01-01

    Doped ZnO thin films have attracted much attention in the research community as front-contact transparent conducting electrodes in thin film silicon solar cells. The prerequisite in both low resistivity and high transmittance in visible and near-infrared region for hydrogenated microcrystalline or amorphous/microcrystalline tandem thin film silicon solar cells has promoted further improvements of this material. In this work, we propose the combination of major Ga and minor In impurities codop...

  6. Electron Cyclotron Resonance-Sputtered Nanocarbon Film Electrode Compared with Diamond-Like Carbon and Glassy Carbon Electrodes as Regards Electrochemical Properties and Biomolecule Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qiang; Kato, Dai; Kamata, Tomoyuki; Umemura, Shigeru; Hirono, Shigeru; Niwa, Osamu

    2012-09-01

    The electrochemical properties and biocompatible characteristics at an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR)-sputtered nanocarbon film electrode, a diamond-like carbon (DLC) electrode and a glassy carbon (GC) electrode have been studied. The three carbon electrodes show significant current reductions with increased peak separations as a result of protein fouling before oxygen plasma treatment, but the current reductions of the ECR-sputtered nanocarbon and DLC film electrodes are smaller than that of the GC electrode due to their superior surface flatness. The oxygen plasma pretreated ECR-sputtered nanocarbon film electrode exhibits a significant improvement in anti-fouling performance with an improved electron transfer. This is because the pretreated ECR-sputtered nanocarbon film enabled the surface to introduce surface oxygen functionalities that not only improve the interaction between the analytes and the electrode surface but also make the film surface more hydrophilic, which is important for the suppression of biomolecule adsorption. At the same time, the pretreated ECR-sputtered nanocarbon film also retained an ultraflat surface even after pretreatment as a result of the low background current. This excellent performance can only be achieved with our ECR-sputtered nanocarbon film, indicating that our film is promising for application to electrochemical detectors for various biomolecular analytes.

  7. Effect of Some Metal Ion Dopants on Electrochemical Properties of Ni(OH)2 Film Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Heng-bin; LIU Han-san; CAO Xue-jing; SUN Chia-chung

    2003-01-01

    The Ni(OH)2 film electrodes doped respectively with alkali-earth metal aluminum, lead, partial transition metal and some rare-earth metal(altogether 17 kinds of metals) ions were prepared by cathode electrodeposition. The electrode reaction reversibility, the difficult extent of oxygen evolution, the proton diffusion coefficient, the discharge potential of middle value and the active material utilization of the Ni(OH)2 film electrode were compared with those of the ones doped with the metal ions by means of cyclic voltammetry, potential step and constant current charge-discharge experiments. It was found that Ca2+, Co2+, Cd2+, Al3+ etc. have obviously positive effect.

  8. Multianalyte Biosensors for the Simultaneous Determination of Glucose and Galactose Based on Thin Film Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neng Qin JIA; Zong Rang ZHANG; Jiang Zhong ZHU; Guo Xiong ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    A multianalyte biosensor for the simultaneous determination of glucose and galactose was developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) and galactose oxidase (GAO) on Nafion-modified thin film platinum disk electrodes. The dual Pt working electrodes with disk shape and the surrounding ring shaped counter electrode were fabricated by thin film technology, which were integrated onto the same microchip. The response of the designed biosensor for glucose and galactose were linear up to 6.0 mmol/L and 3.5 mmol/L with sensitivities of 0.3 (A/mmol/L and 0.12 μA/mmol/L, respectively. No cross-talking effect was observed.

  9. Electrode size and boundary condition independent measurement of the effective piezoelectric coefficient of thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stewart

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the piezoelectric coefficient of thin films using interferometry is hindered by bending contributions. Using finite element analysis (FEA simulations, we show that the Lefki and Dormans approximations using either single or double-beam measurements cannot be used with finite top electrode sizes. We introduce a novel method for characterising piezoelectric thin films which uses a differential measurement over the discontinuity at the electrode edge as an internal reference, thereby eliminating bending contributions. This step height is shown to be electrode size and boundary condition independent. An analytical expression is derived which gives good agreement with FEA predictions of the step height.

  10. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Sensor and Cooling Devices Based on Elaborated Bismuth-Telluride Alloy Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Boulouz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal motivation of this work is the development and realization of smart cooling and sensors devices based on the elaborated and characterized semiconducting thermoelectric thin film materials. For the first time, the details design of our sensor and the principal results are published. Fabrication and characterization of Bi/Sb/Te (BST semiconducting thin films have been successfully investigated. The best values of Seebeck coefficient (α(T at room temperature for Bi2Te3, and (Bi1−xSbx2Te3 with x = 0.77 are found to be −220 µV/K and +240 µV/K, respectively. Fabrication and evaluation of performance devices are reported. 2.60°C of cooling of only one Peltier module device for an optimal current of Iopt=2.50 mA is obtained. The values of temperature measured by infrared camera, by simulation, and those measured by the integrated and external thermocouple are reported. A sensitivity of the sensors of 5 mV Torr−1 mW−1 for the pressure sensor has been found with a response time of about 600 ms.

  11. Optical and electrical properties of thin films of bismuth ferric oxide; Propiedades opticas y electricas de peliculas delgadas de oxido de bismuto ferrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona R, D.

    2014-07-01

    The bismuth ferric oxide (BFO) has caused great attention in recent years because of their multi ferric properties, making it very attractive for different technological applications. In this paper simultaneous ablation of two white (Bi and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was used in a reactive atmosphere (containing oxygen) to deposit thin films of BFO. The composition of the films is changed by controlling the plasma parameters such as the average kinetic energy of the ions (E p) and the plasma density (Np). The effects caused by excess of Bi and Fe in atomic structure and the optical and electrical properties of the films BiFeO{sub 3} in terms of plasma parameters were studied. The X-ray diffraction patterns of BFO samples with excess of bismuth above 2% at. They exhibited small changes in structure leading to improved levels of leakage currents compared to levels of the film with a stoichiometry close to BiFeO{sub 3} composition. These samples showed a secondary phase (Bi{sub 2}5FeO{sub 4}0 selenite type) that led to the increase in the values of band gap and resistivity as well as the improvement of the piezoelectric properties. On the other hand, the films with iron excess showed as secondary phase compounds of iron oxide (α - γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) that caused increments in the conductivity and decrease in the values of band gap. The results are discussed in terms of the excesses of Bi and Fe which were correlated with the plasma parameters. (Author)

  12. Investigation of Top/bottom Electrode and Diffusion Barrier Layer for PZT thick film MEMS Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Lou-Møller, R.;

    2007-01-01

    In this work screen printed piezoelectric Ferroperm PZ26 lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick film is used for two MEMS devices. A test structure is used to investigate several aspects regarding bottom and top electrodes. 450 nm ZrO2 thin film is found to be an insufficient diffusion barrier layer...

  13. Atomic Layer Deposition of Bismuth Vanadates for Solar Energy Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefik, Morgan

    2016-07-07

    The fabrication of porous nanocomposites is key to the advancement of energy conversion and storage devices that interface with electrolytes. Bismuth vanadate, BiVO4 , is a promising oxide for solar water splitting where the controlled fabrication of BiVO4 layers within porous, conducting scaffolds has remained a challenge. Here, the atomic layer deposition of bismuth vanadates is reported from BiPh3 , vanadium(V) oxytriisopropoxide, and water. The resulting films have tunable stoichiometry and may be crystallized to form the photoactive scheelite structure of BiVO4 . A selective etching process was used with vanadium-rich depositions to enable the synthesis of phase-pure BiVO4 after spinodal decomposition. BiVO4 thin films were measured for photoelectrochemical performance under AM 1.5 illumination. The average photocurrents were 1.17 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode using a hole-scavenging sulfite electrolyte. The capability to deposit conformal bismuth vanadates will enable a new generation of nanocomposite architectures for solar water splitting.

  14. Long thickness-extensional waves in thin film bulk acoustic wave filters affected by interdigital electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Du, Jianke; Wang, Ji; Yang, Jiashi

    2017-03-01

    We studied free vibrations of thin-film bulk acoustic wave filters with interdigital electrodes theoretically using the scalar differential equations by Tiersten and Stevens. The filters are made from AlN or ZnO films on Si substrates with ground and driving electrodes. They operate with thickness-extensional modes. The basic vibration characteristics including resonant frequencies and mode shapes were obtained. Their dependence on various geometric parameters was examined. It was found that for properly design filters there exist trapped modes whose vibrations are strong in regions with a driving electrode and decay away from the electrode edges. These trapped modes are essentially long plate thickness-extensional modes modulated by the electrode fingers. The number of trapped modes is sensitive to the geometric parameters.

  15. Studying the Performance of Conductive Polymer Films as Textile Electrodes for Electrical Bioimpedance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunico, F. J.; Marquez, J. C.; Hilke, H.; Skrifvars, M.; Seoane, F.

    2013-04-01

    With the goal of finding novel biocompatible materials suitable to replace silver in the manufacturing of textile electrodes for medical applications of electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy, three different polymeric materials have been investigated. Films have been prepared from different polymeric materials and custom bracelets have been confectioned with them. Tetrapolar total right side electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy (EBIS) measurements have been performed with polymer and with standard gel electrodes. The performance of the polymer films was compared against the performance of the gel electrodes. The results indicated that only the polypropylene 1380 could produce EBIS measurements but remarkably tainted with high frequency artefacts. The influence of the electrode mismatch, stray capacitances and large electrode polarization impedance are unclear and they need to be clarified with further studies. If sensorized garments could be made with such biocompatible polymeric materials the burden of considering textrodes class III devices could be avoided.

  16. Polarization-control of the potential barrier at the electrode interfaces in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintilie, Ioana; Teodorescu, Cristian Mihail; Ghica, Corneliu; Chirila, Cristina; Boni, Andra Georgia; Hrib, Luminita; Pasuk, Iuliana; Negrea, Raluca; Apostol, Nicoleta; Pintilie, Lucian

    2014-02-26

    Electrode interface is a key element in controlling the macroscopic electrical properties of the ferroelectric capacitors based on thin films. In the case of epitaxial ferroelectrics, the electrode interface is essential in controlling the leakage current and the polarization switching, two important elements in the read/write processes of nonvolatile memories. However, the relation between the polarization bound charges and the electronic properties of the electrode interfaces is not yet well understood. Here we show that polarization charges are controlling the height of the potential barriers at the electrode interfaces in the case of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 epitaxial films. The results suggest that the height is set to a value allowing rapid compensation of the depolarization field during the polarization switching, being almost independent of the metals used for electrodes. This general behavior open a new perspective in engineering interface properties and designing new devices based on epitaxial ferroelectrics.

  17. Nanopatterned Metallic Films for Use As Transparent Conductive Electrodes in Optoelectronic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Catrysse, Peter B.

    2010-08-11

    We investigate the use of nanopatterned metallic films as transparent conductive electrodes in optoelectronic devices. We find that the physics of nanopatterned electrodes, which are often optically thin metallic films, differs from that of optically thick metallic films. We analyze the optical properties when performing a geometrical transformation that maintains the electrical properties. For one-dimensional patterns of metallic wires, the analysis favors tall and narrow wires. Our design principles remain valid for oblique incidence and readily carry over to two-dimensional patterns. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  18. Paper-supported nanostructured ultrathin gold film electrodes – Characterization and functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihalainen, Petri, E-mail: petri.ihalainen@abo.fi [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Määttänen, Anni [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Pesonen, Markus [Physics, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Sjöberg, Pia; Sarfraz, Jawad [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Österbacka, Ronald [Physics, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Peltonen, Jouko [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland)

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • Mechanically stable ultrathin gold films can be prepared on a latex coated paper. • Thickness of ultrathin gold film determines its electrical and optical properties. • Surface properties of ultrathin gold films can be changed by thin film coatings. • Ultrathin gold film electrodes can be used in electrochemical experiments. - Abstract: Ultrathin gold films (UTGFs) were fabricated on a nanostructured latex-coated paper substrate by physical vapour deposition (PVD) with the aim to provide low-cost and flexible conductive electrodes in paper-based electronics. Morphological, electric and optical properties of UTGFs were dependent on the deposited film thickness. In addition, UTGFs were functionalized with insulating and hydrophobic 1-octadecanethiol self-assembled monolayer and inkjet-printed conductive and hydrophilic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT–PSS) layer and their electrochemical properties were examined. Results showed that sufficient mechanical stability and adhesion of UTGFs deposited on latex-coated paper was achieved without the need on any additional adhesive layers, enabling a more robust fabrication process of the electrodes. UTGF electrodes tolerated extensive bending without adverse effects and conductivity comparable to the bulk gold was obtained already with the film thickness of 6 nm. Although not been fabricated with the high-throughput method like printing, a very low material consumption (∼12 μg/cm{sup 2}) together with a high conductivity (resistivity < 3 × 10{sup −6} Ω cm) makes the UTGFs electrodes potential candidates low-cost components in flexible electronics. In addition, the excellent stability of the UTGF electrodes in electrochemical experiments enables their application in the development of paper-based electrochemical platforms, e.g. for biosensing purposes.

  19. Shape-alterable and -recoverable graphene/polyurethane bi-layered composite film for supercapacitor electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Zhixin; Yan, Xingbin; Xue, Qunji

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, a graphene/shape-memory polyurethane (PU) composite film, used for a supercapacitor electrode, is fabricated by a simple bonding method. In the composite, formerly prepared graphene paper is closely bonded on the surface of the PU slice, forming a bi-layered composite film. Based on the good flexibility of graphene paper and the outstanding shape holding capacity of PU phase, the resulting composite film can be changed into various shapes. Also, the composite film shows excellent shape recovery ability. The graphene/PU composite film used as the electrode maintains a satisfactory electrochemical capacitance of graphene material and there is no decay in the specific capacitance after long-cycle testing, making it attractive for novel supercapacitors with special shapes and shape-memory ability.

  20. The renewable bismuth bulk annular band working electrode: fabrication and application in the adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of nickel(II) and cobalt(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baś, Bogusław; Węgiel, Krystian; Jedlińska, Katarzyna

    2015-06-30

    The paper presents the first report on fabrication and application of a user friendly and mercury free electrochemical sensor, with the renewable bismuth bulk annular band working electrode (RBiABE), in stripping voltammetry (SV). The sensor body is partly filled with the internal electrolyte solution, in which the RBiABE is cleaned and activated before each measurement. Time of the RBiABE contact with the sample solution is precisely controlled. The usefulness of this sensor was tested by Ni(II) and Co(II) traces determination by means of differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DP AdSV), after complexation with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) in ammonia buffer (pH 8.2). The experimental variables (composition of the supporting electrolyte, pre-concentration potential and time, potential of the RBiABE activation, and DP parameters), as well as possible interferences, were investigated. The linear calibration graphs for Ni(II) and Co(II), determined individually and together, in the range from 1×10(-8) to 70×10(-8)molL(-1) and from 1×10(-9) to 70×10(-9)molL(-1) respectively, were obtained. The calculated limit of detection (LOD), for 30s of the accumulation time, was 3×10(-9)molL(-1) for Ni(II) in case of a single element's analysis, whereas the LOD was 5×10(-9)molL(-1) for Ni(II) and 3×10(-10)molL(-1) for Co(II), when both metal ions were measured together. The repeatability of the Ni(II) and Co(II) adsorptive stripping voltammetric signals obtained at the RBiABE were equal to 5.4% and 2.5%, respectively (n=5). Finally, the proposed method was validated by determining Ni(II) and Co(II) in the certified reference waters (SPS-SW1 and SPS-SW2) with satisfactory results.

  1. Transparent nanoscale floating gate memory using self-assembled bismuth nanocrystals in Bi(2) Mg(2/3) Nb(4/3) O(7) (BMN) pyrochlore thin films grown at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun-June; Yoon, Soon-Gil; Hong, Soon-Ku; Lee, Jeong-Yong

    2012-07-01

    Bismuth nanocrystals for a nanoscale floating gate memory device are self-assembled in Bi(2) Mg(2/3) Nb(4/3) O(7) (BMN) dielectric films grown at room temperature by radio-frequency sputtering. The TEM cross-sectional image shows the "real" structure grown on a Si (001) substrate. The image magnified from the dotted box (red color) in the the cross-sectional image clearly shows bismuth nanoparticles at the interface between the Al(2) O(3) and HfO(2) layer (right image). Nanoparticles approximately 3 nm in size are regularly distributed at the interface.

  2. Electrochemical Deposition and Properties of Nanometerstructure Ce-doped Lead Dioxide Film Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾仁云; 李嘉庆; 李洛平; 彭惠琦; 杨娅; 金利通

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Ce(Ⅲ) on the morphology and structure of deposited film of lead dioxide was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The results indicated that the Ce-doped PbO2 film consisted of a mixture of α- and β-phase of PbO2. Ce doping changed the size of PbO2 crystal grains and made the crystallite size on the electrode surface in the nanometer range. Owing to the formation of nanometer-structured grains, the specific surface areas and activity sites of the electrode surface were increased, hence the catalytic activity of Ce-doped PbO2 electrode was evidently higher than that of undoped PbO2 electrode.

  3. Lanthanide doped ceria thin films as possible counter electrode materials in electrochromic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hartridge, A

    2000-01-01

    suitability of these thin films as counter electrodes in electrochromic devices. The final chapter then turns to the electrochemical insertion of lithium into these materials using cyclic voltammetry. All films studied enabled the reversible insertion of lithium with varying potentials and charge capacities without the loss of transmission of light common to other potential counter electrode materials. Certain compositions however, comprising ceria doped with Dy, Y, Nd and Pr, allowed enough lithium insertion (charge capacity) to fulfil the requirements of counter electrode materials in electrochromic devices. These materials are therefore worthy of further study. Crystalline solid solutions of lanthanide doped ceria have long been known for their high ionic conductivity and as such have found applications as oxygen sensors and in solid oxide fuel cells. With advances in preparative techniques over the years, thin films of ceria doped with zirconia and titania have been studied and found to possess the necess...

  4. Aligned SWNT films from low-yield stress gels and their transparent electrode performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ranulfo; Fuller, Gerald G; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-08-14

    Carbon nanotube films are promising for transparent electrodes for solar cells and displays. Large-area alignment of the nanotubes in these films is needed to minimize the sheet resistance. We present a novel coating method to coat high-density, aligned nanotubes over large areas. Carbon nanotube gel dispersions used in this study have aligned domains and a low yield stress. A simple shearing force allows these domains to uniformly align. We use this to correlate the transparent electrode performance of single-walled carbon nanotube films with the level of partial alignment. We have found that the transparent electrode performance improves with increasing levels of alignment and in a manner slightly better than what has been previously predicted.

  5. Study on hydrogen evolution performance of the carbon supported PtRu alloy film electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Bin; LI; Yang; ZAN; Lin-han

    2005-01-01

    The carbon supported PtRu alloy film electrodes having Pt about 0.10 mg/cm2 or even less were prepared by ion beam sputtering method (IBSM). It was valued on the hydrogen analyse performance, the temperature influence factor and the stability by electroanalysis hydrogen analyse method. It was found that the carbon supported PtRu alloy film electrodes had higher hydrogen evolution performance and stability, such as the hydrogen evolution exchange current density (j0) was increase as the temperature (T) rised, and it overrun 150 mA/cm2 as the trough voltage in about 0.68V, and it only had about 2.8% decline in 500 h electrolytic process. The results demonstrated that the carbon supported PtRu alloy film electrodes kept highly catalytic activity and stability, and it were successfully used in pilot plant for producing H2 on electrolysis of H2S.

  6. Polymer Photovoltaic Cell Using TiO2/G-PEDOT Nanocomplex Film as Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. X. Xie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using TiO2/G-PEDOT (PEDOT/PSS doped with glycerol nanocomplex film as a substitute for metal electrode in organic photovoltaic cell is described. Indium tin oxide (ITO worked as cathode and TiO2/G-PEDOT nanocomplex works as anode. The thickness of TiO2 layer in nanocomplex greatly affects the act of this nonmetallic electrode of the device. To enhance its performance, this inverted organic photovoltaic cell uses another TiO2 layer as electron selective layer contacted to ITO coated glass substrates. All films made by solution processing techniques are coated on the transparent substrate (glass with a conducting film ITO. The efficiency of this solar cell is compared with the conventional device using Al as electrode.

  7. Cathodic stripping voltammetry of trace Mn(II) at carbon film electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe, Olga M. S.; Brett,Christopher M.A.

    2003-01-01

    A sensitive voltammetric method is presented for the determination of tract levels of Mn (II) using carbon film electrodes fabricated from carbon resistors of 2 [Omega]. Determination of manganese was made by square wave cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV), with deposition of manganese as manganese dioxide. Chronoamperometric experiments were made to study MnO2 nucleation and growth. As a result, it was found to be necessary to perform electrode conditioning at a more positive potential to i...

  8. Dual electrodes degradation of Amaranth using a thin-film photocatalytic reactor with dual slant-placed electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun L; Li, Jue X; Zhong, Deng J; Jia, Jin P

    2013-01-01

    A dual slant-placed electrodes thin-film photocatalytic (PC) reactor was proposed and successfully applied to degrade Amaranth. In this PC reactor, both the TiO2/Ti photoanode and the Cu cathode are slant-placed in the reaction chamber, and aqueous thin-film formed on the surface of both electrodes as wastewater flowed over them. The degradation efficiency was significantly improved as a result of additional degradation at the cathode. When the TiO2 photocatalyst was irradiated with UV light, photogenerated electrons were spontaneously transferred from the anode to the cathode, driven by the electric field self-generated between the TiO2/Ti anode and the Cu cathode, based on the principle of establishing a Schottky barrier. On the Cu cathode surface, the transferred photoelectrons either reacted with dissolved oxygen to form H2O2, which then oxidized the dye, resulting in indirect oxidation decolourization, or reacted with the dye, resulting in direct reduction decolourization. The colour removal efficiency of the cathode was about half that of the photoanode. These processes together with direct oxidation of the photogenerated holes on the photoanode gave dual electrode degradation of the dye, and the degradation efficiency was significantly improved.

  9. Effect of top electrode material on radiation-induced degradation of ferroelectric thin film structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Steven J.; Deng, Carmen Z.; Callaway, Connor P.; Paul, McKinley K.; Fisher, Kenzie J.; Guerrier, Jonathon E.; Rudy, Ryan Q.; Polcawich, Ronald G.; Jones, Jacob L.; Glaser, Evan R.; Cress, Cory D.; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin

    2016-07-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the dielectric and piezoelectric responses of Pb[Zr0.52Ti0.48]O3 (PZT) thin film stacks were investigated for structures with conductive oxide (IrO2) and metallic (Pt) top electrodes. The samples showed, generally, degradation of various key dielectric, ferroelectric, and electromechanical responses when exposed to 2.5 Mrad (Si) 60Co gamma radiation. However, the low-field, relative dielectric permittivity, ɛr, remained largely unaffected by irradiation in samples with both types of electrodes. Samples with Pt top electrodes showed substantial degradation of the remanent polarization and overall piezoelectric response, as well as pinching of the polarization hysteresis curves and creation of multiple peaks in the permittivity-electric field curves post irradiation. The samples with oxide electrodes, however, were largely impervious to the same radiation dose, with less than 5% change in any of the functional characteristics. The results suggest a radiation-induced change in the defect population or defect energy in PZT with metallic top electrodes, which substantially affects motion of internal interfaces such as domain walls. Additionally, the differences observed for stacks with different electrode materials implicate the ferroelectric-electrode interface as either the predominant source of radiation-induced effects (Pt electrodes) or the site of healing for radiation-induced defects (IrO2 electrodes).

  10. Characterization of thiol-functionalised silica films deposited on electrode surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cesarino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Thiol-functionalised silica films were deposited on various electrode surfaces (gold, platinum, glassy carbon by spin-coating sol-gel mixtures in the presence of a surfactant template. Film formation occurred by evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA involving the hydrolysis and (cocondensation of silane and organosilane precursors on the electrode surface. The characterization of such material was performed by IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG, elemental analysis (EA, atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and cyclic voltammetry (CV.

  11. Preparation of Aluminum Nanomesh Thin Films from an Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template as Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiwen; Chen, Yulong; Qiu, Mingxia; Yu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinhai; Sun, Xiao Wei; Chen, Rui

    2016-02-01

    We have employed anodic aluminum oxide as a template to prepare ultrathin, transparent, and conducting Al films with a unique nanomesh structure for transparent conductive electrodes. The anodic aluminum oxide template is obtained through direct anodization of a sputtered Al layer on a glass substrate, and subsequent wet etching creates the nanomesh metallic film. The optical and conductive properties are greatly influenced by experimental conditions. By tuning the anodizing time, transparent electrodes with appropriate optical transmittance and sheet resistance have been obtained. The results demonstrate that our proposed strategy can serve as a potential method to fabricate low-cost TCEs to replace conventional indium tin oxide materials.

  12. The role of front and back electrodes in parasitic absorption in thin-film solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boccard Mathieu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to parasitic absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells, most studies focus on one electrode only, most of the time the substrate (in n-i-p configuration or superstrate (in p-i-n configuration. We investigate here simultaneously the influence of the absorption in both front and back electrodes on the current density of tandem micromorph solar cells in p-i-n configuration. We compare four possible combinations of front and back electrodes with two different doping levels, but identical sheet resistance and identical light-scattering properties. In the infrared part of the spectrum, parasitic absorption in the front or back electrode is shown to have a similar effect on the current generation in the cell, which is confirmed by modeling. By combining highly transparent front and back ZnO electrodes and high-quality silicon layers, a micromorph device with a stabilized efficiency of 11.75% is obtained.

  13. Electrocatalytic behaviour of hybrid cobalt–manganese hexacyanoferrate film on glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinu Mohan, A.M., E-mail: vinumohan756@gmail.com; Rambabu, Gutru, E-mail: chinnu.ram09@gmail.com; Aswini, K.K., E-mail: aswinikk@ymail.com; Biju, V.M., E-mail: vmbiju@ymail.com

    2014-08-28

    A thin film of hybrid cobalt–manganese hexacyanoferrate (CoMnHCF), a redox mediator was electrodeposited on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode and was employed as an amperometric sensor towards L-Tryptophan (L-Trp). The hybrid film was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDAX), and electrochemical techniques. The atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis provided the stoichiometry of the hybrid film to be K{sub 1.74-y} Co{sub y} Mn{sub 0.78} [Fe(CN){sub 6}], y ≤ 0.68. The electrochemical impedance study revealed the excellent charge transfer properties of GC/CoMnHCF electrode. The voltammetric investigations demonstrated exceptional electrocatalytic properties of the hybrid film modified electrode when compared to that of bare GC, GC/CoHCF and GC/MnHCF electrodes, towards the L-Trp oxidation. The kinetic parameters such as electron transfer coefficient, the electron transfer rate constant, the diffusion coefficient and the catalytic rate constant for the electrooxidation process of L-Trp were investigated. The amperometric detection of L-Trp employing GC/CoMnHCF electrode possessed a good sensitivity of 10 × 10{sup −2} A M{sup −1} cm{sup −2} in a wide range of detection (2–200 μM) at a reduced overpotential of 680 mV. In addition, the proposed amperometric method was applied to the detection of L-Trp in commercial milk samples with reproducible results. - Highlights: • A hybrid cobalt–manganese hexacyanoferrate film was prepared. • The hybrid film possesses excellent charge transfer properties. • The hybrid film exhibits excellent electrocatalytic properties towards Tryptophan. • Tryptophan detection is possible from commercial milk samples.

  14. Influence of bismuth on properties and microstructures of Sr0.5Ba0.5–Bi TiO3 thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tao Wenhong; Wang Yin; Fu Xinghua; Wei Qihong

    2006-10-01

    The influence of bismuth (Bi) on the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Sr0.5Ba0.5–Bi TiO3 (BST, 0 < < 0.030 mol) thin films was studied. The results showed that the dielectric constant (r) and dielectric loss (tan ) decreased, and temperature, m, for maximum and r (Curie temperature), moved to lower temperature with increasing Bi content. The r, s and c were 0.22 C/cm2, 0.32 C/cm2 and 60 kV/cm, respectively for Sr0.5Ba0.485Bi0.015TiO3 thin films measured at 100 Hz, 20 V. The microstructure of BST thin films was studied by XRD and TEM. Tetragonal perovskite grains existed in BST thin films, but the grain size decreased with increasing doping ratio in BST. The characteristic absorption band for octahedron [TiO2] (471.65 cm-1) was shifted to lower wave number.

  15. Electrochemical determination of ascorbic acid at p-phenylenediamine film-holes modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olana Bikila Nagasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the determination of ascorbic acid (AA at glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with a perforated film produced by reduction of diazonium generated in situ from p-phenylenediamine (PD is reported. Holes were intentionally created in the modifier film by stripping a pre-deposited gold nanoparticles. The modified electrodes were electrochemically characterized by common redox probes: hydroquinone, ferrocyanide and hexamineruthenium(III. The cyclic voltammetric and amperometric response of AA using the modified electrodes was compared with that of bare GCE. The bare GCE showed a linear response to AA in the concentration range of 5 mM to 45 mM with detection limit of 1.656 mM and the modified GCE showed a linear response to AA in the concentration range of 5 μM to 45 μM with detection limit of 0.123 μM. The effect of potential intereferents on amperometric signal of AA at the modified GCE was examined and found to be minimal. The inter-electrode reproducibility, stability, and accuracy were determined. The modified electrode showed excellent inter-electrode reproducibility, accuracy and stability. The modified electrode reported is a promising candidate for use in electroanalysis of AA.

  16. 微波消解-铋膜/Nation修饰电极溶出伏安法测定鳗鱼中的镉含量%Determination of Cadmium in Eel by Microwave Digestion Followed by Stripping Voltammetry on Bismuth/Nation Modified Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李红波; 范大和; 王伟

    2011-01-01

    A stripping voltammetric method based on microwave digestion was developed for determining cadmium in eel on a bismuth/nafion modified electrode. Oxidation yield a well-defined square wave peak for Cd^2+ at about - 0.85 V. Nation concentration, bismuth film thickness, buffer solution pH, deposition potential accumulation time and other potential interference factors were investigated. A linear relationship was found between peak area and cadmium concentration over the range of 4.0 to 14.0 μg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9964. The limit of detection of the method was 0.2 μg/L. The sensor was highly sensitive and effective to detect cadmium even in the presence of several excess potential interference ions.%运用铋膜/Nation修饰电极耦合微波消解技术测定鳗鱼中的Cd^2+。Cd^2+在-0.85V处出现清晰的方波氧化峰。Nafion、铋膜的厚度、缓冲液的pH值、富集电位、富集时间及可能干扰物质的影响因素进行考察。Cd^2+在4.0~14.0μg/L质量浓度范围内线性关系,线性相关性系数为0.9964,检出限为0.2ug/L。结果表明,该传感器在过量的干扰离子存在条件下,表现出超灵敏性和有效性。

  17. Growth of flat SrRuO3 (111) thin films suitable as bottom electrodes in heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubi, D.; Vlooswijk, A. H. G.; Noheda, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    Thin film growth of ferroelectric or multiferroic materials on SrTiO3(111) with a buffer electrode has been hampered by the difficulty of growing flat electrodes on this polar orientation. We report on the growth and characterization of SrRuO3 thin films deposited by Pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO

  18. Voltammetric determination of copper(II) using antimony film electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafi, Amir Mansoor; Husáková, Lenka; Vytřas, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Possibility of determination of Cu(II) at antimony modified carbon paste electrode and its application in determination of trace amount of copper in real sample has been investigated. According to obtained results, it was found that SbF-CPE can be used for these purposes successfully. Both detection limit of 1.45 ppb (evaluated as 3σ) and RSD 4.8 (for 10 ppb Cu and 10 different measurements) were also evaluated. Antimony-based electrodes are environmentally friendly which is their most import...

  19. Polarization Induced Changes in LSM Thin Film Electrode Composition Observed by In Operando Raman Spectroscopy and TOF-SIMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntyre, Melissa D.; Walker, Robert; Traulsen, Marie Lund

    2015-01-01

    an applied potential.1-3 The presented work explores the polarisation induced changes in LSM electrode composition by utilizing in operando Raman spectroscopy and post mortem ToF-SIMS depth profiling on LSM thin film model electrodes fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on YSZ substrates with a thin (200 nm...... recorded through the LSM thin film electrodes and revealed distinct compositional changes throughout the electrodes (Figure 2). The electrode elements and impurities separated into distinct layers that were more pronounced for the stronger applied polarisations. The mechanism behind this separation...

  20. PEDOT as a Flexible Organic Electrode for a Thin Film Acoustic Energy Harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghoon; Na, Jongbeom; Park, Chihyun; Shin, Haijin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2015-08-01

    An efficient thin film acoustic energy harvester was explored using flexible poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films as electrodes in an all-organic triboelectric generator (AO-TEG). A thin film AO-TEG structured as PEDOT/Kapton//PET/PEDOT was prepared by the solution casting polymerization(SCP) on the dielectric polymer films. As-prepared AO-TEG showed high flexibility and durability due to the strong adhesion between the electrodes and the dielectric polymer. The short-circuit current density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), and maximum power density (Pw) reached 50 mA/m(2), 700 V, and 12.9 W/m(2) respectively. The output current density decreased with the increase in the electrode resistance (Re), but the energy loss in the organic electrodes was negligible. The AO-TEG could light up 180 LEDs instantaneously upon touching of the AO-TEG with a palm (∼120 N). With the flexible structure, the AO-TEG was worn as clothes and generated electricity to light LEDs upon regular human movement. Furthermore, the AO-TEG was applicable as a thin film acoustic energy harvester, which used music to generate electricity enough for powering of 5 LEDs. An AO-TEG with a PEDOT electrode (Re = 200 Ω) showed instantaneous peak-to-peak voltage generation of 11 V under a sound pressure level (SPL) of 90-100 dB. The harvested acoustic energy through the AO-TEG was 350 μJ from the 4 min playing of the same single song. This is the first demonstration of a flexible triboelectric generator (TEG) using an organic electrode for harvesting acoustic energy from ambient environment.

  1. Preparation of Bismuth Titanate Piezoelectric Ceramic Thick Film%钛酸铋压电陶瓷厚膜的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵欣欣; 张帆

    2013-01-01

    Bismuth titanate (BIT) powders were prepared from bismuth nitrate, titanium tetrabutoxide and oxalic acid by the chemical coprecipitation method. Then BIT ceramic thick film was prepared by screen-printing method, and its crystal structure was characterized by XRD and SEM analysis, effect of calcination temperature on the orientation degree was also studied. The results show that BIT powders with single phase can be obtained by calcination at 650 oC for 2 h, nanoparticles whose particle size is smaller than1 µm can be obtained by ball milling;the grain orientation (00k) of BIT thick film prepared by sintering at 1 200 oC for 2 h with the heating rate of 10 oC/min is high, can reach to 95.5%.%  以五水硝酸铋草酸和钛酸四丁酯为原料,采用化学共沉淀法,制得钛酸铋(BIT)粉体。然后﹑采用多层晶粒生长法,通过丝网印刷制得BIT压电陶瓷厚膜。借助XRD和SEM对产物晶体结构进行表征,并研究烧结温度对取向度的影响。结果表明,650 oC煅烧2 h可获得单一晶相的BIT粉体,经球磨后得到粒径小于1μm纳米粉体。1200 oC,升温速率10 oC/min,保温2 h时烧结的BIT厚膜在(00k)方向上取向度最高,达到95.50%。

  2. Electrochemical Deposition of CdTe Semiconductor Thin Films for Solar Cell Application Using Two-Electrode and Three-Electrode Configurations: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. K. Echendu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of CdTe semiconductor were electrochemically deposited using two-electrode and three-electrode configurations in potentiostatic mode for comparison. Cadmium sulphate and tellurium dioxide were used as cadmium and tellurium sources, respectively. The layers obtained using both configurations exhibit similar structural, optical, and electrical properties with no specific dependence on any particular electrode configuration used. These results indicate that electrochemical deposition (electrodeposition of CdTe and semiconductors in general can equally be carried out using two-electrode system as well as the conventional three-electrode system without compromising the essential qualities of the materials produced. The results also highlight the advantages of the two-electrode configuration in process simplification, cost reduction, and removal of a possible impurity source in the growth system, especially as the reference electrode ages.

  3. Investigation of top electrode for PZT thick films based MEMS sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Pedersen, Thomas; Kristiansen, Paw T.;

    2010-01-01

    In this work processing of screen printed piezoelectric PZT thick films on silicon substrates is investigated for use in future MEMS devices. E-beam evaporated Al and Pt are patterned on PZT as a top electrode using a lift-off process with a line width down to 3 mu m. Three test structures are used...

  4. Impermeable flexible liquid barrier film for encapsulation of DSSC metal electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junghee; Min, Misook; Yoon, Yeoheung; Kim, Won Jung; Kim, Sol; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2016-06-01

    Encapsulation of electronic devices such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is prone to degradation under normal atmospheric conditions, even with hermetic barriers on the metal electrodes. Overcoming this problem is crucial to increasing DSSC lifetimes and making them commercially viable. Herein, we report a new impermeable flexible liquid barrier film using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and partially reduced graphene oxide (PrGO), which dramatically enhances the lifetime of Ag metal electrodes (typically used in DSSCs) immersed in a highly acidic iodolyte solution. The Ag metal electrode encapsulated by the PVA/PrGO film survived for over 500 hrs, superior to existing barriers of glass frits, epoxy resins and polymers. The PVA/PrGO film strongly adheres to the Ag metal surface, and the resulting PVA/PrGO/Ag electrode is stable even on a curved substrate, with a sheet resistance nearly independent of curvature. These results give new insight for the design of high-performance and solution-processable flexible liquid barrier films for a wide range of applications, in particular for the encapsulation of electronic devices with liquid electrolytes.

  5. Conductive plastic film electrodes for Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treatment : A proof of principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.; Haan, S.W.H. de; Boxtel, L.B.J. van; Hatt, V.; Wouters, P.C.; Coronel, P.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treatment of food needs to be performed prior to packaging, either hygienic or aseptic packaging is necessary. New techniques for PEF treatment after packaging can be considered when plastic conductive (film) electrodes can be integrated within the package, so th

  6. In Situ XAFS Study of Oxides Formed on Nickel Thin Film Electrodes in KOH Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-05

    Thin Film Electrodes in KOH Solution by A. N. Mansour and C. A. Melendres Prepared for Publication in the Electrochemical Society Extended Abstracts...document has been approved for public release and sale; its distribution is unlimited. 19941209 042 The 187th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society Reno

  7. Electrochemical preparation and electrocatalytic properties of PEDOT/ferricyanide film-modified electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasantha, V.S.; Chen, Shen-Ming [National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei (Taiwan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2005-10-10

    The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDOT)/ferricyanide (FCN) film was synthesized by a potentiostatic and also using potentiodynamic methods namely cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric techniques. The EQCM technique was used to study the mechanism of the incorporation of ferricyanide ions on the PEDOT film. The UV-vis absorption results too confirmed the presence of ferricyanide with the PEDOT film. The electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid was carried out on a glassy carbon electrode modified with the PEDOT/FCN film through cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry as diagnostic techniques. It was found that the catalytic current depended on the concentration of ascorbic acid. The number of electron transfer involved in the rate-determining step was found to be 1 and transfer coefficient ({alpha}) equal to 0.476. The diffusion coefficient of ascorbic acid was also estimated through the chrono amperometric and rotating disk electrode methods. The D values of ascorbic acid obtained by through the cyclic and chronoamperometric methods were found to be 4.4103 x 10{sup -6} and 4.9595 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, respectively. This modified electrode was also used for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and dopamine. (author)

  8. Lanthanide doped ceria thin films as possible counter electrode materials in electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartridge, A

    2000-09-01

    Crystalline solid solutions of lanthanide doped ceria have long been known for their high ionic conductivity and as such have found applications as oxygen sensors and in solid oxide fuel cells. With advances in preparative techniques over the years, thin films of ceria doped with zirconia and titania have been studied and found to possess the necessary criteria to meet the requirements of counter electrode materials in solid state electrochromic devices. Existing preparative techniques however, have failed to produce thin films of lanthanide doped ceria for study of their optical and electrochemical properties. This thesis therefore presents in the first chapter, existing knowledge of these materials, a novel preparation technique developed as part of the thesis to prepare these materials as crystalline aqueous dispersions suitable for the preparation of quality thin films and the subsequent characterisation of sols and gels of these materials compared to the same materials prepared by conventional techniques. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy has also been used to assess the homogeneity of these nanocrystals on a nanoscale for the first time. The second chapter then discusses the optical properties of solids and thin films in general before using the crystalline sols produced in chapter 1 to fabricate thin films of these materials for the first time. The optical properties of these materials is then discussed in detail and the results show the optical suitability of these thin films as counter electrodes in electrochromic devices. The final chapter then turns to the electrochemical insertion of lithium into these materials using cyclic voltammetry. All films studied enabled the reversible insertion of lithium with varying potentials and charge capacities without the loss of transmission of light common to other potential counter electrode materials. Certain compositions however, comprising ceria doped with Dy, Y, Nd and Pr, allowed enough lithium

  9. Determination of caffeine content in tea based on poly(safranine T) electroactive film modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sujuan; Zhu, Qianqian; Yang, Baocheng; Wang, Jing; Ye, Baoxian

    2011-12-01

    Safranine T was electropolymerised on a glassy carbon electrode and then characterised by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This uniform electropolymerised film was crystallisable and showed a high electrocatalytic ability towards the oxidation of caffeine. To avoid the interferences of the anions, Nafion was covered on the surface of poly(safranine T) film modified glassy carbon electrode. As a new voltammetric sensor, this modified electrode is sensitive, selective and stable to determine caffeine content in tea. The peak current increased linearly with the concentration of caffeine in the range of 3×10(-7)-1×10(-4)M, with a detection limit of 1×10(-7)M. All of these make it a useful tool for determining caffeine content in tea. What's more, it produces much less organic waste compared with other analytical techniques.

  10. The effect of different electrode structures on the dielectric properties of lanthanum-doped lead titanate ferroelectric thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong; PU Zhaohui; ZHU Xiaohong; XIAO Dingquan; ZHU Jianguo

    2007-01-01

    Lanthanum-doped lead titanate[(Pb0.9,La0.1)TiO3,PLT10]ferroelectric thin films were grown on Si(100)and Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(100)substrates by radio frequency(RF)magnetron sputtering.The crystalline properties of PLT10 films were studied by X-ray diffractometry(XRD).Photolithographic technique was applied to fabricate the interdigital electrodes on PLT10 thin films on Si(100)substrates.The dielectric properties of PLT10 thin films with different electrodes were measured.At room temperature and 1 kHz testing frequency,the dielectric constant of the PLT10 min film with interdigital electrodes is 386.ThC dielectric constant of the PLT10 thin film fabricated under the same technological conditions with parallel plate electrodes structure is 365,while the dielectric constant and loss of the PLT10 thin film with interdigital electrodes are decreased faster than those of the film with parallel plate electrodes with increasing frequency.This is because more influences of interface state are introduced due to the interdigital electrode configuration.

  11. A Study on Tannic Acid-doped Polypyrrole Films on Gold Electrodes for Selective Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine

    OpenAIRE

    Shouzhuo Yao; Yunlong Li; Zhili Li; Qingji Xie; Ling Jiang

    2005-01-01

    Tannic acid-doped polypyrrole (PPY/TA) films have been grown on gold electrodes for selective electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA). Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) studies revealed that, in vivid contrast to perchlorate-doped polypyrrole films (PPY/ClO4 -), the redox switching of PPY/TA films in aqueous solutions involved only cation transport if the solution pH was greater than 3∼4. The PPY/TA Au electrodes also exhibited attractive permselectivity for electroactive ...

  12. Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Dopamine by Ferrocene in Lipid Film Cast on a Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Jian-Guo(王建国); WU,Zheng-Yan(吴正岩); TANG,Ji-Lin(唐纪琳); TENG,Ren-Rui(滕人瑞); WANG,Er-Kang(汪尔康)

    2002-01-01

    The ferrocene-lipid film electrode was successfully prepared by means of casting the solution of ferrocene and lipid in chloroform onto a glassy carbon (GC) electrode surface. Ferrocene saved in the biological membrane gave a couple of quasi-reversble peaks of cyclic voltammmogram. The electrode displays a preferential electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine (DA).The effect of electrocatalytic oxidation of DA depends on the solution pH and the negative charge lipid is in favor of catalytic oxidation of DA. The charistic was employed for separating the electrochemical responses of DA and ascorbic acid (AA). The electrode was assessed for the voltammtric differentiation of DA and AA. The measurement of DA can be achieved with differential pulse voltammetry in the presence of high conentration of AA. The catalytic peak current was proportional to the concentration of DA in the range of 1 ×10- 4-3 × 10-3 mol/L.

  13. High performance of symmetrical supercapacitor based on multilayer films of graphene oxide/polypyrrole electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Fuente Salas, Ixra Marisol [Department of Chemical Engineering, Technological Institute of La Laguna, Torreón, Coahuila (Mexico); Sudhakar, Y.N. [Department of Chemistry, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Selvakumar, M., E-mail: chemselva78@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, Karnataka (India)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of synthesis of graphene oxide/PPy multilayer film. - Highlights: • Influence of current density, concentration of supporting electrolyte and conducting polymer deposition time on GO matrix are studied in detail. • High performance capacitive electrode for multilayer film of GO/PPy is compared with single layer GO/PPy film. • Morphology of the multilayer film and probable mechanism of multilayer deposition of PPy in GO are discussed. - Abstract: In this work we have deposited multlilayer films of polypyrrole (PPy) by galvanostatic method with three different dopants namely p-toluenesulphonic acid, benzene sulphonic acid, and sulfuric acid ions on graphene oxide (GO) layer. The better deposition of PPy films on GO is addressed by studying the influence of different electrolytes, concentrations and current densities. The multilayer films of GO/PPy exhibits greater capacitance compared to GO/PPy single layer. The morphology of the graphene oxide (GO)/multilayer nano PPy structures is carefully analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, FTIR and XPS spectrum. Specific capacitance of fabricated supercapacitor using multilayer electrodes is as high as 332 F g{sup −1} at 10 mV s{sup −1} and also compared with another supercapacitor made from single GO/PPy layer whose capacitance is 215 F g{sup −1}. Galvanostatic charge–discharge studies show good performance and stability.

  14. Copper-mercury film electrode for cathodic stripping voltammetric determination of Se(IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladkov, Vladimir; David, François; Fourest, Blandine

    2003-01-01

    The copper-mercury film electrode has been suggested for the determination of Se(IV) in a wide range of concentration from 1x10(-9) to 1x10(-6) mol L(-1)by square-wave cathodic stripping voltammetry. Insufficient reproducibility and sensitivity of the mercury film electrode have been overcome by using copper(II) ions during the plating procedure. Copper(II) has been found to be reduced and form a reproducible copper-mercury film on a glassy carbon electrode surface. The plating potential and time, the concentration of copper(II) and the concentration of the supporting electrolyte have been optimised. Microscopy has been used for a study of the morphology of the copper-mercury film. It has been found that it is the same as for the mercury one. The preconcentration step consists in electrodeposition of copper selenide on the copper-mercury film. The relative standard deviation is 4.3% for 1x10(-6) mol L(-1) of Se(IV). The limit of detection is 8x10(-10) mol L(-1) for 5 min of accumulation.

  15. Metal-electrode-free Window-like Organic Solar Cells with p-Doped Carbon Nanotube Thin-film Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Il; Delacou, Clement; Kaskela, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Maruyama, Shigeo; Matsuo, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Organic solar cells are flexible and inexpensive, and expected to have a wide range of applications. Many transparent organic solar cells have been reported and their success hinges on full transparency and high power conversion efficiency. Recently, carbon nanotubes and graphene, which meet these criteria, have been used in transparent conductive electrodes. However, their use in top electrodes has been limited by mechanical difficulties in fabrication and doping. Here, expensive metal top electrodes were replaced with high-performance, easy-to-transfer, aerosol-synthesized carbon nanotubes to produce transparent organic solar cells. The carbon nanotubes were p-doped by two new methods: HNO3 doping via ‘sandwich transfer’, and MoOx thermal doping via ‘bridge transfer’. Although both of the doping methods improved the performance of the carbon nanotubes and the photovoltaic performance of devices, sandwich transfer, which gave a 4.1% power conversion efficiency, was slightly more effective than bridge transfer, which produced a power conversion efficiency of 3.4%. Applying a thinner carbon nanotube film with 90% transparency decreased the efficiency to 3.7%, which was still high. Overall, the transparent solar cells had an efficiency of around 50% that of non-transparent metal-based solar cells (7.8%).

  16. Metal-electrode-free Window-like Organic Solar Cells with p-Doped Carbon Nanotube Thin-film Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Il; Delacou, Clement; Kaskela, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko I; Maruyama, Shigeo; Matsuo, Yutaka

    2016-08-16

    Organic solar cells are flexible and inexpensive, and expected to have a wide range of applications. Many transparent organic solar cells have been reported and their success hinges on full transparency and high power conversion efficiency. Recently, carbon nanotubes and graphene, which meet these criteria, have been used in transparent conductive electrodes. However, their use in top electrodes has been limited by mechanical difficulties in fabrication and doping. Here, expensive metal top electrodes were replaced with high-performance, easy-to-transfer, aerosol-synthesized carbon nanotubes to produce transparent organic solar cells. The carbon nanotubes were p-doped by two new methods: HNO3 doping via 'sandwich transfer', and MoOx thermal doping via 'bridge transfer'. Although both of the doping methods improved the performance of the carbon nanotubes and the photovoltaic performance of devices, sandwich transfer, which gave a 4.1% power conversion efficiency, was slightly more effective than bridge transfer, which produced a power conversion efficiency of 3.4%. Applying a thinner carbon nanotube film with 90% transparency decreased the efficiency to 3.7%, which was still high. Overall, the transparent solar cells had an efficiency of around 50% that of non-transparent metal-based solar cells (7.8%).

  17. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Hui-Yng [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Engineering, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore 569830 (Singapore); Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong, E-mail: mgklau@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-09-28

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window.

  18. Intrinsic and interfacial effect of electrode metals on the resistive switching behaviors of zinc oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, W H; Xiao, W; Shang, J; Chen, X X; Zhu, X J; Pan, L; Tan, H W; Zhang, W B; Ji, Z H; Liu, G; Xu, X-H; Ding, J; Li, R-W

    2014-10-24

    Exploring the role of electrode metals on the resistive switching properties of metal electrode/oxide/metal electrode sandwiched structures provides not only essential information to understand the underlying switching mechanism of the devices, but also useful guidelines for the optimization of the switching performance. A systematic study has been performed to investigate the influence of electrodes on the resistive switching characteristics of zinc oxide (ZnO) films in this contribution, in terms of both the intrinsic and interfacial effects. It has been found that the low-resistance state resistances (Ω(LRS)) of all the investigated devices are below 50 Ω, which can be attributed to the formation of highly conductive channels throughout the ZnO films. On the other hand, the high-resistance state resistances (Ω(HRS)) depend on the electronegativity and ionic size of the employed electrode metals. Devices with electrode metals of high electronegativity and large ionic size possess high Ω(HRS) values, while those with electrode metals of low electronegativity and small ionic size carry low Ω(HRS) values. A similar trend of the set voltages has also been observed, while the reset voltages are all distributed in a narrow range close to ±0.5 V. Moreover, the forming voltages of the switching devices strongly depend on the roughness of the metal/ZnO and/or ZnO/metal interface. The present work provides essential information for better understanding the switching mechanism of zinc oxide based devices, and benefits the rational selection of proper electrode metals for the device performance optimization.

  19. Mechanical measurements on lithium phosphorous oxynitride coated silicon thin film electrodes for lithium-ion batteries during lithiation and delithiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obeidi, Ahmed; Kramer, Dominik; Boles, Steven T.; Mönig, Reiner; Thompson, Carl V.

    2016-08-01

    The development of large stresses during lithiation and delithiation drives mechanical and chemical degradation processes (cracking and electrolyte decomposition) in thin film silicon anodes that complicate the study of normal electrochemical and mechanical processes. To reduce these effects, lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) coatings were applied to silicon thin film electrodes. Applying a LiPON coating has two purposes. First, the coating acts as a stable artificial solid electrolyte interphase. Second, it limits mechanical degradation by retaining the electrode's planar morphology during cycling. The development of stress in LiPON-coated electrodes was monitored using substrate curvature measurements. LiPON-coated electrodes displayed highly reproducible cycle-to-cycle behavior, unlike uncoated electrodes which had poorer coulombic efficiency and exhibited a continual loss in stress magnitude with continued cycling due to film fracture. The improved mechanical stability of the coated silicon electrodes allowed for a better investigation of rate effects and variations of mechanical properties during electrochemical cycling.

  20. Surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene film using single liquid electrode atmosphericpressure glow discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Lan; Lü Guo-Hua; Chen Wei; Pang Hua; Zhang Gu-Ling; Yang Si-Ze

    2011-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene films are treated by room temperature helium atmospheric pressure plasma plumes, which are generated with a home-made single liquid electrode plasma device. After plasma treatment, the water contact angle of polytetrafluoroethylene film drops from 114° to 46° and the surface free energy increases from 22.0 mJ/m2 to 59.1 mJ/m2. The optical emission spectrum indicates that there are reactive species such as O2+, O and He in the plasma plume. After plasma treatment, a highly crosslinking structure is formed on the film surface and the oxygen element is incorporated into the film surface in the forms of -C-O-C-, -C=O, and -O-C=O groups. Over a period of 10 days, the contact angle of the treated film is recovered by only about 10°, which indicates that the plasma surface modification is stable with time.

  1. Semiconducting properties of oxide films formed onto an Nb electrode in NaOH solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR D. JOVIC

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of the potentiostatic formation of homogeneous and heterogeneous, nano-crystalline passive films of Nb2O5 onto an Nb electrode in NaOH solutions of different concentrations at potentials lower than 3.0 V vs. SCE are presented. The semiconducting properties of such films were investigated by EIS measurements. After fitting the EIS results by appropriate equivalent circuits, the space charge capacitance (Csc and space charge resistance (Rsc of these films were determined. The donor density (Nsc, flat band potential (Efb and thickness of the space charge layer (dsc for such oxide films were determined from the corresponding Mott–Schottky (M–S plots. It is shown that all oxide films were n-type semiconductors in a certain potential range.

  2. Electroanalysis of tetracycline using nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode applied to flow injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treetepvijit, Surudee; Chuanuwatanakul, Suchada; Einaga, Yasuaki; Sato, Rika; Chailapakult, Orawon

    2005-05-01

    The electrochemical analysis of tetracycline was investigated using nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry with a flow injection system. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemical oxidation of tetracycline. Comparison experiments were carried out using as-deposited boron-doped diamond thin film electrode (BDD). Nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode (Ni-DIA) provided well-resolved oxidation irreversible cyclic voltammograms. The current signals were higher than those obtained using the as-deposited BDD electrode. Results using nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode in flow injection system coupled with amperometric detection are presented. The optimum potential for tetracycline was 1.55 V versus Ag/AgCl. The linear range of 1.0 to 100 microM and the detection limit of 10 nM were obtained. In addition, the application for drug formulation was also investigated.

  3. Increased bismuth concentration in MBE GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} films by oscillating III/V flux ratio during growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Adam W., E-mail: awood4@wisc.edu; Babcock, Susan E. [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Li, Jincheng; Brown, April S. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27707 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The authors have examined bismuth concentration profiles in GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} films grown by molecular beam epitaxy using high angle annular dark field imaging (Z-contrast imaging) in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope in conjunction with x-ray diffraction. Samples were grown with a gradient in each of the component fluxes, and therefore, the III/V ratio across the substrate. Rotating the sample during growth exposed the growth surface to an oscillating III/V flux ratio. Sinusoidal [Bi] profiles resulted in the growth direction, the wavelength and number of which were consistent with the growth rate and the rate of substrate rotation. However, the magnitude of [Bi] in the observed fluctuations was greater than the maximum [Bi] achieved using the same Bi flux and Ga/As flux ratios in steady-state conditions on a stationary substrate, suggesting that varying the III/V flux ratio during growth promotes the incorporation of Bi in GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} films. A proposed qualitative model for how this enhancement might occur hypothesizes a critical role for alternating growth and shrinkage of Ga-Bi predroplet clusters on the surface as the growing material is rotated through Ga-rich and As-rich flux compositions.

  4. Composition dependence of the ferroelectric properties of lanthanum-modified bismuth titanate thin films grown by using pulsed-laser deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, S D; Park, B H; Noh, T W

    2000-01-01

    Lanthanum-modified bismuth titanate, Bi sub 4 sub - sub x La sub x Ti sub 3 O sub 1 sub 2 (BLT), thin films with a La concentration of 0.25<=x<=1.00 were grown on Pt/Ti/SiO sub 2 /Si substrates by using pulsed-laser deposition. The BLT films showed well-saturated polarization-electric field curves whose remnant polarizations were 16.1 mu C/cm sup 2 , 27.8 mu C/cm sup 2 , 19.6 mu C/cm sup 2 , and 2.7 mu C/cm sup 2 , respectively, for x=0.25, 0.05, 0.75, and 1.00. The fatigue characteristics became better with increasing x up to 0.75. The Au/BLT/Pt capacitor with a La concentration of 0.50 showed an interesting dependence of the remanent polarization on the number of repetitive read/write cycles. On the other hand, the capacitor with a La concentration of 0.75 showed fatigue-free characteristics.

  5. Sputtering and crystalline structure modification of bismuth thin films deposited onto silicon substrates under the impact of 20-160 keV Ar{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammeri, S. [CRNA/Division des Techniques Nucleaires, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Ouichaoui, S., E-mail: souichaoui@gmail.co [USTHB/Faculte de Physique, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Ammi, H. [CRNA/Division des Techniques Nucleaires, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Zemih, R. [USTHB/Faculte de Physique, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria)

    2010-01-15

    The sputtering of bismuth thin films induced by 20-160 keV Ar{sup +} ions has been studied using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive and diffraction spectroscopy. These techniques revealed increasing modifications of the Bi film surfaces with increasing both ion beam energy and fluence up to their complete deterioration under irradiation conditions E = 160 keV and phi = 1.5 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, leaving isolated islands of preferred (0 1 2) orientation on the Si substrate. The observed surface morphology and crystalline structure evolutions are likely due to a complex interplay of interaction mechanisms involving both elastic nuclear collisions and inelastic electronic ones. The measured Bi sputtering yields versus Ar{sup +} ion fluence for a fixed ion energy exhibit a significant depression at very low phi-values followed by a steady state regime above approx2.0 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Measured sputtering yields versus Ar{sup +} ion energy with fixing ion fluence to 1.2 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} in the upper part of the yield saturation regime are also reported. Their comparison to theoretical model and SRIM 2008 Monte Carlo simulation predictions is discussed.

  6. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin entrapped in dextran film on carbon ionic liquid electrode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaoqing Li; Yan Wang; Xiaoying Sun; Tianrong Zhan; Wei Sun

    2010-03-01

    Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin (Hb) entrapped in the dextran (De) film on the surface of a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6) modified carbon paste electrode (CILE) has been investigated. UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that Hb retained its native structure in the De film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated an uniform film was formed on the electrode surface. Cyclic voltammetric experiments indicated that the electron transfer efficiency between Hb and the electrode was greatly improved due to the presence of the De film and ionic liquid, which provided a biocompatible and higher conductive interface. A pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible redox peak was obtained with the anodic and cathodic peaks located at -0.195 V and -0.355 V in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution, respectively. The electrochemical parameters were calculated by investigating the relationship of the peak potential with the scan rate. The fabricated De/Hb/CILE showed good electrocatalytic ability to the reduction of H2O2 with the linear concentration range from 4.0 × 10-6 to 1.5 × 10-5 mol/L and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ($K_{M}^{\\text{app}}$) for the electrocatalytic reaction was calculated as 0.17 M.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of BPO Film as Electrode for Using of FeRAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xin-Yi; YU Jun; WANG Yun-Bo; ZHOU Wen-Li; GAO Jun-Xiong; CHU Xiao-Hui

    2008-01-01

    Conductive perovskite BaPb03 (BPO) films as a potential electrode material of PZT capacitors used in ferroelectric random access memory are prepared by rf magnetron sputtering. An x-ray diffractometer and standard four probe method are employed to investigate the dependence of growth conditions on crystal structure and conductivity of BPO films. It is found that BPO films with perovskite phase can be obtained at substrate temperatures above 425℃, and the sample with the lowest resistivity is obtained at 450℃ under pure argon atmosphere. Using this BPO film as electrode, ferroelectric properties of BPO/PZT/BPO and Pt/PZT/BPO sandwiched structures are evaluated. Their remanent polarization and coercive field are 36.6μC/cm2 (81.3kV/cm) and 36.9μC/cm2 (89.1kV/cm), respectively. The coercive field of the former structure is lower than that of the latter, but remanent polarizations are almost the same. In addition, the results imply that BPO electrode is helpful to improve the fatigue resistance of PZT. The reasons are discussed.Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 90407023 and 60571009.

  8. Fabrication and application of flexible graphene silk composite film electrodes decorated with spiky Pt nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Fang, Lu; Hu, Yichuan; Yang, Guang; Zhu, Qin; Ye, Xuesong

    2014-04-21

    A free-standing graphene silk composite (G/S) film was fabricated via vacuum filtration of a mixed suspension of graphene oxide and silk fibres, followed by chemical reduction. Spiky structured Pt nanospheres were grown on the film substrate by cyclic voltammetry electrodeposition. The electrical and mechanical performance of a single graphene coated silk fibre was investigated. The conductivity of a single graphene coated silk fibre is 57.9 S m(-1). During 1000 bending measurements, the conductivity was stable and showed negligible variation. The G/S film has a sheet resistivity of 90 Ω □(-1) with a porous and hierarchical structure. The spiky Pt nanosphere decorated G/S film was directly used as a H₂O₂ electrode with a sensitivity of 0.56 mA mM(-1) cm(-2), a linear range of 0-2.5 mM and an ultralow detection limit of 0.2 μM (S/N = 3). A glucose biosensor electrode was further fabricated by enzyme immobilization. The results show a sensitivity of 150.8 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 1 μM (S/N = 3) for glucose detection. The strategy of coating graphene sheets on a silk fibre surface provides a new approach for developing electrically conductive biomaterials, tissue engineering scaffolds, bendable electrodes, and wearable biomedical devices.

  9. Development of New Electrode System for High Field Dielectric Properties Measurement Using Evaporated Polypropylene Thin Guard Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Masayuki; Tohyama, Kazuyuki; Tokoro, Tetsuro; Mizuno, Yukio; Nagao, Masayuki; Kosaki, Masamitsu

    Non-polar polymers such as polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) are widely used as very important electrical insulating and dielectric materials. They are used in the increasingly high AC electric field strength region approaching to the limit of electrical breakdown strength of the materials. Therefore the study of high-field dielectric property is very important in terms of understanding the AC breakdown mechanism of materials. A three-terminals electrode system with a guard film (new type electrode system) was developed in our laboratory for the precise measurement of high-field tanδ, where the guard film was used to reduce the disturbance of electric field around the edge of a main electrode. However, minute air sometimes steals between a sample film and the guard film. The air sometimes generates partial discharge in the high electric field region. Therefore, when the sample had minute air, the new type electrode system was limited under 100kVrms/mm application that didn't reach to an intrinsic breakdown strength of the 30μm-thick sample. We tried to improve the new electrode system without minute air between a sample film and the guard film. We also tried to make very thin guard film to reduce the field disturbance at the edge of main electrode. In this paper a PP-guard film on a biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film was made by evaporation. This improvement of the electrode system using the evaporated PP-guard film was in success so that high-field dielectric properties of BOPP film could be measured up to near the intrinsic breakdown field of the sample.

  10. Catalytic activity for nitrate electroreduction of nano-structured polypyrrole films electrochemically synthesized onto a copper electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong Thoa Nguyen, Thi; Thinh Nguyen, Viet; Hai Le, Viet

    2010-03-01

    Polypyrrole film was synthesized electrochemically onto a copper electrode in oxalate, oxalic acid and salicylic acid solutions. The electrochemical oxidation of pyrrole to form polypyrrole film and the electroreduction of nitrate and nitrite ions at synthesized Ppy modified copper electrodes (Ppy/Cu) in potassium chloride aqueous solutions were studied by cyclic voltammetry. Polypyrrole nano-porous film formation and the activity of the modified Ppy/Cu electrode for nitrate reduction were found to be dependent on the synthesis medium and conditions: pH; content and concentrations of the electrolytes; pyrrole concentration; electrode potential; electrolysis duration; drying time and temperature for finishing the Ppy/Cu electrode and immersion time in water for storing the Ppy/Cu electrode before use. High catalytic activity for nitrate reduction was found for composite electrodes with nano-porous structured Ppy films. The Ppy/Cu electrodes prepared in oxalate buffer and salicylic acid solutions perform more stable catalytic activity for nitrate reduction; their service life is about ten times longer than for an electrode prepared in oxalic acid solution.

  11. 铁酸铋薄膜光伏效应研究进展%Research Progress in Photovoltaic Effect of Bismuth Ferrite Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周浩; 高荣礼; 符春林

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth ferrite is the only single phase multiferroic material which shows both ferroelectric and antiferromag-netic properties at room temperature and potential magneto electric effect between the two ferro orders. The ferroelectric Curie temperature and the antiferromagnetic Neel temperatures are both above room temperature. It has broad application prospects in the fields of optoelectronic devices, spin electric devices, ferroelectric random access memories, magnetoelectric memory. Be-sides, bismuth ferrite has relatively larger polarization, lower band-gap and large absorption coefficient, and theoretically may become an alternative for next generation of photovoltaic cell because of its photoelectric conversion efficiency. However, there is no clear conclusion about the mechanism of the photovoltaic effect of multiferroic Bismuth ferrite materials. And many prob- lems need to be solved because many factors can affect the photovoltaic effect, including domains, interfaces, thickness, depola-rization field, defect, polarization and so on. Based on these considerations above, we review the research progress of Bismuth ferrite thin film of the photovoltaic effect mechanism.%铁酸铋是目前唯一在室温下同时具有铁电性和反铁磁性的单相多铁性材料,并且这两种铁性有序之间存在磁电耦合效应,其铁电居里温度和反铁磁奈尔温度都远在室温以上,在光电器件、自旋电子器件、铁电随机存储器、磁电存储单元等领域有着广阔的应用前景。此外,作为一种典型的铁电材料,铁酸铋还具有较大的剩余极化强度、相对较小的带隙宽度以及较大的光吸收系数,理论上具有较大的光电转换效率,有望成为下一代太阳能光伏电池的备选材料。然而,目前有关铁酸铋材料光伏效应的机制还没有明确的定论,影响其光伏效应的因素较多,例如电畴、界面、厚度、退极化场、缺陷及极化强度等。

  12. Sputtered iridium oxide films (SIROFs) for low-impedance neural stimulation and recording electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, S F; Plante, T D; Ehrlich, J

    2004-01-01

    Iridium oxide films formed by electrochemical activation of iridium metal (AIROF) or by electrochemical deposition (EIROF) are being evaluated as low-impedance charge-injection coatings for neural stimulation and recording. Iridium oxide may also be deposited by reactive sputtering from iridium metal in an oxidizing plasma. The characterization of sputtered iridium oxide films (SIROFs) as coatings for nerve electrodes is reported. SIROFs were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potential transient measurements during charge-injection. The surface morphology of the SIROF transitions from smooth to highly nodular with increasing film thickness from 80 nm to 4600 nm. Charge-injection capacities exceed 0.75 mC/cm(2) with 0.75 ms current pulses in thicker films. The SIROF was deposited on both planar and non-planar substrates and photolithographically patterned by lift-off.

  13. Pt crystalline ultrathin films as counter electrodes for bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng-En; Lin, Zheng-Kun; Lin, Yu-Chang; Lei, Bi-Chen; Chang, Chen-Shiung; Shih-Sen Chien, Forest

    2017-01-01

    This study is to develop the Pt crystalline ultrathin films as high-transparent, efficient, and low-Pt-loaded counter electrodes (CEs) for bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The 1-nm-thick Pt ultrathin films are sputtered on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates and thermal annealed at 400 °C. After annealing, as-prepared amorphous-nanocrystal-mixed Pt films become high-crystalline films with better optical transmittance and electrocatalytic ability to I3 - reduction for bifacial DSCs. The rear-to-front ratios of short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency of DSCs with crystalline ultrathin Pt CEs are as high as 81 and 83%, respectively.

  14. Electrostatic accumulation and determination of triclosan in ultrathin carbon nanoparticle composite film electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiri, Mandana [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahrokhian, Saeed [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Psillakis, Elefteria [Laboratory of Aquatic Chemistry, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechnioupolis, 73100 Chania-Crete (Greece); Marken, Frank [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: f.marken@bath.ac.uk

    2007-06-12

    A film composed of carbon nanoparticles and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) or CNP-PDDAC is formed in a layer-by-layer deposition process at tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) substrates. Excess positive binding sites within this film in aqueous phosphate buffer at pH 9.5 are quantified by adsorption of iron(III)phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate and indigo carmine. Both anionic redox systems bind with Langmuirian characteristics (K {approx} 10{sup 5} mol{sup -1} dm{sup 3}) and show electrochemical reactivity throughout the film at different thicknesses. Therefore, the electrical conductivity in CNP-PDDAC films is good and the positive binding sites are approximately 140 pmol cm{sup -2} per layer. Structural instability of the CNP-PDDAC film in the presence of high concentrations of iron(III)phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate or indigo carmine is observed. Triclosan, a widely used anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agent, exists in aqueous media at pH 9.5 as a negatively charged chlorinated poly-aromatic phenol. Due to the negative charge, triclosan is readily accumulated into CNP-PDDAC films with an efficiency consistent with that expected for simple electrostatic interaction with the cationic binding sites. Oxidation of bound triclosan occurs at 0.6 V versus SCE in a chemically irreversible process. The CNP-PDDAC film electrode is renewed by rinsing in organic solvent and the triclosan oxidation response is shown to correlate with the triclosan concentration in solution from 0.5 to 50 {mu}M. Applications of the CNP-PDDAC film electrode (or improved versions of it) in analysis or in anodic extraction are proposed.

  15. In-situ Microscopic FT-IR Spectroelectrochemical Investigation of Polythiophene Film Modified Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A polythiophene film was electrochemically deposited on a Pt micro-plate electrode and investigated by cyclic voltammetry and in-situ reflection microscopic FTIR spectroscopy. The FTIR analysis showed that the electropolymerization of thiophene on the Pt surface was affected by the surface adsorption processes of thiophene molecules. Two adsorption modes were identified. Two structure models of the polythiophene chain were observed simultaneously. It was proposed that the good conductibility of the polythiophene film was originated from a co-vibratory equilibrium of the link part of model Ⅰ and model Ⅱ.

  16. Photoelectrochemical Properties of Bacteriorhodopsin Langmuir-Blodgett Films on ITO Conductive Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建平; 李津如; 陶培德; 李兴长; 江龙

    1994-01-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett films containing bacteriorhodopsin were deposited on ITO conduc-tive electrodes.A sandwiched photocell with a junction structure of ITO/bR/electrolyte/ITO has beenconstructed,in which the bR LB film was directly put into contact with an aqueous electrolyte immobi-lized in an agar gel.Under visible light irradiation,the photocell produced a transient photocurrent due tothe change of light intensity,which characterized vision imitative material.A photoalarm device based ondifferential responsivity phenomena was fabricated.

  17. RF Sputtered Iridium (Ir) Film as a Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokurala, Krishnaiah; Kamble, Anvita; Bhargava, Parag; Mallick, Sudhanshu

    2015-11-01

    Iridium (Ir) films were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate by radio-frequency sputtering at room temperature and the as-deposited films were used as counter electrodes (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The photo conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSC fabricated with Ir-based CE was 7.2%. Electrocatalytic activity and electrochemical data for Ir-based CE were compared with those for conventional Pt-based CE. The results were indicative of potential use of Ir as an alternative CE material for DSSC.

  18. Electrochemical Sensor for Determination of Parathion Based on Electropolymerization Poly(Safranine Film Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyuan Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parathion has been determined with voltammetric technique based on a novel sensor fabricated by electropolymerization of safranine on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE. The electrochemical behavior of poly(safranine film electrode and its electrocatalytic activity toward parathion were studied in detail by cyclic voltammetry (CV and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV. All experimental parameters were optimized, and LSV was proposed for its determination. In optimal working conditions, the reduction current of parathion at this poly(safranine-modified electrode exhibited a good linear relationship with parathion concentration in the range of 3.43×10−8 to 3.43×10−5 mol L−1. The detection limit was 1.0×10−8 mol L−1. The high sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor were demonstrated by its practical application for the determination of trace amounts of parathion in fruit samples.

  19. Method of fabricating conductive electrodes on the front and backside of a thin film structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabada, Phillipe J.; Tabada, legal representative, Melody; Pannu, Satinderpall S.

    2011-05-22

    A method of fabricating a thin film device having conductive front and backside electrodes or contacts. Top-side cavities are first formed on a first dielectric layer, followed by the deposition of a metal layer on the first dielectric layer to fill the cavities. Defined metal structures are etched from the metal layer to include the cavity-filled metal, followed by depositing a second dielectric layer over the metal structures. Additional levels of defined metal structures may be formed in a similar manner with vias connecting metal structures between levels. After a final dielectric layer is deposited, a top surface of a metal structure of an uppermost metal layer is exposed through the final dielectric layer to form a front-side electrode, and a bottom surface of a cavity-filled portion of a metal structure of a lowermost metal layer is also exposed through the first dielectric layer to form a back-side electrode.

  20. Transparent electrode requirements for thin film solar cell modules

    KAUST Repository

    Rowell, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The transparent conductor (TC) layer in thin film solar cell modules has a significant impact on the power conversion efficiency. Reflection, absorption, resistive losses and lost active area either from the scribed interconnect region in monolithically integrated modules or from the shadow losses of a metal grid in standard modules typically reduce the efficiency by 10-25%. Here, we perform calculations to show that a competitive TC must have a transparency of at least 90% at a sheet resistance of less than 10 Ω/sq (conductivity/absorptivity ≥ 1 Ω -1) for monolithically integrated modules. For standard modules, losses are much lower and the performance of alternative lower cost TC materials may already be sufficient to replace conducting oxides in this geometry. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. A selective voltammetric detection for dopamine using poly(gallic acid) film modified electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The electrochemistry behavior of dopamine was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry at a poly (gallic acid) film modified glassy carbon electrode.Two electrons and two protons participated in the diffusion-controlled electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine with a diffusion coefficient of 2.186×10~(-5) cm~2/s.The interference of ascorbic acid with the determination of dopamine could be efficiently eliminated.This work provided a simple approach to selectively and sensitively...

  2. Growth of polypyrrole ultrathin films on MoS₂ monolayers as high-performance supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongjie; Wang, Jiangyan; Yin, Huajie; Zhao, Huijun; Wang, Dan; Tang, Zhiyong

    2015-02-01

    A scalable solution-based approach is developed to controllably grow PPy ultrathin films on 2D MoS2 monolayers. When these sandwiched nanocomposites are utilized as supercapacitor electrodes, a record high specific capacitance, remarkable rate capability, and improved cycling stability are achieved, offering a feasible solution to create the next generation of energy-storage device with superior power density and energy density.

  3. An Ion-selective Electrode for Anion Perchlorate in Thick-film Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gil

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The ionophore 1,4,7,10,13-penta(n-octyl-1,4,7,10,13-pentaazacyclopentadecane(L1 was used for the development of miniaturised perchlorate-selective electrodes in thick-film technology. Different PVC membranes containing L1 and the plasticizers o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE, dibutyl phthalate (DBP, bis(2-ethylhexylsebacate (DOS and dibutylsebacate (DBS were prepared and placed on a graphite working electrode manufactured byusing thick film serigraphic technology. The perchlorate selective electrode containing DBSas plasticizer showed a potentiometric Nernstian response of -57 mV per decade in a rangeof perchlorate concentration from 1 x 10-4 to 1 x 10-1 M with a detection limit of 5 x 10-5 M.The ion selective electrodes containing DBP and NPOE as plasticizers exhibit a workingrange from 6.3 x 10-5 to 1 x 10-1 M and 7.4 x 10-5 to 1 x 10-1 M for perchlorate, respectively,with a detection limit of ca. 2.2 x 10-5 M. For all three electrodes a response time of ca. 5 s was found. The prepared electrodes do not show appreciable decay of the slope for at least 25 days. Potentiometric selectivity coefficients (log KpotClO4-,X- with respect to the primaryanion perchlorate were evaluated using the fixed interference method. These coefficients areof the order of 10-1.7 or smaller, indicating the relatively poor interference of the differentanions studied.

  4. Amperometric sensors based on sawdust film modified electrodes: application to the electroanalysis of paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenne Dedzo, Gustave; Nanseu-Njiki, Charles Péguy; Ngameni, Emmanuel

    2012-09-15

    Natural or sodium hydroxide treated Ayous sawdusts were used to prepare thin film electrodes (denoted respectively as PSTFE and SSTFE). The sensors obtained exhibit good mechanical stability and a wide electrochemical potential range. Their electrochemical characterization revealed that they present a good capacity to accumulate cations, but are not useful for the electroanalysis of anions. In all cases, the signals were more intense and well defined on SSTFE compared to PSTFE. When applied to the electroanalysis of paraquat, a significant improvement of the current intensities was obtained on these electrodes compared to the bare glassy carbon electrode. The diffusion of this compound through the film which is the main process governing the electrochemical reaction at the electrode surface, is 2.2 times more important with SSTFE compared to PSTFE. After the optimization of the detection parameters, calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range 0.1-0.725 μmol L(-1) for PSTFE and 0.05-0.6 μmol L(-1) for SSTFE. The detection limits determined for a signal/noise ratio=3 are 5.49×10(-9) mol L(-1) for PSTFE and 3.02×10(-9) mol L(-1) for SSTFE.

  5. Studies on the interfacial charge transfer processes of nanocrystalline CdSe thin film electrodes by intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Interfacial charge transfer kinetics of the nanocrystalline CdSe thin film electrodes have been studied in sodium polysulfide solutions by intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS). The interfacial direct and indirect charge transfer and recombination processes were analyzed in terms of the parameters: normalized steady state photocurrents and surface state lifetimes obtained by measuring the IMPS responses under different applied potentials and different solution concentrations. IMPS responses of polycrystalline CdSe thin film electrodes were also presented for comparison.

  6. Determination of Antimony (III) in Real Samples by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using a Mercury Film Screen-Printed Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Domínguez-Renedo; M. Julia Arcos-Martínez; M. Jesús Gómez González

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure for the determination of antimony (III) by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a mercury film screen-printed electrode as the working electrode. The procedure has been optimized using experimental design methodology. Under these conditions, in terms of Residual Standard Deviation (RSD), the repeatability (3.81 %) and the reproducibility (5.07 %) of the constructed electrodes were both analyzed. The detection limit for Sb (III) was calculated ...

  7. Voltammetric determination of theophylline at a Nafion/multi-wall carbon nanotubes composite film-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suling Yang; Ran Yang; Gang Li; Jianjun Li; Lingbo Qu

    2010-11-01

    A Nafion/multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) composite film-modified electrode was fabricated and applied to the sensitive and convenient determination of theophylline (TP). Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were easily dispersed homogeneously into 0.1% Nafion methanol solution by sonication. Appropriate amount of Nafion/MWNTs suspension was coated on a glassy carbon electrode. After evaporating methanol, a Nafion/MWNTs composite film-modified electrode was achieved. TP could effectively accumulate at Nafion/MWNTs composite film-modified electrode and cause a sensitive anodic peak at around 1180 mV (vs SCE) in 0.01 mol/L H2SO4 medium (pH 1.8). In contrast with the bare glassy carbon electrode, Nafion film-modified electrode, Nafion/MWNTs film-modified electrode could remarkably increase the anodic peak current and decreased the overpotential of TP oxidation. Under the optimized conditions, the anodic peak current was proportional to TP concentration in the range of 8.0 × 10-8-6.0 × 10-5 mol/L, with a detection limit of 2.0 × 10-8 mol/L. This newly developed method was used to determine TP in drug samples with good percentage of recoveries.

  8. Polarization Induced Changes in LSM Thin Film Electrode Composition Observed by In Operando Raman Spectroscopy and TOF-SIMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntyre, Melissa D.; Traulsen, Marie Lund; Norrman, Kion

    2015-01-01

    Polarization induced changes in LSM electrode composition were investigated by utilizing in operando Raman spectroscopy and post mortem TOF-SIMS depth profiling. Experiments were conducted on cells with 160 nm thick (La0.85Sr0.15)0.9MnO3±δ thin film electrodes in 10% O2 at 700 °C under various...

  9. Solid-state NMR Study of Ion Adsorption and Charge Storage in Graphene Film Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kecheng; Bo, Zheng; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2016-12-01

    Graphene film has been demonstrated as promising active materials for electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs), mainly due to its excellent mechanical flexibility and freestanding morphology. In this work, the distribution and variation pattern of electrolyte ions in graphene-film based EDLC electrodes are investigated with a 11B magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopy. For neutral graphene films soaked with different amounts of electrolytes (1 M TEABF4/ACN), weakly and strongly adsorbed anions are identified based on the resonances at different 11B chemical shifts. Unlike other porous carbonaceous materials, the strongly adsorbed anions are found as the major electrolyte anions components in graphene films. Further measurements on the ion population upon charging are carried out with applying different charging voltages on the graphene films. Results indicate that the charging process of graphene-film based EDLCs can be divided into two distinct charge storage stages (i.e., ejection of co-ions and adsorption of counter-ions) for different voltages. The as-obtained results will be useful for the design and fabrication of high performance graphene-film based EDLCs.

  10. Electrodeposition and Capacitive Behavior of Films for Electrodes of Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polypyrrole films were deposited by anodic electropolymerization on stainless steel substrates from aqueous pyrrole solutions containing sodium salicylate and tiron additives. The deposition yield was studied under galvanostatic conditions. The amount of the deposited material was varied by the variation of deposition time at a constant current density. SEM studies showed the formation of porous films with thicknesses in the range of 0–3 μm. Cyclic voltammetry data for the films tested in 0.5 M Na2SO4 solutions showed capacitive behavior and high specific capacitance (SC in a voltage window of 0.9 V. The films prepared from pyrrole solutions containing tiron showed better capacitive behavior compared to the films prepared from the solutions containing sodium salicylate. A highest SC of 254 F g−1 was observed for the sample with a specific mass of 89 μg cm−2 at a scan rate of 2 mV s−1. The SC decreased with an increasing film thickness and scan rate. The results indicated that the polypyrrole films deposited on the stainless steel substrates by anodic electropolymerization can be used as electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors (ES.

  11. Rhenium Alloys as Ductile Substrates for Diamond Thin-Film Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Jeffrey M; Martin, Heidi B

    2014-02-01

    Molybdenum-rhenium (Mo/Re) and tungsten-rhenium (W/Re) alloys were investigated as substrates for thin-film, polycrystalline boron-doped diamond electrodes. Traditional, carbide-forming metal substrates adhere strongly to diamond but lose their ductility during exposure to the high-temperature (1000°C) diamond, chemical vapor deposition environment. Boron-doped semi-metallic diamond was selectively deposited for up to 20 hours on one end of Mo/Re (47.5/52.5 wt.%) and W/Re (75/25 wt.%) alloy wires. Conformal diamond films on the alloys displayed grain sizes and Raman signatures similar to films grown on tungsten; in all cases, the morphology and Raman spectra were consistent with well-faceted, microcrystalline diamond with minimal sp(2) carbon content. Cyclic voltammograms of dopamine in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) showed the wide window and low baseline current of high-quality diamond electrodes. In addition, the films showed consistently well-defined, dopamine electrochemical redox activity. The Mo/Re substrate regions that were uncoated but still exposed to the diamond-growth environment remained substantially more flexible than tungsten in a bend-to-fracture rotation test, bending to the test maximum of 90° and not fracturing. The W/Re substrates fractured after a 27° bend, and the tungsten fractured after a 21° bend. Brittle, transgranular cleavage fracture surfaces were observed for tungsten and W/Re. A tension-induced fracture of the Mo/Re after the prior bend test showed a dimple fracture with a visible ductile core. Overall, the Mo/Re and W/Re alloys were suitable substrates for diamond growth. The Mo/Re alloy remained significantly more ductile than traditional tungsten substrates after diamond growth, and thus may be an attractive metal substrate for more ductile, thin-film diamond electrodes.

  12. Low resistance thin film organic solar cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen; Xue, Jiangeng

    2008-01-01

    A method which lower the series resistance of photosensitive devices includes providing a transparent film of a first electrically conductive material arranged on a transparent substrate; depositing and patterning a mask over the first electrically conductive material, such that openings in the mask have sloping sides which narrow approaching the substrate; depositing a second electrically conductive material directly onto the first electrically conductive material exposed in the openings of the mask, at least partially filling the openings; stripping the mask, leaving behind reentrant structures of the second electrically conductive material which were formed by the deposits in the openings of the mask; after stripping the mask, depositing a first organic material onto the first electrically conductive material in between the reentrant structures; and directionally depositing a third electrically conductive material over the first organic material deposited in between the reentrant structures, edges of the reentrant structures aligning deposition so that the third electrically conductive material does not directly contact the first electrically conductive material, and does not directly contact the second electrically conductive material.

  13. Novel Bismuth Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏长荣; 李家明

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical investigations show that bismuth nanotubes are semiconductors for all diameters. For smalldiameter bismuth nanotubes, the band structures and bandgaps vary strongly with the strong hybridization effect. When the diameters are larger than 18 A, the bandgaps ofBi (n, n) and (n, 0) nanotubes approach 0.63 e V, corresponding to the bandgap of bismuth sheet at the Γ point. Thus, bismuth nanotubes are expected to be a potential semiconductor nanomaterial in future nanoelectronics.

  14. Silicon-based thin films as bottom electrodes in chalcogenide nonvolatile memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yun; Yoon, Sung-Min; Choi, Kyu-Jeong; Lee, Nam-Yeal; Park, Young-Sam; Ryu, Sang-Ouk; Yu, Byoung-Gon; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Heung

    2007-10-01

    The effect of the electrical resistivity of a silicon-germanium (SiGe) thin film on the phase transition in a GeSbTe (GST) chalcogenide alloy and the manufacturing aspect of the fabrication process of a chalcogenide memory device employing the SiGe film as bottom electrodes were investigated. While p-type SiGe bottom electrodes were formed using in situ doping techniques, n-type ones could be made in a different manner where phosphorus atoms diffused from highly doped silicon underlayers to undoped SiGe films. The p-n heterojunction did not form between the p-type GST and n-type SiGe layers, and the semiconduction type of the SiGe alloys did not influence the memory device switching. It was confirmed that an optimum resistivity value existed for memory operation in spite of proportionality of Joule heating to electrical resistivity. The very high resistivity of the SiGe film had no effect on the reduction of reset current, which might result from the resistance decrease of the SiGe alloy at high temperatures.

  15. Silicon-based thin films as bottom electrodes in chalcogenide nonvolatile memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Yun [IT Convergence and Components Laboratory, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: seungyun@etri.re.kr; Yoon, Sung-Min; Choi, Kyu-Jeong; Lee, Nam-Yeal; Park, Young-Sam; Ryu, Sang-Ouk; Yu, Byoung-Gon; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Heung [IT Convergence and Components Laboratory, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-31

    The effect of the electrical resistivity of a silicon-germanium (SiGe) thin film on the phase transition in a GeSbTe (GST) chalcogenide alloy and the manufacturing aspect of the fabrication process of a chalcogenide memory device employing the SiGe film as bottom electrodes were investigated. While p-type SiGe bottom electrodes were formed using in situ doping techniques, n-type ones could be made in a different manner where phosphorus atoms diffused from highly doped silicon underlayers to undoped SiGe films. The p-n heterojunction did not form between the p-type GST and n-type SiGe layers, and the semiconduction type of the SiGe alloys did not influence the memory device switching. It was confirmed that an optimum resistivity value existed for memory operation in spite of proportionality of Joule heating to electrical resistivity. The very high resistivity of the SiGe film had no effect on the reduction of reset current, which might result from the resistance decrease of the SiGe alloy at high temperatures.

  16. Three-dimensional microporous polypyrrole/polysulfone composite film electrode for supercapacitance performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xiaojuan, E-mail: cherry-820@163.com; Shi, Yanlong; Jin, Shuping

    2015-10-30

    The three-dimensional microporous polypyrrole/polysulfone (PPY/PSF) composite film was fabricated via a simple polymerization method. The morphology structure and chemical composition of the composite film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The electrochemical properties of the composite film electrode were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charging-discharging and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The material exhibits excellent capacitance performance including high capacitance of 500 F g{sup −1} at 0.3 A g{sup −1} current density, good cycle stability in 800 continuous cycles (only 4.5% decay after 800 cycles at 0.3 A g{sup −1}), and low inter resistance. The good property of the PPY/PSF electrode should be attributed to its structural features, including two-layer microporous structure which facilitates the penetration of electrolytes into the inner surface, high surface area which provides more active sites. These results show that the composite film is a promising candidate for high energy electrochemical capacitors.

  17. Transparent nanostructured electrodes: Electrospun NiO nanofibers/NiO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamastra, F.R. [Italian Interuniversity Consortium on Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Nanni, F. [Italian Interuniversity Consortium on Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Enterprise Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Menchini, F. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Nunziante, P. [Italian Interuniversity Consortium on Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Grilli, M.L., E-mail: marialuisa.grilli@enea.it [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)

    2016-02-29

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/nickel(II) acetate precursor fibers were deposited by electrospinning directly on radio frequency sputtered thin Ni and NiO films grown on quartz substrate, starting from Ni(II) acetate and PVP solution in ethanol. The samples were calcined in air in the temperature range 400–500 °C to obtain transparent and conductive p-type NiO nanofibers on NiO films. A higher density of nanofibers was obtained on Ni/quartz substrates, as compared to NiO/quartz ones, demonstrating the feasibility of fiber adhesion directly to an insulating substrate previously coated by a thin Ni layer. Samples were characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, spectrophotometric and resistance measurements. - Highlights: • Nanostructured electrodes: electrospun NiO nanofibers/NiO films were fabricated. • NiO fibers were directly grown on insulating substrate coated by thin Ni or NiO films. • Good quality crystalline fibers were obtained at low calcination temperatures. • Transparent and conductive p-type electrodes were fabricated.

  18. Three-dimensional microporous polypyrrole/polysulfone composite film electrode for supercapacitance performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaojuan; Shi, Yanlong; Jin, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The three-dimensional microporous polypyrrole/polysulfone (PPY/PSF) composite film was fabricated via a simple polymerization method. The morphology structure and chemical composition of the composite film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The electrochemical properties of the composite film electrode were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charging-discharging and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The material exhibits excellent capacitance performance including high capacitance of 500 F g-1 at 0.3 A g-1 current density, good cycle stability in 800 continuous cycles (only 4.5% decay after 800 cycles at 0.3 A g-1), and low inter resistance. The good property of the PPY/PSF electrode should be attributed to its structural features, including two-layer microporous structure which facilitates the penetration of electrolytes into the inner surface, high surface area which provides more active sites. These results show that the composite film is a promising candidate for high energy electrochemical capacitors.

  19. HT-LiCoO2 Thin Film Positive Electrodes Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P. Jeevan; Babu, K. Jayanth; Hussain, O. M.

    2011-07-01

    Thin films of LiCoO2 prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on Si/SiO2/Ti/Au substrates are investigated microstructural and electrochemical properties. The as deposited film shown layered with (003) preferred orientation. After annealing at 923 K in presence of O2 ambient (5×10-2 mbar), HT hexagonal phase LiCoO2 is obtained for the films deposited at O2 to Ar ratio 1:9 and at substrate temperature 523 K. LiCoO2 deposit is unambiguously shown two Raman bands at 465 and 545 cm-1 confirming layered hexagonal structure. Also, studied the performance of the LiCoO2 as positive electrode in aqueous (Pt// LiCoO2) and non-aqueous (Li// LiCoO2) Li-ion rechargeable batteries.

  20. Clean graphene electrodes on organic thin-film devices via orthogonal fluorinated chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jonathan H; Barton, Robert A; Cox, Marshall P; Alexandrou, Konstantinos; Petrone, Nicholas; Olivieri, Giorgia; Yang, Shyuan; Hone, James; Kymissis, Ioannis

    2015-04-08

    Graphene is a promising flexible, highly transparent, and elementally abundant electrode for organic electronics. Typical methods utilized to transfer large-area films of graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on metal catalysts are not compatible with organic thin-films, limiting the integration of graphene into organic optoelectronic devices. This article describes a graphene transfer process onto chemically sensitive organic semiconductor thin-films. The process incorporates an elastomeric stamp with a fluorinated polymer release layer that can be removed, post-transfer, via a fluorinated solvent; neither fluorinated material adversely affects the organic semiconductor materials. We used Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy to show that chemical vapor deposition graphene can be successfully transferred without inducing defects in the graphene film. To demonstrate our transfer method's compatibility with organic semiconductors, we fabricate three classes of organic thin-film devices: graphene field effect transistors without additional cleaning processes, transparent organic light-emitting diodes, and transparent small-molecule organic photovoltaic devices. These experiments demonstrate the potential of hybrid graphene/organic devices in which graphene is deposited directly onto underlying organic thin-film structures.

  1. Mediatorless bioelectrocatalysis of dioxygen reduction at indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) and ITO nanoparticulate film electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozniecka, Ewa; Jonsson-Niedziolka, Martin; Sobczak, Janusz W. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Opallo, Marcin, E-mail: mopallo@ichf.edu.pl [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > We introduced ITO nanoparticulate films for enzyme immobilization. > The material promotes mediatorless bioelectrocatalysis towards dioxygen reduction. > The electrocatalytical current increase with the thickness of nanoparticulate film. > There is no difference in electrocatalytic current in the presence or absence of mediator. > The stability of the electrode can be improved by crosslinking of the enzyme with bovine serum albumin and glutaraldehyde. - Abstract: Bilirubin oxidase was immobilised on ITO electrodes: bare or covered by ITO nanoparticulate film. The latter material was obtained by immersion and withdrawal of the substrate into ITO nanoparticles suspension. Formation of a protein deposit was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrode surface is covered by a protein film in the form of globular aggregates and it exhibits mediatorless electrocatalytic activity towards dioxygen reduction to water at pH 4.8. Modification of the electrode with ITO particles increases its catalytic activity about ten times up to 110 {mu}A cm{sup -2} seen for electrodes prepared by twelve immersion and withdrawal steps into ITO nanoparticle suspension. The catalytic activity is almost unaffected by addition of mediator to solution. The stability of the electrodes is increased by cross-linking of the enzyme with bovine serum albumin and glutaraldehyde. This electrode was applied as biocathode in a zinc-dioxygen battery operating in 0.1 mol dm{sup -3} McIlvaine buffer (pH 4.8).

  2. Annealing Effect on the Structural and Optical Properties of Sputter-Grown Bismuth Titanium Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Alfonso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the evolution of the structural and optical properties of BixTiyOz films grown by rf magnetron sputtering upon post-deposition annealing treatments in order to obtain good quality films with large grain size, low defect density and high refractive index similar to that of single crystals. Films with thickness in the range of 220–250 nm have been successfully grown. After annealing treatment at 600 °C the films show excellent transparency and full crystallization. It is shown that to achieve larger crystallite sizes, up to 17 nm, it is better to carry the annealing under dry air than under oxygen atmosphere, probably because the nucleation rate is reduced. The refractive index of the films is similar under both atmospheres and it is very high (n =2.5 at 589 nm. However it is still slightly lower than that of the single crystal value due to the polycrystalline morphology of the thin films.

  3. NiO/LaNiO3 film electrode with binder-free for high performance supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Du, Guo; Zhu, Jiliang; Zeng, Zifan; Zhu, Xiaohong

    2016-10-01

    NiO/LaNiO3 (NiO/LNO) film electrode was prepared by spin-coating technique on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic charge-discharge measurements were employed to evaluate the electrochemical performance of the electrode. The effect of LNO layer on the performance of the NiO/LNO electrode was also investigated. The NiO/LNO electrode with appropriate LNO content possesses high specific capacitance (2030 F/g at 0.5 A/g) and good cyclability (specific capacitance retention of 83% after 1000 cycles). The present study suggests that NiO/LNO film is a promising electrode material for supercapacitor.

  4. Preparation and characterization of chemically deposited nickel sulphide film and its application as a potential counter electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Jaymin; Patel, Mitesh; Ghediya, Prashant; Chaudhuri, Tapas K.

    2016-07-01

    Nickel sulphide (NiS) film has emerged as a counter electrode in many applications, such as thin film batteries, dye sensitized solar cells, and supercapacitors. In this regard, we report the direct liquid coating of pure hexagonal NiS films on glass using a precursor solution of nickel-thiourea complex. A uniform and void free film is observed using scanning electron microscopy. The room temperature electrical conductivity of ˜5 × 103 S cm-1 and the positive thermoelectric power (+6 μV K-1) specify p-type conduction. The temperature variation conductivity in the range 77-300 K depicts the transition of NiS films from conducting to semi-conducting behaviour at certain transition temperatures. Preliminary results from a cyclic voltammetry study shows the feasibility of NiS films as counter electrodes.

  5. Measurement of effective piezoelectric coefficients of PZT thin films for energy harvesting application with interdigitated electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Nachiappan; Mazzalai, Andrea; Muralt, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Interdigitated electrode (IDE) systems with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films play an increasingly important role for two reasons: first, such a configuration generates higher voltages than parallel plate capacitor-type electrode (PPE) structures, and second, the application of an electric field leads to a compressive stress component in addition to the overall stress state, unlike a PPE structure, which results in tensile stress component. Because ceramics tend to crack at relatively moderate tensile stresses, this means that IDEs have a lower risk of cracking than PPEs. For these reasons, IDE systems are ideal for energy harvesting of vibration energy, and for actuators. Systematic investigations of PZT films with IDE systems have not yet been undertaken. In this work, we present results on the evaluation of the in-plane piezoelectric coefficients with IDE systems. Additionally, we also propose a simple and measurable figure of merit (FOM) to analyze and evaluate the relevant piezoelectric parameter for harvesting efficiency without the need to fabricate the energy harvesting device. Idealized effective coefficients e(IDE) and h(IDE) are derived, showing its composite nature with about one-third contribution of the transverse effect, and about two-thirds contribution of the longitudinal effect in the case of a PZT film deposited on a (100)-oriented silicon wafer with the in-plane electric field along one of the Si directions. Randomly oriented 1-μm-thick PZT 53/47 film deposited by a sol-gel technique, was evaluated and yielded an effective coefficient e(IDE) of 15 C·m(-2). Our FOM is the product between effective e and h coefficient representing twice the electrical energy density stored in the piezoelectric film per unit strain deformation (both for IDE and PPE systems). Assuming homogeneous fields between the fingers, and neglecting the contribution from below the electrode fingers, the FOM for IDE structures with larger electrode gap is derived to be

  6. Development of electrochemical oxidase biosensors based on carbon nanotube-modified carbon film electrodes for glucose and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia-Caridade, Carla; Pauliukaite, Rasa; Brett, Christopher M.A. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2008-10-01

    Functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were cast on glassy carbon (GC) and carbon film electrodes (CFE), and were characterised electrochemically and applied in a glucose-oxidase-based biosensor. MWCNT-modified carbon film electrodes were then used to develop an alcohol oxidase (AlcOx) biosensor, in which AlcOx-BSA was cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and attached by drop-coating. The experimental conditions, applied potential and pH, for ethanol monitoring were optimised, and ethanol was determined amperometrically at -0.3 V vs. SCE at pH 7.5. Electrocatalytic effects of MWCNT were observed with respect to unmodified carbon film electrodes. The sensitivity obtained was 20 times higher at carbon film/MWCNT-based biosensors than without MWCNT. (author)

  7. Direct Electrochemistry of Hemoglobin in Layer-by-layer {PDDA/Hb}n Films Assembled on Pyrolytic Graphite Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Layer-by-layer {PDDA/Hb}n films were assembled by means of alternate adsorption of positively charged poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium) (PDDA) and negatively charged hemoglobin (Hb) at pH 9.2 from their aqueous solutions on pyrolytic graphite (PG) electrodes. Film growth during adsorption cycles was demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry and UV-Vis spectroscopy.Direct electrochemistry of Hb in {PDDA/Hb} n films on PG was studied.

  8. Cathodic stripping voltammetry of trace Mn(II) at carbon film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipe, Olga M S; Brett, Christopher M A

    2003-12-04

    A sensitive voltammetric method is presented for the determination of tract levels of Mn (II) using carbon film electrodes fabricated from carbon resistors of 2 Omega. Determination of manganese was made by square wave cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV), with deposition of manganese as manganese dioxide. Chronoamperometric experiments were made to study MnO(2) nucleation and growth. As a result, it was found to be necessary to perform electrode conditioning at a more positive potential to initiate MnO(2) nucleation. Under optimised conditions the detection limit obtained was 4 nM and the relative standard deviation for eight measurements of 0.22 nM was 5.3%. Interferences from various metal ions on the response CSV of Mn(II) were investigated, namely Cd(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cr(VI), Pb(II), Zn(II) and Fe(II). Application to environmental samples was demonstrated.

  9. Layered conductive polymer on nylon membrane templates for high performance, thin-film supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, HaoTian Harvey; Naguib, Hani E.

    2016-04-01

    Flexible Thin-film Electrochemical Capacitors (ECs) are emerging technology that plays an important role as energy supply for various electronics system for both present era and the future. Intrinsically conductive polymers (ICPs) are promising pseudo-capacitive materials as they feature both good electrical conductivity and high specific capacitance. This study focuses on the construction and characterization of ultra-high surface area porous electrodes based on coating of nano-sized conductive polymer materials on nylon membrane templates. Herein, a novel nano-engineered electrode material based on nylon membranes was presented, which allows the creation of super-capacitor devices that is capable of delivering competitive performance, while maintaining desirable mechanical characteristics. With the formation of a highly conductive network with the polyaniline nano-layer, the electrical conductivity was also increased dramatically to facilitate the charge transfer process. Cyclic voltammetry and specific capacitance results showed promising application of this type of composite materials for future smart textile applications.

  10. Study and Application of Electrochemical Behavior of Calcium-ARS on a Mercury Film Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiaotong; Cui Qianling; Hu Jingbo

    2006-01-01

    A sensitive complex absorptive wave of CaARS was obtained by using differential pulse voltammetry when a mercury film glass carbon electrode was immersed in 0.1 mol L-1 KOH and 4.5×10-4 mol L-1 ARS solution.The peak potential obtained was-1.17 V(vs Ag-AgCl).The peak current was proportional to the concentration of calcium in the range of 5.0×10-8-4.2×10-5 mol L-1.The detection limit was 2.0×10-8 mol L-1.This method was applied successfully to determining traces of calcium in blood serum.The electrochemical behavior of the system was also studied by cyclic voltammetry,and the experiment results showed that the electrode process was an irreversible absorptive with two electrons participating.

  11. Roll-to-Roll sputtered ITO/Cu/ITO multilayer electrode for flexible, transparent thin film heaters and electrochromic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Mok; Ko, Eun-Hye; Kim, Tae-Ho; Nah, Yoon-Chae; Lee, Sang-Jin; Lee, Jae Heung; Kim, Han-Ki

    2016-01-01

    We fabricate high-performance, flexible, transparent electrochromic (EC) films and thin film heaters (TFHs) on an ITO/Cu/ITO (ICI) multilayer electrode prepared by continuous roll-to-roll (RTR) sputtering of ITO and Cu targets. The RTR-sputtered ICI multilayer on a 700 mm wide PET substrate at room temperature exhibits a sheet resistance of 11.8 Ω/square and optical transmittance of 73.9%, which are acceptable for the fabrication of flexible and transparent EC films and TFHs. The effect of the Cu interlayer thickness on the electrical and optical properties of the ICI multilayer was investigated in detail. The bending and cycling fatigue tests demonstrate that the RTR-sputtered ICI multilayer was more flexible than a single ITO film because of high strain failure of the Cu interlayer. The flexible and transparent EC films and TFHs fabricated on the ICI electrode show better performances than reference EC films and TFHs with a single ITO electrode. Therefore, the RTR-sputtered ICI multilayer is the best substitute for the conventional ITO film electrode in order to realize flexible, transparent, cost-effective and large-area EC devices and TFHs that can be used as flexible and smart windows. PMID:27653830

  12. The effect of asymmetrical electrode form after negative bias illuminated stress in amorphous IGZO thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wan-Ching; Chang, Ting-Chang; Liao, Po-Yung; Chen, Yu-Jia; Chen, Bo-Wei; Hsieh, Tien-Yu; Yang, Chung-I.; Huang, Yen-Yu; Chang, Hsi-Ming; Chiang, Shin-Chuan; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the degradation behavior of InGaZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) under negative bias illumination stress (NBIS). TFT devices with two different source and drain layouts were exanimated: one having a parallel format electrode and the other with UI format electrode. UI means that source/drain electrodes shapes is defined as a forked-shaped structure. The I-V curve of the parallel electrode exhibited a symmetric degradation under forward and reverse sweeping in the saturation region after 1000 s NBIS. In contrast, the I-V curve of the UI electrode structure under similar conditions was asymmetric. The UI electrode structure also shows a stretch-out phenomenon in its C-V measurement. Finally, this work utilizes the ISE-Technology Computer Aided Design (ISE-TCAD) system simulations, which simulate the electron field and IV curves, to analyze the mechanisms dominating the parallel and UI device degradation behaviors.

  13. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance study on the two-electrode-system cyclic voltammetric behavior of Prussian blue films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A two-channel electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) was used to investigate the cyclic voltammetric behavior of two Prussian blue (PB) film-modified Au electrodes in a two-electrode con-figuration in aqueous solution. The redox peaks observed in the two-electrode cyclic voltammogram (CV) are assigned to the intrinsic redox transitions among the Everitt’s salt, PB, and Prussian yellow for the film itself, the redox process of the Au substrate and the redox process of small-quantity ferri-/ferrocyanide impurities entrapped in the PB film, as also supported by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroelectrochemical data. The profile of the two-electrode solid-state CV for the PB powder sand-wiched between two gold-coated indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes is similar to that for two PB-modified Au electrodes in aqueous solution, implying similar origins for the corresponding redox peaks. The two-channel EQCM method is expected to become a highly effective technique for the studies of the two-electrode electrochemical behaviors of many other species/materials.

  14. A comparative investigation on structure and multiferroic properties of bismuth ferrite thin films by multielement co-doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Guohua; Tan, Guoqiang, E-mail: tan3114@163.com; Luo, Yangyang; Liu, Wenlong; Xia, Ao; Ren, Huijun

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Multielement (Tb, Cr and Mn) co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} films were fabricated by CSD method. • Multielement co-doping induces a structural transition. • It is found effective to stabilize the valence of Fe ions at +3 by the strategy. • The co-doping at A/B-sites gives rise to the superior multiferroic properties. - Abstract: (Tb, Cr and Mn) multielement co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} (BTFCMO) thin films were prepared by the chemical solution deposition method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement and Raman analyses revealed that a phase transition from rhombohedral to triclinic structure occurs in the multielement co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} films. It is found that the doping is conducive to stabilizing the valence of Fe ions and reducing leakage current. In addition, the highly enhanced ferroelectric properties with a huge remanent polarization (2P{sub r}) of 239.6 μC/cm{sup 2} and a low coercive field (2E{sub c}) of 615.6 kV/cm are ascribed to the well film texture, the structure transition and the reduced leakage current by the co-doping. Moreover, the structure transition is the dominant factor resulting in the significant enhancement observed in magnetization (M{sub s} ∼ 10.5 emu/cm{sup 3}), owing to the collapse of the space-modulated spin structure. In this contribution, these results demonstrate that the multielement co-doping is in favor of the enhanced multiferroic properties of the BFO films for possible multifunctional applications.

  15. Development of a Paper Actuator with PEDOT:PSS Thin-Films as An Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Hara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A paper actuator was fabricated from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS by a wet process without organic solvents. The paper actuator had a capacitor structure, with a cationic polymer as an insulating layer sandwiched between two PEDOT:PSS films as the electrodes. The thickness of the paper actuator was approximately 36 mm. We measured its displacement as a function of applied voltage and frequency; the maximum displacement was 2.2 mm at 1.5 V and 1 Hz.

  16. Electrochemical determination of methimazole based on the acetylene black/chitosan film electrode and its application to rat serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazhen, Wang

    2011-06-01

    A novel method has been developed for the determination of methimazole, which was based on the enhanced electrochemical response of methimazole at the acetylene black/chitosan composite film modified glassy carbon electrode. The electrochemical behavior of methimazole was studied at this film electrode by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. The experimental results showed that methimazole exhibited a remarkable oxidation peak at 0.63V at the film electrode. Compared with the bare glassy carbon electrode, the oxidation peak current increased greatly, and the peak potential shifted negatively, which indicated that the acetylene black/chitosan film electrode had good catalysis to the electrochemical oxidation of methimazole. The enhanced oxidation current of methimazole was indebted to the nano-porus structure of the composite film and the enlarged effective electrode area. The influences of some experimental conditions on the oxidation of methimazole were tested and the calibration plot was examined. The results indicated that the differential pulse response of methimazole was linear with its concentration in the range of 1.0×10(-7) to 2.0×10(-5)mol/L with a linear coefficient of 0.998, and in the range of 4.0×10(-5) to 3.0×10(-4)mol/L with a linear coefficient of 0.993. The detection limit was 2.0×10(-8)mol/L (S/N=3). The film electrode was used to detect the content of methimazole in rat serum samples by the standard addition method with satisfactory results.

  17. Synthesis of bismuth (III oxide films based anodes for electrochemical degradation of reactive blue 19 and crystal violet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Milica M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bi2O3 films-based anodes were synthesized by electrodeposition of Bi on stainless steel substrate at constant current density and during different deposition times, fallowed by calcination, forming Bi2O3. The thickness of the films was determined by two methods: the observation under the microscope and by calculation from mass difference. Electrochemical proceses at the anodes were ivestigated by linear sweep voltammetry. At the anodes obtained within 2, 5, 10 and 15 minutes of deposition, two dyes, namely: Reactive Blue 19 and Crystal Violet, were decolorized by oxidation with •OH radical, generated from H2O2 decomposition at the anodes. Decoloration times of the anodes varied, and the shortest one was achieved with the anode obtained during 5 minutes of deposition, with the film thickness of 2.5±0.3 μm. The optimal H2O2 concentration for the dyes degradation was found to be 10 mmol dm-3. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ТR 34008

  18. Layered Ni(OH)2-Co(OH)2 films prepared by electrodeposition as charge storage electrodes for hybrid supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyen; Boudard, Michel; Carmezim, M. João; Montemor, M. Fátima

    2017-01-01

    Consecutive layers of Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2 were electrodeposited on stainless steel current collectors for preparing charge storage electrodes of high specific capacity with potential application in hybrid supercapacitors. Different electrodes were prepared consisting on films of Ni(OH)2, Co(OH)2, Ni1/2Co1/2(OH)2 and layered films of Ni(OH)2 on Co(OH)2 and Co(OH)2 on Ni(OH)2 to highlight the advantages of the new architecture. The microscopy studies revealed the formation of nanosheets in the Co(OH)2 films and of particles agglomerates in the Ni(OH)2 films. Important morphological changes were observed in the double hydroxides films and layered films. Film growth by electrodeposition was governed by instantaneous nucleation mechanism. The new architecture composed of Ni(OH)2 on Co(OH)2 displayed a redox response characterized by the presence of two peaks in the cyclic voltammograms, arising from redox reactions of the metallic species present in the layered film. These electrodes revealed a specific capacity of 762 C g−1 at the specific current of 1 A g−1. The hybrid cell using Ni(OH)2 on Co(OH)2 as positive electrode and carbon nanofoam paper as negative electrode display specific energies of 101.3 W h g−1 and 37.8 W h g−1 at specific powers of 0.2 W g−1 and 2.45 W g−1, respectively. PMID:28051143

  19. Preparation, characterization and electrocatalytic properties of poly(luminol) and polyoxometalate hybrid film modified electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yu-Tsern; Lin, Kuo-Chiang; Chen, Shen-Ming [National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106 (Taiwan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2005-10-20

    Hybrid films composed of poly(luminol) and nanometer-sized clusters of polyoxometalate, SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 4-} and PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-} have been prepared in acidic aqueous solutions. These films are stable and electrochemically active, and produced on glassy carbon, platinum, gold and transparent semiconductor tin oxide electrodes. The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance and cyclic voltammetry were used to study in situ growth of the hybrid poly(luminol)/SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 4-} and poly(luminol)/PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-}. Both the poly(luminol)/SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 4-} and poly(luminol)/PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-} hybrid films showed four redox couples and the electrochemical properties were compared to SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 4-} and PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-}. When transferred to various acidity aqueous solutions, the four redox couples and the formal potentials of two hybride film were observed to be pH-dependent. The electrocatalytic reduction of ClO{sub 3}{sup -}, BrO{sub 3}{sup -}, IO{sub 3}{sup -}, S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2-} and NO{sub 2}{sup -}by a poly(luminol)/PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-} hybrid film in an acidic aqueous solution showed an electrocatalytic reduction activity of IO{sub 3}{sup -} > BrO{sub 3}{sup -} and ClO{sub 3}{sup -}. The electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine and epinephrine by a poly(luminol)/PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-} hybrid film was also investigated. (author)

  20. Enhanced selectivity of boron doped diamond electrodes for the detection of dopamine and ascorbic acid by increasing the film thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yao; Long, Hangyu; Ma, Li; Wei, Quiping; Li, Site; Yu, Zhiming; Hu, Jingyuan; Liu, Peizhi; Wang, Yijia; Meng, Lingcong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, boron doped diamond (BDD) with different thickness were prepared by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. The performance of BDD electrodes for detecting dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra reveal the grain size increases and the film quality improves with the increase of film thickness. Electrochemical test show that the transfer coefficient in [Fe3 (CN) 6]3-/4- redox system increases with the increase of the film thickness. The results of selectivity and sensitivity for DA mixed with AA detection show that 8h-BDD and 12h-BDD electrodes possess well selective separated oxidation peaks of DA and AA, and the 12h-BDD electrode exhibits optimal sensitivity until the DA concentration drops to 1 μ M.

  1. Development of ruthenium dioxide electrodes for pyroelectric devices based on lithium tantalate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nougaret, Laurianne [Centre d' Electronique et de Micro-optoelectronique de Montpellier, Unite mixte de Recherche du CNRS no 5507, Universite Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 05 (France)]. E-mail: laurianne.nougaret@univ-montp2.fr; Combette, Philippe [Centre d' Electronique et de Micro-optoelectronique de Montpellier, Unite mixte de Recherche du CNRS no 5507, Universite Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 05 (France)]. E-mail: philippe.combette@univ-montp2.fr; Arinero, Richard [Centre d' Electronique et de Micro-optoelectronique de Montpellier, Unite mixte de Recherche du CNRS no 5507, Universite Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 05 (France)]. E-mail: richard.arinero@univ-montp2.fr; Podlecki, Jean [Centre d' Electronique et de Micro-optoelectronique de Montpellier, Unite mixte de Recherche du CNRS no 5507, Universite Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 05 (France)]. E-mail: jean.podlecki@univ-montp2.fr; Pascal-Delannoy, Frederique [Centre d' Electronique et de Micro-optoelectronique de Montpellier, Unite mixte de Recherche du CNRS no 5507, Universite Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 05 (France)]. E-mail: Frederique.delannoy@univ-montp2.fr

    2007-02-26

    The aim of this paper is the study of ruthenium dioxide (RuO{sub 2}) films, grown on low-stress silicon nitride on silicon (SiN {sub x}/Si), in order to develop thermal micro-sensors based on pyroelectric effect. The active part of these micro-sensors is constituted by a new arrangement : lithium tantalate (LiTaO{sub 3})/RuO{sub 2}/SiN{sub x}/Si. Radio-frequency (RF) sputtering is employed to deposit RuO{sub 2} on SiN {sub x}/Si substrate. Morphology, crystallinity and resistivity of RuO{sub 2} are studied as function of growth parameters. Next, RF magnetron sputtering was used to deposit LiTaO{sub 3} on this electrode. Morphology studies, pyroelectric effect and dielectric parameters obtained, indicate that RuO{sub 2} material is a suitable candidate as back electrode for LiTaO{sub 3} thin films.

  2. Energy harvesting using ionic electro-active polymer thin films with Ag-based electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, S. V.; Arvind, K.; Bharath, P.; Mahapatra, D. Roy

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we employ the phenomenon of bending deformation induced transport of cations via the polymer chains in the thickness direction of an electro-active polymer (EAP)-metal composite thin film for mechanical energy harvesting. While EAPs have been applied in the past in actuators and artificial muscles, promising applications of such materials in hydrodynamic and vibratory energy harvesting are reported in this paper. For this, functionalization of EAPs with metal electrodes is the key factor in improving the energy harvesting efficiency. Unlike Pt-based electrodes, Ag-based electrodes have been deposited on an EAP membrane made of Nafion. The developed ionic metal polymer composite (IPMC) membrane is subjected to a dynamic bending load, hydrodynamically, and evaluated for the voltage generated against an external electrical load. An increase of a few orders of magnitude has been observed in the harvested energy density and power density in air, deionized water and in electrolyte solutions with varying concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) as compared to Pt-based IPMC performances reported in the published literature. This will have potential applications in hydrodynamic and residual environmental energy harvesting to power sensors and actuators based on micro-and nano-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) for biomedical, aerospace and oceanic applications.

  3. Direct and Simultaneous Determination of Phenol, Hydroquinone and Nitrophenol at Boron-Doped Diamond Film Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO, Guo-Hua; TANG, Yi-Ting; LIU, Mei-Chuan; LEI, Yan-Zhu; XIAO, Xiao-E

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristics of multi-component phenolic pollutants, such as phenol (Ph), hydroquinone (HQ) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), were investigated on boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrode by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique. A simple and feasible platform was accordingly established for the direct and simultaneous determination of these three phenolic pollutants. Results showed that, Ph, HQ and 4-NP gave obvious oxidation peaks on BDD electrode at the potential of 1.24, 0.76 and 1.52 V, respectively. Each of them displayed good linear relationship between their oxidation peak currents and their corresponding concentrations in a rather wide range coexisting with one or two of the other phenolic pollutants. The detection limits of Ph, HQ and 4-NP were estimated to be as low as 1.82×10-6, 1.67×10-6 and 1.44×10-6mol·L-1, respectively. Therefore, a promising direct and simultaneous electrochemical determination method of multi-component phenolic pollutants in wastewater samples was constructed successfully on BDD electrode with advantages being rapid, simple, convenient, sensitive, in situ and inexpensive.

  4. Investigation of the fabrication parameters of thick film metal oxide-polymer pH electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Gac, A

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes a study into the development of an optimum material and fabrication process for the production of thick film pH electrodes. These devices consist of low cost, miniature and rugged pH sensors formed by screen printing a metal oxide bearing paste onto a high temperature (approx 850 deg C) fired metal back contact supported on a standard alumina substrate. The pH sensitive metal oxide layer must be fabricated at relatively low temperatures (<300 deg C) in order to maintain the pH sensitivity of the layer and hence requires the use of a suitably stable low temperature curing binder. Bespoke fabricated inks are derived from a Taguchi style factorial experimental plans in which, different binder types, curing temperatures, hydration level and percentage mixtures of different metal oxides and layer thicknesses were investigated. The pH responses of 18 printed electrodes per batch were assessed in buffer solutions with respect to a commercial reference electrode forming a complete potentiomet...

  5. Dry-Deposited Transparent Carbon Nanotube Film as Front Electrode in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Aitola, Kerttu; Hägglund, Carl; Kaskela, Antti; Johansson, Malin B; Sveinbjörnsson, Kári; Kauppinen, Esko I; Johansson, Erik M J

    2017-01-20

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) show great potential as an alternative material for front electrodes in photovoltaic applications, especially for flexible devices. In this work, a press-transferred transparent SWCNT film was utilized as front electrode for colloidal quantum dot solar cells (CQDSCs). The solar cells were fabricated on both glass and flexible substrates, and maximum power conversion efficiencies of 5.5 and 5.6 %, respectively, were achieved, which corresponds to 90 and 92 % of an indium-doped tin oxide (ITO)-based device (6.1 %). The SWCNTs are therefore a very good alternative to the ITO-based electrodes especially for flexible solar cells. The optical electric field distribution and optical losses within the devices were simulated theoretically and the results agree with the experimental results. With the optical simulations that were performed it may also be possible to enhance the photovoltaic performance of SWCNT-based solar cells even further by optimizing the device configuration or by using additional optical active layers, thus reducing light reflection of the device and increasing light absorption in the quantum dot layer.

  6. Nitric Oxide Detection with Glassy Carbon Electrodes Coated with Charge-different Polymer Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Lei

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Trace amounts of nitric oxide (NO have been determined in aqueous phosphate buffersolutions (pH=7.4 by using a glassy carbon electrode coated with three charge-different polymerfilms. The glassy carbon electrode was coated first with negatively charged Nafion film containingtetrakis(pentafluorophenylporphyrin iron(III chloride (Fe(IIITPFPP as the NO oxidation catalyst,and then with positively charged poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PADDAand with neutral poly(dimethylsiloxane (silicone at the outermost layer. This polymer-coatedelectrode showed an excellent selectivity towards NO against possible concomitants in blood such asnitrite, ascorbic acid, uric acid, and dopamine. All current ratios between each concomitant and NOat the cyclic voltammogram was in 10-3 ~ 10-4. This type of electrode showed a detection limit of80 nM for NO. It was speculated from the electrochemical study in methanol that high-valent oxoiron(IV of Fe(TPFPP participated in the catalytic oxidation of NO.

  7. Electrochemical oxidation of N-nitrosodimethylamine with boron-doped diamond film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Brian P; Schrader, Glenn; Farrell, James

    2009-11-01

    This research investigated NDMA oxidation by boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrodes. Oxidation rates were measured as a function of electrode potential, current density, and temperature using rotating disk and flow-through reactors. Final NDMA reaction products were carbon dioxide, ammonium, and nitrate, with dimethylamine and methylamine as intermediate products. Reaction rates were first-order with respect to NDMA concentration and surface area normalized oxidation rates as high as 850 +/- 50 L/m(2)-hr were observed at a current density of 10 mA/cm(2). The flow-through reactor yielded mass transfer limited reaction rates that were first-order in NDMA concentration, with a half-life of 2.1 +/- 0.1 min. Experimental evidence indicates that NDMA oxidation proceeds via a direct electron transfer at potentials >1.8 V/SHE with a measured apparent activation energy of 3.1 +/- 0.5 kJ/mol at a potential of 2.5 V/SHE. Density functional theory calculations indicate that a direct two-electron transfer can produce a stable NDMA((+2)) species that is stabilized by forming an adduct with water. The transfer of two electrons from NDMA to the electrode allows an activation-less attack of hydroxyl radicals on the NDMA((+2)) water adduct. At higher overpotentials the oxidation of NDMA occurs by a combination of direct electron transfer and hydroxyl radicals produced via water electrolysis.

  8. The electrochemical preparation of FAD/ZnO with hemoglobin film-modified electrodes and their electroanalytical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuo-Chiang; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2006-03-15

    Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-modified zinc oxide self-assembly films were prepared using repeated cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical reaction of the hemoglobin with the FAD/ZnO self-assembly film-modified electrodes and their electrocatalytic properties were investigated. This paper describes the successful loading of the electrochemically active molecules of hemoglobin and FAD along with ZnO by electrochemical method. In addition to the cyclic voltammetry, an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance was used to study the growth mechanism and the properties of the films. The FAD/zinc oxide films exhibited a single redox couple, which corresponded to the FAD redox couple. The electrocatalytic properties of the O2, H2O2, trichloroacetic acid and SO(3)2- were studied by the FAD/zinc oxide films in the absence or in the presence of hemoglobin. The electrocatalytic reduction current had been developed from the cathodic peak of the FAD/zinc oxide redox couple. The electrocatalytic process involved an interaction of hemoglobin and FAD/GC film-modified electrode to increase the electrocatalytic reduction current. The electrocatalytic reduction of O2 using the FAD/zinc oxide films was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring-disk electrode methods.

  9. ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF ETHANOL, 2- PROPANOL AND 1-BUTANOL ON GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH NICKEL OXIDE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benchettara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the modification of a glassy carbon electrode with nickel oxide film which is performed in two successive steps. In the first one, the electrochemical deposition of metallic nickel on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE is achieved in 0.1M boric acid; in the second step, the metallic deposit is anodically oxidized in 0.1M NaOH. These two operations were carried out in a three electrode cell with a filiform platinum auxiliary electrode, a SCE as potential reference and a working microelectrode of modified glassy carbon with nickel oxides. This electrode is characterized by several electrochemical techniques and is used for the catalytic determination of ethanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol in 0.1 M NaOH. The proposed chemical mechanism shows that NiO2 acts as a mediator.

  10. ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF ETHANOL, 2- PROPANOL AND 1-BUTANOL ON GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH NICKEL OXIDE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benchettara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the modification of a glassy carbon electrode with nickel oxide film which is performed in two successive steps. In the first one, the electrochemical deposition of metallic nickel on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE is achieved in 0.1M boric acid; in the second step, the metallic deposit is anodically oxidized in 0.1M NaOH. These two operations were carried out in a three electrode cell with a filiform platinum auxiliary electrode, a SCE as potential reference and a working microelectrode of modified glassy carbon with nickel oxides. This electrode is characterized by several electrochemical techniques and is used for the catalytic determination of ethanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol in 0.1 M NaOH. The proposed chemical mechanism shows that NiO2 acts as a mediator.

  11. Electrodeposition of polymer electrolyte in nanostructured electrodes for enhanced electrochemical performance of thin-film Li-ion microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salian, Girish D.; Lebouin, Chrystelle; Demoulin, A.; Lepihin, M. S.; Maria, S.; Galeyeva, A. K.; Kurbatov, A. P.; Djenizian, Thierry

    2017-02-01

    We report that electrodeposition of polymer electrolyte in nanostructured electrodes has a strong influence on the electrochemical properties of thin-film Li-ion microbatteries. Electropolymerization of PMMA-PEG (polymethyl methacrylate-polyethylene glycol) was carried out on both the anode (self-supported titania nanotubes) and the cathode (porous LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4) by cyclic voltammetry and the resulting electrode-electrolyte interface was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical characterizations performed by galvanostatic experiments reveal that the capacity values obtained at different C-rates are doubled when the electrodes are completely filled by the polymer electrolyte.

  12. Highly conductive and transparent PEDOT:PSS films with a fluorosurfactant for stretchable and flexible transparent electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosgueritchian, Michael; Lipomi, Darren J.; Bao, Zhenan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, CA (United States)

    2012-01-25

    Highly conductive and transparent poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) films, incorporating a fluorosurfactant as an additive, have been prepared for stretchable and transparent electrodes. The fluorosurfactant-treated PEDOT:PSS films show a 35% improvement in sheet resistance (R{sub s}) compared to untreated films. In addition, the fluorosurfactant renders PEDOT:PSS solutions amenable for deposition on hydrophobic surfaces, including pre-deposited, annealed films of PEDOT:PSS (enabling the deposition of thick, highly conductive, multilayer films) and stretchable poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates (enabling stretchable electronics). Four-layer PEDOT:PSS films have an R{sub s} of 46 {omega} per square with 82% transmittance (at 550 nm). These films, deposited on a pre-strained PDMS substrate and buckled, are shown to be reversibly stretchable, with no change to R{sub s}, during the course of over 5000 cycles of 0 to 10% strain. Using the multilayer PEDOT:PSS films as anodes, indium tin oxide (ITO)-free organic photovoltaics are prepared and shown to have power conversion efficiencies comparable to that of devices with ITO as the anode. These results show that these highly conductive PEDOT:PSS films can not only be used as transparent electrodes in novel devices (where ITO cannot be used), such as stretchable OPVs, but also have the potential to replace ITO in conventional devices. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Electrochemical performance and kinetic behavior of lithium ion in Li4Ti5O12 thin film electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jianqiu; Lu, Zhouguang; Chung, C. Y.; Han, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhongmin; Zhou, Huaiying

    2014-09-01

    Li4Ti5O12 thin film electrodes are successfully deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The microstructure and morphology of Li4Ti5O12 thin films are characterized by XRD and ESEM. The electrochemical properties of Li4Ti5O12 thin film electrodes are evaluated by galvanostatic cycling test. The kinetic behavior of lithium ions in Li4Ti5O12 thin film electrodes is also conducted using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Li4Ti5O12 thin film electrodes show favorable specific capacities and cycle performance. The chemical diffusion coefficients are found to be in a range of 10-15 to 10-12 cm2 s-1 determined by GITT method. The kinetic parameters obtained from impedance spectra as a function of the cell voltage are investigated in details. The decrease of the charge-transfer resistance (Rct) can be explained by the two-phase transition during lithium insertion into Li4Ti5O12.

  14. Smooth-surface silver nanowire electrode with high conductivity and transparency on functional layer coated flexible film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So Hee; Lim, Sooman; Kim, Haekyoung, E-mail: hkkim@ynu.ac.kr

    2015-08-31

    Transparent conductive electrode (TCE) with silver nanowires has been widely studied as an alternative of indium tin oxide for flexible electronic or optical devices such as organic light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. However, it has an issue of surface roughness due to nanowire's intrinsic properties. Here, to achieve a smooth electrode with high conductivity and transmittance on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, a functional layer of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) is utilized with a mechanical transfer process. The silver nanowire electrode on PVP-coated PET with low surface roughness of 9 nm exhibits the low sheet resistance of 18 Ω □{sup −1} and high transmittance of 87.6%. It is produced by transferring the silver nanowire electrode spin-coated on the glass to PVP-coated PET using a pressure of 10 MPa for 10 min. Silver nanowire electrode on PVP-coated PET demonstrates the stable sheet resistance of 18 Ω □{sup −1} after the mechanical taping test due to strong adhesion between PVP functional layer and silver nanowires. Smooth TCE with silver nanowires could be proposed as a transparent electrode for flexible electronic or optical devices, which consist of thin electrical active layers on TCE. - Highlights: • Silver nanowire (Ag NWs) transparent electrodes were fabricated on flexible film. • Flexible film was coated with poly N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP). • PVP layer plays roles as an adhesive layer and matrix in electrode. • Ag NWs electrode exhibited with low surface roughness of 9 nm. • Ag NWs electrode has a low resistance (18 Ω ☐{sup −1}) and high transmittance (87.6%)

  15. Electroplating of CdTe Thin Films from Cadmium Sulphate Precursor and Comparison of Layers Grown by 3-Electrode and 2-Electrode Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imyhamy M. Dharmadasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of CdTe thin films was carried out from the late 1970s using the cadmium sulphate precursor. The solar energy group at Sheffield Hallam University has carried out a comprehensive study of CdTe thin films electroplated using cadmium sulfate, cadmium nitrate and cadmium chloride precursors, in order to select the best electrolyte. Some of these results have been published elsewhere, and this manuscript presents the summary of the results obtained on CdTe layers grown from cadmium sulphate precursor. In addition, this research program has been exploring the ways of eliminating the reference electrode, since this is a possible source of detrimental impurities, such as K+ and Ag+ for CdS/CdTe solar cells. This paper compares the results obtained from CdTe layers grown by three-electrode (3E and two-electrode (2E systems for their material properties and performance in CdS/CdTe devices. Thin films were characterized using a wide range of analytical techniques for their structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties. These layers have also been used in device structures; glass/FTO/CdS/CdTe/Au and CdTe from both methods have produced solar cells to date with efficiencies in the region of 5%–13%. Comprehensive work carried out to date produced comparable and superior devices fabricated from materials grown using 2E system.

  16. Growth of anodic films on compound semiconductor electrodes: InP in aqueous (NH sub 4) sub 2 S

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, D N

    2002-01-01

    Film formation on compound semiconductors under anodic conditions is discussed. The surface properties of InP electrodes were examined following anodization in a (NH sub 4) sub 2 S electrolyte. The observation of a current peak in the cyclic voltammetric curve was attributed to selective etching of the substrate and a film formation process. AFM images of samples anodized in the sulfide solution revealed surface pitting. Thicker films formed at higher potentials exhibited extensive cracking as observed by optical and electron microscopy, and this was explicitly demonstrated to occur ex situ rather than during the electrochemical treatment. The composition of the thick film was identified as In sub 2 S sub 3 by EDX and XPS. The measured film thickness varies linearly with the charge passed, and comparison between experimental thickness measurements and theoretical estimates for the thickness indicate a porosity of over 70 %. Cracking is attributed to shrinkage during drying of the highly porous film and does n...

  17. Carbon nanotube detectors for microchip CE: comparative study of single-wall and multiwall carbon nanotube, and graphite powder films on glassy carbon, gold, and platinum electrode surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumera, Martin; Merkoçi, Arben; Alegret, Salvador

    2007-04-01

    The performance of microchip electrophoresis/electrochemistry system with carbon nanotube (CNT) film electrodes was studied. Electrocatalytic activities of different carbon materials (single-wall CNT (SWCNT), multiwall CNT (MWCNT), carbon powder) cast on different electrode substrates (glassy carbon (GC), gold, and platinum) were compared in a microfluidic setup and their performance as microchip electrochemical detectors was assessed. An MWCNT film on a GC electrode shows electrocatalytic effect toward oxidation of dopamine (E(1/2) shift of 0.09 V) and catechol (E(1/2) shift of 0.19 V) when compared to a bare GC electrode, while other CNT/carbon powder films on the GC electrode display negligible effects. Modification of a gold electrode by graphite powder results in a strong electrocatalytic effect toward oxidation of dopamine and catechol (E(1/2) shift of 0.14 and 0.11 V, respectively). A significant shift of the half-wave potentials to lower values also provide the MWCNT film (E(1/2) shift of 0.08 and 0.08 V for dopamine and catechol, respectively) and the SWCNT film (E(1/2) shift of 0.10 V for catechol) when compared to a bare gold electrode. A microfluidic device with a CNT film-modified detection electrode displays greatly improved separation resolution (R(s)) by a factor of two compared to a bare electrode, reflecting the electrocatalytic activity of CNT.

  18. 溶胶-凝胶法制备掺镧钛酸铋铁电薄膜%Preparation of Lanthanum Modified Bismuth Titanate Ferroelectric Thin Films by Sol-Gel Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻驰; 朱建国; 肖定全; 袁小武; 朱基亮; 乐夕

    2001-01-01

    利用溶胶-凝胶法在Si(100)及Pt/Ti/Si(100)衬底上制备了Bi3.5La0.5Ti3O12(BLT-5)铁电薄膜,研究了在不同退火条件下BLT-5薄膜的结晶性能。经650℃、30 min退火处理的BLT-5铁电薄膜的矫顽场Ec=67 k V/cm,剩余极化强度Pr=11.2μC/cm2。BLT-5铁电薄膜呈现较好的抗疲劳特性,可望用于制备高容量铁电随机存取存储器。%Lanthanum modified bismuth titanate(Bi4-xLaxTi3O12,BLT-10x)ferroelectric thin films were prepared by Sol-Gel processing using tetrabyl titanate,bismuth nitrate and lanthanum nitrate.Polycrystalline BLT-5 thin films were obtained at relatively low annealing temperatures of 600~650℃.The typical cohesive electric field (Ec) and remnant polarization(Pt) for BLT-5 thin films annealed at 650℃,30 min were Ec=57 kV/cm,Px=11.2 μC/cm2.The BLT-5 thin films show good fatigue-free property and could be used in fabricating high density FRAM.

  19. Standard electrochemical behavior of high-quality, boron-doped polycrystalline diamond thin-film electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger; Witek; Xu; Wang; Hupert; Hanks; Koppang; Butler; Lucazeau; Mermoux; Strojek; Swain

    2000-08-15

    Standard electrochemical data for high-quality, boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes are presented. Films from two different sources were compared (NRL and USU) and both were highly conductive, hydrogen-terminated, and polycrystalline. The films are acid washed and hydrogen plasma treated prior to use to remove nondiamond carbon impurity phases and to hydrogen terminate the surface. The boron-doping level of the NRL film was estimated to be in the mid 1019 B/cm3 range, and the boron-doping level of the USU films was approximately 5 x 10(20) B/cm(-3) based on boron nuclear reaction analysis. The electrochemical response was evaluated using Fe-(CN)6(3-/4-), Ru(NH3)6(3+/2+), IrCl6(2-/3-), methyl viologen, dopamine, ascorbic acid, Fe(3+/2+), and chlorpromazine. Comparisons are made between the apparent heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constants, k0(app), observed at these high-quality diamond films and the rate constants reported in the literature for freshly activated glassy carbon. Ru(NH3)6(3+/2+), IrCl6(2-/3-), methyl viologen, and chlorpromazine all involve electron transfer that is insensitive to the diamond surface microstructure and chemistry with k0(app) in the 10(-2)-10(-1) cm/s range. The rate constants are mainly influenced by the electronic properites of the films. Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) undergoes electron transfer that is extremely sensitive to the surface chemistry with k0(app) in the range of 10(-2)-10(-1) cm/s at the hydrogen-terminated surface. An oxygen surface termination severely inhibits the rate of electron transfer. Fe(3+/2+) undergoes slow electron transfer at the hydrogen-terminated surface with k0(app) near 10(-5) cm/s. The rate of electron transfer at sp2 carbon electrodes is known to be mediated by surface carbonyl functionalities; however, this inner-sphere, catalytic pathway is absent on diamond due to the hydrogen termination. Dopamine, like other catechol and catecholamines, undergoes sluggish electron transfer with k0(app) between 10

  20. Increased charge storage capacity of titanium nitride electrodes by deposition of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijs, Suzan; McDonald, Matthew; Sørensen, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of depositing a thin layer of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) on titanium nitride (TiN) coated electrodes and the effect this has on charge injection properties. The charge storage capacity increased by applying the B-NCD film...

  1. Development and characterization of fluorine tin oxide electrodes modified with high area porous thin films containing gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintana, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.quintana@uam.e [Dpto. Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental. Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. Cantoblanco. 28049-Madrid (Spain); Atienzar, Pedro; Budroni, Gerolamo [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica de Valencia, UPV-CSIC, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Av. de los Naranjos s/n, 46022-Valencia (Spain); Mora, Laura; Hernandez, Lucas [Dpto. Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental. Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. Cantoblanco. 28049-Madrid (Spain); Garcia, Hermenegildo; Corma, Avelino [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica de Valencia, UPV-CSIC, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Av. de los Naranjos s/n, 46022-Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-29

    Different electrode materials are prepared using fluoride doped tin oxide (FTO) electrodes modified with high area porous thin films of metal oxides containing gold nanoparticles. Three different metal oxides (TiO{sub 2}, MgO and SnO{sub 2}) have been assayed to this end. The effect of the metal oxide nature and gold loading on the structure and performance of the modified electrodes was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. XRD measurements reveal that MgO electrodes present the smallest gold nanoparticles after the sintering step however, the electrochemical response of these electrodes shows important problems of mass transport derived from the high porosity of these materials (Brunauer Emmett Teller area of 125 m{sup 2}/g). The excellent sintering properties of titania nanoparticles result in robust films attached to the FTO electrodes which allow more reliable and reproducible results from an electroanalytical point of view.

  2. Chemical solution deposition of ferroelectric yttrium-doped hafnium oxide films on platinum electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starschich, S.; Griesche, D.; Schneller, T.; Waser, R.; Böttger, U.

    2014-05-01

    Ferroelectric hafnium oxide films were fabricated by chemical solution deposition with a remnant polarization of >13 μC/cm2. The samples were prepared with 5.2 mol. % yttrium-doping and the thickness varied from 18 nm to 70 nm. The hafnium oxide layer was integrated into a metal-insulator-metal capacitor using platinum electrodes. Due to the processing procedure, no thickness dependence of the ferroelectric properties was observed. To confirm the ferroelectric nature of the deposited samples, polarization, capacitance, and piezoelectric displacement measurements were performed. However, no evidence of the orthorhombic phase was found which has been proposed to be the non-centrosymmetric, ferroelectric phase in HfO2.

  3. The fabrication and characterization of an ex situ plated lead film electrode prepared with the use of a reversibly deposited mediator metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyszczuk, Katarzyna, E-mail: ktyszczuk@poczta.umcs.lublin.p [Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Maria Curie Sklodowska Sq. 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: The lead film electrode prepared with use of the mediator metal was elaborated. The lead-based sensors were characterized by optical and voltammetric methods. The adsorptive system of folic acid was employed to investigate a new electrode. The application of the mediator metal improved properties of a lead film electrode. - Abstract: In this paper an ex situ plated lead film electrode prepared with use of the mediator metal (Zn) was elaborated. The electrochemical method for lead film formation is based on a co-deposition of a metal of interest (Pb) with a reversibly deposited mediator metal (Zn) and then on an oxidation of zinc and further deposition of lead by the appropriate potential. This serves to increase the density of islands of lead atoms, promoting lead film growth. The lead-based sensors were characterized by optical method (atomic force microscopy (AFM)) and as well as cyclic, linear sweep and square wave voltammetry. The adsorptive system of folic acid was employed to investigate the electrochemical characteristics a novel type of lead film electrode. Well-formed stripping peaks and a linear dependence of the stripping current on the folic acid concentration were observed on the lead film electrode prepared with use of the mediator metal while comparative measurements attempted with the lead film electrode prepared without use of the mediator metal were unsuccessful.

  4. Interconnection of multichannel polyimide electrodes using anisotropic conductive films (ACFs) for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Dong-Hyun; Park, Ji Soo; Lee, Eun-Joong; Shin, SuJung; Moon, Jin-Hee; Pak, James Jungho; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for interconnecting soft polyimide (PI) electrodes using anisotropic conductive films (ACFs). Reliable and automated bonding was achieved through development of a desktop thermocompressive bonding device that could simultaneously deliver appropriate temperatures and pressures to the interconnection area. The bonding conditions were optimized by changing the bonding temperature and bonding pressure. The electrical properties were characterized by measuring the contact resistance of the ACF bonding area, yielding a measure that was used to optimize the applied pressure and temperature. The optimal conditions consisted of applying a pressure of 4 kg f/cm(2) and a temperature of 180 °C for 20 s. Although ACF base bonding is widely used in industry (e.g., liquid crystal display manufacturing), this study constitutes the first trial of a biomedical application. We performed a preliminary in vivo biocompatibility investigation of ACF bonded area. Using the optimized temperature and pressure conditions, we interconnected a 40-channel PI multielectrode device for measuring electroencephalography (EEG) signals from the skulls of mice. The electrical properties of electrode were characterized by measuring the impedance. Finally, EEG signals were measured from the mice skulls using the fabricated devices to investigate suitability for application to biomedical devices.

  5. Organic photovoltaic cells based on ZnO thin film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghica, C; Ion, L; Epurescu, G; Nistor, L; Antohe, S; Dinescu, M

    2010-02-01

    Due to its wide band-gap (ca. 3.4 eV), ZnO is a possible candidate material to be used as transparent electrode for a new class of photovoltaic (PV) cells. Also, an increased interest for the photovoltaic properties of several organic monomers and polymers (merocyanines, phthalocyanines and porphyrins) was noticed, because of their high optical absorption in the visible region of the spectrum allowing them to be used as potential inexpensive materials for solar cells. Preparation and properties of CuPc (copper phthalocyanine) based photovoltaic cells using ZnO thin films as transparent conductor electrodes are presented in this paper. ZnO layers are grown by pulsed laser deposition, while the organic layers are obtained by thermal evaporation. Structural characterization is performed by electron microscopy. Optical and transport properties of the mutilayered structures are obtained by electrical and spectro-photometric measurements. The influence of the ZnO-polymer interface on the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the photovoltaic cell is clearly evidenced by our measurements.

  6. Pyrolyzed Photoresist Carbon Electrodes for Trace Electroanalysis of Nickel(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Maria Moretto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Novel pyrolyzed photoresist carbon electrodes for electroanalytical applications have been produced by photolithographic technology followed by pyrolysis of the photoresist. A study of the determination of Ni(II dimethylglyoximate (Ni-DMG through adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry at an in situ bismuth-modified pyrolyzed photoresist electrode (Bi-PPCE is reported. The experimental conditions for the deposition of a bismuth film on the PPCE were optimized. The Bi-PPCE allowed the analysis of trace concentrations of Ni(II, even in the presence of Co(II, which is the main interference in this analysis, with cathodic stripping square wave voltammograms characterized by well-separated stripping peaks. The calculated limits of detection (LOD were 20 ng∙L−1 for Ni(II alone and 500 ng∙L−1 in the presence of Co(II. The optimized method was finally applied to the analysis of certified spring water (NIST1640a.

  7. Novel amperometric sensor using metolcarb-imprinted film as the recognition element on a gold electrode and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ming-Fei; Fang, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Bing; Qian, Kun; Wang, Shuo

    2011-04-01

    A molecularly imprinted film is electrochemically synthesized on a gold electrode using cyclic voltammetry to electropolymerize o-aminothiophenol in the presence of metolcarb (MTMC). The mechanism of the imprinting process and a number of factors affecting the activity of the imprinted film are discussed and optimized. Scanning electron microscope observations and binding measurements have proved that an MTMC-imprinted film (with a thickness of nearly 100 nm) was formed on the surface of the gold electrode. The film exhibited high binding affinity and selectivity towards the template MTMC, as well as good penetrability, reproducibility and stability. A novel amperometry sensor using the imprinted film as recognition element was developed for MTMC determination in food samples. Under the experimental conditions, the MTMC standard is linear within the concentration range studied (r(2)=0.9906). The limit of detection (S/N=3) of the modified electrode was achieved to 1.34×10(-8) mol L(-1). Recoveries of MTMC from spiked apple juice, cabbage and cucumber samples for the developed electrochemical assay ranged from 94.80% to 102.43%, which was with great correlation coefficient (0.9929) with results from high-performance liquid chromatography. In practical application, the prepared amperometric sensor also showed good reproducibility and long lifetime for storage. The research in this study has offered a rapid, accurate and sensitive electrochemical method for quantitative determination of MTMC in food products.

  8. In situ spectroelectrochemical behaviour of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films electrode fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅正文; 孔继烈; 秦启宗; 田中群

    1999-01-01

    Nanocrystalline titanium oxide thin films have been successfully deposited on ITO coated glass by pulsed laser ablation of metallic Ti target in O3/O2 ambient gases. The intercalation of Li ions in the anatase TiO2 film electrode is examined by cyclic vohammetry. The electrochromic behaviour of TiO2 electrode is investigated by in-situ visible transmittance measurement, and two absorption bands at 420 and 650 nm are observed. The absorption falling and rising in color changing with excellent revisibility is relative to the insertion and deintercalation processes of Li ion. These resuits suggest that nanocrystalline titanium oxide films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition exhibit excellent spectroelectrochemical property.

  9. Influences of space charge and electrode on the electrical transport through (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 thin film capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.; Zheng, X. J.; Yin, W.; Tang, M. H.; Li, W.

    2011-03-01

    The combined model of thermionic emission and carrier drift-diffusion is derived to simulate the electrical transport through BST thin film capacitors. In the model the field-dependent permittivity is obtained from the derivative of the polarization distinguished with the traditional characterization. The simulated currents show the hysteresis. The influences of space charges and electrode materials on the current density-applied voltage characteristics have been studied. The simulation results suggest that the current densities can be greatly influenced by the space charges at the cathode interface and the barrier height at the electrode/BST interface. It is expected that this work can provide some useful guidelines to the design and performance improvement of BST thin film capacitors and other BST thin film devices.

  10. Removal of a hydrogenated amorphous carbon film from the tip of a micropipette electrode using direct current corona discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Naoto; Okuyama, Naoki; Yamada, Yukio

    2010-02-01

    Micropipette electrodes are fabricated by coating glass micropipettes first with metal and then with hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) as an electrical insulator. Furthermore, at the tip of the micropipette electrode, the deposited a-C:H film needs to be removed to expose the metal-coated surface and hollow for the purposes of electrical measurement and injection. This paper describes a convenient and reliable method for removing the a-C:H film using direct current corona discharge in atmospheric air. The initial film removal occurred at an applied voltage of 1.5-2.0 kV, accompanied by an abrupt increase in the discharge current. The discharge current then became stable at a microampere level in the glow corona mode, and the removed area gradually extended.

  11. Fabrication of ordered NiO coated Si nanowire array films as electrodes for a high performance lithium ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, M C; Yang, L W; Qi, X; Li, Jun; Zhong, J X

    2010-12-01

    Highly ordered NiO coated Si nanowire array films are fabricated as electrodes for a high performance lithium ion battery via depositing Ni on electroless-etched Si nanowires and subsequently annealing. The structures and morphologies of as-prepared films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. When the potential window versus lithium was controlled, the coated NiO can be selected to be electrochemically active to store and release Li+ ions, while highly conductive crystalline Si cores function as nothing more than a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway. The hybrid nanowire array films exhibit superior cyclic stability and reversible capacity compared to that of NiO nanostructured films. Owing to the ease of large-scale fabrication and superior electrochemical performance, these hybrid nanowire array films will be promising anode materials for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Electrical characterization of gold and platinum thin film electrodes with polyaniline modified surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggas, John Richard

    Recent studies into soft organic electronics have burgeoned as a result of discoveries of conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polythiophene, and polypyrrole. However, in order to make these conducting polymers suitable for in vivo soft organic electronics, they must be developed so that they can be biocompatible and provide accurate sensing. Chitosan, a naturally occurring polymer structure found in exoskeletons of crustaceans, has been studied for its biocompatible properties. Composites of polyaniline (PAn), an intrinsically conductive polymer (ICP) and chitosan (Chi), a biopolymer, were developed and applied to gold and platinum Thin Film Electrode (TFE) devices. Electropolymerization and drop cast deposition were utilized to modify TFEs with a thin film of PAn or PAn-Chi composite. The impedance response over a spectrum of frequencies was studied for blank control TFEs, platinized TFEs, and platinized TFEs with various polyaniline coatings. Impedance measurements were taken in dry environments, DI Water, and in buffers such as PBS, and HEPES. Current-Voltage (I-V) characterization was used to study the current response and SEM imaging was used to study the surface topography. Resistance was measured for PAn modified unplatinized gold TFEs with varying amounts of incorporated chitosan. Impedance measurements of control and platinized TFEs yielded results similar to a low pass filter. Due to the conductive nature of polyaniline, the impedance of TFEs decreased substantially after poylaniline deposition. Measured resistance values for polyaniline and chitosan composites on TFEs revealed a window of concentrations of incorporated chitosan to lower resistance.

  13. Atomic layer deposition of absorbing thin films on nanostructured electrodes for short-wavelength infrared photosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jixian; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Fan, Fengjia; Sargent, Edward H., E-mail: ted.sargent@utoronto.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Kinge, Sachin [Advanced Technology, Materials and Research, Research and Development, Hoge Wei 33- Toyota Technical Centre, B-1930 Zaventem (Belgium)

    2015-10-12

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD), prized for its high-quality thin-film formation in the absence of high temperature or high vacuum, has become an industry standard for the large-area deposition of a wide array of oxide materials. Recently, it has shown promise in the formation of nanocrystalline sulfide films. Here, we demonstrate the viability of ALD lead sulfide for photodetection. Leveraging the conformal capabilities of ALD, we enhance the absorption without compromising the extraction efficiency in the absorbing layer by utilizing a ZnO nanowire electrode. The nanowires are first coated with a thin shunt-preventing TiO{sub 2} layer, followed by an infrared-active ALD PbS layer for photosensing. The ALD PbS photodetector exhibits a peak responsivity of 10{sup −2} A W{sup −1} and a shot-derived specific detectivity of 3 × 10{sup 9} Jones at 1530 nm wavelength.

  14. Development of molecular precursors for deposition of indium sulphide thin film electrodes for photoelectrochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Muhammad Ali; Peiris, T A Nirmal; Wijayantha, K G Upul; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Arifin, Zainudin; Mazhar, Muhammad; Lo, K M; McKee, Vickie

    2013-08-14

    Symmetrical and unsymmetrical dithiocarbamato pyridine solvated and non-solvated complexes of indium(III) with the general formula [In(S2CNRR')3]·n(py) [where py = pyridine; R,R' = Cy, n = 2 (1); R,R' = (i)Pr, n = 1.5 (2); NRR' = Pip, n = 0.5 (3) and R = Bz, R' = Me, n = 0 (4)] have been synthesized. The compositions, structures and properties of these complexes have been studied by means of microanalysis, IR and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, X-ray single crystal and thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses. The applicability of these complexes as single source precursors (SSPs) for the deposition of β-In2S3 thin films on fluorine-doped SnO2 (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates by aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) at temperatures of 300, 350 and 400 °C is studied. All films have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) for the detection of phase and stoichiometry of the deposit. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveal that precursors (1)-(4), irrespective of different metal ligand design, generate comparable morphologies of β-In2S3 thin films at different temperatures. Direct band gap energies of 2.2 eV have been estimated from the UV-vis spectroscopy for the β-In2S3 films fabricated from precursors (1) and (4). The photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of β-In2S3 were confirmed by recording the current-voltage plots under light and dark conditions. The plots showed anodic photocurrent densities of 1.25 and 0.65 mA cm(-2) at 0.23 V vs. Ag/AgCl for the β-In2S3 films made at 400 and 350 °C from the precursors (1) and (4), respectively. The photoelectrochemical performance indicates that the newly synthesised precursors are highly useful in fabricating β-In2S3 electrodes for solar energy harvesting and optoelectronic application.

  15. Electrochemical properties of tungsten oxysulphide thin films as positive electrodes for lithium microbatteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Martin-Litas; P Vinatier; A Levasseur; J C Dupin; D Gonbeau

    2003-12-01

    Several WOS tungsten oxysulphide thin films were tested as positive electrodes for lithium microbatteries. The amorphous WO1.05S2 thin film was found very promising. A capacity decrease occurred during the first few cycles, after which the films were able to intercalate reversibly up to 1.1 lithium ion per formula unit under high regime (75 A/cm2). They were tested for 250 charge–discharge cycles, between 3.0 V and 1.2 V. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were performed on different compounds in both intercalated (Li1WO1.05S2, Li2.7WO1.05S2 and Li3.8WO1.05S2) and partially de-intercalated (Li1WO1.05S2) states in order to understand the redox processes occurring during the first discharge–charge cycle. The analysis of both the W4 and the S2 peaks has shown that the redox processes involve not only the tungsten atoms but also sulphur atoms. At the beginning of the intercalation, W6+ was first partially reduced into W5+, and then into W4+, but the important stage was the reduction of W4+ into W0. In W0, the electron binding energy was very close to that of metallic tungsten. At the same time, S$^{2-}_2$ ions were partially reduced into S2- ions. But only the reduction process of tungsten atoms appeared to be totally reversible.

  16. Fabrication and evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide electrodes for p- and n-channel bottom-contact organic thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Hector A; Stoltenberg, Randall M; Tang, Ming Lee; Roberts, Mark E; Liu, Zunfeng; Chen, Yongsheng; Kim, Do Hwan; Lee, Bang-Lin; Lee, Sangyoon; Bao, Zhenan

    2010-11-23

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is an electrically conductive carbon-based nanomaterial that has recently attracted attention as a potential electrode for organic electronics. Here we evaluate several solution-based methods for fabricating RGO bottom-contact (BC) electrodes for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), demonstrate functional p- and n-channel devices with such electrodes, and compare their electrical performance with analogous devices containing gold electrodes. We show that the morphology of organic semiconductor films deposited on RGO electrodes is similar to that observed in the channel region of the devices and that devices fabricated with RGO electrodes have lower contact resistances compared to those fabricated with gold contacts. Although the conductivity of RGO is poor compared to that of gold, RGO is still an enticing electrode material for organic electronic devices possibly owing to the retention of desirable morphological features, lower contact resistance, lower cost, and solution processability.

  17. Rapid prototyping of all-solution-processed multi-lengthscale electrodes using polymer-induced thin film wrinkling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardo, Christine M.; Adams-McGavin, Robert C.; Fung, Barnabas C.; Mahoney, Eric J.; Fang, Qiyin; Soleymani, Leyla

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional electrodes that are controllable over multiple lengthscales are very important for use in bioanalytical systems that integrate solid-phase devices with solution-phase samples. Here we present a fabrication method based on all-solution-processing and thin film wrinkling using smart polymers that is ideal for rapid prototyping of tunable three-dimensional electrodes and is extendable to large volume manufacturing. Although all-solution-processing is an attractive alternative to vapor-based techniques for low-cost manufacturing of electrodes, it often results in films suffering from low conductivity and poor substrate adhesion. These limitations are addressed here by using a smart polymer to create a conformal layer of overlapping wrinkles on the substrate to shorten the current path and embed the conductor onto the polymer layer. The structural evolution of these wrinkled electrodes, deposited by electroless deposition onto a nanoparticle seed layer, is studied at varying deposition times to understand its effects on structural parameters such as porosity, wrinkle wavelength and height. Furthermore, the effect of structural parameters on functional properties such as electro-active surface area and surface-enhanced Raman scattering is investigated. It is found that wrinkling of electroless-deposited thin films can be used to reduce sheet resistance, increase surface area, and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal.

  18. Electrografting of 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane on a Glassy Carbon Electrode for the Improved Adhesion of Vertically Oriented Mesoporous Silica Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Tauqir; Zhang, Lin; Vilà, Neus; Herzog, Grégoire; Walcarius, Alain

    2016-05-03

    Vertically oriented mesoporous silica has proven to be of interest for applications in a variety of fields (e.g., electroanalysis, energy, and nanotechnology). Although glassy carbon is widely used as an electrode material, the adherence of silica deposits is rather poor, causing mechanical instability. A solution to improve the adhesion of mesoporous silica films onto glassy carbon electrodes without compromising the vertical orientation and the order of the mesopores will greatly contribute to the use of this kind of modified carbon electrode. We propose here the electrografting of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane on glassy carbon as a molecular glue to improve the mechanical stability of the silica film on the electrode surface without disturbing the vertical orientation and the order of the mesoporous silica obtained by electrochemically assisted self-assembly. These findings are supported by a series of surface chemistry techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Finally, methylviologen was used as a model redox probe to investigate the cathodic potential region of both glassy carbon and indium tin oxide electrodes modified with mesoporous silica in order to demonstrate further the interest in the approach developed here.

  19. Combustion synthesized indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film for source/drain electrodes in all solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Phan Trong; Inoue, Satoshi; Takamura, Yuzuru; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    We report combustion solution synthesized (SCS) indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film, which is a well-known transparent conductive oxide, for source/drain (S/D) electrodes in solution-processed amorphous zirconium-indium-zinc-oxide TFT. A redox-based combustion synthetic approach is applied to ITO thin film using acetylacetone as a fuel and metal nitrate as oxidizer. The structural and electrical properties of SCS-ITO precursor solution and thin films were systematically investigated with changes in tin concentration, indium metal precursors, and annealing conditions such as temperature, time, and ambient. It was found that at optimal conditions the SCS-ITO thin film exhibited high crystalline quality, atomically smooth surface (RMS ~ 4.1 Å), and low electrical resistivity (4.2 × 10-4 Ω cm). The TFT using SCS-ITO film as the S/D electrodes showed excellent electrical properties with negligible hysteresis. The obtained "on/off" current ratio, subthreshold swing factor, subthreshold voltage, and field-effect mobility were 5 × 107, 0.43 V/decade, 0.7 V, and 2.1 cm2/V s, respectively. The performance and stability of the SCS-ITO TFT are comparable to those of the sputtered-ITO TFT, emphasizing that the SCS-ITO film is a promising candidate for totally solution-processed oxide TFTs.

  20. Preparation, characterization and electrocatalytic behavior of zinc oxide/zinchexacyanoferrate and ruthenium oxide hexacyanoferrate hybrid film-modified electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, H.-W.; Thangamuthu, R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net

    2008-02-15

    Polynuclear mixed-valent hybrid films of zinc oxide/zinchexacyanoferrate and ruthenium oxide hexacyanoferrate (ZnO/ZnHCF-RuOHCF) have been deposited on electrode surfaces from H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution containing Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, RuCl{sub 3} and K{sub 3}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] by potentiodynamic cycling method. Simultaneous cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) measurements demonstrate the steady growth of hybrid film. Surface morphology of hybrid film was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) data confirm existence of zinc oxide and ruthenium oxide hexacyanoferrate (RuOHCF) in the hybrid film. The effect of type of monovalent cations on the redox behavior of hybrid film was investigated. In pure supporting electrolyte, electrochemical responses of Ru{sup II/III} redox transition occurring at negative potential region resemble with that of a surface immobilized redox couple. The electrocatalytic activity of ZnO/ZnHCF-RuOHCF hybrid film was investigated towards oxidation of epinephrine, dopamine and L-cysteine, and reduction of S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2-} and SO{sub 5}{sup 2-} as well as IO{sub 3}{sup -} using cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring disc electrode (RRDE) techniques.

  1. Unsorted single walled carbon nanotubes enabled the fabrication of high performance organic thin film transistors with low cost metal electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Chad S; Zhu, Shiping; Wigglesworth, Tony; Wu, Yiliang

    2013-10-09

    Transistors with a diketopyrrolopyrrole-quarterthiophene (DPP-QT) semiconductor and low-cost Al or Cu electrodes were studied. Albeit a large charge injection resistance exists between DPP-QT and Al or Cu, the resistance was dramatically reduced when unsorted single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were blended into the DPP-QT film. This led to a high mobility of 0.64 and 1.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively, for Al and Cu devices, which is similar or even better than the device using gold electrodes (0.78 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)).

  2. Electrocatalytic characterization and dye degradation of Nano-TiO{sub 2} electrode films fabricated by CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jih-Hsing, E-mail: changjh@cyut.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 JiFong E. Rd., WuFong Township, 41349 Taichung County, Taiwan (China); Ellis, Amanda V. [Flinders University, School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, , GPO Box 2100, Bedford Park, Adelaide S.A. 5042 (Australia); Hsieh, Yung-Hsu; Tung, Cheng-Hung; Shen, Shan-Yi [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung, 40277, Taiwan (China)

    2009-11-01

    A 20-40 nm anatase-titania film on a titanium electrode was fabricated using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The film was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The CVD deposition time and number of deposition coatings were evaluated to establish the appropriate film fabrication parameters. Results indicate that two coatings at a deposition time of 6 h each produced the best nano-TiO{sub 2} electrode films (NTEFs) with an even distribution of ca. 20 nm diameter nanoparticles in the anatase lattice. The NTEF was tested as an electrocatalytic anode to investigate the degradation efficiency in treating methyl orange dye wastewater. A high removal efficiency of methyl orange dye and total organic carbon (TOC) of 97 and 56%, respectively; was achieved using a current density of 20 mA cm{sup -2} for 160 min. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the electrochemical degradation reaction rate at the NTEF surface was predominately driven by molecular diffusion. The electrocatalytic decomposition rate of organic pollutants at the NTEF is controlled by mass transport, which was associated with the nanostructure of the electrocatalytic electrode.

  3. Morphological Evolution of Multilayer Ni/NiO Thin Film Electrodes during Lithiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evmenenko, Guennadi; Fister, Timothy T; Buchholz, D Bruce; Li, Qianqian; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Wu, Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P; Hersam, Mark C; Fenter, Paul; Bedzyk, Michael J

    2016-08-10

    Oxide conversion reactions in lithium ion batteries are challenged by substantial irreversibility associated with significant volume change during the phase separation of an oxide into lithia and metal species (e.g., NiO + 2Li(+) + 2e(-) → Ni + Li2O). We demonstrate that the confinement of nanometer-scale NiO layers within a Ni/NiO multilayer electrode can direct lithium transport and reactivity, leading to coherent expansion of the multilayer. The morphological changes accompanying lithiation were tracked in real-time by in-operando X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and ex-situ cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy on well-defined periodic Ni/NiO multilayers grown by pulsed-laser deposition. Comparison of pristine and lithiated structures reveals that the nm-thick nickel layers help initiate the conversion process at the interface and then provide an architecture that confines the lithiation to the individual oxide layers. XRR data reveal that the lithiation process starts at the top and progressed through the electrode stack, layer by layer resulting in a purely vertical expansion. Longer term cycling showed significant reversible capacity (∼800 mA h g(-1) after ∼100 cycles), which we attribute to a combination of the intrinsic bulk lithiation capacity of the NiO and additional interfacial lithiation capacity. These observations provide new insight into the role of metal/metal oxide interfaces in controlling lithium ion conversion reactions by defining the relationships between morphological changes and film architecture during reaction.

  4. Morphological Evolution of Multilayer Ni/NiO Thin Film Electrodes during Lithiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evmenenko, Guennadi; Fister, Timothy T.; Buchholz, D. Bruce; Li, Qianqian; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Wu, Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Hersam, Mark C.; Fenter, Paul; Bedzyk, Michael J.

    2016-08-10

    Oxide conversion reactions in lithium ion batteries are challenged by substantial irreversibility associated with significant volume change during the phase separation of an oxide into lithia and metal species (e.g., NiO + 2Li(+) + 2e(-) -> Ni + Li2O). We demonstrate that the confinement of nanometer-scale NiO layers within a Ni/NiO multilayer electrode can direct lithium transport and reactivity, leading to coherent expansion of the multilayer. The morphological changes accompanying lithiation were tracked in real-time by in-operando X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and ex situ cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy on well-defined periodic Ni/NiO multilayers grown by pulsed-laser deposition. Comparison of pristine and lithiated structures reveals that the nm-thick nickel layers help initiate the conversion process at the interface and then provide an architecture that confines the lithiation to the individual oxide layers. XRR data reveal that the lithiation process starts at the top and progressed through the electrode stack, layer by layer resulting in a purely vertical expansion. Longer term cycling showed significant reversible capacity (similar to 800 mA h g(-1) after similar to 100 cycles), which we attribute to a combination of the intrinsic bulk lithiation capacity of the NiO and additional interfacial lithiation capacity. These observations provide new insight into the role of metal/metal oxide interfaces in controlling lithium ion conversion reactions by defining the relationships between morphological changes and film architecture during reaction.

  5. Fabrication of platinum coated nanoporous gold film electrode: A nanostructured ultra low-platinum loading electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, Abolfazl; Hatami, Somayeh [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran)

    2010-06-15

    The electrolytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on platinum coated nanoporous gold film (PtNPGF) electrode is demonstrated. The deposition of platinum occurred as a spontaneous redox process in which a copper layer, obtained by underpotential deposition, was oxidized by platinum ions, which were reduced and simultaneously deposited. The present method could provide a very low Pt-loading electrode and the results demonstrated that ultra thin Pt coating effected efficiently and behaved as the nanostructured Pt for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction. The loading of Pt was calculated as 4.2 x 10{sup -3} {mu}g cm{sup -2} for PtNPGF electrode. The current density at -0.4 V and -0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl was as high as 0.66 A {mu}g{sup -1} Pt and 3 A {mu}g{sup -1} Pt, respectively and the j{sub 0} was evaluated as 0.03 mA cm{sup -2} or 8 mA {mu}g{sup -1} Pt. The results indicated that increasing electrode area had no catalytic effect, but the nanostructure nature of as-fabricated electrode and submonolayer deposition of copper resulted in electrocatalytic activity for PtNPGF electrode. (author)

  6. Optical detection of ion diffusion in electrochromic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy)thiophene film using microcantilever electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Rong; Stokbro, Kurt; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard;

    2005-01-01

    potential of the film induced dark (light-absorbing) rings, which spread out from the anode on a time scale of seconds. The rate of expansion of the rings as well as the final diameter depended on the bias voltage. Using two micro four-point probes simultaneously, we measured with one probe the conductance......We present measurements of microscale electrochromic switching of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy)thiophene doped with poly(4-styrene sulfonate), thin film using microfabricated multi-point probe electrodes. After treatment with a dilute hydrochloric acid, a voltage bias above 3 V with respect to the ground...... of the film outside, near and inside a dark ring induced by a voltage applied to another probe and found the resistivity to be directly related to the observed absorbance of the film. The standard electrochromic mechanism of ion insertion was used to explain the observations. We anticipate this experimental...

  7. Universal lab on a smartphone: a research of TiOPc thin film as a light dependence electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, PoHan; Hsu, Y. H.; Lee, C. K.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we study the photoconductivity of a polymer-based TiOPc (Titanium Oxide Phthalocyanine) thin-film for the development of a multi-opto-piezoelectric-valve-array. Using a polymer-based TiOPc thin film to serve as the electrode and a structural layer of a piezoelectric polymer, P(VDF-TrFE) poly[(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene], an optical control valve-array could be developed for manipulating multiple microdroplets for the application of digital microfluidic. In this ongoing project, the dependency of the light intensity, thickness, and composition of spin-coated polymer-based TiOPc thin-film was studied. The experimental finding suggested that a 14 to 55 times resistivity change could be achieved by controlling the film thickness to be between 0.9 μm and 1.5 μm with TiOPc concentration of 20% and 30% w/w compositions.

  8. Anodic Behavior of Semiconducting Diamond Thin-film Electrodes in the Electrolyte for Electrochemical Fluorination; Handotai daiamondo denkyoku no denkai fussokayokuchu ni okeru youkyoku kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Hirotake.; Kawasaki, Shinji. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Textile Science and Technology; Momota, Kunitake. [Morita Chemical Industries, Osaka (Japan). Department of Research and Development; Okino, Fujio.; Touhara, Hidekazu. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Technology]|[Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Jaoan Science and Technology Corporation; Gamonishitani, Mika.; Sakaguchi, Isao.; Ando, Toshihiro. [National Institute for Research in Inorganic Materials, Ibaraki (Japan)]|[Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Japan Science and Technology Corporation

    1998-12-31

    Electrochemical behavior of semiconducting diamond thin-film electrodes has been studied by measuring cyclic voltammograms for the anodic oxidation of 1,4-difluorobenzene in the electrolyte, neat Et{sub 4}NF{center_dot}4HF. A comparative study using a Pt-electrode establishes that the electrochemical fluorination of 1,4-difluorobenzene using the diamond electrode yields 3, 3, 6, 6-tetrafluoro-1, 4-cyclohexadiene. Furthermore no peaks corresponding to the redox reaction of Pt-electrode, i.e., the formation and reduction of PtO{sub 2}, are observed in the CVs obtained using the diamond electrode, suggesting that the diamond electrode is more stable than the Pt-electrode. The results suggests that electrochemical fluorination and the electrolytic production of elemental fluorine are possible at the dimensionally stable diamond electrode. (author)

  9. Poly(ester sulphonic acid) coated mercury thin film electrodes: characterization and application in batch injection analysis stripping voltammetry of heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, C M; Fungaro, D A

    2000-01-10

    Mercury-thin film electrodes coated with a thin film of poly(ester sulphonic acid) (PESA) have been investigated for application in the analysis of trace heavy metals by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry using the batch injection analysis (BIA) technique. Different polymer dispersion concentrations in water/acetone mixed solvent are investigated and are characterised by electrochemical impedance measurements on glassy carbon and on mercury film electrodes. The influence of electrolyte anion, acetate or nitrate, on polymer film properties is demonstrated, acetate buffer being shown to be preferable for stripping voltammetry applications. Although stripping currents are between 30 and 70% less at the coated than at bare mercury thin film electrodes, the influence of model surfactants on stripping response is shown to be very small. The effect of the composition of the modifier film dispersion on calibration plots is shown; however, detection limits of around 5 nM are found for all modified electrodes tested. This coated electrode is an alternative to Nafion-coated mercury thin film electrodes for the analysis of trace metals in complex matrices, particularly useful when there is a high concentration of non-ionic detergents.

  10. Bismuth X-ray absorber studies for TES microcalorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadleir, J.E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States) and University of Illinois Physics Department, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)]. E-mail: sadleir@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov; Bandler, S.R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brekosky, R.P. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chervenak, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finkbeiner, F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Iyomoto, N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kelley, R.L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kilbourne, C.A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); King, J.M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Porter, F.S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Robinson, I.K. [University of Illinois Physics Department, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Saab, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Talley, D.J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Bismuth's large atomic number and low carrier density makes it an attractive X-ray absorber material for microcalorimeters. Bismuth's long Fermi wavelength and long mean free paths have motivated much interest in the fabrication of high quality bismuth films to study quantum size effects. Despite such incentives, fabrication of high quality bismuth films has proven difficult, and measured properties of such films are highly variable in the literature. Implementing a bismuth deposition process for TES (superconducting Transition Edge Sensor) device fabrication presents additional challenges particularly at interfaces due to the inherent granularity and surface roughness of its films, its low melting point, and its tendency to diffuse and form undesired intermetallic phases. We report observations of Bi-Cu and Bi-Au diffusion in our devices correlating with large shifts in T{sub c} (superconducting transition temperature). Using SEM and in situ R vs T annealing experiments we have been able to study these diffusion processes and identify their activation temperatures.

  11. Photo-induced degradation of Ru(Ⅱ) complex absorbed on anatase TiO2 thin film electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG DeLiang; WANG GuangLong; ZHAO JianHua; CHEN Bo

    2007-01-01

    Photo-induced degradation of a monolayer of Ru(II) complex absorbed on anatase TiO2 thin film was studied by using resonant micro-Raman spectroscopy. Under intense light radiation of a laser and in the absence of a reducing agent, the dye decomposed quickly. When the dye-sensitized TiO2 thin film electrode was covered by a reducing agent, namely the Ⅰ-/Ⅰ-3 redox couple, the photo-induced decomposing rate was slowed by a factor of ~106. In both cases, the dye decomposed with time under an exponential law.

  12. Determination of Antimony (III) in Real Samples by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using a Mercury Film Screen-Printed Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Gómez González, M Jesús; Arcos-Martínez, M Julia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure for the determination of antimony (III) by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a mercury film screen-printed electrode as the working electrode. The procedure has been optimized using experimental design methodology. Under these conditions, in terms of Residual Standard Deviation (RSD), the repeatability (3.81 %) and the reproducibility (5.07 %) of the constructed electrodes were both analyzed. The detection limit for Sb (III) was calculated at a value of 1.27×10(-8) M. The linear range obtained was between 0.99 × 10(-8) - 8.26 × 10(-8) M. An analysis of possible effects due to the presence of foreign ions in the solution was performed and the procedure was successfully applied to the determination of antimony levels in pharmaceutical preparations and sea water samples.

  13. Study on the LLT solid electrolyte thin film with LiPON interlayer intervening between LLT and electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong min; Kim, Soo ho; Tak, Yongsug; Yoon, Young Soo

    In this study, a lithium lanthanum titanate (LLT) thin film electrolyte was prepared by RF magnetron sputtering, in order to assess its potential use in solid state thin film batteries. Even though the LLT has high ionic conductivity, it cannot be used alone as a thin film electrolyte since it is chemically unstable when it comes into contact with Li metal and it has a high electronic conductivity. Lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) is stable when in contact with Li and has an extremely low electronic conductivity. We expected that the LiPON/LLT/LiPON structure would make it possible to use a LLT thin film as a thin film solid electrolyte. In order to prepare this structure, a LiPON thin film was also deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and was deposited for various times (30, 60, 90 and 120 min), in order to determine the optimum thickness ratio between LLT and LiPON. In linear sweep voltammetry measurements, the current hardly flowed in the potential range from 0 to 5.5 V in the blocking electrode and ac impedance was measured for measuring the resistance at LiPON/LLT/LiPON. When only the LLT thin film was deposited, a current of scores of mA flowed in the operating potential range, but when an interlayer of LiPON thin film was deposited for more than 30 min on both sides of the LLT thin film, the current was less than 1 μA. Ionic conductivities of 1.11, 0.82 and 0.48 × 10 -7 S cm -1 were observed for the deposition times of the LiPON thin film of 60, 90 and 120 min, respectively. This result suggests that the LiPON/LLT/LiPON structure might be able to be used as a thin film solid electrolyte if its ionic conductivity could be improved.

  14. Dielectric dispersion of BaxSr1-xTiO3 thin film with parallel-plate and coplanar interdigital electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Song, Qing; Xu, Feng; Sheng, Su; Wang, Peng; Ong, C. K.

    2009-03-01

    Ferroelectric BaxSr1-xTiO3 (BST) thin films with x = 0.25 and 0.5 were grown by pulsed laser deposition on single crystal LaAlO3 and Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates, respectively. Capacitors were then fabricated from the BST thin films based on coplanar interdigital electrodes (CIEs) and parallel-plate electrodes (PPEs). The dielectric properties of the BST film with CIE and PPE were investigated and compared over a wide frequency range from 100 Hz to 10 GHz. The dielectric dispersion in PPE configuration, caused by the interfacial polarization in film/electrode interfaces, exhibited a strong dependence on frequency. However, the permittivity ɛCIE in CIE configuration shows a gentle variation with the frequency indicating interfacial polarization substantially suppressed. The influence upon the dielectric properties of the columnar BST grains due to the use of different forms of electrodes was discussed.

  15. Electrochemical dechlorination of chloroform in neutral aqueous solution on palladium/foam-nickel and palladium/polymeric pyrrole film/foam-nickel electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhirong; LI Baohua; HU Xiang; SHI Min; HOU Qingnan; PENG Yongzhen

    2008-01-01

    Electrochemical dechlonnafion of chloroform in neutral aqueous solution was investigated using palladium-loaded electrodes at ambient temperature.Palladium/foam-nickel (Pd/foam-Ni) and palladium/polymeric pyrrole film/foam-nickel (Pd/PPy/foam-Ni)composite electrodes which provided catalytic surface for reductive dechiorination of chloroform in aqueous solution were prepared using an electrodepositing method.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs showed that polymeric pyrrole film modified the electrode-surface characteristics and resulted in the uniform dispersion of needle-shaped palladium particles on foam-Ni supporting electrode.The experimental results of dechlorination indicated that the removal efficiency of chloroform and current efficiency in neutral aqueous solution on Pd/PPy/foam-Ni electrode could be up to 36.8% and 33.0% at dechlorination current of 0.1 mA and dechlorination time of 180 rain,which is much higher than that of Pd/foam-Ni electrode.

  16. Dopamine sensitized nanoporous TiO2 film on electrodes: photoelectrochemical sensing of NADH under visible irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Li; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2009-04-15

    Dopamine-coordinated photoactive TiO(2) nanoporous films with a wide excitation range of light in the visible region (up to 580 nm) were prepared and used for sensitive detection of NADH. Colloidal TiO(2) was firstly covered on an indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface and sintered at 450 degrees C to form a nanoporous TiO(2) film, then the electrode was dipped in a dopamine solution to form a dopamine-TiO(2) charge transfer complex via coordinating dopamine with undercoordinated titanium atoms on the electrode surface. This charge transfer complex provided an anodic photocurrent under visible light and the photocurrent could be largely enhanced by NADH. The photocurrent enhancement might be due to the electron transfer between NADH and the holes localized on dopamine. A new photoelectrochemical methodology for sensitive detection of NADH at a relatively low potential was developed. The detection limit of NADH was 1.4x10(-7) M, and the detection range could extend up to 1.2x10(-4) M. The dopamine-TiO(2) modified electrode exhibits its major advantages such as effective electronic transducer, fast response and easy fabrication for photoelectrochemical determination of NADH. This strategy largely reduces the destructive effect of UV light and the photogenerated holes of illuminated TiO(2) to biomolecules and opens a new avenue for the applications of TiO(2) in photoelectrochemical biosensing.

  17. Research Progress in Doping Modification of the Bismuth Ferrite Thin Film%BiFeO3多铁薄膜掺杂改性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉; 雷天宇; 任红; 孙远洋; 蔡苇; 符春林

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Bismuth ferrite is the only single phase multiferroic material at room temperature. It has broad application prospects in the fields of optoelectronic devices, spin electric devices, ferroelectric random access memories, magnetoelectric memory be-cause of its narrow band gap, large remnant polarization and high ferroelectric Curie temperature. However, the practical applica-tion of bismuth ferrite thin films is largely limited due to high leakage current and weak magnetic coupling. Ion doping is the most popular method because of its simplicity, easy to adjust microstructure and properties. This paper reviewed the research progress in doping modification of the electrical properties of bismuth ferrite thin films in recent years and the different types of doping, inclu-ding A-site ( trivalent Lanthanides and divalent alkali ions) , B-site ( such as transition metals) and A-B sites co-doping. The ele-ments in A-site and B-site doping were clarified based on the effects of doping on the leakage current, ferroelectricity and remnant polarization of bismuth ferrite films. And the effects and mechanisms of various types of doping were systemically summarized. Fi-nally, some urgent questions to be promptly solved were raised.%铁酸铋是目前发现的唯一的室温单相多铁性的材料,其禁带宽度较小,剩余极化强度较大,居里温度较高,在光电器件、自旋电子器件、铁电随机存储器、磁电存储单元等领域有着广阔的应用前景。但铁酸铋薄膜存在漏电流较大、磁电耦合性较弱等问题,制约了在实际中的应用。离子掺杂具有操作方便、易于实现薄膜的微结构及性能调控等优点,因而受到广泛关注。综述了国内外近年来关于铁酸铋薄膜电性能掺杂改性的相关工作,阐述了不同种类的掺杂,包括A位(三价镧系元素与二价碱金属元素)、B位(过渡金属元素等)以及AB位共掺杂,同时根据掺

  18. CHROMIUM ELECTROANALYSIS AT SCREEN PRINTED ELECTRODE MODIFIED BY THIN FILMS OF NICKEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid and potentially cost-effective electrochemical method is reported for analysis of chromium (VI) and Chromium(III) using a nickel modified screen printed carbon ink electrode. Electrochemical characteristics of nickel modified electrode as well voltammetric behavior f...

  19. Lipase immobilized on nanostructured cerium oxide thin film coated on transparent conducting oxide electrode for butyrin sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panky, Sreedevi; Thandavan, Kavitha [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Sivalingam, Durgajanani [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Jeyaprakash, Beri Gopalakrishnan [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru, E-mail: rjbosco@ece.sastra.edu [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-01-15

    Nanostructured cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate using spray pyrolysis technique with cerium nitrate salt, Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O as precursor. Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) thin film prepared using spray pyrolysis technique acts as the TCO film and hence the bare electrode. The structural, morphological and elemental characterizations of the films were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) respectively. The diffraction peak positions in XRD confirmed the formation of highly crystalline ceria with cubic structure and FE-SEM images showed uniform adherent films with granular morphology. The band gaps of CeO{sub 2} and TCO were found to be 3.2 eV and 2.6 eV respectively. Lipase enzyme was physisorbed on the surface of CeO{sub 2}/TCO film to form the lipase/nano-CeO{sub 2}/TCO bioelectrode. Sensing studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, with lipase/nano-CeO{sub 2}/TCO as working electrode and tributyrin as substrate. The mediator-free biosensor with nanointerface exhibited excellent linearity (0.33-1.98 mM) with a lowest detection limit of 2 {mu}M with sharp response time of 5 s and a shelf life of about 6 weeks. -- Graphical abstract: Nanostructured cerium oxide thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate using spray pyrolysis technique. Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) thin film acts as the TCO film and hence the working electrode. Lipase enzyme was physisorbed on the surface of CeO{sub 2}/TCO film and hence the lipase/nano-CeO{sub 2}/TCO bioelectrode has been fabricated. Sensing studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry with tributyrin as substrate. The mediator-free biosensor with nanointerface exhibited excellent linearity (0.33-1.98 mM) with a lowest detection limit of 2 {mu}M with sharp

  20. Pulsed voltage deposited lead selenide thin film as efficient counter electrode for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Bin Bin [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Industry, Shaanxi Institute of Technology, Xi’an 710300 (China); Wang, Ye Feng [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Wang, Xue Qing [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zeng, Jing Hui, E-mail: jhzeng@ustc.edu [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Highlights: • PbSe thin film is deposited on FTO glass by a pulse voltage electrodeposition method. • The thin film is used as counter electrode (CE) in quantum dot-sensitized solar cell. • Superior electrocatalytic activity and stability in the polysulfide electrolyte is received. • The narrow band gap characteristics and p-type conductivity enhances the cell efficiency. • An efficiency of 4.67% is received for the CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells. - Abstract: Lead selenide (PbSe) thin films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by a facile one-step pulse voltage electrodeposition method, and used as counter electrode (CE) in CdS/CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). A power conversion efficiency of 4.67% is received for the CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells, which is much better than that of 2.39% received using Pt CEs. The enhanced performance is attributed to the extended absorption in the near infrared region, superior electrocatalytic activity and p-type conductivity with a reflection of the incident light at the back electrode in addition. The physical and chemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), reflectance spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization measurements. The present work provides a facile pathway to an efficient CE in the QDSSCs.

  1. Langmuir-Blodgett films of cholesterol oxidase and S-layer proteins onto screen-printed electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Juliana Aguilar; Ferraz, Helen Conceição; Alves, Tito Lívio Moitinho

    2014-04-01

    Stable Langmuir monolayers of cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and S-layer proteins were produced at the water-air interface and subsequently transferred onto the surface of screen-printed carbon electrodes by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The modified electrode surface was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). AFM indicated the presence of deposited layers, showing reduction of surface roughness (RMS and Rt parameters). Significant changes in the shape of CVs were observed in modified electrodes compared to bare electrodes. The anodic peaks could be observed in cyclic voltammograms (CV), at a scan rate equal to 25 mV s-1, using electrodes with Z-type LB deposition. The presence of S-layer proteins in the ChOx LB film increases the oxidation peak intensity and reduces the oxidation potential. Altogether, these results demonstrate the feasibility of producing a cholesterol biosensor based on the immobilization of ChOx and S-layer proteins by LB technique.

  2. Comparison of lead zirconate titanate thin films for microelectromechanical energy harvester with interdigitated and parallel plate electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Nachiappan; Mazzalai, Andrea; Balma, Davide; Muralt, Paul

    2013-08-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films on insulator- buffered silicon substrates with interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) have the potential to harvest more energy than parallel plate electrode (PPE) structures because the former exploit the longitudinal piezoelectric effect, which is about twice as high as the transverse piezoelectric effect used by PPE structures. In this work, both options are compared with respect to dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties, leakage currents, and figure of merit (FOM) for energy harvesting. The test samples were silicon beams with {100} PZT thin films in the case of the PPE geometry, and random PZT thin films for the IDE geometry. Both films were obtained by an identical sol-gel route. Almost the same dielectric constants were derived when the conformal mapping method was applied for the IDE capacitor to correct for the IDE geometry. The dielectric loss was smaller in the IDE case. The ferroelectric loops showed a higher saturation polarization, a higher coercive field, and less back-switching for the IDE case. The leakage current density of the IDE structure was measured to be about 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of the PPE structure. The best FOM of the IDE structures was 20% superior to that of the PPE structures while also having a voltage response that was ten times higher (12.9 mV/μ strain).

  3. 聚苯胺膜电极在苯胺单体聚合反应中的电催化性能%Study on Electrocatalytic Performance of Polyaniline Film Electrode in Polymerization of Aniline Monomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李星玮; 李晓宣; 居明; 赵宝昌

    2001-01-01

    Polyaniline film electrode was prepared by constant potential electrolysis. Effe cts of sweep rate, monomer concentration and temperature on its electrocatalytic performance for polymerization of aniline monomer were studied. Compared with t he blank platinum electrode, the potential of the oxidation polymerization of an iline monomer on the polyaniline film electrode shifted negatively. It is showed that the polyaniline film has obvious catalytic action in the polymerization. I n addition, the redox peak current on polyaniline film electrode linearly depend s on the square root of the potential sweep rate. It is indicated that the elect rode reaction on polyaniline film is controlled by diffusion process.

  4. Wrinkle-free graphene electrodes in zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors for large area applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hee; Park, Byeong-Ju; Park, Jozeph; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Yoon, Soon-Gil

    2017-02-01

    Wrinkle-free graphene was used to form the source-drain electrodes in thin film transistors based on a zinc tin oxide (ZTO) semiconductor. A 10 nm thick titanium adhesion layer was applied prior to transferring a conductive graphene film on top of it by chemical detachment. The formation of an interlayer oxide between titanium and graphene allows the achievement of uniform surface roughness over the entire substrate area. The resulting devices were thermally treated in ambient air, and a substantial decrease in field effect mobility is observed with increasing annealing temperature. The increase in electrical resistivity of the graphene film at higher annealing temperatures may have some influence, however the growth of the oxide interlayer at the ZTO/Ti boundary is suggested to be most influential, thereby inducing relatively high contact resistance.

  5. Wet-Chemical Surface Texturing of Sputter-Deposited ZnO:Al Films as Front Electrode for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent conductive oxides (TCOs play a major role as the front electrodes of thin-film silicon (Si solar cells, as they can provide optical scattering and hence improved photon absorption inside the devices. In this paper we report on the surface texturing of aluminium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al or AZO films for improved light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells. The AZO films are deposited onto soda-lime glass sheets via pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. Several promising AZO texturing methods are investigated using diluted hydrochloric (HCl and hydrofluoric acid (HF, through a two-step etching process. The developed texturing procedure combines the advantages of the HCl-induced craters and the smaller and jagged—but laterally more uniform—features created by HF etching. In the two-step process, the second etching step further enhances the optical haze, while simultaneously improving the uniformity of the texture features created by the HCl etch. The resulting AZO films show large haze values of above 40%, good scattering into large angles, and a surface angle distribution that is centred at around 30°, which is known from the literature to provide efficient light trapping for thin-film Si solar cells.

  6. Bismuth vanadate process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.M.

    1990-06-26

    This patent describes the process for the preparation of bismuth vanadate and bismuth vanadate-containing compounds wherein the precursor materials are calcined in the solid state at temperatures sufficient to react the precursor materials to prepare the vanadate compounds. It comprises: wet grinding the calcined product, contacting the calcined product with sufficient alkaline material to provide a pH level of 7.0-13.0 and recovering the treated product, the wet grinding of the calcined product being conducted either in the presence of the alkaline material or prior to the contacting with the alkaline material.

  7. A kinetic study of the photoelectrocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue using a TiO{sub 2} thin film electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, K.H.; Lin, C.L. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Ho, K.C. [Inst. of Chemistry, Taipei, Taiwan (China). Academia Sinica]|[National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    This study investigated the photoelectrocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue (MB) with a TiO{sub 2} film electrode under external bias. The TiO{sub 2} thin films were prepared using a sol-gel method with hydrolysis. The films were dip-coated with indium tin oxide (ITO) conducting glass. Results of the experiment showed that the decolorization rate was a function of the MB concentration; the applied potential bias; the pH value; the thickness of the TiO{sub 2} thin film; and the incident light intensity. The photocurrent density increased with the number of dip-coatings. The decolorization rate decreased due to the increase of the electrical resistance when the film was dip-coated more than 5 times. It was suggested that the photoelectrocatalytic rate was further enhanced when the applying potential bias was greater than 0.6 V. A kinetic model depicting the decolorization rate and the reaction time was proposed. Parameters of the model included the adsorption equilibrium constant of MB and the photophysical properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Preparation of Li4Ti5O12 electrode thin films by a mist CVD process with aqueous precursor solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoharu Tadanaga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spinel Li4Ti5O12 thin films were prepared by a mist CVD process, using an aqueous solution of lithium nitrate and a water-soluble titanium lactate complex as the source of Li and Ti, respectively. In this process, mist particles ultrasonically atomized from a source aqueous solution were transferred by nitrogen gas to a heating substrate to prepare thin films. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that thin films obtained by this process were dense and smooth, and thin films with a thickness of about 500 nm were obtained. In the X-ray diffraction analysis, formation of Li4Ti5O12 spinel phase was confirmed in the obtained thin film sintered at 700 °C for 4 h. The cell with the thin films as an electrode exhibited a capacity of about 110 mAh g−1, and the cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles.

  9. Development of non-flammable lithium secondary battery with room-temperature ionic liquid electrolyte: Performance of electroplated Al film negative electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ui, Koichi; Yamamoto, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kohei; Minami, Takuto; Takeuchi, Ken; Itagaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Koura, Nobuyuki [Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    The negative electrode performance of the electroplated Al film electrode in the LiCl saturated AlCl{sub 3}-1-ethyl-3-methylimizadolium chloride (EMIC) + SOCl{sub 2} melt as the electrolyte for use in non-flammable lithium secondary batteries was evaluated. In the cyclic voltammogram of the electroplated Al film electrode in the melt, the oxidation and reduction waves corresponding to the electrochemical insertion/extraction reactions of the Li{sup +} ion were observed at 0-0.80 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li, which suggested that the electroplated Al film electrode operated well in the electrolyte. The almost flat potential profiles at about 0.40 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li on discharging were shown. The discharge capacity and charge-discharge efficiency was 236 mAh g{sup -1} and 79.2% for the 1st cycle and it maintained 232 mAh g{sup -1} and 77.9% after the 10th cycle. In addition, the initial charge-discharge efficiencies of the electroplated Al film electrode were higher than that of carbon electrodes. The main cathodic polarization reaction was the insertion of Li{sup +} ions, and side reactions hardly occurred due to the decomposition reaction of the melt because the Li content corresponding to the electricity was almost totally inserted into the film after charging. (author)

  10. Development of the α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO Triple-Layer Structure Films for the Application of Transparent Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Neng Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the structural, optical, and electrical properties of amorphous IGZO/silver/amorphous IGZO (α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO triple-layer structures that were deposited at room temperature on Eagle XG glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates through the sputtering method. Thin Ag layers with different thicknesses were inserted between two IGZO layers to form a triple-layer structure. Ag was used because of its lower absorption and resistivity. Field emission scanning electron microscopy measurements of the triple-layer structures revealed that the thicknesses of the Ag layers ranged from 13 to 41 nm. The thickness of the Ag layer had a large effect on the electrical and optical properties of the electrodes. The optimum thickness of the Ag metal thin film could be evaluated according to the optical transmittance, electrical conductivity, and figure of merit of the electrode. This study demonstrates that the α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO triple-layer transparent electrode can be fabricated with low sheet resistance (4.2 Ω/□ and high optical transmittance (88.1% at room temperature without postannealing processing on the deposited thin films.

  11. Glucose biosensor based on functionalized ZnO nanowire/graphite films dispersed on a Pt electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, P.; Tosi, E.; Madrid, R.; Tirado, M.; Comedi, D.

    2016-10-01

    We present a glucose biosensor based on ZnO nanowire self-sustained films grown on compacted graphite flakes by the vapor transport method. Nanowire/graphite films were fragmented in water, filtered to form a colloidal suspension, subsequently functionalized with glucose oxidase and finally transferred to a metal electrode (Pt). The obtained devices were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The electrochemical responses of the devices were determined in buffer solutions with successive glucose aggregates using a tripolar electrode system. The nanostructured biosensors showed excellent analytical performance, with linear response to glucose concentrations, high sensitivity of up to ≈17 μA cm-2 mM-1 in the 0.03-1.52 mM glucose concentration range, relatively low Michaelis-Menten constant, excellent reproducibility and a fast response. The detection limits are more than an order of magnitude lower than those achievable in commercial biosensors for glucose control, which is promising for the development of glucose monitoring methods that do not require blood extraction from potentially diabetic patients. The strong detection enhancements provided by the functionalized nanostructures are much larger than the electrode surface-area increase and are discussed in terms of the physical and chemical mechanisms involved in the detection and transduction processes.

  12. Atmospheric Environment Fabrication of Composite Films by Ethanol Catalytic Combustion and Its Use as Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Soar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The composite films which consist of amorphous carbon, carbon nanotube, and iron nanoparticles were prepared by ethanol catalytic combustion in atmospheric environment. The as-prepared composite films have good electrocatalytic activity and high conductivity which is due to their particular structure. The efficiency of the composite films based dye-sensitized soar cells (DSSCs is closed to that of the Pt based one. Most importantly, the DSSC employing the composite films presents a higher FF than those of Pt based solar cell. In addition, it is a simple method for mass production of composite films counter electrode (CE which is expected to reduce the cost of fabricating DSSCs.

  13. Amperometric bienzyme glucose biosensor based on carbon nanotube modified electrode with electropolymerized poly(toluidine blue O) film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wenju [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Wang Fang [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)] [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yao Yanli [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Hu Shengshui [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Shiu, Kwok-Keung, E-mail: kkshiu@hkbu.edu.h [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2010-09-30

    The amperometric bienzyme glucose biosensor utilizing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized in poly(toluidine blue O) (PTBO) film was constructed on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) modified glassy carbon electrode. The HRP layer could be used to analyze hydrogen peroxide with toluidine blue O (TBO) mediators, while the bienzyme system (HRP + GOx) could be utilized for glucose determination. Glucose underwent biocatalytic oxidation by GOx in the presence of oxygen to yield H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which was further reduced by HRP at the MWNT-modified electrode with TBO mediators. In the absence of oxygen, glucose oxidation proceeded with electron transfer between GOx and the electrode mediated by TBO moieties without H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. The bienzyme electrode offered high sensitivity for amperometric determination of glucose at low potential, displaying Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The bienzyme glucose biosensor displayed linear response from 0.1 to 1.2 mM with a sensitivity of 113 mA M{sup -1} cm{sup -2} at an applied potential of -0.10 V in air-saturated electrolytes.

  14. Study on the deterioration mechanism of layered rock-salt electrodes using epitaxial thin films - Li(Ni, Co, Mn)O2 and their Zr-O surface modified electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Machiko; Iba, Hideaki; Suzuki, Kota; Minamishima, Hiroaki; Hirayama, Masaaki; Tamura, Kazuhisa; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro; Saito, Tomohiro; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Kanno, Ryoji

    2017-03-01

    Deterioration mechanism of Li(Ni, Co, Mn)O2 and Zr-O surface modified electrodes has been elucidated using epitaxial thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition. The electrodes comprise a mixture of layered rock-salt and spinel phases. The deterioration mechanism is analyzed using cyclic voltammetry, in situ X-ray diffraction measurements, and in situ neutron reflectometry. The spinel phase in the electrodes has low electrochemical activity and is not involved in Li insertion/extraction. The amount of Li participating in the charge-discharge reactions in the layered rock-salt phase increases with cycling, inducing a phase change at the electrode surface, lowering the reversibility. In contrast, in the Zr-O surface modified electrode, the spinel phase does not increase on charging/discharging. Thus, the Zr-O modification stabilizes the surface of layered rock-salt structure, thereby improving the cycling characteristics. Also, after the Zr-O modification, the Li concentration in the liquid electrolyte near the electrode/electrolyte interface increases during charging/discharging. The Zr-O surface modification not only stabilizes the electrode surface but also causes changes on the electrolyte side. Using the mixed model electrodes, we elucidate the mechanism of electrode deterioration and the origin of the improvement in cycling characteristics occurring on surface modification.

  15. Ultrafast Study of Carrier Interaction in Bismuth Telluride Thin Film%碲化铋薄膜载能粒子相互作用的超快研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马维刚; 张兴

    2012-01-01

    Bismuth telluride, with narrow band gap, large electrical conductivity, large Seebeck coefficient, and low thermal conductivity, is one of the best thermoelectric materials with the highest figure of merit at room temperature. In addition, thin film and superlattice are considered to be the feasible ways to improve the performance of thermoelectric materials. And hence, it is important to study the carrier interaction in bismuth telluride thin film. In this paper, the carrier interaction of 100 nm thick bismuth telluride film deposited on silicon substrate has been studied by applying the femtosecond laser pump-probe transient thermoreflectance technique. Different carrier interaction processes, including electrons excited from valence band to conduction band, electron-hole recombination, and energy coupling from photoexcited carriers to lattice have been studied respectively by changing the delay time step of the probe pulse. Also, an acoustic wave generated from the thermal stress has been observed and the corresponding extracted longitudinal wave velocity is 2649 m s-1.%碲化铋禁带宽度非常窄而具有高电导率和塞贝克系数,同时具有低热导率,成为已知室温下优值系数最高的热电材料。已有研究表明,纳米薄膜和超晶格是进一步提高材料热电性能的可行途径。因此超快研究碲化铋纳米薄膜中载能子间的相互作用过程对开发高性能热电材料有重要意义。本文采用飞秒激光泵浦一探测技术,实验研究了沉积在硅基底上厚度为100nm碲化铋薄膜中各载能粒子的相互作用过程。通过改变延迟时间步长,分别观察到价带电子被光子激发跃迁至导带,激发电子在导带内与声子的能量弛豫及导带电子与空穴复合跃迁至价带,并将能量传递给声子导致声子温度升高的过程。此外,还观察到热应力产生的声波,并据此得到了碲化铋薄膜中纵波声速为2649ms-1。

  16. Study of electrochemical properties of thin film materials obtained using plasma technologies for production of electrodes for pacemakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrezkov, O. I.; Vinogradov, V. P.; Krauz, V. I.; Mozgrin, D. V.; Guseva, I. A.; Andreev, E. S.; Zverev, A. A.; Starostin, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    Studies of thin film materials (TFM) as coatings of tips of pacemaker electrodes implanted into the human heart have been performed. TFM coatings were deposited in vacuum by arc magnetron discharge plasma, by pulsed discharge of “Plasma Focus”, and by electron beam evaporation. Simulation of electric charge transfer to the heart in physiological blood- imitator solution and determination of electrochemical properties of the coatings were carried out. TFM of highly developed surface of contact with tissue was produced by argon plasma spraying of titanium powder with subsequent coating by titanium nitride in vacuum arc assisted by Ti ion implantation. The TFM coatings of pacemaker electrode have passed necessary clinical tests and were used in medical practice. They provide low voltage myocardium stimulation thresholds within the required operating time.

  17. Ag-nanowire films coated with ZnO nanoparticles as a transparent electrode for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Frederik S. F.; Kabra, Dinesh; Massip, Sylvain; Brenner, Thomas J. K.; Lyons, Philip E.; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Friend, Richard H.

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrate that solution-processible silver-nanowire films coated with zinc-oxide-nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) can be used as transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaic devices. The ZnO-NP coating acts as electron extraction layer and as encapsulating agent, protecting the wires from oxidation and improving their mechanical stability. Scanning photocurrent microscopy showed photocurrent generation to be more efficient at the active material surrounding the wires. Ultra-violet illumination as present in the solar spectrum was found to enhance photocurrent by improving the ZnO in-layer conductivity through the photoconductive effect. Inverted polythiophene:fullerene devices using ZnO-NP coated silver-nanowires or indium-tin-oxide as transparent electrode reached power conversion efficiencies of 2.4%.

  18. Detection of H2O2 at a composite film modified electrode with highly dispersed Ag nanoparticles in Nafion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Xiu Kan; Xue Ji Wang; Hui Min Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles were prepared by using the ion-exchange of Nafion combined with electrochemical reduction on the electrode. Ag nanoparticles are highly dispersed in Nafion film with an average size of 4.0 ± 0.2 nm. The amount of Ag nanoparticles can be readily controlled by the amount of Nafion coated on the electrode. Thus obtained Ag nanoparticles exhibit good catalytic activity for the reduction of H2O2 with a linear response to H2O2 in the concentration range of 0.04-8.0 mmol/L with a sensitivity of 0.34 μA/mmol/L and a detection limit of 1.0×10-8 mol/L.

  19. Electrochemical luminescence determination of hyperin using a sol-gel@graphene luminescent composite film modified electrode for solid phase microextraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaojun; Shang, Fang; Wang, Sui

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor of sol-gel@graphene luminescent composite film modified electrode for hyperin determination was prepared using graphene (G) as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) material, based on selective preconcentration of target onto an electrode and followed by luminol ECL detection. Hyperin was firstly extracted from aqueous solution through the modified GCE. Hydrogel, electrogenerated chemiluminescence reagents, pH of working solution, extraction time and temperature and scan rate were discussed. Under the optimum conditions, the change of ECL intensity was in proportion to the concentration of hyperin in the range of 0.02-0.24 μg/mL with a detection limit of 0.01 μg/mL. This method showed good performance in stability, reproducibility and precision for the determination of hyperin.

  20. Electrical conduction processes in as-deposited indium phthalocyanine chloride thin films using gold and aluminium electrode combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Mammen; Menon, C S; Unnikrishnan, N V [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam-686 560, Kerala (India)

    2006-01-11

    Sandwich structures of the type (Au-InPcCl-Al) have been fabricated by successive vacuum deposition of indium phthalocyanine chloride (InPcCl) thin films and aluminium (Al) fingers onto Ohmic gold (Au) electrodes on glass substrates. Device characteristics of as-deposited Au/InPcCl/Al are obtained and found to show rectification properties. Current density-voltage characteristics under forward bias (aluminium electrode negative) are found to be due to Ohmic conduction at lower voltages. At higher voltages there is space charge limited conductivity (SCLC) controlled by an exponential trapping distribution above the valence edge. Transport properties of the material at ambient temperature have been obtained from the analysis of the samples in the Ohmic and SCLC regions. Under the reverse bias, Schottky emission is identified at lower voltages.

  1. Spectroelectrochemical study of the adsorption of acetate anions at gold single crystal and thin-film electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna, Antonio; Delgado, Jose Manuel; Orts, Jose Manuel [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Instituto Universitario de Electroquimica, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Rodes, Antonio [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Instituto Universitario de Electroquimica, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: Antonio.Rodes@ua.es; Feliu, Juan Miguel [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Instituto Universitario de Electroquimica, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2008-01-01

    Acetate adsorption at gold electrodes is studied in perchloric acid solutions by cyclic voltammetry and in-situ infrared spectroscopy. External reflection measurements, performed with gold single crystal electrodes, are combined with Surface Enhanced Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy experiments under attenuated total reflection conditions (ATR-SEIRAS) carried out with sputtered gold thin-film electrodes. Theoretical harmonic IR frequencies of acetate species adsorbed with different geometries on Au clusters with (1 1 1), (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) orientations have been obtained from B3LYP/LANL2DZ, 6-31 + G* calculations. The theoretical and experimental results confirm that, irrespective of the surface crystallographic orientation, bonding of acetate to the surface involves the two oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group, with the OCO plane perpendicular to the metal surface. DFT calculations reveal also that the total charge of the metal cluster-acetate supermolecule has small effect on the vibrational frequencies of adsorbed acetate species. Both the external and the internal reflection measurements show the co-adsorption of acetate and perchlorate anions. Step-scan measurements carried out with the gold thin-film electrodes have allowed the monitoring of the time-dependent behaviour of perchlorate, acetate and water bands in potential step experiments. Acetate adsorption under those conditions is shown to involve perchlorate desorption and to follow a Langmuir-type kinetics. The step-scan spectra also show the rise and decay of transient water structures with parallel time-dependent shifts of the background intensity in the infrared spectra.

  2. Ascorbate electro-oxidation by modified electrodes: Polypyrrole and polypyrrole/Ni(OH){sub 2} composite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues da Silva, Marcelo [Faculdade de Engenharia/Colegio Tecnico Industrial, UNESP, CP 473, 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Marcelo Silva [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Exatas, UEL, CP 6001, 86051-980 Londrina, PR (Brazil); Dall' Antonia, Luiz Henrique, E-mail: luizh@uel.br [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Exatas, UEL, CP 6001, 86051-980 Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2012-08-01

    The present paper describes the utilization of polypyrrole and the composite of polypyrrole doped with nickel hydroxide modified electrodes toward the catalytic oxidation of ascorbate. Films were potentiostatically deposited onto a glassy carbon surface and Fluor-doped tin oxide glass for different times. The physical characterization was performed using the low angle X-ray diffraction technique. Furthermore, the films were electrochemically characterized using cyclic voltammetry. The X-ray diffraction results show the existence of different polymorphic phases of nickel hydroxide in the polymer matrix, and the {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} phase appears to be dominant. The cyclic voltammetry profile in KOH solution shows the presence of two redox peaks that are related to the Ni{sup II}/Ni{sup III} and Ni{sup III}/Ni{sup II} couples, at approximately 0.5 and 0.35 V, respectively. The reversible electro-oxidation of ascorbate was observed on the surface of the polypyrrole and composite films. The analytical curves obtained using voltammetric techniques show a linear relationship between the faradaic current and the increase of the ascorbic acid concentration. The sensitivity of these films, which is obtained from the slope of the analytical curves, shows that the composite film is more electroactive than the polypyrrole film: 133.4 mA L mol{sup -1} cm{sup -2} and 83.8 mA L mol{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, respectively. The rate constants of the catalytic ascorbate electro-oxidation were also reported, where the mean values were found to be 217.74 M{sup -1} s{sup -1} and 54.37 M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, for the composite and polypyrrole films, respectively. The low cost of polypyrrole doped with Ni(OH){sub 2} composite electrodes presents a more selective and high sensitivity to determine ascorbic acid concentration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole and nickel hydroxide composite thin films Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High sensitivity

  3. Tungsten(VI) Oxide Flake-Wall Film Electrodes for Photoelectrochemical Oxygen Evolution from Water

    OpenAIRE

    Amano, Fumiaki; Li, Ding; Ohtani, Bunsho

    2010-01-01

    A vertically arrayed flake film, "flake-wall film", of monoclinic tungsten(VI) oxide (WO3) was prepared on a transparent conductive glass. The WO3 flake-wall film exhibited superior performance for photoelectrochemical water oxidation under visible-light irradiation compared to that of a film consisting of horizontally laminated WO3 flakes. The small difference between photocurrent densities under front-side irradiation and back-side irradiation indicates the excellent electron transport prop...

  4. Highly (110)- and (111)-oriented BiFeO3 films on BaPbO3 electrode with Ru or Pt /Ru barrier layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Ching; Wu, Jenn-Ming; Hsiung, Chang-Po

    2007-04-01

    Highly (110)- and (111)-oriented BiFeO3 (BFO) films were fabricated with BaPbO3 (BPO )/Ru and BPO /Pt/Ru as electrode/barrier on Si substrates by rf-magnetron sputtering. The BPO /Ru and BPO /Pt/Ru stacks both induce oriented BFO films and act as diffusion barriers. The (110)- and (111)-oriented BFO films possess excellent ferroelectric properties with only minor leakage. The values of remnant polarization are almost the same, about 42μC/cm2, for (110)- and (111)-oriented BFO films. However, polarization measured under varying pulse widths demonstrates that the switching polarization in (111)-oriented BFO films is higher than in (110)-oriented films. Additionally, (111)-oriented BFO films exhibit better retention properties than (110)-oriented films.

  5. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with a film of nanodiamond-graphite/chitosan: Application to the highly sensitive electrochemical determination of Azathioprine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed, E-mail: shahrokhian@sharif.ed [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Technology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghalkhani, Masoumeh [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A novel modified glassy carbon electrode with a film of nanodiamond-graphite/chitosan is constructed and used for the sensitive voltammetric determination of azathioprine (Aza). The surface morphology and thickness of the film modifier are characterized using atomic force microscopy. The electrochemical response characteristics of the electrode toward Aza are investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode showed an efficient catalytic role for the electrochemical reduction of Aza, leading to a remarkable decrease in reduction overpotential and enhancement of the kinetics of the electrode reaction with a significant increase of peak current. The effects of experimental variables, such as the deposited amount of modifier suspension, the pH of the supporting electrolyte, the accumulation potential and time were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the modified electrode showed a wide linear response to the concentration of Aza in the range of 0.2-100 muM with a detection limit of 65 nM. The prepared modified electrode showed several advantages: simple preparation method, high stability and uniformity in the composite film, high sensitivity, excellent catalytic activity in physiological conditions and good reproducibility. The modified electrode can be successfully applied to the accurate determination of trace amounts of Aza in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations.

  6. Determination of Soil Base—Soluble Se by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry with Aurum Thin—Film Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGZENG; HEYING; 等

    1994-01-01

    Determination of soil Se by anodic stripping voltammetry(ASV) with aurum thin-film electrode(ATFE)overcomes the interference of gold peak with selenium peak,and thus has a higher sensitivity with the miniumum detectable concentration being 0.017μg/mL,the standard deviation of the measured results leww than 0.012μg/g,the coefficient of variation lwoer than 10% ,and the recovery rate between 86% to 103%.Besides the measurement conditions,the digestion of soil sample was also studied in detail.

  7. Boron-doped diamond film electrode as a sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for the determination of paracetamol

    OpenAIRE

    Švorc, Ľubomír; Sochr, Jozef; Rievaj, Miroslav; Bustin, Dušan

    2012-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and selective differential pulse voltammetry method for determination of paracetamol on a bare (unmodified) boron-doped diamond film electrode has been developed. It was found by cyclic voltammetry that paracetamol provided the quasireversible wave with oxidation peak on the forward scan about +0.90 V and smaller reduction peak on the reverse scan at +0.68 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The effect of supporting electrolyte, pH and scan rate on voltammetric response of paracetamol was stud...

  8. [Development of enzyme biosensor based on trypsin and conductometric thin-film electrodes for protein and artificial substrates determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biloivan, O A; Dziadevich, S V; Soldatkin, O P; Starodub, M F; Iel'ska, G V

    1997-01-01

    Two analytical systems based on the soluble and immobilized trypsin and conductometric thin-film electrodes were developed to measure concentration of artificial substrate and protein in solution. It was shown that these systems allow one to determine concentrations of Ha-benzoyl-L-arginin-ethyl-ester in the range of 0.1-1.0 mM and concentrations of HSA: 0.1-2.0 mg/ml with soluble and 0.1-0.8 mg/ml with immobilized trypsin.

  9. Microwave-assisted low temperature fabrication of ZnO thin film electrodes for solar energy harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirmal Peiris, T.A.; Sagu, Jagdeep S.; Hazim Yusof, Y.; Upul Wijayantha, K.G., E-mail: U.Wijayantha@lboro.ac.uk

    2015-09-01

    Metallic Zn thin films were electrodeposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates and oxidized under air by conventional radiant and microwave post-annealing methods to obtain ZnO thin film electrodes. The temperature of each post-annealing method was varied systematically and the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of electrodes was evaluated. The best photocurrent density achieved by the conventional radiant annealing method at 425 °C for 15 min was 93 μA cm{sup −2} at 1.23 V vs. NHE and the electrode showed an incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 28.2%. X-ray diffractogram of this electrode showed that the oxidation of Zn to ZnO was not completed during the radiant annealing process as evident by the presence of metallic Zn in the electrode. For the electrode oxidized from Zn to ZnO under microwave irradiation, a photocurrent of 130 μA cm{sup −2} at 1.23 V vs. NHE and IPCE of 35.6% was observed after annealing for just 3 min, during which the temperature reached 250 °C. The photocurrent was 40% higher for the microwave annealed sample; this increase was attributed to higher surface area by preserving the nanostructure, confirmed by SEM surface topographical analysis, and better conversion yields to crystalline ZnO. Overall, it was demonstrated that oxidation of Zn to ZnO can be accomplished by microwave annealing five times faster than that of conventional annealing, thus resulting in a ~ 75% power saving. This study shows that microwave processing of materials offers significant economic and performance advantages for industrial scale up. - Highlights: • Conversion of Zn to ZnO by microwave and radiant annealing was conducted. • Microwave conversion was 5 times faster compared to radiant annealing. • Photoelectrochemical performance of microwave annealed ZnO was 40% higher. • Microwave annealing results in a 75% energy saving.

  10. NiCo2O4 nanosheets in-situ grown on three dimensional porous Ni film current collectors as integrated electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Guo, Ying; Zhao, Bo; Yu, Shuhui; Yang, Hai-Peng; Lu, Daniel; Fu, Xian-Zhu; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Three dimensional interconnected hierarchical porous Ni films are easily fabricated as effective current collectors through hydrogen bubble template electrochemical deposition. The binder-free integrated electrodes of spinel NiCo2O4 nanosheets directly coated the three dimensional porous Ni films are facilely obtained through successively electrochemical co-deposition of Ni/Co alloy layer then followed by subsequent annealing at 350 °C in air. Compared with NiCo2O4 nanosheets on smooth Ni foil or porous NiO/Ni film electrodes, the porous NiCo2O4/Ni integrated film electrodes for supercapacitors demonstrate remarkably higher area specific capacitance. The porous NiCo2O4/Ni film electrodes also exhibit excellent rate capability and cycling stability. The super electrochemical capacitive performances are attributed to the unique integrated architecture of NiCo2O4 nanosheets in-situ grown on three dimensional continuous hierarchical porous Ni collector collectors, which could provide large electrode-electrolyte interface area, high active sites, low contact resistance between current collector and active materials, fast electron conduction and ion/electrolyte diffusion.

  11. Electrocatalytic oxidation behavior of L-cysteine at Pt microparticles modified nanofibrous polyaniline film electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Song-jiang; LUO Sheng-lian; ZHOU Hai-hui; KUANG Ya-fei; NING Xiao-hui

    2008-01-01

    Platinum(Pt)/nanofibrous polyaniline(PANI) electrode was prepared by pulse galvanostatic method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behavior of L-cysteine at the Pt/nanofibrous PANI electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The results indicate that the pH value of the solution and the Pt loading of the electrode have great effect on the electrocatalytic property of the Pt/nanofibrous PANI electrode; the suitable Pt loading of the electrode is 600 μg/cm2 and the suitable pH value of the solution is 4.5 for investigating L-cysteine oxidation. The L-cysteine sensor based on the Pt/nanofibrous PANI electrode has a good selectivity, reproducibility and stability. The Pt/nanofibrous PANI electrode is highly sensitive to L-cysteine, and the linear calibration curve for the oxidation of L-cysteine can be observed in the range of 0.2-5.0 mmol/L.

  12. H2 S Sensors: Fumarate-Based fcu-MOF Thin Film Grown on a Capacitive Interdigitated Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Omar; Shekhah, Osama; Assen, Ayalew H; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Salama, Khaled N; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-12-19

    Herein we report the fabrication of an advanced sensor for the detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) at room temperature, using thin films of rare-earth metal (RE)-based metal-organic framework (MOF) with underlying fcu topology. This unique MOF-based sensor is made via the in situ growth of fumarate-based fcu-MOF (fum-fcu-MOF) thin film on a capacitive interdigitated electrode. The sensor showed a remarkable detection sensitivity for H2 S at concentrations down to 100 ppb, with the lower detection limit around 5 ppb. The fum-fcu-MOF sensor exhibits a highly desirable detection selectivity towards H2 S vs. CH4 , NO2 , H2 , and C7 H8 as well as an outstanding H2 S sensing stability as compared to other reported MOFs.

  13. Insights on Capacitive Interdigitated Electrodes Coated with MOF Thin Films: Humidity and VOCs Sensing as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapsanis, Christos; Omran, Hesham; Chernikova, Valeriya; Shekhah, Osama; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Buttner, Ulrich; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Salama, Khaled N

    2015-07-24

    A prototypical metal-organic framework (MOF), a 2D periodic porous structure based on the assembly of copper ions and benzene dicarboxylate (bdc) ligands (Cu(bdc)·xH2O), was grown successfully as a thin film on interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). IDEs have been used for achieving planar CMOS-compatible low-cost capacitive sensing structures for the detection of humidity and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Accordingly, the resultant IDEs coated with the Cu(bdc)·xH2O thin film was evaluated, for the first time, as a capacitive sensor for gas sensing applications. A fully automated setup, using LabVIEW interfaces to experiment conduction and data acquisition, was developed in order to measure the associated gas sensing performance.

  14. Insights on Capacitive Interdigitated Electrodes Coated with MOF Thin Films: Humidity and VOCs Sensing as a Case Study

    KAUST Repository

    Sapsanis, Christos

    2015-07-24

    A prototypical metal-organic framework (MOF), a 2D periodic porous structure based on the assembly of copper ions and benzene dicarboxylate (bdc) ligands (Cu(bdc)·xH2O), was grown successfully as a thin film on interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). IDEs have been used for achieving planar CMOS-compatible low-cost capacitive sensing structures for the detection of humidity and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Accordingly, the resultant IDEs coated with the Cu(bdc)·xH2O thin film was evaluated, for the first time, as a capacitive sensor for gas sensing applications. A fully automated setup, using LabVIEW interfaces to experiment conduction and data acquisition, was developed in order to measure the associated gas sensing performance.

  15. Direct Electrochemistry of Cytochrome c on EDTA-ZrO2 Organic-inorganic Hybrid Film Modified Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静娟; 彭影; 刘守清; 陈洪渊

    2004-01-01

    A composite film of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-ZrO2 organic-inorganic hybrid was prepared based on the chelation between Zr(Ⅳ) and EDTA. The direct electrochemical behavior of cytochrome c (cyt. c) at the hybrid film modified glassy carbon electrodes was investigated. The immobilized EDTA can promote the redox of heme in horse heart cyt. c which gives rise to a pair of reversible redox peaks with a formal potential of 40 mV (vs. SCE). The peak current increased linearly with the increase of cyt. c concentration in the range of 1.6 × 10-6_the electron transfer of cyt. c. The impediment capability of metal ions depends on their coordination capability with EDTA and their valence number.

  16. Insights on Capacitive Interdigitated Electrodes Coated with MOF Thin Films: Humidity and VOCs Sensing as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Sapsanis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A prototypical metal-organic framework (MOF, a 2D periodic porous structure based on the assembly of copper ions and benzene dicarboxylate (bdc ligands (Cu(bdc·xH2O, was grown successfully as a thin film on interdigitated electrodes (IDEs. IDEs have been used for achieving planar CMOS-compatible low-cost capacitive sensing structures for the detection of humidity and volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Accordingly, the resultant IDEs coated with the Cu(bdc·xH2O thin film was evaluated, for the first time, as a capacitive sensor for gas sensing applications. A fully automated setup, using LabVIEW interfaces to experiment conduction and data acquisition, was developed in order to measure the associated gas sensing performance.

  17. Bismuth ferrite as low-loss switchable material for plasmonic waveguide modulator

    OpenAIRE

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We propose new designs of plasmonic modulators, which can be utilized for dynamic signal switching in photonic integrated circuits. We study performance of plasmonic waveguide modulator with bismuth ferrite as an active material. The bismuth ferrite core is sandwiched between metal plates (metal-insulator-metal configuration), which also serve as electrodes so that the core changes its refractive index under applied voltage by means of partial in-plane to out-of-plane reorientation of ferroel...

  18. Layer-by-layer self-assembled mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films for platinum free dye-sensitized-solar-cell counter electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Koji; Shiratori, Seimei

    2011-05-13

    A thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT-PSS), which is an alternative cathodic catalyst for Pt in dye-sensitized solar cells, was prepared using the layer-by-layer self-assembly method (LbL). The film is highly adhesive to the substrate and has a controllable thickness. Therefore, the PEDOT-PSS film prepared using LbL is expected have high performance and durability as a counter electrode. Moreover, when carbon black was added to the PEDOT-PSS solution, highly mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films were obtained. These films showed high cathodic activity. In this study, we investigated the change in morphology in the obtained film with increasing carbon black content, and the influence of the porosity and thickness on the performance of the cells. In this study, a Pt-free counter electrode with performance similar to that of Pt-based counter electrodes was successfully fabricated. The achieved efficiency of 4.71% was only a factor of 8% lower than that of the cell using conventional thermally deposited Pt on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass counter electrodes.

  19. Fully solution processed PEDOT:PSS and silver nanowire semitransparent electrodes for thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaagensmith, Bjorn

    Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), such as semitransparent organic solar cells (OSC) for power generating windows, is a promising method for implementing renewable energy under the looming threat of depleting fossil fuels. OSC require a solution processed transparent electrode to be cost effective; but typically employ a non-solution processed indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrode. PEDOT:PSS and silver nanowire transparent electrodes have emerged as a promising alternative to ITO and are solution processed compatible. However, PEDOT:PSS requires a strong acid treatment, which is incompatible with high throughput solution processed fabrication techniques. Silver nanowires suffer from a short lifetime when subject to electrical stress. The goals of this work were to fabricate a PEDOT:PSS electrodes without using strong acids, a silver nanowire electrode with a lifetime that can exceed 6000 hours of constant electrical stress, and use these two electrodes to fabricate a semitransparent OSC. Exploring optimal solvent blend additives in conjunction with solvent bend post treatments for PEDOT:PSS electrodes could provide an acid free method that results in comparable sheet resistance and transmittance of ITO electrodes. Silver nanowires fail under electrical stress due to sulfur corrosion and Joule heating (which melts and breaks apart electrical contact). A silver oxide layer coating the nanowires could hinder sulfur corrosion and help redistribute heat. Moreover, nanowires with thicker diameters could also exhibit higher heat tolerance and take longer to corrode. Four layer PEDOT:PSS electrodes with optimal solvent blend additives and post treatments were fabricated by spin coating. Silver nanowire electrodes of varying nanowire diameter with and without UV-ozone treatment were fabricated by spray coating and subject to electrical stress of 20 mA/cm2 constant current density. PEDOT:PSS electrodes exhibited a sheet resistance of 80 O/□ and average

  20. Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on electrodeposition of zinc oxide nanoflowers onto carbon nanotubes film electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Ping Bai; Xu Xiao Lu; Guang Ming Yang; Yun Hui Yang

    2008-01-01

    A new amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide was developed based on adsorption of horseradish peroxidase at the glassy carbon electrode modified with zinc oxide nanoflowers produced by electrodeposition onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) firm. The morphology of the MWNTs/nano-ZnO electrode has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the electrochemical performance of the electrode has also been studied by amperometric method. The resulting electrode offered an excellent detection for hydrogen peroxide at -0.11 V with a linear response range of 9.9 × 10(-7) to 2.9 × 10(-3) mol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.991, and response time <5 s. The biosensor displays rapid response and expanded linear response range, and excellent stability.

  1. Li diffusion in LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} thin film electrodes prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Hui [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Lu Li [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)], E-mail: mpeluli@nus.edu.sg; Lai, M.O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2009-10-30

    Kinetic and transport parameters of Li ion during its extraction/insertion into thin film LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} free of binder and conductive additive were provided in this work. LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} thin film electrodes were grown on Au substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and post-annealed. The annealed films exhibit a pure layered phase with a high degree of crystallinity. Surface morphology and thin film thickness were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The charge/discharge behavior and rate capability of the thin film electrodes were investigated on Li/LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} cells at different current densities. The kinetics of Li diffusion in these thin film electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT). CV was measured between 2.5 and 4.5 V at different scan rates from 0.1 to 2 mV/s. The apparent chemical diffusion coefficients of Li in the thin film electrode were calculated to be 3.13 x 10{sup -13} cm{sup 2}/s for Li intercalation and 7.44 x 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}/s for Li deintercalation. The chemical diffusion coefficients of Li in the thin film electrode were determined to be in the range of 10{sup -12}-10{sup -16} cm{sup 2}/s at different cell potentials by GITT. It is found that the Li diffusivity is highly dependent on the cell potential.

  2. Low-temperature fabrication of TiO2 nanocrystalline film electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, G.; Lee, K.E.; Charboneau, C.; Demopoulos, G.P.; Gauvin, R. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Chimique

    2008-07-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have the potential to render solar energy widely accessible. The deposition of titania nano-crystalline powders on a substrate is an important step in the manufacture of the DSSC. The deposition forms a mesoporous thin film that is followed by thermal treatment and sensitization. Usually titania films are deposited on glass by screen printing and then annealed at temperatures as high as 530 degrees C to provide a good electrical contact between the semiconductor particles and crystallization of the anatase phase. Several research and development efforts have focused on the deposition of titania film on flexible plastic substrates that will simplify the whole manufacturing process in terms of flexibility, weight, application and cost. Lower temperature processing is needed for the preparation of plastic-based titania film electrodes, but this has proven to be counterproductive when it comes to the cell's conversion efficiency. This paper presented a comprehensive evaluation of the different coating and annealing techniques at low temperature as well as important processing factors for improvement. To date, these techniques include pressing, hydrothermal process, electrodeposition, electrophoretic deposition, microwave or UV irradiation, and lift-off technique.

  3. The development of chloride ion selective polypyrrole thin film on a layer-by-layer carbon nanotube working electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Lynch, Jerome

    2011-04-01

    A chloride ion selective thin film sensor is proposed for measuring chloride ion concentration, which is an environmental parameter correlated to corrosion. In this work, electrochemical polymerization of Polypyrrole (PPy) doped with chloride ions was achieved on the top of a carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film as a working electrode in an electrochemical cell. The underlying CNT layer conjugated with doped PPy thin film can form a multifunctional "selfsensing" material platform for chloride ion detection in a concrete environment. The paper presents the first type of work using CNT and PPy as hybrid materials for chloride ion sensing. Electrochemical polymerization of PPy results in oxidation that yields an average of one positive charge distributed over four pyrrole units. This positive charge is compensated by negatively-charged chloride ions in the supporting electrolyte. In effect, the chloride ion-doped PPy has become molecularly imprinted with chloride ions thereby providing it with some degree of perm-selectivity for chloride ions. The detection limit of the fabricated chloride ion-doped PPy thin film can reach 10-8 M and selectivity coefficients are comparable to those in the literature. The reported work aims to lay a strong foundation for detecting chloride ion concentrations in the concrete environment.

  4. Amorphous MoSx thin-film-coated carbon fiber paper as a 3D electrode for long cycle life symmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasingam, Suresh Kannan; Thirumurugan, Arun; Lee, Jae Sung; Jun, Yongseok

    2016-06-01

    Amorphous MoSx thin-film-coated carbon fiber paper as a binder-free 3D electrode was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The maximum specific capacitance of a single electrode was 83.9 mF cm-2, while it was 41.9 mF cm-2 for the symmetric device. Up to 600% capacitance retention was observed for 4750 cycles.Amorphous MoSx thin-film-coated carbon fiber paper as a binder-free 3D electrode was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The maximum specific capacitance of a single electrode was 83.9 mF cm-2, while it was 41.9 mF cm-2 for the symmetric device. Up to 600% capacitance retention was observed for 4750 cycles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C6NR01200K

  5. Simple in-situ growth of layered Ni3S2 thin film electrode for the development of high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Fengzhen; Jiang, Dan; Chen, Xinman; Pan, Xuexue; Kuang, Liping; Zhang, Yong; Alameh, Kamal; Ding, Baofu

    2017-03-01

    A novel Ni3S2 film, comprising interconnected nanoparticles, on Ni foam is synthesized by using a simple one-step hydrothermal approach. The Ni3S2 film electrode exhibits excellent pseudocapacitor characteristics, 1) a huge specific capacitance up to 2230 F g-1 attained at a current density of 5 mA cm-2, and 2) a nearly perfect retention rate of 91% at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 after 3000 cycles. These experimentally demonstrated that the special nanoparticle-interconnected structure in conjunction with the high-performance electrode characteristics, make the Ni3S2 film electrode an attractive and competitive candidate for the development of advanced high-efficiency electrochemical energy storage devices.

  6. THORIUM DISPERSION IN BISMUTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, J.S.

    1961-07-01

    The growth of thorium bismutaide particles, which are formed when thorium is suspended in liquid bismuth, is inhibited when the liquid metal suspension is being flowed through a reactor and through a heat exchanger in sequence. It involves the addition of as little as 1 part by weight of tellurium to 100 parts of thorium. This addition is sufficient to inhibit particle growth and agglomeration.

  7. Layered bismuth vanadate ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipyan, V.G.; Savchenko, L.M.; Elbakyan, V.L.; Avakyan, P.B.

    1987-08-01

    The authors synthesize new layered bismuth vanadate ferroelectrics. The x-ray diffraction characteristics of Bi/sub 2/VO/sub 5.5/ are shown. Thermal expansion of ceramics with various compositions are presented, as are the temperature dependences of the dielectric constant of the ceramic with various compositions. Unit-cell parameters, Curie temperature, electrical conductivity and the dielectric characteristics of the compositions studied are shown.

  8. Photoreactive and Metal-Platable Copolymer Inks for High-Throughput, Room-Temperature Printing of Flexible Metal Electrodes for Thin-Film Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, You; Xiao, Xiang; Zhang, Yaokang; Li, Kan; Yan, Casey; Wei, Xiaoling; Chen, Lina; Zhen, Hongyu; Zhou, Hang; Zhang, Shengdong; Zheng, Zijian

    2016-06-01

    Photoreactive and metal-platable copolymer inks are reported for the first time to allow high-throughput printing of high-performance flexible electrodes at room temperature. This new copolymer ink accommodates various types of printing technologies, such as soft lithography molding, screen printing, and inkjet printing. Electronic devices including resistors, sensors, solar cells, and thin-film transistors fabricated with these printed electrodes show excellent electrical performance and mechanical flexibility.

  9. Direct electrochemistry of horseradish peroxidase on Nafion/[bmim]PF(6)/agarose composite film modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Da-He; Sun, Jun-Yong; Huang, Ke-Jing

    2010-03-01

    A new strategy to construct electrochemical biosensor for direct electrochemistry of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) based on Nafion, agarose hydrogel and hydrophobic room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim]PF(6)) composite as sensing platform has been described. [bmim]PF(6) has good conductivity and wide electrochemical windows and agarose can maintain biological activity well. Nafion/[bmim]PF(6)/agarose composite combines the advantages of [bmim]PF(6) and agarose. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to characterize the composite film, showing that the composite film could be effectively constructed on the GCE surface and greatly enhance the electron transfer between HRP and electrode. The factors influencing the performance of the resulting biosensor were studied in detail. The biosensor responded to H(2)O(2) in the linear range from 2x10(-6) to 1.6x10(-4)M with a detection limit of 1.2x10(-7)M (based on the S/N=3). The studied biosensor exhibited good accuracy and high sensitivity. Moreover, the proposed method was economical and efficient.

  10. Multilayer Films Electrodes Consisted of Cashew Gum and Polyaniline Assembled by the Layer-by-Layer Technique: Electrochemical Characterization and Its Use for Dopamine Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bitencourt Araújo Barros

    2012-01-01

    with PANI or PANI-PA intercalated with CG or with PVS alternately resulting in four films with different sequences: PANI/CG PANI-PA/CG, PANI/PVS and PANI-PA/PVS, respectively. Analysis by cyclic voltammetry (CV of the films showed that the presence of gum increases the stability of the films in acidic medium. The performance of the modified electrode of PANI-PA/CG was evaluated in electro analytical determination of dopamine (DA. The tests showed great sensitivity of the film for this analyte that was detected at 10−5 mol L−1.

  11. Enhancement of photocatalytic activity of TiO2 film electrode by in situ photoelectro-generating active chlorine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The photoelectrocatalytic activity of TiO2 film electrodes in the degradation of nitrite ion was greatly enhanced in the presence of chlorine ion. The influences of NaCl concentration and initial pH value on the degradation rate of NO2- and active chlorine production were studied. The results show that the decay rate of NO2- and the accumulation rate of active chlorine increase with increasing NaCl concentration. At pH<8, both the decay of NO2- and active chlorine formation rates are enhanced with increasing NaCl concentration, while at pH> 10, they are suppressed. In addition, contrast to conventionally accepted view, in which an advantage of anatase over the rutile modification of TiO2 is in terms of photoactivity, it is found that a thermal oxidation rutile TiO2 electrode is more suitable for both photogenerating active chlorine and degrading NO2- in the presence of Cl-. The correlative mechanism was also discussed in detail. Specific adsorption of Cl- on the electrode causes its energy band edges to move towards positive value and also lower the photocurrent,thus less OH· radicals are produced. However,more active species of Cl· that have longer lifetime are available to take part in the oxidation of NO2-, thus improving its degradation rate.

  12. Peroxynitrite Sensor Based on a Screen Printed Carbon Electrode Modified with a Poly(2,6-dihydroxynaphthalene Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Silvia Hosu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the electropolymerization of 2,6-dihydroxynaphthalene (2,6-DHN on a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE was investigated and evaluated for peroxynitrite (PON detection. Cyclic voltammetry was used to electrodeposit the poly(2,6-DHN on the carbon electrode surface. The surface morphology and structure of poly(2,6-DHN film were investigated by SEM and FTIR analysis, and the electrochemical features by cyclic voltammetry. The poly(2,6-DHN/SPCE sensor showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for PON oxidation in alkaline solutions at very low potentials (0–100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl pseudoreference. An amperometric FIA (flow injection analysis system based on the developed sensor was optimized for PON measurements and a linear concentration range from 2 to 300 μM PON, with a LOD of 0.2 μM, was achieved. The optimized sensor inserted in the FIA system exhibited good sensitivity (4.12 nA·μM−1, selectivity, stability and intra-/inter-electrode reproducibility for PON determination.

  13. Determination of Antimony (III in Real Samples by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using a Mercury Film Screen-Printed Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Domínguez-Renedo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a procedure for the determination of antimony (III by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a mercury film screen-printed electrode as the working electrode. The procedure has been optimized using experimental design methodology. Under these conditions, in terms of Residual Standard Deviation (RSD, the repeatability (3.81 % and the reproducibility (5.07 % of the constructed electrodes were both analyzed. The detection limit for Sb (III was calculated at a value of 1.27×10–8 M. The linear range obtained was between 0.99 × 10–8 – 8.26 × 10–8 M. An analysis of possible effects due to the presence of foreign ions in the solution was performed and the procedure was successfully applied to the determination of antimony levels in pharmaceutical preparations and sea water samples.

  14. Electrochemical Performance of rf Magnetron Sputtered LiCoO2 Thin Film Positive Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P. Jeevan; Babu, K. Jayanth; Hussain, O. M.

    2010-12-01

    Thin films of LiCoO2 were grown by rf magnetron sputtering technique and studied the influence of In situ annealing treatment on microstructural and electrochemical properties of the films. Annealing treatment in presence of O2 ambient develops characteristic (104) plan in relative to (003) plane texture indicating that the films have HT-layered structure with R3¯m symmetry. The effect is discussed in terms of grain size, cycling stability, reversibility and the specific discharge capacity.

  15. Properties of RF-Sputtered PZT Thin Films with Ti/Pt Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of annealing temperature and thin film thickness on properties of Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47O3 (PZT thin film deposited via radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique onto Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate was investigated. Average grain sizes of the PZT thin film were measured by atomic force microscope; their preferred orientation was studied through X-ray diffraction analysis. Average residual stress in the thin film was estimated according to the optimized Stoney formula, and impedance spectroscopy characterization was performed via an intelligent LCR measuring instrument. Average grain sizes of PZT thin films were 60 nm~90 nm and their average roughness was less than 2 nm. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, 600°C is the optimal annealing temperature to obtain the PZT thin film with better crystallization. Average residual stress showed that thermal mismatch was the decisive factor of residual stress in Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate; the residual stress in PZT thin film decreased as their thickness increased and increased with annealing temperature. The dielectric constant and loss angle tangent were extremely increased with the thickness of PZT thin films. The capacitance of the device can be adjusted according to the thickness of PZT thin films.

  16. Bismuth toxicity in patients treated with bismuth iodoform paraffin packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, A; Cousin, G C S

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth is a heavy metal used in bismuth iodoform paraffin paste (BIPP) antiseptic dressings and in a number of other medical preparations. It can be absorbed systemically and cause toxicity. We report 2 cases of such neurotoxicity after it was used in operations on the jaws.

  17. Tribochemistry of Bismuth and Bismuth Salts for Solid Lubrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, P.; Nieuwenhuijzen, van den K.J.H.; Lette, W.; Schipper, D.J.; Elshof, ten J.E.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main trends in the past decades is the reduction of wastage and the replacement of toxic compounds in industrial processes. Some soft metallic particles can be used as nontoxic solid lubricants in high-temperature processes. The behavior of bismuth metal particles, bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3)

  18. A novel and simple electrochemical sensor for electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite and oxidation of phenylhydrazine based on poly (o-anisidine) film using ionic liquid carbon paste electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojani, Reza, E-mail: fer-o@umz.ac.ir [Electroanalytical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raoof, Jahan-Bakhsh; Zamani, Saeed [Electroanalytical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    In this study, nitrite electroreduction and phenylhydrazine electrooxidation were investigated on poly(o-anisidine) formed by cyclic voltammetry at the surface of ionic liquid carbon paste electrode. The films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and were contrasted with poly(o-anisidine) prepared under identical conditions in the absence of ionic liquid in carbon paste electrode. This carbon paste modified electrode exhibits a good electrocatalytic capability (via an EC’ mechanism) for both electrooxidation and electroreduction of some important molecules. The obtained results showed that the catalytic oxidation peak currents of phenylhydrazine and catalytic reduction peak currents of nitrite at the surface of this simple (unfunctionalized) polymeric electrode were linearly dependent on their concentrations. Electrode was successfully applied for determination of nitrite and phenylhydrazine in real samples.

  19. Influence of molybdenum source/drain electrode contact resistance in amorphous zinc–tin-oxide (a-ZTO) thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dong-Suk; Kang, Yu-Jin; Park, Jae-Hyung [Department of Nanoscale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seoungdong-ku, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyung-Tag [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seoungdong-ku, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Wan, E-mail: jwpark@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seoungdong-ku, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We developed and investigated source/drain electrodes in oxide TFTs. • The Mo S/D electrodes showed good output characteristics. • Intrinsic TFT parameters were calculated by the transmission line method. - Abstract: This paper investigates the feasibility of a low-resistivity electrode material (Mo) for source/drain (S/D) electrodes in thin film transistors (TFTs). The effective resistances between Mo source/drain electrodes and amorphous zinc–tin-oxide (a-ZTO) thin film transistors were studied. Intrinsic TFT parameters were calculated by the transmission line method (TLM) using a series of TFTs with different channel lengths measured at a low source/drain voltage. The TFTs fabricated with Mo source/drain electrodes showed good transfer characteristics with a field-effect mobility of 10.23 cm{sup 2}/V s. In spite of slight current crowding effects, the Mo source/drain electrodes showed good output characteristics with a steep rise in the low drain-to-source voltage (V{sub DS}) region.

  20. Characterisation and Modelling of Meshed Electrodes on Free Standing Polyvilylidene Difluoride (PVDF) Films for Enhanced Pyroelectric Energy Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabek, Daniel; Taylor, John; Bowen, Chris

    2016-09-05

    Flexible pyroelectric energy generators provide unique features for harvesting temperature fluctuations which can be effectively enhanced using meshed electrodes that improve thermal conduction, convection and radiation into the pyroelectric. In this paper, thermal radiation energy is continuously harvested with pyroelectric free standing Polyvilylidene Difluoride (PVDF) films over a large number of heat heat cycles using a novel micro-sized symmetrical patterned meshed electrode. It is shown that, for the meshed electrode geometries considered in this work, the polarisation-field (P-E), current-field (I-E) characteristics and device capacitance are unaffected since the fringing fields were generally small; this is verified using numerical simulations and comparison with experimental measurements. The use of meshed electrodes has been shown to significantly improve both the open circuit voltage (16 V to 59 V) and closed-circuit current (9 nA to 32 nA). The pyroelectric alternating current (AC) is rectified for direct current (DC) storage and 30% reduction in capacitor charging time is achieved by using the optimum meshed electrodes. The use of meshed electrodes on ferroelectric materials provides an innovative route to improve their performance in applications such as wearable devices, novel flexible sensors and large scale pyroelectric energy harvesters.hese instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for IEEE Transactions and Journals. Use this document as a template if you are using Microsoft Word 6.0 or later. Otherwise, use this document as an instruction set. The electronic file of your paper will be formatted further at IEEE. Paper titles should be written in uppercase and lowercase letters, not all uppercase. Avoid writing long formulas with subscripts in the title; short formulas that identify the elements are fine (e.g., "Nd-Fe-B"). Do not write "(Invited)" in the title. Full names of authors are preferred in the author field, but are not

  1. Chemical synthesis of α-La{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film as an advanced electrode material for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, S.J.; Kumbhar, V.S.; Patil, B.H.; Bulakhe, R.N.; Lokhande, C.D., E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com

    2014-10-25

    Highlights: • The simple, chemical method used for synthesis of lanthanum sulphide thin films. • The lanthanum sulphide thin film surface exhibited porous microstructure. • The lanthanum sulphide thin film electrode is used for supercapacitor application. - Abstract: α-La{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films have been synthesized for the first time by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and used for supercapacitor application. These films are characterized for crystal structure, surface morphology and wettability studies using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements. The electrochemical supercapacitive performance of α-La{sub 2}S{sub 3} electrode is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. From the electrochemical study, it is seen that α-La{sub 2}S{sub 3} electrode delivers high specific capacitance of 256 F g{sup −1} at scan rate of 5 mV s{sup −1} with cycling stability of 85% over 1000 cycles. Such La{sub 2}S{sub 3} electrode has great application in supercapacitor device for energy storage.

  2. Influence of substrate temperature on structural and optical properties of bismuth oxide thin films deposited by close-spaced vacuum sublimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchenko, M. M.; Buryk, I. P.; Latyshev, V. M.; Stepanenko, A. O.; Levchenko, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    Bi2O3 thin films were deposited on ultrasonically-cleaned glass and mica substrates by close-spaced vacuum sublimation technique. Films surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Structural study based on the transmission-electron microscopy (TEM) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis has been shown that deposited films were polycrystalline with face-centered cubic structure. Optical study was carried out by spectral photometry analysis in the wavelengths range λ = 320-900 nm using the optical transmittance and absorbance measurements. For determination optical band gap Eg the Tauc plot was used and the band gap energy Eg is determined in the range of 3.50-3.62 eV, respectively. Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) analysis shown that obtained films are well-crystalline and have a good optical quality.

  3. Sol-gel spin coated well adhered MoO3 thin films as an alternative counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutta, Geeta R.; Popuri, Srinivasa R.; Wilson, John I. B.; Bennett, Nick S.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we aim to develop a viable, inexpensive and non-toxic material for counter electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We employed an ultra-simple synthesis process to deposit MoO3 thin films at low temperature by sol-gel spin coating technique. These MoO3 films showed good transparency. It is predicted that there will be 150 times reduction of precursors cost by realizing MoO3 thin films as a counter electrode in DSSCs compared to commercial Pt. We achieved a device efficiency of about 20 times higher than that of the previous reported values. In summary we develop a simple low cost preparation of MoO3 films with an easily scaled up process along with good device efficiency. This work encourages the development of novel and relatively new materials and paves the way for massive reduction of industrial costs which is a prime step for commercialization of DSSCs.

  4. Interfacial reaction and electrical properties of HfO2 film gate dielectric prepared by pulsed laser deposition in nitrogen: role of rapid thermal annealing and gate electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Hao; Ye, Cong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Hanbin; Jiang, Yong

    2011-10-01

    The high-k dielectric HfO(2) thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition in nitrogen atmosphere. Rapid thermal annealing effect on film surface roughness, structure and electrical properties of HfO(2) film was investigated. The mechanism of interfacial reaction and the annealing atmosphere effect on the interfacial layer thickness were discussed. The sample annealed in nitrogen shows an amorphous dominated structure and the lowest leakage current density. Capacitors with high-k HfO(2) film as gate dielectric were fabricated, using Pt, Au, and Ti as the top gate electrode whereas Pt constitutes the bottom side electrode. At the gate injection case, the Pt- and Au-gated metal oxide semiconductor devices present a lower leakage current than that of the Ti-gated device, as well as similar leakage current conduction mechanism and interfacial properties at the metal/HfO(2) interface, because of their close work function and chemical properties.

  5. Annealing of RuO 2 and Ru Bottom Electrodes and Its Effects on the Electrical Properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joon-Hyung; Choi, Won-Youl; Lee, Won-Jae; Kim, Ho-Gi

    1998-01-01

    Crystalline structures and surface morphologies of annealed RuO2 and Ru thin films were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The annealing was performed in oxygen and argon ambient and high vacuum in the temperature range of 400 800° C. In oxygen ambient annealing, the surface morphology was drastically changed due to the evaporation of ruthenium dioxides in the form of RuO3 and RuO4. Annealed RuO2 thin film in vacuum was reduced to the Ru metal phase. The actual variation of RuO2 bottom electrodes during the deposition of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST) thin films and the effects of the thermal stability of bottom electrodes on electrical properties of BST thin films deposited on RuO2/SiO2/Si were also investigated.

  6. Fabrication of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles/surfactant polymer complex film on glassy carbon electrode and its application to sensing trace dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Shuai [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen Wanhua [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu Shengshui [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: sshu@whu.edu.cn

    2005-06-15

    A novel method for the fabrication of a TiO{sub 2}/Nafion nano-film on glassy carbon electrode (NTGCE) is described. In the presence of dispersant, TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were dispersed into water to give a homogeneous and stable suspension. After the solvent evaporation, a porous and uniform TiO{sub 2} nano-film was obtained on the GCE surface. Further coated with Nafion, the complex film possesses remarkable stability in aqueous solution. This nano-film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The prepared electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic behavior of dopamine and high concentration of ascorbic acid does not interfere with the dopamine detection. Based on this, an electrochemical method is developed for the determination of dopamine with simplicity and high sensitivity.

  7. Glass-like carbon, pyrolytic graphite or nanostructured carbon for electrochemical sensing of bismuth ion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Milikić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Different carbon electrodes were explored for application in electroanalysis, namely for sensing of bismuth ion as model analyte. Carbon materials tested included glassy carbon, basal and edge plane pyrolytic graphite, as well as nanostructured carbonized polyaniline prepared in the presence of 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid. Bismuth ion was chosen as model analyte as protocol for its detection and quantifications is still to be determined. Herein, anodic stripping voltammetry was used with study of effect of several parameters such as scan rate and deposition time. Electrode based on carbonized polyaniline showed the highest activity for bismuth ion sensing in terms of the highest current densities recorded both in a laboratory and in real sample, while basal plane pyrolytic graphite electrode gave the lowest limit of detection.

  8. Strong red emission and electrical properties of highly c-axis oriented Eu{sup 3+}-doped bismuth vanadate ferroelectric thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wei; Su, Li; Sa, Tongliang; Fu, Jianhui; Hu, Wei; Qin, Ni; Bao, Dinghua, E-mail: stsbdh@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2014-12-15

    Highly c-axis oriented Bi{sub 2−x}Eu{sub x}VO{sub 5.5} (x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20) thin films were prepared on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si and fused silica substrates by using chemical solution deposition method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and optical and electrical measurements. Under 356 nm UV irradiation, a bright red photoluminescence can be observed in the thin films with x = 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20. The emission spectra included two strong peaks which originated from {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 1} (595 nm) and {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} (619 nm) transitions of Eu{sup 3+} ions. With increasing Eu{sup 3+}-doping content x, the dielectric dispersion weakened, and dielectric loss decreased. Eu{sup 3+} doping can also decrease the leakage current of the thin films. These results demonstrate that Bi{sub 2−x}Eu{sub x}VO{sub 5.5} thin films are a kind of multifunctional material with potential applications in luminescent ferroelectric devices. - Highlights: • c-axis oriented Bi{sub 2−x}Eu{sub x}VO{sub 5.5} films were prepared by chemical solution deposition. • The thin films show bright red emission. • Eu{sup 3+}-doping leads to weakened dielectric dispersion and decreased dielectric loss. • The thin films have potential applications in luminescent ferroelectric devices.

  9. Digital simulation of chronoamperometry at a disk electrode under a flat polymer film containing an enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britz, Dieter; Strutwolf, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Current-time and steady state current behaviour were simulated for an ultramicrodisk electrode (UMDE) inlaid flush with an insulating plane and overlaid by a flat film of polymer containing an enzyme, of various film thicknesses and essentially infinite extent. Steady state currents go through a maxim...

  10. ITO electrode modified by self-assembling multilayer film of polyoxometallate on poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers and its electrocatalytic behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan Yuping [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Yang Guocheng [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Sun Yongling [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Pang Shujie [Key Lab of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Gong Jian [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)], E-mail: gongj823@nenu.edu.cn; Su Zhongmin; Qu Lunyu [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2007-12-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofiber mats were collected on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate by electrospinning method. A multilayer film composed of {alpha}-[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}]{sup 6-} (abbr. P{sub 2}W{sub 18}), a polyoxometallate (POM) anion, and poly(diallymethylammonium chloride) (abbr. PDDA) was fabricated by layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique on the PVA/ITO electrode. The PDDA/P{sub 2}W{sub 18} multilayer film could be unselectively or selectively deposited on the PVA/ITO electrode via changing the amount of PVA nanofibers on the ITO substrate. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that when the electrospun time was short the PDDA/P{sub 2}W{sub 18} multilayer film was unselectively deposited on PVA nanofiber mats because the amount of PVA nanofibers was too little to cover most of the ITO substrate. However, when the electrospun time was long enough, the PDDA/P{sub 2}W{sub 18} multilayer film was selectively deposited on PVA nanofiber mats because of the larger surface area and higher surface energy of PVA nanofibers in comparison with the flat ITO substrate. Growth process of the multilayer film was determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Electrocatalytic effects of the PDDA/P{sub 2}W{sub 18} multilayer film unselectively and selectively deposited on the PVA/ITO electrode on NO{sub 2}{sup -} were observed.

  11. ITO electrode modified by self-assembling multilayer film of polyoxometallate on poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers and its electrocatalytic behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Yuping; Sun, Yongling; Gong, Jian; Su, Zhongmin; Qu, Lunyu [Northeast Normal University, Changchun (China). Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education; Yang, Guocheng [Northeast Normal University, Changchun (China). Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education; Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China). State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry; Pang, Shujie [Jilin University, Changchun (China). College of Chemistry, Key Lab of Supramolecular Structure and Materials

    2007-12-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofiber mats were collected on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate by electrospinning method. A multilayer film composed of {alpha}-[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}]{sup 6-} (abbr. P{sub 2}W{sub 18}), a polyoxometallate (POM) anion, and poly(diallymethylammonium chloride) (abbr. PDDA) was fabricated by layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique on the PVA/ITO electrode. The PDDA/P{sub 2}W{sub 18} multilayer film could be unselectively or selectively deposited on the PVA/ITO electrode via changing the amount of PVA nanofibers on the ITO substrate. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that when the electrospun time was short the PDDA/P{sub 2}W{sub 18} multilayer film was unselectively deposited on PVA nanofiber mats because the amount of PVA nanofibers was too little to cover most of the ITO substrate. However, when the electrospun time was long enough, the PDDA/P{sub 2}W{sub 18} multilayer film was selectively deposited on PVA nanofiber mats because of the larger surface area and higher surface energy of PVA nanofibers in comparison with the flat ITO substrate. Growth process of the multilayer film was determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Electrocatalytic effects of the PDDA/P{sub 2}W{sub 18} multilayer film unselectively and selectively deposited on the PVA/ITO electrode on NO{sub 2}{sup -} were observed. (author)

  12. Electrochemical performance and kinetic behavior of lithium ion in Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} thin film electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jianqiu, E-mail: jqdeng2003@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Lu, Zhouguang; Chung, C.Y. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Han, Xiaodong [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China); Wang, Zhongmin; Zhou, Huaiying [School of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} thin film electrodes show favorable specific capacities and cycle performance. • The chemical diffusion coefficients are in a range of 10{sup −15} to 10{sup −12} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1}. • The dependence of R{sub ct} on cell voltage is explained by two-phase transition. - Abstract: Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} thin film electrodes are successfully deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The microstructure and morphology of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} thin films are characterized by XRD and ESEM. The electrochemical properties of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} thin film electrodes are evaluated by galvanostatic cycling test. The kinetic behavior of lithium ions in Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} thin film electrodes is also conducted using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} thin film electrodes show favorable specific capacities and cycle performance. The chemical diffusion coefficients are found to be in a range of 10{sup −15} to 10{sup −12} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1} determined by GITT method. The kinetic parameters obtained from impedance spectra as a function of the cell voltage are investigated in details. The decrease of the charge-transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) can be explained by the two-phase transition during lithium insertion into Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}.

  13. Oxide sandwiched metal thin-film electrodes for long-term stable organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Sylvio; Hermenau, Martin; Meiss, Jan; Mueller-Meskamp, Lars; Leo, Karl [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, George-Baehr Strasse 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-12-05

    Oxide/silver/oxide multilayers as semitransparent top electrode for small molecule organic solar cells (OSCs) are presented. It is shown that two oxide layers sandwiching a central metal layer greatly improve the stability and lifetime of the organic solar cell. Thermally evaporated MoO{sub 3}, WO{sub 3}, or V{sub 2}O{sub 5} layers are employed as an interlayer for subsequent silver deposition and significantly change the morphology of the ultrathin silver layer, improving charge extraction and electrodes series resistance. The transmittance of the electrode is increased by introducing oxide or oxide and organic multilayers as capping layer, which leads to higher photocurrent generation in the absorber layer. Application of 1 nm MoO{sub 3}/11 nm Ag/10 nm MoO{sub 3}/50 nm Alq{sub 3} multilayer electrodes in OSCs lead to an efficiency of 2.6% for a standard ZnPc:C60 cell, showing superior performance compared to devices with pure silver top contacts. The device lifetime is also strongly increased. MoO{sub 3} layers can saturate and stabilize the inner and outer metal surface, passivating it against most of the degradation mechanisms. With such an oxide/silver/oxide multilayer electrode, the time until the glass encapsulated OSC is degraded to 80% of its starting efficiency is enhanced from 86 h to approximately 4500 h compared to an OSC without an oxide interlayer. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Nanopatterned conductive polymer films as a Pt, TCO-free counter electrode for low-cost dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong; Ganapathy, Veerappan; Kim, Young Hun; Song, Kyung-Deok; Park, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Yongseok; Yoo, Pil J; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-09-07

    A low-cost nanopatterned highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin film was fabricated on a flexible plastic substrate via a chemical polymerization method combined with a nanoimprinting technique and used as a platinum (Pt), TCO-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The catalytic properties of the nanopatterned PEDOT as the counter electrode in DSSCs were studied using cyclic voltammetry, J-V measurements, impedance spectroscopy, and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. The nanopatterned PEDOT counter electrodes exhibit better functionality as a counter electrode for tri-iodide reduction when compared to non-patterned PEDOT-based counter electrodes. The Pt and TCO-free DSSCs with a nanopatterned PEDOT-based counter electrode exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 7.1% under one sunlight illumination (100 mW cm(-2)), which is comparable to that of conventional DSSCs with standard platinum Pt/FTO paired counter electrodes. The ability to modulate catalytic functionality with changes in nanoscale morphology represents a promising route for developing new counter electrodes of Pt and TCO-free DSSCs.

  15. Bismuth(V) oxide and silver bismuthate as oxidizing agents for gas-chromatographic elemental microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvykin, A.Y.; Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.P.; Chilachava, K.B.; Khmarin, E.M.; Kovtun, I.V. [Tolstoy State Pedag University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Bismuth(V) oxide, silver bismuthate, and a mixture of bismuth(V) oxide with fine silver powder were studied as oxidizing additives in gas-chromatographic elemental microanalysis of readily combustible organic substances and coal.

  16. Photoelectrocatalytic Degradation of Humic Acids Using Codoped TiO2 Film Electrodes under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu/N codoped TiO2 films on Ti substrates were successfully prepared by electrochemical method with the goal of enhancing the photoelectrocatalytic activity under visible light. The morphology and composition of the Cu/N codoped films were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, and UV-Vis diffusion reflection spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS. The photocatalytic activities of the Cu/N codoped TiO2 films were evaluated by the degradation of humic acid. The visible light photocatalytic degradation of humic acid (HA was tested and Cu/N codoped TiO2 films showed the highest degradation efficiency up to 41.5% after 210 minutes of treatment. It showed that Cu2+ and NH4+ codoped TiO2 film significantly improved the photocatalytic efficiency under the visible light. When +5.0 V anodic bias potential and visible light were simultaneously applied, the degradation efficiency of HA over the Cu/N codoped TiO2 films significantly improved to 93.5% after 210 minutes of treatment.

  17. Bismuth ochers from San Diego Co., California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, W.T.

    1911-01-01

    The chief points brought out in this paper may be briefly summarized as follows: (1) The existence of natural Bi2O3 has not been established. (2) Natural bismite or bismuth ocher, when pure, is more probably a bismuth hydroxide. (3) The bismuth ochers from San Diego County, California, are either a bismuth hydroxide or bismuth vanadate, pucherite, or mixtures of these two. (4) Pucherite has been found noncrystallin and determined for the first time in the United States.

  18. Synthesis of chitin nanofibers, MWCNTs and MnO2 nanoflakes 3D porous network flexible gel-film for high supercapacitive performance electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengnan; Li, Dagang

    2017-03-01

    As the porous structure and conductivity result in improvement of electrochemical properties, the chitin nanofibers (ChNFs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and MnO2 (manganese dioxide) nanoflakes 3D porous network core-shell structure gel-film was fabricated for flexible free-standing supercapacitor electrodes. The electrodes were characterized by various techniques and the results demonstrate that the as-synthesized ChNFs/MWCNTs/MnO2 gel-film electrodes exhibits excellent supercapacitive behaviours. The ChNFs/MWCNTs/MnO2 gel-film electrode shows a high capacitance of 295.2 mF/cm2 at 0.1 mA/cm2 in 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte because of its 3D porous structure. Furthermore, the electrodes also showed surprising cycling stability for 5000 cycles with retention rate up to 157.14% at 1 mA/cm2. The data presents great promise in the application of high-performance flexible supercapacitors with the low cost, light-weight and excellent cycling ability.

  19. Facile fabrication of sub-100 nm mesoscale inverse opal films and their application in dye-sensitized solar cell electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Woo; Lee, Jaemin; Kim, Cheolho; Cho, Chang-Yeol; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2014-10-28

    Inverse opal (IO) films with mesoporous structures hold promise as high-performance electrodes for various photoelectrochemical devices because of their high specific area as well as their fully connected pore structure. A great challenge to their use is obtaining an intact film of mesoscale colloidal crystals as a template. Here, using the plate-sliding coating method coupled with hot air flow, we successfully deposited mesoscale colloidal crystals onto the substrate. A TiO2 mesoscale IO (meso-IO) with 70 nm pores was then successfully fabricated via atomic layer deposition of TiO2 and subsequent removal of the template. As a photoelectrochemical electrode, the meso-IO structure exhibits enhanced charge transport properties as well as a high specific area. Moreover, dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated using the meso-IO electrode exhibit a higher photocurrent and cell efficiency than a cell constructed using a conventional TiO2 nanoparticle electrode. This meso-IO film provides a new platform for developing electrodes for use in various energy storage and conversion devices.

  20. Composite films of carbon black nanoparticles and sulfonated-polythiophene as flexible counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ting; Lee, Chi-Ta; Li, Sie-Rong; Lee, Chuan-Pei; Chiu, I.-Ting; Vittal, R.; Wu, Nae-Lih; Sun, Shih-Sheng; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    A composite film based on carbon black nanoparticles and sulfonated-poly(thiophene-3-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]-2,5-diyl) (CB-NPs/s-PT) is formed on a flexible titanium foil for the use as the electro-catalytic counter electrode (CE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The CB-NPs provide the large amount of electro-catalytic active sites for the composite film, and the s-PT polymer serves as a conductive binder to enhance the inter-particle linkage among CB-NPs and to improve the adhesion between the composite film and the flexible substrate. The flexible CB-NPs/s-PT composite film is designed to possess good electro-catalytic ability for I-/I3- redox couple by providing large active sites and rapid reduction kinetic rate constant of I3- . The cell with a CB-NPs/s-PT CE exhibits a good cell efficiency (η) of 9.02 ± 0.01% at 100 mW cm-2, while the cell with a platinum CE shows an η of only 8.36 ± 0.02% under the same conditions. At weak light illuminations (20-80 mW cm-2), a DSSC with CB-NPs/s-PT CE still exhibits η's of 7.20 ± 0.04-9.08 ± 0.02%. The low-cost CB-NPs/s-PT CE not only renders high cell efficiency to its DSSC but also shows a great potential to replace the expensive platinum; moreover it is suitable for large-scale production or for indoor applications.

  1. Comparison of Ultrasonic Welding and Thermal Bonding for the Integration of Thin Film Metal Electrodes in Injection Molded Polymeric Lab-on-Chip Systems for Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteucci, Marco; Heiskanen, Arto; Zor, Kinga

    2016-01-01

    We compare ultrasonic welding (UW) and thermal bonding (TB) for the integration of embedded thin-film gold electrodes for electrochemical applications in injection molded (IM) microfluidic chips. The UW bonded chips showed a significantly superior electrochemical performance compared to the ones...

  2. Electrochemical determination of sulphide at multi-walled carbon nanotubes-dihexadecyl hydrogen phosphate composite film modified electrodes based on in situ synthesis of methylene blue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Min Xiang; Li Zhou; Cheng Guo Hu; Sheng Shui Hu

    2008-01-01

    A novel electrochemical method for the determination of sulphide at a multi-walled carbon nanotube-dihexadecyl hydrogenphosphate composite film coated glassy carbon electrode (MWNTs-DHP/GCE) based on in situ synthesis of methylene blue (MB)was established.

  3. Title: Using Alignment and 2D Network Simulations to Study Charge Transport Through Doped ZnO Nanowire Thin Film Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Phadke, Sujay

    2011-09-30

    Factors affecting charge transport through ZnO nanowire mat films were studied by aligning ZnO nanowires on substrates and coupling experimental measurements with 2D nanowire network simulations. Gallium doped ZnO nanowires were aligned on thermally oxidized silicon wafer by shearing a nanowire dispersion in ethanol. Sheet resistances of nanowire thin films that had current flowing parallel to nanowire alignment direction were compared to thin films that had current flowing perpendicular to nanowire alignment direction. Perpendicular devices showed ∼5 fold greater sheet resistance than parallel devices supporting the hypothesis that aligning nanowires would increase conductivity of ZnO nanowire electrodes. 2-D nanowire network simulations of thin films showed that the device sheet resistance was dominated by inter-wire contact resistance. For a given resistivity of ZnO nanowires, the thin film electrodes would have the lowest possible sheet resistance if the inter-wire contact resistance was one order of magnitude lower than the single nanowire resistance. Simulations suggest that the conductivity of such thin film devices could be further enhanced by using longer nanowires. Solution processed Gallium doped ZnO nanowires are aligned on substrates using an innovative shear coating technique. Nanowire alignment has shown improvement in ZnO nanowire transparent electrode conductivity. 2D network simulations in conjunction with electrical measurements have revealed different regimes of operation of nanowire thin films and provided a guideline for improving electrical performance of nanowire electrodes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Interpretation of muscle spindle afferent nerve response to passive muscle stretch recorded with thin-film longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djilas, Milan; Azevedo-Coste, Christine; Guiraud, David; Yoshida, Ken

    2009-10-01

    In this study, we explored the feasibility of estimating muscle length in passive conditions by interpreting nerve responses from muscle spindle afferents recorded with thin-film longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes. Afferent muscle spindle response to passive stretch was recorded in ten acute rabbit experiments. A newly proposed first-order model of muscle spindle response to passive sinusoidal muscle stretch manages to capture the relationship between afferent neural firing rate and muscle length. We demonstrate that the model can be used to track random motion trajectories with bandwidth from 0.1 to 1 Hz over a range of 4 mm with a muscle length estimation error of 0.3 mm (1.4 degrees of joint angle). When estimation is performed using four-channel ENG there is a 50% reduction in estimate variation, compared to using single-channel recordings.

  5. Improvement in luminance efficiency of organic light emitting diodes by suppression of secondary electron bombardment of substrate during sputter deposition of top electrode films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Daichi; Kobayashi, Shin-ichi; Uchida, Takayuki; Sawada, Yutaka; Lei, Hao; Hoshi, Yoichi

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the degradation mechanisms of the luminance performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) when their top electrode films were deposited by sputter deposition process. During the sputter deposition of the top electrode films, the suppression of the incidence of high-energy electrons on the substrate was attempted using various methods. As a result, we found that during electrode deposition, the incidence of the high-energy secondary electrons, which were emitted from the target surface, on the substrate was the main cause of the significant degradation of the luminance performance. It was also found that the application of a magnetic field by setting permanent magnets near the substrate holder and the insertion of a shield plate near the target cathode were effective in suppressing the incidence of secondary electrons on the substrate.

  6. Thin Film Nanocrystalline TiO2 Electrodes: Dependence of Flat Band Potential on pH and Anion Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minella, M; Maurino, V; Minero, C; Pelizzetti, E

    2015-05-01

    Thin nanocrystalline TiO2 films were produced on ITO conductive glass by dip-coating of a sol-gel TiO2 precursor. The transparent films were characterized from the optical and structural point of view with UV-Vis, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, the roughness of the coating by AFM. The changes in the electrochemical properties features of ITO/TiO2 electrodes were evaluated in the presence of different electrolytes (KCI, Na2SO4 and phosphate buffer) with the aim to clarify the role of the ion adsorption on the structure of the electrical double layer. Electrochemical tests (Cyclic Voltammetry, CV, and Impedance Electrochemical Spectroscopy, EIS) showed a strong influence of the electrolyte properties on the semiconductor band edge position in the electrochemical scale and on band bending. The CV profiles recorded can be explained by considering that the interface capacity is due to the charging of surface states (e.g., Ti(IV) surface sites coordinated by oxygen atoms, ≡Ti-OH or Ti-O-Ti). The surface charge is strongly affected also by the density and nature of adsorbed ions and by dissociation of surficial OH. Of interest the fact that for the produced nanocrystalline electrodes the flat band potential, measured from the Mott-Schottky analysis of the space charge layer capacity obtained with EIS, showed a non Nernstian behavior with the pH probably caused by a change in the surface acidity as a consequence of specific anion adsorption. The modulation of flat band potential with adsorbed ions is of interest for many applications, in particular for photocatalysis (change in the redox potential of photogenerated carriers) and for photovoltaic applications like DSSC (change in the photopotentials).

  7. Effect of argon gas flow rate on properties of film electrodes prepared by thermal vacuum evaporation from synthesized Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabli, Nordin; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang (Malaysia); Zainal, Zulkarnain [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang (Malaysia); Hilal, Hikmat S. [SSERL, Department of Chemistry An-Najah N. University, PO Box 7, Nablus, West Bank (Country Unknown); Fujii, Masatoshi [Department of Molecular Science, School of Medicine, Shimane University, Izumo, Shimane, 693-8501 (Japan)

    2014-03-05

    This work describes a new technique to enhance photoresponse of metal chalcogenide-based semiconductor film electrodes deposited by thermal vacuum evaporation under argon gas flow from synthesized Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} sources. SnSe formation with Cu-doped was obtained under higher argon gas flow rate (V{sub A} = 25 cm{sup 3}/min). Higher value of photoresponse was observed for films deposited under V{sub A} = 25 cm{sup 3}/min which was 9.1%. This finding indicates that Cu atoms inside the SnSe film were important to increase carrier concentrations that promote higher photoresponse.

  8. Highly transparent front electrodes with metal fingers for p-i-n thin-film silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulin Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical and electrical properties of transparent conductive oxides (TCOs, traditionally used in thin-film silicon (TF-Si solar cells as front-electrode materials, are interlinked, such that an increase in TCO transparency is generally achieved at the cost of reduced lateral conductance. Combining a highly transparent TCO front electrode of moderate conductance with metal fingers to support charge collection is a well-established technique in wafer-based technologies or for TF-Si solar cells in the substrate (n-i-p configuration. Here, we extend this concept to TF-Si solar cells in the superstrate (p-i-n configuration. The metal fingers are used in conjunction with a millimeter-scale textured foil, attached to the glass superstrate, which provides an antireflective and retroreflective effect; the latter effect mitigates the shadowing losses induced by the metal fingers. As a result, a substantial increase in power conversion efficiency, from 8.7% to 9.1%, is achieved for 1-μm-thick microcrystalline silicon solar cells deposited on a highly transparent thermally treated aluminum-doped zinc oxide layer combined with silver fingers, compared to cells deposited on a state-of-the-art zinc oxide layer.

  9. Improving Performance of CIGS Solar Cells by Annealing ITO Thin Films Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Lung Chuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO thin films were grown on glass substrates by direct current (DC reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Annealing at the optimal temperature can considerably improve the composition, structure, optical properties, and electrical properties of the ITO film. An ITO sample with a favorable crystalline structure was obtained by annealing in fixed oxygen/argon ratio of 0.03 at 400°C for 30 min. The carrier concentration, mobility, resistivity, band gap, transmission in the visible-light region, and transmission in the near-IR regions of the ITO sample were -1.6E+20 cm−3, 2.7E+01 cm2/Vs, 1.4E-03 Ohm-cm, 3.2 eV, 89.1%, and 94.7%, respectively. Thus, annealing improved the average transmissions (400–1200 nm of the ITO film by 16.36%. Moreover, annealing a copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS solar cell at 400°C for 30 min in air improved its efficiency by 18.75%. The characteristics of annealing ITO films importantly affect the structural, morphological, electrical, and optical properties of ITO films that are used in solar cells.

  10. Crystal structure and electrochemical behaviors of Pt/mischmetal film electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文魁; 杨晓光; 马淳安; 王云刚; 余厉阳

    2003-01-01

    The Ml(La-rich mischmetal) films with a thin Pt layer on the substrate of chemically coarsen ITO glassor silicon slices were prepared by magnetic sputtering technique. The crystal structure and surface morphology ofthe films were investigated by X-ray diffraction(XRD) analysis and atomic force microscopy(AFM), respectively.The electrochemical hydridation/dehydridation behaviors of the films in KOH solution were studied by using cyclicvoltammagraph and electrochemical impedance spectrum(EIS) as well. The AFM results show that the Pt cover lay-er on the M1 films is of island structure with a grain of 150 - 200 nm in size. The presence of a thin Pt layer can pro-vide sufficient high electrocatalytic activity for the electrochemical charge-transfer reaction. The electrochemical re-duction and oxidation reaction occur on the Pt layer, and the diffusion of H into the Ml film is the rate-controlledstep. The Pt coatings also act as protective layers, preventing oxidation and/or poisoning of the underlying Ml filmsin air.

  11. Performance and Durability of Thin Film Thermocouple Array on a Porous Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guk, Erdogan; Ranaweera, Manoj; Venkatesan, Vijay; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Management of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermal gradients is vital to limit thermal expansion mismatch and thermal stress. However, owing to harsh operation conditions of SOFCs and limited available space in stack configuration, the number of techniques available to obtain temperature distribution from the cell surface is limited. The authors previously developed and studied a thermocouple array pattern to detect surface temperature distribution on an SOFC in open circuit conditions. In this study, the performance in terms of mechanical durability and oxidation state of the thin film thermoelements of the thermocouple array on the porous SOFC cathode is investigated. A thin-film multi-junction thermocouple array was sputter deposited using a magnetron sputter coater. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterisation techniques were carried out to understand characteristics of the thin film before and after temperature (20 °C–800 °C) measurement. Temperature readings from the sensor agreed well with the closely placed commercial thermocouple during heating segments. However, a sensor failure occurred at around 350 °C during the cooling segment. The SEM and XPS tests revealed cracks on the thin film thermoelements and oxidation to the film thickness direction. PMID:27563893

  12. Performance and Durability of Thin Film Thermocouple Array on a Porous Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guk, Erdogan; Ranaweera, Manoj; Venkatesan, Vijay; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2016-08-23

    Management of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermal gradients is vital to limit thermal expansion mismatch and thermal stress. However, owing to harsh operation conditions of SOFCs and limited available space in stack configuration, the number of techniques available to obtain temperature distribution from the cell surface is limited. The authors previously developed and studied a thermocouple array pattern to detect surface temperature distribution on an SOFC in open circuit conditions. In this study, the performance in terms of mechanical durability and oxidation state of the thin film thermoelements of the thermocouple array on the porous SOFC cathode is investigated. A thin-film multi-junction thermocouple array was sputter deposited using a magnetron sputter coater. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterisation techniques were carried out to understand characteristics of the thin film before and after temperature (20 °C-800 °C) measurement. Temperature readings from the sensor agreed well with the closely placed commercial thermocouple during heating segments. However, a sensor failure occurred at around 350 °C during the cooling segment. The SEM and XPS tests revealed cracks on the thin film thermoelements and oxidation to the film thickness direction.

  13. Energetics of bismuth vanadate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagabhushana, G.P.; Tavakoli, A.H.; Navrotsky, A., E-mail: anavrotsky@ucdavis.edu

    2015-05-15

    Bismuth vanadate has gained considerable interest as a photoanode for water splitting reactions under visible light. It exists in four different polymorphs, out of which three of them have been synthesized. Thermodynamic properties of these three polymorphs are investigated using high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. The monoclinic scheelite phase which exhibits photocatalytic activity under visible light is found to be the most stable polymorph, followed by tetragonal scheelite which exhibits activity under UV light. The photocatalytically inactive tetragonal zircon form is found to be the least stable polymorph. The small difference in enthalpy of formation between the two scheelite structures (−8 kJ/mol) is in accord with the reversibility of the transformation between them and the larger difference between the most stable monoclinic phase and the least stable tetragonal zircon phase (−23 kJ/mol) is in accord with the irreversible (monoclinic→tetragonal zircon) phase transformation. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of polymorphic transitions in BiVO{sub 4} along with their formation enthalpies. - Highlights: • Bismuth vanadate crystallizes in three different polymorphs. • High temperature calorimetric measurements were made to determine their formation enthalpies. • Enthalpy of formation decreases in the order BV-ms→BV-ts→BV-tz. • Photocatalytically active monoclinic-BiVO{sub 4} was found to be the most stable polymorph.

  14. Study on Ag mesh/conductive oxide hybrid transparent electrode for film heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Namyong; Kim, Kyohyeok; Heo, Jinhee; Yi, Insook; Chung, Ilsub

    2014-07-01

    Ag mesh-indium tin oxide (ITO) hybrid transparent conductive films were fabricated and evaluated for use in film heaters. PS monolayer templates were prepared using highly mono-dispersed PS spheres (11.2 μm) obtained by a filtering process with micro-sieves. At first, three Ag meshes with different sheet resistances (20, 100, and 300 Ω sq-1) and transmittances (70, 73, and 76%) were evaluated for film heaters in terms of voltage and long-term stability. Subsequently, in an effort to obtain better transmittance, Ag mesh-ITO hybrid heaters were fabricated utilizing finite ITO depositions. At the optimised ITO thickness (15 nm), the sheet resistance and the transmittance were 300 Ω sq-1 and 88%, respectively, which indicates that this material is a good potential candidate for an efficient defroster in vehicles.

  15. Electrochemical Rectification of Redox Mediators Using Porphyrin-Based Molecular Multilayered Films on ITO Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civic, Marissa R; Dinolfo, Peter H

    2016-08-10

    Electrochemical charge transfer through multilayer thin films of zinc and nickel 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-ethynylphenyl) porphyrin constructed via copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) "click" chemistry was examined. Current rectification toward various outer-sphere redox probes is revealed with increasing numbers of layers, as these films possess insulating properties over the neutral potential range of the porphyrin, then become conductive upon reaching its oxidation potential. Interfacial electron transfer rates of mediator-dye interactions toward [Co(bpy)3](2+), [Co(dmb)3](2+), [Co(NO2-phen)3](2+), [Fe(bpy)3](2+), and ferrocene (Fc), all outer-sphere redox species, were measured by hydrodynamic methods. The ability to modify electroactive films' interfacial electron transfer rates, as well as current rectification toward redox species, has broad applicability in a number of devices, particularly photovoltaics and photogalvanics.

  16. EQCM Study of Influence of Anion Nature on Electrochemical Reduction of Bismuth Sulfide in Nickel Plating Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Loreta TAMAŠAUSKAITĖ-TAMAŠIŪNAITĖ; Leonas NARUŠKEVIČIUS; Žielienė, Albina; Birutė ŠIMKŪNAITĖ-STANYNIENĖ; Genovaitė VALIULIENĖ; Aloyzas SUDAVIČIUS

    2011-01-01

    The influence of anion nature on the reduction of bismuth sulfide film deposited on gold using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method in solutions containing Ni2+ ions has been investigated by electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance combined with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been determined that the reduction of bismuth sulfide film in the nickel plating solution depends on the anion nature: larger cathodic current and mass changes (Dƒ...

  17. Optimizing ultrathin Ag films for high performance oxide-metal-oxide flexible transparent electrodes through surface energy modulation and template-stripping procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Gao, Pingqi; Yang, Zhenhai; Zhu, Juye; Huang, Feng; Ye, Jichun

    2017-03-01

    Among new flexible transparent conductive electrode (TCE) candidates, ultrathin Ag film (UTAF) is attractive for its extremely low resistance and relatively high transparency. However, the performances of UTAF based TCEs critically depend on the threshold thickness for growth of continuous Ag films and the film morphologies. Here, we demonstrate that these two parameters could be strongly altered through the modulation of substrate surface energy. By minimizing the surface energy difference between the Ag film and substrate, a 9 nm UTAF with a sheet resistance down to 6.9 Ω sq‑1 can be obtained using an electron-beam evaporation process. The resultant UTAF is completely continuous and exhibits smoother morphologies and smaller optical absorbances in comparison to the counterpart of granular-type Ag film at the same thickness without surface modulation. Template-stripping procedure is further developed to transfer the UTAFs to flexible polymer matrixes and construct Al2O3/Ag/MoOx (AAM) electrodes with excellent surface morphology as well as optical and electronic characteristics, including a root-mean-square roughness below 0.21 nm, a transparency up to 93.85% at 550 nm and a sheet resistance as low as 7.39 Ω sq‑1. These AAM based electrodes also show superiority in mechanical robustness, thermal oxidation stability and shape memory property.

  18. Optimizing ultrathin Ag films for high performance oxide-metal-oxide flexible transparent electrodes through surface energy modulation and template-stripping procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Gao, Pingqi; Yang, Zhenhai; Zhu, Juye; Huang, Feng; Ye, Jichun

    2017-01-01

    Among new flexible transparent conductive electrode (TCE) candidates, ultrathin Ag film (UTAF) is attractive for its extremely low resistance and relatively high transparency. However, the performances of UTAF based TCEs critically depend on the threshold thickness for growth of continuous Ag films and the film morphologies. Here, we demonstrate that these two parameters could be strongly altered through the modulation of substrate surface energy. By minimizing the surface energy difference between the Ag film and substrate, a 9 nm UTAF with a sheet resistance down to 6.9 Ω sq−1 can be obtained using an electron-beam evaporation process. The resultant UTAF is completely continuous and exhibits smoother morphologies and smaller optical absorbances in comparison to the counterpart of granular-type Ag film at the same thickness without surface modulation. Template-stripping procedure is further developed to transfer the UTAFs to flexible polymer matrixes and construct Al2O3/Ag/MoOx (AAM) electrodes with excellent surface morphology as well as optical and electronic characteristics, including a root-mean-square roughness below 0.21 nm, a transparency up to 93.85% at 550 nm and a sheet resistance as low as 7.39 Ω sq−1. These AAM based electrodes also show superiority in mechanical robustness, thermal oxidation stability and shape memory property. PMID:28291229

  19. Modifications induced in the structural and optical properties of bismuth sodium borosilicate glass thin films by 120 MeV Ag{sup 7+} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Ravneet, E-mail: ravneet_383@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005 (India); Singh, Surinder [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005 (India); Pandey, O.P. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala 147 004 (India)

    2013-06-15

    The composition of the glass is Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} (20%)–Na{sub 2}O (15%)–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (50%)–SiO{sub 2} (15%) was prepared by conventional melt quench method. To study the effect of heavy ion irradiation on the glass network and structural units, thin films of the glass have been prepared by electron beam gun evaporation. The prepared films are irradiated using 120 MeV Ag{sup 7+} ions in the fluence range of 1 × 10{sup 12}–3 × 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2}. The optical and structural properties were investigated using UV–visible absorption spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. A significant decrease in the band gap is observed after irradiation which is indicative of the fact that radiation has caused compaction in the glass structure.

  20. LiFePO{sub 4−x}N{sub y} thin-film electrodes coated on carbon fiber-modified current collectors for pseudocapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Kuo-Feng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Su, Shih-Hsuan, E-mail: minimono42@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Leu, Hoang-Jyh [Master' s Program of Green Energy Science and Technology, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Huang, Wei-Chieh, E-mail: n8813256610@hotmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    LiFePO{sub 4−x}N{sub y} thin films were sputter-deposited on micron carbon fibers (MCFs) under a gas mixture of N{sub 2}/Ar/H{sub 2} as electrode materials in pseudocapacitors. The MCFs were fabricated by thermal chemical vapor deposition on stainless steel substrates as current collectors. Various amounts of N{sub 2} were introduced by controlling the flow ratios of N{sub 2} to Ar/H{sub 2}. The LiFePO{sub 4−x}N{sub y} thin films coated on the surfaces of MCFs were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of the LiFePO{sub 4−x}N{sub y} thin films were characterized using cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge processes. The LiFePO{sub 4−x}N{sub y} thin-film electrode deposited under the optimal N{sub 2} contents exhibited a high specific capacitance of 722 F/g at 1 A/g. Even at a current of 20 A/g, the electrode delivered a capacitance of 298 F/g. The pseudocapacitors using LiFePO{sub 4−x}N{sub y} thin-film electrodes showed no significant capacitance fading after 1000 cycles at 1 A/g. The results indicated that nitrogen doping improved the electrochemical performances of LiFePO{sub 4}, demonstrating the potential of LiFePO{sub 4−x}N{sub y} as an active material in pseudocapacitors. - Highlights: • LiFePO{sub 4−x}N{sub y} thin films were sputter-deposited on micron carbon fibers (MCFs). • MCFs only act as a three-dimensional current collector in this system. • The pseudocapacitor exhibits a high specific capacitance.

  1. Bismuth-based oxide semiconductors: Mild synthesis and practical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmaji, Hari Krishna

    In this dissertation study, bismuth based oxide semiconductors were prepared using 'mild' synthesis techniques---electrodeposition and solution combustion synthesis. Potential environmental remediation and solar energy applications of the prepared oxides were evaluated. Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) was prepared by electrodeposition and solution combustion synthesis. A two step electrosynthesis strategy was developed and demonstrated for the first time. In the first step, a Bi film was first electrodeposited on a Pt substrate from an acidic BiCl3 medium. Then, this film was anodically stripped in a medium containing hydrolyzed vanadium precursor, to generate Bi3+, and subsequent BiVO4 formation by in situ precipitation. The photoelectrochemical data were consistent with the in situ formation of n-type semiconductor films. In the solution combustion synthesis procedure, BiVO4 powders were prepared using bismuth nitrate pentahydrate as the bismuth precursor and either vanadium chloride or vanadium oxysulfate as the vanadium precursor. Urea, glycine, or citric acid was used as the fuel. The effect of the vanadium precursor on the photocatalytic activity of combustion synthesized BiVO 4 was evaluated in this study. Methyl orange was used as a probe to test the photocatalytic attributes of the combustion synthesized (CS) samples, and benchmarked against a commercial bismuth vanadate sample. The CS samples showed superior activity to the commercial benchmark sample, and samples derived from vanadium chloride were superior to vanadium oxysulfate counterparts. The photoelectrochemical properties of the various CS samples were also studied and these samples were shown to be useful both for environmental photocatalytic remediation and water photooxidation applications. Silver bismuth tungstate (AgBiW2O8) nanoparticles were prepared for the first time by solution combustion synthesis by using silver nitrate, bismuth nitrate, sodium tungstate as precursors for Ag, Bi, and W

  2. Mixed polyelectrolyte coatings on glassy carbon electrodes: Ion-exchange, permselectivity properties and analytical application of poly-l-lysine-poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)-coated mercury film electrodes for the detection of trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterroso, Sandra C C; Carapuça, Helena M; Duarte, Armando C

    2006-02-28

    The present work describes the preparation, optimization and characterization of mixed polyelectrolyte coatings of poly-l-lysine (PLL) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) for the modification of thin mercury film electrodes (MFEs). The novel-modified electrodes were applied in the direct analysis of trace metals in estuarine waters by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The effects of the coating morphology and thickness and also of the monomeric molar ratio PLL/PSS on the cation-exchange ability of the PLL-PSS polyelectrolyte coatings onto glassy carbon (GC) were evaluated using target cationic species such as dopamine (DA) or lead cation. Further, the semi-permeability of the PLL-PSS-coated electrodes based both on electrostatic interactions and on molecular size leads to an improved anti-fouling ability against several tensioactive species. The analytical usefulness of the PLL-PSS-mixed polyelectrolyte coatings on thin mercury film electrodes is demonstrated via SWASV measurements of trace metals (lead, copper and cadmium at the low nanomolar level; accumulation time of 180s) in estuarine waters containing moderate levels of dissolved organic matter, resulting in a fast and direct methodology requiring no sample pretreatment.

  3. A Study on Tannic Acid-doped Polypyrrole Films on Gold Electrodes for Selective Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhuo Yao

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Tannic acid-doped polypyrrole (PPY/TA films have been grown on goldelectrodes for selective electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA. Electrochemicalquartz crystal microbalance (EQCM studies revealed that, in vivid contrast toperchlorate-doped polypyrrole films (PPY/ClO4-, the redox switching of PPY/TA filmsin aqueous solutions involved only cation transport if the solution pH was greater than3~4. The PPY/TA Au electrodes also exhibited attractive permselectivity forelectroactive cations, namely, effectively blocking the electrochemical reactions ofanionic ferricyanide and ascorbic acid (AA while well retaining the electrochemicalactivities of hexaammineruthenium (III and dopamine as cationic species. A 500 HzPPY/TA film could effectively block the redox current of up to 5.0 mM AA. Thecoexistence of ascorbic acid in the measurement solution notably enhanced the currentsignal for dopamine oxidation, due probably to the chemical regeneration of dopaminethrough an ascorbic acid-catalyzed reduction of the electro-oxidation product ofdopamine (EC’ mechanism, and the greatest amplification was found at an ascorbic acidconcentration of 1.0 mM. The differential pulse voltammetry peak current for DAoxidation was linear with DA concentration in the range of 0 to 10 μM, with sensitivityof 0.125 and 0.268 μA/μM, as well as lower detection limit of 2.0 and 0.3 μM in a PBSsolution without AA and with 1.0 mM coexisting AA, respectively.

  4. Fabrication of a nanostructure thin film on the gold electrode using continuous pulsed-potential technique and its application for the electrocatalytic determination of metronidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, B., E-mail: rezaei@cc.iut.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Damiri, S. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-01

    This paper demonstrates a new and simple approach based on a continuous pulsed-potential (CPP) method for the preparation of reproducible nanostructure and nanoporous thin film on the polycrystalline gold electrodes. The fabrication process involves pulsed electrochemical oxidation and reduction of gold electrode in the sulfuric acid solution without using additional reagents. Effect of various parameters including pulse height, pulse time, pulse number and relaxation time on the enhancing of hexacyanoferrate (HCF) redox behaviour, as a probe, were investigated and optimized. Electrochemical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies show the formation of a nanoporous thin film and sharp nanostructure edges on the gold electrode that considerably enhances electrocatalysis of HCF and provides useful conditions for the electroanalysis by the modified electrode. In addition, the electrocatalytic behaviour of this modified electrode was exploited as a sensitive detection system for the determination of metronidazole in pharmaceutical and human urine samples, by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and hydrodynamic methods. Under optimized conditions, this method shows linear dynamic ranges of 0.5-10.0 and 20.0-800.0 muM with the calculated detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.15 muM and a precision of <5%.

  5. Photoelectrocatalytic Degradation of Sodium Oxalate by TiO2/Ti Thin Film Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytically active TiO2 thin film was deposited on the titanium substrate plate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD method, and the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate was investigated by TiO2 thin film reactor prepared in this study with additional electric potential at 365 nm irradiation. The batch system was chosen in this experiment, and the controlled parameters were pH, different supporting electrolytes, applied additional potential, and different electrolyte solutions that were examined and discussed. The experimental results revealed that the additional applied potential in photocatalytic reaction could prohibit recombination of electron/hole pairs, but the photoelectrocatalytic effect was decreased when the applied electric potential was over 0.25 V. Among the electrolyte solutions added, sodium sulfate improved the photoelectrocatalytic effect most significantly. At last, the better photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate occurred at pH 3 when comparing the pH influence.

  6. Energetics of bismuth vanadate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagabhushana, G. P.; Tavakoli, A. H.; Navrotsky, A.

    2015-05-01

    Bismuth vanadate has gained considerable interest as a photoanode for water splitting reactions under visible light. It exists in four different polymorphs, out of which three of them have been synthesized. Thermodynamic properties of these three polymorphs are investigated using high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. The monoclinic scheelite phase which exhibits photocatalytic activity under visible light is found to be the most stable polymorph, followed by tetragonal scheelite which exhibits activity under UV light. The photocatalytically inactive tetragonal zircon form is found to be the least stable polymorph. The small difference in enthalpy of formation between the two scheelite structures (-8 kJ/mol) is in accord with the reversibility of the transformation between them and the larger difference between the most stable monoclinic phase and the least stable tetragonal zircon phase (-23 kJ/mol) is in accord with the irreversible (monoclinic→tetragonal zircon) phase transformation.

  7. High optical transmittance of aluminum ultrathin film with hexagonal nanohole arrays as transparent electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Qing Guo

    2016-02-24

    We fabricate samples of aluminum ultrathin films with hexagonal nanohole arrays and characterize the transmission performance. High optical transmittance larger than 60% over a broad wavelength range from 430 nm to 750 nm is attained experimentally. The Fano-type resonance of the excited surface plasmon plaritons and the directly transmitted light attribute to both of the broadband transmission enhancement and the transmission suppression dips. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

  8. CdS/FTO thin film electrodes deposited by chemical bath deposition and by electrochemical deposition: A comparative assessment of photo-electrochemical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Ahed; Saa'deddin, Iyad; Khudruj, Sahar; Hawash, Zafer M.; Park, DaeHoon; Campet, Guy; Hilal, Hikmat S.

    2013-04-01

    CdS thin films have been deposited onto FTO/glass substrates by two different techniques, electrochemical deposition (ECD) and chemical bath deposition (CBD). Feasibility of using these two film types in photoelectrochemical processes has been critically investigated here. The films were comparatively characterized by a number of techniques (solid state absorption spectra, solid state photoluminescence spectra, XRD and SEM). PEC characteristics of the electrodes, including current density-voltage (J-V) plots, conversion efficiency (η), stability and fill-factor (FF) were then studied. The results show that both systems involved nano-sized CdS particles living in coagulates. The ECD was thinner and more uniform than the CBD system. The CBD films were more effective in PEC processes than the ECD counterparts. Effect of annealing on characteristics of both electrode systems has been investigated. Annealing enhanced both film characteristics, but the CBD was affected to a higher extent, and the annealed CBD film was more effective than the ECD counterpart.

  9. Electrode and solid electrolyte thin films for secondary lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. H.; Kelder, E. M.; Schoonman, J.

    Electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) was employed to prepare thin layers of Li 1.2Mn 2O 4 (nominal composition) and BPO 4:0.035Li 2O for all-solid-state thin film lithium-ion batteries. The relationships between layer morphologies and deposition conditions such as solvent composition of the precursor solutions and substrate temperature were investigated. It was found that a low substrate temperature and/or high boiling point of the solvent may lead to a relatively dense structure. Reticular porous structures are formed, if films were deposited at 250°C and a mixture of 85 vol.% butyl carbitol and 15 vol.% ethanol was used as the solvent. The Li 1.2Mn 2O 4 layers, formed in the 250-400°C temperature range, were amorphous or micro-crystalline. After annealing beyond 600 °C, they could be crystallized into a spinel-structured material. Glassy BPO 4:0.035Li 2O layers could fill the pores of porous Li 1.2Mn 2O 4 layers to form a dense intermediate electrolyte layer. Thin-film rocking-chair batteries, Li 1.2Mn 2O 4|BPO 4:0.035Li 2O|Li 1.2Mn 2O 4|Al, were prepared and revealed an open-circuit voltage of about 1.2 V after charging.

  10. Gate voltage and drain current stress instabilities in amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors with an asymmetric graphene electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonwoo Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The gate voltage and drain current stress instabilities in amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs having an asymmetric graphene electrode structure are studied. A large positive shift in the threshold voltage, which is well fitted to a stretched-exponential equation, and an increase in the subthreshold slope are observed when drain current stress is applied. This is due to an increase in temperature caused by power dissipation in the graphene/a-IGZO contact region, in addition to the channel region, which is different from the behavior in a-IGZO TFTs with a conventional transparent electrode.

  11. New approach for fabricating hybrid-structured metal mesh films for flexible transparent electrodes by the combination of electrospinning and metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jin Woo; Lee, Dong Kyu; Jeon, Hwan-Jin; Ahn, Chi Won

    2016-11-01

    In this study, hybrid-structured metal mesh (HMM) films as potential flexible transparent electrodes, composed of aligned micro-sized metal fibers integrated into random network of metal nanofibers, were fabricated by the combination of electrospinning and metal deposition. These naturally fiber-bridged HMMs, with a gold layer thickness of 85 nm, exhibited a high transmittance of around 90% and a sheet resistance of approximately 10 Ω sq-1, as well as favorable mechanical stability under bending stress. These results demonstrate that the approach employed herein is a simple, highly efficient, and facile process for fabricating, uniform, interconnected fiber networks with potential for producing high-performance flexible transparent electrodes.

  12. Ti/Cu bilayer electrodes for SiNx-passivated Hf-In-Zn-O thin film transistors: Device performance and contact resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Lee, Eunha; Jung, Ji Sim; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Maeng, Wan-Joo; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Eok Su; Park, Kyung-Bae; Kwon, Jang-Yeon; Ryu, Myung Kwan; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we examine the possibility of using Ti/Cu bilayer as source/drain electrodes for SiNx-passivated Hf-In-Zn-O (HIZO) thin film transistors by comparing their electrical properties with devices that use Mo electrodes. The Mo devices operate in depletion mode with a higher field effect mobility, while the Ti/Cu devices exhibit an improved subthreshold swing and operate in enhancement mode. Transmission electron microscopy characterization reveals the formation of an amorphous TiOx layer at the Ti/HIZO interface, which is suggested to be responsible for the disparate device characteristics in terms of contact resistance and threshold delay.

  13. Highly sensitive response to dopamine at a modified electrode involving a composite film with Au nanoparticles dispersed in a fluorocarbon polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new approach for the highly sensitive detection of dopamine by a novel composite film involving gold nanoparticles trapped in a negatively-charged fluorocarbon polymer (Nafion) on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode fabricated by a simple method is described. Gold nanoparticles with an average diameter of 2.3 nm ± 0.2 nm are dispersed throughout the whole Nafion film. The introduction of gold nanoparticles into the Nafion film not only gives a highly active electrode surface area but also increases the conductivity of the Nafion film and the resulting Au/Nafion/GC electrode combines the advantages of the properties of gold nanoparticles and the selective pre-concentration ability of Nafion. For positively charged dopamine, the results show a decrease in the redox peak separation and a high sensitivity. The oxidation peak current of dopamine was shown to vary linearly with dopamine concentration over a wide range from 0.4 to 50.0 μmol/L with a detection limit of 0.3 μmol/L. Negatively charged ascorbic acid shows no redox waves at concentrations up to 1.0 ×10-4 mol/L.

  14. In situ synthesis of porous array films on a filament induced micro-gap electrode pair and their use as resistance-type gas sensors with enhanced performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zongke; Duan, Guotao; Zhang, Hongwen; Wang, Yingying; Xu, Lei; Cai, Weiping

    2015-09-14

    Resistance-type metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors with high sensitivity and low detection limit have been explored for practical applications. They require both sensing films with high sensitivity to target gases and an appropriate structure of the electrode-equipped substrate to support the sensing films, which is still challenging. In this paper, a new gas sensor of metal-oxide porous array films on a micro-gap electrode pair is designed and implemented by taking ZnO as a model material. First, a micro-gap electrode pair was constructed by sputtering deposition on a filament template, which was used as the sensor's supporting substrate. Then, the sensing film, made up of ZnO porous periodic arrays, was in situ synthesized onto the supporting substrate by a solution-dipping colloidal lithography strategy. The results demonstrated the validity of the strategy, and the as-designed sensor shows a small device-resistance, an enhanced sensing performance with high resolution and an ultralow detection limit. This work provides an alternative method to promote the practical application of resistance-type gas sensors.

  15. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Preparation and Characterization of BPO Film as Electrode for Using of FeRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin-Yi; Yu, Jun; Wang, Yun-Bo; Zhou, Wen-Li; Gao, Jun-Xiong; Chu, Xiao-Hui

    2008-07-01

    Conductive perovskite BaPbO3 (BPO) films as a potential electrode material of PZT capacitors used in ferroelectric random access memory are prepared by rf magnetron sputtering. An x-ray diffractometer and standard four probe method are employed to investigate the dependence of growth conditions on crystal structure and conductivity of BPO films. It is found that BPO films with perovskite phase can be obtained at substrate temperatures above 425° C, and the sample with the lowest resistivity is obtained at 450° C under pure argon atmosphere. Using this BPO film as electrode, ferroelectric properties of BPO/PZT/BPO and Pt/PZT/BPO sandwiched structures are evaluated. Their remanent polarization and coercive field are 36.6μC/cm2 (81.3kV/cm) and 36.9μC/cm2 (89.1 kV/cm), respectively. The coercive field of the former structure is lower than that of the latter, but remanent polarizations are almost the same. In addition, the results imply that BPO electrode is helpful to improve the fatigue resistance of PZT. The reasons are discussed.

  16. Molecular rectification with identical metal electrodes at low temperatures Thin film deposition; Gold; Molecular electronics; Langmuir- Blodgett; Au/LB/Au structures; Fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Okazaki, N

    2003-01-01

    A gold deposition technique for the fabrication of Au/LB/Au structures has been developed. The kinetic energy of evaporated gold atoms is reduced by scattering the gold atoms from argon gas. Moreover, the samples are cooled down below 173K (-100 deg C) to avoid the diffusion of gold atoms into the LB films and to fabricate electrically continuous thin gold electrodes (This technique has since been used in fabrication of Au/LB/Au structures even with monolayer LB films (Metzger, et al. (2001)). To measure the current-voltage characteristics of the Au/LB/Au structures at liquid helium temperatures, new junction geometries have been explored. To avoid the direct contact of the Gallium-Indium eutectic onto the LB films, which is the cause of the breakdown of the junction at lower temperatures, a cross electrode junction geometry is used. The problem of poor Langmuir-Blodgett film deposition at the penumbra region of the base electrode is avoided by covering the penumbra region with an insulating omega-tricosenoic...

  17. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.

    2016-07-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  18. Flexible Nb2O5 nanowires/graphene film electrode for high-performance hybrid Li-ion supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hao; Fu, Jijiang; Ding, Kang; Huang, Chao; Wu, Kai; Zhang, Xuming; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Peng, Xiang; Chu, Paul K.

    2016-10-01

    The hybrid Li-ion electrochemical supercapacitor (Li-HSC) combining the battery-like anode with capacitive cathode is a promising energy storage device boasting large energy and power densities. Orthorhombic Nb2O5 is a good anode material in Li-HSCs because of its large pseudocapacitive Li-ion intercalation capacity. Herein, we report a high-performance, binder-free and flexible anode consisting of long Nb2O5 nanowires and graphene (L-Nb2O5 NWs/rGO). The paper-like L-Nb2O5 NWs/rGO film electrode has a large mass loading of Nb2O5 of 93.5 wt% as well as short solid-state ion diffusion length, and enhanced conductivity (5.1 S cm-1). The hybrid L-Nb2O5 NWs/rGO paper electrode shows a high reversible specific capacity of 160 mA h g-1 at a current density of 0.2 A g-1, superior rate capability with capacitance retention of 60% when the current density increases from 0.2 to 5 A g-1, as well as excellent cycle stability. The Li-HSC device based on the L-Nb2O5/rGO anode and the cathode of biomass-derived carbon nanosheets delivers an energy density of 106 Wh kg-1 at 580 W kg-1 and 32 Wh kg-1 at a large power density of 14 kW kg-1. Moreover, the Li-HSC device exhibits excellent cycling performance without obvious capacitance decay after 1000 cycles.

  19. A biosolar cell incorporating a TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline thin-film electrode with chlorophyllin as the photosensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, T.T.C; Ho, K.C. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The exploration for new, sustainable energy technologies, such as solar energy, has been driven by the depletion of fossil fuels and the prevention of pollution. A new type of photovoltaic cell known as the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was discovered in 1990. Studies have shown that the DSSC adsorbs dye on the nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} surface area to absorb visible light with a cell efficiency of 11 per cent. Ruthenium complexes are commonly used as the photosensitizers to achieve high cell efficiencies. However, due to the environmental concerns regarding the use of heavy metal, derivatives of chlorophyll have been suggested as alternatives. In this study, the phytyl ester and the cyclopentanone of chlorophyll have been saponified and opened, respectively. Chlorophyllin, a derivative of chlorophyll, was absorbed on a TiO{sub 2} film electrode to act as the photosensitizer in a dye-sensitized biosolar cell. Chlorophyllin was generated with the formation of two additional carboxyl groups which are needed for anchoring the dye onto the surface of a TiO{sub 2} electrode to ensure good cell performance. The cell yielded an open-circuit voltage of 0.44 V and a short-circuit current density of 420 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}, with a calculated fill factor of 0.61. The overall energy conversion efficiency of the cell was approximately 0.11 to 0.13 per cent. Although chlorophyllin had good absorption properties in the visible range, the cell efficiency of a DSSC containing chlorophyllin was low. The efficiency of the biosolar cell first decreased, but achieved a stable value within a short period of time. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Tin oxide dependence of the CO2 reduction efficiency on tin electrodes and enhanced activity for tin/tin oxide thin-film catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yihong; Kanan, Matthew W

    2012-02-01

    The importance of tin oxide (SnO(x)) to the efficiency of CO(2) reduction on Sn was evaluated by comparing the activity of Sn electrodes that had been subjected to different pre-electrolysis treatments. In aqueous NaHCO(3) solution saturated with CO(2), a Sn electrode with a native SnO(x) layer exhibited potential-dependent CO(2) reduction activity consistent with previously reported activity. In contrast, an electrode etched to expose fresh Sn(0) surface exhibited higher overall current densities but almost exclusive H(2) evolution over the entire 0.5 V range of potentials examined. Subsequently, a thin-film catalyst was prepared by simultaneous electrodeposition of Sn(0) and SnO(x) on a Ti electrode. This catalyst exhibited up to 8-fold higher partial current density and 4-fold higher faradaic efficiency for CO(2) reduction than a Sn electrode with a native SnO(x) layer. Our results implicate the participation of SnO(x) in the CO(2) reduction pathway on Sn electrodes and suggest that metal/metal oxide composite materials are promising catalysts for sustainable fuel synthesis.

  1. Simultaneous Automatic Electrochemical Detection of Zinc, Cadmium, Copper and Lead Ions in Environmental Samples Using a Thin-Film Mercury Electrode and an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Kudr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study a device for automatic electrochemical analysis was designed. A three electrodes detection system was attached to a positioning device, which enabled us to move the electrode system from one well to another of a microtitre plate. Disposable carbon tip electrodes were used for Cd(II, Cu(II and Pb(II ion quantification, while Zn(II did not give signal in this electrode configuration. In order to detect all mentioned heavy metals simultaneously, thin-film mercury electrodes (TFME were fabricated by electrodeposition of mercury on the surface of carbon tips. In comparison with bare electrodes the TMFEs had lower detection limits and better sensitivity. In addition to pure aqueous heavy metal solutions, the assay was also performed on mineralized rock samples, artificial blood plasma samples and samples of chicken embryo organs treated with cadmium. An artificial neural network was created to evaluate the concentrations of the mentioned heavy metals correctly in mixture samples and an excellent fit was observed (R2 = 0.9933.

  2. A cost-effective nanoporous ultrathin film electrode based on nanoporous gold/IrO2 composite for proton exchange membrane water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yachao; Guo, Xiaoqian; Shao, Zhigang; Yu, Hongmei; Song, Wei; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Hongjie; Yi, Baolian

    2017-02-01

    A cost-effective nanoporous ultrathin film (NPUF) electrode based on nanoporous gold (NPG)/IrO2 composite has been constructed for proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis. The electrode was fabricated by integrating IrO2 nanoparticles into NPG through a facile dealloying and thermal decomposition method. The NPUF electrode is featured in its 3D interconnected nanoporosity and ultrathin thickness. The nanoporous ultrathin architecture is binder-free and beneficial for improving electrochemical active surface area, enhancing mass transport and facilitating releasing of oxygen produced during water electrolysis. Serving as anode, a single cell performance of 1.728 V (@ 2 A cm-2) has been achieved by NPUF electrode with a loading of IrO2 and Au at 86.43 and 100.0 μg cm-2 respectively, the electrolysis voltage is 58 mV lower than that of conventional electrode with an Ir loading an order of magnitude higher. The electrolysis voltage kept relatively constant up to 300 h (@250 mA cm-2) during the course of durability test, manifesting that NPUF electrode is promising for gas evolution.

  3. Ethanol Gas Sensor Based on Pure and La-Doped Bismuth Vanadate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmojdeh, Hosein; Zanjanchi, Mohamad Ali

    2014-02-01

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) and lanthanum-doped bismuth vanadate (La-doped BiVO4) were prepared via the precipitation method. Their films were produced by simple drop-coating of the initial solutions over gold electrodes, which were coated over a glass substrate. The structural properties of BiVO4 and La-doped BiVO4 samples were studied using x-ray diffractometer, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and compositional analysis. A chamber was designed to install the sensing device and also controllable tools for gas flow rate and temperature. Changes in the resistance of the prepared layers were recorded during exposure to various amounts of ethanol vapor at different temperatures. Both BiVO4 and La-doped BiVO4 layers showed measurable responses in the form of resistance drop (increased conductivity). The higher temperatures up to 450 °C led to stronger signals. The layer containing lanthanum showed signals with shorter recovery times. Introduction of lanthanum caused smaller crystallite sizes in addition to the formation of tetragonal phase of BiVO4. Presence of lanthanum increased the amounts of grain boundaries, magnitude of the response, and sensitivity. Sensitivity of La-doped BiVO4 was almost twice that of the BiVO4 at concentrations of 150-500 ppm of ethanol. Also, the correlation of the response as a function of concentration of ethanol in gas phase was exploited, and two different linear ranges were observed for the lower and higher concentrations.

  4. Anodic Stripping Voltametry at Mercury Film Deposited on Ultrasmall Carbon Ring Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-05

    a b. OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH o GRANT or CONTRACT N00014-90-J-1161 R & T Code 4133030 Technical Report No. 001 Anodic Stripping Voltametry at Mercury...13 REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED lNovember 5,_ _90 Technical 4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Anodic Stripping Voltametry at Mercury Film...where high scan rate cyclic vrhrnm-try is possilble. In fact, scan rates above one million V s - ’ have been demonstrated [8]. n cnf i s, t low scan

  5. Mineral resource of the month: bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, James F.

    2006-01-01

    Bismuth compounds are most known for their soothing effects on the stomach, wounds and sores. These properties make the compounds an essential part of many medicinal and cosmetic preparations, which until 1930 accounted for about 90 percent of the bismuth used. The subsequent development of low-melting alloys and chemical catalysts containing bismuth, as well as its use as an additive to casting alloys, has resulted in a wider variety of industrial applications for bismuth.

  6. Self-assembled multilayer films of sulfonated graphene and polystyrene-based diazonium salt as photo-cross-linkable supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhiyuan; Gu, Tonghan; Wang, Xiaogong

    2014-01-21

    Photo-cross-linkable multilayer films composed of sulfonated reduced graphene oxide (SRGO) and polystyrene-based diazonium salt (PSDAS) were fabricated by electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly. Polystyrene with narrow molecular weight distribution was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and cationic PSDAS was prepared through nitration, reduction, and diazotization reactions. Negatively charged SRGO nanosheets were prepared through prereduced by NaBH4, modified by diazonium salt of sulfanilic acid, and then further reduced by hydrazine. The multilayer films were obtained by alternately dipping substrates in the PSDAS solution and SRGO dispersion in acidic conditions. The cross-linking between the components occurred during the multilayer formation process and was further achieved by the UV light irradiation after the film preparation. The assembling process and surface morphology of LbL multilayer films were monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cross-linking between SRGO and PSDAS was verified by attenuated total reflectance FTIR (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle measurement. The graphene nanosheets were found to be homogeneously distributed in the cross-linked network of the films. The large accessible surface area of graphene nanosheets and the cross-linking structure afforded the LbL films with high specific capacitance and excellent cyclic stability when used as supercapacitor electrodes. At a sweeping rate of 10 mV/s, the film with nine bilayers exhibited a specific capacitance of 150.4 F/g with ideal rectangular cyclic voltammogram. Large capacitance retention of 97% was observed after 10 000 charge-discharge cycles under the scanning rate of 1000 mV/s. This new approach for preparing graphene-containing multilayer films can be used to develop supercapacitor electrodes and other functional devices.

  7. Multi-input and -output logic circuits based on bioelectrocatalysis with horseradish peroxidase and glucose oxidase immobilized in multi-responsive copolymer films on electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue; Lian, Wenjing; Zhang, Jiannan; Liu, Hongyun

    2016-06-15

    Herein, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N'-dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate) copolymer films were polymerized on electrode surface with a simple one-step method, and the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was embedded in the films simultaneously, which were designated as P(NiPAAm-co-DMEM)-HRP. The films exhibited a reversible structure change with the external stimuli, such as pH, CO2, temperature and SO4(2-), causing the cyclic voltammetric (CV) response of electroactive K3Fe(CN)6 at the film electrodes to display the corresponding multi-stimuli sensitive ON-OFF behavior. Based on the switchable CV property of the system and the electrochemical reduction of H2O2 catalyzed by HRP in the films and mediated by Fe(CN)6(3-) in solution, a 5-input/3-output logic gate was established. To further increase the complexity of the logic system, another enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) was added into the films, designated as P(NiPAAm-co-DMEM)-HRP-GOD. In the presence of oxygen, the oxidation of glucose in the solution was catalyzed by GOD in the films, and the produced H2O2 in situ was recognized and electrocatalytically reduced by HRP and mediated by Fe(CN)6(3-). Based on the bienzyme films, a cascaded or concatenated 4-input/3-output logic gate system was proposed. The present work combined the multi-responsive interface with bioelectrocatalysis to construct cascaded logic circuits, which might open a new avenue to develop biocomputing elements with more sophisticated functions and design novel glucose biosensors.

  8. Electrocatalytic oxidation and determination of dopamine at a carbon ionic liquid electrode modified with nafion-L-aspartic acid composite film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine(DA)was studied by electrochemical approaches at a carbon ionic liquid electrode(CILE)modified with the composite film of nafion and L-aspartic acid(NL-CILE).The CILE was fabricated by replacing non-conductive organic binders with a room-temperature hydrophobic ionic liquid,1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate.The composite film of NL was used as matrix to adsorb DA and catalyze the oxidation of DA in phosphate buffer solution(PBS).The electrochemical re...

  9. Effect of conductive BaPbO3 electrode on the structural and dielectric properties of (Pb,Ba)ZrO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin-Jung; Wu, Jenn-Ming

    2007-08-01

    Highly (1 1 1)-oriented (Pb,Ba)ZrO3 (PBZ) thin films were deposited on BaPbO3(BPO) electrode at different deposition temperatures and different thicknesses. As the deposition temperature increased, the dielectric constant and tunability increased from 150 and 4% to 500 and 56%, respectively. A current transient peak observed prior to dielectric degradation can be related to oxygen vacancy migration (redistribution) with space-charge-limited current transient or modulation of the electric conductivity. We infer that an interfacial layer lying between the PBZ and BPO effectively increases the oxygen vacancy (density ~1020 cm-3) mobility by Pb4+ diffusing into the PBZ films.

  10. Electrodeposition of Silver Nanoparticles on MWCNT Film Electrodes for Hydrogen Peroxide Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING,Yan-Feng; JIN,Guan-Ping; YIN,Jun-Guang

    2007-01-01

    Silver (Ag) nanoparticles were directly electrodeposited on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in AgNO3/LiNO3 containing EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid). The structure and nature of the resulting Ag/MWNT composite were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the distribution shape of Ag nanoparticles was found to be dependent on the presence of EDTA. The modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity to redox reaction of hydrogen peroxide and the mechanism of hydrogen peroxide was partly reversible procession with oxidation and reduction peaks at 0.77 and -0.83 V, respectively. The oxidation and reduction peak currents were linearly related to hydrogen peroxide concentration in the range of 1×10-6-3×10-4 and 1×10-8-7×10-4 mol·L-1 with correlation coefficients of 0.996 and 0.986, and 3s-detection limit of 9 × 10-7 and 7 × 10-9 mol·L-1.

  11. Structural investigation of MF, RF and DC sputtered Mo thin films for backside photovoltaic electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małek, Anna K.; Marszałek, Konstanty W.; Rydosz, Artur M.

    2016-12-01

    Recently photovoltaics attracts much attention of research and industry. The multidirectional studies are carried out in order to improve solar cells performance, the innovative materials are still searched and existing materials and technology are optimized. In the multilayer structure of CIGS solar cells molybdenum (Mo) layer is used as a back contact. Mo layers meet all requirements for back side electrode: low resistivity, good adhesion to the substrate, high optical reflection in the visible range, columnar structure for Na ions diffusion, formation of an ohmic contact with the ptype CIGS absorber layer, and high stability during the corrosive selenization process. The high adhesion to the substrate and low resistivity in single Mo layer is difficult to be achieved because both properties depend on the deposition parameters, particularly on working gas pressure. Therefore Mo bilayers are applied as a back contact for CIGS solar cells. In this work the Mo layers were deposited by medium frequency sputtering at different process parameters. The effect of substrate temperature within the range of 50°C-200°C and working gas pressure from 0.7 mTorr to 7 mTorr on crystalline structure of Mo layers was studied.

  12. Comparison of Ultrasonic Welding and Thermal Bonding for the Integration of Thin Film Metal Electrodes in Injection Molded Polymeric Lab-on-Chip Systems for Electrochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteucci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We compare ultrasonic welding (UW and thermal bonding (TB for the integration of embedded thin-film gold electrodes for electrochemical applications in injection molded (IM microfluidic chips. The UW bonded chips showed a significantly superior electrochemical performance compared to the ones obtained using TB. Parameters such as metal thickness of electrodes, depth of electrode embedding, delivered power, and height of energy directors (for UW, as well as pressure and temperature (for TB, were systematically studied to evaluate the two bonding methods and requirements for optimal electrochemical performance. The presented technology is intended for easy and effective integration of polymeric Lab-on-Chip systems to encourage their use in research, commercialization and education.

  13. New Hydrodynamic Electrochemical Arrangement for Cadmium Ions Detection Using Thick-Film Chemical Sensor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturization and integration of chemical devices into modules that aredimensionally comparable with electronic chips (Lab on Chip is nowadays developingworldwide. The aim of our work was to suggest and optimize the best conditions forfabrication of TFT sensor due to its sensitivity and low experimental deviations. Newelectrochemical analytical device was developed to ensure certain known mass transport toelectrodes, which is the most limiting process that influencing the response quality of thesensor. The device consists from rotating conic vessel for measured sample and stick-inthick-film sensor. The sensors responses were tested under trace analysis of cadmium.Measurements were done also with the others electrochemical arrangements to comparewith the new one. The sensor output current response dependence on the liquid velocity andgeometrical arrangement within using standard electrochemical couple of potassiumferrocyanide-ferricyanide is presented. We found out that the new device with controlledflow of electrolyte to sensor worked properly and gave satisfactory results.

  14. Integrated fast assembly of free-standing lithium titanate/carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber hybrid network film as flexible paper-electrode for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaomei; Feng, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Xue, Xin; Liu, Hongjiang; Miao, Miao; Fang, Jianhui; Shi, Liyi

    2015-05-27

    A free-standing lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12)/carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber hybrid network film is successfully assembled by using a pressure-controlled aqueous extrusion process, which is highly efficient and easily to scale up from the perspective of disposable and recyclable device production. This hybrid network film used as a lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrode has a dual-layer structure consisting of Li4Ti5O12/carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber composites (hereinafter referred to as LTO/CNT/CNF), and carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber composites (hereinafter referred to as CNT/CNF). In the heterogeneous fibrous network of the hybrid film, CNF serves simultaneously as building skeleton and a biosourced binder, which substitutes traditional toxic solvents and synthetic polymer binders. Of importance here is that the CNT/CNF layer is used as a lightweight current collector to replace traditional heavy metal foils, which therefore reduces the total mass of the electrode while keeping the same areal loading of active materials. The free-standing network film with high flexibility is easy to handle, and has extremely good conductivity, up to 15.0 S cm(-1). The flexible paper-electrode for LIBs shows very good high rate cycling performance, and the specific charge/discharge capacity values are up to 142 mAh g(-1) even at a current rate of 10 C. On the basis of the mild condition and fast assembly process, a CNF template fulfills multiple functions in the fabrication of paper-electrode for LIBs, which would offer an ever increasing potential for high energy density, low cost, and environmentally friendly flexible electronics.

  15. Electrochemical reduction of 2,4-dinitrophenol on nanocomposite electrodes modified with mesoporous silica and poly(vitamin B{sub 1}) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Ping; Cai Hui; Liu Shantang [School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430073 (China); Hubei Key Lab of Novel Reactor and Green Chemical Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Wan Qijin, E-mail: qijinwan@mail.wit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430073 (China); Hubei Key Lab of Novel Reactor and Green Chemical Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Wang Xiaoxia [Blumenstrasse 6, Gundelfingen 79194 (Germany); Yang Nianjun, E-mail: nianjun.yang@iaf.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF), Freiburg 79108 (Germany)

    2011-08-01

    Electrochemical reduction of 2,4-dinitrophenol was investigated on a glassy carbon electrode modified with a nanocomposite Santa Barbara Amorphous silica (SBA-15) film and poly(vitamin B{sub 1}) film. For sensitive and selective detections, vanadium pentoxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles were incorporated into the matrix of SBA-15. 2,4-Dinitrophenol was reduced on the modified electrode at -0.39 and -0.25 V, corresponding to the reduction of 4-dinitrophenol and 2-dinitrophenol, respectively. Both cathodic peak currents were controlled by the diffusion of 2,4-dinitrophenol. The amplitude of the peak currents was proportional to the 2,4-dinitrophenol concentration in the range of 3.0-30 {mu}M. The modified electrode demonstrated a long lifetime for the detection of 2,4-dinitrophenol. The detection limit of 2,4-dinitrophenol was 0.5 {mu}M. Moreover, the modified electrode was used successfully to detect 2,4-dinitrophenol in lake water.

  16. Enzymatic glucose sensor based on Au nanoparticle and plant-like ZnO film modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Kun [Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Alex, Saji [Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Government College for Women, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695014 (India); Siegel, Gene [Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Tiwari, Ashutosh, E-mail: tiwari@eng.utah.edu [Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A novel electrochemical glucose sensor was developed by employing a composite film of plant-like Zinc oxide (ZnO) and chitosan stabilized spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on which Glucose oxidaze (GOx) was immobilized. The ZnO was deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass and the AuNPs of average diameter of 23 nm were loaded on ZnO as the second layer. The prepared ITO/ZnO/AuNPs/GOx bioelectrode exhibited a low value of Michaelis–Menten constant of 1.70 mM indicating a good bio-matrix for GOx. The studies of electrochemical properties of the electrode using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that, the presence of AuNPs provides significant enhancement of the electron transfer rate during redox reactions. The linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) shows that the ITO/ZnO/AuNPs/GOx based sensor has a high sensitivity of 3.12 μA·mM{sup −1}·cm{sup −2} in the range of 50 mg/dL to 400 mg/dL glucose concentration. The results show promising application of the gold nanoparticle modified plant-like ZnO composite bioelectrode for electrochemical sensing of glucose.

  17. Point-process analysis of neural spiking activity of muscle spindles recorded from thin-film longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citi, Luca; Djilas, Milan; Azevedo-Coste, Christine; Yoshida, Ken; Brown, Emery N; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Recordings from thin-film Longitudinal Intra-Fascicular Electrodes (tfLIFE) together with a wavelet-based de-noising and a correlation-based spike sorting algorithm, give access to firing patterns of muscle spindle afferents. In this study we use a point process probability structure to assess mechanical stimulus-response characteristics of muscle spindle spike trains. We assume that the stimulus intensity is primarily a linear combination of the spontaneous firing rate, the muscle extension, and the stretch velocity. By using the ability of the point process framework to provide an objective goodness of fit analysis, we were able to distinguish two classes of spike clusters with different statistical structure. We found that spike clusters with higher SNR have a temporal structure that can be fitted by an inverse Gaussian distribution while lower SNR clusters follow a Poisson-like distribution. The point process algorithm is further able to provide the instantaneous intensity function associated with the stimulus-response model with the best goodness of fit. This important result is a first step towards a point process decoding algorithm to estimate the muscle length and possibly provide closed loop Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) systems with natural sensory feedback information.

  18. Determination of Xanthine in the Presence of Hypoxanthine by Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry at the Mercury Film Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Percio Augusto Mardini; Castro, Arnaldo Aguiar

    2014-01-01

    A stripping method for the determination of xanthine in the presence of hypoxanthine at the submicromolar concentration levels is described. The method is based on controlled adsorptive accumulation at the thin-film mercury electrode followed by a fast linear scan voltammetric measurement of the surface species. Optimum experimental conditions were found to be the use of 1.0 × 10−3 mol L−1 NaOH solution as supporting electrolyte, an accumulation potential of 0.00 V for xanthine and −0.50 V for hypoxanthine–copper, and a linear scan rate of 200 mV second−1. The response of xanthine is linear over the concentration ranges of 20–140 ppb. For an accumulation time of 30 minutes, the detection limit was found to be 36 ppt (2.3 × 10−10 mol L−1). Adequate conditions for measuring the xanthine in the presence of hypoxanthine, copper and other metals, uric acid, and other nitrogenated bases were also investigated. The utility of the method is demonstrated by the presence of xanthine associated with hypoxanthine, uric acid, nitrogenated bases, ATP, and ssDNA. PMID:24940040

  19. Facile solvothermal synthesis of a graphene nanosheet-bismuth oxide composite and its electrochemical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huanwen [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Hu Zhongai, E-mail: zhongai@nwnu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Chang Yanqin; Chen Yanli; Lei Ziqiang; Zhang Ziyu; Yang Yuying [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2010-12-01

    This work demonstrates a novel and facile route for preparing graphene-based composites comprising of metal oxide nanoparticles and graphene. A graphene nanosheet-bismuth oxide composite as electrode materials of supercapacitors was firstly synthesized by thermally treating the graphene-bismuth composite, which was obtained through simultaneous solvothermal reduction of the colloidal dispersions of negatively charged graphene oxide sheets in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution of bismuth cations at 180 {sup o}C. The morphology, composition, and microstructure of the composites together with pure graphite oxide, and graphene were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG). The electrochemical behaviors were measured by cyclic voltammogram (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The specific capacitance of 255 F g{sup -1} (based on composite) is obtained at a specific current of 1 A g{sup -1} as compared with 71 F g{sup -1} for pure graphene. The loaded-bismuth oxide achieves a specific capacitance as high as 757 F g{sup -1} even at 10 A g{sup -1}. In addition, the graphene nanosheet-bismuth oxide composite electrode exhibits the excellent rate capability and well reversibility.

  20. Direct Electrochemistry of Glucose Oxidase Immobilized on Chitosan-gold Nanoparticle Composite Film on Glassy Carbon Electrodes and Its Biosensing Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (Gox) immobilized on a composite matrix based on chitosan (CHIT) and Au nanoparticles (Au NP) underlying on a glassy carbon electrode was achieved. The cyclic voltam-metry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize the modified electrode. In deaerated buffer solutions, the cyclic voltammetry of the composite films of Gox-Au NP-CHIT showed a pair of well-behaved redox peaks that were assigned to the redox reaction of Gox, confirming the effective immobilization of Gox on the composite film. The electron transfer rate constant was estimated to be 15.6 s-1, indicating a high electron transfer between the Gox redox center and electrode. The combination of CHIT and Au NP also promoted the stability of Gox in the composite film and retained its bioactivity, which might have the potential application to glucose determination. The calculated apparent Michaelis-Menten constant was 10.1 mmol·L-1. Furthermore, the proposed biosensor could be used for the determination of glucose in human plasma samples.

  1. An artificial photosynthesis anode electrode composed of a nanoparticulate photocatalyst film in a visible light responsive GaN-ZnO solid solution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Yoshihiko; Anazawa, Toshihisa; Manabe, Toshio; Amada, Hideyuki; Ido, Sachio; Kumasaka, Fumiaki; Awaji, Naoki; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-10-01

    The artificial photosynthesis technology known as the Honda-Fujishima effect, which produces oxygen and hydrogen or organic energy from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide, is an effective energy and environmental technology. The key component for the higher efficiency of this reaction system is the anode electrode, generally composed of a photocatalyst formed on a glass substrate from electrically conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). To obtain a highly efficient electrode, a dense film composed of a nanoparticulate visible light responsive photocatalyst that usually has a complicated multi-element composition needs to be deposited and adhered onto the FTO. In this study, we discovered a method for controlling the electronic structure of a film by controlling the aerosol-type nanoparticle deposition (NPD) condition and thereby forming films of materials with a band gap smaller than that of the prepared raw material powder, and we succeeded in extracting a higher current from the anode electrode. As a result, we confirmed that a current approximately 100 times larger than those produced by conventional processes could be obtained using the same material. This effect can be expected not only from the materials discussed (GaN-ZnO) in this paper but also from any photocatalyst, particularly materials of solid solution compositions.

  2. An artificial photosynthesis anode electrode composed of a nanoparticulate photocatalyst film in a visible light responsive GaN-ZnO solid solution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Yoshihiko; Anazawa, Toshihisa; Manabe, Toshio; Amada, Hideyuki; Ido, Sachio; Kumasaka, Fumiaki; Awaji, Naoki; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The artificial photosynthesis technology known as the Honda-Fujishima effect, which produces oxygen and hydrogen or organic energy from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide, is an effective energy and environmental technology. The key component for the higher efficiency of this reaction system is the anode electrode, generally composed of a photocatalyst formed on a glass substrate from electrically conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). To obtain a highly efficient electrode, a dense film composed of a nanoparticulate visible light responsive photocatalyst that usually has a complicated multi-element composition needs to be deposited and adhered onto the FTO. In this study, we discovered a method for controlling the electronic structure of a film by controlling the aerosol-type nanoparticle deposition (NPD) condition and thereby forming films of materials with a band gap smaller than that of the prepared raw material powder, and we succeeded in extracting a higher current from the anode electrode. As a result, we confirmed that a current approximately 100 times larger than those produced by conventional processes could be obtained using the same material. This effect can be expected not only from the materials discussed (GaN-ZnO) in this paper but also from any photocatalyst, particularly materials of solid solution compositions. PMID:27759108

  3. Preparation of thick-film electrode-solid electrolyte composites on Li7La3Zr2O12 and their electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takeshia; Iwasaki, Shinya; Ishii, Yosuke; Motoyama, Munekazu; West, William C.; Yamamoto, Yuta; Iriyama, Yasutoshi

    2016-01-01

    We prepared up to 20 μm-thick LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC)-Li+ conductive glass-ceramic solid electrolyte (LATP: σLi+ ˜ 10-3 S cm-2 at 298 K) composite cathode films on Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZ) substrates by aerosol deposition (AD) and investigated their electrochemical properties as all-solid-state batteries. The resultant NMC/LATP interface in the composite film had a thin mutual diffusion layer (˜5 nm) and a film had a porosity of ca. 0.15% in volume. The composite films were well adhered to the LLZ substrates even though the films were prepared at room temperature. All-solid-state batteries, consisting of Li/LLZ/NMC-LATP composite film (20 μm), repeated charge-discharge reactions for 90 cycles at 100 °C at a 1/10 C rate (capacity retention: 99.97%/cycle). Rate capability of this battery was improved by modifying both the LATP and electron conductive source amount in the composite film, and a battery with 16 μm-thick composite electrode delivered 60 mAh g-1 at 1 mA cm-2.

  4. Bismuth nanoparticles for phenolic compounds biosensing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Martinez, Carmen C; Cadevall, Miquel; Guix, Maria; Ros, Josep; Merkoçi, Arben

    2013-02-15

    The rapid determination of trace phenolic compounds is of great importance for evaluating the total toxicity of contaminated water samples. Nowadays, electrochemical tyrosinase (Tyr) based biosensors constitute a promising technology for the in situ monitoring of phenolic compounds because of their advantages such as high selectivity, low production cost, promising response speed, potential for miniaturization, simple instrumentation and easy automatization. A mediator-free amperometric biosensor for phenolic compounds detection based on the combination of bismuth nanoparticles (BiNPs) and Tyr for phenol detections will be hereby reported. This is achieved through the integration of BiNPs/Tyr onto the working electrode of a screen printed electrode (SPE) by using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. BiNPs/Tyr biosensor is evaluated by amperometric measurements at -200 mV DC and a linear range of up to 71 μM and 100 μM and a correlation coefficient of 0.995 and 0.996 for phenol and catechol, respectively. The very low DC working potential ensures the avoidance of interferences making this biosensor an advantageous device for real sample applications. In addition, the response mechanism including the effect of BiNPs based on electrochemical studies and optical characterizations will be also discussed. The obtained results may open the way to many other BiNPs applications in the biosensing field.

  5. Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Analysis of Mg2+ Intercalation into Thin Film Electrodes of Layered Oxides: V2O5 and MoO3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gershinsky, G; Yoo, HD; Gofer, Y; Aurbach, D

    2013-08-27

    Electrochemical, surface, and structural studies related to rechargeable Mg batteries were carried out with monolithic thin-film cathodes comprising layered V2O5 and MoO3. The reversible intercalation reactions of these electrodes with Mg ion in nonaqueous Mg salt solutions were explored using a variety of analytical tools. These included slow-scan rate cyclic voltammetry (SSCV), chrono-potentiometry (galvanostatic cycling), Raman and photoelectron spectroscopies, high-resolution microscopy, and XRD. The V2O5 electrodes exhibited reversible Mg-ion intercalation at capacities around 150-180 mAh g(-1) with 100% efficiency. A capacity of 220 mAh g(-1) at >95% efficiency was obtained with MoO3 electrodes. By applying the electrochemical driving force sufficiently slowly it was possible to measure the electrodes at equilibrium conditions and verify by spectroscopy, microscopy, and diffractometry that these electrodes undergo fully reversible structural changes upon Mg-ion insertion/deinsertion cycling.

  6. Uniform thin film electrode made of low-temperature-sinterable silver nanoparticles: optimized extent of ligand exchange from oleylamine to acrylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung Jong; Kim, Na Rae; Lee, Changsoo; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2017-02-01

    Lowering the sintering temperature of nanoparticles in the electrode deposition process holds both academic and industrial interest because of the potential applications of such electrodes in polymer devices and flexible electronics. In addition, achieving uniform electrode formation after ligand exchange is equally important as lowering the sintering temperature. Here, we report a simple chemical treatment by the addition of ligand-exchanging interfaces to lower the sintering temperature; we also determine the optimum extent of ligand exchange for crack-free electrode formation. First, we investigated the structural change of Ag thin films with respect to the concentration of acrylic acid (AA) solutions. Second, we used thermal analysis to evaluate the effects of changes in the sintering temperature. We observed that the resulting conductivity of the Ag patterns was only one order of magnitude lower than that of bulk Ag when the patterns were sintered at 150 °C. The simple chemical treatment developed in this work for solution-processed Ag electrode formation can be adopted for flexible electronics, which would eliminate the need for vacuum and high-temperature processes.

  7. Effects of thermal annealing of W/SiO2 multilayer Bragg reflectors on resonance characteristics of film bulk acoustic resonator devices with cobalt electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Munhyuk; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Chai, Dongkyu; Yoon, Giwan

    2004-05-01

    In this article, we present the thermal annealing effects of the W/SiO2 multilayer reflectors in ZnO-based film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) devices with cobalt (Co) electrodes in comparison with those with aluminum (Al) electrodes. Various thermal annealing conditions have been implemented on the W/SiO2 multilayer reflectors formed on p-type (100) silicon substrates. The resonance characteristics could be significantly improved due to the thermal annealing and were observed to depend strongly on the annealing conditions applied to the reflectors. Particularly, the FBAR devices with the W/SiO2 multilayer reflectors annealed at 400 °C/30 min have shown superior resonance characteristics in terms of return loss and quality factor. In addition, the use of Co electrodes has resulted in the further improvement of the resonance characteristics as compared with the Al electrodes. As a result, the combined use of both the thermal annealing and Co electrodes seems very useful to more effectively improve the resonance characteristics of the FBAR devices with the W/SiO2 multilayer reflectors. .

  8. Electrochemical fabrication of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles/[BMIM]BF{sub 4} ionic liquid hybrid film electrode and its application in determination of p-acetaminophen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Yuan; Qin, Xianjing; Zhan, Guoqing [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ma, Ming [Ningbo Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of P. R. C., Ningbo 315012 (China); Li, Chunya, E-mail: lcychem@yahoo.com [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-12-01

    A water soluble ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF{sub 4}), was incorporated into TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles to fabricate a hybrid film modified glassy carbon electrode (nano-TiO{sub 2}/[BMIM]BF{sub 4}/GCE) through electrochemical deposition in a tetrabutyltitanate sol solution containing [BMIM]BF{sub 4}. The obtained nano-TiO{sub 2}/[BMIM]BF{sub 4}/GCEs were characterized scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical behaviors of p-acetaminophen at the nano-TiO{sub 2}/[BMIM]BF{sub 4}/GCEs were thoroughly investigated. Compared to the redox reaction of p-acetaminophen using an unmodified electrode under the same conditions, a new reduction peak was observed clearly at 0.26 V with the modified electrode. In addition, the peak potential for the oxidation of p-acetaminophen was found to shift negatively about 90 mV and the current response increased significantly. These changes indicate that the nano-TiO{sub 2}/[BMIM]BF{sub 4} hybrid film can improve the redox reactions of p-acetaminophen in aqueous medium. Under optimum conditions, a linear relationship was obtained for the p-acetaminophen solutions with concentration in the range from 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} to 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M. The estimated detection limit was 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} M (S/N = 3). The newly developed method was applied for the determination of p-acetaminophen in urine samples. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-TiO{sub 2}/[BMIM]BF{sub 4} hybrid film electrode was fabricated with electrodeposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Voltammetric behavior of p-acetaminophen at the obtained electrode was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hybrid film electrode shows good electrocatalytic response to p-acetaminophen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p-acetaminophen in urine samples was successfully determined.

  9. 修饰铂电极上Bi(Ⅲ)的示波双电位滴定法%Oscillo-Potentiometric Titration of Bismuth(Ⅲ)Using Modified Platinum Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐蕾; 齐同喜

    2011-01-01

    Bi ( Ⅲ ) modified Pt-electrode was prepared and the adsorption character of Bi ( Ⅲ ) on the electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The mechanism of electrode response was discussed. A method using oscillo-potentiometry for the titration of Bi( Ⅲ) was described. In 0. 1 mol/L nitric acid solution (pH = 1.0) , Bi( Ⅲ) was titrated with EDTA, and two modified Pt-electrodes were used as bi-indicator electrode system. The end point of titration was determined by an abrupt maximum displacement of the fluorescence spot observed on the screen of the cathodic oscillograph. When Bi( Ⅲ) content was in the range of 1. 19 × 10 -4 ~ 1.44× 10-2 mol/L, the recovery was in the range of 99. 8% ~ 100. 1% and the detection limit was 1. 0 × 10-4 mol/L(S/N = 3). Furthermore, the modified electrode showed excellent stability and reproducibility. In 1.0 × 10-2 mol/L Bi ( Ⅲ ) solution, the values of end point potentials obtained from 7 continuous determinations were all around 100 mV, and the relative standard deviation( RSD) was 0.04%. Moreover, the proposed method has been used in the determination of Bi ( Ⅲ) contained in samples with recoveries of 99. 5%~100. 5% and RSD(n = 7) less than 0. 25% , which are in accordance with the indicator method.%制备了Bi(Ⅲ)修饰铂电极,用循环伏安法表征了Bi(Ⅲ)在电极上的吸附特性,探讨了电极的响应机理.通过优化实验条件,建立了一种测定Bi(Ⅲ)的示波双电位滴定法.在0.1 moL/L的硝酸溶液中(pH=1.0).用制备的修饰铂电极作为双指示电极,以EDTA标准溶液滴定Bi(Ⅲ),利用示波器屏幕上荧光点的显著最大位移指示滴定终点.Bi(Ⅲ)在1.19×10(-1)~1.44×10(-2)moL/L时,回收率为99.8%~100.1%,检出限(S,N=3)为1.0×10(-4)mol/L.该修饰电极具有良好的稳定性和重现性,在含有1.0×10(-2)moL/L Bi(Ⅲ)的溶液中,连续7次测定,所得终点电位值均在100 mV左右,其相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.04%.应用该

  10. ITO-Free Semitransparent Organic Solar Cells Based on Silver Thin Film Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhe Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ITO-free semitransparent organic solar cells (OSCs based on MoO3/Ag anodes with poly(3-hexylthiophene and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester films as the active layer are investigated in this work. To obtain the optimal transparent (MoO3/Ag anode, ITO-free reference OSCs are firstly fabricated. The power conversion efficiency (PCE of 2.71% is obtained for OSCs based on the optimal MoO3 (2 nm/Ag (9 nm anode, comparable to that of ITO-based reference OSCs (PCE of 2.85%. Then based on MoO3 (2 nm/Ag (9 nm anode, ITO-free semitransparent OSCs with different thickness combination of Ca and Ag as the cathodes are investigated. It is observed from our results that OSCs with Ca (15 nm/Ag (15 nm cathode have the optimal transparency. Meanwhile, the PCE of 1.79% and 0.67% is obtained for illumination from the anode and cathode side, respectively, comparable to that of similar ITO-based semitransparent OSCs (PCE of 1.59% and 0.75% for illumination from the anode and cathode side, resp. (Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 95, pp. 877–880, 2011. The transparency and PCE of ITO-free semitransparent OSCs can be further improved by introducing a light couple layer. The developed method is compatible with various substrates, which is instructive for further research of ITO-free semitransparent OSCs.

  11. Photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of GMP on an ITO electrode modified with clay/[Ru(phen)2(dC18bpy)]2+ hybrid film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode modified with monolayer clay/[Ru(phen)2(dC18bpy)]2+ (phen= 1,10-phenanthroline, dC18bpy = 4,4′-dioctadecyl-2,2′ bipyridyl) hybrid film has been fabricated by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the single-layered hybrid film of clay/[Ru(phen)2(dC18bpy)]2+ (denoted as Clay-Ru) was closely packed at a surface pressure of 25 mN-m-1 and had a thickness of 3.4±0.5 nm. Cyclic voltammograms showed that the redox current of Ru(Ⅱ) complex decreased when incorporated into the clay film, suggesting that the clay layer acts as a barrier against electron transfer. When applied to oxidizing the mononucleotide of guanosine 5′-monophosphate (GMP), a large catalytic oxidative current was achieved on the Clay-Ru(Ⅱ) modified ITO electrode at the external potential above 900 mV (vs. Ag|AgCl|KCl ) and, more significantly, this response was further enhanced by light irradiation (λ>360 nm), in which the photocurrent is increased about 11 times in comparison with that of a bare ITO. Mechanism of the photoelectrocatalytic effect was proposed in terms of the reduction of the photoelectrochemically generated Ru(Ⅲ) complex in the Clay-Ru film by GMP.

  12. Photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of GMP on an ITO electrode modified with clay/[Ru(phen)2(dC 18bpy)]2+hybrid film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Xue-Qin; WANG Shun; LIN Da-Jie; GUAN Wei-Peng; ZHOU Huan; HUANG Shao-Ming

    2009-01-01

    An indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode modified with monolayer clay/[Ru(phen)2(dC18bpy)]2+ (phen= 1,10-phenanthroline, dC18bpy = 4,4'-dioctsdecyl-2,2' bipyridyl) hybrid film has been fabricated by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the single-layered hybrid film of clay/[Ru(phen)2(dC18bpy)]2+. (denoted as Clay-Ru) was closely packed at a surface pressure of 25 Ru(Ⅱ) complex decreased when incorporated into the clay film, suggesting that the clay layer acts as a barrier against electron transfer. When applied to oxidizing the mononucleotide of guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP), a large catalytic oxidative current was achieved on the Clay-Ru(Ⅱ) modified ITO electrode at the external potential above 900 mV (vs. AglAgCIlKCI) and, more significantly, this response was further enhanced by light irradiation (λ360 nm), in which the photocurrent is increased about 11 times in comparison with that of a bare ITO. Mechanism of the photoelectrocatalytic effect was proposed in terms of the reduction of the photoelectrochemically generated Ru(Ⅲ) complex in the Clay-Ru film by GMP.

  13. Accurate and representative decoding of the neural drive to muscles in humans with multi-channel intramuscular thin-film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muceli, Silvia; Poppendieck, Wigand; Negro, Francesco; Yoshida, Ken; Hoffmann, Klaus P; Butler, Jane E; Gandevia, Simon C; Farina, Dario

    2015-09-01

    Intramuscular electrodes developed over the past 80 years can record the concurrent activity of only a few motor units active during a muscle contraction. We designed, produced and tested a novel multi-channel intramuscular wire electrode that allows in vivo concurrent recordings of a substantially greater number of motor units than with conventional methods. The electrode has been extensively tested in deep and superficial human muscles. The performed tests indicate the applicability of the proposed technology in a variety of conditions. The electrode represents an important novel technology that opens new avenues in the study of the neural control of muscles in humans. We describe the design, fabrication and testing of a novel multi-channel thin-film electrode for detection of the output of motoneurones in vivo and in humans, through muscle signals. The structure includes a linear array of 16 detection sites that can sample intramuscular electromyographic activity from the entire muscle cross-section. The structure was tested in two superficial muscles (the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and the tibialis anterior (TA)) and a deep muscle (the genioglossus (GG)) during contractions at various forces. Moreover, surface electromyogram (EMG) signals were concurrently detected from the TA muscle with a grid of 64 electrodes. Surface and intramuscular signals were decomposed into the constituent motor unit (MU) action potential trains. With the intramuscular electrode, up to 31 MUs were identified from the ADM muscle during an isometric contraction at 15% of the maximal force (MVC) and 50 MUs were identified for a 30% MVC contraction of TA. The new electrode detects different sources from a surface EMG system, as only one MU spike train was found to be common in the decomposition of the intramuscular and surface signals acquired from the TA. The system also allowed access to the GG muscle, which cannot be analysed with surface EMG, with successful identification of MU

  14. Spin-Polarized Tunneling Study on Spin-Momentum Locking in the Topological Insulator Bismuth Selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Tzu; Liu, Luqiao; Richardella, Anthony; Garate, Ion; Zhu, Yu; Samarth, Nitin

    2015-03-01

    In this talk, we will demonstrate that the helical spin texture on topological insulator (TI) surfaces can be electrically detected using four-terminal tunnel junction devices with ferromagnetic top electrodes. Consistent results are obtained in both the Edelstein and spin-galvanic effect configurations, allowing a quantitative determination of the charge-spin conversion efficiency in bismuth selenide. By applying finite DC biases at the junction, we further extract the energy dependence of the effective spin polarization in bismuth selenide. The observed temperature stability up to 200K suggests that TIs can be highly promising for room-temperature spintronics applications

  15. Simultaneous enhancements in photon absorption and charge transport of bismuth vanadate photoanodes for solar water splitting

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Woo; Ping, Yuan; Galli, Giulia A.; Choi, Kyoung-Shin

    2015-01-01

    n-Type bismuth vanadate has been identified as one of the most promising photoanodes for use in a water-splitting photoelectrochemical cell. The major limitation of BiVO4 is its relatively wide bandgap (∼2.5 eV), which fundamentally limits its solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency. Here we show that annealing nanoporous bismuth vanadate electrodes at 350 °C under nitrogen flow can result in nitrogen doping and generation of oxygen vacancies. This gentle nitrogen treatment not only effective...

  16. Tunnel magnetoresistance in full-epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions with a top electrode consisting of a perpendicularly magnetized D022-Mn3Ge film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Atsushi; Suzuki, Kazuya; Miyazaki, Terunobu; Mizukami, Shigemi

    2015-07-01

    We grew a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with a top electrode consisting of a Mn3Ge film using a thin Co-Fe alloy film as a seed layer. X-ray diffraction showed that the Mn3Ge had (001)-oriented D022 structure epitaxially grown on an MgO(001) substrate. Magnetic hysteresis loops suggested that the D022-Mn3Ge film possessed perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. A magnetoresistance (MR) ratio of 11.3% was observed in the microfabricated MTJ at room temperature. The resistance-field curve suggested that the top-Co-Fe and D022-Mn3Ge layer are weakly coupled antiferromagnetically. The optimization of top-Co-Fe composition would improve MR ratio.

  17. Highly sensitive and multifunctional tactile sensor using free-standing ZnO/PVDF thin film with graphene electrodes for pressure and temperature monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James S; Shin, Keun-Young; Cheong, Oug Jae; Kim, Jae Hyun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-01-20

    We demonstrate an 80-μm-thick film (which is around 15% of the thickness of the human epidermis), which is a highly sensitive hybrid functional gauge sensor, and was fabricated from poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and ZnO nanostructures with graphene electrodes. Using this film, we were able to simultaneously measure pressure and temperature in real time. The pressure was monitored from the change in the electrical resistance via the piezoresistance of the material, and the temperature was inferred based on the recovery time of the signal. Our thin film system enabled us to detect changes in pressure as small as 10 Pa which is pressure detection limit was 10(3)-fold lower than the minimum level required for artificial skin, and to detect temperatures in the range 20-120 °C.

  18. Impedance spectroscopic investigation of the effect of thin azo-calix[4]arene film type on the cation sensitivity of the gold electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlika, R., E-mail: mlikarym@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Interfaces (LPCI), Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Rouis, A. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Interfaces (LPCI), Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Bonnamour, I. [Universite de Lyon, Institut de Chimie et Biochimie Moleculaires et Supramoleculaires, Universite Claude Bernar, Lyon 1, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Ouada, H. Ben [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Interfaces (LPCI), Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2011-10-10

    In this work, we report the impedance spectroscopic investigation of the effect of the thin film type on the selectivity of gold/azo-calix[4]arene electrodes. For this purpose, two C1 and C3 azo-calix[4]arene derivative molecules, used as thin films, are deposited by spin-coating process on the gold surface. These thin films were first studied using contact angle measurements. This revealed a less hydrophobic character for C3 thin film, which has been attributed to the presence of hydroxyl groups at the lower rim. The sensitivity study, by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), towards Cu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} cations, has showed that the C3 thin film is more sensitive and selective towards Eu{sup 3+} than C1. This best performance is due to the presence of two ester groups acting as clips and leading to more complexation stability. The EIS results were modeled by an appropriate equivalent circuit for the aim of elucidating electrical properties of thin films. This modeling has exposed that C3 thin film presents lower ionic conductivity and limited diffusion phenomenon at the interface. Highlights: {yields} C1 and C3 azo-calix[4]arenes thin films are deposited on the gold surface. {yields} The lower hydrophobicity for C3 was attributed to the presence of hydroxyl groups. {yields} The C3 thin film is more sensitive and selective towards Eu{sup 3+} than C1 one. {yields} This best performance is due to the presence of two ester groups acting as clips.

  19. Bismuth subcarbonate as filler particle for an Epoxy-based root canal sealer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Schwartzer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of bismuth subcarbonate with different concentrations regarding the rheological properties of an experimental epoxy-based root canal sealer. Materials and Methods: Endodontic sealers were prepared with epoxy resin-based sealer with bismuth subcarbonate additions of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%, and 120%. Flow, film thickness, working time, setting time, dimensional change, sorption, solubility, and cytotoxicity were studied according to the ISO standards. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA, and Tukey multiple comparisons were used, with a significance level of 5%. Results: The flow, working time, water sorption, and solubility significantly decreased and the film thickness and dimensional change increased with higher filler particle addition. There were no statistically significant differences for setting time and cytotoxicity between the filler particle proportions. Conclusion: Experimental resin-based sealer with bismuth subcarbonate addition up to 40% can be an alternative for root canal sealer.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Self-Standing and Highly Flexible δ-MnO2@CNTs/CNTs Composite Films for Direct Use of Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Cheng, Shuang; Yang, Lufeng; Lin, Zhiqiang; Gui, Xuchun; Ou, Xing; Zhou, Jun; Yao, Minghai; Wang, Mengkun; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Meilin

    2016-09-14

    Self-standing and flexible films worked as pseudocapacitor electrodes have been fabricated via a simple vacuum-filtration procedure to stack δ-MnO2@carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite layer and pure CNT layer one by one with CNT layers ended. The lightweight CNTs layers served as both current collector and supporter, while the MnO2@CNTs composite layers with birnessite-type MnO2 worked as active layer and made the main contribution to the capacitance. At a low discharge current of 0.2 A g(-1), the layered films displayed a high areal capacitance of 0.293 F cm(-2) with a mass of 1.97 mg cm(-2) (specific capacitance of 149 F g(-1)) and thickness of only 16.5 μm, and hence an volumetric capacitance of about 177.5 F cm(-3). Moreover, the films also exhibited a good rate capability (only about 15% fading for the capacitance when the discharge current increased to 5 A g(-1) from 0.2 A g(-1)), outstanding cycling stability (about 90% of the initial capacitance was remained after 5,000 cycles) and high flexibility (almost no performance change when bended to different angles). In addition, the capacitance of the films increased proportionally with the stacked layers and the geometry area. E.g., when the stacked layers were three times many with a mass of 6.18 mg cm(-2), the areal capacitance of the films was increased to 0.764 F cm(-2) at 0.5 A g(-1), indicating a high electronic conductivity. It is not overstated to say that the flexible and lightweight layered films emerged high potential for future practical applications as supercapacitor electrodes.

  1. Nano sized bismuth oxy chloride by metal organic chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagdale, Pravin, E-mail: pravin.jagdale@polito.it [Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, 10129 (Italy); Castellino, Micaela [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Marrec, Françoise [Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Picardie Jules Verne (UPJV), Amiens 80039 (France); Rodil, Sandra E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexicom (UNAM), Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Tagliaferro, Alberto [Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, 10129 (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) method was used to prepare thin films of bismuth based nano particles starting from bismuth salts. Nano sized bismuth oxy chloride (BiOCl) crystals were synthesized from solution containing bismuth chloride (BiCl{sub 3}) in acetone (CH{sub 3}-CO-CH{sub 3}). Self-assembly of nano sized BiOCl crystals were observed on the surface of silicon, fused silica, copper, carbon nanotubes and aluminium substrates. Various synthesis parameters and their significant impact onto the formation of self-assembled nano-crystalline BiOCl were investigated. BiOCl nano particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. These analyses confirm that bismuth nanometer-sized crystal structures showing a single tetragonal phase were indeed bismuth oxy chloride (BiOCl) square platelets 18–250 nm thick and a few micrometres wide.

  2. Bridge-bonded formate: active intermediate or spectator species in formic acid oxidation on a Pt film electrode?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-X; Heinen, M; Jusys, Z; Behm, R J

    2006-12-01

    We present and discuss the results of an in situ IR study on the mechanism and kinetics of formic acid oxidation on a Pt film/Si electrode, performed in an attenuated total reflection (ATR) flow cell configuration under controlled mass transport conditions, which specifically aimed at elucidating the role of the adsorbed bridge-bonded formates in this reaction. Potentiodynamic measurements show a complex interplay between formation and desorption/oxidation of COad and formate species and the total Faradaic current. The notably faster increase of the Faradaic current compared to the coverage of bridge-bonded formate in transient measurements at constant potential, but with different formic acid concentrations, reveals that adsorbed formate decomposition is not rate-limiting in the dominant reaction pathway. If being reactive intermediate at all, the contribution of formate adsorption/decomposition to the reaction current decreases with increasing formic acid concentration, accounting for at most 15% for 0.2 M DCOOH at 0.7 VRHE. The rapid build-up/removal of the formate adlayer and its similarity with acetate or (bi-)sulfate adsorption/desorption indicate that the formate adlayer coverage is dominated by a fast dynamic adsorption-desorption equilibrium with the electrolyte, and that formate desorption is much faster than its decomposition. The results corroborate the proposal of a triple pathway reaction mechanism including an indirect pathway, a formate pathway, and a dominant direct pathway, as presented previously (Chen, Y. X.; et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2006, 45, 981), in which adsorbed formates act as a site-blocking spectator in the dominant pathway rather than as an active intermediate.

  3. 维生素B1的电化学聚合及催化作用%Electrochemistry and Electrocatalysis of Electropolymerized Vitamin B1 Film Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋霞; 马玉荣; 何畏; 王雪琳

    2001-01-01

    A polymer film of vitamin B1 was obtained at a graphite carbon electrode by cyclic voltammetric method in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Cyclic voltammograms of the film electrode in PBS (pH 5) exhibited one pair redox waves, Epa=350 mV,Epc=325 mV,different from monomer vitamin B1. The peak currents of poly-VB1 films was proportional to (scan rate)1/2, which showed that the charge transfer was controlled by diffusion in the polymer film. The Poly-VB1 modified electrode showed a good catalytic ability to dopamine and epinephrine. At the modified electrod, the peak potential for oxidation of dopamine occurred at 250 mV and 200 mV for epinephrine, while they were shifted towards the negative direction 100 mV and 300 mV respectively at the bare glassy carbon electrode . And their peak current had a linear relationship to the concentrations in the range of 8.0×10-7~1.0×10-4 mol/L for dopamine and 1.0×10-6~1.0×10-4 mol/L for epinephrine.%用循环伏安法在石墨电极上制备了VB1聚合膜修饰电极,VB1聚合膜在pH 5的PBS中有一对氧化还原峰,峰电位Epa=350 mV,Epc=325 mV,峰电流与扫描速率的平方根成正比,表明电子在膜中的传递为扩散控制,且聚合膜与VB1单体有不同的电化学性质。实验表明VB1聚合膜对多巴胺、肾上腺素等神经递质有显著的电催化作用。

  4. Electrochemical deposition of molybdenum sulfide thin films on conductive plastic substrates as platinum-free flexible counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chao-Kuang; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo, E-mail: jack_hsieh@mail.mcut.edu.tw

    2015-06-01

    In this study, pulsed electrochemical deposition (pulsed ECD) was used to deposit molybdenum sulfide (MoS{sub x}) thin films on indium tin oxide/polyethylene naphthalate (ITO/PEN) substrates as flexible counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The surface morphologies and elemental distributions of the prepared MoS{sub x} thin films were examined using field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The chemical states and crystallinities of the prepared MoS{sub x} thin films were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The optical transmission (T (%)) properties of the prepared MoS{sub x} samples were determined by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Tafel-polarization measurements were performed to analyze the electrochemical properties and catalytic activities of the thin films for redox reactions. The FE-SEM results showed that the MoS{sub x} thin films were deposited uniformly on the ITO/PEN flexible substrates via the pulsed ECD method. The CV and Tafel-polarization curve measurements demonstrated that the deposited MoS{sub x} thin films exhibited excellent performances for the reduction of triiodide ions. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSSC produced with the pulsed ECD MoS{sub x} thin-film CE was examined by a solar simulator. In combination with a dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with the MoS{sub x} flexible CE showed a PCE of 4.39% under an illumination of AM 1.5 (100 mW cm{sup −2}). Thus, we report that the MoS{sub x} thin films are active catalysts for triiodide reduction. The MoS{sub x} thin films are prepared at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and in a simple and rapid manner. This is an important practical contribution to the production of flexible low-cost thin-film CEs based on plastic substrates. The MoS{sub x

  5. Electrochemical behavior and voltammetric determination of acetaminophen based on glassy carbon electrodes modified with poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wencai [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qilu Normal University, Jinan 250013 (China); Huang, Hui; Gao, Xiaochun [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Ma, Houyi, E-mail: hyma@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-12-01

    Poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (4-ABA/ERGO/GCEs) were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. The electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the modified electrode was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that 4-ABA/ERGO composite films possessed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of acetaminophen. The electrochemical reaction of acetaminophen at 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE is proved to be a surface-controlled process involving the same number of protons and electrons. The voltammetric determination of acetaminophen performed with the 4-ABA/ERGO modified electrode presents a good linearity in the range of 0.1–65 μM with a low detection limit of 0.01 μM (S/N = 3). In the case of using the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE, acetaminophen and dopamine can be simultaneously determined without mutual interference. Furthermore, the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE has good reproducibility and stability, and can be used to determine acetaminophen in tablets. - Highlights: • The 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE was fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. • Electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE was investigated. • The electrochemical sensor exhibited a low detection limit and good selectivity. • This sensor was applied to the detection of acetaminophen in commercial tablets.

  6. Electrochemical behavior and voltammetric determination of acetaminophen based on glassy carbon electrodes modified with poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wencai; Huang, Hui; Gao, Xiaochun; Ma, Houyi

    2014-12-01

    Poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (4-ABA/ERGO/GCEs) were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. The electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the modified electrode was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that 4-ABA/ERGO composite films possessed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of acetaminophen. The electrochemical reaction of acetaminophen at 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE is proved to be a surface-controlled process involving the same number of protons and electrons. The voltammetric determination of acetaminophen performed with the 4-ABA/ERGO modified electrode presents a good linearity in the range of 0.1-65 μM with a low detection limit of 0.01 μM (S/N=3). In the case of using the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE, acetaminophen and dopamine can be simultaneously determined without mutual interference. Furthermore, the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE has good reproducibility and stability, and can be used to determine acetaminophen in tablets.

  7. Effect of Electrode Dimensionality and Morphology on the Performance of Cu2Sb Thin Film Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahey, Lynn; Kung, Harold H; Thackeray, Michael; Vaughey, John T.

    2011-08-09

    Although graphitic carbons have been commercially used in lithium-ion batteries for many years, their low crystallographic density limits their use in applications where space is at a premium. Among the alternative anode materials being considered for these applications are Zintl phases and intermetallic insertion anodes. Historically, main-group-metal-based anode materials have had problems with respect to volume expansion experienced on lithiation and its effect on cycle life. In this paper, we report the role of morphology and electrode dimensionality in extending the cycle life of the intermetallic insertion anode Cu₂Sb. We have found that controlling the surface area of the active material and building internal volume into the electrode structure significantly decreases the capacity fade on cycling. The decrease in fade rate may be due to the active material gradient identified within the structure produced by the electrodeposition process. This enhancement in cycling can be attributed to keeping the displaced copper closer to the active particles and to reducing the diffusion distances within the electrode.

  8. Electrocatalytic Oxidation and Ion Chromatography Detection of S2O32-, SO32-, I- and SCN- at Glassy Carbon Electrode with Functionalized Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ji-ming; WANG Yan-ping; XIAN Yue-zhong; JIN Li-tong

    2004-01-01

    In this research, a glassy carbon electrode modified with the functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT-COOHs) film was used as an amperometric sensor for the determination of S2O32-, SO23-, I- and SCN-. The electrochemical behavior of those oxidizable inorganic anions at this modified electrode was studied by means of cyclic voltammetry(CV). The experimental results indicate that the modified electrode exhibits a high electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of those anions with a relatively high sensitivity, a good stability and a long-life. Separated by ion chromatography(IC) with 1.25 mmol/L H2SO4 as an eluent,those oxidizable anions can be determined by the MWNT-COOHs modified electrode successfully. Under the optimal chromatographic conditions, the detection limits are 1.5 × 10-7 mol/L for S2O23-, 2. 5 × 10-7 mol/L for SO32-, 1.2 × 10-7 mol/L for I- and 2. 0 × 10-7 mol/L for SCN-, respectively. The method was applied successfully to the determination of those anions in environmental water.

  9. Low-cost solution processed nano millet like structure CoS2 film superior to pt as counter electrode for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. Srinivasa; Punnosse, Dinah; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-05-01

    Cobalt Sulfide (CoS2) counter electrodes (CE) with uniform size distribution were obtained on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate as counter electrodes for polysulfide redox electrolyte in CdS/CdSe/ ZnS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. In this study, we optimized the cobalt source, deposition temperature and time in the preparation of CoS2 thin film to achieve greater conversion efficiency with strong adhesion on FTO. Relative to the platinum (Pt) electrodes, the CoS2 electrode shows a higher catalytic activity, faster electron transport and lower chargetransfer resistance, which can play a role in rendering higher power conversion efficiency. As a result, QDSSCs with the optimized CoS2 CE achieved a higher short-circuit current density of 13.08 mA cm-2, open-circuit voltage of 0.47 V, fill factor of 0.34 and overall photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 2.17% obtained under one sun illumination (100 mW cm-2). Therefore, CoS2 CE can be used as a promising CE in QDSSCs with efficiency exceeding that of high-cost Pt-based cells (1.64%). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Influence of Oxygen Concentration on the Performance of Ultra-Thin RF Magnetron Sputter Deposited Indium Tin Oxide Films as a Top Electrode for Photovoltaic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephias Gwamuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity for substantial efficiency enhancements of thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H solar photovoltaic (PV cells using plasmonic absorbers requires ultra-thin transparent conducting oxide top electrodes with low resistivity and high transmittances in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Fabricating ultra-thin indium tin oxide (ITO films (sub-50 nm using conventional methods has presented a number of challenges; however, a novel method involving chemical shaving of thicker (greater than 80 nm RF sputter deposited high-quality ITO films has been demonstrated. This study investigates the effect of oxygen concentration on the etch rates of RF sputter deposited ITO films to provide a detailed understanding of the interaction of all critical experimental parameters to help create even thinner layers to allow for more finely tune plasmonic resonances. ITO films were deposited on silicon substrates with a 98-nm, thermally grown oxide using RF magnetron sputtering with oxygen concentrations of 0, 0.4 and 1.0 sccm and annealed at 300 °C air ambient. Then the films were etched using a combination of water and hydrochloric and nitric acids for 1, 3, 5 and 8 min at room temperature. In-between each etching process cycle, the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, 4-point probe (electrical conductivity, and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. All the films were polycrystalline in nature and highly oriented along the (222 reflection. Ultra-thin ITO films with record low resistivity values (as low as 5.83 × 10−4 Ω·cm were obtained and high optical transparency is exhibited in the 300–1000 nm wavelength region for all the ITO films. The etch rate, preferred crystal lattice growth plane, d-spacing and lattice distortion were also observed to be highly dependent on the nature of growth environment for RF sputter deposited ITO films. The structural, electrical

  11. Comparative Study of Semiconductors Bismuth Iodate, Bismuth Triiodide and Bismuth Trisulphide Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.K. Patil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, crystals of Bismuth Iodate[Bi(IO33], Bismuth Iodide[BiI3] and Bismuth- Tri Sulphide [Bi2S3] were grown by a simple gel technique using single diffusion method. The optimum growth conditions were established by varying various parameters such as pH of gel solution, gel concentration, gel setting time, concentration of reactant etc. Gel was prepared by mixing sodium meta silicate (Na2SiO35H2O, glacial acetic acid (CH3COOH and supernant bismuth chloride (BiCl3 at pH value 4.4 and transferred in glass tube of diameter 2.5 cm and 25 cm in length. The mouth of test tube was covered by cotton plug and kept it for the setting. After setting the gel, it was left for aging. After 13 days duration the second supernant K(IO3, KI3 and H2S water gas solution was poured over the set gel by using pipette then it was kept undisturbed. After 72 hours of pouring the second supernatant, the small nucleation growth was observed at below the interface of gel. The good quality crystals of [Bi(IO33], [BiI3] and [Bi2S3] were grown. These grown crystals were characterized by XRD, FTIR, Chemical Analysis and Electrical Conductivity.

  12. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of paracetamol and ascorbic acid using a boron-doped diamond electrode modified with Nafion and lead films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszczuk-Rotko, Katarzyna; Bęczkowska, Ilona; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Sowa, Ireneusz

    2014-11-01

    The paper describes the fabrication and application of a novel sensor (a boron-doped diamond electrode modified with Nafion and lead films) for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol and ascorbic acid by differential pulse voltammetry. The main advantage of the lead film and polymer covered boron-doped diamond electrode is that the sensitivity of the stripping responses is increased and the separation of paracetamol and ascorbic acid signals is improved due to the modification of the boron-doped diamond surface by the lead layer. Additionally, the repeatability of paracetamol and ascorbic acid signals is improved by the application of the Nafion film coating. In the presence of oxygen, linear calibration curves were obtained in a wide concentration range from 5×10(-7) to 2×10(-4) mol L(-1) for paracetamol and from 1×10(-6) to 5×10(-4) mol L(-1) for ascorbic acid. The analytical utility of the differential pulse voltammetric method elaborated was tested in the assay of paracetamol and ascorbic acid in commercially available pharmaceutical formulations and the method was validated by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector.

  13. Simultaneous determination of copper and lead in seawater using optimised thin-mercury film electrodes in situ plated in thiocyanate media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapuça, Helena M; Monterroso, Sandra C C; Rocha, Luciana S; Duarte, Armando C

    2004-10-08

    In the present work the anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV) methodology using a thin mercury film electrode in situ plated in thiocyanate media was re-assessed in order to allow the simultaneous determination of copper and lead in seawater. Under previously suggested conditions [6], i.e. using a concentration of thiocyanate of 5mM, the ASV peaks of copper and lead overlapped due to the formation of a stable copper(I)-thiocyanate species, limiting the analytical determinations. Therefore, the best value for the thiocyanate concentration was re-evaluated: for 0.05mM a trade-off between good resolution of the copper and lead peaks and high reproducibility of the mercury film formation/removing processes was achieved. In this media, the ASV peaks for Pb and Cu occurred, separated by 140mV. Also, the in situ thin mercury film electrode was produced and removed with good repeatability, which was confirmed by the relative standard deviation values for the ASV determinations: 0.5% for Pb and 2.0% for Cu (10 replicate determinations in a solution with metal concentrations 1.5x10(-8)M for lead and 2.2x10(-8)M for copper). The optimised methodology was successfully applied to the determination of copper in the presence of lead, in certified seawater (NASS-5).

  14. Low-temperature, template-free synthesis of single-crystal bismuth telluride nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purkayastha, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Lupo, F. [Max Planck Institut fuer Metallforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kim, S.; Borca-Tasciuc, T. [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Ramanath, G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Max Planck Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-02-17

    Synthesis of single-crystal bismuth telluride nanorods is reported by using a low-temperature, template-free approach. Films of thioglycolic acid functionalized nanorods doped with sulfur exhibit n-type behavior with a high Seebeck coefficient, holding promise for thermoelectric device applications. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Photoelectrolytic hydrogen production using Bi{sub 2}MNbO{sub 7} (M = Al, Ga) semiconductor film electrodes prepared by dip-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-Barrera, K.L. [Grupo de Investigaciones en Minerales, Biohidrometalurgia y Ambiente - GIMBA, Universidad Industrial de Santander - UIS, Sede Guatiguara, Km. 2 via El Refugio, C.P. 681011, Piedecusta, Santander (Colombia); Pedraza-Avella, J.A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Catalisis - CICAT, Universidad Industrial de Santander - UIS, Sede Guatiguara, Km. 2 via El Refugio, C.P. 681011, Piedecuesta, Santander (Colombia); Ballen-Gaitan, B.P.; Cortes-Pena, J.; Pedraza-Rosas, J.E. [Grupo de Investigaciones en Minerales, Biohidrometalurgia y Ambiente - GIMBA, Universidad Industrial de Santander - UIS, Sede Guatiguara, Km. 2 via El Refugio, C.P. 681011, Piedecusta (Santander) (Colombia); Laverde-Catano, D.A., E-mail: dlaverde@uis.edu.co [Grupo de Investigaciones en Minerales, Biohidrometalurgia y Ambiente - GIMBA, Universidad Industrial de Santander - UIS, Sede Guatiguara, Km. 2 via El Refugio, C.P. 681011, Piedecusta, Santander (Colombia)

    2011-10-25

    The performance of Bi{sub 2}MNbO{sub 7} (M = Al, Ga) films on AISI/SAE 304 stainless steel was evaluated in the photoelectrochemical hydrogen production as a function of the annealing temperature of the films (400, 500 and 600 deg. C) and the composition of the electrolyte solution (containing KOH, KCN and KCl). The films were prepared by sol-gel dip-coating on AISI/SAE 304 stainless steel followed by a thermal annealing. The photoelectrochemical evaluation (UV-Vis, 2.5 V) was carried out in a conventional two-compartment electrochemical cell by using the prepared films as photoanode and a silver plate as cathode. During the process, circulating current was recorded and hydrogen production and cyanide degradation were measured. In both cases, it was found that the higher activity was obtained with the films annealed at 500 deg. C and using an electrolyte solution 0.3 M of KOH and 120 ppm of CN{sup -}. Further works on the subject should involve a cathode evaluation to avoid the electrode polarization in presence of KCl and an experimental design to optimize the evaluated variables.

  16. High Performance Flexible Actuator of Urchin-Like ZnO Nanostructure/Polyvinylenefluoride Hybrid Thin Film with Graphene Electrodes for Acoustic Generator and Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Oug Jae; Lee, James S; Kim, Jae Hyun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2016-05-01

    A bass frequency response enhanced flexible polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based thin film acoustic actuator is successfully fabricated. High concentrations of various zinc oxide (ZnO) is embedded in PVDF matrix, enhancing the β phase content and the dielectric property of the composite thin film. ZnO acts as a nucleation agent for the crystallization of PVDF. A chemical vapor deposition grown graphene is used as electrodes, enabling high electron mobility for the distortion free acoustic signals. The frequency response of the fabricated acoustic actuator is studied as a function of the film thickness and filler content. The optimized film has a thickness of 80 μm with 30 wt% filler content and shows 72% and 42% frequency response enhancement in bass and midrange compared to the commercial PVDF, respectively. Also, the total harmonic distortion decreases to 82% and 74% in the bass and midrange regions, respectively. Furthermore, the composite film shows a promising potential for microphone applications. Most of all, it is demonstrated that acoustic actuator performance is strongly influenced by degree of PVDF crystalline.

  17. Low temperature synthesis of radio frequency magnetron sputtered gallium and aluminium co-doped zinc oxide thin films for transparent electrode fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchuweni, E.; Sathiaraj, T. S.; Nyakotyo, H.

    2016-12-01

    Gallium and aluminium co-doped zinc oxide (GAZO) thin films were prepared on glass substrates at low temperatures by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering and their physical properties were investigated. All films possessed a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with a strong growth orientation along the (0 0 2) c-axis. The (0 0 2) peak intensity and mean crystallite size increased with substrate temperature from room temperature (RT) to 75 °C and then decreased at 100 °C, indicating an improvement in crystallinity up to 75 °C and its deterioration at 100 °C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed the strong dependency of surface morphology on substrate temperature and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed the incorporation of Ga and Al into the ZnO films. All films exhibited excellent transmittances between 85 and 90% in the visible region and their optical band gap increased from 3.22 eV to 3.28 eV with substrate temperature. The Urbach energy decreased from 194 meV to 168 meV with increasing substrate temperature, indicating a decrease in structural disorders which was consistent with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Films deposited at 75 °C exhibited the lowest electrical resistivity (2.4 Ωcm) and highest figure of merit (7.5 × 10-5 Ω-1), proving their potential as candidates for transparent electrode fabrication.

  18. Multilayer Films Electrodes Consisted of Cashew Gum and Polyaniline Assembled by the Layer-by-Layer Technique: Electrochemical Characterization and Its Use for Dopamine Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Sergio B