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Sample records for bismuth 210

  1. Lead-210, bismuth-210, polonium-210. Natural activity, internal dosimetry, and dose factors for ingestion and inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1979-02-01

    Starting with a comprehensive review of the normal, natural activity of 210 Pb and 210 Po in the environment and in the tissues of the human body, a model of the activity and dose distributions of this nuclides in the human body is developed. Dose factors for ingestion with food and for inhalation are derived from this model, related to the intake rate unit. This 'natural exposure model' can be used for an estimation of the population exposure due to normal natural radiation as well as to man-made sourcess of these nuclides, e.g. coal-fired power plants. (orig.) [de

  2. 210

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Asencio, Misael; Corcho-Alvarado, José Antonio; Cartas-Aguila, Héctor; Pulido-Caraballé, Anabell; Betancourt, Carmen; Smoak, Joseph M; Alvarez-Padilla, Elizabeth; Labaut-Betancourt, Yeny; Alonso-Hernández, Carlos; Seisdedo-Losa, Mabel

    2017-10-01

    Hanabanilla and Paso Bonito Reservoirs are the main fresh water sources for about half a million inhabitants in central Cuba. Prior to this investigation precise information about the losses of storage capacity was not available. Sedimentation is the dominant process leading to reduction in water storage capacity. We investigated the sedimentation process in both reservoirs by analyzing environmental radionuclides (e.g. 210 Pb, 226 Ra and 137 Cs) in sediment cores. In the shallow Paso Bonito Reservoir (mean depth of 6.5 m; water volume of 8 × 10 6  m 3 ), we estimated a mean mass accumulation rate (MAR) of 0.4 ± 0.1 g cm -2 y -1 based on 210 Pb chronologies. 137 Cs was detected in the sediments, but due to the recent construction of this reservoir (1975), it was not possible to use it to validate the 210 Pb chronologies. The estimated MAR in this reservoir is higher than the typical values reported in similar shallow fresh water reservoirs worldwide. Our results highlight a significant loss of water storage capacity during the past 30 years. In the deeper and larger Hanabanilla Reservoir (mean depth of 15.5 m; water volume of 292 × 10 6  m 3 ), the MAR was investigated in three different sites of the reservoir. The mean MARs based on the 210 Pb chronologies varied between 0.15 and 0.24 g cm -2 y -1 . The MARs calculated based on the 137 Cs profiles further validated these values. We show that the sediment accumulation did not change significantly over the last 50 years. A simple empirical mixing and sedimentation model that assumes 137 Cs in the water originated from both, direct atmospheric fallout and the catchment area, was applied to interpret the 137 Cs depth profiles. The model consistently reproduced the measured 137 Cs profiles in the three cores (R 2  > 0.9). Mean residence times for 137 Cs in the water and in the catchment area of 1 y and 35-50 y, respectively were estimated. The model identified areas where the catchment component

  3. Production of polonium 210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakumov, A.S.; Ershova, Z.V.; Klabukov, Yu.G.; Petrov, B.V.; Prokin, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    The following methods of production and extraction of polonium-210 from bismuth ( 209 Bi) irradiated by thermal neutrons of reactor are discussed: water-chemical based on electrochemical polonium precipitation from acidic solutions; extraction from the melt of irradiated bismuth with the aid of carriers, such as tellurium, for instance; extraction from bismuth melt into melts of alkalis; directed melt crystallization or zone recrystallization; molecular distillation from bismuth melt

  4. Bismuth Subsalicylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink Bismuth® ... Bismuth subsalicylate is used to treat diarrhea, heartburn, and upset stomach in adults and children 12 years of age and older. Bismuth subsalicylate is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Bismuth, Metronidazole, and Tetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helidac® (as a kit containing Bismuth Subsalicylate, Metronidazole, Tetracycline) ... Bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline is used along with other ulcer medications to treat duodenal ulcers. It is ...

  6. Bismuth and polonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth and polonium are the only elements in their respective chemical series that form cations. The lighter elements in both groups only form anions. Bismuth has trivalent and pentavalent oxidation states, but the latter is relatively unstable with respect to formation of the oxide. Polonium exhibits a range of oxidation states, with the divalent and tetravalent states forming the cations Po 2+ and PoO 2+ in aqueous solution. In aqueous solution, polonium(IV) forms the oxoanion PoO 2+ . Levy, Danford and Agron conducted X-ray diffraction studies of bismuth(III) solutions and established a structure for the hexameric species, Bi 6 (OH) 12 6+ . The reported data for the solubility constants of polymeric species of bismuth (III) are listed in this chapter. The stability and solubility constants derived at 25 C for zero ionic strength have been used to create a predominance speciation diagram for bismuth(III).

  7. Refining method for bismuth nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Shigeyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of separating and removing α ray emitting nuclides present in an aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate by an industrially convenient method. A nitric acid concentration in the aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate in which α ray emitting nuclides are dissolved is lowered to coprecipitate the bismuth oxynitrate and the α ray emitting nuclides. The coprecipitation materials are separated from the aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate to separate the α ray emitting nuclides dissolved in the aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate thereby refining the aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate. (T.M.)

  8. Tribochemistry of Bismuth and Bismuth Salts for Solid Lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Pablo; van den Nieuwenhuijzen, Karin J H; Lette, Walter; Schipper, Dik J; Ten Elshof, Johan E

    2016-03-23

    One of the main trends in the past decades is the reduction of wastage and the replacement of toxic compounds in industrial processes. Some soft metallic particles can be used as nontoxic solid lubricants in high-temperature processes. The behavior of bismuth metal particles, bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3), bismuth sulfate (Bi2(SO4)3), and bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) as powder lubricants was studied in a range of temperatures up to 580 °C. The mechanical behavior was examined using a high-temperature pin-on-disc setup, with which the friction force between two flat-contact surfaces was recorded. The bismuth-lubricated surfaces showed low coefficients of friction (μ ≈ 0.08) below 200 °C. Above the melting temperature of the metal powder at 271 °C, a layer of bismuth oxide developed and the friction coefficient increased. Bismuth oxide showed higher friction coefficients at all temperatures. Bismuth sulfide exhibited partial oxidation upon heating but the friction coefficient decreased to μ ≈ 0.15 above 500 °C, with the formation of bismuth oxide-sulfate, while some bismuth sulfate remained. All surfaces were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), confocal microscopy, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). This study reveals how the partial oxidation of bismuth compounds at high temperatures affects their lubrication properties, depending on the nature of the bismuth compound.

  9. Laser Spectroscopy of Neutron Rich Bismuth Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %IS344 :\\\\ \\\\ The aim of the experiment is to measure the optical isotope shifts and hyperfine structures of bismuth isotopes across the N=126 shell closure in order to extract the change in mean square charge radii ($\\delta\\langle r^{2}\\rangle$) and static moments. These include the first isotones of lead to be measured directly above the shell closure and will provide new information on the systematics of the kink ($\\delta\\langle r^{2}\\rangle)$ seen in the lead isotopic chain. After two very successful runs the programme has been extended to include the neutron deficient isotopes below $^{201}$Bi to study the systematics across the $i_{13/2}$ neutron sub-shell closure at N=118.\\\\ \\\\ During the initial 2 runs (9 shifts) the isotope shifts and hyperfine structures of three new isotopes, $ ^{210,212,213}$Bi and the 9$^{-}$ isomer of $^{210}$Bi have been measured. The accuracy of the previous measurements of $^{205,206,208}$Bi have been greatly improved. The samples of $ ^{208,210,210^{m}}$Bi were prepared by c...

  10. Application of SIMS to the study of selective deposition of trace amounts of lead and bismuth from solution onto the metals nickel and silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Peck, G.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The natural 233 U decay series includes the trio 210 Pb, 210 Bi and 210 Po. These are useful in estimating rates of environmental processes and 210 Po is a major contributor to the radiation dose of marine organisms. To develop an understanding of the distribution of these closely related radionuclides in the environment it is necessary to be able to measure all three. Accurate measurements depend on preliminary separation of the nuclides. Isolation and measurement of 210 Bi has been a continuing problem and this has restricted the study of the role of this nuclide in environmental processes. We have developed a sample preparation that includes plating polonium from solution onto a silver disc then plating bismuth onto a nickel disc and leaving the lead in solution. The 210 Bi is measured by Cerenkov counting. Any 210 Pb plating onto nickel with the bismuth would interfere in subsequent counting as it decays rapidly to 210 Bi. We have used SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) to measure bismuth and lead deposited on the nickel and silver discs. This is possible because the stable isotopes of the four elements do not overlap. SIMS is especially appropriate for this study as the Bi and Pb deposited as thin films on the metal surface. Careful selection of experimental conditions allowed quantitative measurements of lead and bismuth without mutual interference. The results have been used in developing plating conditions that optimise separation of lead and bismuth

  11. THORIUM DISPERSION IN BISMUTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, J.S.

    1961-07-01

    The growth of thorium bismutaide particles, which are formed when thorium is suspended in liquid bismuth, is inhibited when the liquid metal suspension is being flowed through a reactor and through a heat exchanger in sequence. It involves the addition of as little as 1 part by weight of tellurium to 100 parts of thorium. This addition is sufficient to inhibit particle growth and agglomeration.

  12. Bismuth toxicity in patients treated with bismuth iodoform paraffin packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, A; Cousin, G C S

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth is a heavy metal used in bismuth iodoform paraffin paste (BIPP) antiseptic dressings and in a number of other medical preparations. It can be absorbed systemically and cause toxicity. We report 2 cases of such neurotoxicity after it was used in operations on the jaws. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Tribochemistry of Bismuth and Bismuth Salts for Solid Lubrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, P.; van den Nieuwenhuijzen, Karin Jacqueline Huberta; Lette, W.; Schipper, Dirk J.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main trends in the past decades is the reduction of wastage and the replacement of toxic compounds in industrial processes. Some soft metallic particles can be used as nontoxic solid lubricants in high-temperature processes. The behavior of bismuth metal particles, bismuth sulfide

  14. 210Po and 210Pb levels in mussels and fish from Slovenian market and the related dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinšek, Petra; Smodiš, Borut; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2013-01-01

    Polonium-210 (t 1/2 = 138 d) is a decay product of uranium-radium decay chain and consequently widely spread in the environment. It enters organisms through direct uptake, ingestion or inhalation. It is a pure alpha emitter and its radiotoxicity is connected with the fact that emits alpha particles with relatively high energy of about 5.3 MeV. It is concentrated in the soft tissues such as mussel, liver and others, where significantly contributes to the internal dose. Beta emitter lead-210 (t 1/2 = 22.17 years) is the second highest radiotoxic radionuclide from uranium-238 decay chain and decays, through bismuth- 210 (t 1/2 = 5.01 d) into 210 Po. Therefore it is necessary to determine the 21P o in foods, especially in seafood, because of its accumulation capacity. 210 Po and 210 Pb were determined in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and fish (salmon, trout) from Slovenia market. Mussels were bought on the local market as well as from domestic producers. Fish of Slovenian origin were bought on the local market. Samples were freeze dried, homogenized and assayed for 210 Po and 210 Pb. First, radiochemical separation was performed, followed by alpha particle spectrometric measurement of 210 Po and beta counting of 210 Pb on a low background gas-flow proportional counter. The results obtained show that the activity concentrations of 210 Po in mussels varied from 0.9 to 191 Bq/kg of fresh mass and for fish from 0.3 to 2.12 Bq/kg of fresh mass, while for 210 Pb they varied from 1.5 to 6.9 Bq/k of fresh mass for mussels and in fish samples the activity concentrations were less than 1.9 Bq/kg of fresh mass. Combined annual ingestion doses due to 210 Po and 210 Pb for mussels and fish from the Slovenian market is assessed. (author)

  15. Adsorption and condensation of bismuth on tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon, T.; Sidorski, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The bismuth-tungsten system was studied by means of field emission microscopy. The average work function changes induced by the bismuth adsorption were measured for different amounts of adsorbed bismuth. It was found that the adsorption of bismuth changes the work function of tungsten only slightly. The penetration of bismuth into the tungsten substrate was observed. The growth of bismuth single crystals was studied when bismuth was deposited with a rate of about 6 monolayers per minute onto the tungsten substrate and kept at 470 K. Bismuth single crystals with two-fold symmetry occurred most often on the (100) tungsten planes. On the (111) tungsten plane bismuth crystals with three-fold symmetry were observed. An explanation of the observed phenomena is proposed. (Auth.)

  16. Determination of lead-210 in standard samples of soil, ores, and mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    Up to 5-G samples were dissolved in hyrofluoric acid and pyrosulfate fusion in the presence of bismuth tracer. The cake was dissolved in hydrochloric acid and bismuth-210 was extracted into diethyldithiocarbamate, separating it from most interferences including its lead-210 parent. Bismuth was then coprecipitated with barium sulfate and counted in a low-background β counter through a 6 mg/cm 2 aluminum absorber to remove α particles from polonium-210. After the sample was counted, the barium sulfate was dissolved in alkaline ehtylenediaminetetraacetic acid, excess potassium iodide was added, and the solution was acidified. The yellow bismuth-iodide complex was measured in a spectrophotometer and the absorbance was compared with that from an identical aliquot of the bismuth solution to determine the chemical yield. Some results obtained in the analysis of soil, uranium ores, and mill tailings that were prepared for use as standards are given. When sufficient activity was present, the relative experimental standard deviations of 10 individual measurements about their own mean was less than 2%. On standards, the results obtained were within 3% of the known values at the 95% confidence level. Chemical yields were generally higher than 98% overall and were determined to better than 0.5%. Detection limits are about 0.1 pCi/g for 5-g samples and 6-h counts

  17. 21 CFR 73.1162 - Bismuth oxychloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bismuth oxychloride. 73.1162 Section 73.1162 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1162 Bismuth oxychloride. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive bismuth oxychloride is a synthetically prepared white or nearly white amorphous or finely...

  18. 21 CFR 73.2162 - Bismuth oxychloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bismuth oxychloride. 73.2162 Section 73.2162 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2162 Bismuth oxychloride. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive bismuth oxychloride shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  19. Equilibrium evaporation behavior of polonium and its homologue tellurium in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Shuji; Miyahara, Shinya; Kurata, Yuji; Katsura, Ryoei; Yoshida, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    Experimental study using the transpiration method investigates equilibrium evaporation behavior of radionuclide polonium ( 210 Po) generated and accumulated in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) cooled nuclear systems. The experiment consists of two series of tests: preliminary evaporation tests for homologue element tellurium (Te) in LBE, and evaporation tests for 210 Po-accumulated LBE in which test specimens are prepared by neutron irradiation. The evaporation tests of Te in LBE provide the suggestion that Te exists in a chemical form of PbTe as well as the information for confirming the validity of technique and conditions of Po test. From the evaporation tests of 210 Po in LBE, we obtain fundamental data and empirical equations such as 210 Po vapor concentration in the gas phase, 210 Po partial vapor pressure, thermodynamic activity coefficients, and gas-liquid equilibrium partition coefficient of 210 Po in LBE in the temperature range from 450 to 750degC. Additionally, radioactivity concentration of 210 Po and 210m Bi vapor in a cover gas region of a typical LBE-cooled nuclear system is specifically estimated based on the obtained experimental results, and the importance of 210 Po evaporation behavior is quantitatively demonstrated. (author)

  20. Bismuth bronze from machu picchu, peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R B; Rutledge, J W

    1984-02-10

    The decorative bronze handle of a tumi excavated at the Inca city of Machu Picchu, Peru, contains 18 percent bismuth and appears to be the first known example of the use of bismuth with tin to make bronze. The alloy is not embrittled by the bismuth because the bismuth-rich constituent does not penetrate the grain boundaries of the matrix phase. The use of bismuth facilitates the duplex casting process by which the tumi was made and forms an alloy of unusual color.

  1. Investigation of iron-bismuth-molybdenum catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ven'yaminov, S.A.; Pitaeva, A.N.; Barannik, G.B.; Plyasova, L.M.; Maksimovskaya, R.I.; Kustova, G.N.

    1977-01-01

    Using the methods of roentgenography, derivatography, EPR-and infrared-spectroscopy, the phase composition of an iron-bismut molybdenum system is investigated. It is shown that the method of introducing iron additives substantially affects the phase composition of the system. Interaction of a mixture of bismuth and iron hydroxides with a molybdic acid solution results in the formation of bismuth and iron molybdates. If iron hydroxide reacts with previously synthesized bismuth molybdate, a compound containing bismuth, molybdenum, and iron (the X-phase) is formed in the specimens along with the bismuth and iron molybdates

  2. Levels of lead-210 (210Pb) and polonium 210 (210Po) in Cuban Tobacco products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigido, F.O.; Barrerras Caballero, A.; Alvarez Rodriguez, D.; Montalvan Estrada, A.

    1999-01-01

    The release of 210Po in tobacco smoke and the radiation dose for man have been studied because of the high incidence of lung cancer among smoker. The electroplating of polonium at two different times onto copper disks and further measurement of alpha activity was the meted used for 210 Po determination in tobacco products. The Polonium daughter is used to determine both the 210Pb and 210Po using the Baseman equations for radioactive growth and decay. A cigarette contains between 10.6 and 14.7 mBq of 210Pb with an average activity of 13.0 mBq and between 8.5 and 12.3 mBq of 210Po with an average activity of 10.4 mBq for different Cuban cigarette brands. For a person smoking a pack of 20 cigarettes a day, the values of intakes estimated range from 32 to 44 mBq for 210Pb and from 34 to 49 mBq for 210 Po with an average daily intake of 39 mBq for 210 Pb and 42 mBq for 210Po. The annual effective dose estimated due to inhalation of these nuclides contained in cigarette smoke shows a value of 66[Sv and was in correspondence with world-wide range dose, 46 - 90 mSv.year 1 - for tobacco product consumption

  3. Aspects of the magmatic geochemistry of bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, L.P.; Gottfried, D.; Campbell, E.Y.

    1973-01-01

    Bismuth has been determined in 74 rocks from a differentiated tholeiitic dolerite, two calc-alkaline batholith suites and in 66 mineral separates from one of the batholiths. Average bismuth contents, weighted for rock type, of the Great Lake (Tasmania) dolerite, the Southern California batholith and the Idaho batholith are, 32, 50 and 70 ppb respectively. All three bodies demonstrate an enrichment of bismuth in residual magmas with magmatic differentiation. Bismuth is greatly enriched (relative to the host rock) in the calcium-rich accessory minerals, apatite and sphene, but other mineral analyses show that a Bi-Ca association is of little significance to the magmatic geochemistry of bismuth. Most of the bismuth, in the Southern California batholith at least, occurs in a trace mineral phase (possibly sulfides) present as inclusions in the rock-forming minerals. ?? 1973.

  4. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Mansung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    {sup 129}I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10{sup 7} years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of {sup 129}I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous {sup 129}I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing {sup 129}I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping {sup 129}I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling.

  5. Recent advances in bioinorganic chemistry of bismuth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; Sun, Hongzhe

    2012-04-01

    Bismuth has been used in medicine for over two centuries for the treatment of various diseases, in particular for gastrointestinal disorders, owing to its antimicrobial activity. Recent structural characterization of bismuth drugs provides an insight into assembly and pharmacokinetic pathway of the drugs. Mining potential protein targets inside the pathogen via metallomic/metalloproteomic approach and further characterization on the interactions of bismuth drugs with these targets laid foundation in understanding the mechanism of action of bismuth drugs. Such studies would be beneficial in rational design of new potential drugs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PROCESS FOR Pu RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzel, T.G.

    1959-02-01

    An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process for recovering plutonium is described. It has been found that a more granular and more easily filterable carrier precipitiite is formed if the addition of the bismuth and phosphate ions is effected by first adding 9/10 of the bismuth ions necessary, then slowly adding all of the source of the phosphate ions to be incorporated in the precipitate, while digesting at 75 C and afterwards incorporating the remainder of the total bismuth ions necessary

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis of bismuth germanium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2016-12-13

    A method for the hydrothermal synthesis of bismuth germanium oxide comprises dissolving a bismuth precursor (e.g., bismuth nitrate pentahydrate) and a germanium precursor (e.g., germanium dioxide) in water and heating the aqueous solution to an elevated reaction temperature for a length of time sufficient to produce the eulytite phase of bismuth germanium oxide (E-BGO) with high yield. The E-BGO produced can be used as a scintillator material. For example, the air stability and radioluminescence response suggest that the E-BGO can be employed for medical applications.

  8. Investigation of iron-bismuth-molybdenum catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ven'yaminov, S.A.; Barannik, G.B.; Pitaeva, A.N.; Sazonova, N.N.; Plyasova, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    The catalytic properties of an oxide iron-bismuth-molybdenum system in reactions of oxidative ammonolysis of propylene and oxidative dehydrogenation of butene-1 are investigated. It is shown that catalysts containing double molybdate of bismuth and iron (the X-phase) exhibit an increased catalytic activity as compared with bismuth molybdate (Bi 2 O 3 x3MoO 3 ). Preliminary reduction of such specimens increases their activity and selectivity in subsequent work under conditions of a stationary course of the oxidation reaction. The activity and selectivity of catalysts containing only bismuth molybdate and iron molybdate are due to the additivity of the properties of the separate molybdates

  9. Bismuth absorption from sup 205 Bi-labelled pharmaceutical bismuth compounds used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresow, B.; Fischer, R.; Gabbe, E.E.; Wendel, J.; Heinrich, H.C. (Eppendorf University Hospital, Hamburg (Germany))

    1992-04-01

    The absorption of bismuth from five {sup 205}Bi-labelled pharmaceutically used bismuth compounds was studied in man. From single oral doses of all compounds under investigation only <0.1% bismuth was absorbed and excreted with the urine. A significantly higher absorption was observed from the colloidal bismuth subcitrate and the basic bismuth gallate than from the basic bismuth salicylate, nitrate and aluminate. No retention of bismuth in the whole body was found from the single dose experiment. The biologic fast-term half-lives of absorbed bismuth were calculated to be 0.12 and 1.5 days. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Ranitidine bismuth citrate: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Chiba

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and the development of gastroduodenal disease has increased greatly in recent years. To avoid complications of H pylori infection, such as the development of recurrent duodenal and gastric ulcers, effective therapies are required for eradication of the infection. This article reviews ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC, a novel complex of ranitidine, bismuth and citrate, which was developed specifically for the purpose of eradicating H pylori. Dual therapy with RBC in combination with clarithromycin for 14 days yields eradication rates of 76%. Triple therapy bid for one week with a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin and either amoxicillin or a nitroimidazole (tinidazole or metronidazole is advocated as the treatment of choice for H pylori eradication. Analogous regimens with RBC in place of proton pump inhibitors show effective eradication rates in comparative studies and with pooled data. RBC, used alone or in combination with other antibiotics, appears to be a safe and effective drug for the treatment of H pylori infection. Bismuth levels do not appear to rise to toxic levels.

  11. Dietary intake of barium, bismuth, chromium, lithium, and strontium in a Spanish population (Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Weller, Dailos; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Ángel José; González, Gara Luis; Caballero Mesa, José María; Revert Gironés, Consuelo; Burgos Ojeda, Antonio; Hardisson, Arturo

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze barium, bismuth, chromium, lithium, and strontium contents in food and beverages consumed by the population of the Canary Islands (Spain) as well as determine dietary intake of these metals in the archipelago as a whole and in its individual islands. To this end, 440 samples were analyzed by ICP-OES and GFAAS. Barium concentrations ranged from 5.210 ± 2.117 mg/kg in nuts to 0.035 ± 0.043 mg/L in water. Viscera exhibited the highest levels of bismuth (38.07 ± 36.80 mg/kg). The cold meat and sausages group stood out for its high chromium concentrations (0.494 ± 0.257 mg/kg). The highest concentration of lithium and strontium came out in nuts (8.761 ± 5.368 mg/kg and 9.759 ± 5.181 mg/kg, respectively). The total intakes of barium, bismuth, chromium, lithium, and strontium were 0.685, 1.274, 0.087, 3.674, and 1.923 mg/day, respectively. Cereals turned out to contribute most to the dietary intake of barium, bismuth, chromium, and lithium in the Canary Islands, while fruit contributes most to the strontium intake. We also performed a metal intake study by age and sex of the population and compared the outcome with data from other regions, both national and international.

  12. Contribution to the study of the geophysical behaviour of lead-210 by application of alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezami, M.

    1965-06-01

    A study of the changes in the lead-210 contents of rain-water and of water produced by melting polar ice has required the development of a method for dosing lead-210, an α emitter. This method is 40 times more sensitive than that which measures the lead-210 by bismuth-210, a (β emitter. The first part of the report presents the study of a spectrometry using semiconductor detectors; a catalogue of a spectra shows the advantages of this method. In the second part will be found at first a new chemical separation method for polonium-210 and the results obtained with this method. The main results obtained on the geophysical behaviour of lead-210 are the following: - the monthly lead-210 and polonium-210 contents in rain water are approximately constant with time. - in the Gif-sur-Yvette region, the clean-up by 'dry fall-out' can attain 40 to 50 per cent of the total fall-out. - a study of Antarctic ice samples makes it possible to determine an annual accumulation rate equivalent to 13.8 cm of water and to show discrepancies in the periodic concentrations which correspond to the latest maxima of solar activity. - a balance is drawn up between the radon produced by the continents and the lead-210 fall-out. (author) [fr

  13. Crystal growth of bismuth tungstate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De L' Eprevier, A. G.; Shukla, V. N.; Payne, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Bi/sub 2/WO/sub 6/ is a polar material in the bismuth titanate family, Bi/sub 2/M/sub n-1/R/sub n/0/sub 3n+3/. Additions of NaF to a Na/sub 2/WO/sub 4/ - WO/sub 3/ flux yielded large single crystals up to 0.8 mm thick, which were free of inclusions. Total impurities were less than 500 ppM, and the crystals were single domain.

  14. Bismuth ions are metabolized into autometallographic traceable bismuth-sulphur quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Stoltenberg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth – sulphur quantum dots can be silver enhanced by autometallography (AMG. In the present study, autometallographic silver enhanced bismuth-sulphur nanocrystals were isolated from unfixed cryo-sections of kidneys and livers of rats exposed to bismuth (Bi207 subnitrate. After being subjected to AMG all the organic material was removed by sonication and enzymatic digestion and the silver enhanced Bi- S quantum dots spun down by an ultracentrifuge and analyzed by scintillation. The analysis showed that the autometallographic technique traces approximately 94% of the total bismuth. This implies that the injected bismuth is ultimately captured in bismuthsulphur quantum dots, i.e., that Bi-S nanocrystals are the end product of bismuth metabolism

  15. Radio-sensitization of animals by bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierotti, T.; Verain, A.

    1969-01-01

    Digestive absorption of bismuth by animals leads to radio-sensitization. This effect is very marked when the X-rays used are centered on the absorption line of bismuth. This work has involved the use of more than 2000 C3H/JAX mice, and has shown that a maximum lethal effect, with respect to the standard, occurs for bismuth sub-nitrate doses of the order of 3 g/kg and for exposures of 700 R. For stronger or weaker doses, the sensitization effect is less marked. (authors) [fr

  16. Transmucosal penetration of bismuth particles in the human stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokolo, C U; Lewin, J F; Hudson, M; Pounder, R E

    1992-01-01

    Electron microscopic examination of upper gastrointestinal biopsies with x-ray microanalysis was used to detect electron-dense particles of bismuth in the mucosa of the upper gastrointestinal tract, 30-60 minutes after oral dosing with either tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate [De-Noltab; Brocades (Great Britain) Ltd., Weybridge, UK; five patients] or bismuth salicylate (Pepto-Bismol; Richardson Vicks Ltd., Egham, UK; five patients), or without dosing (two patients). Transmucosal penetration of bismuth particles was observed in the gastric antral mucosa of all patients who had been dosed with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate, but there was no penetration after oral dosing with bismuth salicylate. Persorption of bismuth particles through the gastric mucosa to the vascular endothelium provides an explanation for the rapid rise of plasma bismuth concentration observed only after oral dosing with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate.

  17. Levels of 210Po and 210Pb in cigars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelecom, A.; Gouvea, R.C.S.; Santos, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations have been determined in 58 cigar brands manufactured in 11 countries. Cuban and American cigars showed the lowest 210 Po content. The mean levels of 210 Po in Brazilian, European and Dominican cigars were almost identical and somewhat lower than the levels observed for cigars from other Latin American countries. Cuban, American and European cigars contained low levels of 210 Pb. Cigars from the remaining countries contained twice as much 210 Pb. The mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio showed an excess of polonium. In the case of one cigar-a-day smoker, the calculated annual absorbed dose due to 210 Po is ∼16 μGy. (author)

  18. Bismuth-based electrochemical stripping analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    2004-01-27

    Method and apparatus for trace metal detection and analysis using bismuth-coated electrodes and electrochemical stripping analysis. Both anodic stripping voltammetry and adsorptive stripping analysis may be employed.

  19. Electrical resistivity of fast neutron irradiated bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quelard, G.

    1975-01-01

    The production and recovery of fast neutron radiation damage in bismuth, at 20K has been studied by means of electrical resistivity. Results are independent of crystallographic orientation and indicate a creation of carriers during irradiation [fr

  20. Crystallization of bismuth borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajaj, Anu; Khanna, Atul

    2009-01-01

    Bismuth borate glasses with Bi 2 O 3 concentration of 20-66 mol% were prepared by melt quenching and devitrified by heat treatment above their glass transition temperatures. All glasses show a strong tendency towards crystallization on annealing that increases with Bi 2 O 3 concentration. The crystalline phases formed on devitrification were characterized by FTIR absorption spectroscopy and DSC measurements. Our studies reveal that phases produced in glasses are strongly determined by initial glass composition and the two most stable crystalline phases are: Bi 3 B 5 O 12 and Bi 4 B 2 O 9 . The metastable BiBO 3 phase can also be formed by devitrification of glass with 50 mol% of Bi 2 O 3 . This phase is, however, unstable and decomposes into Bi 3 B 5 O 12 and Bi 4 B 2 O 9 on prolonged heat treatment.

  1. Gravimetric Analysis of Bismuth in Bismuth Subsalicylate Tablets: A Versatile Quantitative Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eric; Cheung, Ken; Pauls, Steve; Dick, Jonathan; Roth, Elijah; Zalewski, Nicole; Veldhuizen, Christopher; Coeler, Joel

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, lower- and upper-division students dissolved bismuth subsalicylate tablets in acid and precipitated the resultant Bi[superscript 3+] in solution with sodium phosphate for a gravimetric determination of bismuth subsalicylate in the tablets. With a labeled concentration of 262 mg/tablet, the combined data from three…

  2. Environmental radioactivity of radon daughter's radionuclides 210Pb-210Bi-210Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.

    2003-01-01

    Radionuclide, 210 Pb(22.3 y)- 210 Bi(5.013 d)- 210 Po(138.4 d) belongs to the uranium decay chain and widely distributed in the environment. 222 Rn escaped from the earth surface is a major source of atmospheric 210 Pb. These nuclides attach with atmospheric aerosols and are removed to the ground as wet and dry depositions. The residence time of the atmospheric aerosol, thus, was obtained by activity ratios of 210 Bi/ 210 Pb and 210 Po/ 210 Pb, showing different values. The discrepancy on the residence times are explained with inputs of 210 Po to the atmosphere other than 222 Rn emanated from the earth surface. The removal of aerosol as wet deposition occupies a significant fraction, which reaches 72% on 210 Pb and 89% on 7 Be. In the ocean, the radionuclides are used as tracer to examine dynamic processes occurring in the ocean, such as removal of particulate matter from seawater column to bottom. The 210 Pb and 210 Po concentrations in the ocean water collected off continent decreased from surface toward bottom, and the shortage on 210 Po content relative to that of 210 Po was observed at shallow ocean layers, however, the 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratio closed to the radioactive equilibrium at deeper layers. The 210 Pb is a very good tracer to evaluate an accumulation rate of bottom sediment in ocean, lake and river. This is called as 210 Pb dating and is successfully applicable to accumulation circumstances that bottom sediment deposits at constant rate. Most of the actual cases, simultaneous 137 Cs dating is carried out, which uses 137 Cs peak in the core as originated from radioactive fallout of nuclear tests, showing the maximum in 1963. Recently new findings on source of atmospheric 210 Po are report by laboratory experiments and environmental measurements, which proves biologically supported emission of volatile Po compounds to the atmosphere. (author)

  3. Bismuth alloy potting seals aluminum connector in cryogenic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, J. F.; Stafford, R. L.

    1966-01-01

    Bismuth alloy potting seals feedthrough electrical connector for instrumentation within a pressurized vessel filled with cryogenic liquids. The seal combines the transformation of high-bismuth content alloys with the thermal contraction of an external aluminum tube.

  4. Liquid Bismuth Propellant Flow Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Stanojev, B. J.; Korman, V.

    2007-01-01

    Quantifying the propellant mass flow rate in liquid bismuth-fed electric propulsion systems has two challenging facets. First, the flow sensors must be capable of providing a resolvable measurement at propellant mass flow rates on the order of 10 mg/see with and uncertainty of less that 5%. The second challenge has to do with the fact that the materials from which the flow sensors are fabricated must be capable of resisting any of the corrosive effects associated with the high-temperature propellant. The measurement itself is necessary in order to properly assess the performance (thrust efficiency, Isp) of thruster systems in the laboratory environment. The hotspot sensor[I] has been designed to provide the bismuth propellant mass flow rate measurement. In the hotspot sensor, a pulse of thermal energy (derived from a current pulse and associated joule heating) is applied near the inlet of the sensor. The flow is "tagged" with a thermal feature that is convected downstream by the flowing liquid metal. Downstream, a temperature measurement is performed to detect a "ripple" in the local temperature associated with the passing "hotspot" in the propellant. By measuring the time between the upstream generation and downstream detection of the thermal feature, the flow speed can be calculated using a "time of flight" analysis. In addition, the system can be calibrated by measuring the accumulated mass exiting the system as a-function of time and correlating this with the time it takes the hotspot to convect through the sensor. The primary advantage of this technique is that it doesn't depend on an absolute measurement of temperature but, instead, relies on the observation of thermal features. This makes the technique insensitive to other externally generated thermal fluctuations. In this paper, we describe experiments performed using the hotspot flow sensor aimed at quantifying the resolution of the sensor technology. Propellant is expelled onto an electronic scale to

  5. Studies on bismuth carboxylates—synthesis and characterization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. Introduction. A large number of bismuth compounds are clinically active against Helicobacter pylori and other gastroin- testinal disorders.1–2 Prominent among these are bis- muth subsalicylate (trade name Pepto-Bismol), col- loidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS, trade name De-Nol) and ranitidine bismuth citrate (trade name ...

  6. Short report: evaluation of Helicobacter pylori eradication with bismuth sucralfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijers, M. H.; Noach, L. A.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    In a pilot study we have evaluated the clinical efficacy of bismuth sucralfate to eradicate H. pylori. Ten consecutive patients with chronic dyspepsia and H. pylori associated gastritis were treated with bismuth sucralfate (220 mg bismuth per tablet, 4 tablets per day for 4 weeks). If a 14C urea

  7. 21 CFR 520.1204 - Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated... § 520.1204 Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite. (a) Specifications—(1) Each 5 milliliters (mL) of suspension contains 100 milligrams (mg) kanamycin (as the sulfate), 250 mg bismuth...

  8. Liquid Bismuth Feed System for Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markusic, T. E.; Polzin, K. A.; Stanojev, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions. For example, the VHITAL project aims td accurately, experimentally assess the performance characteristics of 10 kW-class bismuth-fed Hall thrusters - in order to validate earlier results and resuscitate a promising technology that has been relatively dormant for about two decades. A critical element of these tests will be the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre/post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work was to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides real-time propellant mass flow rate measurement and control, enabling accurate thruster performance measurements. Additionally, our approach emphasizes the development of new liquid metal flow control components and, hence, will establish a basis for the future development of components for application in spaceflight. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described - reservoir, electromagnetic pump, hotspot flow sensor, and automated control system. Particular emphasis is given to material selection and high-temperature sealing techniques. Open loop calibration test results are reported, which validate the systems capability to deliver bismuth at mass flow rates ranging from 10 to 100 mg/sec with an uncertainty of less than +/- 5%. Results of integrated vaporizer/liquid PMS tests demonstrate all of the necessary elements of a complete bismuth feed system for electric propulsion.

  9. Hyperfine splitting in lithium-like bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochmann, Matthias; Froemmgen, Nadja; Hammen, Michael; Will, Elisa [Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Andelkovic, Zoran; Kuehl, Thomas; Litvinov, Yuri; Winters, Danyal; Sanchez, Rodolfo [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Botermann, Benjamin; Noertershaeuser, Wilfried [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Bussmann, Michael [Helmholtzzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Dax, Andreas [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Hannen, Volker; Joehren, Raphael; Vollbrecht, Jonas; Weinheimer, Christian [Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Geppert, Christopher [Universitaet Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Stoehlker, Thomas [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Thompson, Richard [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Volotka, Andrey [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Wen, Weiqiang [IMP Lanzhou (China)

    2013-07-01

    High-precision measurements of the hyperfine splitting values on Li- and H-like bismuth ions, combined with precise atomic structure calculations allow us to test QED-effects in the regime of the strongest magnetic fields that are available in the laboratory. Performing laser spectroscopy at the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI Darmstadt, we have now succeeded in measuring the hyperfine splitting in Li-like bismuth. Probing this transition has not been easy because of its extremely low fluorescence rate. Details about this challenging experiment will be given and the achieved experimental accuracy are presented.

  10. Bismuth salicylate for diarrhea in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Question Recently, I had a visit from a 5-year-old patient who had been given bismuth subsalicylate for a diarrheal illness by a local family physician during a trip to South America. Is this a practice we should encourage? Answer Research from developing countries has found the use of bismuth subsalicylate to be effective in shortening the duration of diarrheal illness. Despite these findings, its limited effectiveness and concerns about it potentially causing Reye syndrome, compliance, and cost are the key reasons it is not routinely recommended for children. PMID:23946025

  11. Bismuth Subgallate Toxicity in the Age of Online Supplement Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampognaro, Paul; Vo, Kathy T; Richie, Megan; Blanc, Paul D; Keenan, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    Bismuth salts have been used to treat gastroenterological disorders and are readily available over-the-counter and via the internet. Even though generally considered safe, bismuth compounds can cause a syndrome of subacute, progressive encephalopathy when taken in large quantities. We present the case of woman who developed progressive encephalopathy, aphasia, myoclonus, and gait instability after chronically ingesting large amounts of bismuth subgallate purchased from a major online marketing website to control symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. After extensive neurological work-up, elevated bismuth levels in her blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of bismuth-related neurotoxicity. She improved slowly following cessation of exposure. This case highlights bismuth subgallate as a neurotoxic bismuth formulation and reminds providers of the potential for safety misconceptions of positively reviewed online supplements.

  12. {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in Finnish cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka, E-mail: tuukka.turtiainen@stuk.f [STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Kostiainen, Eila, E-mail: eila.kostiainen@stuk.f [STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja, E-mail: anja.hallikainen@evira.f [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Mustialankatu 3, 00790 Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-05-15

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean {sup 210}Pb/{sup 210}Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 {mu}Sv per year, respectively.

  13. 210Pb and 210Po in Finnish cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Kostiainen, Eila; Hallikainen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean 210 Pb/ 210 Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from 210 Pb and 210 Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 μSv per year, respectively.

  14. 210Pb and 210Po in Finnish cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Kostiainen, Eila; Hallikainen, Anja

    2011-05-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean (210)Pb/(210)Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 μSv per year, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A scanning electron microscopy study of bismuth and phosphate phases in bismuth phosphate process waste at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Page, J.S.; Cooke, G.A.; John Pestovich

    2015-01-01

    This study characterizes major bismuth and phosphate-bearing phases in Hanford radioactive waste from the bismuth phosphate process using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Large bismuth phases displayed lath morphology and consisted of sodium, iron, bismuth, and phosphorus. The majority of the bismuth and phosphate observed was in small particulate (<2 µm in diameter) containing sodium, phosphorus, iron, and nickel. Additionally, phosphorus was included in a sodium-aluminum-phosphate lath-shaped species. Characterization of these waste types is of particular importance since they may have the bounding particle properties for designing waste mixing and transport processes used during treatment. (author)

  16. Polonium-210 in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Cohen, B.S.; Tso, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to present the measurements that have been made on tobacco and tobacco products and to indicate the studies that show the amount of 210 Po transferred to mainstream smoke and inhaled. The amounts reported to be in the lung are summarized. The authors have shown what average values might be expected in the lung due to normal deposition and clearance of the smoke aerosol and to compare these values with the measurements. The average dose to cells in the bronchial epithelium was estimated for the activities reported to be on the bronchial surface, and a comparison of this dose with a known tumorigenic alpha dose was made

  17. Ferroelectric and photocatalytic behavior of bismuth ferrite nano wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, R. V.; Marikani, A.; Madhavan, D.

    2016-05-01

    Multiferroic bismuth ferrite nanowires are prepared through polyol method with an average diameter of 35 nm with a narrow size distribution. The band gap was determined to be 2.10 eV, indicating their potential application as visible-light-response photo catalyst. The magnificent photocatalytic behaviors of BiFeO3 nanowires are understood from the methyl violet degradation under visible light irradiation. Moreover, the nano-wire takes only a lesser time for the diffusion of electron-hole pair from the surface of the sample. Further the BiFeO3 nano-wire was characterized using XRD, SEM, and U-V. The ferroelectric studies of BiFeO3 nano-wire show a frequency dependent property and maximum coercivity of 2.7 V/cm were achieved with a remanent polarization at 0.5 µC/cm2 at the frequency 4 kHz. The coercivity of BiFeO3 nano wire changes with variation of frequency from 1 kHz to 4 kHz.

  18. Ferroelectric and photocatalytic behavior of bismuth ferrite nano wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William, R. V.; Marikani, A., E-mail: amari@mepcoeng.ac.in [Department of Physics, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi – 626 005, Tamil Nadu (India); Madhavan, D. [Department of Chemistry, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi – 626 005, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-05-23

    Multiferroic bismuth ferrite nanowires are prepared through polyol method with an average diameter of 35 nm with a narrow size distribution. The band gap was determined to be 2.10 eV, indicating their potential application as visible-light-response photo catalyst. The magnificent photocatalytic behaviors of BiFeO{sub 3} nanowires are understood from the methyl violet degradation under visible light irradiation. Moreover, the nano-wire takes only a lesser time for the diffusion of electron-hole pair from the surface of the sample. Further the BiFeO{sub 3} nano-wire was characterized using XRD, SEM, and U-V. The ferroelectric studies of BiFeO{sub 3} nano-wire show a frequency dependent property and maximum coercivity of 2.7 V/cm were achieved with a remanent polarization at 0.5 µC/cm{sup 2} at the frequency 4 kHz. The coercivity of BiFeO{sub 3} nano wire changes with variation of frequency from 1 kHz to 4 kHz.

  19. Magnetoreflection studies of ion implanted bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolini, C.; Chieu, T.C.; Dresselhaus, M.S.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Dresselhaus, G.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of the implantation of Sb ions on the electronic structure of the semimetal bismuth is studied by the magnetoreflection technique. The results show long electronic mean free paths and large implantation-induced increases in the band overlap and L-point band gap. These effects are opposite to those observed for Bi chemically doped with Sb. (author)

  20. On excitation of acoustic plasmons in bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkin, G.I.; Kravchenko, V.Ya.

    1977-01-01

    The amplitude of the transverse electromagnetic wave penetrating through a bismuth plate under conditions of existence of an acoustic plasma wave is calculated. Two wave coupling mechanisms due to the anisotropy of the carrier spectrum and the carrier drift in the magnetic field of the wave are considered. In the latter case, a wave of double frequency penetrates through the plate

  1. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bismuth citrate. 73.2110 Section 73.2110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... paragraph (c)(1), effective April 27, 2010. For the convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth...

  2. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured copper bismuth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films of copper bismuth diselenide were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique onto glass substrate below 60°C. The deposition parameters such as time, temperature of deposition and pH of the solution, were optimized. The set of films having different elemental compositions was prepared by varying Cu/Bi ...

  3. Bismuth phosphates as intermediate temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Christensen, Erik; Shuai, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Proton conducting electrolyte materials operational in the intermediate temperature range of 200-400 °C are of special interest for applications in fuel cells and water electrolysers. Bismuth phosphates in forms of polycrystalline powders and amorphous glasses are synthesized and investigated...

  4. Photosensitive bismuth ions in lead tungstate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vazhenin, V.A.; Potapov, A.P.; Asatryan, G.R.; Nikl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2013), s. 803-806 ISSN 1063-7834 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : PbWO 4 * single crystal * bismuth * electron paramagnetic resonance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.782, year: 2013

  5. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in marine food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyraud, M.; Cherry, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    210 Po and 210 Pb have been measured systematically in whole animals, muscle and hepatopancreas of crustaceans and of molluscan cephalopods representative of a pelagic and benthic food chain. The same nuclides were also measured in liver, pyloric caecum, stomach contents and muscle of tuna. The concentration factors from sea water to whole animals were approximately constant along both food chains, being of the order of 10 4 for 210 Po and 10 2 for 210 Pb. The highest concentration factors were found in shrimp of the genus Sergestes. In muscle, the concentration factors were an order of magnitude less; in the hepatopancreas, they were an order of magnitude higher, reaching 10 6 in shrimp of the genus Sergestes. Such concentrations imply alpha-radiation doses of the order of 10 rem per year and more in this organ, which contains about 50 to 90% of the 210 Po in the whole animal in the 11 species analyzed. A detailed study of the intracellular behaviour of 210 Po in the hepatopancreas is clearly indicated. 210 Po can be used as a sensitive natural tracer in biological systems. Thus, feeding Meganyctiphanes norvegica in the laboratory on food low in 210 Po led to an approximate value of about 6 1/2 days for the biological half-life of 210 Po in the hepatopancreas of this euphausiid. Furthermore, the data on 210 Po and 210 Pb in the cephalopod hepatopancreas allowed the time of conservation of frozen squid which had been bought at the market to be estimated. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO [de

  6. Bismuth pyrochlore thin films for dielectric energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, Elizabeth K.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of cubic pyrochlore bismuth zinc niobate, bismuth zinc tantalate, and bismuth zinc niobate tantalate were fabricated using chemical solution deposition. This family of materials exhibited moderate relative permittivities between 55 ± 2 and 145 ± 5 for bismuth zinc tantalate and bismuth zinc niobate, respectively, and low loss tangents on the order of 0.0008 ± 0.0001. Increases in the concentration of the tantalum end member increased the dielectric breakdown strength. For example, at 10 kHz, the room temperature breakdown strength of bismuth zinc niobate was 5.1 MV/cm, while that of bismuth zinc tantalate was 6.1 MV/cm. This combination of a high breakdown strength and a moderate permittivity led to a high discharged energy storage density for all film compositions. For example, at a measurement frequency of 10 kHz, bismuth zinc niobate exhibited a maximum recoverable energy storage density of 60.8 ± 2.0 J/cm 3 , while bismuth zinc tantalate exhibited a recoverable energy storage density of 60.7 ± 2.0 J/cm 3 . Intermediate compositions of bismuth zinc niobate tantalate offered higher energy storage densities; at 10 mol. % tantalum, the maximum recoverable energy storage density was ∼66.9 ± 2.4 J/cm 3

  7. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Kuwabara, J.; Komura, K.; Ueno, K.

    1994-01-01

    The concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb were determined in about 30 species of marine organisms collected mainly from the north-eastern region of Japan to know the levels and distributions of these radionuclides and to estimate their intake levels from marine foods. 210 Po and 210 Pb showed a wide range of concentration in species: 0.6-26 and 0.04-0.54 Bq/kg (wet wt) in fishes, 0.5-220 and 0.2-43 Bq/kg (wet wt) in molluscs, echinoderms and chordatas, and 2.8-4.3 and 0.4-1.3 Bq/kg (wet wt) in algae, respectively. Higher accumulation of 210 Po relative to 210 Pb was found in all of the samples analyzed. The intake levels of 210 Po and 210 Pb by marine foods consumption were roughly estimated to be 0.48-0.69 and 0.022-0.042 Bq/d per person, respectively, on the basis of the statistical data on the consumption of seafood and/or production rates of marine foods. (author) 16 refs.; 6 tabs

  8. Current and potential applications of bismuth-based drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogan, Donal M; Griffith, Darren M

    2014-09-23

    : Bismuth compounds have been used extensively as medicines and in particular for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments. In addition to bismuth's well known gastroprotective effects and efficacy in treating H. pylori infection it also has broad anti-microbial, anti-leishmanial and anti-cancer properties. Aspects of the biological chemistry of bismuth are discussed and biomolecular targets associated with bismuth treatment are highlighted. This review strives to provide the reader with an up to date account of bismuth-based drugs currently used to treat patients and discuss potential medicinal applications of bismuth drugs with reference to recent developments in the literature. Ultimately this review aims to encourage original contributions to this exciting and important field.

  9. Bismuth(III) dialkyldithiophosphates: Facile single source precursors for the preparation of bismuth sulfide nanorods and bismuth phosphate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswal, Jasmine B.; Garje, Shivram S.; Nuwad, Jitendra; Pillai, C.G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Two different phase pure materials (Bi 2 S 3 and Bi 2 P 4 O 13 ) have been prepared under different conditions using the same single source precursors. Solvothermal decomposition of the complexes, Bi(S 2 P(OR) 2 ) 3 [where, R=Methyl (Me) (1), Ethyl (Et) (2), n-Propyl (Pr n ) (3) and iso-Propyl (Pr i ) (4)] in ethylene glycol gave orthorhombic bismuth sulfide nanorods, whereas aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) of the same precursors deposited monoclinic bismuth tetraphosphate (Bi 2 P 4 O 13 ) thin films on glass substrates. Surface study of the thin films using SEM illustrated the formation of variety of nanoscale morphologies (spherical-, wire-, pendent-, doughnut- and flower-like) at different temperatures. AFM studies were carried out to evaluate quality of the films in terms of uniformity and roughness. Thin films of average roughness as low as 1.4 nm were deposited using these precursors. Photoluminescence studies of Bi 2 P 4 O 13 thin films were also carried out. - Graphical abstract: Solvothermal decomposition of bismuth(III) dialkyldithiophosphates in ethylene glycol gave Bi 2 S 3 nanoparticles, whereas aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition of these single source precursors deposited Bi 2 P 4 O 13 thin films. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Preparation of phase pure orthorhombic Bi 2 S 3 nanorods and monoclinic Bi 2 P 4 O 13 thin films. • Use of single source precursors for deposition of bismuth phosphate thin films. • Use of solvothermal decomposition and AACVD methods. • Morphology controlled synthesis of Bi 2 P 4 O 13 thin films. • Bi 2 S 3 nanorods and Bi 2 P 4 O 13 thin films using same single source precursors

  10. Determination of 210Pb and 210Po in cigarette tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Ana Claudia

    1999-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the important pathways that could contribute to enhance the radiation dose to man, due to the relatively large concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po found in tobacco leaves. In this work, concentrations of these two radionuclides were determined in eight of the most commercialized cigarette brands produced in Brazil. The samples analyzed were bought randomly in the market. The 210 Pb was determined by counting the beta activity of the 210 Bi in a gas flow proportional detector, after radiochemical separation and precipitation of the PbCr0 4 . The 210 Po was determined by alpha spectrometry, using a surface barrier detector, after radiochemical separation and spontaneous deposition of Po in copper disk. The results showed concentrations ranging from 11,9 to 30,2 mBq per gram of dry tobacco for 210 Pb and from 10,9 to 27,4 mBq per gram of dry tobacco for 210 Po. (author)

  11. Pb-210 and Po-210 from active volcanoes in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komura, K.; Uchida, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Ueno, K.

    1991-01-01

    The concentration of Pb-210 and Po-210 in the surface air of volcanic areas is of considerable interest from the viewpoints of geochemistry, geophysics and also health physics, because these nuclides are the useful tracers for the estimation of the residence time or life time of aerosols, and give the significant radiation dose due to inhalation and ingestion through food stuffs. Since the establishment of Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Kanazawa University, in 1976, the measurement of environmental radioactivity has been one of the main subjects, and the measurement of Pb-210 and Po-210 in the surface air of Kagoshima was begun in 1987 to estimate the contribution from Volcano Sakurajima. In this study, the measurement of Pb-210 and Po-210 in air borne particles collected with air samplers, volcanic ash and lava of volcano Sakurajima of which the age of eruption is known. Moreover, the Po-210 in the volcanic gas and sulfur sublimate in the samples collected in four active volcanoes in Hokkaido was measured. The experiment and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  12. Rapid determination of 210Po in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; Utsey, Robin C.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2013-08-02

    A new rapid method for the determination of 210Po in water samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that can be used for emergency response or routine water analyses. If a radiological dispersive device (RDD) event or a radiological attack associated with drinking water supplies occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of water samples, including drinking water, ground water and other water effluents. Current analytical methods for the assay of 210Po in water samples have typically involved spontaneous auto-deposition of 210Po onto silver or other metal disks followed by counting by alpha spectrometry. The auto-deposition times range from 90 minutes to 24 hours or more, at times with yields that may be less than desirable. If sample interferences are present, decreased yields and degraded alpha spectrums can occur due to unpredictable thickening in the deposited layer. Separation methods have focused on the use of Sr Resin, often in combination with 210Pb analysis. A new rapid method for 210Po in water samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that utilizes a rapid calcium phosphate co-precipitation method, separation using DGA Resin (N,N,N,N-tetraoctyldiglycolamide extractant-coated resin, Eichrom Technologies or Triskem-International), followed by rapid microprecipitation of 210Po using bismuth phosphate for counting by alpha spectrometry. This new method can be performed quickly with excellent removal of interferences, high chemical yields and very good alpha peak resolution, eliminating any potential problems with the alpha source preparation for emergency or routine samples. A rapid sequential separation method to separate 210Po and actinide isotopes was also developed. This new approach, rapid separation with DGA Resin plus microprecipitation for alpha source preparation, is a significant advance in

  13. Combined isovalent alloying gallium arsenide with bismuth and indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'eva, V.V.; Zushinskaya, O.V.; Novikov, S.V.; Savel'ev, I.G.; Chaldyshev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Electric conductivity and the Hall effect at 77 and 300K of gallium arsenide epitaxial films grown from the melted solution with bismuth and indium additions at 77 and 300K. Different mechanisms of bismuth and indium effect on the ensamble of defects and background addition in gallium arsenide, are established. Bismuth effect is conditioned by the change of liquid phase properties, and indium effect is conditioned by the processes taking place in a crystal. The experimental results have shown that the mutual alloying of gallium arsenide with indium and bismuth in the process of liquid-phase epitaxy ensures high electrophysical film properties

  14. Polonium-210 budget in cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.E.M.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the relatively high activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb that are found in tobacco and its products, cigarette smoking highly increases the internal intake of both radionuclides and their concentrations in the lung tissues. That might contribute significantly to an increase in the internal radiation dose and in the number of instances of lung cancer observed among smokers. Samples of most frequently smoked fine and popular brands of cigarettes were collected from those available on the Egyptian market. 210 Po activity concentrations were measured by alpha spectrometry, using surface barrier detectors, following the radiochemical separation of polonium. Samples of fresh tobacco, wrapping paper, fresh filters, ash and post-smoking filters were spiked with 208 Po for chemical recovery calculation. The samples were dissolved using mineral acids (HNO 3 , HCl and HF). Polonium was spontaneously plated-out on stainless steel disks from diluted HCl solution. The 210 Po activity concentration in smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in fresh tobacco and wrapping paper, fresh filter, ash and post-smoking filters. The percentages of 210 Po activity concentrations that were recovered from the cigarette tobacco to ash, post-smoking filters, and smokes were assessed. The results of this work indicate that the average (range) activity concentration of 210 Po in cigarette tobacco was 16.6 (9.7-22.5) mBq/cigarette. The average percentages of 210 Po content in fresh tobacco plus wrapping paper that were recovered by post-smoking filters, ash and smoke were 4.6, 20.7 and 74.7, respectively. Cigarette smokers, who are smoking one pack (20 cigarettes) per day, are inhaling on average 123 mBq/d of 210 Po and 210 Pb each. The annual effective doses were calculated on the basis of 210 Po and 210 Pb intake with the cigarette smoke. The mean values of the annual effective dose for smokers (one pack per day) were estimated to be 193 and 251 μSv from 210 Po and 210

  15. Coating compositions comprising bismuth-alloyed zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present application discloses (i) a coating composition comprising a particulate zinc-based alloyed material, said material comprising 0.05-0.7% by weight of bismuth (Bi), the D50 of the particulate material being in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (ii) a coated structure comprising a metal structure......, wherein the material comprises 0.05-0.7%(w/w) of bismuth (Bi), and wherein the D50 of the particulate material is in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (iv) a composite powder consisting of at least 25%(w/w) of the particulate zinc-based alloyed material, the rest being a particulate material consisting of zinc...

  16. Electrocatalytic activity of bismuth doped silver electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Amjad, M

    2002-01-01

    Investigation of redox reactions on silver, and bismuth doped silver electrodes in aqueous KOH solutions, by using potentiostatic steady-state polarization technique, has been carried out. The redox wave potential and current displacements along with multiplicity of the latter have been examined. These electrodes were employed for the oxidation of organic molecules such as ethylamine in alkaline media. Subsequently, these electrodes were ranked with respect to their activity for the redox reactions. (author)

  17. "Chemical contraction" in rubidium-bismuth melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairulin, R. A.; Abdullaev, R. N.; Stankus, S. V.

    2017-10-01

    The density and thermal expansion of liquid rubidium and rubidium-bismuth alloy containing 25.0 at % Bi were measured by the gamma-ray attenuation technique at temperatures from liquidus to 1000 K. The results of this study were compared with the data obtained by other authors. The molar volume of the Rb75Bi25 melt strongly deviates from the additivity rule for ideal solutions.

  18. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of phase-separating bismuth selenium telluride thin films via a two-step method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashiri, Masayuki, E-mail: takashiri@tokai-u.jp; Kurita, Kensuke [Department of Materials Science, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Hagino, Harutoshi; Miyazaki, Koji [Department of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1 Sensui, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Tanaka, Saburo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Nihon University, 1 Nakagawara, Tokusada, Tamuramachi, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8642 (Japan)

    2015-08-14

    A two-step method that combines homogeneous electron beam (EB) irradiation and thermal annealing has been developed to enhance the thermoelectric properties of nanocrystalline bismuth selenium telluride thin films. The thin films, prepared using a flash evaporation method, were treated with EB irradiation in a N{sub 2} atmosphere at room temperature and an acceleration voltage of 0.17 MeV. Thermal annealing was performed under Ar/H{sub 2} (5%) at 300 °C for 60 min. X-ray diffraction was used to determine that compositional phase separation between bismuth telluride and bismuth selenium telluride developed in the thin films exposed to higher EB doses and thermal annealing. We propose that the phase separation was induced by fluctuations in the distribution of selenium atoms after EB irradiation, followed by the migration of selenium atoms to more stable sites during thermal annealing. As a result, thin film crystallinity improved and mobility was significantly enhanced. This indicates that the phase separation resulting from the two-step method enhanced, rather than disturbed, the electron transport. Both the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient were improved following the two-step method. Consequently, the power factor of thin films that underwent the two-step method was enhanced to 20 times (from 0.96 to 21.0 μW/(cm K{sup 2}) that of the thin films treated with EB irradiation alone.

  19. Internal dosimetry of polonium-210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucelj, B.

    2007-01-01

    On November 1, 2006, former Russian agent Alexander Litvinenko suddenly fell ill and was hospitalised. He died three weeks later, becoming the first known victim of lethal polonium-210 induced acute radiation syndrome. Po-210 is an alpha emitter and is not a radiological hazard as long as it remains outside the body. If taken into the body, much of Po-210 is subsequently excreted, mostly through faeces and some through urine and other pathways. After uptake by the blood, Po-210 is widely distributed through soft body tissues including bone marrow. The internal dose from polonium in the body gives rise to an increase in lifetime cancer risk. Very high radiation doses can cause severe damage to body tissues and organs and in the extreme can be fatal. The hazard function model was used to estimate the lethal levels of intake of Po-210. In case of Litvinenko the destruction of bone marrow and resulting failure of the immune system was most probably the main cause of death, likely to be compounded by damage caused by higher doses to other organs, including kidneys and liver. It was estimated that the ingestion of several hundreds MBq or just about a microgram of Po-210 can be lethal. (author)

  20. Optical Properties of Chemical Bath Deposited Bismuth Fluoride (Bif ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thin films of bismuth fluoride (Bif3) were deposited using chemical bath deposition technique from chemical baths containing solutions of bismuth nitrate (EDTA) and potassium bromide with EDTA as complexing agent in slightly acidic medium. The films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) ...

  1. Bismuth-silver mineralization in the Sergozerskoe gold occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinin A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth-silver mineralization attendant to gold mineralization in the Sergozerskoe gold occurrence has been studied in detail. Bi-Ag mineralization is connected with diorite porphyry dykes, which cut volcanic-sedimentary Lopian complexes of the Strel'ninsky greenstone belt – hornblendite and actinolite-chlorite amphibolites, biotite and bi-micaceous gneisses. Distribution of Bi-Ag mineralization similar to gold mineralization is controlled by 80 m thick zone of silicification. Bi minerals are found in brecciated diorite porphyry. Bismuth-silver mineralization includes native metals (bismuth, electrum, silver, tellurides (hedleyite, hessite, selenides (ikunolite, sulfides and sulfosalts of Bi and Ag (matildite, lillianite, eckerite, jalpaite, prustite, acanthite, a few undiagnosed minerals. All Bi and Ag minerals associate with galena. Composition of mineralization evolved from early to late stages of development, depending on intensity of rock alteration. The earliest Bi-Ag minerals were native bismuth and hedleyite formed dissemination in galena, and electrum with 30-45 mass.% Au. Later native bismuth was partly substituted by silver and bismuth sulfosalts and bismuth sulfides. The latest minerals were low-temperature silver sulfides eckerite, jalpaite, and acanthite, which were noted only in the most intensively altered rocks. As soon as the process of formation of Bi-Ag mineralization is the same as formation of gold, findings of bismuth-silver mineralization can serve as a positive exploration sign for gold in the region.

  2. Effectiveness of ranitidine bismuth citrate and proton pump inhibitor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of ranitidine bismuth citrate and proton pump inhibitor based triple therapies of Helicobacter pylori in Turkey. ... Results: When we look at the eradication rates of the treatment groups, only two groups (ranitidine bismuth citrate and rabeprazole groups) had eradication rates greater than 80%, both at intention to ...

  3. Heat capacity, enthalpy and entropy of bismuth niobate and bismuth tantalate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hampl, M.; Strejc, A.; Sedmidubský, D.; Růžička, K.; Hejtmánek, Jiří; Leitner, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 179, - (2006), s. 77-80 ISSN 0022-4596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : heat capacity * heat of formation * heat content * bismuth perovskite Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.107, year: 2006

  4. Contribution to the study of the geophysical behaviour of lead-210 by application of alpha spectrometry; Contribution a l'etude du comportement geophysique du plomb 210 par application de la spectrometrie alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nezami, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-06-01

    A study of the changes in the lead-210 contents of rain-water and of water produced by melting polar ice has required the development of a method for dosing lead-210, an {alpha} emitter. This method is 40 times more sensitive than that which measures the lead-210 by bismuth-210, a ({beta} emitter. The first part of the report presents the study of a spectrometry using semiconductor detectors; a catalogue of a spectra shows the advantages of this method. In the second part will be found at first a new chemical separation method for polonium-210 and the results obtained with this method. The main results obtained on the geophysical behaviour of lead-210 are the following: - the monthly lead-210 and polonium-210 contents in rain water are approximately constant with time. - in the Gif-sur-Yvette region, the clean-up by 'dry fall-out' can attain 40 to 50 per cent of the total fall-out. - a study of Antarctic ice samples makes it possible to determine an annual accumulation rate equivalent to 13.8 cm of water and to show discrepancies in the periodic concentrations which correspond to the latest maxima of solar activity. - a balance is drawn up between the radon produced by the continents and the lead-210 fall-out. (author) [French] Une etude sur les variations de la teneur en plomb 210 des eaux de pluie et des eaux de fusion des glaces polaires a necessite la mise au point d'une methode de dosage du plomb 210 emetteur {alpha}. Cette methode permet d'obtenir une sensibilite quarante fois superieure a celle dosant le plomb 210 par le bismuth 210 emetteur {beta}. La premiere partie du travail presente l'etude de la spectrometrie {alpha} par detecteur a semiconducteurs, un catalogue de spectres {alpha} met en evidence les avantages de cette methode. Dans la deuxieme partie on trouvera en premier lieu une nouvelle methode chimique de separation du polonium 210 ainsi que les resultats obtenus grace a cette methode. Les principaux resultats sur le

  5. Bismuth-Based Quadruple Therapy with Bismuth Subcitrate, Metronidazole, Tetracycline and Omeprazole in the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Lahaie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A previous study showed that 14 days of qid bismuth-based triple therapy with tetracycline 500 mg, metronidazole 250 mg and colloidal bismuth subcitrate 120 mg resulted in excellent Helicobacter pylori eradication rates (89.5%. The present study looked at a shorter treatment period by adding omeprazole and by reducing the dose of tetracycline.

  6. Polonium-210 as Weapon for Mass Destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koteng, A.O.

    2010-01-01

    Properties of Po-210 make it possible for its use as weapon of mass destruction. Po-210 occurs naturally in minute quantities in the human body, in Uranium ore (< 0.1 mg Po-210 / ton ) and as a product of Radon-222 gas decay chain. Po-210 also occurs as deposition on vegetation (tobacco leaves). Po-210 is produced by bombardment of Bi-209 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Russia produces 8 grams per year for export to USA market

  7. An evaluated neutronic data file for bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.; Meadows, J.W.; Smith, A.B.; Smith, D.L.; Sugimoto, M.; Howerton, R.J.

    1989-11-01

    A comprehensive evaluated neutronic data file for bismuth, extending from 10 -5 eV to 20.0 MeV, is described. The experimental database, the application of the theoretical models, and the evaluation rationale are outlined. Attention is given to uncertainty specification, and comparisons are made with the prior ENDF/B-V evaluation. The corresponding numerical file, in ENDF/B-VI format, has been transmitted to the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. 106 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  8. An evaluated neutronic data file for bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.; Meadows, J.W.; Smith, A.B.; Smith, D.L.; Sugimoto, M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Howerton, R.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-11-01

    A comprehensive evaluated neutronic data file for bismuth, extending from 10{sup {minus}5} eV to 20.0 MeV, is described. The experimental database, the application of the theoretical models, and the evaluation rationale are outlined. Attention is given to uncertainty specification, and comparisons are made with the prior ENDF/B-V evaluation. The corresponding numerical file, in ENDF/B-VI format, has been transmitted to the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. 106 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Quantum oscillations of conductivity in bismuth wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condrea, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the resistance of bismuth nanowires with several diameters and different quality reveal oscillations on the dependence of resistance under uniaxial strain at T = 4.2 K. Amplitude of oscillations is significant (38 %) at helium temperature and becomes smearing at T = 77 K. Observed oscillations originate from quantum size effect. A simple evaluation of period of oscillations allows us to identify the groups of carriers involved in transport. Calculated periods of 42.2 and 25.9 nm satisfy approximately the ratio 2:1 for two experimentally observed sets of oscillations from light and heavy electrons.

  10. Optical Properties of Bismuth Tellurite Based Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Hooi Ming; Mohamed-Kamari, Halimah; Wan-Yusoff, Wan Mohd Daud

    2012-01-01

    A series of binary tellurite based glasses (Bi2O3)x (TeO2)100−x was prepared by melt quenching method. The density, molar volume and refractive index increase when bismuth ions Bi3+ increase, this is due to the increased polarization of the ions Bi3+ and the enhanced formation of non-bridging oxygen (NBO). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results show the bonding of the glass sample and the optical band gap, Eopt decreases while the refractive index increases when the ion Bi3+ content increases. PMID:22605999

  11. Optical Properties of Bismuth Tellurite Based Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooi Ming Oo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of binary tellurite based glasses (Bi2O3x (TeO2100−x was prepared by melt quenching method. The density, molar volume and refractive index increase when bismuth ions Bi3+ increase, this is due to the increased polarization of the ions Bi3+ and the enhanced formation of non-bridging oxygen (NBO. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR results show the bonding of the glass sample and the optical band gap, Eopt decreases while the refractive index increases when the ion Bi3+ content increases.

  12. Standardisation of {sup 210}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, D.H. E-mail: denise.woods@npl.co.uk; Bowles, N.E.; Jerome, S.M.; Lavison, P. de; Lineham, S.; Makepeace, J.L.; Woodman, A.P.; Woods, M.J

    2000-03-01

    The standardisation of {sup 210}Pb is complicated by the presence of the daughters, {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po. In addition, the low energies of the beta emissions from {sup 210}Pb make it difficult to obtain high detection efficiencies in an atmospheric proportional counter and hence produce the need for large extrapolations with consequential large uncertainties when extrapolating to unit efficiency with the conventional 4{pi}(PC)-{gamma}-coincidence technique. In order to produce a reliable standardisation, it is necessary to remove the daughter products. A solution of {sup 210}Pb was therefore chemically separated from its daughters and then standardised using the conventional 4{pi}(LS)-{gamma}-coincidence technique. The low energy (46 keV) and low emission probability (4%) of the associated photon emissions effectively rules out the possibility of using ionisation chambers as secondary standard transfer instruments for this nuclide. A germanium spectrometer therefore was calibrated for this purpose using {sup 241}Am as a normalising agent. The results of this work are presented together with an analysis of the standardisation uncertainties that can be achieved in practice.

  13. Studies of the balance 210Pb - 210Po in glasses; Estudios del equilibrio 210Pb - 210Po en vidrios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre Pérez, J. de la; Martín Sánchez, A.; Ruano Sánchez, A.B.

    2014-07-01

    Retrospective dosimetry requires measurement methods allowing the determination of Radon concentration in the past. One of the such methods is based on the direct measurement of 210Po implanted on the surface of objects, whose activity concentration (Bq/m2), is directly related to the cumulative exposure due to the concentration of 222Rn (Bq/m3) for long time. These determinations are possible taking into consideration the equilibrium between 210Po (T1/2 = 138.378 days) and its parent 210Pb (T1/2 = 22.3 years), being both radionuclides from the 222Rn progeny. In previous works about the determination of the conversion factor (ratio between the concentration of 210Po in objects and the retrospective 222Rn concentration in air), Corresponding equilibria between descendants were assumed. In this work, an experimental study about the equilibrium 210Pb - 210Po in glasses, which were previously exposed to some radon concentrations, has been performed. Two scenarios were studied: a place with, and another place without, continuous cumulative 222Rn concentration. Results were compared with those reached by theoretical calculations from the (Bateman) activity evolution equations. [Spanish] La dosimetría retrospectiva requiere métodos de medida que permitan la determinación de la concentración de radón en el pasado. Uno de estos métodos está basado en la medida directa del 210Po implantado sobre la superficie de objetos, cuya concentración de actividad (Bq/m2), está directamente relacionada con la exposición acumulativa debida a la concentración de 222Rn (Bq/m3) durante largos períodos de tiempo. Estas determinaciones son posibles gracias al equilibrio entre el 210Po (T1/2 = 138,378 días) y su progenitor, el 210Pb (T1/2 = 22,3 años), siendo ambos radionúclidos descendientes del 222Rn. En trabajos anteriores sobre la determinación del factor de conversión (relación entre la concentración de 210Po en los objetos y la concentración de 222Rn retrospectivo en

  14. Development of lead-bismuth coolant technology for nuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Kin-ya; Kitano, Teruaki; Ono, Mikinori

    2004-01-01

    Liquid lead-bismuth is a promising material as a future fast reactor coolant or an intensive neutron source material for accelerator driven transmutation system (ADS). To develop nuclear plants and their installations using lead-bismuth coolant for practical use, both coolant technologies, inhabitation process of steels and quality control of coolant, and total operation system for liquid lead-bismuth plants are required. Based on the experience of liquid metal coolant, Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. (MES) has completed the liquid lead-bismuth forced circulation loop and has acquired various engineering data on main components including economizer. As a result of tis operation, MES has developed key technologies of lead-bismuth coolant such as controlling of oxygen content in lead-bismuth and a purification of lead-bismuth coolant. MES participated in the national project, ''The Development of Accelerator Driven Transmutation System'', together with JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) and started corrosion test for beam window of ADS. (author)

  15. Study of point defects in bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bois, P.

    1987-03-01

    Single crystalline samples of bismuth, pure and n or p - doped by adding tellurium or tin, were electron irradiated at low temperature (4.2 K and 20 K). In the energy range 0.7 - 2.5 MeV, a displacement threshold energy of 13 eV and an athermal recombination volume of 150 atomic volumes were determined. Joint measurements of resistivity, magnetotransport and positron annihilation enabled to precised the nature of the annealing stages: 40-50 K, free migration of interstitials; 90-120 K long range migration of vacancy. Point defects have according to their nature a different effect on the electronic properties of bismuth: isolated Frenkel pairs are globally donnors with a charge of + 0.16 e- and the vacancy is donnor, which seems to attribute to it a negative formation volume. A simple model with non-deformating bands is no longer sufficient to explain the behaviour under irradiation: one has to take into account an acceptor level with a charge of - 0,27 e-, linked to the cascade-type defects and resonating with the valence band. It's position in the band overlap and it's width (8 meV) could be precised. In first approximation this coupling with less mobile carriers does not affect the simple additive rule which exists for relaxation times. Some yet obscure magnetic properties seem to be linked to this defect level [fr

  16. Determining the background levels of bismuth in tissues of wild game birds: a first step in addressing the environmental consequences of using bismuth shotshells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasinghe, R.; Tsuji, L.J.S.; Gough, W.A.; Karagatzides, J.D.; Perera, D.; Nieboer, E.

    2004-01-01

    Bismuth shotshells have been approved as a 'nontoxic' alternative to lead in North America. Approval was based on a limited number of studies; even background levels of bismuth in wildfowl were unknown. We report on the concentration of bismuth (and lead) in muscle and liver tissues of wildfowl (Anas platyrhynchos, Anas acuta, Anas crecca, Branta canadensis, Chen caerulescens) harvested with lead shotshell. Average liver-bismuth levels detected in the present study (e.g., teal, 0.05 μg/g dw; mallard, 0.09 μg/g dw) suggest analytical error in other studies examining the effects of bismuth in birds. Significant positive relationships between bismuth- and lead-tissue levels for muscle when all species were combined (and for B. canadensis and C. caerulescens separately) can be explained by noting that bismuth is a contaminant of lead. Thus, more research is recommended to confirm the appropriateness of bismuth as a 'nontoxic' shot alternative

  17. Applications of PB-210/RA-226 and PO-210/PB-210 disequilibria in the study of marine geochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, M.P.

    1976-02-01

    The distribution of 210 Pb and 210 Po in dissolved (less than 0.4 micron) and particulate (greater than 0.4 micron) phases was measured at ten stations in the tropical and eastern North Atlantic and at two stations in the Pacific. Both radionuclides occur principally in the dissolved phase. Unsupported 210 Pb activities, maintained by flux from the atmosphere, were present in the surface mixed layer and penetrated into the thermocline to depths of about 500 m. Dissolved 210 Po was ordinarily present in the mixed layer at less than equilibrium concentrations, suggesting rapid biological removal of this nuclide. Particulate matter was enriched in 210 Po, with 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratios greater than 1.0, similar to those reported for phytoplankton. Box-model calculations yield a 2-y residence time for 210 Pb and a 0.6-y residence time for 210 Po in the mixed layer. These residence times are considerably longer than the time calculated for turnover of particles in the mixed layer (about 0.1 y). At depths of 100 to 300 m, 210 Po maxima occurred and unsupported 210 Po was frequently present. Calculations indicate that at least 50 percent of the 210 Po removed from the mixed layer is re-cycled within the thermocline. Similar calculations for 210 Pb suggest much lower re-cycling efficiencies

  18. Radiochemical determination of 210Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarence, J.

    1961-04-01

    By spontaneous deposition of Po onto silver, and with the use of Po 208 as a tracer, the accurate spectrographic measurements are made possible. Quantitative recovery of Po 210 from radioactive cellulose filters is obtained by burning of samples in a golden lined calorimetric bomb. (author) [fr

  19. Polonium-210 as a poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, John; Leggett, Rich; Lloyd, David; Phipps, Alan; Scott, Bobby

    2007-01-01

    The death of Alexander Litvinenko on 23 November 2006 has brought into focus scientific judgements concerning the radiotoxicity of polonium-210 ( 210 Po). This paper does not consider the specific radiological circumstances surrounding the tragic death of Mr Litvinenko; rather, it provides an evaluation of published human and animal data and models developed for the estimation of alpha radiation doses from 210 Po and the induction of potentially fatal damage to different organs and tissues. Although uncertainties have not been addressed comprehensively, the reliability of key assumptions is considered. Concentrating on the possibility of intake by ingestion, the use of biokinetic and dosimetric models to estimate organ and tissue doses from 210 Po is examined and model predictions of the time-course of dose delivery are illustrated. Estimates are made of doses required to cause fatal damage, taking account of the possible effects of dose protraction and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha particles compared to gamma and x-rays. Comparison of LD 50 values (dose to cause death for 50% of people) for different tissues with the possible accumulation of dose to these tissues suggests that bone marrow failure is likely to be an important component of multiple contributory causes of death occurring within a few weeks of an intake by ingestion. Animal data on the effects of 210 Po provide good confirmatory evidence of intakes and doses required to cause death within about 3 weeks. The conclusion is reached that 0.1-0.3 GBq or more absorbed to blood of an adult male is likely to be fatal within 1 month. This corresponds to ingestion of 1-3 GBq or more, assuming 10% absorption to blood. Well-characterised reductions in white cell counts would be observed. Bone marrow failure is likely to be compounded by damage caused by higher doses to other organs, including kidneys and liver. Even if the bone marrow could be rescued, damage to other organs can be expected

  20. Grain boundary effects on the mechanical properties of bismuth nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burek, Michael J.; Jin, Sumin; Leung, Michael C.; Jahed, Zeinab; Wu, Janet [Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Budiman, Arief Suriadi [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Tsui, Ting Y., E-mail: tttsui@uwaterloo.ca [Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Cylindrical bismuth nanopillars with diameters between 130 and 1100 nm were fabricated by electron beam lithography and electroplating. The microstructure of the electrodeposited bismuth was established to be polycrystalline with a wide distribution of grains from {approx}0.1 to 1 {mu}m in size. A clear transition in the mechanism governing the plastic deformation of bismuth nanopillars is observed as the nanopillar size becomes comparable with the average grain size of 280 nm. In larger nanopillar specimens, where the average grain size is much smaller than the nanopillar diameter, deformation is dominated by grain boundary-mediated mechanisms. When the bismuth nanopillar diameter approaches the average grain size the deformation behavior transitions to a mechanism dominated by dislocation dynamics. This transition is identified by post-compression scanning electron microscopy, strain rate sensitivity, and average flow stresses.

  1. Studies on bismuth carboxylates—synthesis and characterization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    synthesis and characterization of a new structural form of bismuth(III) dipicolinate ... Synthesis and X-ray structure of a new bismuth dipicolinate cooordination polymer, {[Bi((2,6-O2C)2C5H3N)((2-HO2C-6-O2C)C5H3N)(H2O)]2.5H2O} (7) are ...

  2. Synthesis, structural and property studies of bismuth containing perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei-tin

    2009-01-01

    Several bismuth-containing transition metal perovskites that are of interest as potential multiferroic materials have been synthesised and studied. These materials have been structurally characterised and their physical properties have been examined at varying temperatures and pressures. The new series of substituted bismuth ferrite perovskites BixCa1-xFeO3, where x = 0.4 - 1.0, has been prepared. A disordered cubic phase (x = 0.4 - 0.67) and the coexistence of rhombohedral ...

  3. Synthesis and characterization of superconducting bismuthates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Horngyi.

    1991-01-01

    A new electrosynthetic technique for low-temperature crystal growth of superconducting bismuthates was developed, and its utility demonstrated by growing various high-quality BiO 3 crystals. The crystals of Ba 1-x K x BiO 3 and Ba 1-x Rb x BiO 3 display their T c onset at 31.8k and 28k, respectively, using SQUID magnetometry. The structure of a KBiO 3 x H 2 O single crystal determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction confirms previous results from powder samples that it is isostructural with KSbO 3 . The crystals of Ba 1-x Cs x BiO 3 do not show superconductivity to 4k. Chemical vapor-transport experiments leading to the fabrication of MoS 2 /WSe 2 junctions were also performed and are described in detail

  4. {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb intake by the Portuguese population: The contribution of seafood in the dietary intake of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F.P. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnolgia Industrial, Savavem (Portugal)

    1995-10-01

    Through analysis of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in the diet, the average ingestion rate for the Portuguese population is estimated at 1.2 and 0.47 Bq d{sup -1} per capita for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, respectively. Detailed analysis of foods indicate that seafood alone contributes up to 70% of the {sup 210}Po ingestion rate, whereas cerals, vegetables, and meat altogether contribute 79% of the {sup 210}Pb ingestion rate. Consumption of seafood, both in terms of quantities (kg d{sup -1} per person) and preferential consumption of certain marine species, is the cause of the relatively high intake of {sup 210}Po and high {sup 210}Po:{sup 210}Pb ratio in the diet in comparison with other countries. Other {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb sources, namely inhalation of surface air and cigarette smoke, contribute only a small percentage of the adsorption of these radionuclides in the blood. Estimated total body burdens of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in adult men, 70 Bq, are 3.5 times higher than estimates for humans living in normal radioactivity regions and consuming a reference diet. Average whole body effective doses for the adult from the Portuguese population are estimated at about 85 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} from {sup 210}Po and 170 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} from {sup 210}Pb adsorbed with the diet. Effective dose from {sup 210}Po in the diet may vary from 25 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} in an heavy consumer of sardines, to 1,000 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} in an hypothetical heavy consumer of molluscs. 46 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Aggregation and hydrolysis reactions of bismuth alkoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmire, K.H.; Jones, C.M.; Burkart, M.D.; Hutchinson, J.C.; McKnight, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that new bismuth alkoxide and oxo-alkoxide complexes have been prepared from the salt metathesis reaction of NaOR with BiCl 3 . When R = CH(CF 3 ) 2 , the product is [Bi(μ-OR)(OR) 2 (THF)] 2 . similar work with R = C 6 F 5 has not yielded a simple alkoxide, but complexes of formulation NaBi 3 (μ 3 -O)(OR) 8 (THF), NaBi 4 (μ 3 -O) 2 (OR) 9 (THF) 2 , Na 2 Bi 4 (μ 3 -O) 2 (OR) 10 and Bi 6 (μ 3 -OR)(μ 3 -O) 4 [μ 3 -OBI(OR) 4 ] 3 have been observed. The reaction of BiPh 3 with HOC 6 F 5 , however, did produce the desired alkoxide which has been characterized as [Bi(OR) 2 (μ-OR)(toluene)] 2 and [Bi(OR) 2 (μ-OR)(toluene)] 2 · 2 toluene. The reaction of this alkoxide with NaOC 6 F 5 led to the production of Bi 6 (μ 3 -O) 2 (μ 4 -O)(OR) 12 and NaBi 3 (μ 3 -O)(OR) 8 (THF) 3 . Reaction of BiPh 3 with HOC 6 F 5 in THF led to the formation of Bi 6 (μ 3 -OR)(μ 3 -O) 4 [μ 3 -OBi(OR) 4 ] 3 (THF) 2 . Surprisingly the reaction of BiEt 3 and HOR (R = C 6 F 5 or Ph) displaced only one Et group to give [Et 2 Bi(μ-OR)] oo which exist as infinite chain polymers with alternating Bi-O-Bi backbones. These spiral chains form chiral helices in the crystal lattice. The discovery of high T C superconducting copper oxide phases containing bismuth, lead and thallium has led to this investigation

  6. In situ electron beam irradiated rapid growth of bismuth nanoparticles in bismuth-based glass dielectrics at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shiv Prakash; Karmakar, Basudeb

    2011-01-01

    In this study, in situ control growth of bismuth nanoparticles (Bi 0 NPs) was demonstrated in bismuth-based glass dielectrics under an electron beam (EB) irradiation at room temperature. The effects of EB irradiation were investigated in situ using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The EB irradiation for 2–8 min enhanced the construction of bismuth nanoparticles with a rhombohedral structure and diameter of 4–9 nm. The average particle size was found to increase with the irradiation time. Bismuth metal has a melting point of 271 °C and this low melting temperature makes easy the progress of energy induced structural changes during in situ TEM observations. This is a very useful technique in nano-patterning for integrated optics and other applications.

  7. Concentration of 210Po in cigars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Gouvea, Rita C.S.; Santos, Pedro L.

    2000-01-01

    210 Po concentrations have been determined in 57 different cigar brands manufactured in 11 countries. Cuban and American cigars showed the lowest 210 Po content. The mean levels of 210 Po in Brazilian cigars were almost equal to those of European and Dominican cigars, and somewhat lower than cigars from Central American countries. (author)

  8. 46 CFR 121.210 - Heating equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heating equipment. 121.210 Section 121.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.210 Heating equipment. (a) Each heater must be so...

  9. 46 CFR 184.210 - Heating equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heating equipment. 184.210 Section 184.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.210 Heating equipment...

  10. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States and..., are governed by this part, which has the force and effect of Federal law. (b) Incorporation by...

  11. 7 CFR 210.21 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement. 210.21 Section 210.21 Agriculture... Responsibilities § 210.21 Procurement. (a) General. State agencies and school food authorities shall comply with... the applicable Office of Management and Budget Circulars, concerning the procurement of all goods and...

  12. 12 CFR 347.210 - Asset maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... state or federal examination; (6) Any intangible asset; (7) Any other asset not considered bankable by... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Asset maintenance. 347.210 Section 347.210... INTERNATIONAL BANKING Foreign Banks § 347.210 Asset maintenance. (a) An insured branch of a foreign bank shall...

  13. 22 CFR 210.665 - State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State. 210.665 Section 210.665 Foreign... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.665 State. State means any of the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the United States. ...

  14. 7 CFR 210.14 - Resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource management. 210.14 Section 210.14 Agriculture... Participation § 210.14 Resource management. (a) Nonprofit school food service. School food authorities shall.... Expenditures of nonprofit school food service revenues shall be in accordance with the financial management...

  15. 19 CFR 210.16 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default. 210.16 Section 210.16 Customs Duties... ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.16 Default. (a) Definition of default. (1) A party shall be found in default if it fails to respond to the complaint and notice of investigation in the manner prescribed in...

  16. 40 CFR 34.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting. 34.210 Section 34.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 34.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect...

  17. 22 CFR 712.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting. 712.210 Section 712.210 Foreign Relations OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 712.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of...

  18. 29 CFR 93.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reporting. 93.210 Section 93.210 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 93.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of reasonable compensation made to regularly employed officers...

  19. 7 CFR 3018.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting. 3018.210 Section 3018.210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 3018.210 Reporting. No reporting is...

  20. 49 CFR 20.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting. 20.210 Section 20.210 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 20.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of reasonable compensation made to...

  1. 22 CFR 138.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting. 138.210 Section 138.210 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 138.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of reasonable compensation made to...

  2. 41 CFR 105-69.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting. 105-69.210 Section 105-69.210 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 105-69.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with...

  3. 45 CFR 1168.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting. 1168.210 Section 1168.210 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE... § 1168.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of reasonable compensation made...

  4. 32 CFR 28.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting. 28.210 Section 28.210 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 28.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect...

  5. 38 CFR 45.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting. 45.210 Section 45.210 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 45.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect...

  6. 15 CFR 28.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting. 28.210 Section 28.210 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 28.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of reasonable...

  7. 10 CFR 601.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting. 601.210 Section 601.210 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 601.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of reasonable compensation made to...

  8. 24 CFR 87.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting. 87.210 Section 87.210 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 87.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect...

  9. 22 CFR 311.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting. 311.210 Section 311.210 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 311.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of reasonable compensation made to regularly employed...

  10. 45 CFR 1230.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting. 1230.210 Section 1230.210 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 1230.210 Reporting. No reporting is...

  11. 44 CFR 18.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting. 18.210 Section 18.210 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 18.210 Reporting. No reporting...

  12. 31 CFR 21.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting. 21.210 Section 21.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 21.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of...

  13. 28 CFR 69.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting. 69.210 Section 69.210 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 69.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of reasonable compensation made to...

  14. 34 CFR 82.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting. 82.210 Section 82.210 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 82.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of reasonable compensation made to...

  15. 45 CFR 93.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting. 93.210 Section 93.210 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 93.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of reasonable compensation...

  16. 20 CFR 438.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting. 438.210 Section 438.210 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 438.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of reasonable compensation made to regularly...

  17. 43 CFR 18.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting. 18.210 Section 18.210 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 18.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of reasonable compensation...

  18. 12 CFR 411.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting. 411.210 Section 411.210 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 411.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of reasonable compensation made...

  19. 45 CFR 1158.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting. 1158.210 Section 1158.210 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE....210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of reasonable compensation made to...

  20. 22 CFR 519.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting. 519.210 Section 519.210 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 519.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of reasonable compensation made to regularly...

  1. 22 CFR 227.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting. 227.210 Section 227.210 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 227.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of reasonable compensation made...

  2. 14 CFR 1271.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting. 1271.210 Section 1271.210 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 1271.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of reasonable...

  3. 45 CFR 604.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting. 604.210 Section 604.210 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 604.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of...

  4. 18 CFR 1315.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting. 1315.210 Section 1315.210 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 1315.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to...

  5. 13 CFR 146.210 - Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting. 146.210 Section 146.210 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 146.210 Reporting. No reporting is required with respect to payments of reasonable compensation...

  6. 49 CFR 195.210 - Pipeline location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipeline location. 195.210 Section 195.210 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.210 Pipeline location. (a) Pipeline right-of-way must be selected to avoid, as...

  7. 46 CFR 132.210 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 132.210 Section 132.210 Shipping COAST... Portable and Semiportable Fire Extinguishers § 132.210 Classification. (a) Each portable fire extinguisher... Classification Type Size Halon 1211, 1301, and 1211-1301 mixtures kgs. (lbs.) Foam, liters (gallons) Carbon...

  8. 28 CFR 36.210 - Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 36.210 Section 36.210 Judicial... COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.210 Smoking. This part does not preclude the prohibition of, or the imposition of restrictions on, smoking in places of public accommodation. ...

  9. 19 CFR 210.79 - Advisory opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advisory opinions. 210.79 Section 210.79 Customs... ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Enforcement Procedures and Advisory Opinions § 210.79 Advisory opinions. (a) Advisory opinions. Upon request of any person, the Commission may, upon such investigation as it deems...

  10. 7 CFR 210.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 210.3 Section 210.3 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM General § 210.3 Administration. (a) FNS. FNS will act on behalf of the Department in the administration of the Program. Within FNS, the CND will be...

  11. Spatial and depth variation of 210Po and 210Pb in monazite sand along HBRA of coastal Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cunha, Primal; Narayana, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The samples collected from high background radiation area were analyzed for 210 Po and 210 Pb activities in order to understand their distribution, enrichment and depth profile in the beach sand. The 210 Po and 210 Pb activities vary from 1.85 to 31.27 Bq kg -1 and 9.77 to 132.30 Bq kg -1 respectively. The 210 Po/ 210 Pb indicate that the radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb are not in equilibrium and the accumulation of 210 Pb in sand is greater than for 210 Po. The spatial variations of 210 Po and 210 Pb activities were studied in detail. (author)

  12. Variation of 210Po and 210Pb Profile in the Sediment Core of Sarawak Coastal Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Che Abd Rahim Mohamed; Zaharudin Ahmad; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to observe the variation in the distribution of 210 Po and 210 Pb through their activity vertical profile and 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratio in the sediment cores that were taken at some sampling stations in the Sarawak coastal waters. It was found that the distribution profile of those radionuclide in the sediment cores varied depending on the sampling location and ANOVA analysis shows significant difference at 95% confidence level for activities of 210 Po (p = 0.000), 210 Pb (p = 0.035) and 210 Po/ 210 Pb (p = 0.000) at all study locations. Generally, the measured activity of 210 Po and 210 Pb ranged from 337 to 2460 Bq/ kg, 11 to 84 Bq/ kg at SR 01; 224 to 2008 Bq/ kg, 6 to 80 Bq/ kg at SR 02; 119 to 1595 Bq/ kg, 6 to 84 Bq/ kg at SR 03; 241 to 2294 Bq/ kg, 5 to 82 Bq/ kg at SR 04 and 175 to 1340 Bq/ kg, 4 to 44 Bq/ kg at SR 05, respectively. In those range it was found that 210 Po activities were higher than 210 Pb with average of 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratios at all stations were from 20 to 35. The variation in the distribution profile for the radionuclides are believed to be influenced by some environmental factors and have strong correlation between the radionuclide distribution and the sediment composition of silt ( 210 Po: r = 0.701 and 210 Pb: r = 0.648), water depth ( 210 Po: r = -0.647) and the distance from the sampling station to the main land ( 210 Po: r = 0.746 and 210 Pb: r = 0.975). Those factors are a major contributions on the variation of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the samples. (author)

  13. 210Po and 210Pb activity concentration in the coral bands of Pulau Tuba, Langkawi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Jen Nie; Che Abdul Rahim Mohamed; Zaharuddin Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in each layers of coral banding of coral skeletons. Concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in massive corals (i.e. Porites, Favites, Platygyra and Goniostrea) from Pulau Tuba, Langkawi were measured using the Alpha-Spectrometry. The concentrations of 210 Po were higher than the concentrations of 210 Pb. This may due to continuing source of 210 Po from 210 Pb. Highest concentration on 210 Po in coral banding was 48.30 ± 28.53 Bq/ kg, meanwhile for 210 Pb was 12.86 ± 5.80 Bq/ kg. The ratios of 210 Po/ 210 Pb were in the range of 2.21 to 5.49. The variation activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the coral bands are important to consider in using coral as retrospective study of environmental changes. The coral can represent the total of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the surrounding water for the past few years. (author)

  14. Investigation of 210Po/210Pb in terrestrial environment of uranium mineralized area of Jaduguda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethy, N.K.; Jha, V.N.; Singh, S.; Sharma, B.D.; Sahoo, S.K.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Soil is the major components for evaluation of migration characteristics and distribution of radionuclides like 210 Po and 210 Pb in a terrestrial ecosystem. In this study spatial profile of 210 Po in to soil and its equilibrium status with 210 Pb in the terrestrial environment have been studied and correlated with basic soil quality parameters

  15. Bismuth(III) volatilization and immobilization by filamentous fungus Aspergillus clavatus during aerobic incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriová, Katarína; Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-02-01

    As with many metals, bismuth can be accumulated or transformed by microorganisms. These interactions affect microbial consortia and bismuth environmental behaviour, mobility, and toxicity. Recent research focused specifically on bismuth anaerobic transformation by bacteria and archaea has inspired the evaluation of the mutual interactions between bismuth and filamentous fungi as presented in this article. The Aspergillus clavatus fungus proved resistant to adverse effects from bismuth contamination in culture medium with up to a concentration of 195 µmol L(-1) during static 15- and 30-day cultivation. The examined resistance mechanism includes biosorption to the fungal surface and biovolatilization. Pelletized fungal biomass has shown high affinity for dissolved bismuth(III). Bismuth biosorption was rapid, reaching equilibrium after 50 min with a 0.35 mmol g(-1) maximum sorption capacity as calculated from the Langmuir isotherm. A. clavatus accumulated ≤70 µmol g(-1) of bismuth after 30 days. Preceding isotherm study implications that most accumulated bismuth binds to cell wall suggests that biosorption is the main detoxification mechanism. Accumulated bismuth was also partly volatilized (≤1 µmol) or sequestrated in the cytosol or vacuoles. Concurrently, ≤1.6 µmol of bismuth remaining in solution was precipitated by fungal activity. These observations indicate that complex mutual interactions between bismuth and filamentous fungi are environmentally significant regarding bismuth mobility and transformation.

  16. An evaluation of the exposure to 210Pb-210Po in italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, G.F.; Santori, G.; Renzetti, A.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introduction on the behaviour in the environment and in man of 210 Pb- 210 Po, experimental data are reported on 210 Pb- 210 Po exposure of the italian population. The analytical methods used to measure 210 Pb- 210 Po activity in the many biological and environmental samples analyzed are also reported. The data collected refer to the intake, excretion, internal burden and metabolism both in a group of subjects representative of the general population and in other critical groups exposed to high internal contamination of 210 Pb- 210 Po, as the radioactive spa wopkes and the miners. The absorbed dose due to 210 Pb- 210 Po has also been evaluated, on the basis of data referring to the various population groups

  17. 210Pb and 210Po in tobacco - with a special focus on estimating the doses of 210Po to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, L.

    1994-01-01

    Inhalation of tobacco smoke is ranked second to food as a source of 210 Pb and 210 Po exposure to man. assay of 210 Pb and 210 Po in commercially available tobacco collected from many countries have been carried out to assess the potential risk from 210 Po present in tobacco. The range of 210 Po contained in the tobacco grands varied from 10.08 to 15.0 mBq/tob or 13.0 to 20.1 mBq/g and the mean was 11.6 mBq/tob or 15.4 mBq/g. During the International Standard Smoking process about 50% of 210 Po present in tobaccos was transferred into the smoke and the other 50% remained in the ash and butt. About 10% of the total 210 Po of tobacco was inhaled by smoke through mainstream smoke. One pack-a-day smoker inhaled 24 mBq of 210 Po per day through smoking and the annual inhalation was 8.8 Bq. The risk of mortality from lung cancer caused by 210 Po in tobaccos was 18 per million persons for the above model. (author) 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  18. Decay/ingrowth uncertainty correction of 210Po/210Pb in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wuhui; Ma, Hao; Chen, Liqi; Zeng, Zhi; He, Jianhua; Zeng, Shi

    2014-01-01

    Due to increasing application of 210 Po/ 210 Pb in studying particle dynamics, a consistent procedure and calculation to derive accurate and precise result of 210 Po and 210 Pb in seawater should be proposed in the framework of intercalibration by GEOTRACES. The associated uncertainty of radioactivity, which is a significant component of data report, plays a vital role in intercomparison and should be well evaluated. Although measurement uncertainty of laboratory result was well defined in ISO standards and IAEA technical documents, the decay/ingrowth uncertainty correction from laboratory result to in-situ result was less studied. It was demonstrated that the relative uncertainty of in-situ 210 Pb activity was independent of elapsed time and equal to relative uncertainty of laboratory measuring 210 Po activity at second spontaneous deposition date. The relative uncertainty of in-situ 210 Po activity decreases with in-situ activity ratio of 210 Po to 210 Pb and increases with elapsed time between sampling date and separation date, relative uncertainty of laboratory measuring 210 Po activity at first spontaneous deposition date and relative uncertainty of in-situ 210 Pb activity. It was more important to improve precision of 210 Po at first spontaneous deposition date than that of 210 Po at second spontaneous deposition date. To obtain a desirable relative uncertainty of in-situ 210 Po activity, the maximum allowing elapsed time for 210 Po, which was important for sampling strategy making and quality assurance, was calculated by in-situ activity ratio of 210 Po to 210 Pb and precision of analytical method for 210 Po. The methodology of decay/ingrowth uncertainty correction could also be applied for other radionuclide pairs ( 234 Th/ 238 U, 90 Y/ 90 Sr, 210 Bi/ 210 Pb), sample matrixes (aerosols), and disciplines. - Highlights: • Uncertainty of 210 Po/ 210 Pb in seawater was comprehensively represented. • Decay/ingrowth uncertainty correction was well quantified

  19. Use of Russian technology of ship reactors with lead-bismuth coolant in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrodnikov, A.V.; Chitaykin, V.I.; Gromov, B.F.; Grigoryv, O.G.; Dedoul, A.V.; Toshinsky, G.I.; Dragunov, Yu.G.; Stepanov, V.S.

    2000-01-01

    The experience of using lead-bismuth coolant in Russian nuclear submarine reactors has been presented. The fundamental statements of the concept of using the reactors cooled by lead-bismuth alloy in nuclear power have been substantiated. The results of developments for using lead bismuth coolant in nuclear power have been presented. (author)

  20. Prognostic Value of Bismuth Typing and Modified T-stage in Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengen Yi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The majority of our patients with HCC were characterized as Subtype IV in Bismuth typing and Stage T3 in modified T-stage. Both Bismuth typing and modified T-stage showed prognostic value in HCC. Compared with Bismuth typing, modified T-stage is a better indicator of the resectability of HCC.

  1. 75 FR 34360 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate; Confirmation of Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    .... FDA-2008-C-0098] Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate; Confirmation... final rule amended the color additive regulations by increasing the permitted use level of bismuth... permitted use level of bismuth citrate as a color additive in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the...

  2. 40 CFR 471.10 - Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. 471.10 Section 471.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.10 Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of the...

  3. 75 FR 14491 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    .... FDA-2008-C-0098] Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate AGENCY: Food... amending the color additive regulations to increase the permitted use level of bismuth citrate as a color..., Alexandria, VA 22314. The petition proposed to amend the color additive regulations in Sec. 73.2110 Bismuth...

  4. Disequilibrium of dissolved 234U/238U and 210Po/210Pb in Greek rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time, a radiological study for the dissolved 238 U, 234 U, 210 Pb and 210 Po was held in major Greek rivers across the country. 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios are above one in all samples and 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratios are respectively below the unit indicating the disequilibrium in the samples. Quite satisfactory correlations were observed among 234 U and 238 U as well as among 210 Po and 210 Pb values. Uranium isotopes were separated by ion exchange and electroplated on stainless steel plates. 210 Po was spontaneously deposited on nickel plates, while 210 Pb was indirectly determined through the ingrowth of 210 Po. The sources were measured by a-spectrometry. (author)

  5. Intake of lead210 and polonium210 by inhalation of atmospheric air and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Alonso Hernandez, Carlos; Tomas Zerquera, Juan

    2004-01-01

    The electroplating of polonium at two different times onto copper disks and further measurement of alpha activity was the method used for 210Po determination in atmospheric air and tobacco products. The Polonium daughter is used to determine both the 210 Pb and 210 Po using the Bateman equations for radioactive growth and decay. The values of 210 Pb and 210 Po measured in the ground-level air reported average concentrations of 0.65 and 0.06 mBq.m-3, respectively. A cigarette contains an average activity of 13.0 mBq of 210 Pb and 10.4 mBq of 210 Po for different Cuban cigarette brands. The weighted-average annual effective dose estimated due to inhalation of these nuclides was computed to be 38 Sv, corresponding to the 26.8% of the total effective dose received by intake of 210 Pb and 210 Po in area of natural radioactive background

  6. Exposure of cuban population due to dietary intake of lead 210 and polonium 210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigido Flores, O.; Barreras Caballero, A.; Montalvan Estrada, A.; Alonso Hernandez, C.; Tomas Zerquera, J.

    2000-01-01

    Data are presented on the concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in potable water and different food items collected from various locations in Cuba. The electroplating of polonium at two different times onto copper disks and further measurement of alpha activity was the method used for 210Po determination in foods and water. The Polonium daughter is used to determine both the 210Pb and 210Po using the Bateman equations for radioactive growth and decay. The average 210Pb and 210Po concentration in potable water was 3 and 2 mBq.l-1, respectively and concentration in total diet averaged 47.7 mBq.kg-1 for 210Pb and 131.9 mBq.kg-1 for 210Po. The annual effective dose estimated due to ingestion of these nuclides contained in foods and potable water reported a value of 77.7 [Sv corresponding the 95.7 % to the food consuming

  7. Bismuth X-ray absorber studies for TES microcalorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadleir, J.E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States) and University of Illinois Physics Department, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)]. E-mail: sadleir@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov; Bandler, S.R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brekosky, R.P. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chervenak, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finkbeiner, F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Iyomoto, N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kelley, R.L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kilbourne, C.A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); King, J.M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Porter, F.S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Robinson, I.K. [University of Illinois Physics Department, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Saab, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Talley, D.J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Bismuth's large atomic number and low carrier density makes it an attractive X-ray absorber material for microcalorimeters. Bismuth's long Fermi wavelength and long mean free paths have motivated much interest in the fabrication of high quality bismuth films to study quantum size effects. Despite such incentives, fabrication of high quality bismuth films has proven difficult, and measured properties of such films are highly variable in the literature. Implementing a bismuth deposition process for TES (superconducting Transition Edge Sensor) device fabrication presents additional challenges particularly at interfaces due to the inherent granularity and surface roughness of its films, its low melting point, and its tendency to diffuse and form undesired intermetallic phases. We report observations of Bi-Cu and Bi-Au diffusion in our devices correlating with large shifts in T{sub c} (superconducting transition temperature). Using SEM and in situ R vs T annealing experiments we have been able to study these diffusion processes and identify their activation temperatures.

  8. Controlled synthesis of bismuth oxyiodide toward optimization of photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Chenxing; Ma, Zhijun; Chen, Xiaofeng; He, Xin; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Different bismuth oxyiodide was synthesized. • The hollow Bi 4 O 5 I 2 microspheres was obtained. • Formation mechanism of the hollow structure was discussed in detail. - Abstract: A new investigation on the variation rule of the structure, morphology, chemical composition and photocatalytic performance of bismuth oxyiodide synthesized by solvothermal method as a function of reaction conditions was performed here. The composition and morphology of the product could be determined by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that the particle size together with content of iodide in bismuth oxyiodide decrease with the increase of the concentration of reaction precursors. Hollow Bi 4 O 5 I 2 microsphere with specific surface area as high as 120.88 m 2 g −1 can be easily synthesized when the concentration of the reaction precursors finally increased to 62.5 mM. Photocatalytic water purification performance of the as-prepared samples was evaluated by using Rhodamine B (RhB) as a model contaminant. The results revealed that the hollow Bi 4 O 5 I 2 exhibited the best performance among all the bismuth oxyodide synthesized here for the degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation. Meanwhile, the formation mechanism of the hierarchical hollow structure of bismuth oxyiodide was investigated by the dissolution-recrystallization mechanism.

  9. Oxygen holes and hybridization in the bismuthates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazraie, Arash; Foyevtsova, Kateryna; Elfimov, Ilya; Sawatzky, George A.

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by the recently renewed interest in the superconducting bismuth perovskites, we investigate the electronic structure of the parent compounds A BiO3 (A = Sr, Ba) using ab initio methods and tight-binding (TB) modeling. We use the density functional theory (DFT) in the local density approximation (LDA) to understand the role of various interactions in shaping the A BiO3 band structure near the Fermi level. It is established that interatomic hybridization involving Bi-6 s and O-2 p orbitals plays the most important role. Based on our DFT calculations, we derive a minimal TB model and demonstrate that it can describe the properties of the band structure as a function of lattice distortions, such as the opening of a charge gap with the onset of the breathing distortion and the associated condensation of holes onto a1 g-symmetric molecular orbitals formed by the O-2 pσ orbitals on collapsed octahedra. We also derive a single band model involving the hopping of an extended molecular orbital involving both Bi-6 s and a linear combination of six O-2 p orbitals which provides a very good description of the dispersion and band gaps of the low energy scale bands straddling the chemical potential.

  10. Microstructure and electrical properties of bismuth and bismuth oxide deposited by magnetron sputtering UBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otalora B, D. M.; Dussan, A.; Olaya F, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, bismuth (Bi) and bismuth oxide (Bi 2 O 3 ) thin films were prepared, at room temperature, by Sputtering Unbalanced Magnetron (UBM - Unbalance Magnetron) technique under glass substrates. Microstructural and electrical properties of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and System for Measuring Physical Properties - PPMS (Physical Property Measurement System). Dark resistivity of the material was measured for a temperature range between 100 and 400 K. From the XRD measurements it was observed a polycrystalline character of the Bi associated to the presence of phases above the main peak, 2θ = 26.42 grades and a growth governed by a rhombohedral structure. Crystal parameters were obtained for both compounds, Bi and Bi 2 O 3 . From the analysis of the spectra of the conductivity as a function of temperature, it was established that the transport mechanism that governs the region of high temperature (T>300 K) is thermally activated carriers. From conductivity measurements the activation energies were obtained of 0.0094 eV and 0.015 eV for Bi 2 O 3 and Bi, respectively. (Author)

  11. Photoreductive generation of amorphous bismuth nanoparticles using polysaccharides--bismuth-cellulose nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitwieser, Doris; Kriechbaum, Margit; Ehmann, Heike M A; Monkowius, Uwe; Coseri, Sergiu; Sacarescu, Liviu; Spirk, Stefan

    2015-02-13

    A simple and highly reproducible synthesis of amorphous bismuth nanoparticles incorporated into a polysaccharide matrix using a photoreduction process is presented. As precursor for the generation of the Bi nanoparticles, organosoluble triphenylbismuth is used. The precursor is dissolved in toluene and mixed with a hydrophobic organosoluble polysaccharide, namely trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC) with high DSSi. The solution is subjected to UV exposure, which induces the homolytic cleavage of the bismuth-carbon bond in BiPh3 resulting in the formation of Bi(0) and phenyl radicals. The aggregation of the Bi atoms can be controlled in the TMSC matrix and yields nanoparticles of around 20 nm size as proven by TEM. The phenyl radicals undergo recombination to form small organic molecules like benzene and biphenyl, which can be removed from the nanocomposite after lyophilization and exposure to high vacuum. Finally, the TMSC matrix is converted to cellulose after exposure to HCl vapors, which remove the trimethylsilyl groups from the TMSC derivative. Although TMSC is converted to cellulose, the formed TMS-OH is not leaving the nanocomposite but reacts instead with surface oxide layer of the Bi nanoparticles to form silylated Bi nanoparticles as proven by TEM/EDX. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 210Po and 210Pb in Forest Soil and in Wild Berries in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Lehto, Jukka; Solatie, Dina; Aro, Lasse

    2008-01-01

    The behaviour of 210 Po and 210 Pb was investigated in forests in the Southern Finland site and in the Northern Finland site. Sampling sites were in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests. Maximum activities of 210 Po and 210 Pb in soil columns were found in organic layers. According to preliminary results of wild berry samples, the lowest 210 Po concentrations were found in berries. The highest concentration of 210 Po was found in stems of the blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and the lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) samples

  13. Contribution to the study of polonium-210 and lead-210 in marine organisms and their environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyraud, M.

    1982-06-01

    The following topics were emphasized: the role of 210 Po as a major source of natural radiation dose received by marin organisms; the contribution of 210 Po to the total α radioactivity in the hepatopancreas of crustaceans or mollusc cephalopods is more than 95%; in the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica, the main source of 210 Po is the food they consume; the possible use of 210 Po as a natural biological tracer of the feeding of deep-sea mesopelagic animals; the 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio is a good indicator of the importance of biological processes in the marine environment [fr

  14. Separation of 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po by ion exchange and their Iiquid scintillation standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Jimenez, A.; Grau, A.

    1996-01-01

    We applied the CIEMAT/NIST method and alpha/beta discrimination to ''210Pb samples in equilibrium with its daughters, by preparing homogeneous and gel samples. The stability of samples was tested in different available cocktails, HiSafe''TM II, HiSafe''TM III, Ultima-Gold''TM, Ultima-Gold''TM XR, Ultima-Gold''TM AB, Insta-Gel''R and e Insta-Gel''R lI. Also we analyzed the disequilibrium of the radioactive chain 210Pb+210Bi+210Po, achieving an excellent agreement between the results of the spectrum unfolding method and the experimental values. (Author) 13 refs

  15. Separation of 210 Pb, 210 Bi and 210 Po by ion exchange and their liquid scintillation standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Jimenez, A.; Grau, A.

    1996-01-01

    We applied the CIEMAT/NIST method and alpha/beta discrimination to ''210 Pb samples in equilibrium with its daughters, by preparing homogeneous and gel samples. The stability of samples was tested in different available cocktails, HiSafe''tm II, HiSafe''tmIII, Ultima-Gold''tm, Ultima-Gold''tmXR, Ultima-Gold''tmAB, Insta-Gel and e Insta-Gel II. Also we analyzed the disequilibrium of the radioactive chain ''210Pb+''210Bi+''210Po, achieving and excellent agreement between the results of the spectrum unfolding method and the experimental values. (Author) 13 refs

  16. Behavior of 210Pb and 210Bi in soil-rice system and the effects of carrier-Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuding

    1993-01-01

    Chemical species of 210 Pb and 210 Bi in soil and rice were investigated using 210 Pb trace experiment. 79%-91% of 210 Pb in the soil was in available fraction. On the contrary, 80%-98% of 210 Bi was bound. The available 210 Pb in the soil was changed slowly into bound fraction, while the bound 210 Bi transformed gradually into available one. Much of 210 Pb and 210 Bi entered into rice were as inorganic free ions. The bound 210 Pb in rice was less than 1% and the bound 210 Bi was around 40%. The different adsorption affinities between 210 Pb and 210 Bi were demonstrated by the different behavior of them. The effect of carrier-Pb on adsorption of 210 Pb and 210 Bi was also discussed

  17. Sources of polonium-210 in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, H.E.; Martell, E.A.; Poet, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    Mean tropospheric aerosol residence times determined from cosmic ray-produced isotope activity ratios, fallout, and 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratios are concluded to be in error. Thus, complementary sources of 210 Po in the atmosphere must exist. Results presented substantiate dust storms, coal-burning power plants, forest fires, and plant exudates as sources of atmospheric 210 Po. Preliminary estimates of the magnitude of these and other possible complementary sources of atmospheric 210 Po are made. The most important sources appear to be soil particles and plant exudates, both of which are natural sources. The largest anthropogenic source is associated with phosphate fertilizer production. Together, the complementary sources account for most of the 210 Po in the troposphere. Thus, a shorter residence time of 4-6 days appears reasonable

  18. Characterization of bismuth nanospheres deposited by plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M., E-mail: cscientific2@aec.org.sy [IBA Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Al-Hawat, Sh.; Akel, M. [Physics Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Mrad, O. [Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2015-02-14

    A new method for producing thin layer of bismuth nanospheres based on the use of low energy plasma focus device is demonstrated. Various techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy have been used to characterize the morphology and the composition of the nanospheres. Experimental parameters may be adjusted to favour the formation of bismuth nanospheres instead of microspheres. Therefore, the formation of large surface of homogeneous layer of bismuth nanospheres with sizes of below 100 nm can be obtained. The natural snowball phenomenon is observed to be reproduced in nanoscale where spheres roll over the small nanospheres and grow up to bigger sizes that can reach micro dimensions. The comet-like structure, a reverse phenomenon to snowball is also observed.

  19. Inexpensive laser-induced surface modification in bismuth thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, A. Reyes [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Carretera Toluca, Ixtlahuaca Kilómetro 15.5, C.P. 50200 Edo. de México (Mexico); Hautefeuille, M., E-mail: mathieu_h@ciencias.unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Universidad 3000, Circuito Exterior S/N, Coyoacán, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510 D.F. Mexico (Mexico); García, A. Esparza [Fotofísica y Películas Delgadas, Departamento de Tecnociencias, CCADET-UNAM, Circuito exterior s/n C.P. 04510 Cd. Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Mejia, O. Olea [Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, Km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, 50200 San Cayetano, Estado de México (Mexico); López, M.A. Camacho [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Tollocan s/n, esq. Paseo Colón, Toluca, Estado de México 50110 (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Laser-induced microbumps were formed on bismuth films using a simple, low-cost, laser setup. • The patterns, similar to those typically obtained with high-power lasers, were characterized. • Control of laser ablation conditions is critical in the fabrication of surface microbumps. - Abstract: In this work, we present results on texturing a 500 nm thick bismuth film, deposited by sputtering onto a glass slide using a low-cost homemade, near-infrared pulsed laser platform. A 785 nm laser diode of a CD–DVD pickup head was precisely focused on the sample mounted on a motorized two-axis translation stage to generate localized surface microbumps on the bismuth films. This simple method successfully transferred desired micropatterns on the films in a computer-numerical control fashion. Irradiated zones were characterized by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that final results are strongly dependent on irradiation parameters.

  20. Melting and solidification of bismuth inclusions in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft, N.B.; Bohr, J.; Buras, B.

    1995-01-01

    Supercooling of crystalline bismuth inclusions in aluminium crystals has been observed and studied with different techniques: x-ray diffraction, in situ Rutherford backscattering/channelling spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the measurements with different experime......Supercooling of crystalline bismuth inclusions in aluminium crystals has been observed and studied with different techniques: x-ray diffraction, in situ Rutherford backscattering/channelling spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the measurements with different...... experimental methods (and on different samples) agree remarkably well. The inclusions melt at temperatures at or below the bismuth bulk melting point, and the solid/liquid phase transition exhibits a hysteresis of 100-150 K. Average inclusion sizes ranged from a few nm to some tens of nm. The x-ray diffraction...

  1. Seedless Growth of Bismuth Nanowire Array via Vacuum Thermal Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingzhao; Nam, Chang-Yong; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Here a seedless and template-free technique is demonstrated to scalably grow bismuth nanowires, through thermal evaporation in high vacuum at RT. Conventionally reserved for the fabrication of metal thin films, thermal evaporation deposits bismuth into an array of vertical single crystalline nanowires over a flat thin film of vanadium held at RT, which is freshly deposited by magnetron sputtering or thermal evaporation. By controlling the temperature of the growth substrate the length and width of the nanowires can be tuned over a wide range. Responsible for this novel technique is a previously unknown nanowire growth mechanism that roots in the mild porosity of the vanadium thin film. Infiltrated into the vanadium pores, the bismuth domains (~ 1 nm) carry excessive surface energy that suppresses their melting point and continuously expels them out of the vanadium matrix to form nanowires. This discovery demonstrates the feasibility of scalable vapor phase synthesis of high purity nanomaterials without using any catalysts. PMID:26709727

  2. Bismuth distribution in InSb/Bi epitaxial layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantsov, A.F.; Akchurin, R.Kh.; Zinov'ev, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    Bismuth distribution in epitaxial layers of InSb/Bi, prepared by liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) on InSb sublayers, is studied. The solution-melt, crystallization is carried out from the compositions corresponded to the cross sections InSb-Bi, InSb-InBi and InSb-In 2 Bi of ternary system In-Sb-Bi and changed in the limits, determined by the state diagram liquidus in the temperature range from 220 to 450 deg C. The temperature dependence of the coefficients of bismuth distribution in epitaxial layers of InSb(Bi) is specified. The dependence of bismuth concentration on the composition of initial liquid phase is established [ru

  3. Bismuth onion thin film in situ grown on silicon wafer synthesized through a hydrothermal approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yue; Liu Hong; Liu Jin; Hu Chenguo; Wang Jiyang

    2010-01-01

    Bismuth onion structured nanospheres with the same structure as carbon onions have been synthesized and observed. The nanospheres were synthesized through a hydrothermal method using bismuth hydroxide and silicon wafer as reactants. By controlling the heating temperature, heating time, and the pressure, nanoscale bismuth spheres can be in situ synthesized on silicon wafer, and forms a bismuth onion film on the substrate. The electronic property of the films was investigated. A formation mechanism of the formation of bismuth onions and the onion film has been proposed on the basis of experimental observations.

  4. Optical properties of bismuth-doped silica fibres in the temperature range 300 — 1500 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvoretskii, D A; Bufetov, Igor' A; Vel'miskin, V V; Zlenko, Alexander S; Khopin, V F; Semjonov, S L; Guryanov, Aleksei N; Denisov, L K; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2012-01-01

    The visible and near-IR absorption and luminescence bands of bismuth-doped silica and germanosilicate fibres have been measured for the first time as a function of temperature. The temperature-dependent IR luminescence lifetime of a bismuth-related active centre associated with silicon in the germanosilicate fibre has been determined. The Bi 3+ profile across the silica fibre preform is shown to differ markedly from the distribution of IR-emitting bismuth centres associated with silicon. The present results strongly suggest that the IR-emitting bismuth centre comprises a lowvalence bismuth ion and an oxygen-deficient glass network defect. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  5. Microscopic and voltammetric properties of lustrous bismuth deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Krolicka, Agnieszka; Bobrowski, Andrzej; Pamuła, Elżbieta

    2010-01-01

    A comparison of lustrous bismuth films, plated at glassy carbon, platinum and gold supports, is presented. The voltammetric performance of preplated bismuth film electrodes was tested using 50 μg/L In(III) and 50 μg/L Pb(II) solutions in 0.1 M acetic buffer in square wave and differential pulse modes. The influence of support material, plating solution concentration and storing conditions on the voltammetric response of BiFEs is discussed. The results of microscopic examination...

  6. Determination of 210Pb e 210Po in marine samples and aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Roberto Tatsuya

    1996-01-01

    In this work the methodologies for 210 Pb e 210 Po analyses in marine samples, such as fish, seaweed, sediment, and aerosol samples are presented. The 210 Pb levels in the samples were obtained by both 210 Bi and 210 Po ingrowth. The 210 Pb analysis via 210 Bi presents the following steps: 210 Pb leaching from samples with 8 M nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide; lead sulphate precipitation; conversion to carbonate; dissolution; lead sulphate precipitation; gravimetric analysis of lead; waiting of time to reach radioactive equilibrium and 210 Bi beta counting by employing a Geiger-Mueller detector with a low background radiation. The 210 Pb analysis via 210 Po presents the following steps: 210 Pb and 210 Po leaching from samples with 8 M nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide; nitric acid elimination by heating and hydrochloric acid addition; spontaneous deposition onto silver disc and alpha counting of polonium in silicon surface-barrier detector. In order to determine 210 Pb activity, the solution was percolated in the Dowex AG 1-X 8 anion exchange resin; preconditioned with 8 M nitric acid; the lead was eluted by 8 M hydrochloric acid; the solution was gently evaporated to dryness and diluted with 0.5 N hydrochloric acid. After 3-6 months a second 210 Po spontaneous deposition onto silver disc was carried out. The methodology for 210 Pb analysis via 210 Bi showed lead recoveries from 63 to 100%. In the method via 210 Po the polonium recoveries were varied from 39 to 63% under manual agitation, and from 60 to 100% under mechanical agitation. The radiochemical methods for 210 Po and 210 Pb analyses were applied in reference samples from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the results obtained showed the good precision and accuracy of the established methods. The analysis of marine sediment samples of Antarctica presented 210 Pb and Po levels from 8 to 60 Bq.kg -1 , and fish samples from Sao Paulo Coast presented 210 Po levels from 0.5 to 5.3 Bq.kg -1 . These

  7. Influence of bismuth loading in polystyrene-based plastic scintillators for low energy gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, G.H.V.; Sguerra, F.; Dehe-Pittance, C.; Carrel, F.; Coulon, R.; Normand, S.; Barat, E.; Dautremer, T.; Montagu, T.; Hamel, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the synthesis and the blend of bismuth complexes in polystyrene based plastic scintillators. A specific design has enabled the fabrication of a scintillator loaded with up to 17 wt% of bismuth. Tri-carboxylate and tri-aryl bismuth compounds were used to explore and understand the influence of bismuth loading on the two main criteria of plastic scintillation: light yield and detection efficiency of γ-rays. For gamma radiation with an energy ≤200 keV, bismuth loaded scintillators demonstrate the ability to produce a photoelectric peak (total absorption peak) in pulse height spectra. The increase of interactions due to bismuth doping was quantified and fitted with standard models. Finally the performance of our bismuth loaded scintillators was evaluated to be better than that of a commercial lead loaded counterpart. (authors)

  8. 17 CFR 210.9-01 - Application of §§ 210.9-01 to 210.9-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES....9-01 Application of §§ 210.9-01 to 210.9-07 This article is applicable to consolidated financial statements filed for bank holding companies and to any financial statements of banks that are included in...

  9. Bismuth centred magnetic perovskite: A projected multiferroic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Asish K.; Seikh, Md. Motin; Nautiyal, Pranjal

    2015-01-01

    In recent time substantial attention has been initiated to understand the physics behind multiferroism and to design new multiferroic materials. BiMnO 3 and BiFeO 3 are the well-studied Bi-centred multiferroic oxides. BiMnO 3 is a ferromagnetic–ferroelectric (metastable) phase and require drastic conditions to synthesize. However, lanthanum substituted BiMnO 3 phases stabilized at ambient pressure. It is thus of major importance to increase the number of ferromagnetic perovskites with Bi cations that could be designed under ambient conditions. In this article, we have presented an up to date report of investigations on Bi-centred magnetic perovskites, a prospective material for multiferroic application. Central focus is concentrated on La 0.5 Bi 0.5 MnO 3 perovskite with various substitutions at different levels. A few of these perovskites are found to be of practical importance e.g. La 0.5 Bi 0.5 Mn 0.67 Co 0.33 O 3 with high dielectric permittivity coupled with ferromagnetism. A comprehensive analysis of different physical functionalities and their interrelation for a wide range of compositions of these Bi-centred perovskites is presented. It has been found that the complex magnetic behaviour originates from mixed valence metal ions. The ferroelectricity is associated with the 6s 2 lone pair of Bi 3+ cations. The magnetic ground state influences the dielectric properties reflecting the multiferroism in a single material. - Highlights: • Multiferroics have attracted increasing attention due to their possible device applications. • Bismuth centred magnetic perovskite is one kind of such promising multiferroic materials. • Ferromagnetic Bi-perovskites, which are synthesized at ambient conditions, have been discussed

  10. Temperature gradient compatibility tests of some refractory metals and alloys in bismuth and bismuth--lithium solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.R.; Cavin, O.B.

    1976-11-01

    Quartz, T-111, and Mo thermal-convection loop tests were conducted at temperatures up to 700 0 C (100 0 C ΔT) to determine the compatibility of several refractory metals/alloys with bismuth and bismuth-lithium solutions for molten salt breeder reactor applications. Methods of evaluation included weight change measurements, metallographic examination, chemical and electron microprobe analysis, and mechanical properties tests. Molybdenum, T-111, and TA--10 percent W appear to be the most promising containment materials, while niobium and iron-based alloys are unacceptable

  11. Optical properties of Dy3+ doped bismuth boro-tellurite glasses for WLED applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, P.; Marimuthu, K.

    2016-05-01

    The Dy3+ doped bismuth boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition (79.5-x) B2O3+xTeO2+10Bi2O3+10PbF2+0.5Dy2O3 (where x = 10, 20, 30 and 40 in wt%) have been prepared by melt quenching technique. The optical properties of the prepared glasses have been studied through absorption and emission spectral measurements. The bonding parameters, optical band gap energy, Urbach's energy and Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ωλ, λ = 2, 4 and 6) were calculated from the absorption spectra. The radiative properties like transition probability (A), stimulated emission cross-section (σPE) and branching ratios (βR) were calculated from the emission spectra using JO theory. The strong emissions in the visible region, large stimulated emission cross-section and higher branching ratio values observed for the title glasses are found to be suitable for lasers and WLED applications.

  12. 7 CFR 1709.210 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1709.210 Section 1709.210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Application process. (a) Applications. The Agency will solicit applications on a competitive basis by...

  13. 31 CFR 210.10 - RDFI liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false RDFI liability. 210.10 Section 210.10 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... death or legal incapacity of a recipient or death of a beneficiary from a source other than notice from...

  14. 30 CFR 210.354 - Reporting instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting instructions. 210.354 Section 210.354 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT... from the Minerals Management Service, Minerals Revenue Management, Financial Management, P.O. Box 25165...

  15. 22 CFR 210.650 - Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant. 210.650 Section 210.650 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE... to transfer a thing of value to the recipient to carry out a public purpose of support or stimulation...

  16. 42 CFR 93.210 - Good faith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Good faith. 93.210 Section 93.210 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  17. The determination of 210Po in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, W.F.; Helmkamp, R.W.; Hrynyszyn, V.; Contreras, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    To measure 210 Po present in normal human urine a technique was developed in which a 4.5 x 11cm silver foil was shaken at room temperature for 48-hr periods in each of two successive volumes of 1.7 l. of urine acidified to 0.5N with HCl. Alpha rays were counted with an ionization chamber, coupled to a vibrating reed electrometer, and capable of measuring α-ray pulses originating on both sides of the silver foil serving as a central electrode. The background α-count was less than 2/hr. Analyses of human urine spiked with 0.29 to 0.58pCi of 210 Po, together with studies of urine from dogs carrying significant body burdens of 210 Pb, indicated that the average recovery of added 210 Po from 1.7 l. volumes of spiked human urine was 72%. If it is assumed that the same percentage of 210 Po is extracted from non-spiked urine, then the average 210 Po concentration found in 13 analyses of 2 x 1.7 l. samples from 26 different pools of fresh human urine was 0.023pCi/l. Substantial additional 210 Po was generated on short aging of the urine through radioactive decay of excreted 210 Bi. (author)

  18. 12 CFR 19.210 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 19.210 Section 19.210 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Equal Access to... adjudicatory proceedings under this part are set forth at 31 CFR part 6. ...

  19. 31 CFR 537.210 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 537.210 Section 537.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to information or...

  20. 31 CFR 560.210 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 560.210 Section 560.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... services to market, produce or co-produce, create or assist in the creation of information and...

  1. 18 CFR 706.210 - Coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coercion. 706.210 Section 706.210 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL EMPLOYEE... financial benefit to himself or another person, particularly one with whom he has family, business, or...

  2. Polonium-210 in food and tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.K.

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this study is concerned with the radioactivity in food and tobacco, derived mainly from 210 Po which contribute to the radiation dose received through diet and smoking. This subject was covered under four chapters. Chapter one deals with historical background of polonium-210 and its behavior in living system. Sources of polonium-210 in food and tobacco are explained in the second chapter. Relevant issues such as separation and measurement of polonium-210 covered in subsequent chapter. Chapter four reviewed recent studies on polonium-210. It was found that the main source of this radionuclide is the phosphatic fertilizers that used in food and tobacco cultivation. These fertilizers contain the decay products of 238 U series of which 210 Po is known to be very important from environmental point of view. Many studies conducted showed that the committed effective dose derived mainly from 210 Po due to the consumption of food, particularly sea food is significant, furthermore 210 Po in tobacco is known to be the main cause of many diseases such as lung cancer.(Author)

  3. 40 CFR 86.210-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.210-94 Section 86.210-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  4. Phase transition of bismuth telluride thin films grown by MBE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fülöp, Attila; Song, Yuxin; Charpentier, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    A previously unreported phase transition between Bi2Te3 and Bi4Te3 in bismuth telluride grown by molecular beam epitaxy is recorded via XRD, AFM, and SIMS observations. This transition is found to be related to the Te/Bi beam equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio. BEP ratios below 17 favor the formation...

  5. Ultrafast electron diffraction studies of optically excited thin bismuth films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkovic, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    This thesis contains work on the design and the realization of an experimental setup capable of providing sub-picosecond electron pulses for ultrafast electron diffraction experiments, and performing the study of ultrafast dynamics in bismuth after optical excitation using this setup. (orig.)

  6. Melting behaviour of lead and bismuth nano-particles in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Melting behaviour of nanocrystalline interfaces, created by embedding lead and bismuth nanoparticles in quasicrystalline matrices, was studied. Sharply faceted and coherent interfaces can be related to sharper melting transitions, while irregularly shaped and incoherent interfaces can be directly correlated with lowering of ...

  7. A study on structural stability of bismuth titanate with lanthanum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 3. A study on structural stability of bismuth titanate with lanthanum ... In addition, the enlarged region of Bi 4f, Bi 4d, Ti 2p, La 3d and O 1s of doping sample was clearly seen after deconvolution. Based on binding energy position, it can be unambiguously stated ...

  8. Tailoring the Bandgap and magnetic properties by Bismuth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    66

    refined with the single phase orthorhombic Pnma symmetry along with minor amount (< 2%) of Bi2O3. (nonmagnetic) impurity .The observations suggests that the solubility of Bismuth (Bi) in Nd site is lower than 15 at. % through our sol-gel processing technique. Single phase of NBiCO and the minimal change of lattice ...

  9. Crystal structure and ionic conductivity of a new bismuth tungstate,

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    43. Dedicated to Prof J Gopalakrishnan on his 62nd birthday. *For correspondence. Crystal structure and ionic conductivity of a new bismuth tungstate,. Bi3W2O10⋅5. B MUKTHA and T N GURU ROW*. Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 e-mail: ssctng@sscu.iisc.ernet.in.

  10. Poisoning effect of bismuth on modification behaviour of strontium in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    also be added to aluminum–magnesium alloys to counteract. ∗. Author for correspondence (saeedfarahany@gmail.com, fsaeed2@live.utm.my) the detrimental effect of sodium on hot cracking (Talbot and. Ransley 1997). Pillai and Anantharaman (1968) reported that bismuth could play a role as silicon modifier whereas ...

  11. Ultrafast electron diffraction studies of optically excited thin bismuth films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkovic, Ivan

    2008-10-21

    This thesis contains work on the design and the realization of an experimental setup capable of providing sub-picosecond electron pulses for ultrafast electron diffraction experiments, and performing the study of ultrafast dynamics in bismuth after optical excitation using this setup. (orig.)

  12. Oxygen surface exchange kinetics of erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoo, C.-Y.; Boukamp, Bernard A.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The surface oxygen exchange kinetics of bismuth oxide stabilized with 25 mol% erbia (BE25) has been studied in the temperature and pO2 ranges 773–1,023 K and 0.1– 0.95 atm, respectively, using pulse-response 18O–16O isotope exchange measurements. The results indicate that BE25 exhibits a

  13. Formic Acid Oxidation at Platinum-Bismuth Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lovic, J. D.; Stevanovic, S. I.; Tripkovic, D. V.

    2014-01-01

    Formic acid oxidation was studied on platinum-bismuth deposits on glassy carbon (GC) substrate. The catalysts of equimolar ratio were prepared by potentiostatic deposition using chronocoulometry. Bimetallic structures obtained by two-step process, comprising deposition of Bi followed by deposition...

  14. Colloidal bismuth subcitrate in peptic ulcer--a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.

    1987-01-01

    De-Nol (colloidal bismuth subcitrate, CBS) precipitates in an acid environment and adheres to the exudate layer covering an ulcer crater; moreover, CBS blocks pepsin activity, retards hydrogen-ion back-diffusion and stimulates prostaglandin synthesis. The average healing rate in duodenal ulcer (DU)

  15. Ultrafast electronic dynamics in laser-excited crystalline bismuth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekalin S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond spectroscopy was applied to capture complex dynamics of non equilibrium electrons in bismuth. Data analysis reveals significant wavevector dependence of electron-hole and electron-phonon coupling strength along the Γ-T direction of the Brillouin zone

  16. Bismuth Ferrite for Active Control of Surface Plasmon Polariton Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We propose and investigate several layouts of m etal-insulator-metal waveguide with active core which can be utilized for dynamic switching in photonic integrated circuits. The active material, bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3), is sandwiched between metal plates and changes i ts refractive index through...

  17. Inhalation of 210Po and 210Pb from cigarette smoking in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Ulatowski, J.; Struminska, D.I.; Borylo, A.

    2001-01-01

    The carcinogenic effect of 210 Po and 210 Pb with respect to lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Poland has one of the highest consumptions of cigarettes in the world. The results of 210 Po determination on the 14 most frequently smoked brands of cigarettes which constitute over 70% of the total cigarette consumption in Poland are presented and discussed. Moreover, the polonium content in cigarette smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in fresh tobaccos, ash, fresh filters and post-smoking filters. The annual effective doses were calculated on the basis of 210 Po and 210 Pb inhalation with the cigarette smoke. The results of this work indicate that Polish smokers who smoke one pack (20 cigarettes) per day inhale from 20 to 215 mBq of 210 Po and 210 Pb each. The mean values of the annual effective dose for smokers were estimated to be 35 and 70 μSv from 210 Po and 210 Pb, respectively. For persons who smoke two packs of cigarettes with higher radionuclide concentrations, the effective dose is much higher (471 μSv yr -1 ) in comparison with the intake in diet. Therefore, cigarettes and the absorption through the respiratory system are the main sources and the principal pathway of 210 Po and 210 Pb intake of smokers in Poland

  18. Metabolism of 210Po in rats: Volatile 210Po from faeces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadi, B. B.; Li, C.; Wyatt, H.; Bugden, M.; Wilkinson, D.; Kramer, G.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic formation of volatile 210 Po species in a rat that was intravenously administered with 210 Po-citrate was investigated in this study. A slurry of the faecal sample was prepared in water and was bubbled with nitrogen gas in a closed system. The discharged gas was passed through a trapping device filled with liquid scintillation cocktail in order to capture any volatile 210 Po species. The amount of 210 Po trapped in the scintillation cocktail was measured by a liquid scintillation analyser that provided evidence of the presence of volatile 210 Po species in the faeces. The presence of volatile 210 Po in the faeces indicates that the metabolic formation of volatile 210 Po is likely to occur in the gut due to bacterial activity. The amount of volatile 210 Po species was compared with the daily faecal excretion of 210 Po. After 2 h of bubbling, the volatile 210 Po collected from the faeces sample was found to be between 1.0 and 1.7 % of the daily faecal excretion for the 4 d following 210 Po-citrate administration. (authors)

  19. Determination of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in cigarette tobacco; Determinacao de {sup 210}Pb e {sup 210}Po em tabaco de cigarros nacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, Ana Claudia

    1999-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the important pathways that could contribute to enhance the radiation dose to man, due to the relatively large concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po found in tobacco leaves. In this work, concentrations of these two radionuclides were determined in eight of the most commercialized cigarette brands produced in Brazil. The samples analyzed were bought randomly in the market. The {sup 210}Pb was determined by counting the beta activity of the {sup 210}Bi in a gas flow proportional detector, after radiochemical separation and precipitation of the PbCr0{sub 4}. The {sup 210}Po was determined by alpha spectrometry, using a surface barrier detector, after radiochemical separation and spontaneous deposition of Po in copper disk. The results showed concentrations ranging from 11,9 to 30,2 mBq per gram of dry tobacco for {sup 210}Pb and from 10,9 to 27,4 mBq per gram of dry tobacco for {sup 210}Po. (author)

  20. Po-210 and Pb-210 in water and fish from Taboshar uranium mining Pit Lake, Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipperud, L; Jørgensen, A G; Heier, L S; Salbu, B; Rosseland, B O

    2013-09-01

    Polonium-210 in water and (210)Pb and (210)Po in different fish organs from 3 different fish species in Taboshar Pit Lake (n = 13), located in the uranium mining area in Tajikistan, and in Kairakkum Reservoir (reference lake, n = 3), have been determined as part of a Joint project between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The average activity concentration of (210)Pb and (210)Po in liver, muscle and bone of Carassius auratus was higher than the concentration in similar tissues of C. carpio and Sander lucioperca from the reference site. The accumulation of (210)Po was higher than for (210)Pb, and the accumulation of (210)Po was highest in the liver of C. auratus (3673 ± 434 Bq kg(-1) ww). Although the average activity concentration of (210)Pb in liver and bones of C. auratus from Pit Lake were fairly similar, a huge variation in the liver activity concentrations (25-327 Bq kg(-1) ww) was found. The results confirm direct uptake of unsupported (210)Po into the liver, and that the distributions of (210)Po and (210)Pb in fish organs were different. The BCF (L/kg) for (210)Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of (210)Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. The average BCFs of liver, bone and muscle were >1.4 × 10(5), >2.5 × 10(4) and >1.4 × 10(4), respectively. All fish in the Pit Lake were found to be in the same trophic level, however, a linear correlation between log (210)Po in liver and δ(15)N could indicate biomagnification of (210)Po in liver of C. auratus. In regards to the recommended Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for (210)Po, the concentration of (210)Po in muscle tissues of C. auratus is alarming, as there is a high probability for the local population at risk to exceed the recommended ALI through consumption of fish from Taboshar Pit Lake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Po-210 and Pb-210 in water and fish from Taboshar uranium mining Pit Lake, Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipperud, L.; Jørgensen, A.G.; Heier, L.S.; Salbu, B.; Rosseland, B.O.

    2013-01-01

    Polonium-210 in water and 210 Pb and 210 Po in different fish organs from 3 different fish species in Taboshar Pit Lake (n = 13), located in the uranium mining area in Tajikistan, and in Kairakkum Reservoir (reference lake, n = 3), have been determined as part of a Joint project between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The average activity concentration of 210 Pb and 210 Po in liver, muscle and bone of Carassius auratus was higher than the concentration in similar tissues of C. carpio and Sander lucioperca from the reference site. The accumulation of 210 Po was higher than for 210 Pb, and the accumulation of 210 Po was highest in the liver of C. auratus (3673 ± 434 Bq kg −1 ww). Although the average activity concentration of 210 Pb in liver and bones of C. auratus from Pit Lake were fairly similar, a huge variation in the liver activity concentrations (25–327 Bq kg −1 ww) was found. The results confirm direct uptake of unsupported 210 Po into the liver, and that the distributions of 210 Po and 210 Pb in fish organs were different. The BCF (L/kg) for 210 Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of 210 Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. The average BCFs of liver, bone and muscle were >1.4 × 10 5 , >2.5 × 10 4 and >1.4 × 10 4 , respectively. All fish in the Pit Lake were found to be in the same trophic level, however, a linear correlation between log 210 Po in liver and δ 15 N could indicate biomagnification of 210 Po in liver of C. auratus. In regards to the recommended Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for 210 Po, the concentration of 210 Po in muscle tissues of C. auratus is alarming, as there is a high probability for the local population at risk to exceed the recommended ALI through consumption of fish from Taboshar Pit Lake

  2. 210Po and 210Pb in medicinal plants in the region of Karnataka, Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrashekara, K.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb were estimated in some selected medicinal plants and soil samples of coastal Karnataka in India. The mean activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb varied in the range of 4.7–42.9 Bq kg −1 (dry weight) and 36.1–124 Bq kg −1 (dry weight) in the soil samples, and 3.3–63.7 Bq kg −1 (dry weight) and 12.0–406 Bq kg −1 (dry weight), in the medicinal plant samples, respectively. The plants, Ocimum sanctum L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng had significantly higher activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb than other species sampled. In spite of disequilibrium between them, these two radionuclides were well correlated in both soil and medicinal plants. - Highlights: • 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in medicinal plants were estimated. • Concentrations are higher in leaves than in rhizome or bark. • 210 Po and 210 Pb were in disequilibrium, but correlated very well. • Study helps to form database of radionuclides in medicinal plants.

  3. 210Pb and 210Po Determination in Bottled Water Available on the Croatian Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogic, M.; Rozmaric Macefat, M.; Benedik, Lj.; Strok, M.

    2011-01-01

    An alpha emitting radionuclide 210Po and beta emitting radionuclide 210Pb are decay products of 238U. Due to their nuclear properties they are considered as radionuclides with the highest radiotoxicity and contribute significantly to the internal dose to the population received by drinking water. For radiological impact assessment 210Pb and 210Po must be measured routinely and accurately, with low detection limits. The aim of our study was determination of activity concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in bottled drinking and mineral waters available on Croatian market. For their determination a procedure for their simultaneous separation from the water samples was used. After addition of 209Po tracer and lead carrier, radionuclides were preconcentrated from large volume by MnO 2 and their separation from interfering elements by Sr resin was done. 210Po source for alpha-particle spectrometric measurement was prepared by selfdeposition on silver disc, while lead was precipitated as lead sulphate and the beta activity of its daughter 210Bi was counted on a beta proportional counter. The results obtained show that values for activity concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in all examined waters are in accordance with allowed activity concentration according to the European Commission Recommendation 2001/928/Euratom and Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, published by WHO in 2006. (author)

  4. 17 CFR 210.3A-01 - Application of § 210.3A-01 to § 210.3A-05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Financial Statements § 210.3A-01 Application of § 210.3A-01 to § 210.3A-05. Sections 210.3A-01 to 210.3A-05 shall govern the presentation of consolidated and combined financial statements. [44 FR 19386, Apr. 3... COMMISSION FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES...

  5. Phase transition and electrical properties of lanthanum-modified sodium bismuth titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barick, B.K. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769008 (India); Choudhary, R.N.P. [Department of Physics, Institute of Technical Education and Research, SOA University, Bhubaneswar 751030 (India); Pradhan, Dillip K., E-mail: dillip.pradhan79@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769008 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of lanthanum modified sodium bismuth titanate by solid-state reaction route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three distinct phase transitions are observed from variation of dielectric constant with temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dielectric constant decrease and diffusivity of phase transition increases with increase in lanthanum content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impedance spectroscopy suggests the contribution of both grain and grain boundary to the electrical response of the material. - Abstract: Structural, microstructural and electrical properties of lanthanum-modified sodium bismuth titanate (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}) (NBT) ceramics were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the prepared materials confirmed the formation of the compounds with rhombohedral crystal system. The nature of scanning electron micrographs of the compounds showed (i) the uniform distribution of grains on the sample surface with high density and (ii) reduction of grain size on La substitution at the (Na-Bi) sites of NBT. Detailed studies of dielectric and impedance properties of the materials, carried out in the frequency range of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 6} Hz at different temperatures (room temperature to 500 Degree-Sign C), have provided many interesting properties. The dielectric constant at transition temperature was found to be decreased with increase of broadening of the dielectric peak on increasing La content in the sample. The transition temperature (T{sub m}) shifted to higher temperature side on addition of La (up to 6%), whereas the reverse trend was observed for higher concentration of La (i.e. 8%). The depolarization temperature (T{sub d}) of La-modified NBT compounds was found to be smaller than that of pure NBT. The tangent loss was also found to be decreased on the incorporation of La into NBT. The ac conductivity of the La-modified NBT obeyed the double power law behavior. Complex impedance

  6. Rapid semi-quantitative determination of bismuth in minerals using ascending paper chromatography (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrinier, H.

    1961-01-01

    The bismuth is separated by a solvent made up of acetone, water, and hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids. The bismuth is developed with dimercapto-2.5 thio-diazole-1.3.4 and ammonium sulphide. The use of this method for the detection of bismuth in minerals makes it possible to determine the metal at a concentration of 5 x 10 -6 . (author) [fr

  7. 21 CFR 173.210 - Acetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.210 Acetone. A tolerance of 30 parts per million is...

  8. (210)Po and (210)Pb in medicinal plants in the region of Karnataka, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekara, K; Somashekarappa, H M

    2016-08-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (210)Po and (210)Pb were estimated in some selected medicinal plants and soil samples of coastal Karnataka in India. The mean activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb varied in the range of 4.7-42.9 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 36.1-124 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) in the soil samples, and 3.3-63.7 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 12.0-406 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight), in the medicinal plant samples, respectively. The plants, Ocimum sanctum L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng had significantly higher activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb than other species sampled. In spite of disequilibrium between them, these two radionuclides were well correlated in both soil and medicinal plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. METHOD OF SEPARATING FISSION PRODUCTS FROM FUSED BISMUTH-CONTAINING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiswall, R.H.

    1958-06-24

    A process is described for removing metal selectively from liquid metal compositions. The method effects separation of flssion product metals selectively from dilute solution in fused bismuth, which contains uraniunn in solution without removal of more than 1% of the uranium. The process comprises contacting the fused bismuth with a fused salt composition consisting of sodium, potassium and lithium chlorides, adding to fused bismuth and molten salt a quantity of bismuth chloride which is stoichiometrically required to convert the flssion product metals to be removed to their chlorides which are more stable in the fused salt than in the molten metal and are, therefore, preferentially taken up in the fused salt phase.

  10. Bismuth(III) deferiprone effectively inhibits growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Larry L; Lyle, Daniel A; Ritz, Nathaniel L; Granat, Alex S; Khurshid, Ali N; Kherbik, Nada; Hider, Robert; Lin, Henry C

    2016-04-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria have been implicated in inflammatory bowel diseases and ulcerative colitis in humans and there is an interest in inhibiting the growth of these sulfide-producing bacteria. This research explores the use of several chelators of bismuth to determine the most effective chelator to inhibit the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. For our studies, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was grown with nitrate as the electron acceptor and chelated bismuth compounds were added to test for inhibition of growth. Varying levels of inhibition were attributed to bismuth chelated with subsalicylate or citrate but the most effective inhibition of growth by D. desulfuricans was with bismuth chelated by deferiprone, 3-hydroxy-1,2-dimethyl-4(1H)-pyridone. Growth of D. desulfuricans was inhibited by 10 μM bismuth as deferiprone:bismuth with either nitrate or sulfate respiration. Our studies indicate deferiprone:bismuth has bacteriostatic activity on D. desulfuricans because the inhibition can be reversed following exposure to 1 mM bismuth for 1 h at 32 °C. We suggest that deferiprone is an appropriate chelator for bismuth to control growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria because deferiprone is relatively nontoxic to animals, including humans, and has been used for many years to bind Fe(III) in the treatment of β-thalassemia.

  11. Bismuth uptake in the kidney as a test of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renault, Henri; Rapin, J.R.; Bralet, A.-M.

    1976-01-01

    The absorption of bismuth administered per os as an insoluble salt: basic nitrate and phosphate, labeled with 206 Bi was studied. The bismuth amounts in blood and most tissues were too small to be detected. However kidneys took up a significant bismuth quantity which allowed to measure the absorption of the metal through digestive wall. Bismuth absorption from phosphate, a very insoluble salt, was much less than that which was obtained from basic nitrate; this latter is an example of partially soluble salt in the stomach [fr

  12. Nanophotonic Modulator with Bismuth Ferrite as Low-loss Switchable Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    We propose a nanophotonic waveguide modulator with bismuth ferrite as a tunable material. Due to near-zero losses in bismuth ferrite, modulation with up to 20 dB/μm extinction ratio and 12 μm propagation length is achieved.......We propose a nanophotonic waveguide modulator with bismuth ferrite as a tunable material. Due to near-zero losses in bismuth ferrite, modulation with up to 20 dB/μm extinction ratio and 12 μm propagation length is achieved....

  13. Influence of bismuth on structural, elastic and spectroscopic properties of Nd{sup 3+} doped Zinc–Boro-Bismuthate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Gaurav; Sontakke, Atul D.; Karmakar, P.; Biswas, K.; Balaji, S.; Saha, R.; Sen, R.; Annapurna, K., E-mail: annapurnak@cgcri.res.in

    2014-05-01

    The present investigation reports, influence of bismuth addition on structural, elastic and spectral properties of [(99.5−x) {4ZnO−3B_2O_3}−0.5Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}−x Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} where x=0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60] glasses. The measured FTIR reflectance spectra facilitated a thorough insight of methodical modifications that are arising in the glass structure from borate (build by BO{sub 3} and BO{sub 4} units) to bismuthate (BiO{sub 3} and BiO{sub 6} units) network due to the increase of bismuth content ensuing with a steady decrease in host phonon energy (ν{sub ph}). The elastic properties estimated from measured longitudinal and shear ultrasonic velocities (U{sub L} and U{sub s}) demonstrated the reduction in network rigidity of glasses on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} inclusion. The three phenomenological Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω{sub 2,4,6}) were obtained from recorded absorption spectra of Nd{sup 3+} ions in these glasses and have been used to predict radiative properties as a function of variation in bismuth content. The reduced host phonon energy and high optical basicity effect due to Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} incorporation remarkably improved the Nd{sup 3+} luminescence properties such as emission intensity, quantum yield and emission cross-section. The quantum yield showed a strong increase from mere 16% in Zinc–Borate glass to almost 73% in 60 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} containing glass. Similarly, the emission cross-section for Nd{sup 3+4}F{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 11/2} laser transition raised from 2.43×10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} to 3.95×10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} in studied concentration suggesting a strong improvement in Nd{sup 3+} laser spectroscopic properties in Zinc–Boro-Bismuthate glass. These materials may be promising for compact solid state infrared lasers. - Highlights: • Continuous structural changes associated with reduction in host phonon energy by Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} inclusion. • Ultrasonic velocity study revealed reduced Debye

  14. Metabolic balances of 210Pb and 210Po at natural levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, H.; Holtzman, R.B.; Kramer, L.; Ilcewicz, F.H.

    1977-01-01

    Metabolic balances of 210 Po and 210 Pb were determined under strictly controlled dietary conditions in adult males. The intakes of the two nuclides were due to the dietary contents of these radioisotopes, inhalation from the atmosphere, and smoking of cigarettes. No additional radioisotope was given. The mean dietary intake of 210 Pb was 1.25 pCi/day and of 210 Po, 1.63 pCi/day. The major pathway of excretion of both nuclides is via the gastrointestinal tract; the urinary excretion is much lower. The total excretions of 210 Pb and 210 Po were greater than the dietary intake and the overall balances were -0.28 and -0.16 pCi/day for the two nuclides, respectively, during a low calcium intake. The 210 Pb balances did not change significantly when the calcium intake was increased 7- to 10-fold except for one patient in whom the balance became more negative. The 210 Po balance was more negative during calcium intakes of 800 and 2200 mg than during a low calcium intake of 200 mg/day. The urinary and fecal excretions of the two radionuclides were not affected by the intake of sodium fluoride, while the diuretic compound, Hydrodiuril, appeared to decrease the fecal 210 Pb excretion

  15. Determination of internal radiation dose due to intake of polonium 210 and lead 210 via smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Kharita, M.H.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2004-12-01

    In this study, 18 kind of cigarettes and five kinds of molasses consumed by Syrians were collected and analyzed for radioactivity in order to estimate the internal radiation dose caused by 210 Po and 210 Pb intake. Polonium 210 and lead 210 concentrations varied between 4 and 16.4 m Bq/cigarette, while 210 Po distribution ratios in different parts of consumed cigarette were %12, %73, %1.6 in ash, smoke and filter, respectively. In addition, annual intake of 210 Po by a main smoker was varied between 4.4 and 18 Bq/year assuming that the main smoker breathes about 15% of the total 210 Po present in tobacco. Using the values of the annual intake, annual equivalent radiation dose caused by smoking has reached 178 μSv/year. Moreover, mean concentration of 210 Po in nonsmokers and smokers bloods has reached 130 and 97 mBq/l, respectively, while the mean value of 210 Po concentration was relatively higher and reached 176 and 155 mBq/l in smokers and non smoker bloods, respectively (Authors)

  16. Evaluation of uncertainty and detection limits in 210Pb and 210Po measurement in water by alpha spectrometry using 210Po spontaneous deposition onto a silver disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Pedro L.; Gómez, José; Ródenas, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    An easy and accurate method for the determination of 210 Pb and 210 Po in water using 210 Po spontaneous deposition onto a silver disk is proposed and assessed for its detection capabilities according to the ISO Guide for the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) and ISO Standard 11929-7 concerning the evaluation of the characteristic limits for ionizing radiation measurements. The method makes no assumption on the initial values of the activity concentrations of 210 Pb, 210 Bi and 210 Po in the sample to be analyzed, and is based on the alpha spectrometric measurement of 210 Po in two different aliquots: the first one measured five weeks after the sampling date to ensure radioactive equilibrium between 210 Pb and 210 Bi and the second after a sufficient time for the ingrowth of 210 Po from 210 Pb to be significant. As shown, for a recommended time interval of seven months between 210 Po measurements, the applicability of the proposed method is limited to water samples with a 226 Ra to 210 Pb activity ratio C Ra /C Pb ≤4, as usual in natural waters. Using sample and background counting times of 24 h and 240 h, respectively, the detection limit of the activity concentration of each radionuclide at the sampling time for a 1 L sample typically varies between 0.7 and 16 mBq L −1 for 210 Pb in water samples with an initial activity of 210 Po in the range 0–200 mBq L −1 , and between 0.6 and 8.5 mBq L −1 for 210 Po in water samples with an initial activity of 210 Pb in the same range. - Highlights: ► 210 Pb and 210 Po measurement in water by 210 Po spontaneous deposition onto silver disks. ► 210 Pb and 210 Po determination based on 210 Po measurement in two different aliquots. ► Evaluation of characteristic limits in radioactivity measurements using ISO 11929-7. ► 10 Pb - 210 Po detection limits decrease with time elapsed between 210 Po measurements.

  17. Colloidal bismuth subcitrate in non-ulcer dyspepsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna M

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of colloidal bismuth subcitrate (De-Nol on symptoms, Helicobacter pylori status and histological features was studied in 35 patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Pain (34 cases and gas bloat (18 were the predominant symptoms. H pylori was present in 26 (74.3% patients. Gastritis and duodenitis were present in 29 of 32 and 22 of 31 cases respectively in whom biopsies were available. Relief in symptoms after treatment was seen in 29 (82.8% cases. Improvement in gastritis and duodenitis was noted in 60.8% and 58.8% respectively; over 70% of H pylori positive patients cleared the organism. These changes did not correlate with the relief in symptoms. We conclude that colloidal bismuth subcitrate is effective in the short term treatment of non-ulcer dyspepsia. It also clears H pylori infection and results in improvement of histological features.

  18. Chrysanthemum-like bismuth sulfide microcrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinghui; Gao, Guanhua; Yu, Runnan; Qiu, Guanzhou; Liu, Xiaohe

    2011-02-01

    Uniform chrysanthemum-like bismuth sulfide (Bi 2S 3) microcrystals assembled from nanosheet building blocks were successfully synthesized via a convenient hydrothermal synthetic route under mild conditions in which hydrated bismuth nitrate and L-cysteine were employed to supply Bi and S source and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA-Na 2) was employed as chelating agent. The influences of reaction temperatures and time on the morphologies of final products were investigated. The phase structures, morphologies, and properties of as-prepared products were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, and photoluminescence spectra. The possible growth mechanism for the formation of chrysanthemum-like Bi 2S 3 microcrystals was discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  19. X-ray Investigations of Liquid Bismuth-Copper Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzali, J. Nomssi; Hoyer, W.

    2000-04-01

    Liquid copper, bismuth, and eleven bismuth-copper alloys were investigated at temperatures above the liquidus with X-ray diffraction. The experimental procedure was adjusted to reduce the effects of evaporation. The Faber-Ziman total structure factors S(Q) feature a splitting of the first maximum and negative values for Q around 1 Å -1 in a large concentration range. The results are compared to previous neutron diffraction results by Zaiss and Steeb, to square-well potential model calculations by Gopala Rao and Satpathy and to a simple segregation model. The segregation model reproduces the features qualitatively. Partial structure factors are assessed by fitting both neutron and X-ray scattering results with reverse Monte-Carlo simulation

  20. Bismuth Telluride and Its Alloys as Materials for Thermoelectric Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Julian Goldsmid

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth telluride and its alloys are widely used as materials for thermoelectric refrigeration. They are also the best materials for use in thermoelectric generators when the temperature of the heat source is moderate. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, usually rises with temperature, as long as there is only one type of charge carrier. Eventually, though, minority carrier conduction becomes significant and ZT decreases above a certain temperature. There is also the possibility of chemical decomposition due to the vaporization of tellurium. Here we discuss the likely temperature dependence of the thermoelectric parameters and the means by which the composition may be optimized for applications above room temperature. The results of these theoretical predictions are compared with the observed properties of bismuth telluride-based thermoelements at elevated temperatures. Compositional changes are suggested for materials that are destined for generator modules.

  1. Quantum nernst effect in a bismuth single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, M.; Endo, A.; Hatano, N.; Nakamura, H.; Shirasaki, R.; Sugihara, K.

    2009-07-01

    We calculate the phonon-drag contribution to the transverse (Nernst) thermoelectric power S yx in a bismuth single crystal subjected to a quantizing magnetic field. The calculated heights of the Nernst peaks originating from the hole Landau levels and their temperature dependence reproduce the right order of magnitude for those of the pronounced magneto-oscillations recently reported by Behnia et al. A striking experimental finding that S yx is much larger than the longitudinal (Seebeck) thermoelectric power S xx can be naturally explained as the effect of the phonon drag, combined with the well-known relation between the longitudinal and the Hall resistivity ρ xx >> |ρ yx | in a semi-metal bismuth. The calculation that includes the contribution of both holes and electrons suggests that some of the hitherto unexplained minor peaks located roughly at the fractional filling of the hole Landau levels are attributable to the electron Landau levels. (author)

  2. Dose reduction using Bismuth protectors in chest computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaya, R.

    2012-01-01

    This monography is about the Dose reduction using Bismuth protectors in chest CT. The radiation protection of specific areas is necessary when the tissues or radiosensitive organs are near the path of light beam. The correct use of protection represents a challenge for the radiologist because of the time and materials required. The method used was a prospective investigatio in CHPR (TC service) and the doses was measured with TLD dosimeters. It is important to use these protectors in children hospitals.

  3. Preparation of Bismuth- and Thallium-Based Cuprate Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    erage work period (29); early symptoms of thallium - poisoning include hair loss. Safety considerations in handling thallium compounds should include... Thallium -Based Cuprate Superconductors by S. A. Sunshine and T. A. Vanderah Chemistry Division, Research Department Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, CA...Technical Report #2 10/90-9/91 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Preparation of Bismuth- and Thallium -Based Cuprate Suoerconductors NOOO14-91 WX

  4. Modular Lead-Bismuth Fast Reactors in Nuclear Power

    OpenAIRE

    Georgy Toshinsky; Vladimir Petrochenko

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the unique experience of operating reactors with heavy liquid metal coolant–eutectic lead-bismuth alloy in nuclear submarines, the concept of modular small fast reactors SVBR-100 for civilian nuclear power has been developed and validated. The features of this innovative technology are as follows: a monoblock (integral) design of the reactor with fast neutron spectrum, which can operate using different types of fuel in various fuel cycles including MOX fuel in a self-providing...

  5. Shape-controlled solvothermal synthesis of bismuth subcarbonate nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Gang; Yang Hanmin; Rong Kaifeng; Lu Zhong; Yu Xianglin; Chen Rong

    2010-01-01

    Much effort has been devoted to the synthesis of novel nanostructured materials because of their unique properties and potential applications. Bismuth subcarbonate ((BiO) 2 CO 3 ) is one of commonly used antibacterial agents against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Different (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanostructures such as cube-like nanoparticles, nanobars and nanoplates, were fabricated from bismuth nitrate via a simple solvothermal method. The nanostructures were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It was found that the solvents and precursors have an influence on the morphologies of (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanostructures. The possible formation mechanism of different (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanostructures fabricated under different conditions was also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Different bismuth subcarbonate ((BiO) 2 CO 3 ) nanostructures were successfully synthesized by a simple solvothermal method. It was found that the solvents and precursors have an influence on the morphologies of (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanostructures.

  6. Bismuth Oxysulfide and Its Polymer Nanocomposites for Efficient Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Luo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The danger of toxic organic pollutants in both aquatic and air environments calls for high-efficiency purification material. Herein, layered bismuth copper oxychalcogenides, BiCuSO, nanosheets of high photocatalytic activity were introduced to the PVDF (Polyvinylidene Fluoride. The fibrous membranes provide an easy, efficient, and recyclable way to purify organic pollutant. The physical and photophysical properties of the BiCuSO and its polymer composite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, electron spin resonance (EPR. Photocatalysis of Congo Red reveals that the BiCuSO/PVDF shows a superior photocatalytic activity of a 55% degradation rate in 70 min at visible light. The high photocatalytic activity is attributed to the exposed active {101} facets and the triple vacant associates V B i ‴ V O • • V B i ‴ . By engineering the intrinsic defects on the surface of bismuth oxysulfide, high solar-driven photocatalytic activity can be approached. The successful fabrication of the bismuth oxysulfide and its polymer nanocomposites provides an easy and general approach for high-performance purification materials for various applications.

  7. Theoretical study of bismuth-doped cadmium telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Proupin, E.; Rios-Gonzalez, J. A.; Pena, J. L.

    Cadmium telluride heavily doped with bismuth has been proposed as an absorber with an intermediate band for solar cells. Increase in the photocurrent has been shown recently, although the overall cell efficiency has not improved. In this work, we study the electronic structure and the formation energies of the defects associated to bismuth impurities. We have performed electronic structure calculations within generalized density functional theory, using the exchange-correlation functional HSE(w) , where the range-separation parameter w has been tuned to reproduce the CdTe bandgap. Improving upon previous reports, we have included the spin-orbit interaction, which modifies the structure of the valence band and the energy levels of bismuth. We have found that interstitial Bi (Bii) tends to occupy Cd vacancies, cadmium substitution (BiCd) creates single donor level, while tellurium substitution (BiTe) is a shallow single acceptor. We investigate the interaction between these point defects and how can they be combined to create a partially filled intermediate band. Supported by FONDECYT Grant 1130437, CONACYT-SENER SUSTENTABILIDAD ENERGETICA/project CeMIE-Sol PY-207450/25 and PY-207450/26. JARG acknowledges CONACYT fellowship for research visit. Powered@NLHPC (ECM-02).

  8. Superconductivity in the high-pressure phase of bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Philip A.C.; Semeniuk, Konstantin; Grosche, F. Malte [Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    At pressures above 27 kbar, elemental bismuth adopts a highly unusual incommensurate host-guest structure. This structure combines two distinct, interpenetrating crystal lattices and consequently lacks discrete translational symmetry. Although similar high pressure structures have been observed in other elements, their electronic properties have not been investigated in detail. The moderate pressure required to induce the host-guest phase in bismuth presents a favourable opportunity for comprehensive electrical transport studies. The high-pressure host-guest phase of bismuth, termed Bi-III, is known to be superconducting with a transition temperature of around 7 K, but the details of its superconducting and normal state properties are comparatively little explored. We report resistivity and magnetisation measurements in the Bi-III phase in fields up to 9 T and temperatures down to 120 mK. We find evidence for a strikingly high critical field and an unusual temperature dependence of the resistivity above the superconducting transition. We discuss our findings in the context of theoretical descriptions of host-guest materials.

  9. Soluble Lead and Bismuth Chalcogenidometallates: Versatile Solders for Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [Department; Son, Jae Sung [Department; School; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S. [Department; Filatov, Alexander S. [Department; Hazarika, Abhijit [Department; Wang, Yuanyuan [Department; Hudson, Margaret H. [Department; Sun, Cheng-Jun [Advanced; Chattopadhyay, Soma [Physical; Talapin, Dmitri V. [Department; Center

    2017-07-27

    Here we report the syntheses of largely unexplored lead and bismuth chalcogenidometallates in the solution phase. Using N2H4 as the solvent, new compounds such as K6Pb3Te6·7N2H4 were obtained. These soluble molecular compounds underwent cation exchange processes using resin chemistry, replacing Na+ or K+ by decomposable N2H5+ or tetraethylammonium cations. They also transformed into stoichiometric lead and bismuth chalcogenide nanomaterials with the addition of metal salts. Such a versatile chemistry led to a variety of composition-matched solders to join lead and bismuth chalcogenides and tune their charge transport properties at the grain boundaries. Solution-processed thin films composed of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 microparticles soldered by (N2H5)6Bi0.5Sb1.5Te6 exhibited thermoelectric power factors (~28 μW/cm K2) comparable to those in vacuum-deposited Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 films. The soldering effect can also be integrated with attractive fabrication techniques for thermoelectric modules, such as screen printing, suggesting the potential of these solders in the rational design of printable and moldable thermoelectrics.

  10. Study of barium bismuth titanate prepared by mechanochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Z.Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium-bismuth titanate, BaBi4Ti4O15 (BBT, a member of Aurivillius bismuth-based layer-structure perovskites, was prepared from stoichiometric amounts of barium titanate and bismuth titanate obtained via mechanochemical synthesis. Mechanochemical synthesis was performed in air atmosphere in a planetary ball mill. The reaction mechanism of BaBi4Ti4O15 and the preparation and characteristics of BBT ceramic powders were studied using XRD, Raman spectroscopy, particle analysis and SEM. The Bi-layered perovskite structure of BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramic forms at 1100 °C for 4 h without a pre-calcination step. The microstructure of BaBi4Ti4O15 exhibits plate-like grains typical for the Bi-layered structured material and spherical and polygonal grains. The Ba2+ addition leads to changes in the microstructure development, particularly in the change of the average grain size.

  11. Atomic Layer Deposition of Bismuth Vanadates for Solar Energy Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefik, Morgan

    2016-07-07

    The fabrication of porous nanocomposites is key to the advancement of energy conversion and storage devices that interface with electrolytes. Bismuth vanadate, BiVO4 , is a promising oxide for solar water splitting where the controlled fabrication of BiVO4 layers within porous, conducting scaffolds has remained a challenge. Here, the atomic layer deposition of bismuth vanadates is reported from BiPh3 , vanadium(V) oxytriisopropoxide, and water. The resulting films have tunable stoichiometry and may be crystallized to form the photoactive scheelite structure of BiVO4 . A selective etching process was used with vanadium-rich depositions to enable the synthesis of phase-pure BiVO4 after spinodal decomposition. BiVO4 thin films were measured for photoelectrochemical performance under AM 1.5 illumination. The average photocurrents were 1.17 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode using a hole-scavenging sulfite electrolyte. The capability to deposit conformal bismuth vanadates will enable a new generation of nanocomposite architectures for solar water splitting. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Determination of 210Pb and 210Po in Brazilian cigarette tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, A.C.; Hiromoto, G.

    2000-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the important pathways that could contribute to enhance the radiation dose to man, due to the relatively large concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po found in tobacco leaves. In this work, concentrations of these two radionuclides were determined in eight of the most commercialized cigarette brands produced in Brazil. The samples analyzed were bought randomly in the market. The 210 Pb was determined by counting the beta activity of the 210 Bi in a gas flow proportional detector, after radiochemical separation and precipitation of the PbCrO 4 . The 210 Po was determined by alpha spectrometry, using a surface barrier detector, after radiochemical separation and spontaneous deposition of Po in copper disk. The results showed concentrations ranging from 15,8 to 30,2 mBq per gram of dry tobacco for 210 Pb and from 18,8 to 27,4 mBq per gram of dry tobacco for 210 Po. Taking in account the experimental error of the measurements, radioactive equilibrium between 210 Pb and 210 Po is observed for all analyzed samples. This result was expected, since the delayed time from the harvest of tobacco leaves to the introduction of cigarettes in the market is enough to reach that equilibrium. Assuming a 20 cigarettes per day consumption, and a 10% of Pb and 20% of Po being inhaled by the primary smokers, it is obtained a value of yearly intake of 11,3 Bq of 210 Pb and 21,2 Bq of 210 Po, due to cigarette consumption. These values lead to an increment to the committed effective dose of 0,025 mSv year -1 and an increment to the probability of getting cancer of 1 x 10 -6 per year. (author)

  13. Study on corrosion test techniques in lead bismuth eutectic flow. Joint research report in JFY2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    The evaluation of corrosion behaviors of core and structural materials in lead bismuth eutectic is one of the key issues for the utilization of lead bismuth eutectic as a coolant of the primary loops of lead bismuth cooled fast breeder reactors (FBRs) and the intermediate heat transport media of new-type steam generators of the sodium cooled FBRs. The purpose of the present study is to establish corrosion test techniques in lead bismuth eutectic flow. The techniques of steel corrosion test and oxygen control in flowing lead bismuth eutectic, and the technologies of a lead bismuth flow test at high temperature and high velocity were developed through corrosion test using a lead bismuth flow test loop of the Tokyo Institute of Technology in JFY2002. The major results are summarized as follows: (1) Techniques of fabrication, mount and rinse of corrosion specimens, measurement method of weight loss, and SEM/EDX analysis method have been established through lead bismuth corrosion test. (2) Weight losses were measured, corrosion and lead bismuth-adhered layers and eroded parts were observed in two 1000 hr-corrosion tests, and the results were compared with each other for twelve existing steels including ODS, F82H and SUH-3. (3) An oxygen sensor made of zirconia electrolyte structurally resistant to thermal stress and thermal shock was developed and tested in the lead bismuth flow loop. Good performance has been obtained. (4) An oxygen control method by injecting argon and hydrogen mixture gas containing steam into lead bismuth was applied to the lead bismuth flow loop, and technical issues for the development of the oxygen control method were extracted. (5) Technical measures for freezing and leakage of lead bismuth in the flow loop were accumulated. (6) Technical measures for flow rate decrease/blockage due to precipitation of oxide and corrosion products in a low temperature section of the lead bismuth flow loop were accumulated. (7) Electromagnetic flow meters with MI

  14. A guide to the influence of bismuth on lead/acid battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, M. J.; Rand, D. A. J.; Culpin, B.

    A review is given of the literature that deals with the influence of bismuth on the microstructure, oxygen/hydrogen evolution kinetics and anodic corrosion of lead and lead alloys with regard to their performance in lead/acid batteries. Analysis shows that there is considerable disagreement as to the effect of bismuth on lead microstructure. For example, the various investigators report an increase, a decrease, or negligible change in grain size. In general, it is concluded that the oxygen overpotential on PbO 2 is lowered in the presence of bismuth. The effect is enhanced as the bismuth content is increased. It is postulated that the behaviour results from the formation of a mixed oxide, PbO 2·BiO x. By contrast, cathodic hydrogen evolution is reported widely to be largely unaffected by bismuth. Nevertheless, there is evidence that the reaction is particularly sensitive to the surface characteristics of electrodes and that these features can induce either a suppression or an enhancement of the hydrogen-gassing rate. Many studies have shown that bismuth accelerates the anodic corrosion of lead alloys, especially at high concentrations of bismuth. At 0.1 wt.% bismuth and below, the effect on the corrosion rate is negligible. The authors of this discussion are of the opinion that much of the conflicting evidence in the areas reported is caused by spurious differences in grain structure that are introduced by variations in sample preparation, rather than by the action of bismuth itself. In battery-related tests, bismuth has usually been found to exert little influence on performance, but there is some suggestion that cycle life is increased. The present body of knowledge is insufficient to confirm the correctness of any currently specified maximum level for bismuth with respect to a given battery design.

  15. Efficient enhancement of bismuth NIR luminescence by aluminum and its mechanism in bismuth doped germanate laser glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, L.P.; Tan, L.L.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    As a new member of laser glass family, bismuth-doped glasses have received rising interests due to the application of fiber amplifiers and laser sources in the new spectral range for the next-generation optical communication system. For practical application of the glasses, it must be considered ......+ are not completely randomly distributed inside germanate glass and they prefer the residence around tetrahedral AlO4 sites....

  16. Properties of lead-bismuth coolant and perspectives of non-electric applications of lead-bismuth reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynov, P.N.; Ivanov, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    Key physical and chemical properties of lead-bismuth eutectic alloy are reviewed. Based on the low chemical activity of the alloy to other work media, a new concept of direct contact heat exchangers is proposed. A series of experiments were performed to validate the concept, using water, model salt solutions of sodium chloride, and oil. Key experimental results are summarized in the report. (author)

  17. Bismuth Propellant Feed System Development at NASA-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    NASA-MSFC has been developing liquid metal propellant feed systems capable of delivering molten bismuth at a prescribed mass flow rate to the vaporizer of an electric thruster. The first such system was delivered to NASA-JPL as part of the Very High Isp Thruster with Anode Layer (VHITAL) program. In this system, the components pictured were placed in a vacuum chamber and heated while the control electronics were located outside the chamber. The system was successfully operated at JPL in conjunction with a propellant vaporizer, and data was obtained demonstrating a new liquid bismuth flow sensing technique developed at MSFC. The present effort is aimed at producing a feed-system for use in conjunction with a bismuth-fed Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Developing this system is more ambitious, however, in that it is designed to self-contain all the control electronics inside the same vacuum chamber as an operating bismuth-fed thruster. Consequently, the entire system, including an on-board computer, DC-output power supplies, and a gas-pressurization electro-pneumatic regulator, must be designed to survive a vacuum environment and shielded to keep bismuth plasma from intruding on the electronics and causing a shortcircuit. In addition, the hot portions of the feed system must be thermally isolated from the electronics to avoid failure due to high heat loads. This is accomplished using a thermal protection system (TPS) consisting of multiple layers of aluminum foil. The only penetrations into the vacuum chamber are an electrically isolated (floating) 48 VDC line and a fiberoptic line. The 48 VDC provides power for operation of the power supplies and electronics co-located with the system in the vacuum chamber. The fiberoptic Ethernet connection is used to communicate user-input control commands to the on-board computer and transmit real-time data back to the external computer. The partially assembled second-generation system is shown. Before testing at Busek, a

  18. Unusual 210Po/210Pb ratios in the surface water of the Gulf of Lions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radakovitch, O.; Heussner, S.; Cherry, R.D.; Heyraud, M.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb have been measured in sea water collected in the Grand Rhone Canyon. Concentrations of 210 Pb are at similar levels to those found in other Mediterranean sea water samples, and are at the levels which would be expected in comparison with global sea water data. The same applies to the 210 Po concentrations in samples from below 100 m depth. Surface samples from above 100 m have 210 Po at levels rather higher than expected, and their 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratios are about 1 or more as compared with the usual open ocean ratio 0.5. These data can be interpreted as indicating another source of supply of 210 Po to the surface layer in addition to the normal atmospheric input. We suggest that an episodic advective particulate input, probably originating in the output of the Rhone river and perhaps involving resuspension of fine particulates from the bottom sediments as a result of storm conditions, is he most likely candidate for this additional source. (authors)

  19. Distribution of lead-210 and polonium-210 between soluble and particulate phases in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from radiometric measurements of the distribution of 210 Pb and 210 Po in surface seawater and suspended particulate matter. Samples of plankton and sediments collected from some locations were also analyzed. Samples of seawater and suspended particulate matter were collected from stations located in the Gulf of Maine, the North Atlantic, and approximately 500 miles southwest of Gilbraltar. (U.S.)

  20. Radioactive 210Po in magnesium supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struminska-Parulska, Dagmara Ida

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pioneer study was to determine polonium 210 Po in the most popular magnesium supplements in Poland and estimate the possible related dose assessment to the consumers. The analyzed magnesium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic magnesium compounds; some from natural sources. The objectives of this research were to investigate the naturally occurring 210 Po activity concentrations in magnesium supplements, find the correlations between 210 Po concentration in medicament and magnesium chemical form, and calculate the effective radiation dose connected to analyzed magnesium supplement consumption. The highest 210 Po activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from sedimentary rocks, namely dolomite - 3.84 ± 0.15 mBq g -1 (sample Mg17). The highest annual radiation dose from 210 Po taken with 1 tablet of magnesium supplement per day or with 400 mg of pure Mg daily would come from sample Mg17 (dolomite) - 1.35 ± 0.5 and 8.44 ± 0.33 μSv year -1 respectively.

  1. Radioactive {sup 210}Po in magnesium supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struminska-Parulska, Dagmara Ida [Gdansk Univ. (Poland). Environmental Chemistry and Radiochemistry Chair

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this pioneer study was to determine polonium {sup 210}Po in the most popular magnesium supplements in Poland and estimate the possible related dose assessment to the consumers. The analyzed magnesium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic magnesium compounds; some from natural sources. The objectives of this research were to investigate the naturally occurring {sup 210}Po activity concentrations in magnesium supplements, find the correlations between {sup 210}Po concentration in medicament and magnesium chemical form, and calculate the effective radiation dose connected to analyzed magnesium supplement consumption. The highest {sup 210}Po activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from sedimentary rocks, namely dolomite - 3.84 ± 0.15 mBq g{sup -1} (sample Mg17). The highest annual radiation dose from {sup 210}Po taken with 1 tablet of magnesium supplement per day or with 400 mg of pure Mg daily would come from sample Mg17 (dolomite) - 1.35 ± 0.5 and 8.44 ± 0.33 μSv year{sup -1} respectively.

  2. Selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein by silica-supported bismuth molybdate catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duc, Duc Truong; Ha, Hanh Nguyen; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Silica-supported bismuth molybdate catalysts have been prepared by impregnation, structurally characterized and examined as improved catalysts for the selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein. Catalysts with a wide range of loadings (from 10 to 90 wt%) of beta bismuth molybdate (β-Bi2Mo2O9...

  3. A first principle study on electronic property of bismuth nano tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Changrong; Li Jiaming

    2002-01-01

    A first principle molecular dynamics with density functional theory and ultra-soft pseudopotential has been performed on the bismuth nano tubes. The strain energies are found to follow the classical 1/R 2 strain law. The bismuth nano tubes are expected as semi-conductor with the band gaps around 0.7-0.8 eV

  4. Effect of O-vacancies on magnetic properties of bismuth ferrite nanoparticles by solution evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, A.M.; Umair, M.; Dastgeer, G.; Rizwan, M.; Yaqoob, M.Z.; Rashid, R.; Munir, H.S.

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth ferrite is a multiferroic material which shows high magnetization and polarization at room temperature. In present work, the effect of Oxygen (O) vacancies on magnetic properties of bismuth ferrite nanoparticles is studied. Bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (BiFeO 3 ) were synthesized by solution evaporation method (SEM) at room temperature. The sample was annealed under two different atmospheres such as in air and oxygen, to check the effect of O-vacancies on magnetic properties. The average crystallite size of Bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) as calculated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) falls in the range of 23–32 nm and 26–39 nm for the case of air and oxygen respectively. The crystallite size of bismuth ferrite nanoparticles increases as the temperature was varied from 450 °C to 650 °C. Further the influence of annealing temperature on the magnetic properties of the bismuth ferrite nanoparticles was also observed. It was concluded that the magnetic properties of Bismuth ferrite nanoparticles are directly interconnected to annealing atmosphere and annealing temperature. The magnetic properties were increased in the case of oxygen annealing, which actually leads in our case to an improvement of the crystallinity. - Highlights: • Bismuth ferrite was synthesized by solution evaporation method. • The effect of different annealing atmosphere on magnetic properties was studied. • The magnetic properties dramatically increased in case of Oxygen annealing. • The influence of crystalline size on magnetic properties was studied. • The magnetization was decreased as the temperature and crystallite size increased.

  5. Method of Creating Micro-scale Silver Telluride Grains Covered with Bismuth Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Lee, Kunik (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Provided is a method of enhancing thermoelectric performance by surrounding crystalline semiconductors with nanoparticles by contacting a bismuth telluride material with a silver salt under a substantially inert atmosphere and a temperature approximately near the silver salt decomposition temperature; and recovering a metallic bismuth decorated material comprising silver telluride crystal grains.

  6. Effects of In Vitro Antibiotic Resistance on Treatment: Bismuth-Containing Regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Chiba

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth compounds remain useful for Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. These include colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS, bismuth subsalicylate (BSS and, most recently, ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC. CBS appears to prevent the development of imidazole resistance when coadministered with nitroimidazoles. Traditional triple therapy with bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline or amoxicillin (BMT/A only partially overcomes metronidazole resistance. However, the addition of a PPI to bismuth triple therapy largely overcomes established metronidazole resistance if treatment is given for at least one week or more. When RBC rather than PPI is used with clarithromycin, this dual regimen appears to be more effective in preventing the development of secondary clarithromycin resistance. The triple combination of RBC, metronidazole and clarithromycin appears to be effective against metronidazole resistant strains of H pylori. Thus, overall, there is some evidence that bismuth compounds may prevent the development of antibiotic resistance and that existing antibiotic resistance may at least be partially overcome in vitro and in vivo. With the growing emergence of H pylori resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin, further research to clarify the role of bismuth compounds is required.

  7. Study of bismuth molybdenum oxidic catalysts for methanol oxidation to formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhler, R.Ya.; Kurina, L.N.; Kudrina, N.V.

    1982-01-01

    Phase composition and catalytic properties of bismuth molybdenum oxidic system in reaction of methanol oxidation are studied at temperature of 280-350 deg. Increase of selectivity according to formaldehyde is connected with formation of MoO 3 solid solution in bismuth molybdate Bi 2 O 3 x3MoO 3

  8. Ultra-flat bismuth films for diamagnetic levitation by template-stripping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokorian, J; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; de Vries, Jeroen; Nazeer, H.; Woldering, L.A.; Abelmann, Leon

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to deposit thin films of bismuth with sub-nanometer surface roughness for application to diamagnetic levitation. Evaporated films of bismuth have a high surface roughness with peak to peak values in excess of 100 nm and average values on the order of 20 nm. We

  9. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in the terrestrial environment: a historical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Bertil R.R., E-mail: bertil_r.persson@med.lu.s [Dept. of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Barngatan 2, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Holm, Elis [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Osteras (Norway)

    2011-05-15

    The radionuclides {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb widely present in the terrestrial environment are the final long-lived radionuclides in the decay of {sup 238}U in the earth's crust. Their presence in the atmosphere is due to the decay of {sup 222}Rn diffusing from the ground. The range of activity concentrations in ground level air for {sup 210}Po is 0.03-0.3 Bq m{sup -3} and for {sup 210}Pb 0.2-1.5 Bq m{sup -3}. In drinking water from private wells the activity concentration of {sup 210}Po is in the order of 7-48 mBq l{sup -1} and for {sup 210}Pb around 11-40 mBq l{sup -1}. From water works, however, the activity concentration for both {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb is only in the order of 3 mBq l{sup -1}. Mosses, lichens and peat have a high efficiency in capturing {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb from atmospheric fallout and exhibit an inventory of both {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in the order of 0.5-5 kBq m{sup -2} in mosses and in lichens around 0.6 kBq m{sup -2}. The activity concentrations in lichens lies around 250 Bq kg{sup -1}, dry mass. Reindeer and caribou graze lichen which results in an activity concentration of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb of about 1-15 Bq kg{sup -1} in meat from these animals. The food chain lichen-reindeer or caribou, and Man constitutes a unique model for studying the uptake and retention of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in humans. The effective annual dose due to {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in people with high consumption of reindeer/caribou meat is estimated to be around 260 and 132 {mu}Sv a{sup -1} respectively. In soils, {sup 210}Po is adsorbed to clay and organic colloids and the activity concentration varies with soil type and also correlates with the amount of atmospheric precipitation. The average activity concentration levels of {sup 210}Po in various soils are in the range of 20-240 Bq kg{sup -1}. Plants become contaminated with radioactive nuclides both by absorption from the soil (supported Po) and by deposition of radioactive

  10. Optical properties of bismuth-doped silica fibres in the temperature range 300 - 1500 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvoretskii, D A; Bufetov, Igor' A; Vel' miskin, V V; Zlenko, Alexander S; Khopin, V F; Semjonov, S L; Guryanov, Aleksei N; Denisov, L K; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2012-09-30

    The visible and near-IR absorption and luminescence bands of bismuth-doped silica and germanosilicate fibres have been measured for the first time as a function of temperature. The temperature-dependent IR luminescence lifetime of a bismuth-related active centre associated with silicon in the germanosilicate fibre has been determined. The Bi{sup 3+} profile across the silica fibre preform is shown to differ markedly from the distribution of IR-emitting bismuth centres associated with silicon. The present results strongly suggest that the IR-emitting bismuth centre comprises a lowvalence bismuth ion and an oxygen-deficient glass network defect. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  11. Electronic Properties of Tin and Bismuth from Angular Correlation of Annihilation Photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.E.; Trumpy, Georg

    1969-01-01

    A linear slit setup has been used to obtain results of angular-correlation measurements in (a) tin single crystals in three orientations: [001], [100], and [110], (b) bismuth single crystals in four orientations: [111], [100], [1¯10], and [2¯1¯1], (c) solid and liquid tin and bismuth, and (d......) deformed bismuth. For both metals, the single-crystal angular-correlation curves lie near to the free-electron parabola. The tin curves show more anisotropy than the bismuth curves. An important result is the clear anisotropy found in the high-momentum part of the curves—the tails—for both metals. Little...... of the liquid-metal curves are smaller and of another form than the tails of polycrystalline curves; no Gaussian with only one adjustable constant factor can give a fit to both tails. No useful method for interpreting liquid-metal angular-correlation curves seems to exist. Two deformed bismuth samples gave...

  12. Bioavailability and chronic toxicity of bismuth citrate to earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to natural sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omouri, Zohra; Hawari, Jalal; Fournier, Michel; Robidoux, Pierre Yves

    2018-01-01

    The present study describes bioavailability and chronic effects of bismuth to earthworms Eisenia andrei using OECD reproduction test. Adult earthworms were exposed to natural sandy soil contaminated artificially by bismuth citrate. Average total concentrations of bismuth in soil recovered by HNO 3 digestion ranged from 75 to 289mg/kg. Results indicate that bismuth decreased significantly all reproduction parameters of Eisenia andrei at concentrations ≥ 116mg/kg. However, number of hatched cocoons and number of juveniles seem to be more sensitive than total number of cocoons, as determined by IC 50 ; i.e., 182, 123 and > 289mg/kg, respectively. Bismuth did not affect Eisenia andrei growth and survival, and had little effect on phagocytic efficiency of coelomocytes. The low immunotoxicity effect might be explained by the involvement of other mechanisms i.e. bismuth sequestered by metal-binding compounds. After 28 days of exposure bismuth concentrations in earthworms tissue increased with increasing bismuth concentrations in soil reaching a stationary state of 21.37mg/kg dry tissue for 243mg Bi/kg dry soil total content. Data indicate also that after 56 days of incubation the average fractions of bismuth available extracted by KNO 3 aqueous solution in soil without earthworms varied from 0.0051 to 0.0229mg/kg, while in soil with earthworms bismuth concentration ranged between 0.310-1.347mg/kg dry soil. We presume that mucus and chelating agents produced by earthworms and by soil or/and earthworm gut microorganisms could explain this enhancement, as well as the role of dermal and ingestion routes of earthworms uptake to soil contaminant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 210Po- and 210Pb- determination in Hungarian tobacco leaves and dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, T.; Bodrogi, E.; Somlai, J.; Baranyi, A.; Dombovari, P.

    2003-01-01

    Because the tobacco of the cigarettes sold in Hungary are domestically grown; the aim of our investigations was to determine the concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the tobacco plants coming from the different areas of Hungary. Additionally, soil samples and phosphor fertilisers as the potential sources of these radionuclides were also investigated. Special attention was given to the tobacco grown at a tailing pond of a former uranium mine under remediation and the plants grown nearby. One of the biggest tobacco plants is situated there. The 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations of the investigated tobaccos and cigarettes do not differ considerably, so during the cigarette making process the concentration of these radionuclides does not change to a great extent. The 210 Po concentrations of the phosphate fertilizers available in Hungary were not found extremely high in either case. The ( 210 Po 72-1498 mBq/g, 210 Pb 313-985 mBq/g) concentrations of the tobacco grown at the experiment plant situated at a former uranium mine (waste hip) were high, as expected. This territory is not available for agricultural purposes. Our results also indicate that it is reasonable. The samples from the totally covered (re-mediated) tailing pond are under investigation. (authors)

  14. Export of particulate matter from Tokyo Bay studied with radiochemical tracers, 210Po and 210Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Ill; Narita, Hisashi; Noriki, Shinichiro; Tsunogai, Shizuo

    1997-01-01

    Sediment traps were deployed at the mouth of Tokyo Bay in the winter of 1991 and the summer of 1993, each for a few days. The fluxes of total mass, 210 Pb (parent) and 210 Po (daughter) increased with depth, especially in the near-bottom layer. All the fluxes of total mass, 210 Po and 210 Pb decreased offshore at the same depth, while they increased offshore at the same distance above the bottom. The observed particulate flux of 210 Pb in the water column was one to two orders of magnitude larger than the sedimentation rate at the bottom. The activity ratio of 210 Po/ 210 Pb in the near-bottom layer was largest at each station and did not vary from station to station. These findings indicate that enormous amounts of particulate matter are transported fairly quickly offshore through the near-bottom layer at the entrance. The variation in total mass flux was well synchronized with the tidal cycle at a mid-depth of 85 m in the water column of 240 m in winter of 1991, where the fluxes were larger during ebb and smaller during flood tides. The particulate flux of 210 Po was also larger by a factor of about 2 during ebb, while the concentration of 210 Pb was about 40 % larger during flood than ebb. These findings indicate that the tidal current is a major conveyor of particulate matter at the mid-depths. The tidal variation, however, was weak for the results obtained in the near-bottom layer in 1993, where much particulate matter was transported toward the Kuroshio region along the valley of Tokyo Bay. Our results suggest that even bays having narrow mouths, such as Tokyo Bay, are a large source of particulate material to the open oceans. (author)

  15. Transfer of 7Be, 210Pb and 210Po in a forest canopy of Japanese cedar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.; Tagawa, Y.; Sugihara, S.; Maeda, Y.; Inokura, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The concentrations of 7 Be, 210 Pb and 210 Po of ca. 60 parts of a whole tree of Japanese cedar and of underlying litter and soil samples were determined for studying their transfer in a forest canopy. The results suggest that the mean residence times of 7 Be and 210 Pb in the forest canopy were ca. 20 and 900 days, respectively, and the dry deposition rate of 7 Be on the forest canopy was about a half of the total deposition rate. (author)

  16. 210Pb and 210Po as tracers of particle transport mechanisms on continental margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radakovitch, O.; Heussner, S.; Biscaye, P.; Abassi, A.

    1997-01-01

    The natural radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb, members of the 238 U decay chain, are particularly helpful to the understanding of particle transport processes in the ocean. These isotopes were analysed on sediment trap particles collected during 3 one-year experiments on continental margins. In the Bay of Biscay (Northeastern Atlantic) and in the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) both as part of the French ECOMARGE programme, and in the Middle Atlantic Bight (Northwestern Atlantic) as part of the SEEP programme. They yielded great insights into scenarios of particle transfer at each site, mainly based on the spatial and temporal distribution of 210 Pb particulate concentrations and fluxes. (author)

  17. Yttrium bismuth titanate pyrochlore mixed oxides for photocatalytic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merka, Oliver

    2012-10-18

    In this work, the sol-gel synthesis of new non-stoichiometric pyrochlore titanates and their application in photocatalytic hydrogen production is reported. Visible light response is achieved by introducing bismuth on the A site or by doping the B site by transition metal cations featuring partially filled d orbitals. This work clearly focusses on atomic scale structural changes induced by the systematical introduction of non-stoichiometry in pyrochlore mixed oxides and the resulting influence on the activity in photocatalytic hydrogen production. The materials were characterized in detail regarding their optical properties and their atomic structure. The pyrochlore structure tolerates tremendous stoichiometry variations. The non-stoichiometry in A{sub 2}O{sub 3} rich compositions is compensated by distortions in the cationic sub-lattice for the smaller Y{sup 3+} cation and by evolution of a secondary phase for the larger Bi{sup 3+} cation on the A site. For TiO{sub 2} rich compositions, the non-stoichiometry leads to a special vacancy formation in the A and optionally O' sites. It is shown that pyrochlore mixed oxides in the yttrium bismuth titanate system represent very active and promising materials for photocatalytic hydrogen production, if precisely and carefully tuned. Whereas Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} yields stable hydrogen production rates over time, the bismuth richer compounds of YBiTi{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Bi{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} are found to be not stable under irradiation. This drawback is overcome by applying a special co-catalyst system consisting of a precious metal core and a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell on the photocatalysts.

  18. Cytotoxic Effect of Lipophilic Bismuth Dimercaptopropanol Nanoparticles on Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene, Hernandez-Delgadillo; Badireddy, Appala Raju; José, Martínez-Sanmiguel Juan; Francisco, Contreras-Cordero Juan; Israel, Martinez-Gonzalez Gustavo; Isela, Sánchez-Nájera Rosa; Chellam, Shankararaman; Claudio, Cabral-Romero

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth nanoparticles have many interesting properties to be applied in biomedical and medicinal sectors, however their safety in humans have not been comprehensively investigated. The objective of this research was to determine the cytotoxic effect of bismuth dimercaptopropanol nanoparticles (BisBAL NPs) on epithelial cells. The nanoparticles are composed of 18.7 nm crystallites on average and have a rhombohedral structure, agglomerating into chains-like or clusters of small nanoparticles. Based on MTT viability assay and fluorescence microscopy, cytotoxicity was not observed on monkey kidney cells after growing with 5 µM of BisBAL NPs for 24 h. Employing same techniques, identical results were obtained with human epithelial cells (HeLa), showing a not strain-dependent phenomenon. The absence of toxic effects on epithelial cells growing with BisBAL NPs was corroborated with long-time experiments (24-72 hrs.), showing no difference in comparison with growing control (cells without nanoparticles). Further, genotoxicity assays, comet assay and fluorescent microscopy and electrophoresis in bromide-stained agarose gel revealed no damage to genomic DNA of MA104 cells after 24 h. of exposition to BisBAL NPs. Finally, the effect of bismuth nanoparticles on protein synthesis was studied in cells growing with BisBAL NPs for 24 h. SDS-PAGE assays showed no difference between treated and untreated cells, suggesting that BisBAL NPs did not interfere with protein synthesis. Hence BisBAL NPs do not appear to exert cytotoxic effects suggesting their biological compatibility with epithelial cells.

  19. 40 CFR 1042.210 - Preliminary approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1042.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Certifying Engine... family definitions, auxiliary emission control devices, deterioration factors, useful life, testing for...

  20. 48 CFR 210.001 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING MARKET RESEARCH 210.001 Policy. (a) In addition to the requirements of FAR 10.001(a), agencies shall— (i) Conduct market research appropriate to the circumstances before— (A... 109-163); and (ii) Use the results of market research to determine— (A) Whether consolidation of...

  1. 5 CFR 551.210 - Computer employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....210 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... the aforementioned duties, the performance of which requires the same level of skills. (c) Computer... customers. Similarly, a senior or lead computer programmer who manages the work of two or more other...

  2. 7 CFR 210.23 - Other responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM State Agency and School Food Authority Responsibilities § 210.23 Other responsibilities. (a) Free and reduced price lunches and meal supplements. State agencies and school food authorities shall ensure that lunches and meal supplements are made available free...

  3. 31 CFR 210.6 - Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CLEARING HOUSE General § 210.6 Agencies. Notwithstanding ACH Rules 2.2.3, 2.4.5, 2.5.2, 4.2, and 8.7.2... Government entries. (a) Receiving entries. An agency may receive ACH debit or credit entries only with the... ACH entry to the agency's account in accordance with this part. The agency's liability shall be...

  4. 7 CFR 210.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM General § 210.2 Definitions. For the purpose of this part: 7 CFR part 3015 means the Uniform Federal Assistance Regulations published by the Department... requirements. 7 CFR part 3016 means the Department's Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and...

  5. 7 CFR 210.13 - Facilities management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the added text is set forth as follows: § 210.13 Facilities management. (c) Food safety program. The... points; (iii) Determine the critical limits; (iv) Establish procedures to monitor critical control points... critical limits; (iv) Monitoring procedures; (v) Corrective action procedures; (vi) Recordkeeping...

  6. High ionic conductivity in confined bismuth oxide-based heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanna, Simone; Esposito, Vincenzo; Christensen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth trioxide in the cubic fluorite phase (δ-Bi2O3) exhibits the highest oxygen ionic conductivity. In this study, we were able to stabilize the pure -Bi2O3 at low temperature with no addition of stabilizer but only by engineering the interface, using highly coherent heterostructures made...... of alternative layers of δ-Bi2O3 and Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), deposited by pulsed laser deposition. The resulting [δ-Bi2O3=YSZ] heterostructures are found to be stable over a wide temperature range (500-750 °C) and exhibits stable high ionic conductivity over a long time comparable to the value...

  7. On radiation activation of industrial bismuth-molybdenum catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Nadykto, B.T.; Mikhajlenko, I.E.; Voronin, Yu.V.; Yushin, N.I.; Firsov, V.I.; Grodinskij, I.M.; Markevich, S.V.; Novopolotskij Politekhnicheskij Inst.; AN Belorusskoj SSR, Minsk. Inst. Fiziko-Organicheskoj Khimii)

    1977-01-01

    The radiation effect on an industrial catalyst for production of nitrile of acrylic acid (NAA) under the action of gamma radiation has been studied. The activity of the bismuth-molybdenum catalyst has been studied at 455 deg C and 0.7 kg/cm 2 . It has been established that change in catalytic activity depends on the absorbed dose. The maximum yield of NAA is observed for the absorbed dose 0.1 Mrad wheveas the selectivity, constant for mean dose values, decreases with the rise of the absorbed dose

  8. The determination of 210Pb, 210Bi, 210Po by counting gross α and gross β rate of spontaneous deposited samples on Ni foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuxue; Guo Dongfa; Huang Qiuhong

    2012-01-01

    The optimum spontaneous deposition conditions of 210 Bi and 210 Po on Ni foil is studied in this paper, and a simultaneous or continuous testing method of 210 Pb, 210 Bi, 210 Po in samples by counting gross α and gross β rate of spontaneous deposited samples on Ni foil is set up. The research results show that under the conditions of the Ni foil area being 3.14 cm 2 , the concentration of HCl being 1.0 mol/L, the volume of HCl being 25 mL, the constant experiment temperature being 90℃, the vibration frequency being 180/min, the vibration amplitude being 20 mm and the spontaneous deposition time being 60 min, 210 Bi and 210 Po on Ni foil can be simultaneously and quantitatively deposited. The linear correlation coefficient between 210 Po activity and its α-counting rate is 0.9998, 210 Bi activity and its β-counting rate is 0.9997. The effects of 210 Bi and 210 Po short half-time radioisotopes on testing will decrease while standing the Ni foil for a certain length of time before measuring, in case of hydrazine hydrochloride and tartaric acid presence, lots of coexisting elements do not produce interference to testing. Degree of precision of this testing technology si higher than 5%, total recovery rate reaches 99.5%∼100.5%. (authors)

  9. Study of distribution of 210Po and 210Pb in the environmental matrices of Chikmagalur, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasheelan, A.; Sannappa, J.; Umeshareddy, K.; Ningappa, C.; Manjunatha, S.

    2013-01-01

    Polonium-210 and lead-210 are amongst the more radiotoxic nuclides and their concentration in soil and drinking water is very important from a radiological point of view. 210 Po is produced from the decay of 222 Rn gas in the atmosphere from which it is deposited on the earth's surface. 210 Po and 210 Pb in natural environment provide considerable radiation exposure to humans. In the present study, the concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the environment of Tumkur were studied. Soil and water samples were collected from ten Taluks of Tumkur and 210 Po and 210 Pb were determined by wet ashing method. Samples containing polonium was digested using conc. nitric acid and later converted into chloride medium with HCL. Polonium is deposited on the surface of the silver planchet and the activity on both sides were counted in a low background alpha counting system. The sample solution after estimation of 210 Po was preserved for 6-8 months for sufficient growth of 210 Po from 210 Pb. Then the 210 Po was re-estimated to determine the 210 Pb concentration by knowing its growth factor. The concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in soils of different Taluks varied from 13.6 BqKg -1 and 26.8 to 113.4 BqKg -1 respectively. The concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in water was low compared to soil, they varied 0.12 Bql -1 to 0.54 Bql -1 and 0.42 Bql -1 to 1.12 Bql -1 . (author)

  10. Design of an Actinide-Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor that Produces Low-Cost Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Weaver, Kevan Dean; Davis, Cliff Bybee; MIT folks

    2000-07-01

    indirect cycle designs has investigated the effects of various parameters to increase electric production at full power. For the direct-contact reactor, major issues related to the direct-contact heat transfer rate and entrainment and carryover of liquid lead-bismuth to the turbine have been identified and analyzed. An economic analysis approach was also developed to determine the cost of electricity production in the lead-bismuth reactor. The approach will be formulated into a model and applied to develop scientific cost estimates for the different reactor designs and thus aid in the selection of the most economic option. In the area of lead-bismuth coolant activation, the radiological hazard was evaluated with particular emphasis on the direct-contact reactor. In this system, the lack of a physical barrier between the primary and secondary coolant favors the release of the alpha-emitter Po?210 and its transport throughout the plant. Modeling undertaken on the basis of the scarce information available in the literature confirmed the importance of this issue, as well as the need for experimental work to reduce the uncertainties on the basic characteristics of volatile polonium chemical forms.

  11. Levofloxacin, bismuth, amoxicillin and esomeprazole as second-line Helicobacter pylori therapy after failure of non-bismuth quadruple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Liya; Zhang, Jianzhong; He, Lihua; Bai, Peng; Xue, Yan

    2016-05-01

    The best rescue therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection following failure of non-bismuth quadruple therapy (NBQT) remains unanswered. To determine the efficacy, safety and compliance of levofloxacin, bismuth, amoxicillin and esomeprazole (LBAE) regimen following failure of NBQT. 132 patients with H. pylori infection refractory to first-line NBQT received LBAE regimen (levofloxacin 500mg once/day, bismuth potassium citrate 220mg twice/day, amoxicillin 1000mg twice/day and esomeprazole 20mg twice/day for 14 days). Gastric mucosal biopsy was obtained for H. pylori culture, antimicrobial sensitivity test and cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2C19 polymorphism analysis. LBAE therapy achieved eradication rates of 73.5% [95% confidence intervals (CI) 65.9-81.1%] in intention-to-treat and 78.5% (71.1-85.9%) in per-protocol analyses in patients with high antibiotic resistance (amoxicillin 8.3%, clarithromycin 55.6%, metronidazole 73.6% and levofloxacin 36.1%). Adverse effects were found in 19.2% and compliance in 96.1% of the treated patients. Multivariate analyses identified levofloxacin resistance [odds ratio (OR) 7.183, 95% CI 1.616-31.914, P=0.010] and history of quinolone intake (4.844, 1.174-19.983, P=0.029) as independent predictors of treatment failure. The eradication rate of patients with dual amoxicillin and levofloxacin resistance was significantly decreased (33.3%, P=0.006). In populations with high levofloxacin resistance, 14-day second-line LBAE regimen resulted in an unsatisfactory efficacy in patients resistant to NBQT despite good safety and compliance. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Discharge of 210Po and 210Pb in coastal groundwater to the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Intae; Kim, Tae-hoon; Kim, Guebuem

    2013-01-01

    The activities of 210 Po and 210 Pb were measured for the truly dissolved (<10 kDa) and colloidal (10 kDa - 0.45 ìm) phases in coastal ground water in 2010 and 2011. The sampling sites include the coast of a large tidal flat (Hampyeong Bay) and a volcanic island, Jeju, Korea, where submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) were reported to be higher than typical continental margins. The total dissolved fraction was separated into the colloidal and truly dissolved fractions using a tangential flow filtration (TFF) system (PLCGC Pellicon). The total 210 Po and 210 Pb activities in ground water were 1.0 - 18.2 dpm/100L (9.7±7.6 dpm/100L) an 2.9 - 29.1 dpm/100L (16.8±10.7 dpm/100L) in the Hampyeong Bay and Jeju Island samples, respectively. The total 210 Po and 210 Pb activities in groundwater were similar to or even slightly lower than those in the typical seawater. These lower activities seem to be due to the rapid adsorption of Po and Pb on to particles in the subterranean estuary. The proportions of the truly dissolved and colloidal phases were, respectively, 73±5% and 27±5% for 210 Po, and 60±5% and 40±5% for 210 Pb. This result is consistent with the earlier study that more than half of the some dissolved trace metals in coastal ground water are in the colloidal form. Thus, our result implies that the colloidal forms are important in controlling the behaviour of Po, Pb, and other trace metals in the subterranean estuary and SGD-associated fluxes to the ocean. (author)

  13. Normal dietary levels of radium-226, radium-228, lead-210, and polonium-210 for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzman, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the literature and the results of some recent measurements on the levels in man's diet of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb, and 210 Po are presented. Intakes in other countries are similar to those in the United States, but in localized populations the 226 Ra intake can be 8 or more pCi/day. The few data on 228 Ra show that intake of this nuclide is about 80% that of 226 Ra except in monazite areas where intakes of up to 160 pCi 228 Ra/day are reported. Drinking water contributes less than 5% to daily intake except in special areas. For 210 Pb, higher levels have been noted for Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics than for the United States. Persons in the Arctic who consume reindeer or caribou meat may ingest 210 Pb at the rate of 10 to 40 pCi/day. Normal dietary levels of 210 Po are about 20 to 30% higher than those of 210 Pb, except in the Arctic. The levels of these nuclides in classes of foods are compared to show that the higher levels observed in certain diets are due to the levels in particular foods. Because of the high levels of 210 Pb intake in Japan, total skeletal dose rates in that country are estimated to be more than twice those in the United States. The use of dietary intake for estimating metabolic parameters, such as intestinal absorption of 226 Ra and 210 Pb, is discussed

  14. Speciation of 210Po and 210Pb in air particulates determined by sequential extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Al-Karfan, K.; Khalili, H.; Hassan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Speciation of 210 Po and 210 Pb in air particulates of two Syrian phosphate sites with different climate conditions has been studied. The sites are the mines and Tartous port at the Mediterranean Sea. Air filters were collected during September 2000 until February 2002 and extracted chemically using different selective fluids in an attempt to identify the different forms of these two radionuclides. The results have shown that the inorganic and insoluble 21 Po and 21 Pb (attached to silica and soluble in mineral acids) portion was found to be high in both sites and reached a maximum value of 94% and 77% in the mine site and Tartous port site, respectively. In addition, only 24% of 21 Pb in air particulates was found to be associated with organic materials probably produced from the incomplete burning of fuel vehicle and similar activities. Moreover, the 210 Po/ 21- Pb activity ratio in air particulates was higher than that in all samples at both sites and varied between 3.85 in November 2000 at Tartous port site and 20 in April 2001 at the mine area. These activity ratios were also higher than the natural levels. The 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratio was also determined in each portion resulting from the selective extraction and found to be higher than that in most samples. The sources of 210 Po excess in these portions are discussed. Soil suspension, which is common in the dry climate dominant in the area, sea water spray and heating of phosphate ores were considered; polonium is more volatile than the lead compounds at even moderate temperature. Furthermore, variations in the chemical forms of 210 Po and 210 Pb during the year were also investigated. However, the results of this study can also be utilized for dose assessment to phosphate industry workers

  15. Variability of excretion rates of 210Pb and 210Po of humans at environmental levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, H.; Holtzman, R.B.; Ilcewicz, F.H.; Kramer, L.

    1977-01-01

    Variability of the excretion rates of the nuclides 210 Pb and 210 Po at natural levels was studied in a group of samples collected from men maintained under the carefully controlled conditions of a metabolic ward. They consumed only the standard diet of the ward in which they had been resident for at least several months prior to this study. The mean urinary rates were about 0.1 to 0.5 pCi/day for both 210 Pb and 210 Po, while fecal rates ranged from 1 to 2.7 pCi/day for the two nuclides. For urinary 210 Pb the coefficients of variation (ratio of standard deviation to mean) for three subjects ranged from 19 to 45 percent for eight continuous 24-hr samples compared to 11 to 13 percent for subsequently collected multiday samples (4 to 9 days each) for each subject. However, the standard errors of the means for the one day collections were about equal to the standard deviations of the pooled samples. Similar variability was noted for the 210 Po data. Six day fecal collections from these time periods exhibited higher variabilities than did the urine, from about 12 percent to 50 percent for each of the nuclides. Multiday collections for 12 subjects showed mean coefficients of variation of about 16 percent for 210 Pb and 13 percent for the 210 Po for urine and 21 and 25 percent, respectively, in fecal collections. Since dietary intake was maintained fairly constant, excreta collections were carefully controlled, and the analytical precision was about 5 percent, these variabilities appear to be due to biological variations and are characteristic of the individuals studied. Some possible causes of these effects are discussed

  16. Uptake and kinetics of 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in big sagebrush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    Root uptake of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po by mature sagebrush was studied using a soil injection method for spiking the soil with minimal root disturbance. The main objective was to measure vegetation concentrations and determine concentration ratios (CR's) due to root uptake as a function of time in mature big sagebrush. Concentration ratios obtained in mature vegetation and in steady-state situations may be valuable in assessing the impact of uranium mining and milling. The vegetation was sampled approximately every 3 months for a 2 year period. Significant levels of activity were detected in the vegetation beginning at the first sampling (81 days after soil injection for 226 Ra, 28 days for 210 Pb and 210 Po). There was an exponential decrease in concentration to an apparent steady-state value. Mean values (geometric) of the data pooled over the second year period indicated that the steady-state CR's for 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po, as determined in mature sagebrush, were 0.04, 0.009, and 0.08, respectively. A three compartment mathematical model was formulated to help understand mechanisms of plant uptake and to predict, if possible, the concentration of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in vegetation as a function of time after soil spiking. A numerical solution was determined by 'calibrating' the general model solution with constants determined from regressions of concentrations in vegetation, soil leaching and leaf leaching data. Validation of the model is currently not possible because of an absence of similar time-dependent uptake studies. 168 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs

  17. Bismuth oxide aqueous colloidal nanoparticles inhibit Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Delgadillo, Rene; Velasco-Arias, Donaji; Martinez-Sanmiguel, Juan Jose; Diaz, David; Zumeta-Dube, Inti; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Cabral-Romero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Multiresistance among microorganisms to common antimicrobials has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanomaterials are a new alternative to successfully treat the multiresistant microorganisms. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. Recently, it was demonstrated that the bactericidal activity of zero-valent bismuth colloidal nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans; however the antimycotic potential of bismuth nanostructured derivatives has not yet been studied. The main objective of this investigation was to analyze the fungicidal activity of bismuth oxide nanoparticles against Candida albicans, and their antibiofilm capabilities. Our results showed that aqueous colloidal bismuth oxide nanoparticles displayed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans growth (reducing colony size by 85%) and a complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are better than those obtained with chlorhexidine, nystatin, and terbinafine, the most effective oral antiseptic and commercial antifungal agents. In this work, we also compared the antimycotic activities of bulk bismuth oxide and bismuth nitrate, the precursor metallic salt. These results suggest that bismuth oxide colloidal nanoparticles could be a very interesting candidate as a fungicidal agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic. Additionally, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for the synthesized aqueous colloidal Bi2O3 nanoparticles. PMID:23637533

  18. Nano-scaled top-down of bismuth chalcogenides based on electrochemical lithium intercalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jikun; Zhu Yingjie; Chen Nuofu; Liu Xinling; Sun Zhengliang; Huang Zhenghong; Kang Feiyu; Gao Qiuming; Jiang Jun; Chen Lidong

    2011-01-01

    A two-step method has been used to fabricate nano-particles of layer-structured bismuth chalcogenide compounds, including Bi 2 Te 3 , Bi 2 Se 3 , and Bi 2 Se 0.3 Te 2.7 , through a nano-scaled top-down route. In the first step, lithium (Li) atoms are intercalated between the van der Waals bonded quintuple layers of bismuth chalcogenide compounds by controllable electrochemical process inside self-designed lithium ion batteries. And in the second step, the Li intercalated bismuth chalcogenides are subsequently exposed to ethanol, in which process the intercalated Li atoms would explode like atom-scaled bombs to exfoliate original microscaled powder into nano-scaled particles with size around 10 nm. The influence of lithium intercalation speed and amount to three types of bismuth chalcogenide compounds are compared and the optimized intercalation conditions are explored. As to maintain the phase purity of the final nano-particle product, the intercalation lithium amount should be well controlled in Se contained bismuth chalcogenide compounds. Besides, compared with binary bismuth chalcogenide compound, lower lithium intercalation speed should be applied in ternary bismuth chalcogenide compound.

  19. Bismuth-Induced Inactivation of Ferric Uptake Regulator from Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojun; Liao, Xiangwen; Li, Hongyan; Xia, Wei; Sun, Hongzhe

    2017-12-18

    Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) of Helicobacter pylori is a global regulator that is important for bacterial colonization and survival within the gastric mucosa. H. pylori Fur (HpFur) is unique in its ability to regulate gene expression in both metal-bound (holo-Fur) and metal-free (apo-Fur) forms. Bismuth-based drugs are widely used for the treatment of H. pylori infection. However, the mechanism of action of bismuth drug was not fully understood. Recently, it has been reported that bismuth drugs could interfere with the bacterial ferric uptake pathway and inhibit bacterial growth, implying intrinsic correlation between bismuth drug and bacterial iron metabolism. Herein, we demonstrate that Bi(III) binds to HpFur protein specifically at the physiologically important S1 site, which further leads to protein oligomerization and loss of DNA binding capability. The targeting of HpFur by bismuth drugs significantly reduced transcription levels of its regulated genes, which are crucial for bacterial physiology and metabolism. Our studies present direct evidence that perturbation of iron metabolism in H. pylori by bismuth might serve as one of the mechanisms for the antimicrobial activity of bismuth drugs.

  20. Hair and feathers as indicator of internal contamination of 210Po and 210Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Roos, P.; Henricsson, F.

    2010-03-01

    The activities of the NKS-B HAIRPOL project is summarised in this report. The objective was to investigate if hair and feathers were suitable matrices for the estimation of the intake of 210 Po. Human hair from people of different sex and age was analysed for 210 Po showing concentrations between 0.4 to 11 Bq/kg dry weight. Samples from horses, mane, fur and tail showed concentration from 6 to 17 Bq/kg with no significant difference between the different sample types. Musk ox from Greenland showed much higher concentrations since the animal has to graze a large surface. In fur the concentration was 260 Bq/kg. A considerable fraction of the total 210 Po in this animal is contained in the hair. Also different organs were analysed and the highest concentration was found in kidney, 2 700 Bq/kg. The 210 Pb concentration in hair was estimated to about 20 Bq/kg. Three different seabirds from Svalbard were analysed. Feathers from all three seabird species show increasing activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb from the base to the tip of the feather, but it was difficult to relate feather concentrations to muscle concentrations due to a number of complicating factors. (author)

  1. Hair and feathers as indicator of internal contamination of 210Po and 210Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. (ed.); Gwynn, J.; Zaborska, A.; Gaefvert, T. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Roos, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Henricsson, F. (Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    The activities of the NKS-B HAIRPOL project is summarised in this report. The objective was to investigate if hair and feathers were suitable matrices for the estimation of the intake of 210Po. Human hair from people of different sex and age was analysed for 210Po showing concentrations between 0.4 to 11 Bq/kg dry weight. Samples from horses, mane, fur and tail showed concentration from 6 to 17 Bq/kg with no significant difference between the different sample types. Musk ox from Greenland showed much higher concentrations since the animal has to graze a large surface. In fur the concentration was 260 Bq/kg. A considerable fraction of the total 210Po in this animal is contained in the hair. Also different organs were analysed and the highest concentration was found in kidney, 2 700 Bq/kg. The 210Pb concentration in hair was estimated to about 20 Bq/kg. Three different seabirds from Svalbard were analysed. Feathers from all three seabird species show increasing activity concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb from the base to the tip of the feather, but it was difficult to relate feather concentrations to muscle concentrations due to a number of complicating factors. (author)

  2. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in marine organisms: allometric relationships and their significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, R.D.; Heyraud, M.

    1991-01-01

    Allometric relationships which indicate that Po-210 concentrations in marine organisms decrease with increasing organism mass have been reported previously in a few taxa. We report here the results of a study of nearly 400 data covering nine taxa of marine organisms. The data for each taxon are fitted to the allometric equation log Q = log a + b log M, where Q is the Po-210 concentration (mBq/g dry mass) and M is the dry mass per individual (g). The weighted mean of the nine Po-210 slopes is -0.24 ± 0.05, and of the eight Pb-210 slopes is -0.22 ± 0.05. These values are close to the slope of -0.25 frequently found in mass-specific allometric relationships in biology; an association between radionuclide concentration and food ingestion rate is indicated. The intertaxon variations in the intercept log a are large, nearly two orders of magnitude for Po-210, a fact which almost certainly reflects intertaxon differences in diet and/or assimilation. Within taxa, sub-groupings of the Po-210 data are found; these are discussed and an attempt is made to classify them statistically for the data as a whole. (Author)

  3. {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in lichen and reindeer in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, Lavrans [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 55, NO-1332 Osteras (Norway)]. E-mail: lavrans.skuterud@nrpa.no; Gwynn, Justin P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 55, NO-1332 Osteras (Norway); Gaare, Eldar [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Tungasletta 2, NO-7485 Trondheim (Norway); Steinnes, Eiliv [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Hove, Knut [Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, NO-1432 As (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in lichen and reindeer were studied in central (Ostre Namdal) and southern Norway (Vaga) during 2000-2003. The study focussed on potential differences in concentrations of these nuclides in reindeer of different ages. Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in bones of {approx}10 year old adult females were about 40% higher than those in calves' antlers ({sup 90}Sr concentrations in antlers and bones of calves are similar), while the available data from Vaga suggest that {sup 90}Sr concentrations in reindeer calves decreased with an effective ecological half-time of 9.03 {+-} 0.06 years during 1988-2002. Furthermore, {sup 90}Sr concentrations were 50-80% higher in bone of reindeer of a similar age from Vaga compared to those from Ostre Namdal. Concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in muscle and liver tissues were comparable to those reported for reindeer in other Nordic areas, with no significant difference in {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb concentrations between adults and calves or between reindeer from the two different study areas.

  4. Variability of excretion rates of 210Pb and 210Po of humans at environmental levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzman, R.B.; Spencer, H.; Ilcewicz, F.H.; Kramer, L.

    1976-01-01

    Variability of the excretion rates of the nuclides 210 Pb and 210 Po at natural levels was studied in a group of samples collected from men maintained under the carefully controlled conditions of a metabolic ward. They consumed only the standard diet of the ward in which they had been resident for at least several months prior to this study. The mean urinary rates were about 0.1 to 0.5 pCi/day for both 210 Pb and 210 Pc, while fecal rates ranged from 1 to 2.7 pCi/day for the two nuclides. Six-day fecal collections exhibited higher variabilities than did the urine, from about 12% to 50% for each of the nuclides. Multi-day collections for 12 subjects showed mean coefficients of variation of about 16% for 210 Pb and 13% for the 210 Po for urine and 21 and 25%, respectively, in fecal collections. These variabilities appear to be due to biological variations and are characteristic of the individuals studied

  5. 210Po and 210Pb concentration of cigarettes traded in Hungary and their estimated dose contribution due to smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Tibor; Somlai, Janos; Nagy, Katalin; Szeiler, Gabor

    2007-01-01

    It is known that tobacco leaves may contain 210 Pb and 210 Po in significant concentrations. The cumulative alpha-radiation dose due to the radioactive content of inhaled cigarette smoke and the increasing number of lung cancer cases explain the importance of the investigation. The present study investigated the activity concentrations of these two radionuclides in 29 Hungarian cigarette samples. The relation between 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity and nicotine/tar content of these cigarettes was also examined. 210 Po was determined by alpha spectrometry using a PIPS detector after chemical leaching and spontaneous deposition of 210 Po on a high nickel-content (25%) stainless steel disk. The 210 Pb activity was calculated from the 210 Po originated from the decay of 210 Pb after a waiting period of eight months. The 210 Po activity concentrations of the measured types of cigarettes ranged from 10.0 to 33.5 mBq/cigarette, and the activity of 210 Pb varied from 9.6 to 32.5 mBq/cigarette. The average annual committed effective dose is estimated to be 185.6±70.6μSv/y and 58.7±22.7μSv/y due to cigarette smoking (20 cigarettes/day) for 210 Po and 210 Pb, respectively

  6. Study of the redox properties of bismuth-molybdate and uranium-antimonate catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz-Pujalt, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    The oxidation/reduction properties of various bismuth molybdates, molybdenum trioxide, bismuth oxide, uranium antimonate, and iron antimonate have been studied in an effort to correlate them to their catalytic properties. The temperature at which γ-phase bismuth molybdate is prereduced plays an important role in the behavior the catalyst exhibits under reoxidation conditions. The overall behavior of γ-phase bismuth molybdate under catalytic conditions may be divided into two temperature regimes: below 360 0 C the catalyst shows a higher rate of propylene adsorption than product desorption, and above 360 0 C where produced desorption is dominant. This temperature is the same at which the Arrhenius plot for the reaction has a break. Several reduction of γ-bismuth molybdate results in the formation of clusters of bismuth metal and crystallites of molybdenum dioxide. This is irreversible. The reoxidation of the bismuth molybdate catalysts shows the presence of two oxygen incorporation temperatures. The ratios of the areas under these peaks are not the same for the three catalysts. Uranium antimonate shows a lesser degree of lattice oxygen participation. During several reduction the catalyst decomposes partially and an excess of antimony is evident. The isothermal reduction profiles of the catalysts permitted their classification into either of two reduction models: (A) α-, β-, γ-phase bismuth molybdates, molybdenum trioxide, bismuth oxide, and the equimolar mixture follow the nucleation model, (B) uranium antimonate, and iron antimonate following the shrinking sphere model. These models have been correlated to certain characteristics of these catalysts. Group A catalysts show a high degree of lattice oxygen participation (migration of bulk oxygen to surface nuclei). In contrast in group B catalysts only a few layers of oxygen are peeled off during catalysis

  7. Layered bismuth oxyhalide nanomaterials for highly efficient tumor photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Shi, Zhenzhi; Zhang, Ling'e.; Brown, Eric Michael Bratsolias; Wu, Aiguo

    2016-06-01

    Layered bismuth oxyhalide nanomaterials have received much more interest as promising photocatalysts because of their unique layered structures and high photocatalytic performance, which can be used as potential inorganic photosensitizers in tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT). In recent years, photocatalytic materials have been widely used in PDT and photothermal therapy (PTT) as inorganic photosensitizers. This investigation focuses on applying layered bismuth oxyhalide nanomaterials toward cancer PDT, an application that has never been reported so far. The results of our study indicate that the efficiency of UV-triggered PDT was highest when using BiOCl nanoplates followed by BiOCl nanosheets, and then TiO2. Of particular interest is the fact that layered BiOCl nanomaterials showed excellent PDT effects under low nanomaterial dose (20 μg mL-1) and low UV dose (2.2 mW cm-2 for 10 min) conditions, while TiO2 showed almost no therapeutic effect under the same parameters. BiOCl nanoplates and nanosheets have shown excellent performance and an extensive range of applications in PDT.

  8. Phase transition of solid bismuth under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Yan; Xiang, Shi-Kai; Yan, Xiao-Zhen; Zheng, Li-Rong; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Sheng-Gang; Bi, Yan

    2016-10-01

    As a widely used pressure calibrator, the structural phase transitions of bismuth from phase I, to phase II, to phase III, and then to phase V with increasing pressure at 300 K have been widely confirmed. However, there are different structural versions for phase III, most of which are determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) technology. Using x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements combined with ab initio calculations, we show that the proposed incommensurate composite structure of bismuth of the three configurations is the best option. An abnormal continuous increase of the nearest-neighbor distance of phase III with elevated pressure is also observed. The electronic structure transformation from semimetal to metal is responsible for the complex behavior of structure transformation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 10904133, 11304294, 11274281, 11404006, and U1230201), the Development Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant Nos. 2015B0101004, 2013B0401062, and 2012A0101001), the Research Foundation of the Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation, China (Grant No. 9140C670201140C67282).

  9. Magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin bismuth iron garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, Elena; Franco Galeano, Andres Felipe; Deb, Marwan; Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte; Kachkachi, Hamid; Gendron, François; Ott, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Ultrathin bismuth iron garnet Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films were grown epitaxially on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. Film thickness varied from two to three dozens of unit cells. Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films grow pseudomorphically on substrates up to a thickness of 20 nm, and then a lattice relaxation occurs. Magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of bismuth iron garnet thickness. The magnetization and cubic anisotropy decrease with decreasing film thickness. The uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy is constant for all film thicknesses. For two unit cell thick films, the easy magnetization axis changes from in-plane to perpendicular to the plane direction. Such a reorientation takes place as a result of the competition of constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy with weakening film magnetization. - Highlights: ► Ultrathin Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films were grown epitaxially on structure-matching substrates. ► Magnetic properties of Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 were studied down to the thickness of 2.5 nm. ► Reorientation of easy magnetization axis as a function of film thickness was observed

  10. Magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin bismuth iron garnet films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, Elena, E-mail: popova@physique.uvsq.fr [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS/Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Franco Galeano, Andres Felipe [Laboratoire PROcédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), CNRS/Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Deb, Marwan [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS/Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [Centre d' Elaboration de Matériaux et d' Etudes Structurales (CEMES), CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (TALEM), CEMES-INA, CNRS–Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Kachkachi, Hamid [Laboratoire PROcédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), CNRS/Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Gendron, François [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris (INSP), CNRS/Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, Boîte courrier 840, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ott, Frédéric [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin (LLB), CNRS/CEA, Bâtiment 563, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2013-06-15

    Ultrathin bismuth iron garnet Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were grown epitaxially on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. Film thickness varied from two to three dozens of unit cells. Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films grow pseudomorphically on substrates up to a thickness of 20 nm, and then a lattice relaxation occurs. Magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of bismuth iron garnet thickness. The magnetization and cubic anisotropy decrease with decreasing film thickness. The uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy is constant for all film thicknesses. For two unit cell thick films, the easy magnetization axis changes from in-plane to perpendicular to the plane direction. Such a reorientation takes place as a result of the competition of constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy with weakening film magnetization. - Highlights: ► Ultrathin Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were grown epitaxially on structure-matching substrates. ► Magnetic properties of Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} were studied down to the thickness of 2.5 nm. ► Reorientation of easy magnetization axis as a function of film thickness was observed.

  11. Superconductivity in Bismuth. A New Look at an Old Problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaahel Mata-Pinzón

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between atomic topology, vibrational and electronic properties and superconductivity of bismuth, a 216-atom amorphous structure (a-Bi216 was computer-generated using our undermelt-quench approach. Its pair distribution function compares well with experiment. The calculated electronic and vibrational densities of states (eDOS and vDOS, respectively show that the amorphous eDOS is about 4 times the crystalline at the Fermi energy, whereas for the vDOS the energy range of the amorphous is roughly the same as the crystalline but the shapes are quite different. A simple BCS estimate of the possible crystalline superconducting transition temperature gives an upper limit of 1.3 mK. The e-ph coupling is more preponderant in a-Bi than in crystalline bismuth (x-Bi as indicated by the λ obtained via McMillan's formula, λc = 0.24 and experiment λa = 2.46. Therefore with respect to x-Bi, superconductivity in a-Bi is enhanced by the higher values of λ and of eDOS at the Fermi energy.

  12. Angle Dependence of the Orbital Magnetoresistance in Bismuth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Collaudin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an extensive study of angle-dependent transverse magnetoresistance in bismuth, with a magnetic field perpendicular to the applied electric current and rotating in three distinct crystallographic planes. The observed angular oscillations are confronted with the expectations of semiclassic transport theory for a multivalley system with anisotropic mobility and the agreement allows us to quantify the components of the mobility tensor for both electrons and holes. A quadratic temperature dependence is resolved. As Hartman argued long ago, this indicates that inelastic resistivity in bismuth is dominated by carrier-carrier scattering. At low temperature and high magnetic field, the threefold symmetry of the lattice is suddenly lost. Specifically, a 2π/3 rotation of magnetic field around the trigonal axis modifies the amplitude of the magnetoresistance below a field-dependent temperature. By following the evolution of this anomaly as a function of temperature and magnetic field, we map the boundary in the (field, temperature plane separating two electronic states. In the less symmetric state, confined to low temperature and high magnetic field, the three Dirac valleys cease to be rotationally invariant. We discuss the possible origins of this spontaneous valley polarization, including a valley-nematic scenario.

  13. Electrodeposition of bismuth alloys by the controlled potential method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Alvarez, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    We worked with the electrodeposition of three bismuth alloys, the composition of the first electrolyte was: 0.3 g/l. Bi; 20 g/l. Ni; and the conditions were pH = 5.2 - 5.6; T = 25 Centigrade degrees; current density 0.3 A / dm 2 - 6.6 A / dm 2 . Following alloy was between Bi - Pb, composition of the electrolyte was 3.18 g/l. Bi (metallic); 31.81 g/l. Pb (Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ) pH : 1; T = 20 Centigrade degrees; current density 10.20 A/dm 2 . The third electrolyte was Bi-Cu, its composition was: 20.89 g/l. Bi; (metallic) 63.54 g/l Cu (Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ) pH : 1.5 - 1.8; T = 25-30 Centigrade degrees; current density 1-2 A/dm 2 . The best results were obtained with the third electrolyte. The purpose of this work was to experiment with different parameters like temperature, pH and the electrolyte concentration to obtain a bismuth alloy. (Author)

  14. Photoconductivity in Transition Metal Doped Bismuth Germanium Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, Nolan M.; McCullough, J. S.; Martin, J. J.

    1999-10-01

    Bismuth germanium oxide (BGO) is a photorefractive material that has potential for a number of applications. We are investigating the possibility of tailoring it for specific uses by doping with 3d-ions. . Anti-site bismuth is a native defect in melt-grown BGO. This amphoteric defect dominates the photo-response of undoped BGO and plays a role in transition metal doped samples. The majority of the 3d-ions go into the tetrahedrally bonded Ge-site; thus, Cr would be expected to be in a 4+ state. Instead, it gives up an electron to the anti-site Bi and is in a 5+ state. Strongly persistent photorefractive gratings are observed in BGO:Cr. Photoconductivity measurements were performed on undoped BGO, BGO:V, and BGO:Cr before and after the samples were exposed to 442 nm light. The photoconductivity response roughly matched the optical absorption spectra of the samples. The exposed samples showed additional photo-induced absorption bands and much stronger photocurrents in the same spectral regions. The exposure to blue light appears to convert Cr from the 5+ state to the 4+state.

  15. Bismuth nanoparticles-carbon nanotubes modified sensor for sulfasalazine analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigović, Biljana; Jurić, Sandra; Mitrović, Iva

    2017-03-01

    Nanocomposite of bismuth nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes in Nafion matrix was used as modifier for glassy carbon electrode in analysis of anti-inflamatory drug sulfasalazine. The nanocomposite surface exhibited exceptional synergy and remarkable enhancement effect to the voltammetric response of drug. The surface morphology and structure characterization of the modified electrodes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The sensor exhibited excellent electroanalytical performance for drug determination in comparison with bismuth film electrode. The adsorptive stripping square-wave voltammetric signal showed a good linear correlation to sulfasalazine concentration in a broad range from 5.0×10 -8 to 1.0×10 -5 M with low detection limit of 1.3×10 -8 M.The method was successfully utilised for drug quantification in human serum samples and good recoveries were obtained without interference from endogenous substances, 5-aminosalycilic acid and sulfapyridine formed after biotransformation of drug and folic acid co-administered as the supplement during sulfasalazine therapy. Additionally, the proposed sensor was successfully applied to analysis of sulfasalazine content in gastro-resistant pharmaceutical dosage forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Collective excitations and low temperature transport properties of bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudzinski, Piotr; Giamarchi, Thierry [DPMC-MaNEP, University of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    We examine the influence of collective excitations on several transport coefficients (conductivity, magneto-optical conductivity, Nernst effect) for semimetal, bismuth. A longstanding problem of the transport coefficients in this material is the fact that their amplitude and temperature dependences do not obey naive Fermi liquid expectations. For the conductivity, we show that at high temperatures Baber scattering is able to explain quantitatively the DC resistivity experiments, while at low temperatures many-body effects need to be introduced to explain qualitative deviations from the standard T{sup 2} behavior. An atypical feature in magneto-optical conductivity is predicted. The Nernst effect in bismuth was recently the subject of several contradictory theoretical studies. We show that a plasmon physics allows to get a coherent picture and leads to very large values of the Nernst signal. We use two complementary methods- Feynmann diagrams and field theory (Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation). These methods, which go beyond the standard RPA study, allow to set a limit to the validity of our model and to make contact with the other family of semimetals, 1T-TiSe{sub 2}, also subject of recent experimental interest. To complete the discussion of semimetals, we also study the case of graphite.

  17. Genotoxic effects of bismuth (III oxide nanoparticles by comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reecep Liman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth oxide is one of the important transition metal oxides and it has been intensively studied due to their peculiar characteristics (semiconductor band gap, high refractive index, high dielectric permittivity, high oxygen conductivity, resistivity, photoconductivity and photoluminescence etc.. Therefore, it is used such as microelectronics, sensor technology, optical coatings, transparent ceramic glass manufacturing, nanoenergetic gas generator, biosensor for DNA hybridization, potential immobilizing platforms for glucose oxidase and polyphenol oxidase, fuel cells, a additive in paints, an astringent in a variety of medical creams and topical ointments, and for the determination of heavy metal ions in drinking water, mineral water and urine. In addition this, Bismuth (III oxide nanoparticles (BONPs are favorable for the biomolecules adsorption than regular sized particles because of their greater advantages and novel characteristics (much higher specific surface, greater surface free energy, and good electrochemical stability etc.. Genotoxic effects of BONPs were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of BONPs at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm for 4 h. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of BONPs except 12.5 ppm by Comet assay. The results were also analyzed statistically by using SPSS for Windows; Duncan’s multiple range test was performed. These result indicate that BONPs exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  18. Nonproportionality in the scintillation light yield of bismuth germanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Bales, M. J.; Breuer, H.; Chupp, T. E.; Coakley, K. J.; Cooper, R. L.; Nico, J. S.; O`Neill, B.

    2015-06-01

    We present measurements of nonproportionality in the scintillation light yield of bismuth germanate (BGO) for gamma-rays with energies between 6 keV and 662 keV. The scintillation light was read out by avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with both the BGO crystals and APDs operated at a temperature of ≈ 90 K. Data were obtained using radioisotope sources to illuminate both a single BGO crystal in a small test cryostat and a 12-element detector in a neutron radiative beta-decay experiment. In addition one datum was obtained in a 4.6 T magnetic field based on the bismuth K x-ray escape peak produced by a continuum of background gamma rays in this apparatus. These measurements and comparison to prior results were motivated by an experiment to study the radiative decay mode of the free neutron. The combination of data taken under different conditions yields a reasonably consistent picture for BGO nonproportionality that should be useful for researchers employing BGO detectors at low gamma ray energies.

  19. Bismuth Silver Oxysulfide for Photoconversion Applications: Structural and Optoelectronic Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Baqais, Amal Ali Abdulallh

    2017-09-18

    Single-phase bismuth silver oxysulfide, BiAgOS, was prepared by a hydrothermal method. Its structural, morphological and optoelectronic properties were investigated and compared with bismuth copper oxysulfide (BiCuOS). Rietveld refinement of the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements revealed that the BiAgOS and BiCuOS crystals have the same structure as ZrSiCuAs: the tetragonal space group P4/nmm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses confirmed that the BiAgOS has a high purity, in contrast with BiCuOS, which tends to have Cu vacancies. The Ag has a monovalent oxidation state, whereas Cu is present in the oxidation states of +1 and +2 in the BiCuOS system. Combined with experimental measurements, density functional theory calculations employing the range-separated hybrid HSE06 exchange-correlation functional with spin-orbit coupling quantitatively elucidated photophysical properties such as ab-sorption coefficients, effective masses and dielectric constants. BiCuOS and BiAgOS were found to have indirect bandgaps of 1.1 and 1.5 eV, respectively. Both possess high dielectric constants and low electron and hole effective masses. Therefore, these materials are expected to have high exciton dissociation capabilities and excellent carrier diffusion properties. This study reveals that BiAgOS is a promising candidate for photoconversion applications.

  20. Superconductivity in Bismuth. A New Look at an Old Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between atomic topology, vibrational and electronic properties and superconductivity of bismuth, a 216-atom amorphous structure (a-Bi216) was computer-generated using our undermelt-quench approach. Its pair distribution function compares well with experiment. The calculated electronic and vibrational densities of states (eDOS and vDOS, respectively) show that the amorphous eDOS is about 4 times the crystalline at the Fermi energy, whereas for the vDOS the energy range of the amorphous is roughly the same as the crystalline but the shapes are quite different. A simple BCS estimate of the possible crystalline superconducting transition temperature gives an upper limit of 1.3 mK. The e-ph coupling is more preponderant in a-Bi than in crystalline bismuth (x-Bi) as indicated by the λ obtained via McMillan’s formula, λc = 0.24 and experiment λa = 2.46. Therefore with respect to x-Bi, superconductivity in a-Bi is enhanced by the higher values of λ and of eDOS at the Fermi energy. PMID:26815431

  1. Helicobacter pylori second-line rescue therapy with levofloxacin- and bismuth-containing quadruple therapy, after failure of standard triple or non-bismuth quadruple treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, J P; Romano, M; Gravina, A G; Solís-Muñoz, P; Bermejo, F; Molina-Infante, J; Castro-Fernández, M; Ortuño, J; Lucendo, A J; Herranz, M; Modolell, I; Del Castillo, F; Gómez, J; Barrio, J; Velayos, B; Gómez, B; Domínguez, J L; Miranda, A; Martorano, M; Algaba, A; Pabón, M; Angueira, T; Fernández-Salazar, L; Federico, A; Marín, A C; McNicholl, A G

    2015-04-01

    The most commonly used second-line Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens are bismuth-containing quadruple therapy and levofloxacin-containing triple therapy, both offering suboptimal results. Combining bismuth and levofloxacin may enhance the efficacy of rescue eradication regimens. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a second-line quadruple regimen containing levofloxacin and bismuth in patients whose previous H. pylori eradication treatment failed. This was a prospective multicenter study including patients in whom a standard triple therapy (PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin) or a non-bismuth quadruple therapy (PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin-metronidazole, either sequential or concomitant) had failed. Esomeprazole (40 mg b.d.), amoxicillin (1 g b.d.), levofloxacin (500 mg o.d.) and bismuth (240 mg b.d.) was prescribed for 14 days. Eradication was confirmed by (13) C-urea breath test. Compliance was determined through questioning and recovery of empty medication envelopes. Incidence of adverse effects was evaluated by questionnaires. 200 patients were included consecutively (mean age 47 years, 67% women, 13% ulcer). Previous failed therapy included: standard clarithromycin triple therapy (131 patients), sequential (32) and concomitant (37). A total of 96% took all medications correctly. Per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication rates were 91.1% (95%CI = 87-95%) and 90% (95%CI = 86-94%). Cure rates were similar regardless of previous (failed) treatment or country of origin. Adverse effects were reported in 46% of patients, most commonly nausea (17%) and diarrhoea (16%); 3% were intense but none was serious. Fourteen-day bismuth- and levofloxacin-containing quadruple therapy is an effective (≥90% cure rate), simple and safe second-line strategy in patients whose previous standard triple or non-bismuth quadruple (sequential or concomitant) therapies have failed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Solar Water Splitting and Nitrogen Fixation with Layered Bismuth Oxyhalides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Hao; Zhan, Guangming; Zhang, Lizhi

    2017-01-17

    Hydrogen and ammonia are the chemical molecules that are vital to Earth's energy, environmental, and biological processes. Hydrogen with renewable, carbon-free, and high combustion-enthalpy hallmarks lays the foundation of next-generation energy source, while ammonia furnishes the building blocks of fertilizers and proteins to sustain the lives of plants and organisms. Such merits fascinate worldwide scientists in developing viable strategies to produce hydrogen and ammonia. Currently, at the forefronts of hydrogen and ammonia syntheses are solar water splitting and nitrogen fixation, because they go beyond the high temperature and pressure requirements of methane stream reforming and Haber-Bosch reaction, respectively, as the commercialized hydrogen and ammonia production routes, and inherit the natural photosynthesis virtues that are green and sustainable and operate at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The key to propelling such photochemical reactions lies in searching photocatalysts that enable water splitting into hydrogen and nitrogen fixation to make ammonia efficiently. Although the past 40 years have witnessed significant breakthroughs using the most widely studied TiO 2 , SrTiO 3 , (Ga 1-x Zn x )(N 1-x O x ), CdS, and g-C 3 N 4 for solar chemical synthesis, two crucial yet still unsolved issues challenge their further progress toward robust solar water splitting and nitrogen fixation, including the inefficient steering of electron transportation from the bulk to the surface and the difficulty of activating the N≡N triple bond of N 2 . This Account details our endeavors that leverage layered bismuth oxyhalides as photocatalysts for efficient solar water splitting and nitrogen fixation, with a focus on addressing the above two problems. We first demonstrate that the layered structures of bismuth oxyhalides can stimulate an internal electric field (IEF) that is capable of efficiently separating electrons and holes after their formation and of

  3. Separation of 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po by ion exchange and their Iiquid scintillation standardization; Separacion del 210Pb, 210Bi y 2I0Po mediante columna de cambio ionico y su calibracion por centelleo liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.; Jimenez, A.; Grau, A.

    1996-07-01

    We applied the CIEMAT/NIST method and alpha/beta discrimination to ''210Pb samples in equilibrium with its daughters, by preparing homogeneous and gel samples. The stability of samples was tested in different available cocktails, HiSafe''TM II, HiSafe''TM III, Ultima-Gold''TM, Ultima-Gold''TM XR, Ultima-Gold''TM AB, Insta-Gel''R and e Insta-Gel''R lI. Also we analyzed the disequilibrium of the radioactive chain 210Pb+210Bi+210Po, achieving an excellent agreement between the results of the spectrum unfolding method and the experimental values. (Author) 13 refs.

  4. A placebo controlled trial of bismuth salicylate in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, J I; Jafarey, N A; Alam, S M; Zuberi, S J; Kazi, A M; Qureshi, H; Ahmed, W

    1990-07-01

    In a placebo controlled prospective clinical trial of bismuth salicylate in helicobacter pylori associated gastritis, 52 adult patients were randomly allocated to treatment with bismuth salicylate or placebo. Helicobacter pylori were totally cleared in 77% patients in bismuth group but none in placebo group (P less than 0.001). Resolution of gastritis (P less than 0.001) and improvement of symptoms (P less than 0.01) were significantly better in patients where H. pylori infection cleared as compared to patients where the infection persisted.

  5. Antimony(V) and Bismuth(V) Complexes of Lapachol: Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Cytotoxic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia Demicheli; Carlos A. de Simone; Frédéric Frézard; Eufrânio N. da Silva Júnior; Cláudio L. Donnici; Elene C. Pereira-Maia; Ludmila G. de Oliveira; Meiriane M. Silva; Flávia C. S. de Paula

    2011-01-01

    Antimony(V) and bismuth(V) complexes of lapachol have been synthesized by the reaction of Ph3SbCl2 or Ph3BiCl2 with lapachol (Lp) and characterized by several physicochemical techniques such as IR, and NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The compounds contain six-coordinated antimony and bismuth atoms. The antimony(V) complex is a monomeric derivative, (Lp)(Ph3Sb)OH, and the bismuth(V) complex is a dinuclear compound bridged by an oxygen atom, (Lp)2(Ph3Bi)2O. Both compounds inhibited ...

  6. Complexometric consequent titration of bismuth-titanium mixtures in the μg-region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1975-01-01

    A quantitative method is described for the determination of microquantities of bismuth and titanium. Both metals are determined complexometrically with EDTA and potentiometric equivalence point indication using a Cu-ion sensitive electrode in a consequent titration. The analysis is conducted as back-titration with standard Cu-solution. The relative error of the determination is 0.8% for bismuth (50-100 μg) and for titanium (10-30 μg) at 1.0%. Under the chosen conditions, it is possible to determine as little as 15 μg bismuth and 5 μg titanium by means of this procedure. (author)

  7. Topological Insulator State in Thin Bismuth Films Subjected to Plane Tensile Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, E. V.; Grabov, V. M.; Komarov, V. A.; Kablukova, N. S.; Krushel'nitskii, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    The results of experimental examination of galvanomagnetic properties of thin bismuth films subjected to plane tensile strain resulting from the difference in thermal expansion coefficients of the substrate material and bismuth are presented. The resistivity, the magnetoresistance, and the Hall coefficient were studied at temperatures ranging from 5 to 300 K in magnetic fields as strong as 0.65 T. Carrier densities were calculated. A considerable increase in carrier density in films thinner than 30 nm was observed. This suggests that surface states are more prominent in thin bismuth films on mica substrates, while the films themselves may exhibit the properties of a topological insulator.

  8. Microwave-induced Bismuth Salts-mediated Synthesis of Molecules of Medicinal Interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasish; Chavez, Ashlee; Banik, Bimal K

    2017-01-01

    Bismuth salts-mediated reactions have become a powerful tool for the synthesis of diverse medicinally-significant compounds because of their low-toxicity (non-toxic) and Lewis acidic capacity. In fact, LD50 of bismuth nitrate is lower than table salt. On the other hand, microwave-induced chemical synthesis is considered as a major greener route in modern chemistry. A total of 139 publications (including a few authentic web links) have been reviewed mainly to discuss bismuth salts-induced electrophilic aromatic substitution, protection-deprotection chemistry of carbonyl compounds, enamination, oxidation, carbohydrate chemistry, hydrolysis, addition-elimination route, Paal-Knorr reaction, Clauson-kaas synthesis, Michael addition, aza-Michael addition, Hantzsch reaction, Biginelli reaction, Ferrier rearrangement, Pechmann condensation, Diels-Alder and aza-Diels- Alder reactions, as well as effects of microwave irradiation in a wide range of chemical transformations. Bismuth salts-mediated reactions are developed for the synthesis of diverse organic molecules of medicinal significance. Reactions conducted with bismuth salts are environmentally benign, economical, rapid and high yielding. Microwave irradiation has accelerated these reactions significantly. It is believed that bismuth salts released corresponding acids in the media during the reaction. However, a coordination of bismuth salt to the electronegative atom is also observed in the NMR study. Bismuth has much less control (less attractive forces) over anions (for example, halides, nitrate, sulfate and triflates) compared to alkali metals. Therefore, it forms weak bond with electronegative atoms more readily and facilitates the reactions significantly. Many products obtained via bismuth salts-mediated reactions are medicinally active or intermediate for the synthesis of biologically active molecules including antifungal, anti-parasitic, anticancer and antibacterial agents, as well as agents to prevent

  9. 7 CFR 3565.210 - Maximum interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum interest rate. 3565.210 Section 3565.210... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.210 Maximum interest rate. The interest rate for a guaranteed loan must not exceed the maximum allowable rate specified by the Agency in...

  10. 22 CFR 1203.735-210 - Gambling, betting, and lotteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gambling, betting, and lotteries. 1203.735-210 Section 1203.735-210 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AGENCY EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Ethical and Other Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 1203.735-210 Gambling...

  11. 22 CFR 210.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 210.635 Section 210.635 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the...

  12. 46 CFR 28.210 - First aid equipment and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid equipment and training. 28.210 Section 28.210....210 First aid equipment and training. (a) Each vessel must have on board a complete first aid manual... location. (b) First aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) course certification. Certification in...

  13. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus...

  14. 7 CFR 210.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 210.1 Section 210.1... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM General § 210.1 General purpose and scope. (a) Purpose of the program. Section 2 of the National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751), states: “It...

  15. 10 CFR 1015.210 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 1015.210 Section 1015.210... for the Administrative Collection of Claims § 1015.210 Liquidation of collateral. (a) DOE may liquidate security or collateral through the exercise of a power of sale in the security instrument or a...

  16. 13 CFR 107.210 - Minimum capital requirements for Licensees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital requirements for Licensees. 107.210 Section 107.210 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.210 Minimum capital...

  17. 20 CFR 210.2 - Definition of service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RAILROAD SERVICE § 210.2 Definition of service. Service means a period of time for which an employee receives payment from a railroad employer for the performance of work; or a period of time for which an... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of service. 210.2 Section 210.2...

  18. 46 CFR 197.210 - Designation of diving supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of diving supervisor. 197.210 Section 197.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations General § 197.210 Designation of diving...

  19. The 210Pb technique for dating sediments, and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakins, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of 210 Pb for dating sediment in time scale 100-150 years is described. Various methods of determination of 210 Pb concentration are reviewed and the problem of the initial 210 Pb concentration using two models for interpretation of data is discussed. (author)

  20. Estimation of sedimentation rates using 210Pb and 210Po at the coastal water of Sabah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tee Lee Theng

    2003-01-01

    Sediment cores were obtained from Teluk Brunei, Sipitang, Teluk Kimanis, Kota Kinabalu and Kuala Penyu at the coastal water of Sabah and analyzed for 210 Pb and 210 Po to estimate the sedimentation rates. The calculated sedimentation rates of 210 Pb and 210 Po varied from 0.003 to 0.049 cm/y and 0.74 to 8.77 cm/y, respectively. The highest sedimentation rates were determined for 210 Pb and 210 Po at stations located at Sipitang (mean: 0.027 cm/y) and Teluk Kimanis (mean: 5.53 cm/y), respectively. The sedimentation rate estimated for 210 Pb is not fully reliable because the activity of 226 Ra was higher than that of 210 Pb and bioturbation was active at the sampling stations. (author)

  1. Assessment of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in marine biota of the Mallipattinam ecosystem of Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriyanarayanan, S. [Center for Water and Health, JSS University, SS Nagara, Mysore 570 015, Karnataka (India); Brahmanandhan, G.M., E-mail: brahma_king@yahoo.co [Nagasaki University Radioisotope Research Center, Radio Isotope Center, 1-12-4, Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Samivel, K. [Environmental Research Lab, P.G. Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College, Tiruchirappalli-620 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Ravikumar, S. [Faculty of Biotechnology, PRIST University, Thanjavur 613 403, Tamil Nadu (India); Hameed, P. Shahul [Environment Research Center, JJ College of Engineering and Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 009, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-11-15

    To provide baseline data on background radiation levels for the future assessment of the impact of nuclear and thermal power stations, a systematic study was carried out in the Mallipattinam ecosystem of Tamil Nadu, India. Mallipattinam is located between the Kudankulam and Kalpakkam nuclear power plants and near to Tuticorin thermal power plant. Water, sediments, seaweeds, crustaceans, molluscs, and fish were collected to measure the concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb. The concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in most samples are comparable to values reported worldwide. In fish, the concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb are in the range 16-190 Bq kg{sup -1} and 8-153 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The concentration factors of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb for the biotic components ranges from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 6}.

  2. Simple isolation of polonium-210 from silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azure, M.T.; Howell, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Over the last several years considerable concern has been expressed regarding the potential detrimental effects of radon and radon progeny on our health. The complex nature of the radon decay scheme, which involves the emission of a variety of radiations including several α particles, β particles, and γ-rays, does not lend itself to clear delineation of the biological effects of the α particles alone. Polonium-210, the terminal radionuclide of the radon decay series, is useful for this purpose because it has a relatively long shelf-life (τ 1/2 = 138 d), and it only emits a single 5.3 MeV α particle in its decay to stable 206 Pb. Accordingly, it has been used extensively in radiobiological studies with incorporated radionuclides. The radionuclide 210 Po is produced in a reactor from 209 Bi. (Author)

  3. 210Pb dating of Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports on the results of 210 Pb measurement in sediment cores from the Baltic Sea. The models used for the interpretation are derived and discussed. In general, the sedimentation parameters calculated with different models are consistent. However, parameters of cores independently taken on same partly show clearly differing values. The reasons of this observation have to be analysed by further studies. An essential problem considered in this paper is the dating of disturbed sediments. The use of such cores for the reconstruction of the input history of chemical indicators requires a deconvolution of data. The response function necessary for this procedure can be derived from 210 Pb measurements. The results of such a reconstruction considerably differ from those obtained by conventional dating models. The analysis of the measuring uncertainty of the indicator (e.g. lead) in the deconvolution procedure unveals the limits of the method and prevents it from overinterpretation. (orig.) [de

  4. Separation and electrodeposited of 210 Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez R, E.; Iturbe G, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    Presently work it was determined the selective separation of the 210 Po that is in an uraniferous mineral, by means of acid leaching of the mineral and the purification was carried out by means of partition chromatography whose stationary phase is 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D 2 EHPA), it has been possible to isolate the 210 Po of the rest of the radioactive elements that conform the family 4 N +2 , the optimal elutriation conditions of this element were settled down of manner of not dragging other radioelements. Another of the achievements presented in this communication has been the electrodeposition of this element has more than enough stainless steel discs with a superior yield to 95%. (Author)

  5. Distribution and enrichment of 210Po and 210Pb in the environment of Mangalore, South West coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, V.; Rajashekara, K.M.; Narayana, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the distribution and enrichment of 210 Po and 210 Pb in soil samples of Mangalore South west coast of India. The soil samples collected from the region were analyzed for 210 Po and 210 Pb activity using radiochemical analytical techniques to understand the distribution and enrichment of those radionuclides. The 210 Po activity in soil in the environment of Mangalore varies from 1.5 Bq kg -1 to 26.9 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 12.6 Bq kg -1 and that of 210 Pb varies in the range 7.6 Bq kg -1 to 67.5 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 38.9 Bq kg -1 . The mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio observed was 0.3 and it shows that the radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb are not in equilibrium and the accumulation of 210 Pb in soil is more compared to 210 Po. A good correlation exists between the activities of 210 Po and 210 Pb with correlation coefficient r = 0.7. The absorbed gamma dose in the environment of the region varies from 39.4 nGy h -1 to 78.8 nGy h -1 with a mean value of 48.2 nGy h -1 . The results of the systematic studies on the distribution and enrichment of 210 Po and 210 Pb and the absorbed gamma dose rate in air are presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. Distribution of 210Pb and 210Po concentrations in wild berries and mushrooms in boreal forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Solatie, Dina; Aro, Lasse

    2009-01-01

    The activity concentrations and distribution of 210 Pb and 210 Po in wild berries and edible mushrooms were investigated in Finnish forests. The main study areas were located in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in southern and northern Finland. The activity concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) samples decreased in the order: stems > leaves > berries (i.e. fruits). The activity ratios of 210 Po/ 210 Pb in the wild berry samples were mainly higher than one, indicating elevated activity concentrations of polonium in the samples. In mushrooms the activity concentrations of 210 Pb and especially 210 Po were higher than in fruits of the wild berries. The highest activity concentration of 210 Pb was detected in Cortinarius armillatus L. (16.2 Bq kg -1 d.w.) and the lowest in Leccinum vulpinum L. (1.38 Bq kg -1 d.w.). The 210 Po activity concentrations of the whole fruiting bodies ranged from 7.14 Bq kg -1 d.w. (Russula paludosa L.) to 1174 Bq kg -1 d.w. (L. vulpinum L.). In general, the highest activity concentrations of 210 Po were recorded in boletes. The caps of mushrooms of the Boletaceae family showed higher activity concentrations of 210 Po compared to the stipes. In most of the mushrooms analyzed, the activity concentrations of 210 Po were higher than those of 210 Pb. 210 Po and 210 Pb dominate the radiation doses received via ingestion of wild berries and mushrooms in northern Finland, while in southern Finland the ingested dose is dominated by 137 Cs from the Chernobyl fallout.

  7. Distribution of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po concentrations in wild berries and mushrooms in boreal forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa, E-mail: Kaisa.Vaaramaa@Helsinki.fi [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Solatie, Dina [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Regional Laboratory in Northern Finland, FI-96500 Rovaniemi (Finland); Aro, Lasse [Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA), Parkano Research Unit, FI-39700 Parkano (Finland)

    2009-12-15

    The activity concentrations and distribution of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in wild berries and edible mushrooms were investigated in Finnish forests. The main study areas were located in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in southern and northern Finland. The activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) samples decreased in the order: stems > leaves > berries (i.e. fruits). The activity ratios of {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb in the wild berry samples were mainly higher than one, indicating elevated activity concentrations of polonium in the samples. In mushrooms the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and especially {sup 210}Po were higher than in fruits of the wild berries. The highest activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb was detected in Cortinarius armillatus L. (16.2 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w.) and the lowest in Leccinum vulpinum L. (1.38 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w.). The {sup 210}Po activity concentrations of the whole fruiting bodies ranged from 7.14 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w. (Russula paludosa L.) to 1174 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w. (L. vulpinum L.). In general, the highest activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po were recorded in boletes. The caps of mushrooms of the Boletaceae family showed higher activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po compared to the stipes. In most of the mushrooms analyzed, the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po were higher than those of {sup 210}Pb. {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb dominate the radiation doses received via ingestion of wild berries and mushrooms in northern Finland, while in southern Finland the ingested dose is dominated by {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl fallout.

  8. The Litvinenko 210polonium case. German experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, Emily Alice

    2009-01-01

    The high scientific standards of the BfS were necessary in order to characterize and evaluate the low activities of 210 Po found during the deployment in Hamburg. The evaluation of the measurements enabled the BfS to offer effective radiation protection advice and to assist the police investigation. The majority of the 210 Po traces were found in places that had been in skin contact with Kovtun, leading to the conclusion that Kovtun had most probably incorporated 210 Po before his visit to Hamburg in October 2006. As yet, no formal charges have been brought by the German authorities against Kovtun and the costs of the operation remain under discussion. Strategies to improve the internal and external deployment communication of the ZUB are being developed and implemented to deal with both the real and the perceived threats that occur during such an incident. Open communication from the onset of a deployment is essential, both between the institutions involved and between deployment leaders and the press. This will save precious time and resources, lower anxiety in the public and emergency workers and could, in a culture of trust where radiation protection advice is listened to and followed, ultimately save lives. (orig.)

  9. 210Pb content in phytocoenoses with cranberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushanskene-Duzh, R.F.; Butkus, V.F.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to study 210 Pb concentration levels in different biotopes of cranberry growing (Oxycoccus palustris Pers.), to determine concentration distribution of this radionuclide over the organs of this plant and to reveal the effect of ecological conditions on concentration levels. Material is collected in southern Lithua in five biotopes in the form of certain belts of plant communities: reed brushwood (mesotrophic place of groWth), lake mire (mesotrophic place of growing), grassy-forest belt (oligotropic bog), forest belt (low slope of the upper ologotrophic bog), head mire (central part of oligotrophic bog). It is stated that levels and distribution of 210 Pb concentration in cranberry organs growing in oligotrophic and mesotrophic biotopes are approximately equal. Its largest part is concentrated in roots, then come shoots with leaves and only negligible part falls on fruits. Direct correlation exists between 210 Pb concentration in roots and shoots with leaves, and back correlation exists between shoots with leaves and fruits

  10. Fluxes of 234Th, 210Po and 210Pb determined by sediment trap experiments in pelagic oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Koh; Tsunogai, Shizuo

    1986-01-01

    Sediment trap experiments were carried out in two oceans, the eastern Pacific Ocean and the Antarctic Ocean, which have very different biological productivities. The natural radionuclides, 234 Th, 210 Po and 210 Pb were used as tracers of reactive metals. Larger particulate fluxes of these radionuclides were found in the seas where total mass fluxes were larger, although the concentrations of these radionuclides in the settling particles were somewhat smaller. The concentrations of 234 Th in the settling particles varied widely and irregularly with depth, whereas the concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the settling particles steadily increased with increasing water depth. The ratios of 210 Po/ 210 Pb in the settling particulates were larger than unity which the ratio of 234 Th/excess 210 Po as larger than 234 Th/ 210 Po in the deep water. These results suggest that, when the particles sink through the water column, these radionuclides are being absorbed by settling particles in the order 234 Th > 210 Po > 210 Pb. The observed particulate fluxes of 210 Pb are about one eighth of those calculated from the disequilibria between 226 Ra and 210 Pb at the stations in the subtropical eastern Pacific, although the observed fluxes are the same as the calculated ones in the northern North Pacific and the Antarctic Ocean. Thus, there must be a horizontal flow carrying these reactive metals from the oligotorophic ocean to the biologically productive ocean where the metals are removed by settling particles even in deep water. (author)

  11. An assessment of 210Pb and 210Po in terrestrial foodstuffs from regions of England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, P.; Jackson, D.; Leonard, D.R.P.; McKay, K.

    1999-01-01

    Based on data for nationally available foodstuffs, naturally occurring 210 Pb and 210 Po contribute significantly to the UK radiation dose from dietary intake. To provide a more complete overview of radiological implications to the public, samples of offal, cereal, fruit, root and green vegetables were collected from 11 sites, including regions of potential 210 Pb and 210 Po enhancement. Considerable variability was evident in levels of 210 Pb and 210 Po from all sites and in all food types investigated. Higher concentrations were typically found in offal and cereals. Lowest concentrations were generally found in root vegetables. Between sites, the only evidence of elevated concentrations of 210 Po occurred at Helston ( 210 Po 3.0 Bq kg -1 in bovine liver, no other offal sample exceeding 0.8 Bq kg -1 ), and Holyhead 210 Po 0.4 Bq kg -1 in blackberries, no other fruit sample exceeding 0.1 Bq kg -1 ). Other foodstuffs from these sites did not show similar enhanced levels of 210 Po. The maximum dose arising from consumption of 210 Pb and 210 Po in foods surveyed in this study is estimated to be around 120 μSv year -1 to adults. This compares with an estimated UK average consumption dose from all nuclides and foodstuffs of 300 μSv year -1 (broad range 100-1000 μSv year -1 ). (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Improved analytical procedure for the determination of 210Pb and 210Po using alpha-spectrometric isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urnezis, P.W.; Holtzman, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    An isotope dilution method has been incorporated into the 210 Pb- 210 Po analysis. A known amount of 209 Po is added to the sample before analysis. Then both 209 Po and 210 Po are deposited on a silver planchet which is assayed in an alpha spectrometer to determine the activities of each isotope. The recoveries generally range from 70% to 90%

  13. Distribution of lead, Pb 210 in Kuala Muda sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zaharudin Ahmad; Yii Mei Wo; Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar; Norfaizal Mohamed; Kamarozaman Ishak; Zulkifli Daud

    2008-08-01

    Activity of lead-210, Pb 210 concentration and their distributions in the core sediment from coastal area of Kuala Muda, Kedah was carried out using alpha spectrometry system. The sampling of core sediment for this study was carried out in stages from June 2007 - Nov 2007 as part of Post-Tsunami Environment Impact Assessment Project. The results show that the distribution of lead-210 activity, Pb 210 in core sediment is not consistent and the profiles show no discernable trend. This fluctuation is due to high sedimentation rates and sample disturbance. Compared to previous measurement of nearby area, current results show some increase of Pb 210 activity. (Author)

  14. Theoretical Investigation of Bismuth-Based Semiconductors for Photocatalytic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Laradhi, Shaikhah

    2017-11-01

    Converting solar energy to clean fuel has gained remarkable attention as an emerged renewable energy resource but optimum efficiency in photocatalytic applications has not yet been reached. One of the dominant factors is designing efficient photocatalytic semiconductors. The research reveals a theoretical investigation of optoelectronic properties of bismuth-based metal oxide and oxysulfide semiconductors using highly accurate first-principles quantum method based on density functional theory along with the range-separated hybrid HSE06 exchange-correlation functional. First, bismuth titanate compounds including Bi12TiO20, Bi4Ti3O12, and Bi2Ti2O7 were studied in a combined experimental and theoretical approach to prove its photocatalytic activity under UV light. They have unique bismuth layered structure, tunable electronic properties, high dielectric constant and low electron and effective masses in one crystallographic direction allowing for good charge separation and carrier diffusion properties. The accuracy of the investigation was determined by the good agreement between experimental and theoretical values. Next, BiVO4 with the highest efficiency for oxygen evolution was investigated. A discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical bandgap was reported and inspired a systematic study of all intrinsic defects of the material and the corresponding effect on the optical and transport properties. A candidate defective structure was proposed for an efficient photocatalytic performance. To overcome the carrier transport limitation, a mild hydrogen treatment was also introduced. Carrier lifetime was enhanced due to a significant reduction of trap-assisted recombination, either via passivation of deep trap states or reduction of trap state density. Finally, an accurate theoretical approach to design a new family of semiconductors with enhanced optoelectronic properties for water splitting was proposed. We simulated the solid solutions Bi1−xRExCuOS (RE = Y, La

  15. Dissolved 210Po and 210Pb in Guarani aquifer groundwater, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, D.M.; Caprioglio, L.; Bueno, T.O.; Lazarindo, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The huge Guarani aquifer located in the South American continent is a very important resource for the region, and its drinking water quality has been investigated according to international standards, inclusive radiological parameters. This paper describes 210 Po and 210 Pb activity concentration data in groundwater samples collected at the Brazilian portion of Guarani aquifer, that is characterized by a great variability of temperature (18-70 deg. C), pH (4.0-9.9), sodium content (0.3-322 mg/l), bicarbonate content (0.1-318 mg/l), etc. Non-expensive alpha counting following some radiochemical steps for extracting and depositing dissolved 210 Po was used. The results of the measurements for samples collected in duplicate yielded a maximum 210 Po activity concentration of 3.7 mBq/L and a maximum 210 Pb activity concentration of 6.7 mBq/l, that are values greatly lower than the guidance level of 0.1 Bq/l established by the WHO for their presence in drinking water. The high sensitivity of the method allowed its applicability on the identification of complexes geochemical and hydrogeological processes occurring in Guarani aquifer as well on the evaluation of the drinking water quality in terms of dose calculations.

  16. Dissolved {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in Guarani aquifer groundwater, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900 Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br; Caprioglio, L.; Bueno, T.O.; Lazarindo, J.R. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900 Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    The huge Guarani aquifer located in the South American continent is a very important resource for the region, and its drinking water quality has been investigated according to international standards, inclusive radiological parameters. This paper describes {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb activity concentration data in groundwater samples collected at the Brazilian portion of Guarani aquifer, that is characterized by a great variability of temperature (18-70 deg. C), pH (4.0-9.9), sodium content (0.3-322 mg/l), bicarbonate content (0.1-318 mg/l), etc. Non-expensive alpha counting following some radiochemical steps for extracting and depositing dissolved {sup 210}Po was used. The results of the measurements for samples collected in duplicate yielded a maximum {sup 210}Po activity concentration of 3.7 mBq/L and a maximum {sup 210}Pb activity concentration of 6.7 mBq/l, that are values greatly lower than the guidance level of 0.1 Bq/l established by the WHO for their presence in drinking water. The high sensitivity of the method allowed its applicability on the identification of complexes geochemical and hydrogeological processes occurring in Guarani aquifer as well on the evaluation of the drinking water quality in terms of dose calculations.

  17. An approach to analyzing synthesis, structure and properties of bismuth titanate ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The family of bismuth titanate, Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT layered-structured ferroelectrics materials is attractive from the viewpoint of their application as electronic materials such as dielectrics, piezoelectrics and pyroelectrics, because they are characterized by good stability of piezoelectric properties, a high Curie temperature and a good resistance vs temperature. Bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12 powders can be prepared using different methods, depending if the creation will be film coating or ceramics. The structure and properties of bismuth titanate materials show a significance dependence on the applied synthesis method. In this review paper, we made an attempt to give an approach to analyzing the structure, synthesis methods and properties of bismuth titanate ferroelectrics materials. .

  18. Amperometric Determination of Bismuth Using Gallacetophenone Phenylhydrazone with the Structural Elucidation of Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Venkataramana Reddy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallacetophenone phenylhydrazone (GPPH has been used as an analytical reagent for amperometric determination of bismuth. Bismuth is quantitatively determined by GPPH at pH 3.0-6.0. After studying the polarographic behaviour of GPPH and bismuth(III at dropping mercury electrode (DME, applied potential was fixed at -0.4v vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE. The method was applied for the determination of bismuth in wood’s alloy. The composition of the complex corresponds to the formula Bi(C14 H14 O3 N22. The structure of the complex was arrived from the micro analytical data of the solid complex, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis curves and also from the infrared spectra of the complex.

  19. Corrosion by liquid lead and lead-bismuth: experimental results review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinsuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Liquid metal technologies for liquid lead and lead-bismuth alloy are under wide investigation and development for advanced nuclear energy systems and waste transmutation systems. Material corrosion is one of the main issues studied a lot recently in the development of the liquid metal technology. This study reviews corrosion by liquid lead and lead bismuth, including the corrosion mechanisms, corrosion inhibitor and the formation of the protective oxide layer. The available experimental data are analyzed by using a corrosion model in which the oxidation and scale removal are coupled. Based on the model, long-term behaviors of steels in liquid lead and lead-bismuth are predictable. This report provides information for the selection of structural materials for typical nuclear reactor coolant systems when selecting liquid lead or lead bismuth as heat transfer media.

  20. Crystal structure of La2Mo2O9 single crystals doped with bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, O. A.; Verin, I. A.; Sorokina, N. I.; Krasil'nikova, A. E.; Voronkova, V. I.

    2010-01-01

    Precision X-ray diffraction studies of La 2-x Bi x Mo 2 O 9 (x = 0.04, 0.06, and 0.18) single crystals are performed. It is found that in the compounds doped with bismuth, analogously with the structure of the metastable β ms phase of pure La 2 Mo 2 O 9 (LM), the La, Mo1, and O1 atoms deviate from the threefold axis on which they are located in the high-temperature β phase. It is shown that bismuth atoms substitute for part of lanthanum atoms and occupy a position at the threefold axis in the neighborhood of the split lanthanum position. The implantation of bismuth atoms in the LM structure results in the return of a part of the molybdenum atoms to the position at the threefold axis. The occupancy of this position is equal to the occupancy of the bismuth atomic position.

  1. Bismuth ferrite as low-loss switchable material for plasmonic waveguide modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We propose new designs of plasmonic modulators, which can beused for dynamic signal switching in photonic integrated circuits. We studyperformance of a plasmonic waveguide modulator with bismuth ferrite as atunable material. The bismuth ferrite core is sandwiched between metalplates (metal......-insulator-metal configuration), which also serve as electrodes.The core changes its refractive index by means of partial in-plane to out-of-plane reorientation of ferroelectric domains in bismuth ferrite under appliedvoltage. As a result, guided modes change their propagation constant andabsorption coefficient, allowing light...... modulation in both phase andamplitude control schemes. Due to high field confinement between themetal layers, existence of mode cut-offs for certain values of the corethickness, and near-zero material losses in bismuth ferrite, efficientmodulation performance is achieved. For the phase control scheme...

  2. A comparison of core perturbation by coolant loss between sodium and lead-bismuth cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Nam; Kim, Jong Kyung; Park, Won Seok

    2003-01-01

    This study performs a comparative analysis of the core perturbation caused by coolant loss between sodium and lead-bismuth eutectic. Considering the Zr-based and the U-based fuel in a 1,000MWth class reactor for TRU incineration, we investigate which coolant shows better performance for negative coolant loss reactivity in each case of fuel type. The calculation results show that in the case of U-based fuel, sodium gives rise to more positive coolant loss reactivity than lead-bismuth. However, when the Zr-based (U-free) fuel is considered, sodium offers negative coolant loss reactivity, whereas lead-bismuth makes the coolant loss reactivity positive. It is recommended to employ sodium coolant for the fertile-free fueled core and lead-bismuth for the core with fertile nuclides

  3. Status and future application of pilot lead-bismuth target circuit TC-1 for ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, S.; Leonchuk, M.; Orlov, Y.; Pankratov, D.; Reshetnikova, O.; Suvorov, G.; Zabudko, A.; Stepanov, V.; Klimov, N.; Hechanova, A.; Ma, J.; Li, N.; Gudowski, W.

    2007-01-01

    A complicated evolution, status and future application of the pilot molten lead-bismuth target circuit of 1 MW proton beam power (TC-1) as an important part of a target-blanket accelerator driven system (ADS), that has been developed, created and twice tested under the auspice of the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC), is analyzed. The target complex TC-1 is a circulation lead-bismuth loop whose beam window is made of ferritic steel EP-823 (this steel was used in the past as material of fuel rods cladding in reactors cooled with lead-bismuth). At present TC-1 is operating at coolant temperature up to 300 C degrees and will be used to study different issues linked to the use of lead-bismuth: -) interaction with air, water and hydrogen, -) different regimes of flow, -) corrosion, -) filtering, or -) slag formation

  4. Temporal changes of 210Po in temperate coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildgust, M.A.; White, K.N.; McDonald, P.

    1998-01-01

    The temporal variation of Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) was examined in coastal sea water, the mussel Mytilus edulis, the winkle Littorina littorea and green algae Ulva lactuca in order to investigate the entry of 210 Po into the marine food chain. More than 99% of 210 Po in the water column occurred in the particulate phase. Dissolved 210 Po concentrations peaked during the spring phytoplankton bloom and it is suggested this is related to preferential scavenging of 210 Po by the increased numbers of bacteria, viruses and small dissolved particulates. Changes in L. Littorea 210 Po specific activity are thought not to be related to food, but to a drop in body weight following spawning. Much of the 210 Po accumulated by M. edulis was located in the digestive gland. The specific activity of 210 Po in the digestive gland of M. edulis was shown to be strongly correlated with changes in sea water suspended particulate specific activity. Examination of other trace metal (Ag, Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni Sb, Se, Sn and Zn) variations in the digestive gland revealed that class B and borderline metals had a strong positive correlation with 210 Po. On-going work is investigating whether the accumulation and loss of 210 Po is affected by the presence of metallothioneins

  5. Leaching of 210Po in human saliva from smokeless tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, U.F.; Bari, A.; Husain, L.; Husain, L.

    2009-01-01

    Use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) is associated with cancer of the oral cavity. 210 Po, a known carcinogen present in SLT may leach into the saliva when the snuff is held in the mouth. Alpha emission from leached 210 Po can cause oral tissue damage, especially in the presence of non healing ulcers seen frequently in snuff users' mouth. Leaching of 210 Po from SLT in human saliva was determined for six popular US snuff brands. 210 Po was leached into human saliva for 30 min, separated radiochemically and its activity was determined by α-counting. Approximately 2-10% of 210 Po present in SLT was observed to leach. Annual exposure from leached 210 Po, based on average daily consumption of 15 g of SLT, was calculated to range from 1.1 to 3.8 Bq year -1 . (author)

  6. Optical properties of thermally reduced bismuth-doped sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.H.; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Heat-treatment of multivalent ion containing glasses in a hydrogen atmosphere may cause both reduction of the multivalent ions and ionic inward diffusion, resulting in improved glass properties. Bismuth-doped glasses are also interesting objects not only concerning the reduction induced diffusion...... pressure of hydrogen. Here, we present results on the effect of the heat-treatment on the optical properties of bismuth-doped sodium aluminosilicate glasses....

  7. Study of bismuth minerals belonging to the mineralogical collection from the National Museum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, A.; Baptista, N.R.

    1991-09-01

    With the purpose of searching the presence of Tellurium minerals in the Ouro Preto-Mariana country, Minas Gerais State, and considering the existence of a great number of minerals in which this element come across allied with Bismuth, samples of the mineralogical collection of the Museu Nacional, proceeding that region and classified as Bismuth minerals were studied by X-ray fluorescence analysis and diffractometric analysis. In this report the results of this research are presented. (Author)

  8. Aluminium bismuthate nanorods and the electrochemical performance for detection of tartaric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, L.Z., E-mail: lzpei@ahut.edu.cn [Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Wei, T.; Lin, N.; Fan, C.G. [Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Yang, Zao, E-mail: yangzao888@tom.com [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Aluminium bismuthate nanorods had been synthesized by a facile hydrothemral method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed that the lengh and diameter were 2–10 μm and 50–200 nm, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) showed that the nanorods were composed of single crystalline orthorhombic Al{sub 4}Bi{sub 2}O{sub 9} phase. The aluminium bismuthate nanorods could be explained by the nucleation and crystalline growth process based on the products obtained from different hydrothermal conditions. Aluminium bismuthate nanorods modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was fabricated for the electrochemical detection of tartaric acid (TA) in neutral solution. A pair of semi-reversible redox peaks located at −0.08 V and −0.53 V, respectively were observed. The current intensity of the cyclic voltammogram (CV) peak increased linearly obviously with increasing the scan rate and TA concentration. The detection limit and linear range were 0.64 μM and 0.001–2 mM, respectively with the correlation coefficient of 0.995. The aluminium bismuthate nanorods modified GCE had good reproducibility and stability for the detection of TA. - Highlights: • Aluminium bismuthate nanorods were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process. • The size of aluminium bismuthate nanorods could be controlled by growth conditions. • Aluminium bismuthate nanorods showed good electrochemical performance for the detection of tartaric acid. • Aluminium bismuthate nanorods modified GCE had good reproducibility and stability.

  9. Microwave-assisted facile and rapid Friedel-Crafts benzoylation of arenes catalysed by bismuth trifluoromethanesulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phoung Hoang; Hansen, Poul Erik; Pham, Thuy Than

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic activity of metal triflates was investigated in Friedel–Crafts benzoylation under microwave irradiation. Friedel–Crafts benzoylation with benzoyl chloride of a variety of arenes containing electron-rich and electron-poor rings using bismuth triflate under microwave irradiation is de...... is described. This method allows the preparation of aryl ketones under solventless conditions in good to excellent yields and short reaction time. Bismuth triflate was easily recovered and reused five times without significant loss of the catalytic activity....

  10. About thermo-electric properties of bismuth telluride doped by gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akperov, M.M.; Ismailov, Sh.S.; Shukyurova, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Results of study of the Gd impurities effect on the bismuth telluride thermo-electric properties are presented. The experiment was carried out within the temperature range T=300-700 K. It is determined, that at temperature increase the energy level is appreciably closing up to bismuth telluride forbidden zone which makes up 0.16-0.24 eV. Such anomalous energy properties of gadolinium in telluride affect on material thermoelectric properties

  11. An acclerator-based installation of small power with the lead-bismuth coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshkov, V.T.; Yefimov, E.I.; Novikova, N.N. [Research and Development Bereau, Podolsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The structure of the accelerator-based installation is described that includes the subcritical reactor-blanket with power 15 MW(h) cooled with lead-bismuth, the lead-bismuth flow target where a beam of {alpha}-particle is injected, the equipment of a primary and secondary curcuits. Some results of calculations and estimations are discussed that have been carried out to justify the target and blanket constructions. Some main characteristics of the installation are presented.

  12. A double-blind gastroscopic study of a Bismuth-peptide complex in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Healing was judged gastroscopically after 4 weeks, at which time 79% of ulcers had healed on BCP and 35% on placebo (Pbismuth-protein complex, active at a pH of less than 4. A protective 'protein-bismuth complex' layer is said to be formed over the ulcer. S. Afr. Med.

  13. Evaluation of the usefulness of bismuth shields in PET/CT examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoon Hee; Lyu, Kwang Yeul; Lee, Ju Young; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Kung, Sik Nam; Lee, Tae Soo

    2014-01-01

    Recently with CT developed, various studies for reduction of exposure dose is underway. Study of bismuth shields in these studies is actively underway, and has already been applied in the clinical. However, the application of the PET/CT examination was not activated. Therefore, through this study, depending on the application of bismuth shields in the PET/CT examination, we identify the quality of the image and the impact on the Standard Uptake Value (SUV). In this study, to apply to the shielding of the breast, by using the bismuth shields that contains 0.06 mm Pb ingredients, was applied to the PET/CT GEMINI TF 64 (Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, USA). Phantom experiments using the NEMA IEC Body Phantom, images were acquired according to the presence or absence of bismuth shields apply. Also, When applying, images were obtained by varying the spacing 0, 1, 2 cm each image set to the interest range in the depth of the phantom by using EBW-NM ver.1.0. When image of the PET Emission acquires, the SUV was in increased depending on the use of bismuth shields, difference in the depth to the surface from deep in the phantom increasingly SUV increased (P<0.005). Also, when using shields, as the more gab decreased, SUV is more increased (P<0.005). Through this study, PET/CT examination by using of bismuth shields which is used as purpose of reduction dose. When using shields, the difference of SUV resulting from the application of bismuth shields exist and that difference when gab is decrease and surface is wider. Therefore, setting spacing of shield should be considered, if considering the reduction of the variation of SUV and image quality, disease of deep organs should be a priority rather than superficial organ disease. Use of bismuth shielding factor considering the standard clinical examination, decrease unnecessary exposure can be expected to be considered

  14. Sediment Vertical Profile of 210Po, 210Pb and Its Activity Ratio in Surrounding Sungai Linggi Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Mei-Woo, Yii; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to observe the variation in the distribution of 210 Po, 210 Pb and 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratio through their vertical profile of the sediment cores taken at surrounding Sungai Linggi estuary. Five sediment cores were taken in February 2011 and were cut to interval of 2 cm layer. Activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb were determined using alpha radiochemical analysis and gamma direct measurement, respectively. Generally, the measured activity of 210 Po, 210 Pb and 210 Po/ 210 Pb were in the ranges of 22.73 - 139.06 Bqkg -1 dw., 37.88 - 176.24 Bqkg -1 dw. and 0.23 - 1.34, respectively. It was found that the distribution profile of those radionuclide in the sediment cores varied depending on sampling location and One-way ANOVA analysis proved that there has significant difference at 95 % confidence level for activities of 210 Po (p=0.000), 210 Pb (p = 0.000) and 210 Po/ 210 Pb (p = 0.000) at all study locations. The variation in the distribution profile for the radionuclides are believed to be influenced by human activities such as agriculture, fertilizer, vehicles, burned fuel fossil and forest, industrial and others via river input from land-base. Other factor is due to organic matter content played important role as geochemical carrier to transport those radionuclides at study area. It was proved that has strong correlation between the radionuclide distribution and the sediment composition of organic matter. Furthermore, in those ranges reflected that 210 Pb activities were higher than 210 Po with an activity ratio average of 0.79. This is probably due to dramatic increase of excess 210 Pb supplied from atmospheric deposition, in situ decay of 226 Ra and as a result of diagenetic remobilization of 210 Pb in deeper layer of the sediment column. Thus, those factors are major contributions on the variation of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the sediment core at surrounding Sungai Linggi estuary. (author)

  15. Bismuth Sodium Titanate Based Materials for Piezoelectric Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Klaus; Feteira, Antonio; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The ban of lead in many electronic products and the expectation that, sooner or later, this ban will include the currently exempt piezoelectric ceramics based on Lead-Zirconate-Titanate has motivated many research groups to look for lead-free substitutes. After a short overview on different classes of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with large strain, this review will focus on Bismuth-Sodium-Titanate and its solid solutions. These compounds exhibit extraordinarily high strain, due to a field induced phase transition, which makes them attractive for actuator applications. The structural features of these materials and the origin of the field-induced strain will be revised. Technologies for texturing, which increases the useable strain, will be introduced. Finally, the features that are relevant for the application of these materials in a multilayer design will be summarized. PMID:28793724

  16. Bismuth Sodium Titanate Based Materials for Piezoelectric Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Reichmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ban of lead in many electronic products and the expectation that, sooner or later, this ban will include the currently exempt piezoelectric ceramics based on Lead-Zirconate-Titanate has motivated many research groups to look for lead-free substitutes. After a short overview on different classes of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with large strain, this review will focus on Bismuth-Sodium-Titanate and its solid solutions. These compounds exhibit extraordinarily high strain, due to a field induced phase transition, which makes them attractive for actuator applications. The structural features of these materials and the origin of the field-induced strain will be revised. Technologies for texturing, which increases the useable strain, will be introduced. Finally, the features that are relevant for the application of these materials in a multilayer design will be summarized.

  17. Bismuth Sodium Titanate Based Materials for Piezoelectric Actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Klaus; Feteira, Antonio; Li, Ming

    2015-12-04

    The ban of lead in many electronic products and the expectation that, sooner or later, this ban will include the currently exempt piezoelectric ceramics based on Lead-Zirconate-Titanate has motivated many research groups to look for lead-free substitutes. After a short overview on different classes of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with large strain, this review will focus on Bismuth-Sodium-Titanate and its solid solutions. These compounds exhibit extraordinarily high strain, due to a field induced phase transition, which makes them attractive for actuator applications. The structural features of these materials and the origin of the field-induced strain will be revised. Technologies for texturing, which increases the useable strain, will be introduced. Finally, the features that are relevant for the application of these materials in a multilayer design will be summarized.

  18. Single event upset immunity of strontium bismuth tantalate ferroelectric memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetto, J.M.; Derbenwick, G.F.; Cuchiaro, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    An embedded 1Kbit non-volatile (NV) serial memory manufactured with strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) ferroelectric (FE) technology was shown to be immune to effects of heavy ion irradiation. The memories did not lose any data in the non-volatile mode when exposed to xenon (maximum effective LET of 128 MeV-cm 2 /mg and a total fluence of 1.5 x 10 7 ions/cm 2 ). The ferroelectric memories also did not exhibit any loss in the ability to rewrite new data into the memory bits, indicating that no significant degradation of the FE dipoles occurred as a result of the heavy ion exposure. The fast read/write times of FE memories also means that single event gate rupture is unlikely to occur in this technology

  19. Study of irradiation defects in bismuth by electric transport measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, M.

    1984-01-01

    Pure monocrystalline bismuth is irradiated near 4K by electrons of different energies. Irradiation effects are measured by galvanomagnetic properties at low temperature. Frenkel pairs created during irradiation have a strong effect on carrier mobilities. The data are quantitatively analyzed assuming a rigid band model. After irradiation with 1 MeV electrons, each Frankel pair created corresponds to a total charge of 0.14 electrons. This result obtained by magnetoresistance and Hall effect is confirmed by Shubnikov-de Haas experiments. There is a linear variation between the excess carrier density (p-n) and the Frenkel pair concentration. The more important step of annealing is observed around 40-50 K. This step is attributed to interstitial migration. Resistivity presents a minimum at low temperature after irradiation with electrons of energy over 1.3 MeV. This is explained by virtual bound levels near the Fermi level. The Kondo effect bound to magnetic defects is discussed [fr

  20. A novel synthesis of perovskite bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Z. Simões

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Microwave assisted hydrothermal (MAH method was used to synthesize crystalline bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3 nanoparticles (BFO at temperature of 180°C with times ranging from 5 min to 1 h. For comparison, BFO powders were also crystallized by the soft chemistry route in a conventional furnace at a temperature of 850°C for 4 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD results verified the formation of perovskite BFO crystallites while infrared data showed no traces of carbonate. Field emission scanning microcopy (FE/SEM revealed a homogeneous size distribution of nanometric BFO powders. MAH method produced nanoparticles of 96% pure perovskite, with a size of 130 nm. These results are in agreement with Raman scattering values which show that the MAH synthesis route is rapid and cost effective. This method could be used as an alternative to other chemical methods in order to obtain BFO nanoparticles.

  1. Spark plasma sintering of hydrothermally synthesized bismuth ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Branković

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth ferrite, BiFeO3 (BFO, powder was synthesized by hydrothermal method from Bi(NO33·5 H2O and Fe(NO33·9 H2O as precursors. The synthesized powder was further sintered using spark plasma sintering (SPS. The sintering conditions were optimized in order to achieve high density, minimal amount of secondary phases and improved ferroelectric and magnetic properties. The optimal structure and properties were achieved after spark plasma sintering at 630 °C for 20 min, under uniaxial pressure of 90 MPa. The composition, microstructure, ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the SPS samples were characterized and compared to those of conventionally sintered ceramics obtained from the same powder. Although the samples sintered using conventional method showed slightly lower amount of secondary phases, the spark plasma sintered samples exhibited favourable microstructure and better ferroelectric properties.

  2. High ionic conductivity in confined bismuth oxide-based heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth trioxide in the cubic fluorite phase (δ-Bi2O3 exhibits the highest oxygen ionic conductivity. In this study, we were able to stabilize the pure δ-Bi2O3 at low temperature with no addition of stabilizer but only by engineering the interface, using highly coherent heterostructures made of alternative layers of δ-Bi2O3 and Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ, deposited by pulsed laser deposition. The resulting [δ-Bi2O3/YSZ] heterostructures are found to be stable over a wide temperature range (500-750 °C and exhibits stable high ionic conductivity over a long time comparable to the value of the pure δ-Bi2O3, which is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the conductivity of YSZ bulk.

  3. Characterization of Bismuth Germanate Detectors for Reaction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carls, A.; Kozub, R. L.; Chipps, K. A.; Pain, S. D.; Hertz-Kintish, D.; Thompson, P.; Waddell, D.

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear reactions utilizing radioactive ion beams emit particles and electromagnetic radiation that can provide useful information about reaction mechanisms, nuclear structure, and nuclear astrophysics. Owing to their high density and high Z, Bismuth Germanate (BGO) detectors are used in γ-ray decay studies where high efficiency is required. An array of such detectors will be used for future γ-ray studies with the new gas jet target JENSA (Jet Experiments in Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics), and the properties of each detector must be well known to better understand the data collected with them. Using the γ-ray sources 137Cs and 60Co along with background radiation, several BGO detectors were characterized by measuring their resolutions and efficiencies as functions of distance between source and detector. A detailed description of the procedure and results will be presented. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.

  4. High ionic conductivity in confined bismuth oxide-based heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanna, Simone; Esposito, Vincenzo; Christensen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth trioxide in the cubic fluorite phase (δ-Bi2O3) exhibits the highest oxygen ionic conductivity. In this study, we were able to stabilize the pure -Bi2O3 at low temperature with no addition of stabilizer but only by engineering the interface, using highly coherent heterostructures made...... of alternative layers of δ-Bi2O3 and Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), deposited by pulsed laser deposition. The resulting [δ-Bi2O3=YSZ] heterostructures are found to be stable over a wide temperature range (500-750 °C) and exhibits stable high ionic conductivity over a long time comparable to the value...... of the pure δ-Bi2O3, which is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the conductivity of YSZ bulk....

  5. Radiopacity and histological assessment of Portland cement plus bismuth oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho-Filho, Tauby; De-Deus, Gustavo; Klein, Leila; Manera, Gisele; Peixoto, Carla; Gurgel-Filho, Eduardo Diogo

    2008-12-01

    The present study evaluated the subcutaneous connective tissue reactions and the radiopacity of MTA, Portland cement (PC), and Portland cement plus bismuth oxide (BO). Forty rats were divided into 5 groups (n = 8 per group): A1: Control (empty capsule); A2: Pro-Root MTA; A3: PC; A4: PC + BO 1:1; and A5: PC + BO 2:1. Polyethylene tubes were filled with the test materials and standardized radiographic images were taken. Histological evaluation was done after 7 and 60 days. Student t test and Fisher's test were used in the statistical analysis (P A4 > A5 > A3. No differences were found for the tissue response in the 2 experimental periods. A positive correlation between BO concentration and radiopacity of PC was determined. The histological evaluation suggests that all studied materials were biocompatible at 7 and 60 days.

  6. {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po as tracers of particle transport mechanisms on continental margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radakovitch, O.; Heussner, S. [Perpignan Univ., 66 (France). Lab. de Sedimentologie et Geochimie Marines; Biscaye, P.; Abassi, A. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory

    1997-12-31

    The natural radionuclides {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, members of the {sup 238}U decay chain, are particularly helpful to the understanding of particle transport processes in the ocean. These isotopes were analysed on sediment trap particles collected during 3 one-year experiments on continental margins. In the Bay of Biscay (Northeastern Atlantic) and in the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) both as part of the French ECOMARGE programme, and in the Middle Atlantic Bight (Northwestern Atlantic) as part of the SEEP programme. They yielded great insights into scenarios of particle transfer at each site, mainly based on the spatial and temporal distribution of {sup 210}Pb particulate concentrations and fluxes. (author) 11 refs.

  7. Viability of Bismuth as a Green Substitute for Lead in Jacketed .357 Magnum Revolver Bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Joel

    In seeking to develop environmentally friendly lead-free non-toxic bullets, the research ballistically evaluated the performance of copper-jacketed handgun bullets containing a pure bismuth core. The lead was first removed from 140 grain Hornady(TM) XTPRTM bullets of 38 caliber (.357 diameter) by melting. The empty jackets were then refilled with pure bismuth, including the forming of a correctly sized hollow-point cavity. Due to the lower density of bismuth as compared to lead, the bismuth-cored bullets consistently weighed 125 gains. Conveniently this allowed direct comparison to commercially available 125 grain Hornady(TM) XTPRTM lead-cored bullets of 38 caliber. Both bismuth-cored and lead-cored versions of the 125 grain bullets had identical nose dimensions and jacket material, the only dimensional difference being the bullet length below the cannelure. Shooting took place at an outdoor range using a 357 Magnum Ruger(TM) SP101RTM revolver with 3" barrel as the test weapon. FBI protocols were followed when firing through clothing, wallboard, plywood, steel plates and laminated glass. Wound paths and bullets were captured in ballistic gelatin, with data collected for velocity, penetration, expansion, and weight retention. Bismuth compared favorably with lead in all but the laminated glass test, where it under penetrated due to jacket separation.

  8. Evaluation of the strength and radiopacity of Portland cement with varying additions of bismuth oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, E; Abbassi-Ghadi, S; Vowles, R; Camilleri, J; Hooper, S; Camilleri, J

    2009-04-01

    To study the effect of addition of various proportions of bismuth oxide on compressive strength and radiopacity of Portland cement. The compressive strength of white Portland cement and cement replaced with 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% bismuth oxide was evaluated by testing cylinders 6 mm in diameter and 12 mm high. Twelve cylinders were tested for each material under study. The radiopacity of the cements tested was evaluated using an aluminium step-wedge and densitometer. The optical density was compared with the relevant thickness of aluminium (Al). Statistical analysis was performed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with P = 0.05 and Tukey test to perform multiple comparison tests. Various additions of bismuth oxide had no significant effect on the strength of the material when compared with the unmodified Portland cement (P > 0.05). The radiopacity of the cements tested ranged from 2.02 mm Al for Portland cement to 9.79 mm Al for the highest bismuth replacement. Addition of bismuth oxide did not affect the compressive strength of Portland cement. All the bismuth oxide cement mixtures had radio-opacities higher than 3 mm thickness of aluminium.

  9. Simultaneous solution-based generation and characterization of crystalline bismuth thin film by femtosecond laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Liangdong; Keszler, Douglas A.; Fang, Chong, E-mail: Chong.Fang@oregonstate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, 153 Gilbert Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-4003 (United States); Department of Physics, Oregon State University, 301 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-6507 (United States); Saha, Sumit; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Yanli [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, 153 Gilbert Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-4003 (United States)

    2015-08-10

    We demonstrate generation and characterization of crystalline bismuth thin film from triphenyl bismuth in methanol. Upon ultraviolet (267 nm) femtosecond laser irradiation of the solution, a thin film of elemental bismuth forms on the inner side of the sample cuvette, confirmed by detection of the coherent A{sub 1g} optical phonon mode of crystalline bismuth at ∼90 cm{sup −1}. Probe pulses at 267 and 400 nm are used to elucidate the excited state potential energy surface and photochemical reaction coordinate of triphenyl bismuth in solution with femtosecond resolution. The observed phonon mode blueshifts with increasing irradiation time, likely due to the gradual thickening of nascent bismuth thin film to ∼80 nm in 90 min. From transient absorption with the 400 nm probe, we observe a dominant ∼4 ps decay time constant of the excited-state absorption signal, which is attributed to a characteristic metal-ligand bond-weakening/breaking intermediate enroute to crystalline metallic thin film from the solution precursor molecules. Our versatile optical setup thus opens an appealing avenue to characterize the laser-induced crystallization process in situ and prepare high-quality thin films and nanopatterns directly from solution phase.

  10. Effect of the administration of bismuth nitrate on radiogenic thymoma induction in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagimoto, Osamu; Toge, Tetsuya; Niwa, Ohtsura (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Naganuma, Akira; Imura, Nobumasa; Yokoro, Kenjiro

    1991-12-01

    Metallothionein functions as a radical scavenger protecting cells from the indirect effect of radiation. We investigated the effect of bismuth nitrate, an efficient inducer of metallothionein, on acute and late effects of radiation in mice. Metallothionein contents were examined in several organs after the administration of bismuth nitrate. The content in bone marrow increased 2-fold in the treated as compared to the control mice. This treatment protected irradiated mice from bone marrow death and increased the number of endogenous spleen colonies. The metallothionein content in the ileum did not change after treatment with bismuth nitrate. Mice were not protected by bismuth nitrate when exposed to 9 Gy of X-rays. This suggests that this agent does not protect from gastrointestinal death. The incidence of X-ray-induced thymic lymphomas was lowered by the administration of bismuth nitrate in mice exposed to four fractionated doses of 1.3 Gy of X-rays. These results indicate that bismuth nitrate effectively modified both acute and late effects of X-rays by inducing metallothionein in the target tissues. (author).

  11. Nano sized bismuth oxy chloride by metal organic chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagdale, Pravin, E-mail: pravin.jagdale@polito.it [Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, 10129 (Italy); Castellino, Micaela [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Marrec, Françoise [Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Picardie Jules Verne (UPJV), Amiens 80039 (France); Rodil, Sandra E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexicom (UNAM), Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Tagliaferro, Alberto [Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, 10129 (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) method was used to prepare thin films of bismuth based nano particles starting from bismuth salts. Nano sized bismuth oxy chloride (BiOCl) crystals were synthesized from solution containing bismuth chloride (BiCl{sub 3}) in acetone (CH{sub 3}-CO-CH{sub 3}). Self-assembly of nano sized BiOCl crystals were observed on the surface of silicon, fused silica, copper, carbon nanotubes and aluminium substrates. Various synthesis parameters and their significant impact onto the formation of self-assembled nano-crystalline BiOCl were investigated. BiOCl nano particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. These analyses confirm that bismuth nanometer-sized crystal structures showing a single tetragonal phase were indeed bismuth oxy chloride (BiOCl) square platelets 18–250 nm thick and a few micrometres wide.

  12. Autophagy associated cytotoxicity and cellular uptake mechanisms of bismuth nanoparticles in human kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongming; Zhuang, Jing; Zhang, Xihui; Yue, Cong; Zhu, Ning; Yang, Liecheng; Wang, Yong; Chen, Tao; Wang, Yangyun; Zhang, Leshuai W

    2017-06-05

    Bismuth compounds have been used for treatment of bacterial infection, and recently bismuth nanoparticles (BiNP) were synthesized for imaging and diagnostic purpose, while safety concern of bismuth cannot be ignored. Here, we prepared ultrasmall BiNP and showed an enhanced tumor imaging, but BiNP revealed a differentiated cytotoxicity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK293) compared to other cell types. For the first time, we found that BiNP can induce autophagy, shown as the increase of monodansylcadaverine fluorescence staining and the amount of LC3II that can be inhibited by 3-MA. BiNP were capable of entering cells in a dose and time dependent manner by fluorescence and element detection methods BiNP were found to be localized in the cytoplasm observed by transmission electron microscopy and intracellular bismuth element confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Using endocytic inhibitors, BiNP were found to require ATP and endosomal trafficking pathways for their cellular uptake. Internalized BiNP did not co-localize with EEA1, but co-localized with Lysotracker/LAMP1/LAMP2 at late time points, indicating BiNP may be retained in the non-early endosomal vacuoles and late endosomes. With our novel finding of bismuth induced autophagy and endocytic mechanisms, potential approaches may be applied to reduce the toxicity by bismuth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) nanoparticles by solution evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor, A.; Afzal, A.M.; Umair, M.; Ali, Adnan; Rizwan, M.; Yaqoob, M.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Single phase Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO 3 ) with high magnetization and polarization was synthesized by solution evaporation method (SEM) at room temperature. The influence of temperature and size of nanoparticles on magnetic properties was studied. The prepared Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO 3 ) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to investigate the structure and size of crystal. The average crystallite size of nanoparticles (NPs) as calculated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) falls in the range of 22–31 nm. The crystallite size of Bismuth ferrite increased as the temperature varied from 450 °C to 650 °C. Magnetic properties were studied by using physical properties measurement system (PPMS). It was also observed that the magnetic properties were directly related to the size and temperature of Bismuth ferrite nanoparticles. It has been investigated that the magnetization was decreased as the temperature and crystallite size increased. - Highlights: • Bismuth ferrite magnetic material was synthesized by solution evaporation method. • Bismuth ferrite shows ferromagnetic properties at room temperature. • Influence of temperature and crystallite size on magnetic properties was observed. • The magnetization was decreased as the temperature and crystallite size increased. • The magnetic moments were found larger in the smaller crystalline size

  14. Different bismuth-based therapies for eradicating Helicobacter pylori: Randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcan, Hale; Oztas, Erkin; Onal, Ibrahim Koral

    2016-02-01

    Bismuth salts are used for treating dyspepsia, and they exert antibacterial effects on Helicobacter pylori. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of three bismuth-containing combination regimens for H. pylori eradication in a Turkish population. In this single-center study, 149 patients, who were diagnosed with H. pylori infection with urea breath test and histopathological examination, were randomized to receive the following therapies for 14 days: (1) bismuth-containing clarithromycin-based triple therapy (CBS-LAC), (2) bismuth-containing levofloxacin-based triple therapy (CBS-LAL), and (3) bismuth-containing quadruple therapy (BCQT). Eradication rates were evaluated six weeks after the treatment by performing intention to treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses. In addition, data on side effect profiles and patient compliance were collected. PP and ITT analyses showed that eradication rates were 86% and 81.1%, respectively, with BCQT; 68.3% and 66.7%, respectively, with CBS-LAL therapy; and 65.3% and 59.3%, respectively, with CBS-LAC therapy. Eradication rates obtained using PP and ITT analyses were statistically significant for all the regimens. Addition of bismuth to standard triple and levofloxacin-based regimen did not show an acceptable increase in eradication rates. Therefore, BCQT may be preferred for the first-line treatment of H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Operator Dose Measurements and Image Quality Assessment in Computed Tomography Fluoroscopy Using Bismuth Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Keisuke; Urikura, Atsushi; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Hirosawa, Kenichi; Ito, Takahiro; Nakaya, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the dose reduction and the image quality using bismuth sheets during the computed tomography fluoroscopy (CTF). The bismuth sheets of 1-mm thick were put on the upper mylar ring to reduce the frontal X-ray. The dose rates of an operator were measured using a torso phantom in the patient position during the CTF. The torso phantom was set on the gantry rotation center (center) and the lower position from the center (off-center). The image quality of the CTF image was assessed using an original phantom that mimics the normal liver parenchyma and the low attenuation lesions. The image contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were compared with and without the bismuth sheets. The bismuth sheets reduced the dose rate of the operator, regardless of whether the torso phantom was set at the center or the off-center. The reduction rate of exposure at the center and the off-center were 42.3% and 34.5%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the image contrast and the CNR, although the bismuth sheets increased the CT values of the liver parenchyma and the low attenuation lesions. The bismuth sheets were effective for the reduction of exposure to the operator without degrading the image quality of CTF images.

  16. Intrinsic stress of bismuth oxide thin films: effect of vapour chopping and air ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, R B; Puri, R K; Puri, V

    2008-01-01

    Bismuth oxide thin films of thickness 1000 A 0 have been prepared by thermal oxidation (in air) of vacuum evaporated bismuth thin films (on glass substrate) at different oxidation temperatures and duration. Both the vapour chopped and nonchopped bismuth oxide thin films showed polycrystalline and polymorphic structure. The monoclinic bismuth oxide was found to be predominant in both the cases. The effect of vapour chopping and air exposure for 40 days on the intrinsic stress of bismuth oxide thin films has been studied. The vapour chopped films showed low (3.92 - 4.80 x 10 9 N/m 2 ) intrinsic stress than those of nonchopped bismuth oxide thin films (5.77 - 6.74 x 10 9 N/m 2 ). Intrinsic stress was found to increase due to air ageing. The effect of air ageing on the vapour chopped films was found low. The vapour chopped films showed higher packing density. Higher the packing density, lower the film will age. The process of chopping vapour flow creates films with less inhomogenety i.e. a low concentration of flaws and non-planar defects which results in lower intrinsic stress

  17. Zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth and formation of biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Delgadillo, Rene; Velasco-Arias, Donaji; Diaz, David; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Garza-Enriquez, Marianela; De la Garza-Ramos, Myriam A; Cabral-Romero, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Despite continuous efforts, the increasing prevalence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria to common antibiotics has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. While some bismuth derivatives has been used in medicine to treat vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, the biocidal activity of zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles has not yet been studied. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of bismuth nanoparticles against oral bacteria and their antibiofilm capabilities. Results Our results showed that stable colloidal bismuth nanoparticles had 69% antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans growth and achieved complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are similar to those obtained with chlorhexidine, the most commonly used oral antiseptic agent. The minimal inhibitory concentration of bismuth nanoparticles that interfered with S. mutans growth was 0.5 mM. Conclusion These results suggest that zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles could be an interesting antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic preparation. PMID:22619547

  18. Enhanced detection of quantum dots labeled protein by simultaneous bismuth electrodeposition into microfluidic channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Miserere, Sandrine; Cadevall, Miquell; Merkoçi, Arben

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we propose an electrochemical immunoassay into a disposable microfluidic platform, using quantum dots (QDs) as labels and their enhanced detection using bismuth as an alternative to mercury electrodes. CdSe@ZnS QDs were used to tag human IgG as a model protein and detected through highly sensitive stripping voltammetry of the dissolved metallic component (cadmium in our case). The modification of the screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) was done by a simple electrodeposition of bismuth that was previously mixed with the sample containing QDs. A magneto-immunosandwich assay was performed using a micromixer. A magnet placed at its outlet in order to capture the magnetic beads used as solid support for the immunoassay. SPCEs were integrated at the end of the channel as detector. Different parameters such as bismuth concentration, flow rate, and incubation times, were optimized. The LOD for HIgG in presence of bismuth was 3.5 ng/mL with a RSD of 13.2%. This LOD was about 3.3-fold lower than the one obtained without bismuth. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the system was increased 100-fold respect to experiments carried out with classical screen-printed electrodes, both in presence of bismuth. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Nano sized bismuth oxy chloride by metal organic chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagdale, Pravin; Castellino, Micaela; Marrec, Françoise; Rodil, Sandra E.; Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) method was used to prepare thin films of bismuth based nano particles starting from bismuth salts. Nano sized bismuth oxy chloride (BiOCl) crystals were synthesized from solution containing bismuth chloride (BiCl 3 ) in acetone (CH 3 -CO-CH 3 ). Self-assembly of nano sized BiOCl crystals were observed on the surface of silicon, fused silica, copper, carbon nanotubes and aluminium substrates. Various synthesis parameters and their significant impact onto the formation of self-assembled nano-crystalline BiOCl were investigated. BiOCl nano particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. These analyses confirm that bismuth nanometer-sized crystal structures showing a single tetragonal phase were indeed bismuth oxy chloride (BiOCl) square platelets 18–250 nm thick and a few micrometres wide.

  20. Magnetic properties of the binary Nickel/Bismuth alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Şarlı, Numan, E-mail: numansarli82@gmail.com

    2017-09-01

    Highlights: • We model and investigate the magnetic properties of the Ni/Bi alloy within the EFT. • Magnetizations of the Ni/Bi alloy are observed as Bi1 > Bi2 > Ni/Bi > Ni at T < Tc. • Magnetization of the Bi1 is dominant and Ni is at least dominant T < Tc. • Total magnetization of the Ni/Bi alloy is close to those of Ni at T < Tc. • Hysteresis curves are overlap at T < 0.1 and they behave separately at T > 0.1. - Abstract: Magnetic properties of the binary Nickel/Bismuth alloy (Ni/Bi) are investigated within the effective field theory. The Ni/Bi alloy has been modeled that the rhombohedral Bi lattice is surrounded by the hexagonal Ni lattice. According to lattice locations, Bi atoms have two different magnetic properties. Bi1 atoms are in the center of the hexagonal Ni atoms (Ni/Bi1 single layer) and Bi2 atoms are between two Ni/Bi1 bilayers. The Ni, Bi1, Bi2 and Ni/Bi undergo a second-order phase transition from the ferromagnetic phase to paramagnetic phase at Tc = 1.14. The magnetizations of the Ni/Bi alloy are observed as Bi1 > Bi2 > Ni/Bi > Ni at T < Tc; hence the magnetization of the Bi1 is dominant and Ni is at least dominant. However, the total magnetization of the Ni/Bi alloy is close to magnetization of the Ni at T < Tc. The corcivities of the Ni, Bi1, Bi2 and Ni/Bi alloy are the same with each others, but the remanence magnetizations are different. Our theoretical results of M(T) and M(H) of the Ni/Bi alloy are in quantitatively good agreement with the some experimental results of binary Nickel/Bismuth systems.

  1. Determination of 210Pb and 210Po in soil or rock samples containing refractory matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Torri, Giancarlo

    2007-01-01

    A new method has been developed for determination of 21 Pb and 21 Po in soil or rock samples containing refractory matrices. The samples were first fused with Na 2 CO 3 and Na 2 O 2 at 600 o C for pre-treatment and then 210 Pb and 210 Po were sequentially leached out at 200-250 o C with HNO 3 +HF, HClO 4 and HCl. About 10% of the leaching solution was used for 21 Po determination, carried out by spontaneous deposition of polonium on a silver disc from a weakly acidic solution that contained hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium citrate and 209 Po tracer, measurement being made by α-spectrometry. The remains of the leaching solution were used for determination of 21 Pb, conducted by precipitation as sulphate, purification with Na 2 S as PbS in 6 M ammonium acetate, separation from α-emitters by an anion-exchange resin column, source preparation as PbSO 4 , and measurement with a β-counter. The procedure has been checked with two certified IAEA reference materials, showing good agreement with the recommended values. The lower limits of detection for 1 g of analysed soil or rock samples were found to be 0.75 Bq kg -1 for 210 Po and 2.2 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb. A variety of solid sample species analysed through use of the procedure gave average yields of 90.0±9.8% for 210 Po and 88.4±7.1% for 210 Pb

  2. Pharmacokinetics of metronidazole, tetracycline and bismuth in healthy volunteers after oral administration of compound tablets containing a combination of metronidazole, tetracycline hydrochloride and bismuth oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Ding, L; Huang, N-Y; Wen, A-D; Liu, B; Li, W-B

    2015-02-01

    To eradicate Helicobacter pylori in human pylorus and to heal duodenal ulcers, recently, a new formulation of combination tablets containing metronidazole 125 mg, tetracycline hydrochloride 125 mg and bismuth oxide 40 mg has been developed. To investigate the pharmacokinetics of metronidazole, tetracycline and bismuth in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of the test formulation. A one-sequence, 3-period study was conducted in 12 Chinese healthy volunteers (6 male, 6 female). Volunteers each received single low dose (1 tablet) under fed condition in period 1, single high dose (3 tablets) under fasted condition in period 2, and single high dose (3 tablets) and multiple doses (3 tablets at once, 4 times daily for 7 consecutive days) under fed condition in period 3. Blood samples were collected and determined over 48 h in every period. After single high dose administration under fed condition, the C max of metronidazole, tetracycline and bismuth were 6.833 ± 0.742 μg/mL, 0.8513 ± 0.1253 μg/mL and 3.32 ± 1.89 ng/mL, respectively. The C max and AUC 0-48 of metronidazole increased in proportion to the doses within the tested dose range, but tetracycline and bismuth did not. Food caused 10% and 80% decrease of the C max for metronidazole and bismuth, respectively, but did not affect tetracycline. No gender effect was found on the pharmacokinetics of the 3 ingredients. In the steady state, the C av of metronidazole, tetracycline and bismuth were 20.75 ± 3.52 μg/mL, 1.900 ± 0.243 μg/mL and 5.61 ± 1.34 ng/mL, respectively. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Levels and transfer of 210Po and 210Pb in Nordic terrestrial ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, J.E.; Gjelsvik, R.; Roos, Per

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments regarding environmental impact assessment methodologies for radioactivity have precipitated the need for information on levels of naturally occurring radionuclides within and transfer to wild flora and fauna. The objectives of this study were therefore to determine activity...... exhibited an approximately exponential fall in 210Pb activity concentrations from elevated levels in humus/surface soils to “supported” levels at depth. Activity concentrations of 210Po in fauna (invertebrates, mammals, birds) ranged between 2 and 123 Bq kg−1 d.w. and in plants and lichens between 20...

  4. The role of 210Po and 210Pb in low radioactivity experiments and ultrapure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giammarch, Marco G.

    2013-01-01

    210 Po and 210 Pb isotopes constitute a major background for low background nuclear physics experiments searching for rare events. Searches for solar neutrinos, double beta decay, dark matter and other rare phenomena need to control and monitor radioactivity from Po and Pb through measurements and purification processes. Ultrapure water is often used in these experiments; therefore the issue of minimizing Po and Pb content in water will also be discussed. Finally, the role of 214 Po and 212 Po in low background experiments will be briefly recalled. (author)

  5. Extraction of lanthanide elements and bismuth in molten lithium chloride-liquid bismuth-lithium alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Makoto; Adachi, Motonari; Kai, Yuichi; Koike, Kenichi

    1987-01-01

    The equilibrium distributions of neodymium and samarium between molten LiCl and liquid Bi-Li alloy were measured in a wide range of Li-mole fraction in the alloy phase, X Li . These lanthanide elements were extracted through redox reactions. In high X Li range, X Li > 0.03, the distributions of neodymium and bismuth in the salt phase increased markedly. The anomalous increase is attributed to the formation of the compound comprized of Nd, Li, Bi and oxygen in the salt phase. The reaction processes in samarium and neodymium were very fast and the extraction rates are controlled by the diffusion processes of the solutes and metallic lithium. (author)

  6. The network modifier and former role of the bismuth ions in the bismuth-lead-germanate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, M; Rus, L; Rada, S; Culea, E; Rusu, T

    2014-11-11

    The present work is focused on the enhancement of network former environment in lead-germanate glasses by bismuth ions doping. A series of bismuth-lead-germanate glasses with the xBi2O3·(100-x)[7GeO2·3PbO] composition glass where 0≤x≤30 mol% Bi2O3 were synthesized by melt-quenching method. The FTIR, UV-VIS spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were conducted on these samples to evaluate the doping effect of structure of the host matrix network. Our results indicate that direct incorporation of Bi2O3 into the lead-germanate network modifies the lead-germanate network and the internal structure of glass network is rearranged. The structural flexibility of the lead-germanate network is possible due to its incapacity to accommodate with the excess of oxygen atoms and the creation of bridging oxygen ions. Optical gap energy and refractive index were obtained as a function of Bi2O3 content. Gap energy values decrease as Bi2O3 content increased from 0 to 10 mol%. Further increase of Bi2O3 concentration beyond 10 mol% increased the gap energy values. These behaviors of the glass system can be explained by two mechanisms: (i) for x≤10 mol% Bi2O3--increase of degree of disorder of the host matrix because Bi2O3 is network modifier and (ii) for x>10 mol%--Bi2O3 acts as a network former. Cyclic voltammetry measurements using the glass system with 10Bi2O3·90[7GeO2·3PbO] composition as working electrode show the mobility of the lead ions, in agreement with UV-VIS data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Behaviour of 210Po in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgust, Mark Antony

    The naturally occurring alpha-emitter polonium-210 (210Po) is one of the most radiotoxic elements in the environment. Moreover, it contributes more than 150 times towards the effective radiation dosage received by humans from the consumption of fish and shellfish than from anthropogenic 137Cs. Polonium-210 is known to be strongly accumulated by marine organisms but its biochemistry is poorly understood. The research described here had two main aims: first, to investigate the factors causing temporal variations of 210Po in the temperate coastal waters and marine biota and second, to examine the biokinetics of 210Po in the marine mussel Mytilus edulis. These questions were investigated by a field study and a series of laboratory experiments. In the field study more than 99% of 210Po in the water column occurred in the particulate phase. Dissolved 210Po levels peaked during the phytoplankton bloom and I proposed that this was related to preferential scavenging of 210Po by increased numbers of bacteria, viruses and small dissolved particulates. Changes in 210Po specific activity in the winkle Liittorina littorea are thought to be related to a fall in body weight following spawning. The specific activity of 210Po in the digestive gland of M. edulis was strongly correlated with changes in seawater suspended particulate specific activity. Examination of other trace metals revealed correlations between class B and Borderline metals. In the laboratory digestion of 210Po-labelled Isochrysis galbana occurred via a biphasic process, characteristic of a rapid (extracellular) and slow (intracellular) digestion typical of marine bivalves. The mantle/gill and foot have no known digestive role, yet their 210Po specific activities increased after 24 hours. I proposed that this increase in 210Po specific activity was related to 210Po incorporated into these tissues from that assimilated from I. galbana during extracellular digestion. I also propose that the linear loss of 210Po

  8. 210Po and 210Pb concentration in drinking water of Bangalore and its surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiva Prasad, N.G.; Nagaiah, N.; Ashok, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water samples collected from different locations of Bangalore and its surrounding area were analysed for the activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb by employing radiochemical analysis. The measure concentration of 210 Po varies from 0.46 to 36.46 mBq L -1 with a mean of 6.17 mBq L -1 and that of 210 Pb ranges from 1.19 to 56.95 mBq L -1 with a mean of 13.98 mBq L -1 . The activity concentrations of these radionuclides were found to be low at the place Kambasandra and high at Kalkere. The range and the mean value obtained in the present study are well within the guidance value of 100 mBq L -1 as prescribed by World Health Organization. From the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the annual effective dose was calculated for different age groups: for babies (age below 1 y), children (age from 2 to 7 y) and adults (age from 17 y and above) using IAEA dose conversion factors and the prescribed water consumption rates. The total dose received is very much less than the ICRP recommended value of 1000 μ Sv y -1 for all age groups. (author)

  9. 210Po and 210Pb Activity Concentrations in Cigarettes Produced in Vietnam and Their Estimated Dose Contribution Due to Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thuy-Ngan N.; Le, Cong-Hao; Chau, Van-Tao

    Smoking cigarettes contributes significantly to the increase of radiation in human body because 210Po and 210Pb exist relatively high in tobacco leaves. Therefore, these two radioisotopes in eighteen of the most frequently sold cigarette brands produced in Vietnam were examined in this study. 210Po was determined by alpha spectroscopy using a passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector after a procedure including radiochemical separation and spontaneous deposition of polonium on a copper disc (the deposition efficiency of 210Po on a copper disc was approximately 94%). Sequentially, 210Pb was determined through the ingrowth of 210Po after storing the sample solutions for approximately six months. The activity concentrations of 210Po in cigarettes ranged from 13.8 to 82.6 mBq/cigarette (the mean value was 26.4 mBq/cigarette) and the activity concentrations of 210Pb in cigarettes ranged from 13.9 to 78.8 mBq/cigarette (the mean value was 25.8 mBq/cigarette). The annual committed effective dose for smokers who smoke one pack per day was also estimated to be 295.4 µSv/year (223.0 µSv/year and 72.4 µSv/year from 210Po and 210Pb, respectively). These indicated that smoking increased the risk of developing lung cancer was approximately 60 times greater for smokers than for non-smokers.

  10. Polonium (210Po) and lead (210Pb) in marine organisms and their transfer in marine food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of 210 Po and 210 Pb was performed in marine organisms from the seashore to abyssal depths, encompassing a plethora of species from the microscopic plankton to the sperm whale. Concentrations of those radionuclides ranged from low values of about 5 x 10 -1 Bq kg -1 (wet wt.) in jellyfish, to very high values of about of 3 x 10 4 Bq kg -1 (wet wt.) in the gut walls of sardines, with a common pattern of 210 Po > 210 Pb.These radionuclides are primarily absorbed from water and concentrated by phyto- and microzooplankton, and then are transferred to the next trophic level along marine food chains. Investigation in epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic and abyssobenthic organisms revealed that 210 Po is transferred in the marine food webs with transfer factors ranging from 0.1 to 0.7, and numerically similar to those of the energy transfer in the marine food chains. As 210 Po preferentially binds to amino acids and proteins, its transfer in food chains likely traces protein transfer and, thus, 210 Po transfer factors are similar to ecotrophic coefficients. 210 Pb is transferred less efficiently in marine food chains and this contributes to increased 210 Po: 210 Pb activity ratios in some trophic levels.

  11. Polonium ({sup 210}Po) and lead ({sup 210}Pb) in marine organisms and their transfer in marine food chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.p [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    The determination of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb was performed in marine organisms from the seashore to abyssal depths, encompassing a plethora of species from the microscopic plankton to the sperm whale. Concentrations of those radionuclides ranged from low values of about 5 x 10{sup -1} Bq kg{sup -1} (wet wt.) in jellyfish, to very high values of about of 3 x 10{sup 4} Bq kg{sup -1} (wet wt.) in the gut walls of sardines, with a common pattern of {sup 210}Po > {sup 210}Pb.These radionuclides are primarily absorbed from water and concentrated by phyto- and microzooplankton, and then are transferred to the next trophic level along marine food chains. Investigation in epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic and abyssobenthic organisms revealed that {sup 210}Po is transferred in the marine food webs with transfer factors ranging from 0.1 to 0.7, and numerically similar to those of the energy transfer in the marine food chains. As {sup 210}Po preferentially binds to amino acids and proteins, its transfer in food chains likely traces protein transfer and, thus, {sup 210}Po transfer factors are similar to ecotrophic coefficients. {sup 210}Pb is transferred less efficiently in marine food chains and this contributes to increased {sup 210}Po:{sup 210}Pb activity ratios in some trophic levels.

  12. The Litvinenko polonium-210 case - German experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Gerald; Kroeger, Emily A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings together the measurement results taken and the lessons learned by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection during the polonium-210 incident in Hamburg in late 2006. The incident was pivotal in confirming the importance of the defence against nuclear hazards in Germany and for highlighting the role of communication in the success of a deployment. The background of the case is reviewed and an overview of the German defence against nuclear hazards is given. The various measurement tasks, both at the scene and in the laboratory, and their results are summarized along with the communication challenges experienced. The main conclusions are that the traces of polonium-210 found at the sites were of little radiological consequence and the German defence against nuclear hazards in Germany delivered an excellent and measured response to the incident. However, communication challenges still exist and communication with the public and the emergency responders has to be given high priority during future deployments in order to ensure their success. (author)

  13. Human skeletal uptake of natural alpha radioactivity from {sup 210}Pb-supported {sup 210}Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyedepo, A.C

    1998-06-01

    This thesis contributes to increasing knowledge on the dosimetry of natural alpha-particle radiation in skeletal tissues, particularly in utero, and associated risks of malignancy. Alpha-particle radiation is an established aetiological factor of cancer. In the human body, polonium-210 decayed from skeletal lead-210 ({sup 210}Pb/{sup 210}Po) is the predominant natural alpha-emitter. {sup 210}Pb displaces calcium (Ca) in mineral hydroxyapatite, especially during periods of rapid bone growth and remodelling when Ca is laid down. It was therefore necessary to study alpha activity uptake and calcification concurrently within bone. Human studies were undertaken on: fetal vertebrae, 17 - 42 weeks of gestation, 74 samples; adult vertebrae, 40 - 95 years, 40 samples; and adult ribs, 20 - 95 years, 51 samples. Specimens were unconcentrated and weighed <5 g each. TASTRAK alpha-particle autoradiography was used to assess the bone activity concentration and spatial microdistribution of {sup 210}Pb/{sup 210}Po. Alpha track data were resolved by specially written software named SPATS (Selection Program for Analysing Track Structures). Ca and phosphorus (P) were biochemically determined. Results were examined for trends in bone type, gender and chronological ageing in humans. The main research findings were: 1) The Ca content of fetal vertebrae increased linearly at a weekly rate of 0.2g Ca 100 g{sup -1} wet bone (typical values of 2, 4, 6 g 100 g{sup -1} at 16, 26 and 36 weeks). 2) The P concentration also increased with advancing fetal age. 3) The Ca:P bone weight ratio rose from 1.7 to 2.2 by 32 gestational weeks. 4) The overall range in bone {sup 210}Pb/{sup 210}Po alpha activity was 0.25 - 1.1 Bq kg{sup -1} with correlation between activity concentration and fetal age (0.47 {+-} 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1} for 17 - 26 weeks, 0.67 {+-} 0.04 Bq kg{sup -1} for 32 - 42 weeks). 5) The correlation between increased alpha radioactivity and increased Ca concentration approximating to 0

  14. Human skeletal uptake of natural alpha radioactivity from 210Pb-supported 210Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyedepo, A.C.

    1998-06-01

    This thesis contributes to increasing knowledge on the dosimetry of natural alpha-particle radiation in skeletal tissues, particularly in utero, and associated risks of malignancy. Alpha-particle radiation is an established aetiological factor of cancer. In the human body, polonium-210 decayed from skeletal lead-210 ( 210 Pb/ 210 Po) is the predominant natural alpha-emitter. 210 Pb displaces calcium (Ca) in mineral hydroxyapatite, especially during periods of rapid bone growth and remodelling when Ca is laid down. It was therefore necessary to study alpha activity uptake and calcification concurrently within bone. Human studies were undertaken on: fetal vertebrae, 17 - 42 weeks of gestation, 74 samples; adult vertebrae, 40 - 95 years, 40 samples; and adult ribs, 20 - 95 years, 51 samples. Specimens were unconcentrated and weighed 210 Pb/ 210 Po. Alpha track data were resolved by specially written software named SPATS (Selection Program for Analysing Track Structures). Ca and phosphorus (P) were biochemically determined. Results were examined for trends in bone type, gender and chronological ageing in humans. The main research findings were: 1) The Ca content of fetal vertebrae increased linearly at a weekly rate of 0.2g Ca 100 g -1 wet bone (typical values of 2, 4, 6 g 100 g -1 at 16, 26 and 36 weeks). 2) The P concentration also increased with advancing fetal age. 3) The Ca:P bone weight ratio rose from 1.7 to 2.2 by 32 gestational weeks. 4) The overall range in bone 210 Pb/ 210 Po alpha activity was 0.25 - 1.1 Bq kg -1 with correlation between activity concentration and fetal age (0.47 ± 0.05 Bq kg -1 for 17 - 26 weeks, 0.67 ± 0.04 Bq kg -1 for 32 - 42 weeks). 5) The correlation between increased alpha radioactivity and increased Ca concentration approximating to 0.0046 Bq g -1 of Ca. 6) A decreasing Ca content of adult vertebrae with increasing age from 40 - 95 years, from ∼ 14 to 5 g 100 g-1, but no correlation with age for adult rib Ca content of 10 - 30 g

  15. Spectroscopic Characterization of Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens: Suppression using Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Bismuth Thiols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badireddy, Appala R.; Korpol, Bhoom Reddy; Chellam, Shankararaman; Gassman, Paul L.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lea, Alan S.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2008-10-21

    Free and capsular EPS produced by Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens were characterized in detail using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Total EPS production decreased upon treatment with sub-inhibitory concentrations of lipophilic bismuth thiols (bismuth dimercaptopropanol, BisBAL; bismuth ethanedithiol, BisEDT; and bismuth pyrithione, BisPYR), BisBAL being most effective. Bismuth thiols also influenced acetylation and carboxylation of polysaccharides in EPS from S. marcescens. Extensive homology between EPS samples in the presence and absence of bismuth was observed with proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids varying predominantly only in the total amount expressed. Second derivative analysis of the amide I region of FTIR spectra revealed decreases in protein secondary structures in the presence of bismuth thiols. Hence, anti-fouling properties of bismuth thiols appear to originate in their ability to suppress O-acetylation and protein secondary structures in addition to total EPS secretion.

  16. Study about excretion of 210 Po in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Azeredo, A.M.G. da.

    1988-01-01

    The urine of mines's workers are analysed to detect the presence of 210 Po. The results was compared with the workers and with a control population. Cigarettes samples was analysed two and confirmed the 210 presence. The control population individuals were divided in smokers and non smokers and them urine was investigated the influence of the smoke in the 210 Po excretion. (L.M.J.)

  17. Zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth and formation of biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez-Delgadillo R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rene Hernandez-Delgadillo1, Donaji Velasco-Arias2, David Diaz2, Katiushka Arevalo-Niño1, Marianela Garza-Enriquez1, Myriam A De la Garza-Ramos1, Claudio Cabral-Romero11Instituto de Biotecnologia, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias de la Salud, CIDICS, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 2Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Distrito Federal, MexicoBackground and methods: Despite continuous efforts, the increasing prevalence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria to common antibiotics has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. While some bismuth derivatives has been used in medicine to treat vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, the biocidal activity of zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles has not yet been studied. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of bismuth nanoparticles against oral bacteria and their antibiofilm capabilities.Results: Our results showed that stable colloidal bismuth nanoparticles had 69% antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans growth and achieved complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are similar to those obtained with chlorhexidine, the most commonly used oral antiseptic agent. The minimal inhibitory concentration of bismuth nanoparticles that interfered with S. mutans growth was 0.5 mM.Conclusion: These results suggest that zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles could be an interesting antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic preparation.Keywords: zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles, antimicrobial agent, biofilm, Streptococcus mutans

  18. Sulfate-reducing bacteria slow intestinal transit in a bismuth-reversible fashion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, N L; Lin, D M; Wilson, M R; Barton, L L; Lin, H C

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) serves as a mammalian cell-derived gaseous neurotransmitter. The intestines are exposed to a second source of this gas by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Bismuth subsalicylate binds H 2 S rendering it insoluble. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that SRB may slow intestinal transit in a bismuth-reversible fashion. Eighty mice were randomized to five groups consisting of Live SRB, Killed SRB, SRB+Bismuth, Bismuth, and Saline. Desulfovibrio vulgaris, a common strain of SRB, was administered by gavage at the dose of 1.0 × 10 9 cells along with rhodamine, a fluorescent dye. Intestinal transit was measured 50 minutes after gavage by euthanizing the animals, removing the small intestine between the pyloric sphincter and the ileocecal valve and visualizing the distribution of rhodamine across the intestine using an imaging system (IVIS, Perkin-Elmer). Intestinal transit (n=50) was compared using geometric center (1=minimal movement, 100=maximal movement). H 2 S concentration (n=30) was also measured when small intestinal luminal content was allowed to generate this gas. The Live SRB group had slower intestinal transit as represented by a geometric center score of 40.2 ± 5.7 when compared to Saline: 73.6 ± 5.7, Killed SRB: 77.9 ± 6.9, SRB+Bismuth: 81.0 ± 2.0, and Bismuth: 73.3 ± 4.2 (Pfashion in mice. Our results demonstrate that intestinal transit is slowed by SRB and this effect could be abolished by H 2 S-binding bismuth. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Geochemical distribution of dissolved bismuth in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Dan; Song, Jin-Ming; Wu, Bin; Li, Xue-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence level, geochemical distribution of dissolved bismuth and its coupling relationship to eco-environment were investigated in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea to explore the source and influencing factors. The results showed that the concentration of dissolved bismuth was within the range of 0-0. 029 microg x L(-1) at the surface and 0.001-0.189 microg x L(-1) at the bottom, with the averages of 0.008 and 0.016 microg x L(-1), respectively. Horizontally, low value of dissolved bismuth exhibited the bidirectional extension feature, indicating that it could trace the path of Changjiang Diluted Water. High value of dissolved bismuth was observed where the Subei Costal Current and Yellow Sea Warm Current flowed and the Changjiang Diluted Water and Zhejiang-Fujian Coastal Current met, suggesting that it was controlled by the cycle of current system. Vertically, the coastal water was fully mixed by water convection and eddy mixing, and was divided from the stratified water by strong tidal front, which blocked the transport of dissolved bismuth to the open sea. Thus, the concentration in front area was significantly higher than that in the open sea. Diurnal variation of dissolved bismuth was related to the hydrodynamic conditions (tide, suspension and thermocline) instead of the environmental factors (temperature and salinity). Positive relationship to SPM (suspended particulate matter) clarified that bismuth was prone to release from solid phase to liquid phase. Furthermore, conditions with temperature ranging 22-27 degrees C, salinity ranging 28-31 and pH ranging 7.9-8.1 were shown to be optimal for the release process.

  20. New bismuth borophosphate Bi4BPO10: Synthesis, crystal structure, optical and band structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babitsky, Nicolay A.; Leshok, Darya Y.; Mikhaleva, Natalia S.; Kuzubov, Aleksandr A.; Zhereb, Vladimir P.; Kirik, Sergei D.

    2015-01-01

    New bismuth borophosphate Bi 4 BPO 10 was obtained by spontaneous crystallization from the melt of correspondent composition at 804 °C. Crystal structure with orthorhombic lattice parameters: a = 22.5731(3) Å, b = 14.0523(2) Å, c = 5.5149(1) Å, V = 1749.34(4), Z = 8, SG Pcab was determined by X-ray powder diffraction technique. The [Bi 2 O 2 ] 2+ -layers, which are typical for bismuth oxide compounds, transform into cationic endless strips of 4 bismuth atoms width directed along the c-axis in Bi 4 BPO 10 . The strips combining stacks are separated by flat triangle [BO 3 ] 3− -anions within stacks. Neighboring stacks are separated by tetrahedral [PO 4 ] 3− -anions and shifted relatively to each other. Bismuth atoms are placed in 5–7 vertex oxygen irregular polyhedra. Bi 4 BPO 10 is stable up to 812 °C, then melts according to the peritectic law. The absorption spectrum in the range 350–700 nm was obtained and the width of the forbidden band was estimated as 3.46 eV. The band electronic structure of Bi 4 BPO 10 was modeled using DFT approach. The calculated band gap (3.56 eV) is in good agreement with the experimentally obtained data. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • New bismuth borophosphate with composition Bi 4 BPO 10 was synthesized. • The crystal structure was determined by X-ray powder diffraction technique. • Bismuth-oxygen part [Bi 4 O 3 ] 6+ forms endless strips of 4 bismuth atoms width. • Electronic structure was modeled by DFT method. • The calculated band gap (3.56 eV) is very close to the experimental one (3.46 eV)

  1. Assessment of 210Po in foodstuffs consumed in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Woo Lee; Mun Ja Kang; Wanno Lee; Geun Sik Choi; Young Hyun Cho; Hee Reyoung Kim; Kun Ho Chung

    2009-01-01

    210 Po in the daily diet in Korea was analyzed and the ingestion dose from an intake of 210 Po was estimated by considering the dietary habit of a Korean person. The 210 Po concentrations of a leafy vegetable (0.36 Bq x kg -1 for lettuce) in the terrestrial food were higher than those of grain, whereas Chinese cabbage had a lesser 210 Po concentration (0.019 Bq x kg -1 ). The 210 Po concentration of the animal product was similar to those detected in the grain and vegetable. The 210 Po concentrations in the shell and crustaceous were high from 19.1 to 33.0 Bq x kg -1 , however, its value fell in the overall range of the reported values. The effective dose from 210 Po for an adult from the Korean population was about 269.4 μSv x y -1 . Nearly 80% of the ingestion dose from the intake of 210 Po was attributed to the consumption of seafood. It suggests that the marine food ingestion is a critical pathway for natural 210 Po to the Korean population. (author)

  2. Distribution of polonium-210 in the human lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Beverly S.; Eisenbud, Merril; Wrenn, McDonald E.; Harley, Naomi H.

    1978-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of 210 Po in the lungs of cigarette smokers is essential if the role of this alpha emitter in smoking related carcinogenesis is to be understood. To resolve this question the tracheobronchial tree is separated from the parenchyma and both are analyzed for 210 Po. Some polonium is cleared to the blood and systemically redistributed. Since systemic distribution should produce the same partition of the nuclide in smokers and nonsmokers, an excess found in either fraction would indicate retention of inhaled 210 Po or its grandparent 210 Pb. We will report the results of these analyses in five smokers and 5 nonsmokers. (author)

  3. Distribution and biokinetic analysis of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in poultry due to ingestion of dicalcium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casacuberta, N., E-mail: Nuria.Casacuberta@uab.es [Departament de Fisica and Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Traversa, F.L. [Departament d' Electronica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Masque, P.; Garcia-Orellana, J. [Departament de Fisica and Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Anguita, M.; Gasa, J. [Departament de Ciencia Animal i dels Aliments, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Dicalcium phosphate (DCP) is used as a calcium supplement for food producing animals (i.e., cattle, poultry and pig). When DCP is produced via wet acid digestion of the phosphate rock and depending on the acid used in the industrial process, the final product can result in enhanced {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po specific activities ({approx} 2000 Bq.kg{sup -1}). Both {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po are of great interest because their contribution to the dose received by ingestion is potentially large. The aims of this work are to examine the accumulation of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in chicken tissues during the first 42 days of life and to build a suitable single-compartment biokinetic model to understand the behavior of both radionuclides within the entire animal using the experimental results. Three commercial corn-soybean-based diets containing different amounts and sources of DCP were fed to broilers during a period of 42 days. The results show that diets containing enhanced concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po lead to larger specific accumulation in broiler tissues compared to the blank diet. Radionuclides do not accumulate homogeneously within the animal body: {sup 210}Pb follows the calcium pathways to some extent and accumulates largely in bones, while {sup 210}Po accumulates to a large extent in liver and kidneys. However, the total amount of radionuclide accumulation in tissues is small compared to the amounts excreted in feces. The single-compartment non-linear biokinetic model proposed here for {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in the whole animal takes into account the size evolution and is self-consistent in that no fitting parameterization of intake and excretions rates is required.

  4. Biomonitoring of 210Po and 210Pb using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sert, Emel; Ugur, Aysun; Ozden, Banu; Sac, Mueslim Murat; Camgoez, Berkay

    2011-01-01

    Mosses and lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclides of both natural and artificial origin. These plants lack a well-developed root system and rely largely on atmospheric deposition for nourishment. Therefore in the study, different lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia foliacea) and mosses (Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum lacunosum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa, Didymodon acutus, Syntrichia ruralis, Syntrichia intermedia, Pterogonium graciale, Isothecium alopecuroides, Pleurochatae squarrosa) were collected around the Yatagan (Mugla), Soma (Manisa), Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) coal-fired power plants and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for 210 Po and 210 Pb deposition. While the activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in lichens are in the ranges of 151 ± 7-593 ± 21 and 97 ± 5-364 ± 13 Bq kg -1 , for mosses the ranges for 210 Po and 210 Pb are 124 ± 5-1125 ± 38 and 113 ± 4-490 ± 17 Bq kg -1 , respectively. In the study, the moss samples were observed to accumulate more 210 Po and 210 Pb compared to lichens. While the most suitable biomonitor was a moss species (H. lacunosum) for Yatagan (Mugla), it was another moss species (S. intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) sites. 210 Po concentrations were found higher than 210 Pb concentrations at the all sampling stations. - Highlights: → Lichens and mosses have been used as biomonitors of 210Po and 210Pb deposition. → The morphology of lichens and mosses does not vary with seasons. → Lichens and mosses retain and accumulate pollutants deposited from the atmosphere. → Canopy is an important factor causing differences in the concentrations of radionuclides.

  5. Transfer of 210Po, 210Pb and 238U from some medicinal plants to their essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Amin, Y.; Ibrahim, S.; Nassri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils were extracted from 35 medicinal plants used by Syrians, organic compounds were determined in these oils and concentrations of 210 Po 210 Pb and 238 U were determined in the original plants and in the essential oils. The results showed that the highest activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb were found in leaves with large surfaces and in Sage were as high as 73.5 Bq kg −1 and 73.2 Bq kg −1 , respectively. The activity concentration of 238 U was as high as 4.26 Bq kg −1 in Aloe. On the other hand, activity concentrations of 210 Po ranged between 0.2 and 71.1 Bq kg −1 in extracted essential oils for Rosemary and False yellowhead, respectively. The activity concentration of 210 Pb reached 63.7 Bq kg −1 in Aloe oil. The activity concentrations of 238 U were very low in all extracted oils; the highest value was 0.31 Bq kg −1 in peel of Orange oil. The transfer of 210 Po and 210 Pb from plant to its oil was the highest for Eugenia; 7.1% and 5.5% for 210 Po and 210 Pb, respectively. A linear relationship was found between the transfer factor of radionuclides from plant to its essential oil and the chemical content of this oil. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides 210 Po, 210 Pb and 238 U were determined in 35 medicinal plants and their essential oils. • The highest activity concentration of 210 Po and 210 Pb were 73.5 Bq kg −1 and 73.2 Bq kg −1 in Sage, respectively. • The transfer of 210 Po and 210 Pb from Eugenia plant to its oil was the highest amongst other plants. • The data obtained in this study can be considered the first reported data for medicinal plants and their oils in Syria

  6. Aspects on the analysis of 210Po

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henricsson, F.; Ranebo, Y.; Holm, E.

    2011-01-01

    There has been little development regarding analysis of polonium (Po) in environmental samples since the 1960ies. This is due to the straightforward spontaneous deposition of this element on silver (Ag), nickel (Ni) or copper (Cu) without any radiochemical separation. For many years...... showed that the yield was lower. Furthermore, the tendency of Po to volatilize at low temperatures constrains the sample preparation techniques; dry-ashing cannot be used. But during the wet-ashing procedure, there are still some losses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Po losses during wet......-ashing by the use of a double-tracer technique. We have found that the losses were about 30% when open glass beakers were used and about 17% when the samples were digested in microwave oven. When long-necked bottles (Kjeldahl flasks) were used, a loss of about 20% was registered. It has also been observed that 210...

  7. Photoinduced switchable wettability of bismuth coating with hierarchical dendritic structure between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chunping; Lu, Zhong; Zhao, Huiping; Yang, Hao, E-mail: hyangwit@hotmail.com; Chen, Rong, E-mail: rchenhku@hotmail.com

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hierarchical bismuth nanostructures were synthesized by galvanic replacement reaction. • The bismuth coating shows superhydrophobicity after being modified by stearic acid. • Wetting transition could be realized by alternation of irradiation and modification. - Abstract: Special wettability such as superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity has aroused considerable attention in recent years, especially for the surface that can be switched between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity. In this work, hierarchical bismuth nanostructures with hyperbranched dendritic architectures were synthesized via the galvanic replacement reaction between zinc plate and BiCl{sub 3} in ethylene glycol solution, which was composed of a trunk, branches (secondary branch), and leaves (tertiary branch). After being modified by stearic acid, the as-prepared bismuth coating shows superhydrophobicity with a high water contact angle of 164.8° and a low sliding angle of 3°. More importantly, a remarkable surface wettability transition between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity could be easily realized by the alternation of UV–vis irradiation and modification with stearic acid. The tunable wetting behavior of bismuth coating could be used as smart materials to make a great application in practice.

  8. Bismuth Modified Carbon-Based Electrodes for the Determination of Selected Neonicotinoid Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Rodić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Two types of bismuth modified electrodes, a bismuth-film modified glassy carbon (BiF-GCE and a bismuth bulk modified carbon paste, were applied for the determination of selected nitroguanidine neonicotinoid insecticides. The method based on an ex situ prepared BiF-GCE operated in the differential pulse voltammetric (DPV mode was applied to determine clothianidin in the concentration range from 2.5 to 23 μg cm−3 with a relative standard deviation (RSD not exceeding 1.5%. The tricresyl phosphate-based carbon paste electrodes (TCP-CPEs, bulk modified with 5 and 20 w/w% of bismuth, showed a different analytical performance in the determination of imidacloprid, regarding the peak shape, potential window, and noise level. The TCP-CPE with 5% Bi was advantageous, and the developed DPV method based on it allowed the determination in the concentration range from 1.7 to 60 μg cm−3 with an RSD of 2.4%. To get a deeper insight into the morphology of the bismuth-based sensor surfaces, scanning electron microscopic measurements were performed of both the surface film and the bulk modified electrodes.

  9. Bismuth nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in lubricant oils for tribological tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Castañeda, M., E-mail: mar.floc@hotmail.com [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Av. Instituto Literario No. 100, Oriente Col. Centro, Toluca, Estado de México C.P. 50000, México (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de México C.P. 52750, México (Mexico); Camps, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de México C.P. 52750, México (Mexico); Camacho-López, M. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Av. Instituto Literario No. 100, Oriente Col. Centro, Toluca, Estado de México C.P. 50000, México (Mexico); Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigación en Materiales (UNAM), Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, 04510 México, D.F., México (Mexico); and others

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Bismuth nanoparticles have been obtained by laser ablation of solids in liquids. • The technique allows controlling the size and concentration of the samples. • Bi np’s in base oils can improve the tribological characteristics of the lubricant. - Abstract: The improvement of the tribological properties of mineral base oils through the addition of bismuth nanoparticles as an additive, together with the idea of obtaining lubricants free of heavy metals, was evaluated. Bismuth nanoparticles were produced directly in the heavy and light viscosity mineral base oils (BS900 and BS6500) using the technique of laser ablation of solids immersed in liquids. Transmission electron microscopy measurements showed the presence of pure bismuth nanoparticles. Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) measurements showed that the average size of the nanoparticles was between 7 and 65 nm depending on the experimental conditions used. The tribological properties of the base oil with the bismuth nanoparticles additives were evaluated using a four-ball tester. Tests were performed using the base oil with and without Bi nanoparticles. It was observed that the coefficient of friction of the oil decrease with an increasing concentration of the nanoparticles. The results also showed that the wear rate was reduced when the Bi nanoparticle additives were used.

  10. Facile solvothermal synthesis of a graphene nanosheet-bismuth oxide composite and its electrochemical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huanwen [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Hu Zhongai, E-mail: zhongai@nwnu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Chang Yanqin; Chen Yanli; Lei Ziqiang; Zhang Ziyu; Yang Yuying [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2010-12-01

    This work demonstrates a novel and facile route for preparing graphene-based composites comprising of metal oxide nanoparticles and graphene. A graphene nanosheet-bismuth oxide composite as electrode materials of supercapacitors was firstly synthesized by thermally treating the graphene-bismuth composite, which was obtained through simultaneous solvothermal reduction of the colloidal dispersions of negatively charged graphene oxide sheets in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution of bismuth cations at 180 {sup o}C. The morphology, composition, and microstructure of the composites together with pure graphite oxide, and graphene were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG). The electrochemical behaviors were measured by cyclic voltammogram (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The specific capacitance of 255 F g{sup -1} (based on composite) is obtained at a specific current of 1 A g{sup -1} as compared with 71 F g{sup -1} for pure graphene. The loaded-bismuth oxide achieves a specific capacitance as high as 757 F g{sup -1} even at 10 A g{sup -1}. In addition, the graphene nanosheet-bismuth oxide composite electrode exhibits the excellent rate capability and well reversibility.

  11. How reliable are environmental data on 'orphan' elements? The case of bismuth concentrations in surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filella, Montserrat

    2010-01-01

    Like all elements of the periodic table, bismuth is ubiquitously distributed throughout the environment as a result of natural processes and human activities. It is present as Bi(III) in environmental, biological and geochemical samples. Although bismuth and its compounds are considered to be non-toxic to humans, its increasing use as a replacement for lead has highlighted how little is known about its environmental and ecotoxicological behaviour. In this first critical review paper on the existing information on bismuth occurrence in natural waters, 125 papers on fresh and marine waters have been collated. Although the initial objective of this study was to establish the range of the typical concentrations of total dissolved bismuth in natural waters, this proved impossible to achieve due to the wide, and hitherto unexplained, dispersion of published data. Since analytical limitations might be one of the reasons underlying value dispersion, new analytical methods published since 2000--intended to be applied to natural waters--have also been reviewed. Disappointingly, the detection limits of the bulk of them are well above those required; they are thus of limited usefulness. Analysis of the existing information on bismuth in secondary references (i.e., books, review chapters) and on its chemical speciation in seawater revealed that the uncritical reproduction of old data is a widespread practice.

  12. Emulsion liquid membrane for selective extraction of bismuth from nitrate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, Bahram; Pourabdollah, Kobra

    2013-01-01

    The novelty of this work is the selective extraction of bismuth ions from nitrate medium by emulsion liquid membrane. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid was used as extractant of bismuth ions from nitrate medium by emulsion liquid membrane, and Triton X-100 was used as the biodegradable surfactant in n-pentanol n-pentanol bulk membrane. The extraction of bismuth ions was evaluated by the yield of extraction. The experimental parameters were evaluated and were optimized. They included the ratio of di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid concentration to the concentration of /Triton X-100 concentration (1.0 : 0.5% w/w), nature of diluents (n-pentanol), nature and concentration of the stripping solution (sulfuric acid, 0.5M), stirring speed (1,800 rpm) and equilibrium time of extraction (20min), initial feed solution of bismuth (350 ppm) and the volume ratio of the internal stripping phase to the membrane phase (14 times). The experimental parameters of kinetic extraction revealed that the bismuth ions were extracted at 100% 97%

  13. Emulsion liquid membrane for selective extraction of bismuth from nitrate medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, Bahram; Pourabdollah, Kobra [Islamic Azad University, Shahreza (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    The novelty of this work is the selective extraction of bismuth ions from nitrate medium by emulsion liquid membrane. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid was used as extractant of bismuth ions from nitrate medium by emulsion liquid membrane, and Triton X-100 was used as the biodegradable surfactant in n-pentanol n-pentanol bulk membrane. The extraction of bismuth ions was evaluated by the yield of extraction. The experimental parameters were evaluated and were optimized. They included the ratio of di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid concentration to the concentration of /Triton X-100 concentration (1.0 : 0.5% w/w), nature of diluents (n-pentanol), nature and concentration of the stripping solution (sulfuric acid, 0.5M), stirring speed (1,800 rpm) and equilibrium time of extraction (20min), initial feed solution of bismuth (350 ppm) and the volume ratio of the internal stripping phase to the membrane phase (14 times). The experimental parameters of kinetic extraction revealed that the bismuth ions were extracted at 100% 97%.

  14. Recent Advances in Bismuth-Based Nanomaterials for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Swetha S M; Jang, Ho Won

    2017-08-10

    In recent years, bismuth-based nanomaterials have drawn considerable interest as potential candidates for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting owing to their narrow band gaps, nontoxicity, and low costs. The unique electronic structure of bismuth-based materials with a well-dispersed valence band comprising Bi 6s and O 2p orbitals offers a suitable band gap to harvest visible light. This Review presents significant advancements in exploiting bismuth-based nanomaterials for solar water splitting. An overview of the different strategies employed and the new ideas adopted to improve the PEC performance of bismuth-based nanomaterials are discussed. Morphology control, the construction of heterojunctions, doping, and co-catalyst loading are several approaches that are implemented to improve the efficiency of solar water splitting. Key issues are identified and guidelines are suggested to rationalize the design of efficient bismuth-based materials for sunlight-driven water splitting. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Electrochemical study on determination of diffusivity, activity and solubility of oxygen in liquid bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Rajesh [Liquid Metals and Structural Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Gnanasekaran, T. [Liquid Metals and Structural Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)]. E-mail: gnani@igcar.ernet.in; Srinivasa, Raman S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2006-06-15

    Diffusivity of oxygen in liquid bismuth was measured by potentiostatic method and is given bylg(D{sub O}{sup Bi}/cm{sup 2}.s{sup -1})(+/-0.042)=-3.706-1377/(TK{sup -1})(804bismuth was determined by coulometric titrations and using the measured data standard free energy of dissolution of oxygen in liquid bismuth was derived for the reaction:1/2O{sub 2}(g)=[O]{sub Bi}(at.%)and is given by{delta}G{sub O(Bi)}{sup o}/(J.g-atomO{sup -1})(+/-720)=-108784+20.356TK{sup -1}(753bismuth was derived as a function of temperature and is given by the following expressions:lg(S/at%O)(+/-0.05)=-4476/TK{sup -1}+4.05(753bismuth is compared with the literature data.

  16. Characterization and re-activation of oxygen sensors for use in liquid lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Yuji; Abe, Yuji; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Control of oxygen concentration in liquid lead-bismuth is one of the most important tasks to develop accelerator driven systems. In order to improve the reliability of oxygen sensors, re-activation treatments were investigated as well as characterization of oxygen sensors for use in liquid lead-bismuth. The oxygen sensor with a solid electrolyte of yttria-stabilized zirconia and a Pt/gas reference electrode showed almost the same electromotive force values in gas and liquid lead-bismuth, respectively, as the theoretical ones at temperatures above 400 deg. C or 450 deg. C. After long-term use of 6500 h, the outputs of the sensor became incorrect in liquid lead-bismuth. The state of the sensor that indicated incorrect outputs could not be recovered by cleaning with a nitric acid. However, it was found that the oxygen sensor became a correct sensor indicating theoretical values in liquid lead-bismuth after re-activation by the Pt-treatment of the outer surface of the sensor.

  17. Crystallinity and electrical properties of neodymium-substituted bismuth titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-C.; Hsiung, C.-P.; Chen, C.-Y.; Gan, J.-Y.; Sun, Y.-M.; Lin, C.-P.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the properties of Nd-substituted bismuth titanate Bi 4-x Nd x Ti 3 O 12 (BNdT) thin films for ferroelectric non-volatile memory applications. The Nd-substituted bismuth titanate thin films fabricated by modified chemical solution deposition technique showed much improved properties compared to pure bismuth titanate. A pyrochlore free crystalline phase was obtained at a low annealing temperature of 640 deg. C and grain size was found to be considerably increased as the annealing temperature increased. The film properties were found to be strongly dependent on the Nd content and annealing temperatures. The measured dielectric constant of BNdT thin films was in the range 172-130 for Bi 4-x Nd x Ti 3 O 12 with x 0.0-0.75. Ferroelectric properties of Nd-substituted bismuth titanate thin films were significantly improved compared to pure bismuth titanate. For example, the observed 2P r and E c for Bi 3.25 Nd 0.75 Ti 3 O 12 , annealed at 680 deg. C, were 38 μC/cm 2 and 98 kV/cm, respectively. The improved microstructural and ferroelectric properties of BNdT thin films suggest their suitability for high density ferroelectric random access memory applications

  18. Bismuth nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in lubricant oils for tribological tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Castañeda, M.; Camps, E.; Camacho-López, M.; Muhl, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bismuth nanoparticles have been obtained by laser ablation of solids in liquids. • The technique allows controlling the size and concentration of the samples. • Bi np’s in base oils can improve the tribological characteristics of the lubricant. - Abstract: The improvement of the tribological properties of mineral base oils through the addition of bismuth nanoparticles as an additive, together with the idea of obtaining lubricants free of heavy metals, was evaluated. Bismuth nanoparticles were produced directly in the heavy and light viscosity mineral base oils (BS900 and BS6500) using the technique of laser ablation of solids immersed in liquids. Transmission electron microscopy measurements showed the presence of pure bismuth nanoparticles. Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) measurements showed that the average size of the nanoparticles was between 7 and 65 nm depending on the experimental conditions used. The tribological properties of the base oil with the bismuth nanoparticles additives were evaluated using a four-ball tester. Tests were performed using the base oil with and without Bi nanoparticles. It was observed that the coefficient of friction of the oil decrease with an increasing concentration of the nanoparticles. The results also showed that the wear rate was reduced when the Bi nanoparticle additives were used

  19. Tailored versus Triple plus Bismuth or Concomitant Therapy as Initial Helicobacter pylori Treatment: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liya; Zhang, Jianzhong; Song, Zhiqiang; He, Lihua; Li, Yanqing; Qian, Jiaming; Bai, Peng; Xue, Yan; Wang, Ye; Lin, Sanren

    2016-04-01

    With markedly increased antibiotic resistance and unsatisfactory efficacies of common empiric eradication regimens in the mainland of China, tailored therapy may be the best choice to achieve good efficacy. This study compared the eradication rates, safety, and compliance of tailored therapy to those of triple therapy plus bismuth and concomitant therapy in the naïve patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. Between September 2013 and April 2014, 1050 patients with H. pylori infection at three tertiary hospitals were randomly assigned to 10-day treatment with tailored, triple plus bismuth, or concomitant regimens. In tailored therapy, medications were adjusted according to clarithromycin sensitivity and cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2C19 genotype. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing (E test) was performed. Eradication status was assessed 4-12 weeks after treatment. The eradication rate was significantly higher in tailored group than in triple plus bismuth and concomitant groups in both intention-to-treat (88.7 vs 77.4 vs 78.3%, p bismuth and 75.9, 87.2, 92.9, and 95.2% in concomitant therapy, respectively. First-line tailored therapy achieves significantly higher eradication rates and fewer side effects, compared to triple therapy plus bismuth and concomitant therapy in a setting with high rates of clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Comparison of Second-Line Quadruple Therapies with or without Bismuth for Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jheng, Guang-Hong; Wu, I-Chen; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Hu, Huang-Ming; Liu, Chung-Jung; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Hu, Chi-Tan; Bair, Ming-Jong; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Hsu, Ping-I

    2015-01-01

    The bismuth-based quadruple regimen has been applied in Helicobacter pylori rescue therapy worldwide. The non-bismuth-based quadruple therapy or "concomitant therapy" is an alternative option in first-line eradication but has not been used in second-line therapy. Discovering a valid regimen for rescue therapy in bismuth-unavailable countries is important. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacies of the standard quadruple therapy and a modified concomitant regimen. One hundred and twenty-four patients were randomly assigned into two groups: RBTM (rabeprozole 20 mg bid., bismuth subcitrate 120 mg qid, tetracycline 500 mg qid, and metronidazole 250 mg qid) and RATM (rabeprozole 20 mg bid., amoxicillin 1 g bid., tetracycline 500 mg qid, and metronidazole 250 mg qid) for 10 days. The eradication rate of the RBTM and RATM regimen was 92.1% and 90.2%, respectively, in intention-to-treat analysis. Patients in both groups had good compliance (~96%). The overall incidence of adverse events was higher in the RATM group (42.6% versus 22.2%, P = 0.02), but only seven patients (11.5%) experienced grades 2-3 events. In conclusion, both regimens had good efficacy, compliance, and acceptable side effects. The 10-day RATM treatment could be an alternative rescue therapy in bismuth-unavailable countries.

  1. Role of bismuth in improving Helicobacter pylori eradication with triple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Maria Pina; Lu, Hong; Graham, David Y

    2016-05-01

    In most regions of the world, antimicrobial resistance has increased to the point where empirical standard triple therapy for Helicobacter pylorieradication is no longer recommended. The treatment outcome in a population is calculated as the sum of the treatment success in the subpopulation with susceptible infections plus treatment success in the subpopulation with resistant infections. The addition of bismuth (i.e., 14-day triple therapy plus bismuth) can improve cure rates despite a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. The major bismuth effect is to add an additional 30%-40% to the success with resistant infections. The overall result is therefore dependent on the prevalence of resistance and the treatment success in the subpopulation with resistant infections (eg, with proton-pump inhibitor-amoxicillin dual therapy). Here, we explore the contribution of each component and the mechanisms of how bismuth might enhance the effectiveness of triple therapy. We also discuss the limitations of this approach and provide suggestions how triple therapy plus bismuth might be further improved. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. 210Pb and 210Po concentrations in the Venice lagoon ecosystem (Italy) and the potential radiological impact to the local public and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guogang Jia; Belli, M.; Sansone, U.; Rosamilia, S.; Blasi, M.

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate the possible radiological impact to the local public and environment from a phosphogypsum stockpile, 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in river water, lagoon water, suspended matter, superficial sediment, algae and bivalves samples collected in Venice lagoon area have been investigated. The results show that the mean 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in river water are 1.42 ± 0.36 mBq x l -1 and 1.46 ± 0.39 mBq x l -1 with a mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio of 0.98 ± 0.17 and about 60% of them are associated with the particulate; 210 Po and 210 Pb contribution from the phosphogypsum stockpile to the river water is negligible. Higher 210 Po (2.61-5.67 mBq x l -1 ) and 210 Pb (1.31-3.62 mBq x l -1 ) concentrations in the lagoon waters have been observed if compared with the literature values. About 60% of 210 Po and 210 Pb are found in the soluble form with a mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio of 1.79 ± 1.47. 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in 28 out 37 sediment samples ranged from 26 to 45 Bq x kg -1 (dry weight), only 9 sediments with 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations greater than 45 Bq x kg -1 are found and most of them are located 1-4 km near the phosphogypsum stockpile. The elevated 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in the sediments may be due to the contamination from the phosphogypsum stockpile. The mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio (0.986 ± 0.049) in the sediments shows that 210 Po and 210 Pb exist in nearly secular equilibrium. 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in algae vary with different species. The mean 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in Gracilaria compress and Ulva laetevirens which show a similar behavior, are 3.18 ± 1.23 Bq x kg -1 and 2.42 ± 1.26 Bq x kg -1 (fresh weight), respectively, with a mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio of 1.45 ± 0.34. The mean concentration factors with respect to the filtered water are 1096 ± 424 for 210 Po and 1299 ± 680 for 210 Pb. The mean 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in the soft part of Mytilus edulis are 23.2 ± 9.7 Bq

  3. The development of a bismuth feed system for the very high Isp thruster with anode layer VHITAL program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrese-Reading, Colleen; Markusic, Tom; Polzin, Kurt; Knowles, Timothy; Mueller, Juergen

    2005-01-01

    A bismuth feed system was developed for the VHITAL Program to deliver 8-12 mg/s of bismuth vapor at a few Torr to the VHITAL-160. A carbon vaporizer developed to control vapor flow rates to the thruster.

  4. The safety and efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate in combination with antibiotics for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyeth, J. W.; Pounder, R. E.; Duggan, A. E.; O'Morain, C. A.; Schaufelberger, H. D.; de Koster, E. H.; Rauws, E. A.; Bardhan, K. D.; Gilvarry, J.; Buckley, M. J.; Gummett, P. A.; Logan, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    Ranitidine bismuth citrate is a novel salt of ranitidine and a bismuth citrate complex. It has intrinsic antisecretory and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, but monotherapy rarely eradicates H. pylori infection in man. A pilot study to investigate rates of H. pylori eradication achieved by

  5. Distribution of dissolved and particulate 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the Bismarck Sea and western equatorial Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, G.A.; Smith, J.D

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of the radionuclides 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in the dissolved ( 210 Pb and 210 Po in the particulate (>0.45 μm) phases was measured in the upper 300 m of the Bismarck Sea off the Sepik River and along the equator from 143 deg E to 152 deg E in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean. 210 Pb and 210 Po occurred principally in the dissolved phase with a 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratios greater than 1.0. Box model calculations yielded an average atmospheric flux of 210 Pb of 4.5 mBq cm -2 year -1 to the ocean surface. The average residence times for dissolved 210 Po and dissolved 210 Pb were 0.27 years and 8.0 years respectively (in the mixed layer) and 1.45 years and 170 years (in the deeper layer). With an average residence time of 0.08 ± 0.03 years, particulate 210 Po varied little between the layers. The difference in 210 Po and 210 Pb residence times reflects the greater particle reactivity of 210 Po. The flux of particulate organic carbon was calculated to be 104 ± 21 mg m -2 day -1 from the upper 100 m and 180 ± 22 mg m -2 day -1 from 100-300 m. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Publishing

  6. Enhancement of the thermoelectric performance of oxygen substituted bismuth telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Quang, Tran; Kim, Miyoung

    2017-12-01

    We carried out first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and the semi-classical Boltzmann transport theory to study the effect of oxygen substitution on the electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride. The newly formed compound, Bi2O2Te, is found to be a narrow bandgap semiconductor with the bandgap of Eg = 0.13 eV. The presence of a flat band close to the valence band maximum gives rise to a steep slope of density of states near Fermi energy, leading to a significant enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient. As a result, the thermoelectric power factor of Bi2O2Te is significantly improved by controlling the carrier concentration, and the maximum power factor increased with temperature. Assuming the experiment-thermal conductivity, Bi2O2Te exhibits a high figure of merit of ZT ˜1.27 around 600 K for the p-type doping, which matches or exceeds ZT of the state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials in this temperature range. This suggests that Bi2O2Te with p-type doping is a new promising material for use in the moderate-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion.

  7. Structural investigation of Zn doped sodium bismuth borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, V., E-mail: vijetabhatia0712@gmail.com; Kumar, D. [Department of Physics, Punjabi University Patiala (India); Singh, D.; Singh, S. P. [Department of Physics, SGGSW University, Fatehgarh Sahib (India)

    2016-05-06

    A series of Bismuth Borate Oxide Glass samples with composition x(ZnO):(15-x)Na{sub 2}O:15Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}:70B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (variation in x is from 6 to 12 mole %) have been prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. All the chemicals used were of Analytical Grade. In order to verify the amorphous nature of the prepared samples the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) was done. The physical and structural properties have been explored by using the techniques such as density, molar volume and FTIR in order to understand the effect of alkali and transition metal ions on the structure of these glasses. The results obtained by these techniques are in good agreement to one another and with literature as well. With the increase in the content of ZnO, the increase in density and some variations in structural coordination (ratio of BO{sub 3} & BO{sub 4} structural units) have been observed.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of bismuth zinc niobate pyrochlore nanopowders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Zanetti

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth zinc niobate pyrochlores Bi1.5ZnNb1.5O7 (alpha-BZN, and Bi2(Zn1/3Nb2/32O 7 (beta-BZN have been synthesized by chemical method based on the polymeric precursors. The pyrochlore phase was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, and X ray diffraction. Powder and sintered pellets morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The study of alpha-BZN phase formation reveals that, at 500 °C, the pyrochlore phase was already present while a single-phased nanopowder was obtained after calcination at 700 °C. The crystallization mechanism of the beta-BZN is quite different, occurring through the crystallization of alpha-BZN and BiNbO4 intermediary phases. Both compositions yielded soft agglomerated powders. alpha-BZN pellets, sintered at 800 °C for 2 hours, presented a relative density of 97.3% while those of beta-BZN, sintered at 900 °C for 2 hours, reached only 91.8%. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss, measured at 1 MHz, were 150 and 4 x/10-4 for a-BZN, and 97 and 8 x 10-4 for beta-BZN.

  9. Process dependent thermoelectric properties of EDTA assisted bismuth telluride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulsi, Chiranjit; Banerjee, Dipali, E-mail: dipalibanerjeebesu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah-711103, West Bengal (India); Kargupta, Kajari [Chemical Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal (India)

    2016-04-13

    Comparison between the structure and thermoelectric properties of EDTA (Ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid) assisted bismuth telluride prepared by electrochemical deposition and hydrothermal route is reported in the present work. The prepared samples have been structurally characterized by high resolution X-ray diffraction spectra (HRXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopic images (HRTEM). Crystallite size and strain have been determined from Williamson-Hall plot of XRD which is in conformity with TEM images. Measurement of transport properties show sample in the pellet form (S{sub 1}) prepared via hydrothermal route has higher value of thermoelectric power (S) than the electrodeposited film (S{sub 2}). But due to a substantial increase in the electrical conductivity (σ) of the film (S{sub 2}) over the pellet (S{sub 1}), the power factor and the figure of merit is higher for sample S{sub 2} than the sample S{sub 1} at room temperature.

  10. Characterization of electrodeposited bismuth-tellurium nanowires and nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinisetty, D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Davis, D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Podlaha-Murphy, E.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Murphy, M.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Karki, A.B.; Young, D.P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Devireddy, R.V., E-mail: devireddy@me.lsu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Arrays of nanowires and nanotubes of bismuth-tellurium (Bi-Te) were fabricated by electrodeposition techniques. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to characterize the morphology of the fabricated BiTe nanowires and nanotubes. The fabricated BiTe nanowire and nanotube arrays are shown to be polycrystalline with no preferred orientation. Wavelength dispersive spectroscopy analysis shows that either p-type (Bi rich) or n-type (Te rich) nanowires or nanotubes can be obtained by changing the electrodeposition potentials. The lamellar thickness of the nanowires and nanotube crystallites were determined using the Scherrer equation and found to be {approx}17-24 nm. The Seebeck coefficient measurements at room temperature obtained for the nanowires and nanotubes deposited at -400 mV were +11.5 and +17 {mu}V K{sup -1}, respectively, whereas those obtained at -65 mV were -48 and -63 {mu}V K{sup -1}, respectively. The electrical resistance measurements indicated that the resistance of the nanowires and nanotubes decreased with increasing temperature, suggesting that these nanostructures behave like semiconductors.

  11. Modular Lead-Bismuth Fast Reactors in Nuclear Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Petrochenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the unique experience of operating reactors with heavy liquid metal coolant–eutectic lead-bismuth alloy in nuclear submarines, the concept of modular small fast reactors SVBR-100 for civilian nuclear power has been developed and validated. The features of this innovative technology are as follows: a monoblock (integral design of the reactor with fast neutron spectrum, which can operate using different types of fuel in various fuel cycles including MOX fuel in a self-providing mode. The reactor is distinct in that it has a high level of self-protection and passive safety, it is factory manufactured and the assembled reactor can be transported by railway. Multipurpose application of the reactor is presumed, primarily, it can be used for regional power to produce electricity, heat and for water desalination. The Project is being realized within the framework of state-private partnership with joint venture OJSC “AKME-Engineering” established on a parity basis by the State Atomic Energy Corporation “Rosatom” and the Limited Liability Company “EuroSibEnergo”.

  12. Antibacterial effect of bismuth subsalicylate nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Castañeda, Mariela [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Vega-Jiménez, Alejandro L., E-mail: argelia.almaguer@mac.com; Almaguer-Flores, Argelia [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Odontología, DEPeI, I (Mexico); Camps, Enrique; Pérez, Mario [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra [Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación, Unidad de Ingeniería de Tejidos, Terapia Celular y Medicina Regenerativa (Mexico); Berea, Edgardo [FarmaQuimia SA de CV. (Mexico); Rodil, Sandra E. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    The antimicrobial properties of bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) nanoparticles against four opportunistic pathogens; E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis were determined. BSS nanoparticles were synthesized by pulse laser ablation of a solid target in distilled water under different conditions. The nanoparticles were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and absorption spectra and small angle X-ray scattering. The analysis shows that the colloids maintained the BSS structure and presented average particle size between 20 and 60 nm, while the concentration ranges from 95 to 195 mg/L. The antibacterial effect was reported as the inhibition ratio of the bacterial growth after 24 h and the cell viability was measured using the XTT assay. The results showed that the inhibition ratio of E. coli and S. epidermidis was dependant on the NPs size and/or concentration, meanwhile P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were more sensitive to the BSS nanoparticles independently of both the size and the concentration. In general, the BSS colloids with average particle size of 20 nm were the most effective, attaining inhibition ratios >80 %, similar or larger than those obtained with the antibiotic used as control. The results suggest that the BSS colloids could be used as effective antibacterial agents with potential applications in the medical area.

  13. Antibacterial effect of bismuth subsalicylate nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Castañeda, Mariela; Vega-Jiménez, Alejandro L.; Almaguer-Flores, Argelia; Camps, Enrique; Pérez, Mario; Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra; Berea, Edgardo; Rodil, Sandra E.

    2015-11-01

    The antimicrobial properties of bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) nanoparticles against four opportunistic pathogens; E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis were determined. BSS nanoparticles were synthesized by pulse laser ablation of a solid target in distilled water under different conditions. The nanoparticles were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and absorption spectra and small angle X-ray scattering. The analysis shows that the colloids maintained the BSS structure and presented average particle size between 20 and 60 nm, while the concentration ranges from 95 to 195 mg/L. The antibacterial effect was reported as the inhibition ratio of the bacterial growth after 24 h and the cell viability was measured using the XTT assay. The results showed that the inhibition ratio of E. coli and S. epidermidis was dependant on the NPs size and/or concentration, meanwhile P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were more sensitive to the BSS nanoparticles independently of both the size and the concentration. In general, the BSS colloids with average particle size of 20 nm were the most effective, attaining inhibition ratios >80 %, similar or larger than those obtained with the antibiotic used as control. The results suggest that the BSS colloids could be used as effective antibacterial agents with potential applications in the medical area.

  14. Bismuth oxide nanorods based immunosensor for mycotoxin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Pratima R; Singh, Jay; Rupavali, Bharti; Tiwari, Sachchidanand; Malhotra, Bansi D

    2017-01-01

    We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of an efficient immunosensor based on bismuth oxide nanorods (nBi 2 O 3 ), electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. This immunosensor was fabricated by immobilization of anti-aflatoxin monoclonal antibodies (Ab-AFB1) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for aflatoxin B1 detection. The structural and morphological studies of n-Bi 2 O 3 have been carried out by XRD, UV-vis spectrophotometer; SEM, AFM and FTIR. It was found that the nBi 2 O 3 provided improved sensing characteristics to the electrode interface in terms of electroactive surface area, diffusion coefficient, charge transfer rate constant and electron transfer kinetics. The results of electrochemical response studies of this BSA/Ab-AFB1/nBi 2 O 3 /ITO immunosensor revealed good linearity in the range of 1-70ngdL -1 with low detection limit of 8.715ng/dL, improved sensitivity of 1.132μA/(ng/dLcm -2 ), regression coefficient R 2 of 0.918 and reproducibility of >11 times. The association constant for the BSA/Ab-AFB1/nBi 2 O 3 /ITO immunosensor was determined as 7.318ng/dL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Separation and electrodeposited of {sup 210} Po; Separacion y electrodeposito de {sup 210} Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez R, E.; Iturbe G, J.L

    1991-12-15

    Presently work it was determined the selective separation of the {sup 210} Po that is in an uraniferous mineral, by means of acid leaching of the mineral and the purification was carried out by means of partition chromatography whose stationary phase is 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D{sub 2}EHPA), it has been possible to isolate the {sup 210} Po of the rest of the radioactive elements that conform the family 4 N{sup +2}, the optimal elutriation conditions of this element were settled down of manner of not dragging other radioelements. Another of the achievements presented in this communication has been the electrodeposition of this element has more than enough stainless steel discs with a superior yield to 95%. (Author)

  16. Overview of the use of ATHENA for thermal-hydraulic analysis of systems with lead-bismuth coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.B.; Shieh, A. S.

    2000-01-01

    The INEEL and MIT are investigating the suitability of lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. This paper is concerned with the general area of thermal-hydraulics of lead-bismuth cooled reactors. The ATHENA code is being used in the thermal-hydraulic design and analysis of lead-bismuth cooled reactors. The ATHENA code was reviewed to determine its applicability for simulating lead-bismuth cooled reactors. Two modifications were made to the code as a result of this review. Specifically, a correlation to represent heat transfer from rod bundles to a liquid metal and a void correlation based on data taken in a mixture of lead-bismuth and steam were added the code. The paper also summarizes the analytical work that is being performed with the code and plans for future analytical work

  17. Fabrication of crystal-oriented barium-bismuth titanate ceramics in high magnetic field and subsequent reaction sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Tomita, Yusuke; Furushima, Ryoichi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Doshida, Yutaka; Uematsu, Keizo

    2009-02-01

    High magnetic field was applied to fabricate novel lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with a textured structure. A compact of crystallographically oriented grains was prepared by dry forming in a high magnetic field from a mixed slurry of bismuth titanate and barium titanate powders. Bismuth titanate particles with a size of about 1 μ m were used as the host material. In the forming process, the slurry was poured into a mold and set in a magnetic field of 10 T until completely dried. Bismuth titanate particles were highly oriented in the slurry under the magnetic field. The dried powder compact consisted of highly oriented bismuth titanate particles and randomly oriented barium titanate particles. Barium bismuth titanate ceramics with a - and b -axis orientations were successfully produced from the dried compact by sintering at temperatures above 1100 ° C.

  18. Review - Fabrication of crystal-oriented barium-bismuth titanate ceramics in high magnetic field and subsequent reaction sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Tanaka, Yusuke Tomita, Ryoichi Furushima, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Yutaka Doshida and Keizo Uematsu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available High magnetic field was applied to fabricate novel lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with a textured structure. A compact of crystallographically oriented grains was prepared by dry forming in a high magnetic field from a mixed slurry of bismuth titanate and barium titanate powders. Bismuth titanate particles with a size of about 1 μ m were used as the host material. In the forming process, the slurry was poured into a mold and set in a magnetic field of 10 T until completely dried. Bismuth titanate particles were highly oriented in the slurry under the magnetic field. The dried powder compact consisted of highly oriented bismuth titanate particles and randomly oriented barium titanate particles. Barium bismuth titanate ceramics with a- and b-axis orientations were successfully produced from the dried compact by sintering at temperatures above 1100 ° C.

  19. Determination of lead 210 atmospheric fluxes in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Shaik Khalil, H.

    2001-01-01

    Lead 210 atmospheric fluxes were determined by collecting 51 profiles from Syrian soil during 1998. Lead 210 fluxes in Syria calculated from lead 210 inventory in soil ranged from 15 Bq.m -2 .y -1 and 407 Bq.m -2 .y -1 with an average value of 128 Bq.m -2 .y -1 . the highest fluxes were found to be in Hama area due to the Gaab fault, which is considered as a radon source in the area. In addition, fluxes were also high in most sites, which are located in Syria valleys and around the lakes. Moreover, the study has indicated that there is no linear relation between lead 210 flux values and other parameters such as annual rainfall and bulk density of the soil. On the other hand, an effect, of those two factors on lead 210 distribution with depth has been observed. In addition, the results of variable lead 210 fluxes from site to another have proved that it is necessary, in order to obtain a representative mean value of lead 210 flux obtained in this study is within the worldwide range for lead 210 flux. (Author)

  20. 31 CFR 210.13 - Notice to account owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice to account owners. 210.13 Section 210.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... any notice required by the Service to be provided to account owners as specified in the Green Book...

  1. 7 CFR 210.16 - Food service management companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... at time of delivery, do not meet detailed specifications as developed by the school food authority..., ingredients, formulations, and delivery time. (d) Duration of contract. The contract between a school food... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food service management companies. 210.16 Section 210...

  2. 17 CFR 210.4-07 - Discount on shares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discount on shares. 210.4-07... 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Rules of General Application § 210.4-07 Discount on shares. Discount on shares, or any unamortized balance thereof, shall be shown separately as a...

  3. Hypoxia-Induced MicroRNA-210 Targets Neurodegenerative Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E. Watts

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-regulated microRNA-210 (miR-210 is a highly conserved microRNA, known to regulate various processes under hypoxic conditions. Previously we found that miR-210 is also involved in honeybee learning and memory, raising the questions of how neural activity may induce hypoxia-regulated genes and how miR-210 may regulate plasticity in more complex mammalian systems. Using a pull-down approach, we identified 620 unique target genes of miR-210 in humans, among which there was a significant enrichment of age-related neurodegenerative pathways, including Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s diseases. We have also validated that miR-210 directly regulates various identified target genes of interest involved with neuronal plasticity, neurodegenerative diseases, and miR-210-associated cancers. This data suggests a potentially novel mechanism for how metabolic changes may couple plasticity to neuronal activity through hypoxia-regulated genes such as miR-210.

  4. Unusual {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb ratios in the surface water of the Gulf of Lions; Rapports {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb inhabituels dans l`eau superficielle du golfe du Lion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radakovitch, O.; Heussner, S. [Universite de Perpignan, 66 (France). Laboratoire de Sedimentologie et Geochimie Marines]|[Cerege, Europole de l`Arbois, 13 - Aix-en-Provence (France); Cherry, R.D.; Heyraud, M. [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Physics

    1998-05-01

    Concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb have been measured in sea water collected in the Grand Rhone Canyon. Concentrations of {sup 210}Pb are at similar levels to those found in other Mediterranean sea water samples, and are at the levels which would be expected in comparison with global sea water data. The same applies to the {sup 210}Po concentrations in samples from below 100 m depth. Surface samples from above 100 m have {sup 210}Po at levels rather higher than expected, and their {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb ratios are about 1 or more as compared with the usual open ocean ratio 0.5. These data can be interpreted as indicating another source of supply of {sup 210}Po to the surface layer in addition to the normal atmospheric input. We suggest that an episodic advective particulate input, probably originating in the output of the Rhone river and perhaps involving resuspension of fine particulates from the bottom sediments as a result of storm conditions, is he most likely candidate for this additional source. (authors) 47 refs.

  5. 19 CFR 210.58 - Provisional acceptance of the motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... constitutes provisional acceptance for referral of the motion to the chief administrative law judge, who will... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Provisional acceptance of the motion. 210.58... PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.58 Provisional acceptance of...

  6. 17 CFR 210.2-07 - Communication with audit committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... statements, including the basis of consolidation and the schedules to be filed. The financial statements... FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES... Instructions as to Financial Statements Source: Sections 210.3-01 through 210.3-16 appear at 45 FR 63687, Sept...

  7. 12 CFR 210.29 - Agreement of receiving bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agreement of receiving bank. 210.29 Section 210.29 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM COLLECTION OF CHECKS AND OTHER ITEMS BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS AND FUNDS TRANSFERS THROUGH FEDWIRE (REGULATION...

  8. 19 CFR 210.49 - Implementation of Commission action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... order or an arbitration agreement pursuant to § 210.21(b), (c) or (d), respectively, shall be served... determination that there is a violation of section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 or that there is reason to... action taken under § 210.50(a), shall promptly be published in the Federal Register. It shall also be...

  9. 42 CFR 50.210 - Review of regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of regulation. 50.210 Section 50.210 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL... regulation. The Secretary will request public comment on the operation of the provisions of this subpart not...

  10. 19 CFR 210.68 - Complainant's temporary relief bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complainant's temporary relief bond. 210.68 Section 210.68 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR... individual, a trust, an estate, or a partnership, or a corporation, whose solvency and financial...

  11. 12 CFR 741.210 - Central liquidity facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Central liquidity facility. 741.210 Section 741.210 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... facility. Any credit union which is insured pursuant to Title II of the Act and is a member of the Central...

  12. 48 CFR 2152.210-70 - Investment income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Investment income. 2152.210... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2152.210-70 Investment income. As prescribed in 2110.7004(a), insert the following clause: Investment Income (OCT 2005) (a) The Contractor must invest and reinvest all...

  13. 49 CFR 384.210 - Limitation on licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on licensing. 384.210 Section 384.210 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS STATE COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM...

  14. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for packaging...

  15. 20 CFR 210.5 - Creditability of service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... established to the satisfaction of the Board before July 1947; or (iii) The employee had 6 months of active... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Creditability of service. 210.5 Section 210.5 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE...

  16. 17 CFR 210.5-02 - Balance sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 15. Intangible assets. State separately each class of such assets which is in excess of five percent... intangible assets. The amount is to be set forth separately in the balance sheet or in a note thereto. 17... § 210.4-01(a)). Assets and Other Debits Current Assets, when appropriate [See § 210.4-05] 1. Cash and...

  17. 17 CFR 210.5-03 - Income statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income statements. 210.5-03... Income statements. (a) The purpose of this rule is to indicate the various line items which, if... statements filed for the persons to whom this article pertains (see § 210.4-01(a)). (b) If income is derived...

  18. 17 CFR 210.7-04 - Income statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income statements. 210.7-04... 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Insurance Companies § 210.7-04 Income statements... face of the income statements and in the notes thereto filed for persons to whom this article pertains...

  19. 48 CFR 2152.210-71 - Notice of significant events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... events. 2152.210-71 Section 2152.210-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... events. As prescribed in 2110.7004(b), insert the following clause: Notice of Significant Events (OCT 2005) (a) The Contractor agrees to notify OPM of any significant event within 10 working days after the...

  20. Study of polonium-210 in tobacco in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahali, Saifeddine

    2014-01-01

    Polonium-210 is a radio-isotopes natural α emitter, it cans be found in tobacco with a significant range. The high activity of 210 Po in tobacco and cigarettes causes the absorption of a high dose of alpha radiation that caused probably lung cancer, the objective of this study is to estimate the activity of 210 Po in tobacco matrix. Thirteen samples of cigarettes consumed in tunisia were experimented to determine the activity of this radionuclide. The PIPS, a silicon semiconductor, is used as on α spectrometry detector for the detection of 210 Po in all of our samples. The final results showed a high radioactivity of 210 Po from 11.77 to 25.31 mBq/g. We conclude that the effective annual average is estimated at 106.53 μSv / year.

  1. Potentiation of the action of metronidazole on Helicobacter pylori by omeprazole and bismuth subcitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L P; Colding, H; Kristiansen, J E

    2000-01-01

    test (Etest). With 0.5 MIC of either of the two drugs, the susceptibility of all H. pylori4 mg/l) reverted to being metronidazole sensitive. These results suggested that either bismuth salts or proton pump inhibitors may be effective in the treatment of some infections with metronidazole-resistant H...... to regimens that include proton pump inhibitors. In the present study, the synergistic effect of subinhibitory concentrations (0.25-0.5 MIC) of either bismuth subcitrate or omeprazole with metronidazole on the susceptibility of 42 H. pylori strains was investigated by agar dilution method and the Epsilometer......Treatment failures using triple therapy that include metronidazole, are common in patients infected with metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa. Higher eradication rates in such patients have been described when treatment regimens include bismuth salts compared...

  2. Advanced bismuth-doped lead-germanate glass for broadband optical gain devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.; Suzuki, T.; Ohishi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We fabricated a series of glasses with the composition 94.7-χGeO 2 -5Al 2 O 3 -0.3Bi 2 O 3 -χPbO (χ=0-24 mol. %). Characteristic absorption bands of bismuth centered at 500, 700, 800, and 1000 nm were observed. Adding PbO was found to decrease the strength of bismuth absorption. The addition of 3%-4% PbO resulted in a 50% increase in lifetime, a 20-fold increase in quantum efficiency, and a 28-fold increase in the product of emission cross section and lifetime on the 0% PbO composition. We propose that the 800 nm absorption band relates a different bismuth center than the other absorption bands

  3. Peculiarities of the interaction of indium-tin and indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red'kin, A.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Sokolova, E.A.; Makovej, Z.I.; Telegin, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Peculiarities of fusible metal alloys interaction with ammonium halogenides in vertical reactor are considered using indium-tin and indium-bismuth binary alloys. It is shown that at the end of the process the composition of metal and salt phases is determined by the equilibrium type and constant characteristic of the given salt-metal system. As a result the interaction of indium-tin and indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halogenides leads to preferential halogenation of indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halogenides leads to preferential halogenation of indium which may be used in the processes of separation or purification. A model is suggested to calculate the final concentration of salt and metal phase components

  4. Synthesis of binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods with sensitive electrochemical sensing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Yong; Pei, Lizhai; Wei, Tian

    2017-01-01

    Binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process without templates and additives. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that the nanorods possess single crystalline tetragonal Bi 2 CdO 4 phase. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show that the length and diameter of the nanorods are 20-300 nm and 5-10 μm, respectively. The formation of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods is closely related to the hydrothermal parameters. The electrochemical sensing performance of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods has been investigated using the nanorods as glassy carbon electrode modifiers. The detection limit is 0.19 μM with a linear range of 0.0005-2 mM. The nanorod-modified glassy carbon electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activity toward L-cysteine and great application potential for electrochemical sensors.

  5. Glass-like carbon, pyrolytic graphite or nanostructured carbon for electrochemical sensing of bismuth ion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Milikić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Different carbon electrodes were explored for application in electroanalysis, namely for sensing of bismuth ion as model analyte. Carbon materials tested included glassy carbon, basal and edge plane pyrolytic graphite, as well as nanostructured carbonized polyaniline prepared in the presence of 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid. Bismuth ion was chosen as model analyte as protocol for its detection and quantifications is still to be determined. Herein, anodic stripping voltammetry was used with study of effect of several parameters such as scan rate and deposition time. Electrode based on carbonized polyaniline showed the highest activity for bismuth ion sensing in terms of the highest current densities recorded both in a laboratory and in real sample, while basal plane pyrolytic graphite electrode gave the lowest limit of detection.

  6. Antimony(V) and bismuth(V) complexes of lapachol: synthesis, crystal structure and cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ludmila G de; Silva, Meiriane M; Paula, Flávia C S de; Pereira-Maia, Elene C; Donnici, Cláudio L; Simone, Carlos A de; Frézard, Frédéric; Silva, Eufrânio N da; Demicheli, Cynthia

    2011-12-13

    Antimony(V) and bismuth(V) complexes of lapachol have been synthesized by the reaction of Ph₃SbCl₂ or Ph₃BiCl₂ with lapachol (Lp) and characterized by several physicochemical techniques such as IR, and NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The compounds contain six-coordinated antimony and bismuth atoms. The antimony(V) complex is a monomeric derivative, (Lp)(Ph₃Sb)OH, and the bismuth(V) complex is a dinuclear compound bridged by an oxygen atom, (Lp)₂(Ph₃Bi)₂O. Both compounds inhibited the growth of a chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line and the complex of Bi(V) was about five times more active than free lapachol. This work provides a rare example of an organo-Bi(V) complex showing significant cytotoxic activity.

  7. Antimony(V and Bismuth(V Complexes of Lapachol: Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Cytotoxic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Demicheli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimony(V and bismuth(V complexes of lapachol have been synthesized by the reaction of Ph3SbCl2 or Ph3BiCl2 with lapachol (Lp and characterized by several physicochemical techniques such as IR, and NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The compounds contain six-coordinated antimony and bismuth atoms. The antimony(V complex is a monomeric derivative, (Lp(Ph3SbOH, and the bismuth(V complex is a dinuclear compound bridged by an oxygen atom, (Lp2(Ph3Bi2O. Both compounds inhibited the growth of a chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line and the complex of Bi(V was about five times more active than free lapachol. This work provides a rare example of an organo-Bi(V complex showing significant cytotoxic activity.

  8. Genotoxicity studies of heavy metals: lead, bismuth, indium, silver and antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Keiko; Satoh, Hiroshi; Chiba, Momoko; Okamoto, Masahide; Serizawa, Koji; Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Many kinds of heavy metals are used in industry; thus, it is important for us to clarify their toxicity. For example, lead, which is a component of solder, is notorious for its neurotoxicity, and substitute materials have been sought for many years. Therefore, we examined the genotoxicity of lead and also those of metallic bismuth, indium, silver and antimony which are possible substitutes for lead in solder. Bacterial reverse mutation tests and chromosomal aberration tests in cultured mammalian cells were performed according to standard procedures. Antimony showed genotoxicity in both tests, and bismuth also showed positive results in the chromosomal aberration test. In contrast, lead, indium, and silver were considered to be inactive by the criteria of the present study. Although further studies are needed because of the difficulty of genotoxicity evaluation using an in vitro system, sufficient precautions should be made when antimony and bismuth are used.

  9. Adsorption of arsenic, phosphorus and chromium by bismuth impregnated biochar: Adsorption mechanism and depleted adsorbent utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ningyuan; Yan, Tingmei; Qiao, Jun; Cao, Honglei

    2016-12-01

    Bismuth impregnated biochar were synthesized to deal with wastewater pollution. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the characteristics of adsorbents and explore the main adsorption mechanism. Results showed that bismuth particle was carried successfully within the biochar matrix, making contributions to creating micropore and boost specific surface area. The loaded bismuth, served as the adsorption site, rather than the specific surface area played an important role in arsenic and phosphorus adsorption. Batch adsorption experiments demonstrated a fit Langmuir model for arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) and a suitable Freundlich model for chromium (Cr). Thermodynamic parameters depicted the endothermic nature and the spontaneous process for phosphate and arsenic adsorption. Besides, this contaminant-loaded carbon adsorbent was further applied for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Potentiation of the action of metronidazole on Helicobacter pylori by omeprazole and bismuth subcitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L P; Colding, H; Kristiansen, J E

    2000-01-01

    Treatment failures using triple therapy that include metronidazole, are common in patients infected with metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa. Higher eradication rates in such patients have been described when treatment regimens include bismuth salts compared...... to regimens that include proton pump inhibitors. In the present study, the synergistic effect of subinhibitory concentrations (0.25-0.5 MIC) of either bismuth subcitrate or omeprazole with metronidazole on the susceptibility of 42 H. pylori strains was investigated by agar dilution method and the Epsilometer...... test (Etest). With 0.5 MIC of either of the two drugs, the susceptibility of all H. pylori4 mg/l) reverted to being metronidazole sensitive. These results suggested that either bismuth salts or proton pump inhibitors may be effective in the treatment of some infections with metronidazole-resistant H...

  11. Synthesis of binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods with sensitive electrochemical sensing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Yong [Xinjiang Univ., Xinjiang (China). School of Civil Engineering and Architecture; Pei, Lizhai; Wei, Tian [Anhui Univ. of Technology, Anhui (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-07-15

    Binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process without templates and additives. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that the nanorods possess single crystalline tetragonal Bi{sub 2}CdO{sub 4} phase. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show that the length and diameter of the nanorods are 20-300 nm and 5-10 μm, respectively. The formation of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods is closely related to the hydrothermal parameters. The electrochemical sensing performance of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods has been investigated using the nanorods as glassy carbon electrode modifiers. The detection limit is 0.19 μM with a linear range of 0.0005-2 mM. The nanorod-modified glassy carbon electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activity toward L-cysteine and great application potential for electrochemical sensors.

  12. Poisoning effect of bismuth on modification behaviour of strontium in LM25 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahany, S.; Ourdjini, A.; Idris, M.H.; Thai, L.T.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleation and growth, temperature measurements and microstructure observations of silicon phase are presented for strontium modified Al-7% Si (LM25) cast alloy treated with bismuth. The results show that addition of bismuth in strontium modified alloys may have a poisoning effect resulting in lost modification of the silicon phase. With increasing Bi/Sr ratio, thermal analysis measurements showed that the eutectic growth temperature increased remarkably to 573 deg C and recalescence decreased to 0.2 deg C and the morphology of silicon displayed the same flake-like structure as in the unmodified alloys. Microstructural observation showed that a minimum Bi/Sr ratio of 1.2 which is equivalent to a Sr/Bi ratio of 0.43 is required for effective strontium modification and neutralization of the poisoning effect of bismuth. (author)

  13. Amperometry with two polarisable electrodes-XI Determination of bismuth by EDTA titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vydra, F; Vorlícek, J

    1966-04-01

    Optimum conditions have been found for a highly selective determination of bismuth via EDTA titration with biamperometric indication of the end-point. The influence of the applied potential, pH and stirring on the accuracy and selectivity of the determination has been studied. In a medium of 0.4M nitric acid only high concentrations of iron(III) and copper(II) interfere with the determination of bismuth. Zirconium, thallium(III) and indium interfere even in small concentrations. The average error of the determination of 5-100 mg of bismuth (when titrated with 0.05M EDTA solution) is +/-0-1 % rel. and for the determination of 0.5-10 mg it is +/-0.3% rel. (0.005M EDTA). The method has been verified by the analysis of a Wood's metal of known composition.

  14. Basic principles of lead and lead-bismuth eutectic application in blanket of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznosov, A.V.; Pinaev, S.S.; Muraviev, E.V.; Romanov, P.V.

    2005-01-01

    High magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop is an important issue for liquid metal blanket concepts. To decrease magnetohydrodynamic resistance authors propose to form insulating coatings on internal surface of blanket ducts at any moment of fusion reactor exploitation. It may be achieved easily if lead or lead-bismuth eutectic is used and technology of oxidative potential handling is applied. A number of experiments carried out in NNSTU show the availability of the proposed technology. It bases on formation of the insulating coatings that consist of the oxides of components of the structural materials and of the coolant components. In-situ value of the insulating coatings characteristics ρδ is ∼ 10 -5 Ohm·m 2 for steels and 5,0x10 -6 - 5,0x10 -5 Ohm·m 2 for vanadium alloys. Thermal cycling is possible during exploitation of a blanket. The experimental research of the insulating coatings properties during thermal cycling have shown that the coatings formed into the lead and lead-bismuth coolants save there insulating properties. Experience of many years is an undoubted advantage of the lead-bismuth coolant and less of the lead coolant in comparison with lithium. Russian Federation possesses of experience of exploitation of the research and industrial facilities, of experience of creation of the pumps, steamgenerators and equipment with heavy liquid metal coolants. The unique experience of designing, assembling and exploitation of the fission reactors with lead-bismuth coolant is also available. The problem of technology of lead and lead-bismuth coolants for power high temperature radioactive facilities has been solved. Accidents, emergency situations such as leakage of steamgenerators or depressurization of gas system in facilities with lead and lead-bismuth coolants have been explored and suppressed. (author)

  15. Bismuth Passivation Technique for High-Resolution X-Ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James; Hess, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The Athena-plus team requires X-ray sensors with energy resolution of better than one part in 3,000 at 6 keV X-rays. While bismuth is an excellent material for high X-ray stopping power and low heat capacity (for large signal when an X-ray is stopped by the absorber), oxidation of the bismuth surface can lead to electron traps and other effects that degrade the energy resolution. Bismuth oxide reduction and nitride passivation techniques analogous to those used in indium passivation are being applied in a new technique. The technique will enable improved energy resolution and resistance to aging in bismuth-absorber-coupled X-ray sensors. Elemental bismuth is lithographically integrated into X-ray detector circuits. It encounters several steps where the Bi oxidizes. The technology discussed here will remove oxide from the surface of the Bi and replace it with nitridized surface. Removal of the native oxide and passivating to prevent the growth of the oxide will improve detector performance and insulate the detector against future degradation from oxide growth. Placing the Bi coated sensor in a vacuum system, a reduction chemistry in a plasma (nitrogen/hydrogen (N2/H2) + argon) is used to remove the oxide and promote nitridization of the cleaned Bi surface. Once passivated, the Bi will perform as a better X-ray thermalizer since energy will not be trapped in the bismuth oxides on the surface. A simple additional step, which can be added at various stages of the current fabrication process, can then be applied to encapsulate the Bi film. After plasma passivation, the Bi can be capped with a non-diffusive layer of metal or dielectric. A non-superconducting layer is required such as tungsten or tungsten nitride (WNx).

  16. Resolution of lead-210 chronologies in lake sediments: problems of mid-core fluctuations in lead-210/radium-226 ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haworth, R.

    1997-01-01

    With a range in excess of 150 years under optimum conditions, lead-210 dating represents a valuable tool for studying recent human impacts on the environment, particularly the effects of European settlement in Australia. It is therefore also useful for establishing the start of the pre-European record in a sediment profile. Despite these advantages, there are some unresolved problems that prevent the full potential of an atmospherically-derived lead-210 profile being extended as far into the past as the activity signal allows. lead 210 has a half-life of 22.26 years, and a capacity to precipitate and be adsorbed by terrestrial material, particularly lake and marine sediments. This out-of-phase (or unsupported) lead-210 thus returns to a specific terrigenous location where it is added to the lead- 210 formed continuously in situ from the local radium-226 (equivalent to supported lead-210). Dating is based on the measurement of the decline of this unsupported lead-210 against the equilibrium ratio of in situ lead-210/radium-226

  17. Distribution of uranium 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the ecological cycle in mountain regions of Central Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, Z.; Horsic, E.; Kljajic, R.; Bauman, A.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of uranium, 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in the uncultivated mountain regions of Central Yugoslavia was investigated. Samples of beef (meat and bones), milk, cheese, grass and podsolic soil were analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of these radionuclides in this ecologically unpolluted environment was no different from cultivated regions in other parts of the world. (UK)

  18. Equilibrium distribution of lanthanum, neodymium, and thorium between lithium chloride melt and liquid bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagnit'ko, A. V.; Ignat'ev, V. V.

    2013-04-01

    The distribution of lanthanum, neodymium, and thorium between a lithium chloride melt and liquid bismuth with additions of lithium as a reducing agent are investigated at 650°C. Equilibrium values of their distribution constants are measured. It is shown that in contrast to neodymium and lanthanum, thorium cannot be extracted from bismuth into lithium chloride. This allows us to propose an efficient scheme for separating lanthanides and thorium in a system for the extraction of fuel salts in molten-salt nuclear reactors.

  19. Structural investigations of bismuth lead borosilicate glasses under the influence of gamma irradiation through ultrasonic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootjomchai, Cherdsak; Laopaiboon, Jintana; Laopaiboon, Raewat

    2012-04-01

    The ultrasonic velocity measurements for different compositions of irradiated bismuth lead borosilicate glasses xBi2O3-(50-x)PbO-20B2O3-30SiO2 (x=2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mol.%) were performed at room temperature using pulse-echo technique. Densities of glass samples were measured by Archimedes' principle using n-hexane as the immersion liquid. The results from the studies show that ultrasonic velocity, elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, microhardness, and the Debye temperature increase with increasing bismuth oxide content and increasing gamma-radiation dose (3-12 Gy).

  20. Distribution of indium, thallium and bismuth in the environmental water of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, A; Kimura, A; Tao, H

    2012-12-01

    Indium, thallium and bismuth are toxic and it is important to know the distribution of these elements in environmental water. The concentrations of these elements were measured in 50 sampling points in Japan and the reasons of high concentrations in several samples were discussed. The average concentrations (ng/L) of dissolved and particulate indium in river, lake and coastal seawater were 1.4-3.0 and 2.4-9.1, respectively. Those for thallium were 7.2-11.3 and 3.5-36.0. Those for bismuth were 12.7-24.0 and 12.1-52.7.