WorldWideScience

Sample records for bisiminopyridine iron dichlorides

  1. Ethylene oligomerization using iron complexes: beyond the discovery of bis(imino)pyridine ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudier, Adrien; Breuil, Pierre-Alain R; Magna, Lionel; Olivier-Bourbigou, Hélène; Braunstein, Pierre

    2014-02-11

    Since the discovery that bis(imino)pyridine ligands are able to confer high activities in ethylene oligomerization and polymerization to their iron complexes, considerable attention has been focused on catalyst design for these reactions and this research constitutes an ever-growing area in molecular catalysis. The tuning of the ligand structures and properties, and thus of catalysts, generally represents the basis for subsequent work contributing to process development and industrialization. Significant effort is therefore devoted to generate structural diversity in order to access the required catalyst stability and selectivity. This feature article outlines nitrogen-containing ligands that have been developed for the iron-catalyzed oligomerization of ethylene since the seminal discovery of the properties of bis(imino)pyridine ligands.

  2. Carbon-Oxygen Bond Cleavage by Bis(imino)pyridine Iron Compounds : Catalyst Deactivation Pathways and Observation of Acyl C-O Bond Cleavage in Esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trovitch, Ryan J.; Lobkovsky, Emil; Bouwkamp, Marco W.; Chirik, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Investigations into the substrate scope of bis(imino)pyridine iron-catalyzed hydrogenation and [2 pi + 2 pi]. diene cyclization reactions identified C-O bond cleavage as a principal deactivation pathway. Addition of diallyl or allyl ethyl ether to the bis(imino)pyridine iron dinitrogen complex,

  3. The mechanism for catalytic hydrosilylation by bis(imino)pyridine iron olefin complexes supported by broken symmetry density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yan Choi; Nielsen, Robert J; Goddard, William A; Dash, Aswini K

    2017-09-26

    Density functional theory (DFT, B3LYP-D3 with implicit solvation in toluene) was used to investigate the mechanisms of olefin hydrosilylation catalyzed by PDI(Fe) (bis(imino)pyridine iron) complexes, where PDI = 2,6-(ArN[double bond, length as m-dash]CMe) 2 (C 5 H 3 N) with Ar = 2,6-R 2 -C 6 H 3 . We find that the rate-determining step for hydrosilylation is hydride migration from Et 3 SiH onto the Fe-bound olefin to form (PDI)Fe(alkyl)(SiEt 3 ). This differs from the mechanism for the Pt Karstedt catalyst in that there is no prior Si-H oxidative addition onto the Fe center. (PDI)Fe(alkyl)(SiEt 3 ) then undergoes C-Si reductive elimination to form (PDI)Fe, which coordinates an olefin ligand to regenerate the resting state (PDI)Fe(olefin). In agreement with experimental observations, we found that anti-Markovnikov hydride migration has a 5.1 kcal mol -1 lower activation enthalpy than Markovnikov migration. This system has an unusual anti-ferromagnetic coupling between high spin electrons on the Fe center and the unpaired spin in the pi system of the non-innocent redox-active PDI ligand. To describe this with DFT, we used the "broken-symmetry" approach to establish the ground electronic and spin state of intermediates and transition states over the proposed catalytic cycles.

  4. Synthesis and Ligand Non-Innocence of Thiolate-Ligated (N4S) Iron(II) and Nickel(II) Bis(imino)pyridine Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widger, Leland R.; Jiang, Yunbo; Siegler, Maxime; Kumar, Devesh; Latifi, Reza; de Visser, Sam P.; Jameson, Guy N.L.; Goldberg, David P.

    2013-01-01

    The known iron(II) complex [FeII(LN3S)(OTf)] (1) was used as starting material to prepare the new biomimetic (N4S(thiolate)) iron(II) complexes [FeII(LN3S)(py)](OTf) (2) and [FeII(LN3S)(DMAP)](OTf) (3), where LN3S is a tetradentate bis(imino)pyridine (BIP) derivative with a covalently tethered phenylthiolate donor. These complexes were characterized by X-ray crystallography, UV-vis, 1H NMR, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, as well as electrochemistry. A nickel(II) analogue, [NiII(LN3S)](BF4) (5), was also synthesized and characterized by structural and spectroscopic methods. Cyclic voltammetric studies showed 1 – 3 and 5 undergo a single reduction process with E1/2 between −0.9 to −1.2 V versus Fc+/Fc. Treatment of 3 with 0.5% Na/Hg amalgam gave the mono-reduced complex [Fe(LN3S)(DMAP)]0 (4), which was characterized by X-ray crystallography, UV-vis, EPR (g = [2.155, 2.057, 2.038]) and Mössbauer (δ = 0.33 mm s−1; ΔEQ = 2.04 mm s−1) spectroscopies. Computational methods (DFT) were employed to model complexes 3 – 5. The combined experimental and computational studies show that 1 – 3 are 5-coordinate, high-spin (S = 2) FeII complexes, whereas 4 is best described as a 5-coordinate, intermediate-spin (S = 1) FeII complex antiferromagnetically coupled to a ligand radical. This unique electronic configuration leads to an overall doublet spin (Stotal = ½) ground state. Complexes 2 and 3 are shown to react with O2 to give S-oxygenated products, as previously reported for 1. In contrast, the mono-reduced 4 appears to react with O2 to give a mixture of S- and Fe-oxygenates. The nickel(II) complex 5 does not react with O2, and even when the mono-reduced nickel complex is produced, it appears to undergo only outer-sphere oxidation with O2. PMID:23992096

  5. Paraquat Dichloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraquat dichloride, commonly referred to as “paraquat,” is one of the most widely used herbicides registered in the United States. Paraquat is also often referred to as Gramoxone (a popular end-use product).

  6. Direct evidence for a coordination-insertion mechanism of ethylene oligomerization catalysed by neutral 2,6-bisiminopyridine iron monoalkyl complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Cartes, M. Ángeles; Rodríguez-Delgado, Antonio; Palma, Pilar; Sánchez, Luis J.; Cámpora, Juan; CSIC - Unidad de Recursos de Información Científica para la Investigación (URICI)

    2014-01-01

    1H NMR studies on ethylene oligomerization catalysed by the neutral monoalkyl complex [Fe(Me)(iPrBIP)] allow direct observation of alkyl iron intermediates as well as reversible ethylene coordination to the metal center, providing for the first time experimental evidence for a coordination-insertion mechanism of iron-catalysed ethylene upgrade reactions. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  7. Bis(imino)pyridine (BIMP) Fe(II) catalyses one-pot green ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    483–486. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Bis(imino)pyridine (BIMP) Fe(II) catalyses one-pot green condensation of resorcinol, malononitrile, aromatic aldehydes and cyclohexanone. SAMAN DAMAVANDIa,∗ and REZA SANDAROOSb. aDepartment of Chemistry, Sarvestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sarvestan, Iran.

  8. 21 CFR 173.230 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.230 Ethylene dichloride. A tolerance of...

  9. Organometallic mediated radical polymerization of vinyl acetate using bis(imino)pyridine vanadium trichloride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mitchell R; Allan, Laura E N; Decken, Andreas; Shaver, Michael P

    2013-07-07

    The synthesis and characterization of one novel proligand and six novel vanadium(III) trichloride complexes is described. The controlled radical polymerization activity towards vinyl acetate of these, and eight other bis(imino)pyridine vanadium trichloride complexes previously reported, is investigated. Those complexes possessing variation at the N-aryl para-position with no steric protection offered by ortho-substituents (4 examples) result in poor control over poly(vinyl acetate) polymerization. Control is improved with increasing steric bulk at the ortho-position of the N-aryl substituent (4 examples) although attempts to increase steric bulk past isopropyl were unsuccessful. Synthesizing bis(imino)pyridine vanadium trichloride complexes with substituted imine backbones restores polymerization control when aliphatic substituents are used (4 examples) but ceases to make any drastic improvements on catalyst lifetime. Modification of the polymerization conditions is also investigated, in an attempt to improve the catalyst lifetime. Expansion of the monomer scope to include other vinyl esters, particularly those derived from renewable resources, shows promising results.

  10. Radium 223 dichloride for prostate cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshayes E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Emmanuel Deshayes,1,2 Mathieu Roumiguie,3 Constance Thibault,4 Philippe Beuzeboc,5 Florent Cachin,6 Christophe Hennequin,7 Damien Huglo,8 François Rozet,9 Diana Kassab-Chahmi,10 Xavier Rebillard,11 Nadine Houédé1,12 1Radiobiology Unit, INSERM U1194, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier (ICM, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier (ICM, Montpellier, 3Urology Department, Andrology and Renal Transplantation, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse, 4Medical Oncology Department, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, 5Oncology Department, Institut Curie, 6Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU, Clermont-Ferrand, 7Radiotherapy Department, Hôpital Saint Louis, Paris, 8Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHRU, Lille, 9Urology Department, Institut Mutualiste Montsouris, 10Intergroupe coopérateur francophone de recherche en onco-urologie, Paris, 11Urology Department, Clinique BeauSoleil, Montpellier, 12Medical Oncology Department, Institut de Cancérologie du Gard – CHU Caremeau, Nîmes, France Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most common malignant disease in men. Several therapeutic agents have been approved during the last 10 years. Among them, radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo® is a radioactive isotope that induces irreversible DNA double-strand breaks and consequently tumor cell death. Radium-223 dichloride is a calcium-mimetic agent that specifically targets bone lesions. Radium-223 dichloride has been approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases, without known visceral metastases. In this review, first we summarize the interplay between prostate tumor cells and bone microenvironment; then, we discuss radium-223 dichloride mechanism of action and present the results of the available clinical trials and future developments for this new drug. Keywords: bone metastasis, mCRPC, mechanism, drug, agents, development 

  11. Surface functionalization of detonation nanodiamonds by phosphonic dichloride derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Charlene; Alauzun, Johan G; Laurencin, Danielle; Mutin, P Hubert

    2014-08-05

    A new method for the functionalization of detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) is proposed, on the basis of surface modification with phosphonic dichloride derivatives. DNDs were first modified by phenylphosphonic dichloride, and the grafting modes and hydrolytic stability under neutral conditions were investigated using (1)H, (13)C, and (31)P solid state NMR spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis. Then, in order to illustrate the possibilities offered by this method, DNDs functionalized by mesityl imidazolium groups were obtained by postmodification of DNDs modified by 12-bromododecylphosphonic dichloride. The oxidative thermal stability of the functionalized DNDs was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis.

  12. Electrochemistry of vanadocene dichloride in tetrahydrofuran and general scheme of the electroreduction of metallocene dichlorides of subgroups IVB-VIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzharenko, S.V.; Strelets, V.V.

    1987-08-10

    In tetrahydrofuran medium on a dropping mercury electrode, vanadocene dichloride undergoes reversible one-electron reduction to a metastable vanadocene dichloride anion on the first wave; this anion is reversibly dehalogenated in the layer near the electrode, forming vanadocene monochloride. On the second wave there is an irreversible one-electron reduction of vanadocene monochloride to vanadocene. The reversible one-electron reduction of vanadocene on the third wave leads to the formation of metastable anion Cp/sub 2/V/sup -/ as the primary product. A general scheme is proposed for the electroreduction of metallocene dichlorides of subgroups IVB-VIB.

  13. Synthesis of Substituted Titanocene Dichloride Derivatives by Hydrosilylation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strašák, Tomáš; Karban, Jindřich; Červenková Šťastná, Lucie; Maixnerová, Lucie; Březinová, Anna; Bernard, Martin; Fajgar, Radek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 768, OCT 1 (2014), s. 115-120 ISSN 0022-328X Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : titanocene dichloride * hydrosilylation * carbohydrates Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.173, year: 2014

  14. Tuning redox potentials of bis(imino)pyridine cobalt complexes: an experimental and theoretical study involving solvent and ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, C. Moyses; Doherty, Mark D.; Konezny, Steven J; Luca, Oana R; Usyatinsky, Alex; Grade, Hans; Lobkovsky, Emil B.; Soloveichik, Grigorii; Crabtree, Robert H; Batista, Victor S.

    2012-01-01

    The structure and electrochemical properties of a series of bis(imino)pyridine CoII complexes (NNN)CoX₂ and [(NNN)₂Co][PF₆]₂ (NNN = 2,6-bis[1-(4-R-phenylimino)ethyl]pyridine, with R = CN, CF₃, H, CH₃, OCH₃, N(CH₃)₂; NNN = 2,6-bis[1-(2,6-(iPr)₂-phenylimino)ethyl]pyridine and X = Cl, Br) were studied using a combination of electrochemical and theoretical methods. Cyclic voltammetry measurements and DFT/B3LYP calculations suggest that in solution (NNN)CoCl₂ complexes exist in equilibrium with disproportionation products [(NNN)₂Co]²⁺ [CoCl₄]²⁻ with the position of the equilibrium heavily influenced by both the solvent polarity and the steric and electronic properties of the bis(imino)pyridine ligands. In strong polar solvents (e.g., CH₃CN or H₂O) or with electron donating substituents (R = OCH₃ or N(CH₃)₂) the equilibrium is shifted and only oxidation of the charged products [(NNN)₂Co]²⁺ and [CoCl₄]²⁻ is observed. Conversely, in nonpolar organic solvents such as CH₂Cl₂ or with electron withdrawing substituents (R = CN or CF₃), disproportionation is suppressed and oxidation of the (NNN)CoCl₂ complexes leads to 18e⁻ CoIII complexes stabilized by coordination of a solvent moiety. In addition, the [(NNN)₂Co][PF₆]₂ complexes exhibit reversible CoII/III oxidation potentials that are strongly dependent on the electron withdrawing/donating nature of the N-aryl substituents, spanning nearly 750 mV in acetonitrile. The resulting insight on the regulation of redox properties of a series of bis(imino)pyridine cobalt(II) complexes should be particularly valuable to tune suitable conditions for reactivity.

  15. Hydrogen and chlorine isotope exchange in hydrogen dichloride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szydlowski, J.; Ratajska, W.

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of deuterium and chlorine-36 isotope exchange between hydrogen dichloride ions in tetramethyl- and tetraethyl-ammonium salts and hydrogen chloride was studied in the temperature range of 275-304 K. On the basis of the results obtained the exchange mechanism was proposed emphasizing the role of hydrogen bonding in the exchange process. (author)

  16. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  17. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the role of ferrous iron in diabetes pathophysiology has been revived by recent evidence of iron as an important determinant of pancreatic islet inflammation and as a biomarker of diabetes risk and mortality. The iron metabolism in the β-cell is complex. Excess free iron is toxic......, but at the same time, iron is required for normal β-cell function and thereby glucose homeostasis. In the pathogenesis of diabetes, iron generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by participating in the Fenton chemistry, which can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to present...... and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...

  18. Synthesis of [119mSn]-mesoporphyrin IX dichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denissen, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Tin mesoporphyrin IX dichloride (Sn-MPCl 2 ) is a heme oxygenase inhibitor of current clinical interest for the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The synthesis of [ 119m Sn]-MPCl 2 for drug metabolism and disposition studies is reported. [ 119m Sn]-MPCl 2 was prepared in 60% radiochemical yield by metalation of the porphyrin nucleus of mesoporphyrin IX dihydrochloride with tin(II)-119m acetate. The product had a specific activity of 43.4 mCi/mmol and a radiochemical purity of 99%, as determined by radio-HPLC analysis. (author)

  19. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Achiral Indole-Substituted Titanocene Dichloride Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Deally

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Six new titanocene compounds have been isolated and characterised. These compounds were synthesised from their fulvene precursors using Super Hydride (LiBEt3H followed by transmetallation with titanium tetrachloride to yield the corresponding titanocene dichloride derivatives. These complexes are bis-[((1-methyl-3-diethylaminomethylindol-2-ylmethylcyclopentadienyl] titanium (IV dichloride (5a, bis-[((5-methoxy-1-methyl,3-diethylaminomethylindol-2-ylmethylcyclopentadienyl] titanium (IV dichloride (5b, bis-[((1-methyl,3-diethylaminomethylindol-4-ylmethylcyclopentadienyl] titanium (IV dichloride (5c, bis-[((5-bromo-1-methylindol-3-ylmethylcyclopentadienyl] titanium (IV dichloride (5d, bis-[((5-chloro-1-methylindol-3-ylmethylcyclopentadienyl] titanium (IV dichloride (5e, and bis-[((5-fluoro-1-methylindol-3-ylmethylcyclopentadienyl] titanium (IV dichloride (5f. All six titanocenes 5a–5f were tested for their cytotoxicity through MTT-based in vitro tests on CAKI-1 cell lines using DMSO and Soluphor P as solubilising agents in order to determine their IC50 values. Titanocenes 5a–5f were found to have IC50 values of 10 (±2, 21 (±3, 29 (±4, 140 (±6, and 450 (±10 μM when tested using DMSO.

  20. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Search the ODS website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health ... eating a variety of foods, including the following: Lean meat, seafood, and poultry. Iron-fortified breakfast cereals ...

  1. The adsorption of Benzene-Ethylene Dichloride Mixtures on Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, T.; Tang, H. M.; Cheng, Z. X.

    2018-02-01

    The single component adsorption of benzene and ethylene dichloride and also the adsorption of binary mixtures of benzene and ethylene dichloride have been studied in a small fixed isothermal bed containing activated carbon (AC). Results indicate that an empirical Langmuir isotherm fits the experimental data for single components. An extended form of the empirical Langmuir isotherm, in which the parameters are obtained from single component data, satisfactorily describes the adsorption of binary mixtures. Breakthrough curves of both components could be predicted with good precision studied. This paper analyses the adsorption behaviour of a mixture of VOCs (benzene–ethylene dichloride) on AC, due to the lack of information regarding the adsorption of mixtures.

  2. Adenosine triphosphate-magnesium dichloride during hyperdynamic porcine endotoxemia: Effects on hepatosplanchnic oxygen exchange and metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asfar, Pierre; Nalos, Marek; Pittner, Antje; Theisen, Marc; Ichai, Carole; Ploner, Franz; Georgieff, Michael; Ince, Can; Brückner, Uwe Bernd; Leverve, Xavier Maurice; Radermacher, Peter; Froeba, Gebhard

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of adenosine triphosphate-magnesium dichloride (ATP-MgCl2) on systemic and hepatosplanchnic hemodynamics, oxygen exchange, and energy metabolism over 24 hrs of hyperdynamic normotensive porcine endotoxemia. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled experimental

  3. Radiation exposure of relatives of patients treated with Ra-223 dichloride; Strahlenexposition von Angehoerigen bei Therapie mit Ra-223-Dichlorid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, C.; Szermerski, B.; Solle, A.; Geworski, L. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Stabsstelle Strahlenschutz und Abt. Medizinische Physik; Pinkert, J. [Bayer Vital GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany); Kranert, W.T. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Andreeff, M. [Universitaetsklinikum ' ' Carl Gustav Carus' ' TU Dresden (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2015-07-01

    Since November 2013, a radiopharmaceutical containing Ra-223 dichloride as active substance is approved in the European Union for patients with castration resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases and no known visceral metastases. Ra-223 (T{sub 1/2} = 11.43 d) decays via a chain of 4 alpha and 2 beta decays. This therapy is presently the only application of an alpha emitter in clinical routine therapy. To show that the exposure of relatives and caregivers of patients treated with Ra-223 dichloride in an outpatient setting does not exceed a value of 1 mSv, the multicenter study ''RAPSODY'' was conducted. As Ra-223 and most of its progeny emit alpha particles, the internal exposure had to be evaluated in particular. Within this study, measurements of the radiation emitted from the patient were performed using standard dose-rate meters. Wipe-tests were taken in the patients' homes to identify significant contaminations and evaluated by liquid scintillation counting. Samples of saliva and sweat were taken and measured using gamma spectrometry. Ra-223 disintegrates to the noble gas Rn-219 and was measured in the exhaled breath from the patients using conventional Radon Monitors. Furthermore, a computational fluid dynamics simulation (CFD) was performed to assess the radioactivity in the air, which could be inhaled by persons close to the patient. Conclusions: The potential exposure of relatives and caregivers by external irradiation and incorporation of radioactivity exhaled or excreted by the patient with saliva or sweat is well below 1 mSv. No objections are seen regarding outpatient treatment. This paper summarizes contents of a poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  4. Biological Interaction of Molybdenocene Dichloride with Bovine Serum Albumin Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Moralba; Cortes-Figueroa, Jose´ E.; Meléndez, Enrique

    2018-01-01

    Bioinorganic topics are ubiquitous in the inorganic chemistry curriculum; however, experiments to enhance understanding of related topics are scarce. In this proposed laboratory, upper undergraduate students assess the biological interaction of molybdenocene dichloride (Cp2MoCl2) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) by fluorescence spectroscopy.…

  5. The absorption, tissue distribution and excretion of di-n-octyltin dichloride in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninks, A.H.; Hilgers, L.; Seinen, W.

    In this study the absorption, tissue distribution and excretion of 14C-labeled di-n-octyltin dichloride ([14C]DOTC) in rats were investigated after oral and intravenous (i.v.) administration. Although after i.v. administration with 1.2 mg [14C]DOTC/kg body weight the tissue radioactivity was about

  6. Photobleaching of Sn(IV) chlorine e6 dichloride trisodium salt in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The photobleaching of Sn(IV) chlorine e6 dichloride trisodiuim salt in variety of solvents was investigated. The absorption of photosensitizer in polar solvent was much higher than in non-polar solvent. The results prove that this photosensitizer was high water soluble. The photosensitizer absorption decreased at all bands ...

  7. The enthalpies of formation of neutral and charged components of saturated vapor over europium dichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogrebnoj, A.M.; Kudin, L.S.

    2003-01-01

    Composition of saturated vapor over europium dichloride was studied by the method of high-temperature mass spectrometry in the temperature range of 1154 - 1267 K. For neutral components of the vapor, represented by monomer and dimer molecules, partial pressures were determined. Enthalpies of sublimation of europium dichloride Δ s H 0 (298 K) as monomers (338 ± 9) and dimers (407 ± 20 kJ/mol) were calculated. Equilibrium constants of ion-molecular and ion-ionic reactions were measured, their enthalpies being ascertained. Enthalpies of formation of molecules and ions Δ f H 0 (298 K) were calculated: -486 ± 11 (EuCl 2 ), -1242 ± 22 (Eu 2 Cl 4 ), 1 ± 12 (Eu 2 Cl 2 + ), -347 ± 20 (Eu 2 Cl 3 + ), -1111 ± 42 (Eu 3 Cl 5 + ), -975 ± 20 (EuCl 3 - ), -1309 ± 17(EuCl 4 - ), -1734 ± 20 (Eu 2 Cl 5 - ) kJ/mol [ru

  8. Competitive adsorption between benzene and ethylene dichloride on activated carbon: The importance of concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, T.; Tang, H. M.; Cheng, Z. X.

    2018-03-01

    In this work we studied breakthroughs of binary mixtures of benzene and ethylene dichloride on fixed activated carbons bed. The results show a series of assault concentrations on activated carbon bed influences the nature of the adsorption competition mechanism. Assault concentration were used to determine how competition of compound distribution. The results are discussed in terms of competing energetic and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The ratio of assault concentrations is main reason for determining selectivity.

  9. Hyaluronidase: its effects on HI-6 dichloride and dimethanesulphonate pharmacokinetic profile in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Pavlik, Michal; Chladek, Jaroslav; Jun, Daniel; Kuca, Kamil

    2013-07-04

    Pigs were administered intramuscularly molar equivalents of HI-6 salts (HI-6 dichloride 10.71 mg/kg and HI-6 DMS 13.59 mg/kg) either with or without hyaluronidase (60 U/kg). Hyaluronidase is supposed to increase tissue permeability and diminishes discomfort caused by the intramuscular injection. Doses of HI-6 salts corresponded with standard HI-6 dichloride dose in one autoinjector (500 mg) and were recalculated for 1 kg of body weight. According to the results, both HI-6 salts applied in combination with hyaluronidase had increased tissue absorption and improved pharmacokinetic profile. The Cmax was significantly higher in case of HI-6 DMS plus hyaluronidase (29.6 ± 2.98 μg/ml) administration increase compared to HI-6 DMS (23.8 ± 3.04 μg/ml) and HI-6 dichloride (19.0 ± 0.93 μg/ml); both without hyaluronidase. Bioavailability calculated as AUCtotal (HI-6 DMS with hyaluronidase, 4,119 ± 647 min μg/ml) was also significantly higher compared to HI-6 DMS (2,259 ± 329 min μg/ml) and HI-6 dichloride (1,969 ± 254 min μg/ml); both without hyaluronidase. The results suggest that administration of HI-6 salt with higher solubility is the first step in the improvement of application strategy, but use some substances with spreading effect (hyaluronidase) may also leads to better absorption and better bioavailability. Improved bioavailability could to go hand in hand with increased effectiveness of therapy without the need of multiple autoinjector applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A spiral-like chain from a hydrogen-bonded cyclic dichloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The O-H ⋯ Cl and O-H ⋯ O interactions between the chloride anions and water molecules lead to the formation of a five-membered {O3Cl2} cyclic dichloride containing a water dimer. The five-membered rings are linked into a chain with the aid of a O-H ⋯ Cl interaction. The organic cations are organised in zigzag fashion ...

  11. Depuration Technique of Xenobiotics with Reference to Accumulation and Elimination of Paraquat Dichloride in Clarias Gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ikpesu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paraquat dichloride is a highly toxic herbicide which is still used in many developing countries. African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus is a commercially important species in many countries and was selected assess accumulation and elimination of paraquat dichloride in its tissues.Methods: Groups of ten fish with equal lengths and weights were exposed to varying concentrations of Paraquat dichloride for 28 days. After the exposure, the fish were transferred to uncontaminated water. Two fish were sampled for pesticide residue at the end of exposure period (28days and 1, 7 and 14 days post exposure. Results: In pesticide treated fish, the accumulation of paraquat increased with increases in the concentration of the toxicant and varied significantly between the treatments (p < 0.05. The herbicide depurated gradually with cessation of exposure and no pesticide was observed after 14 days. Conclusion: Xenobiotics could be eliminated from aquatic organisms especially fishes and could be put into practice in areas at risk of pollutants. This novel approach can reduce the risks of biomagnification of poisons in sea food.

  12. A molecular docking study of the interactions between human transferrin and seven metallocene dichlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güette-Fernández, Jorge R; Meléndez, Enrique; Maldonado-Rojas, Wilson; Ortega-Zúñiga, Carlos; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Parés-Matos, Elsie I

    2017-08-01

    Human Transferrin (hTf) is a metal-binding protein found in blood plasma and is well known for its role in iron delivery. With only a 30% of its capacity for Fe +3 binding, this protein has the potential ability to transport other metal ions or organometallic compounds from the blood stream to all cell tissues. In this perspective, recent studies have described seven metallocene dichlorides (Cp 2 M(IV)Cl 2 , M(IV)=V, Mo, W, Nb, Ti, Zr, Hf) suitable as anticancer drugs and less secondary effects than cisplatin. However, these studies have not provided enough data to clearly explain how hTf binds and transports these organometallic compounds into the cells. Thus, a computational docking study with native apo-hTf using Sybyl-X 2.0 program was conducted to explore the binding modes of these seven Cp 2 M(IV)Cl 2 after their optimization and minimization using Gaussian 09. Our model showed that the first three Cp 2 M(IV)Cl 2 (M(IV)=V, Mo, W) can interact with apo-hTf on a common binding site with the amino acid residues Leu-46, Ile-49, Arg-50, Leu-66, Asp-69, Ala-70, Leu-72, Ala-73, Pro-74 and Asn-75, while the next four Cp 2 M(IV)Cl 2 (M(IV)=Nb, Ti, Zr, Hf) showed different binding sites, unknown until now. A decreasing order in the total score (equal to -log Kd) was observed from these docking studies: W (5.4356), Mo (5.2692), Nb (5.1672), V (4.5973), Ti (3.6529), Zr (2.0054) and Hf (1.8811). High and significant correlation between the affinity of these seven ligands (metallocenes) for apo-hTf and their bond angles CpMCp (r=0.94, p<0.01) and Cl-M-Cl (r=0.95, p<0.01) were observed, thus indicating the important role that these bond angles can play in ligand-protein interactions. Fluorescence spectra of apo-hTf, measured at pH 7.4, had a decrease in the fluorescence emission spectrum with increasing concentration of Cp 2 M(IV)Cl 2 . Experimental data has a good correlation between K A (r=0.84, p=0.027) and K d (r=0.94, p=0.0014) values and the calculated total scores

  13. Direct measurement of interaction forces between a platinum dichloride complex and DNA molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Hiroshi; Shimada, Shogo; Okada, Tomoko

    2017-09-01

    The interaction forces between a platinum dichloride complex and DNA molecules have been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The platinum dichloride complex, di-dimethylsulfoxide-dichloroplatinum (II) (Pt(DMSO) 2 Cl 2 ), was immobilized on an AFM probe by coordinating the platinum to two amino groups to form a complex similar to Pt(en)Cl 2 , which is structurally similar to cisplatin. The retraction forces were measured between the platinum complex and DNA molecules immobilized on mica plates using force curve measurements. The histogram of the retraction force for λ-DNA showed several peaks; the unit retraction force was estimated to be 130 pN for a pulling rate of 60 nm/s. The retraction forces were also measured separately for four single-base DNA oligomers (adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine). Retraction forces were frequently observed in the force curves for the DNA oligomers of guanine and adenine. For the guanine DNA oligomer, the most frequent retraction force was slightly lower than but very similar to the retraction force for λ-DNA. A higher retraction force was obtained for the adenine DNA oligomer than for the guanine oligomer. This result is consistent with a higher retraction activation energy of adenine with the Pt complex being than that of guanine because the kinetic rate constant for retraction correlates to exp(FΔx - ΔE) where ΔE is an activation energy, F is an applied force, and Δx is a displacement of distance.

  14. Thio-Pybox and Thio-Phebox complexes of chromium, iron, cobalt and nickel and their application in ethylene and butadiene polymerisation catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobbs, James D; Tomov, Atanas K; Cariou, Renan; Gibson, Vernon C; White, Andrew J P; Britovsek, George J P

    2012-05-21

    A series of bis(thiazolinyl)- and bis(thiazolyl)pyridine Thio-Pybox ligands and their metal complexes of chromium(III), iron(II), cobalt(II) and nickel(II) has been prepared, as well as a nickel(II) complex containing a monoanionic bis(thiazolinyl)phenyl Thio-Phebox ligand. These new metal complexes have been characterised and used as catalysts, in combination with the co-catalyst MAO, for the polymerisation of ethylene and for the polymerisation of butadiene. In the case of ethylene polymerisation, the Thio-Pybox and Thio-Phebox metal complexes have shown relatively low polymerisation activities, much lower compared to the related bis(imino)pyridine complexes of the same metals. In the polymerisation of butadiene, several Thio-Pybox cobalt(II) complexes show very high activities, significantly higher than the other metal complexes with the same ligand. It is the metal, rather than the ligand, that appears to have the most profound effect on the catalytic activity in butadiene polymerisation, unlike in the polymerisation of ethylene, where bis(imino)pyridine ligands provide highly active catalysts for a range of 1st row transition metals.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of calcium hydroxy and fluoroapatite functionalized with methyl phosphonic dichloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agougui, Hassen; Aissa, Abdallah [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Debbabi, Mongi, E-mail: m.debbabi@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface reactivity of apatites toward methyl phosphonic dichloride is tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical analysis shows that hydroxyapatite is more reactive. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NMR spectra show the formation of Ca-O-P{sub org} and P{sub inorg}-O-P{sub org} bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AFM indicated that the texture surface was changed by grafting. - Abstract: The nature of apatite-organic molecule interaction was the subject of many investigations. Grafting the organic molecule onto the inorganic support may precede through either formation of covalent bonds or ionic interaction between superficial hydroxyl on the apatite surface and organic functions. The hybrid materials obtained by functionalization of apatite surfaces with phosphonate moieties are of interest for their potential applications such in catalysis, chromatography and biomedical domain. In this scope, calcium hydroxyl and fluoroapatite (CaHAp and CaFAp) were prepared in the presence of the methyl phosphonic dichloride (MPO), by contact method in organic solvent at 25 Degree-Sign C for 2 days. The products are rigorously characterized by chemical analysis, infrared (IR), MAS-NMR spectroscopies, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and specific surface area (SSA). The X-ray powder analysis showed that the crystallinity was sensibly affected by the presence of organic moieties. The IR spectroscopy showed new vibration modes appearing related to phosphonate groups essentially at 2930, 1315, 945, 764 and 514 cm{sup -1}. The {sup 31}P MAS NMR spectrum for hydroxy and fluoroapatite exhibits a single signal at 2.8 ppm. After reaction with (MPO) the spectra show the presence of new signals, assigned to the formation of organic-inorganic bond between the superficial hydroxyl groups of the apatite ({identical_to}CaOH) and ({identical_to}POH) and methyl phosphonic dichloride. The SSA decreases with increasing

  16. Ethylenediammonium dichloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Gabro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The title ionic compound, C2H10N22+·2Cl−, crystallizes with a center of symmetry within the cation. Each of the positively charged ammonium ends of the molecule is trigonally hydrogen bonded to three different chloride counter-ions, while each of the chloride ions is trigonally hydrogen bonded to three different ethylenediammonium cations. The hydrogen-bonding network leads to stabilization of the structure.

  17. Synthesis, solid and solution studies of paraquat dichloride calixarene complexes. Molecular modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia S, I.; Ramirez, F. M., E-mail: flor.ramirez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The interaction of the herbicide paraquat dichloride (P Q, substrate) with p-tert-butylcalix arenas (L, receptor) was investigated in both the solution and solid states. The isolated paraquat calixarene complexes were characterised by UV-visible, {sup 1}H NMR, ESI-Ms, Luminescence and IR spectroscopies and elemental analysis. The stoichiometry of complexes 1 and 2 was 1:1 (1 herbicide: 1 calixarene) and both revealed a biexponential luminescence decay with lifetimes depending on the size and the conformational particularity of the calixarenes. Molecular modelling suggested that both calixarenes interact with the herbicide through cation-{pi} interaction. P Q in included in the p-tert butylcalix a rene cavity, a situation favoured by its pinched conformation in polar solvent while it is partially included in the p-tert butylcalix a rene cavity because of its in-out cone conformation. The theoretical results, in particular using Mopac procedures, were in agreement with the experimental findings. (Author)

  18. Synthesis, solid and solution studies of paraquat dichloride calixarene complexes. Molecular modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia S, I.; Ramirez, F. M.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of the herbicide paraquat dichloride (P Q, substrate) with p-tert-butylcalix arenas (L, receptor) was investigated in both the solution and solid states. The isolated paraquat calixarene complexes were characterised by UV-visible, 1 H NMR, ESI-Ms, Luminescence and IR spectroscopies and elemental analysis. The stoichiometry of complexes 1 and 2 was 1:1 (1 herbicide: 1 calixarene) and both revealed a biexponential luminescence decay with lifetimes depending on the size and the conformational particularity of the calixarenes. Molecular modelling suggested that both calixarenes interact with the herbicide through cation-π interaction. P Q in included in the p-tert butylcalix a rene cavity, a situation favoured by its pinched conformation in polar solvent while it is partially included in the p-tert butylcalix a rene cavity because of its in-out cone conformation. The theoretical results, in particular using Mopac procedures, were in agreement with the experimental findings. (Author)

  19. Nucleophilic reactions of hydrazido(2-) complexes of molybdenum and tungsten with succinyl dichloride and phenyl isocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanami, Kiyotaka; Mizobe, Yasushi; Takahashi, Tamotsu; Kodama, Teruyuki; Uchida, Yasuzo

    1981-01-01

    Nucleophilic attack of the WNNH 2 group in the hydrazido(2-) complex [WF(NNH 2 )(dpe) 2 ][BF 4 ] (dpe = Ph 2 PCH 2 CH 2 PPh 2 ) on succinyl dichloride gives a novel ethanedioylhydrazido(2-) complex, [WF(NNCOCH 2 CH 2 CO)(dpe) 2 ][BF 4 ]. X-Ray structural analysis shows that the carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms of the ethanedioylhydrazido(2-) ligand lie nearly in the same plane, indicating sp 2 character of the nitrogen atom bearing the two carbonyl groups. Phenyl isocyanate also undergoes nucleophilic attack by the hydrazido(2-) complex [MBr(NNH 2 )(dpe) 2 ]Br (M = Mo or W) to yield the phenylsemicarbazido(2-) type complex, [MBr(NNHCONHPh)(dpe) 2 ]Br. Treatment of the semicarbazido(2-) complex with triethylamine gives a new diazenido complex [MBr(NNCONHPh)(dpe) 2 ]. (author)

  20. Modeling the structure and vibrational spectra for oxouranium dichloride monomer and dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umreiko, D. S.; Shundalau, M. B.; Trubina, O. V.

    2010-11-01

    Structural models are designed and spectral characteristics are computed for the monomer and dimer of the oxouranium dichloride (UOCl2) molecule based on ab initio calculations. The calculations were carried out in the LANL2DZ effective core potential approximation for the uranium atom and all-electron basis sets using DFT methods for oxygen and chlorine atoms (B3LYP/cc-pVDZ). A close-to-planar Y-shaped equilibrium configuration with Cs symmetry is obtained for the UOCl2 monomer. The formation of the dimer is accompanied by both significant changes in the structure of the monomeric fragments and the actual loss of their identities. The obtained spectral characteristics are analyzed and compared with experimental data. The adequacy of the proposed models and qualitative agreement between calculation and experiment are demonstrated.

  1. Mercuric dichloride induces DNA damage in human salivary gland tissue cells and lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Katharina; Kroemer, Susanne [University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Sassen, Andrea [University of Regensburg, Department of Pathology, Regensburg (Germany); Staudenmaier, Rainer [Technical University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Munich (Germany); Reichl, Franz-Xaver [University of Munich, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Harreus, Ulrich [University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Munich (Germany); Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Amalgam is still one of the most frequently used dental filling materials. However, the possible adverse effects especially that of the mercuric component have led to continued controversy. Considering that mercury may be released from amalgam fillings into the oral cavity and also reach the circulating blood after absorption and resorption, it eventually may contribute to tumorigenesis in a variety of target cells. The present investigation focuses on genotoxic effects below a cytotoxic dose level of mercuric dichloride (HgCl{sub 2}) in human samples of salivary glands and lymphocytes to elucidate a possible role in tumor initiation. DNA migration due to single strand breaks, alkali labile sites and incomplete excision repair was quantified with the aid of the single cell microgel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. The concepts of Olive Tail Moment, percentage of DNA in the Tail and Tail Length were used as measures of DNA damage. To control for cytotoxic effects, the trypan blue exclusion test was applied. Human samples of the parotid salivary gland and lymphocytes of ten donors were exposed to HgCl{sub 2} concentrations from 1 to 50 {mu}M. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) served as controls. Increasing dose-dependent DNA migration could be demonstrated after exposure to HgCl{sub 2} in cells of the salivary glands and lymphocytes. In both cell types a significant increase in DNA migration could be shown starting from HgCl{sub 2} concentrations of 5 {mu}M in comparison to the negative control. The viability of the cell systems was not affected except at the highest concentration (50 {mu}M) tested. These data indicate genotoxic effects of mercuric dichloride in human salivary glands and lymphocytes at concentrations not leading to cytotoxic effects or cell death. Consequently, a contributory role in oral salivary gland tumor initiation warrants further investigation. (orig.)

  2. Radiation exposure of relatives of patients treated with Ra-223 dichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanke, C.; Szermerski, B.; Solle, A.; Geworski, L.; Kranert, W.T.; Andreeff, M.; TU Dresden

    2015-01-01

    Since November 2013, a radiopharmaceutical containing Ra-223 dichloride as active substance is approved in the European Union for patients with castration resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases and no known visceral metastases. Ra-223 (T 1/2 = 11.43 d) decays via a chain of 4 alpha and 2 beta decays. This therapy is presently the only application of an alpha emitter in clinical routine therapy. To show that the exposure of relatives and caregivers of patients treated with Ra-223 dichloride in an outpatient setting does not exceed a value of 1 mSv, the multicenter study ''RAPSODY'' was conducted. As Ra-223 and most of its progeny emit alpha particles, the internal exposure had to be evaluated in particular. Within this study, measurements of the radiation emitted from the patient were performed using standard dose-rate meters. Wipe-tests were taken in the patients' homes to identify significant contaminations and evaluated by liquid scintillation counting. Samples of saliva and sweat were taken and measured using gamma spectrometry. Ra-223 disintegrates to the noble gas Rn-219 and was measured in the exhaled breath from the patients using conventional Radon Monitors. Furthermore, a computational fluid dynamics simulation (CFD) was performed to assess the radioactivity in the air, which could be inhaled by persons close to the patient. Conclusions: The potential exposure of relatives and caregivers by external irradiation and incorporation of radioactivity exhaled or excreted by the patient with saliva or sweat is well below 1 mSv. No objections are seen regarding outpatient treatment. This paper summarizes contents of a poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  3. Assessment of occurrence and concentrations of paraquat dichloride in water, sediments and fish from Warri River Basin, Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpesu, Thomas Ohwofasa

    2015-06-01

    The distribution of Paraquat dichloride in different matrices of Warri River, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria was examined. The samplings and physicochemical parameters of the river were carried out during the dry and wet seasons, and stations were visited on monthly basis. The downstream stations had significant (p water, the pesticide level was higher in the dry season than in wet season, and there was no significant difference between the seasons (p > 0.05). The reverse was the case for sediments and fish. The physicochemical parameters of the river's water were within the recommended limits accepted by Federal Environmental Protection Agency, Nigeria. The observed Paraquat dichloride concentrations were above ecological bench, an observation that calls for regular monitoring and strict law enforcement to develop a strategy to manage environmental hazards and to improve environmental protection of this area.

  4. Dosimetry of bone metastases in targeted radionuclide therapy with alpha-emitting (223)Ra-dichloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacilio, Massimiliano; Ventroni, Guido; De Vincentis, Giuseppe; Cassano, Bartolomeo; Pellegrini, Rosanna; Di Castro, Elisabetta; Frantellizzi, Viviana; Follacchio, Giulia Anna; Garkavaya, Tatiana; Lorenzon, Leda; Ialongo, Pasquale; Pani, Roberto; Mango, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Ra-dichloride is an alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical used in the treatment of bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer. Image-based dosimetric studies remain challenging because the emitted photons are few. The aim of this study was to implement a methodology for in-vivo quantitative planar imaging, and to assess the absorbed dose to lesions using the MIRD approach. The study included nine Caucasian patients with 24 lesions (6 humeral head lesions, 4 iliac wing lesions, 2 scapular lesions, 5 trochanter lesions, 3 vertebral lesions, 3 glenoid lesions, 1 coxofemoral lesion). The treatment consisted of six injections (one every 4 weeks) of 50 kBq per kg body weight. Gamma-camera calibrations for (223)Ra included measurements of sensitivity and transmission curves. Patients were statically imaged for 30 min, using an MEGP collimator, double-peak acquisition, and filtering to improve the image quality. Lesions were delineated on (99m)Tc-MDP whole-body images, and the ROIs superimposed on the (223)Ra images after image coregistration. The activity was quantified with background, attenuation, and scatter correction. Absorbed doses were assessed deriving the S values from the S factors for soft-tissue spheres of OLINDA/EXM, evaluating the lesion volumes by delineation on the CT images. In 12 lesions with a wash-in phase the biokinetics were assumed to be biexponential, and to be monoexponential in the remainder. The optimal timing for serial acquisitions was between 1 and 5 h, between 18 and 24 h, between 48 and 60 h, and between 7 and 15 days. The error in cumulated activity neglecting the wash-in phase was between 2 % and 12 %. The mean effective half-life (T 1/2eff) of (223)Ra was 8.2 days (range 5.5-11.4 days). The absorbed dose (D) after the first injection was 0.7 Gy (range 0.2-1.9 Gy. Considering the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha particles (RBE = 5), D RBE = 899 mGy/MBq (range 340-2,450 mGy/MBq). The

  5. Copper-64 Dichloride as Theranostic Agent for Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Preclinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ferrari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults with a median survival time less than one year. To date, there are only a limited number of effective agents available for GBM therapy and this does not seem to add much survival advantage over the conventional approach based on surgery and radiotherapy. Therefore, the development of novel therapeutic approaches to GBM is essential and those based on radionuclide therapy could be of significant clinical impact. Experimental evidence has clearly demonstrated that cancer cells have a particularly high fractional content of copper inside the nucleus compared to normal cells. This behavior can be conveniently exploited both for diagnosis and for delivering therapeutic payloads (theranostic of the radionuclide copper-64 into the nucleus of cancerous cells by intravenous administration of its simplest chemical form as dichloride salt [64Cu]CuCl2. To evaluate the potential theranostic role of [64Cu]CuCl2 in GBM, the present work reports results from a preclinical study carried out in a xenografted GBM tumor mouse model. Biodistribution data of this new agent were collected using a small-animal PET tomograph. Subsequently, groups of tumor implanted nude mice were treated with [64Cu]CuCl2 to simulate single- and multiple-dose therapy protocols, and results were analyzed to estimate therapeutic efficacy.

  6. Iron Chelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Menu Donate Treatments Therapies Iron Chelation Iron chelation therapy is the main treatment ... have iron overload and need treatment. What is iron overload? Iron chelation therapy is used when you ...

  7. Synthesis, characterization and x-ray crystal structure of a dimethyltin (IV) dichloride complex of 2-acetylpyridine benzophenone azine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustaffa Shamsuddin; Md Abu Affan; Ramli Atan

    1998-01-01

    Dimethyltin dichloride react with 2-ac ethylpyridine benzophenone azine (apba) in refluxing dry hexane to give (SnMe 2 Cl 2 (apba)) where the azine ligand acts as a bidentate N-N chelating ligand. The complex has been characterized by IR spectroscopy, 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopic data and elemental analyses. The crystal structure of the dimethyltin(IV) derivative has also been determined. Crystals are monoclinic with space group P2(1)/n with cell dimensions: a = 10.1819(3) Armstrong, b = 18.3113(5) Armstrong, c = 12.6451(4) Armstrong

  8. Crystal structure of magnesium dichloride decahydrate determined by X-ray and neutron diffraction under high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Kazuki; Shinozaki, Ayako; Machida, Shinichi; Matsubayashi, Takuto; Watanabe, Mao; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Sano-Furukawa, Asami; Hattori, Takanori

    2015-02-01

    Magnesium dichloride decahydrate (MgCl2·10H2O) and its deuterated counterpart (MgCl2·10D2O) are identified for the first time by in-situ powder synchrotron X-ray and spallation neutron diffraction. These substances are crystallized from a previously unidentified nanocrystalline compound, which originates from an amorphous state at low temperature. A combination of a recently developed autoindexing procedure and the charge-flipping method reveals that the crystal structure of MgCl2·10H2O consists of an ABCABC··· sequence of Mg(H2O)6 octahedra. The Cl(-) anions and remaining water molecules unconnected to the Mg(2+) cations bind the octahedra, similar to other water-rich magnesium dichloride hydrates. The D positions in MgCl2·10D2O, determined by the difference Fourier methods using the neutron powder diffraction patterns at 2.5 GPa, show the features such as bifurcated hydrogen bonds and tetrahedrally coordinated O atoms, which were not found in other forms of magnesium chloride hydrates.

  9. Reduction of titanocene dichloride with dysprosium: access to a stable titanocene(ii) equivalent for phosphite-free Takeda carbonyl olefination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousrez, G; Déchamps, I; Vasse, J-L; Jaroschik, F

    2015-05-28

    The reduction of titanocene dichloride with dysprosium yields a new titanocene(ii) equivalent without the need for further stabilising ligands. This reagent can be employed in combination with dithioacetals for the olefination of different carbonyl groups and allows for a simplified all-in-one procedure.

  10. Titanocene Dichloride Complexes Bonded to Carbosilane Dendrimers Via a Spacer of Variable Length – Molecular Dynamics Calculations and Catalysis of Allylic Coupling Reactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strašák, Tomáš; Jaroschik, F.; Malý, M.; Čermák, Jan; Sýkora, Jan; Fajgar, Radek; Karban, Jindřich; Harakat, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 409, SI (2014), s. 137-146 ISSN 0020-1693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06070 Grant - others:UJEP(CZ) GA13-06989S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : metallodendrimers * titanocene dichloride * allylic homocoupling * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.046, year: 2014

  11. Unexpected formation and crystal structure of tetrakis(1H-pyrazole-κN2palladium(II dichloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wagner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, [Pd(C3H4N24]Cl2, was obtained unexpectedly by the reaction of palladium(II dichloride with equimolar amounts of 1-chloro-1-nitro-2,2,2-tris(pyrazolylethane in methanol solution. The Pd2+ cation is located on an inversion centre and has a square-planar coordination sphere defined by four N atoms of four neutral pyrazole ligands. The average Pd—N distance is 2.000 (2 Å. The two chloride anions are not coordinating to Pd2+. They are connected to the complex cations through N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds. In addition, C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds are observed, leading to a three-dimensional linkage of cations and anions.

  12. Intravenous application of HI-6 salts (dichloride and dimethansulphonate) in pigs: comparison with pharmacokinetics profile after intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdarova Karasova, Jana; Zemek, Filip; Kunes, Martin; Kvetina, Jaroslav; Chladek, Jaroslav; Jun, Daniel; Bures, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Kuca, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    Oxime HI-6 is an acetylcholinesterase reactivator therapeutically efficient against nerve agents. Because of their physico-chemical properties, oximes are typically applied intramuscularly (i.m.). This route of administration has also some disadvantages, and alternative strategies ought to be examined. We evaluated the pharmacokinetic profiles of two HI-6 salts after their intravenous (i.v.) administration, and compare the results with the known pharmacokinetics after i.m. administration. Pigs were administered with HI-6 salts (i.v), either HI-6 dichloride (10.71 mg/kg) or molar equivalent HI-6 dimethansulphonate (13.59 mg/kg). Doses of the HI-6 salts corresponded with a standard HI-6 dichloride dose in one autoinjector (500 mg) and were recalculated for one kilogram of body weight. The main pharmacokinetic parameters are comparable after i.v. and i.m. HI-6 administration. The compared pharmacokinetic parameters were half-life, terminal rate constant, mean residence time of the molecule in the body, clearance, and the apparent volume in the terminal phase. The bioavailability after i.m. administration was comparable with that of i.v.; these results suggest that the oxime is well released from the muscle depot. Significant differences were found in parameters Cmax and Tmax which are important in cases of emergency when rapidity and bioavailability are paramount for the success of treatment. I.v. administration should solve the problem of rapid clearance. Infusion or bolus administration may be considered as a logical subsequent step in oxime treatment strategy. The main advantage is in maintenance of an effective therapeutic plasma concentration, a more easily achievable effective therapeutic concentration, and fewer local adverse reactions.

  13. Versatile supramolecular reactivity of zinc-tetra(4-pyridylporphyrin in crystalline solids: Polymeric grids with zinc dichloride and hydrogen-bonded networks with mellitic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Lipstman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Crystal engineering studies confirm that the zinc-tetra(4-pyridylporphyrin building block reveals versatile supramolecular chemistry. In this work, it was found to be reactive in the assembly of both (a a 2D polymeric array by a unique combination of self-coordination and coordination through external zinc dichloride linkers and (b an extended heteromolecular hydrogen-bonded network with mellitic acid sustained by multiple connectivity between the component species.

  14. Dosimetry of bone metastases in targeted radionuclide therapy with alpha-emitting {sup 223}Ra-dichloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacilio, Massimiliano [Azienda Ospealiera San Camillo Forlianini, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Medical Physics; Ventroni, Guido; Mango, Lucio [Azienda Ospealiera San Camillo Forlianini, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicin; De Vincentis, Giuseppe; Di Castro, Elisabetta; Frantellizzi, Viviana; Follacchio, Giulia Anna; Garkavaya, Tatiana [Rome Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomo Pathological Sciences; Cassano, Bartolomeo; Lorenzon, Leda [Rome Univ. (Italy). Postgraduate School of Medical Physics; Pellegrini, Rosanna; Pani, Roberto [Rome Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Molecular Medicine; Ialongo, Pasquale [Azienda Ospealiera San Camillo Forlianini, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-01-15

    Ra-dichloride is an alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical used in the treatment of bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer. Image-based dosimetric studies remain challenging because the emitted photons are few. The aim of this study was to implement a methodology for in-vivo quantitative planar imaging, and to assess the absorbed dose to lesions using the MIRD approach. The study included nine Caucasian patients with 24 lesions (6 humeral head lesions, 4 iliac wing lesions, 2 scapular lesions, 5 trochanter lesions, 3 vertebral lesions, 3 glenoid lesions, 1 coxofemoral lesion). The treatment consisted of six injections (one every 4 weeks) of 50 kBq per kg body weight. Gamma-camera calibrations for {sup 223}Ra included measurements of sensitivity and transmission curves. Patients were statically imaged for 30 min, using an MEGP collimator, double-peak acquisition, and filtering to improve the image quality. Lesions were delineated on {sup 99m}Tc-MDP whole-body images, and the ROIs superimposed on the {sup 223}Ra images after image coregistration. The activity was quantified with background, attenuation, and scatter correction. Absorbed doses were assessed deriving the S values from the S factors for soft-tissue spheres of OLINDA/EXM, evaluating the lesion volumes by delineation on the CT images. In 12 lesions with a wash-in phase the biokinetics were assumed to be biexponential, and to be monoexponential in the remainder. The optimal timing for serial acquisitions was between 1 and 5 h, between 18 and 24 h, between 48 and 60 h, and between 7 and 15 days. The error in cumulated activity neglecting the wash-in phase was between 2 % and 12 %. The mean effective half-life (T{sub 1/2eff}) of {sup 223}Ra was 8.2 days (range 5.5-11.4 days). The absorbed dose (D) after the first injection was 0.7 Gy (range 0.2-1.9 Gy). Considering the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha particles (RBE = 5), D{sub RBE} = 899 mGy/MBq (range 340-2,450 mGy/MBq). The

  15. Porous carbon nanospheres derived from chlorination of bis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium dichloride and their electrochemical capacitor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Pedro, E-mail: pegonzal@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Centeno, T.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon-CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Urones-Garrote, Esteban [Centro de Microscopia y Citometria, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Avila-Brande, David; Otero-Diaz, L. Carlos [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} Microporous carbon nanospheres have been produced via chlorination reaction of bis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium dichloride. {yields} The materials present a structure formed by disordered arrangements of graphene-like layers, sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratio {approx}95-97% and mass-density below pure graphite. {yields} The increase in the reaction temperature decreases the particle size distribution and improves the surface area and the micropore volume. {yields} Electrochemical performance for the 900 deg. C sample shows a specific capacitance of 106 F g{sup -1} in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte and 80 F g{sup -1} in (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4}NBF{sub 4}/acetonitrile medium. - Abstract: Conglomerated and accreted porous carbon spheres have been obtained by the chlorination reaction of bis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium dichloride as carbon precursor. The spheres size distribution, derived from scanning electron microscopy observations, shows that the diameter intervals decreases from 70-525 nm at 400 deg. C to 40-370 nm at 900 deg. C. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations indicate that the spheres are formed by open and curved randomly stacked graphene-like layers. Electron energy loss spectroscopy studies show relative sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} ratio higher than 95% and mass-density values (1.1-1.6 g cm{sup -3}) smaller than graphite. Nitrogen adsorption measurements reveal the presence of micro and mesopores whose contributions to the total porosity greatly depend on the preparation temperature. Galvanostatic charging-discharging measurements on the carbon material synthesized at 900 deg. C provide a specific capacitance of 106 F g{sup -1} in the aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte and 80 F g{sup -1} in the aprotic (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4}NBF{sub 4}/acetonitrile medium. These high values suggest the potentiality of this material for electrical energy storage in electrochemical double layer capacitors.

  16. Radiation Dose and Hazard Assessment of Potential Contamination Events During Use of 223Ra Dichloride in Radionuclide Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabin, Michael G; Siegel, Jeffry A

    2015-09-01

    An analysis is presented of the possible dosimetric consequences of various potential contamination events involving 223Ra dichloride (Xofigo), the FDA-approved therapeutic agent used in the treatment of bone metastases in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Three exposure scenarios are considered: inhalation dose to an individual due to the hypothetical inhalation of 219Rn and its progeny assumed to be released into the air from a liquid spill on the floor, external dose from direct photon exposure of an individual assigned to clean up a spill, and skin dose to an individual should the liquid material come into contact with their skin. Doses from the first two scenarios were very small; 2.8 × 10(-3) mSv and 8.1 × 10(-4) mSv, respectively. Using extremely conservative assumptions, the skin dose was estimated to be 72 mSv; in a realistic scenario, this dose would likely be an order of magnitude or more lower. These doses are very small compared to regulatory limits, and good health physics practices likely to be employed in such incidents would lower them still further. The authors conclude that the medical use of Xofigo does not pose any significant radiation safety issue with respect to potential contamination events, even if multiple incidents might occur during the course of a year, since all worst-case potential contamination events considered in this study will not result in significant radiation exposures to workers.

  17. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    , a situation unique in the Solar System. In such a world, iron metal is unstable and, as we all know, oxidizes to the ferric iron compounds we call 'rust'. If we require iron metal it must be produced at high temperatures by reacting iron ore, usually a mixture of ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) oxides (Fe2O3......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost...... unique examples of iron metal, otherwise called 'native iron' or 'telluric iron', occur naturally....

  18. A unique drug distribution process for radium Ra 223 dichloride injection and its implication for product quality, patient privacy, and delineation of professional responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Raymond N

    2014-11-01

    On May 15, 2013, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals announced that it had received marketing approval for the therapeutic radioactive medication radium Ra 223 dichloride injection (Xofigo; Ra 223). The product acquisition and distribution process for hospital-based nuclear pharmacies and nuclear medicine services is unlike any other. The product is distributed as a low-risk compounded sterile preparation through a single compounding nuclear pharmacy located in Denver, Colorado, pursuant to a prescription. This model for drug distribution and delivery to the user institution has implications for product quality, patient privacy, and delineation of professional responsibilities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Tailoring iron complexes for ethylene oligomerization and/or polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Sun, Wen-Hua; Redshaw, Carl

    2013-07-07

    Recent progress in the use of iron-based complex pre-catalysts for ethylene reactivity is reviewed, illustrating the current state-of-the-art and the potential usefulness of such systems for delivering solely ethylene oligomerization or polymerization products. The problems associated with the industrial use of late transition metal complex pre-catalysts are generally regarded as catalyst deactivation and the formation of more products of lower molecular weight at elevated temperature. These problems have been addressed for iron-based complex pre-catalysts via the fine tuning of substituents of existing ligands and/or the design of new ligand sets. Results revealed that modified bis(imino)pyridyliron dichlorides were capable of operating at elevated temperatures, and were capable of delivering highly linear polyethylene. Other new models of iron complexes have achieved high activity for ethylene oligomerization and/or polymerization. Particularly successful has been the use of the 2-iminophenanthrolyliron pre-catalyst, which have now been utilized in a 500 tonne pilot plant.

  20. Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:23729726

  1. Conversion of Aryl Iodides into Aryliodine(III Dichlorides by an Oxidative Halogenation Strategy Using 30% Aqueous Hydrogen Peroxide in Fluorinated Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Podgoršek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative chlorination with HCl/H2O2 in 1,1,1-trifluoroethanol was used to transform aryl iodides into aryliodine(III dihalides. In this instance 1,1,1-trifluoroethanol is not only the reaction medium, but is also an activator of hydrogen peroxide for the oxidation of hydrochloric acid to molecular chlorine. Aryliodine(III dichlorides were formed in 72–91% isolated yields in the reaction of aryl iodides with 30% aqueous hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid at ambient temperature. A study of the effect that substituents on the aromatic ring have on the formation and stability of aryliodine(III dichlorides shows that the transformation is easier to achieve in the presence of the electron-donating groups (i.e. methoxy, but in this case the products rapidly decompose under the reported reaction conditions to form chlorinated arenes. The results suggest that oxidation of hydrogen chloride with hydrogen peroxide is the initial reaction step, while direct oxidation of aryl iodide with hydrogen peroxide is less likely to occur.

  2. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron in your body causes iron-deficiency anemia. Lack of iron usually is due to blood loss, ... can help prevent overdosing in children. Because recent research supports concerns that iron deficiency during infancy and ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ... is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ... of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawings also can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Poor Diet The best sources of iron are meat, poultry, ... more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat the ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The best sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods (foods that have iron ... you: Follow a diet that excludes meat and fish, which are the best sources of iron. However, ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ... good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, ... iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... re more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ... which are the best sources of iron. However, vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ... which are the best sources of iron. However, vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can provide enough iron if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron ... can provide enough iron if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. ... Treatment may need to be done in a hospital. The goals of treating iron-deficiency anemia are ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and lead to ... Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron- ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat sources ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ... sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the ... pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron added. ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, ... iron deficiency. Endurance athletes lose iron through their gastrointestinal tracts. They also lose iron through the breakdown of ...

  4. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  6. IRON DOME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated precise guided missile defence has been around for some years, and is a modern-day mechanism used frequently since 2011 to defend against rocket attacks penetrating national airspace. Israel's automated Iron Dome. Missile Defence System has intercepted over 1 000 rockets during two recent.

  7. Iron and iron derived radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fast! Think small! In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Iron bioavailability from commercially available iron supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christides, Tatiana; Wray, David; McBride, Richard; Fairweather, Rose; Sharp, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a global public health problem. Treatment with the standard of care ferrous iron salts may be poorly tolerated, leading to non-compliance and ineffective correction of IDA. Employing supplements with higher bioavailability might permit lower doses of iron to be used with fewer side effects, thus improving treatment efficacy. Here, we compared the iron bioavailability of ferrous sulphate tablets with alternative commercial iron products, including three liquid-based supplements. Iron bioavailability was measured using Caco-2 cells with ferritin formation as a surrogate marker for iron uptake. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by either Dunnett's or Tukey's multiple comparisons tests. Spatone Apple(®) (a naturally iron-rich mineral water with added ascorbate) and Iron Vital F(®) (a synthetic liquid iron supplement) had the highest iron bioavailability. There was no statistical difference between iron uptake from ferrous sulphate tablets, Spatone(®) (naturally iron-rich mineral water alone) and Pregnacare Original(®) (a multimineral/multivitamin tablet). In our in vitro model, naturally iron-rich mineral waters and synthetic liquid iron formulations have equivalent or better bioavailability compared with ferrous iron sulphate tablets. If these results are confirmed in vivo, this would mean that at-risk groups of IDA could be offered a greater choice of more bioavailable and potentially better tolerated iron preparations.

  9. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Haack, Henning; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    By far most of the melted and differentiated planetesimals that have been sampled as meteorites are metal-rich iron meteorites or stony iron meteorites. The parent asteroids of these meteorites accreted early and differentiated shortly after the solar system formed, producing some of the oldest...... and interpretations for iron and stony iron meteorites (Plate 13.1). Such meteorites provide important constraints on the nature of metal-silicate separation and mixing in planetesimals undergoing partial to complete differentiation. They include iron meteorites that formed by the solidification of cores...... (fractionally crystallized irons), irons in which partly molten metal and silicates of diverse types were mixed together (silicate-bearing irons), stony irons in which partly molten metal and olivine from cores and mantles were mixed together (pallasites), and stony irons in which partly molten metal...

  10. Iron and Prochlorococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    facilitate iron transport, store iron, regulate iron homeostasis , and enable acclimation to low iron availability (Andrews et al, 2003). In...Bacterial iron homeostasis . FEMS Microbiology Reviews 27: 215-237. Barbeau K (2006) Photochemistry of Organic Iron(III) Complexing Ligands in Oceanic...Microbiology 145: 1473-1484. Moore JK, Doney SC, Lindsay K (2004) Upper ocean ecosystem dynamics and iron cycling in a global three-dimensional

  11. Iron bioavailability from commercially available iron supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Christides, Tatiana; Wray, David; McBride, Richard; Fairweather, Rose; Sharp, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a global public health problem. Treatment with the standard of care ferrous iron salts may be poorly tolerated, leading to non-compliance and ineffective correction of IDA. Employing supplements with higher bioavailability might permit lower doses of iron to be used with fewer side effects, thus improving treatment efficacy. Here, we compared the iron bioavailability of ferrous sulphate tablets with alternative commercial iron products, including thre...

  12. [Iron dysregulation and anemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Katsuya

    2015-10-01

    Most iron in the body is utilized as a component of hemoglobin that delivers oxygen to the entire body. Under normal conditions, the iron balance is tightly regulated. However, iron dysregulation does occasionally occur; total iron content reductions cause iron deficiency anemia and overexpression of the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin disturbs iron utilization resulting in anemia of chronic disease. Conversely, the presence of anemia may ultimately lead to iron overload; for example, thalassemia, a common hereditary anemia worldwide, often requires transfusion, but long-term transfusions cause iron accumulation that leads to organ damage and other poor outcomes. On the other hand, there is a possibility that iron overload itself can cause anemia; iron chelation therapy for the post-transfusion iron overload observed in myelodysplastic syndrome or aplastic anemia improves dependency on transfusions in some cases. These observations reflect the extremely close relationship between anemias and iron metabolism.

  13. Iron and iron derived radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leer en español What Is Iron-deficiency anemia ... cases, surgery may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  16. Synthesis, growth and characterization of L-lysinium(+)...L-lysinium(2+) dichloride perchlorate (LLDP) single crystals by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, V; Ramesh Babu, R; Ramamurthi, K

    2012-12-01

    L-lysinium(+)...L-lysinium(2+) dichloride perchlorate was synthesized at ambient temperature and bulk single crystals were grown by conventional and Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy methods. Crystals grown by these methods were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, high resolution X-ray diffraction, Vickers microhardness and thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetric/differential thermal analyses. Further, the cut-off wavelength and optical transmittance of the grown crystals were determined by UV-vis-NIR spectrum. Linear refractive index (n(x)) of the crystal was measured using minimum deviation method for different wavelengths. Optical quality of the grown crystals was analyzed by conoscopic interference pattern and the birefringence was calculated using interferometric technique. Surface laser damage threshold of the crystal was determined using Nd:YAG laser. The nonlinear refractive index n(2) was measured through the Z-scan technique using low power continuous wave HeNe laser. Frequency and temperature dependent dielectric constant (ε(r)) and dielectric loss (tanδ) were measured. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis, growth and characterization of L-lysinium(+)…L-lysinium(2+) dichloride perchlorate (LLDP) single crystals by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, V.; Ramesh Babu, R.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2012-12-01

    L-lysinium(+)…L-lysinium(2+) dichloride perchlorate was synthesized at ambient temperature and bulk single crystals were grown by conventional and Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy methods. Crystals grown by these methods were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, high resolution X-ray diffraction, Vickers microhardness and thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetric/differential thermal analyses. Further, the cut-off wavelength and optical transmittance of the grown crystals were determined by UV-vis-NIR spectrum. Linear refractive index (nx) of the crystal was measured using minimum deviation method for different wavelengths. Optical quality of the grown crystals was analyzed by conoscopic interference pattern and the birefringence was calculated using interferometric technique. Surface laser damage threshold of the crystal was determined using Nd:YAG laser. The nonlinear refractive index n2 was measured through the Z-scan technique using low power continuous wave Hesbnd Ne laser. Frequency and temperature dependent dielectric constant (ɛr) and dielectric loss (tan δ) were measured.

  18. Root bark extracts of Juncus effusus and Paeonia suffruticosa protect salivary gland acinar cells from apoptotic cell death induced by cis-platinum (II) diammine dichloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukudai, Yoshiki; Kondo, Seiji; Shiogama, Sunao; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Li, Chunnan; Yazawa, Kazunaga; Shintani, Satoru

    2013-12-01

    Cis-platinum (II) diammine dichloride (CDDP) is a platinum-based anticancer agent, and is often used for chemotherapy for malignant tumors, albeit CDDP has serious side-effects, including xerostomia (dry mouth). Since patients with xerostomia have reduced quality of life, it is urgent and important to identify nontoxic and natural agents capable of reducing the adverse effect of chemotherapy on salivary gland function. Therefore, we commenced an institutional collaborative project in which candidates of herbal extracts were selected from more than 400 bioactive herbal products for their potential therapeutic effects not only on xerostomia, but also on oral diseases. In the present study, we report on two Chinese medical herbal extracts from the root barks of Juncus effusus and Paeonia suffruticosa. The two extracts showed a protective effect in NS-SV-Ac cells from the cytotoxicity and apoptosis caused by CDDP. The effect was dependent on the p53 pathway, protein kinase B/Akt 1 and mitochondrial apoptosis-related proteins (i.e. Bcl-2 and Bax), but was not dependent on nuclear factor κB. Notably, the apoptosis-protective effect of the extracts was not observed in adenocystic carcinoma cell lines. Although these extracts have been utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years, there are no reports to our knowledge, on their therapeutic effects on xerostomia. Thus, in the present study, we elucidated the potency of these herbal extracts as novel candidates for xerostomia to improve the quality of life of patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  19. Synthesis and Mössbauer spectroscopy of formal tin(II) dichloride and dihydride species supported by Lewis acids and bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rafia, S M Ibrahim; Shynkaruk, Olena; McDonald, Sean M; Liew, Sean K; Ferguson, Michael J; McDonald, Robert; Herber, Rolfe H; Rivard, Eric

    2013-05-06

    (119)Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy was performed on a series of formal Sn(II) dichloride and dihydride adducts bound by either carbon- or phosphorus-based electron pair donors. Upon binding electron-withdrawing metal pentacarbonyl units to the tin centers in LB·SnCl2·M(CO)5 (LB = Lewis base; M = Cr or W), a significant decrease in isomer shift (IS) was noted relative to the unbound Sn(II) complexes, LB·SnCl2, consistent with removal of nonbonding s-electron density from tin upon forming Sn-M linkages (M = Cr and W). Interestingly, when the nature of the Lewis base in the series LB·SnCl2·W(CO)5 was altered, very little change in the IS values was noted, implying that the LB-Sn bonds were constructed with tin-based orbitals of large p-character (as supported by prior theoretical studies). In addition, variable temperature Mössbauer measurements were used to determine the mean displacement of the tin atoms in the solid state, a parameter that can be correlated with the degree of covalent bonding involving tin in these species.

  20. Causes of the different catalytic activity of metallocene dichlorides of subgroups IVB-VIB in the amalgam reduction of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strelets, V.V.; Kuzharenko, S.V.; Tsarev, V.N.

    1987-08-10

    Vanadocene, generated by the amalgam reduction of Cp/sub 2/VCl/sub 2/ (Cp = eta/sup 5/-C/sub 5/H/sub 5/) in a medium of aprotic solvents (DMFA, THF, dimethylacetamide, DMSO, etc.), containing phenol as a proton donor, effectively catalyzes the reduction of CO by sodium amalgam at approx. 20/sup 0/C and 1 atm with the formation of C/sub 1/-C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons. In this work they studied the catalytic activity of other complexes of metals of subgroups IVB-VIB (M = Ti, Nb, Mo, W) in the amalgam reduction of CO in THF and DMFA medium. Differences in the catalytic activity of metallocene dichlorides of subgroups IVB-VIB in the amalgam reduction of carbon monoxide are due to thermodynamic factors determining the impossibility of amalgam reduction of the catalyst-substrate complex (subgroup IV) and differences in the stability of the corresponding metallocene (subgroups VB and VIB). Amalgam reduction of carbon monoxide, bound in a complex with metallocene, occurs under conditions of transfer of the first electron against the potential gradient.

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Blood Loss When you lose blood, you lose ...

  2. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... life when more iron is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, ...

  4. Iron metabolism in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Drygalski, Annette; Adamson, John W

    2013-09-01

    Iron metabolism in man is a highly regulated process designed to provide iron for erythropoiesis, mitochondrial energy production, electron transport, and cell proliferation. The mechanisms of iron handling also protect cells from the deleterious effects of free iron, which can produce oxidative damage of membranes, proteins, and lipids. Over the past decade, several important molecules involved in iron homeostasis have been discovered, and their function has expanded our understanding of iron trafficking under normal and pathological conditions. Physiologic iron metabolism is strongly influenced by inflammation, which clinically leads to anemia. Although hepcidin, a small circulating peptide produced by the liver, has been found to be the key regulator of iron trafficking, molecular pathways of iron sensing that control iron metabolism and hepcidin production are still incompletely understood. With this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of iron metabolism, the recently discovered regulators of iron trafficking, and a focus on the effects of inflammation on the process.

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... making new blood cells. Visit our Aplastic Anemia Health Topic to learn more. ... recommend that you take iron supplements, also called iron pills or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark ... choose nonmeat sources of iron, including iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the body. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time if your body doesn't have enough iron ... because your need for iron increases during these times of growth and development. Inability To Absorb Enough ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Iron - Health Professional Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... taking an overdose of iron. Iron supplements can cause side effects, such as dark stools, stomach irritation, and heartburn. Iron also can cause constipation, so your doctor may suggest that you ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron in your body causes iron-deficiency anemia. Lack of iron usually is due to blood loss, ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Learn more about participating in a clinical ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have iron-deficiency anemia, you'll have a high level of transferrin that has no iron. Other ... may include dietary changes and supplements, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require a blood ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and paler than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency ... if you have iron-deficiency anemia or another type of anemia. You may be diagnosed with iron- ...

  16. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K.

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also may help treat iron-deficiency anemia. Medical History Your doctor will ask about your signs and ... much of the transferrin in your blood isn't carrying iron. If you have iron-deficiency anemia, ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ... Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) Avoiding Anemia (National ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts of iron, ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... foods that are high in iron. It is important to know that increasing your intake of iron may not be enough to replace the iron your body normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... ESAs are usually used with iron therapy or IV iron, or when iron therapy alone is not enough. Look for Living With will discuss what your doctor may recommend, including lifelong lifestyle changes ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods that have iron ... Anemia Restless Legs Syndrome Von Willebrand Disease Other Resources NHLBI resources Your Guide to Anemia [PDF, 1. ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may experience vomiting, headache, or other side effects right after the IV iron, but these usually go ... iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ... and lifestyle changes to avoid complications. Follow your treatment plan Do not stop taking your prescribed iron ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... is low in iron. For this and other reasons, cow's milk isn't recommended for babies in ... iron in your body is low. For this reason, other iron tests also are done. Serum ferritin. ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Hemolysis, in this case, is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of red blood cells, hemoglobin, and iron. Dietary Changes and Supplements Iron You may need iron supplements ... are improving. At your checkups, your doctor may change your medicines or supplements. He or she also ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  9. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedix, Gretchen K.; Haack, Henning; McCoy, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich...... sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar...... to that continuing on Earth – although on much smaller length- and timescales – with melting of the metal and silicates; differentiation into core, mantle, and crust; and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth...

  10. Iron deficiency anemia refractory to iron preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with iron deficiency anemia are treated effectively with oral iron preparations. However, a small number of these patients are refractory to such treatments, even when the pathologic condition underlying the anemia is concurrently treated. The pathological basis for this refractoriness can be explained by several factors, including malabsorption of iron, e.g. atrophic gastritis, deficiency of other hematopoietic vitamins or minerals, e.g. vitamin B12 or zinc, other undiagnosed anemic disorders, e.g. renal anemia or hematopoietic diseases, as well as certain hereditary disorders of iron metabolism, e.g. iron refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) caused by genetic mutation of the TMPRSS6 gene. This review focuses on the diagnosis and pathoetiology of iron deficiency anemia that is refractory to conventional oral iron preparations.

  11. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... term but can't take iron supplements by mouth. This therapy also is given to people who need immediate treatment for iron-deficiency anemia. Living With If you have iron-deficiency anemia, get ongoing care to make sure your iron levels are improving. ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  14. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  15. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  16. Special thermite cast irons

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. Zhiguts; I. Kurytnik

    2008-01-01

    The given paper deals with the problems of the synthesis of cast iron by metallothermy synthesis. On the basis of investigated method of calculations structures of charges have been arranged and cast iron has been synthesized further. Peculiarities metallothermic smelting were found, mechanical properties and structure of received cast iron were investigated and different technologies for cast iron receiving were worked out.

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... of growth and development. Inability To Absorb Enough Iron Even if you have enough iron in your ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions to prevent you from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried ... patterns. Increase your daily intake of iron-rich foods to help treat your iron-deficiency anemia. See Prevention strategies to learn about foods ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron added). If you don't eat these foods regularly, or if you don't take an iron supplement, you're more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... levels of red blood cells, hemoglobin, and iron. Dietary Changes and Supplements Iron You may need iron supplements to build ... Syndrome Other Resources Non-NHLBI Resources Anemia (MedlinePlus) "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iron" (Office of Dietary Supplements, National ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  2. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 15 milligrams. (Adolescence is a time of rapid growth and teen girls need additional iron to replace what they ... make up the difference. Iron deficiency can affect growth and may lead to ... Enough Iron? Kids and teens should know that iron is an important part ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescribes. Keep iron supplements out of reach from children. This will prevent them from taking an overdose of iron. Iron supplements can cause side effects, such as dark stools, stomach irritation, and heartburn. Iron also can cause constipation, so your doctor may suggest that you use ...

  4. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  5. Iron absorption in relation to iron status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Hallberg, L.; Rossander, L.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption from a 3 mg dose of ferrous iron was measured in 250 male subjects. The absorption was related to the log concentration of serum ferritin in 186 subjects of whom 99 were regular blood donors (r= -0.76), and to bone marrow haemosiderin grading in 52 subjects with varying iron status. The purpose was to try and establish a percentage absorption from such a dose that is representative of subjects who are borderline iron deficient. This information is necessary for food iron absorption studies in order (1) to calculate the absorption of iron from the diet at a given iron status and (2) compare the absorption of iron from different meals studied in different groups of subjects by different investigarors. The results suggest that an absorption of about 40% of a 3 mg reference dose of ferrous iron is given in a fasting state, roughly corresponds to the absorption in borderline-iron-deficient subjects. The results indicate that this 40% absorption value corresponds to a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l and that food iron absorption in a group of subjects should be expressed preferably as the absorption corresponding to a reference-dose absorption of 45%, or possibly a serum ferritin level of 30 μg/l. (author)

  6. [Iron and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, B; Bresson, J L; Briend, A; Farriaux, J P; Ghisolfi, J; Navarro, J; Rey, J; Ricour, C; Rieu, D; Vidailhet, M

    1995-12-01

    Infants, young children, and childbearing aged women are particularly exposed to iron deficiency. Pregnancy further increases iron requirements. Nevertheless the consequences of anemia and/or iron deficiency on pregnancy outcome, development of the foetus and postnatal iron status of the infant, remain to be determined. There is a 3-fold increase of premature deliveries in iron deficient anemic pregnant women whose anemia is discovered in early pregnancy: however this increased risk of premature delivery is not observed when iron deficiency anemia is discovered in late pregnancy. Iron supplementation during pregnancy improves the maternal hematological parameters but it is still unclear whether it also improves the maternal health and the pre and postnatal development of the child. Based on our actual knowledge, iron supplementation during pregnancy is to be recommended in risk groups only (ie mainly adolescents, low income women, women with multiple pregnancies), using ferrous iron at a dosage of 30 mg per day.

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at 1 year of age. Women and Girls Women of childbearing age may be tested for iron-deficiency anemia, especially if they have: A history of iron-deficiency anemia Heavy blood loss during ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... condition. Women Women of childbearing age are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of blood ... iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are at higher risk for the condition because they need twice ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if you ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... of iron include: Iron-fortified breads and cereals Peas; lentils; white, red, and baked beans; soybeans; and ... and juices usually have more vitamin C than canned ones. If you're taking medicines, ask your ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ... and is recruiting by invitation only. View more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor may recommend that you ... Anemia Aplastic Anemia Arrhythmia Blood Donation Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Changes Heart Failure Hemolytic Anemia ...

  13. Iron in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iron; Ferric acid; Ferrous acid; Ferritin ... The human body needs iron to make the oxygen-carrying proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin. Hemoglobin is found in red blood cells and myoglobin is found ...

  14. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  15. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ... be hard to get the recommended amount from food alone. Pregnant women need more iron to support ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... infancy and childhood can have long-lasting, negative effects on brain health, the American Academy of Pediatrics ... overdose of iron. Iron supplements can cause side effects, such as dark stools, stomach irritation, and heartburn. ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... carry oxygen throughout your body. A reticulocyte count shows whether your bone marrow is making red blood ... Tests to measure iron levels. These tests can show how much iron has been used from your ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and young children and women are the two groups at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Outlook Doctors usually can successfully treat iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment ... ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... you don't have enough iron in your body. Low iron levels usually are due to blood ... remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body. Anemia also can occur if your red blood ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... to improve health through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ... donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency before potentially ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... apply to all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all ... growth and development, and behavioral problems. Signs and Symptoms of Iron Deficiency Signs and symptoms of iron ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... For this treatment, iron is injected into a muscle or an IV line in one of your ... body can damage your organs. You may have fatigue (tiredness) and other symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... from absorbing enough iron. Certain eating patterns or habits may put you at higher risk for iron- ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Are you a frequent blood donor living ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... chronic conditions such as kidney disease or celiac disease may be more likely to receive IV iron. You may experience vomiting, headache, or other side effects right after the IV iron, but these usually ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... risk for the condition. Women Women of childbearing age are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia ... periods. About 1 in 5 women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... need for iron increases during these periods of growth and development, and it may be hard to get the ... iron-deficiency anemia, red blood cells will be small in size with an MCV of less than ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, and ... of the mouth, an enlarged spleen, and frequent infections. People who have iron-deficiency anemia may have ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lead in their blood from their environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make ... drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron- ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less ... include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... muh-glow-bin). Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the ... hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells. It helps red blood ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting less than the recommended daily ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. Living With will discuss what your doctor may recommend to prevent your iron- ... colon under sedation to view the colon directly. What if my doctor thinks something else is causing ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... of the condition. Your doctor may recommend healthy eating changes, iron supplements, intravenous iron therapy for mild ... less Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and other symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and ... Internal bleeding (bleeding inside the body) also may lead to iron-deficiency anemia. This type of blood ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... inability to absorb enough iron from food. Blood Loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. If ... produce hemoglobin. Tests and Procedures for Gastrointestinal Blood Loss To check whether internal bleeding is causing your ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... striking the ground, such as with marathon runners. Sex Girls and women between the ages of 14 ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners increase the likelihood of bleeding ... oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help increase your absorption of iron. If you are pregnant, talk to ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... recommended amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen ... mean corpuscular volume (MCV) that would suggest anemia. Different tests help your doctor screen for iron-deficiency ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... can slow the absorption of iron. Screening and Prevention Eating a well-balanced diet that includes iron- ... deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed guidelines for who should be ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to ... called hepcidin. Hepcidin blocks the intestine from taking up iron. Other medical conditions Other medical conditions that ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... total amount of iron you need every day. Vitamin C Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron. Good sources of vitamin C are vegetables and fruits, especially citrus fruits. Citrus ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... specialists also may help treat iron-deficiency anemia. Medical History Your doctor will ask about your signs ... information, go to the Health Topics Blood Transfusion article. Iron Therapy If you have severe anemia, your ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain. If your doctor diagnoses you with iron-deficiency ... Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... were born prematurely may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores ... men of the same age. Women are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia under some circumstances, ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the cause and severity of the condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood transfusions , iron ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... from absorbing enough iron. Certain eating patterns or habits may put you at higher risk for iron- ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Learn more about participating in a clinical ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners increase ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... to iron-deficiency anemia. We are interested in studying in more detail how iron levels are regulated ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... eating lead in paint or soil, or drinking water that contains lead. Teens Teens are at risk ... out of reach from children. This will prevent them from taking an overdose of iron. Iron supplements ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... more information about diet and supplements, go to "How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?" Infants and young ... who should be screened for iron deficiency, and how often: Girls aged 12 to 18 and women ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... some stages of life, such as pregnancy and childhood, it may be hard to get enough iron ... supports concerns that iron deficiency during infancy and childhood can have long-lasting, negative effects on brain ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... disease also often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... less hemoglobin than normal. Iron-deficiency anemia can cause fatigue (tiredness), shortness of breath, chest pain, and ... iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the condition. Treatments may include ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... screened for iron deficiency, and how often: Girls aged 12 to 18 and women of childbearing age ... For this treatment, iron is injected into a muscle or an IV line in one of your ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... stomach also can interfere with iron absorption. Risk Factors Infants and Young Children Infants and young children ... blood loss during their monthly periods Other risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Blood Loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. ... find out how severe the condition is. Complete Blood Count Often, the first test used to diagnose ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is severe, you may get a transfusion of red blood cells. A blood transfusion is ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep ... diets can provide enough iron if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells. It helps red blood ... oh-crit) levels. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... have less hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen from ... stored iron has been used. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. Reticulocyte ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... to prevent you from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried ... tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and ... lose blood, you lose iron. Certain conditions or medicines can cause blood loss and lead to iron- ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... infancy has lasting effects. We are interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ...

  14. Evaluation of Alpha-Therapy with Radium-223-Dichloride in Castration Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer-the Role of Gamma Scintigraphy in Dosimetry and Pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairemo, Kalevi; Joensuu, Timo; Rasulova, Nigora; Kiljunen, Timo; Kangasmäki, Aki

    2015-07-30

    Radium-223-dichloride ((223)RaCl₂) is a new bone-seeking calcium analogue alpha-emitter, which has obtained marketing authorization for the treatment skeletal metastases of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. The current treatment regimen is based on six consecutive doses of (223)RaCl₂ at 4 week intervals and the administered activity dose, 50 kBq/kg per cycle is based on patient weight. We analyzed two patients using quantitative serial gamma imaging to estimate dosimetry in tumors and see possible pharmacokinetic differences in the treatment cycles. The lesions were rather well visualized in gamma scintigraphy in spite of low gamma activity (2.0-fold (1.8 vs. 3.6). Of these patients, patient 1 demonstrated a serum PSA response, whereas there was no PSA response in patient 2. From our data, there were maximally up to 4.0-fold differences (62.1 vs. 246.6 ) between the relative absorbed radiation doses between patients as calculated from the quantitative standardized imaging to be delivered in only two lesions, and in the same lesion the maximum difference in the cycles was up to 2.3-fold (107.4 vs. 246.6). Our recommendation based on statistical simulation analysis, is serial measurement at days 0-8 at least 3 times, this improve the accuracy significantly to study the lesion activities, half-lives or calculated relative absorbed radiation doses as calculated from the imaging. Both our patients had originally two metastatic sites in the imaging field; the former patient demonstrated a serum PSA response and the latter demonstrated no PSA response. In these two patients there was no significant difference in the lesion activities, half-lives or calculated relative absorbed radiation doses as calculated from the quantitative imaging. Our results, although preliminary, suggest that dose monitoring can be included as a part of this treatment modality. On the other hand, from the absorbed radiation doses, the response cannot be predicted because with very similar

  15. A Biodistribution and Toxicity Study of Cobalt Dichloride-N-Acetyl Cysteine in an Implantable MRI Marker for Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Steven J., E-mail: sjfrank@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States); Johansen, Mary J. [Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States); Martirosyan, Karen S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Texas at Brownsville, Texas (United States); Gagea, Mihai; Van Pelt, Carolyn S.; Borne, Agatha [Department of Veterinary Medicine, Surgery, and Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States); Carmazzi, Yudith; Madden, Timothy [Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: C4, a cobalt dichloride-N-acetyl cysteine complex, is being developed as a positive-signal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker to localize implanted radioactive seeds in prostate brachytherapy. We evaluated the toxicity and biodistribution of C4 in rats with the goal of simulating the systemic effects of potential leakage from C4 MRI markers within the prostate. Methods and Materials: 9-μL doses (equivalent to leakage from 120 markers in a human) of control solution (0.9% sodium chloride), 1% (proposed for clinical use), and 10% C4 solution were injected into the prostates of male Sprague-Dawley rats via laparotomy. Organ toxicity and cobalt disposition in plasma, tissues, feces, and urine were evaluated. Results: No C4-related morbidity or mortality was observed in the biodistribution arm (60 rats). Biodistribution was measurable after 10% C4 injection: cobalt was cleared rapidly from periprostatic tissue; mean concentrations in prostate were 163 μg/g and 268 μg/g at 5 and 30 minutes but were undetectable by 60 minutes. Expected dual renal-hepatic elimination was observed, with percentages of injected dose recovered in tissues of 39.0 ± 5.6% (liver), >11.8 ± 6.5% (prostate), and >5.3 ± 0.9% (kidney), with low plasma concentrations detected up to 1 hour (1.40 μg/mL at 5-60 minutes). Excretion in urine was 13.1 ± 4.6%, with 3.1 ± 0.54% recovered in feces by 24 hours. In the toxicity arm, 3 animals died in the control group and 1 each in the 1% and 10% groups from surgical or anesthesia-related complications; all others survived to scheduled termination at 14 days. No C4-related adverse clinical signs or organ toxicity were observed. Conclusion: C4-related toxicity was not observed at exposures at least 10-fold the exposure proposed for use in humans. These data demonstrating lack of systemic toxicity with dual routes of elimination in the event of in situ rupture suggest that C4 warrants further investigation as an MRI marker for prostate

  16. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, ... iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron supplement. Follow ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Follow a high-fiber diet. Large amounts of fiber can slow the absorption of iron. Screening and Prevention Eating a well-balanced diet that includes iron-rich foods may help you prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Taking ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency before potentially harmful donations and protect individuals from needing iron supplementation. Advancing research for improved health In support of our mission , we are committed ...

  20. Iron and Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbon, E.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413534049; Trapet, P.L.; Stringlis, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41185206X; Kruijs, Sophie; Bakker, P.A.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074744623; Pieterse, C.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for most life on Earth because it functions as a crucial redox catalyst in many cellular processes. However, when present in excess iron can lead to the formation of harmful hydroxyl radicals. Hence, the cellular iron balance must be tightly controlled. Perturbation of

  1. Glutathione, Glutaredoxins, and Iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Carsten; Lillig, Christopher Horst

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular low-molecular-weight thiol in the majority of organisms in all kingdoms of life. Therefore, functions of GSH and disturbed regulation of its concentration are associated with numerous physiological and pathological situations. Recent Advances: The function of GSH as redox buffer or antioxidant is increasingly being questioned. New functions, especially functions connected to the cellular iron homeostasis, were elucidated. Via the formation of iron complexes, GSH is an important player in all aspects of iron metabolism: sensing and regulation of iron levels, iron trafficking, and biosynthesis of iron cofactors. The variety of GSH coordinated iron complexes and their functions with a special focus on FeS-glutaredoxins are summarized in this review. Interestingly, GSH analogues that function as major low-molecular-weight thiols in organisms lacking GSH resemble the functions in iron homeostasis. Since these iron-related functions are most likely also connected to thiol redox chemistry, it is difficult to distinguish between mechanisms related to either redox or iron metabolisms. The ability of GSH to coordinate iron in different complexes with or without proteins needs further investigation. The discovery of new Fe-GSH complexes and their physiological functions will significantly advance our understanding of cellular iron homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1235-1251.

  2. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... ages of 14 and 50 years need more iron than boys and men of the same age. Women are at higher ... anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, blood levels of iron will be low, or less than 10 micromoles per liter (mmol/L) for both men and women. Normal levels are 10 to 30 ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... amounts of iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the same for boys and girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leer en español What Is Iron-deficiency anemia ... all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all types of ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the ... cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Frequent blood tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia ... iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts ...

  10. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2017-12-01

    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other dark green leafy vegetables Prune juice The Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods will show how much iron the items contain. The amount is given as a percentage of the total amount of iron you need every day. Vitamin C Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron. ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research ... Is Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily treated condition that occurs if you don't have enough iron in your body. Low iron levels usually are due to blood loss, ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron, in milligrams (mg) at different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of ... and choosing iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased ... more detail how iron levels are regulated by hormones and other pathways. ... infancy has lasting effects. We are interested in learning how having iron- ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the recommended daily amount of iron. Frequent blood donation. Individuals who donate blood often may be ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the best sources of iron. Follow a high-fiber diet. Large amounts of fiber can slow the absorption of iron. Screening and Prevention Eating a well-balanced diet that includes iron-rich foods may help you ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  20. The potential of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 18}F-fluoride imaging to predict bone lesion response to treatment with {sup 223}Ra-dichloride in castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Iain; Chittenden, Sarah J.; Denis-Bacelar, Ana M.; Flux, Glenn D. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Joint Department of Physics, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Hindorf, Cecilia [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Joint Department of Physics, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Skaane University Hospital, Department of Radiation Physics, Lund (Sweden); Parker, Christopher C. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Urology, Sutton (United Kingdom); Chua, Sue [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-15

    The aims of this study were to calculate bone lesion absorbed doses resulting from a weight-based administration of {sup 223}Ra-dichloride, to assess the relationship between those doses and corresponding {sup 18}F-fluoride uptake and to assess the potential of quantitative {sup 18}F-fluoride imaging to predict response to treatment. Five patients received two intravenous injections of {sup 223}Ra-dichloride, 6 weeks apart, at 110 kBq/kg whole-body weight. The biodistribution of {sup 223}Ra in metastatic lesions as a function of time after administration as well as associated lesion dosimetry were determined from serial {sup 223}Ra scans. PET/CT imaging using {sup 18}F-fluoride was performed prior to the first treatment (baseline), and at week 6 immediately before the second treatment and at week 12 after baseline. Absorbed doses to metastatic bone lesions ranged from 0.6 Gy to 44.1 Gy. For individual patients, there was an average factor difference of 5.3 (range 2.5-11.0) between the maximum and minimum lesion dose. A relationship between lesion-absorbed doses and serial changes in {sup 18}F-fluoride uptake was demonstrated (r{sup 2} = 0.52). A log-linear relationship was demonstrated (r{sup 2} = 0.77) between baseline measurements of {sup 18}F-fluoride uptake prior to {sup 223}Ra-dichloride therapy and changes in uptake 12 weeks after the first cycle of therapy. Correlations were also observed between both {sup 223}Ra and {sup 18}F-fluoride uptake in lesions (r = 0.75) as well as between {sup 223}Ra absorbed dose and {sup 18}F-fluoride uptake (r = 0.96). There is both inter-patient and intra-patient heterogeneity of absorbed dose estimates to metastatic lesions. A relationship between {sup 223}Ra lesion absorbed dose and subsequent lesion response was observed. Analysis of this small group of patients suggests that baseline uptake of {sup 18}F-fluoride in bone metastases is significantly correlated with corresponding uptake of {sup 223}Ra, the associated {sup 223

  1. Uptake of Radium-223 Dichloride and Early [18F]NaF PET Response Are Driven by Baseline [18F]NaF Parameters: a Pilot Study in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letellier, Arthur; Johnson, Alison C; Kit, Nicolas How; Savigny, Jean-François; Batalla, Alain; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Aide, Nicolas

    2017-10-12

    The purpose of this study is to identify predictive factors on baseline [ 18 F]NaF positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) of early response to radium-223 dichloride after 3 cycles of treatment in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. Analysis of 152 metastases was performed in six consecutive patients who underwent [ 18 F]NaF PET/CT at baseline and for early monitoring after 3 cycles of radium-223 dichloride. All metastases depicted on whole-body [ 18 F]NaF PET/CT were contoured and CT (density in Hounsfield units, sclerotic, mixed, or lytic appearance) as well as [ 18 F]NaF [maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ), SUV mean , and lesion volume (V 18F-NaF )] patterns were recorded. Tumor response was defined as percentage change in SUV max and SUV mean between baseline and post-treatment PET. Bone lesions were defined as stable, responsive, or progressive, according to thresholds derived from a recent multicentre test-retest study in [ 18 F]NaF PET/CT. Total [ 18 F]NaF uptake in metastases, defined as MATV × SUV mean , was correlated to uptake of radium-223 on biodistribution scintigraphy performed 7 days after the first cycle of treatment. Among metastases, 116 involved the axial skeleton and 36 the appendicular skeleton. Lesions were sclerotic in 126 cases and mixed in 26 cases. No lytic lesion was depicted. ROC analysis showed that SUV max and SUV mean were better predictors of lesion response than V 18F-NaF and density on CT (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively). SUV max and SUV mean were predictors of individual tumor response in separate multivariate models (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). CT pattern (mixed versus sclerotic) and lesion density were independent predictors only when assessing response with delta SUV max (P = 0.002 and 0.007, respectively). A good correlation between total [ 18 F]NaF uptake within metastases and their relative radium-223 uptake assessed by two observers 7

  2. The ubiquity of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Perry A; Reed, George H

    2012-09-21

    The importance of iron in living systems can be traced to the many complexes within which it is found, to its chemical mobility in undergoing oxidation-reduction reactions, and to the abundance of iron in Earth's crust. Iron is the most abundant element, by mass, in the Earth, constituting about 80% of the inner and outer cores of Earth. The molten outer core is about 8000 km in diameter, and the solid inner core is about 2400 km in diameter. Iron is the fourth most abundant element in Earth's crust. It is the chemically functional component of mononuclear iron complexes, dinuclear iron complexes, [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters, [Fe-Ni-S] clusters, iron protophorphyrin IX, and many other complexes in protein biochemistry. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, copper, and manganese are present in the crust and could in principle function chemically in place of iron, but they are scarce in Earth's crust. Iron is plentiful because of its nuclear stability in stellar nuclear fusion reactions. It seems likely that other solid planets, formed by the same processes as Earth, would also foster the evolution of life and that iron would be similarly important to life on those planets as it is on Earth.

  3. Mineralogy and geochemistry of banded iron formation and iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The geological complexities of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Jilling–. Langalata iron ore deposits, Singhbhum–North Orissa Craton, belonging to Iron Ore Group (IOG) eastern India have been studied in detail along with the geochemical evaluation of different iron ores. The geochemical and ...

  4. Mineralogy and geochemistry of banded iron formation and iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The geological complexities of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Jilling–Langalata iron ore deposits, Singhbhum–North Orissa Craton, belonging to Iron Ore Group (IOG) eastern India have been studied in detail along with the geochemical evaluation of different iron ores. The geochemical and ...

  5. Evaluation of Alpha-Therapy with Radium-223-Dichloride in Castration Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer—the Role of Gamma Scintigraphy in Dosimetry and Pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevi Kairemo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Radium-223-dichloride (223RaCl2 is a new bone-seeking calcium analogue alpha-emitter, which has obtained marketing authorization for the treatment skeletal metastases of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. The current treatment regimen is based on six consecutive doses of 223RaCl2 at 4 week intervals and the administered activity dose, 50 kBq/kg per cycle is based on patient weight. We analyzed two patients using quantitative serial gamma imaging to estimate dosimetry in tumors and see possible pharmacokinetic differences in the treatment cycles. The lesions were rather well visualized in gamma scintigraphy in spite of low gamma activity (<1.1% gamma radiation at 0, 7 and 28 days using 30–60 min acquisition times. Both our patients analyzed in serial gamma imagings, had two lesions in the gamma imaging field, the mean counts of the relative intensity varied from 27.8 to 36.5 (patient 1, and from 37.4 to 82.2 (patient 2. The half-lives varied from 1.8 days to 4.5 days during the six cycles (patient 1, and from 1.5 days to 3.6 days (patient 2, respectively. In the lesion half-lives calculated from the imaging the maximum difference between the treatment cycles in the same lesion was 2.0-fold (1.8 vs. 3.6. Of these patients, patient 1 demonstrated a serum PSA response, whereas there was no PSA response in patient 2. From our data, there were maximally up to 4.0-fold differences (62.1 vs. 246.6 between the relative absorbed radiation doses between patients as calculated from the quantitative standardized imaging to be delivered in only two lesions, and in the same lesion the maximum difference in the cycles was up to 2.3-fold (107.4 vs. 246.6. Our recommendation based on statistical simulation analysis, is serial measurement at days 0–8 at least 3 times, this improve the accuracy significantly to study the lesion activities, half-lives or calculated relative absorbed radiation doses as calculated from the imaging. Both our patients had

  6. Vanadium NMR Chemical Shifts of (Imido)vanadium(V) Dichloride Complexes with Imidazolin-2-iminato and Imidazolidin-2-iminato Ligands: Cooperation with Quantum-Chemical Calculations and Multiple Linear Regression Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jun; Yang, Wenhong; Sun, Wen-Hua; Nomura, Kotohiro; Hada, Masahiko

    2017-11-30

    The NMR chemical shifts of vanadium ( 51 V) in (imido)vanadium(V) dichloride complexes with imidazolin-2-iminato and imidazolidin-2-iminato ligands were calculated by the density functional theory (DFT) method with GIAO. The calculated 51 V NMR chemical shifts were analyzed by the multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis (MLRA) method with a series of calculated molecular properties. Some of calculated NMR chemical shifts were incorrect using the optimized molecular geometries of the X-ray structures. After the global minimum geometries of all of the molecules were determined, the trend of the observed chemical shifts was well reproduced by the present DFT method. The MLRA method was performed to investigate the correlation between the 51 V NMR chemical shift and the natural charge, band energy gap, and Wiberg bond index of the V═N bond. The 51 V NMR chemical shifts obtained with the present MLR model were well reproduced with a correlation coefficient of 0.97.

  7. State of the iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinisch, Walter; Staun, Michael; Bhandari, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) frequently occurs in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and negatively impacts their quality of life. Nevertheless, the condition appears to be both under-diagnosed and undertreated. Regular biochemical screening of patients with IBD for anemia...... by the gastroenterology community has to be advocated. Oral iron is a low cost treatment however its effectiveness is limited by low bioavailability and poor tolerability. Intravenous (IV) iron rapidly replenishes iron stores and has demonstrated its safe use in a number of studies in various therapeutic areas. A broad...... spectrum of new IV iron formulations is now becoming available offering improved tolerability and patient convenience by rapidly restoring the depleted iron status of patients with IBD. The following article aims to review the magnitude of the problem of IDA in IBD, suggest screening standards...

  8. Iron deficiency anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Barragán-Ibañez, G.; Santoyo-Sánchez, A.; Ramos-Peñafiel, C.O.

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a public health problem that affects all age groups. In Mexico, it is a common cause of morbidity, and accounts for 50% of cases of anaemia worldwide. It is more prevalent during the first 2 years of life, during adolescence and pregnancy. It is characterised by fatigue, weakness, pallor and koilonychia. Treatment is based on dietary recommendations and oral and intravenous iron supplements. In this review article, we summarise the characteristics of iron efficiency...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and ... Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may ...

  10. Iron and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    In this case presentation, a man with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease was treated with Chelation Therapy against iron without iron serum level correlation. The patient, who suffered from motor and non-motor symptoms of the disease, showed an improved condition after the Therapy. This clinical test was evaluated with UPDRS III score. The rationale and the limits of the Therapy are discussed. This case suggests that iron-dependent oxidative stress could represent a promising therapy for this dramatic disease; the necessity to deeply study the iron metabolism in neuro-degeneration appears really significant.

  11. Physics of iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, O.

    1993-10-01

    This volume comprises papers presented at the AIRAPT Conference, June 28 to July 1993. The iron sessions at the meeting were identified as the Second Ironworkers Convention. The renewal of interest stems from advances in technologies in both diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave studies as well as from controversies arising from a lack of consensus among both experimentalists and theoreticians. These advances have produced new data on iron in the pressure-temperature regime of interest for phase diagrams and for temperatures of the core/mantle and inner-core/outer-core boundaries. Particularly interesting is the iron phase diagram inferred from DAC studies. A new phase, {beta}, with a {gamma}-{beta}-{epsilon} triple point at about 30 GPa and 1190 K, and possible sixth phase, {omega}, with an {epsilon}-{Theta}-melt triple point at about 190 GPa and 4000 K are deemed possible. The importance of the equation of state of iron in consideration of Earth`s heat budget and the origin of its magnetic field invoke the interest of theoreticians who argue on the basis of molecular dynamics and other first principles methods. While the major thrust of both meetings was on the physics of pure iron, there was notable contributions on iron alloys. Hydrogen-iron alloys, iron-sulfur liquids, and the comparability to rhenium in phase diagram studies are discussed. The knowledge of the physical properties of iron were increased by several contributions.

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  13. Iron Refractory Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Rare Cause of Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, T

    2018-01-01

    We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy with a hypochromic microcytic anaemia, refractory to oral iron treatment. After exclusion of dietary and gastrointestinal causes of iron deficiency, a genetic cause for iron deficiency was confirmed by finding two mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, consistent with a diagnosis of iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA).

  14. Current understanding of iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gregory J; Frazer, David M

    2017-12-01

    Iron is an essential trace element, but it is also toxic in excess, and thus mammals have developed elegant mechanisms for keeping both cellular and whole-body iron concentrations within the optimal physiologic range. In the diet, iron is either sequestered within heme or in various nonheme forms. Although the absorption of heme iron is poorly understood, nonheme iron is transported across the apical membrane of the intestinal enterocyte by divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and is exported into the circulation via ferroportin 1 (FPN1). Newly absorbed iron binds to plasma transferrin and is distributed around the body to sites of utilization with the erythroid marrow having particularly high iron requirements. Iron-loaded transferrin binds to transferrin receptor 1 on the surface of most body cells, and after endocytosis of the complex, iron enters the cytoplasm via DMT1 in the endosomal membrane. This iron can be used for metabolic functions, stored within cytosolic ferritin, or exported from the cell via FPN1. Cellular iron concentrations are modulated by the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) IRP1 and IRP2. At the whole-body level, dietary iron absorption and iron export from the tissues into the plasma are regulated by the liver-derived peptide hepcidin. When tissue iron demands are high, hepcidin concentrations are low and vice versa. Too little or too much iron can have important clinical consequences. Most iron deficiency reflects an inadequate supply of iron in the diet, whereas iron excess is usually associated with hereditary disorders. These disorders include various forms of hemochromatosis, which are characterized by inadequate hepcidin production and, thus, increased dietary iron intake, and iron-loading anemias whereby both increased iron absorption and transfusion therapy contribute to the iron overload. Despite major recent advances, much remains to be learned about iron physiology and pathophysiology. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. [Iron deficiency and digestive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozon, G J N

    2014-11-01

    Iron deficiency anemia still remains problematic worldwide. Iron deficiency without anemia is often undiagnosed. We reviewed, in this study, symptoms and syndromes associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia: fatigue, cognitive functions, restless legs syndrome, hair loss, and chronic heart failure. Iron is absorbed through the digestive tract. Hepcidin and ferroportin are the main proteins of iron regulation. Pathogenic micro-organisms or intestinal dysbiosis are suspected to influence iron absorption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ages 1 and 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... babies need more iron as they grow and begin to eat solid foods. Talk with your child's ... C Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron. Good sources of vitamin C are ... or other severe health issues. For more information, go to the Health ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. Eat poorly because of money, social, health, or other problems. Follow a very low-fat ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... when used properly, can help prevent iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children. Talk with your child's doctor ... and supplements, go to "How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?" Infants and young children and women are the two ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... proof packages for supplements can help prevent overdosing in children. Because recent research supports concerns that iron deficiency ... within months. Supplements come in pill form or in drops for children. Large amounts of iron can be harmful, so ...

  1. Banded Iron Formations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R; Konhauser, Kurt O; Kappler, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Sedimentary deposits of alternating iron-rich (20–40% Fe) and iron-poor, siliceous (40–50% SiO2) mineral layers that primarily precipitated throughout much of the late Archean (2.7–2.5 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.5– 1.8 Ga), but then remerged in the Neoproterozoic (0.8 Ga)....

  2. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... infancy and childhood can have long-lasting, negative effects on brain health, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends testing all ... overdose of iron. Iron supplements can cause side effects, such as dark ... or other severe health issues. For more information, go to the Health ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z ... usually are due to blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español What Is ... all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all types of ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... or advise you to eat more iron-rich foods. This not only will help you avoid iron-deficiency anemia, but also may lower your risk of having a low-birth-weight baby. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications The signs and ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... how we are using current research and advancing research to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as proton ... reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, ... of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ National Institutes of Health (NIH)—the Nation’s biomedical ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a day to increase the iron in your body. This is ... and newer recommendations to increase the length of time between donations to protect blood donors. Cardiovascular Health Study identifies predictors ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A- ... to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron ... was associated with a greater risk of death even with mild anemia. Now, anemia in older ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart- ... infections Motor or cognitive development delays in ... with chronic conditions, iron-deficiency anemia can make their condition worse or result ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Are you curious about how inflammation from chronic diseases can cause iron-deficiency anemia? Read more When there is ... DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are at higher risk for the condition ... for the fetus' growth. About half of all pregnant women develop iron-deficiency anemia. The condition can increase ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments for disorders that lead to iron-deficiency anemia. We are ... and other pathways. This could help develop new therapies for conditions that ... behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... check the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and low-birth-weight babies (weighing less than 5.5 pounds) are at even greater risk for iron- ... loss during their monthly periods. About 1 in 5 women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia . The term "anemia" usually refers to a condition ... symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia apply to all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is severe, you ... get a transfusion of red blood cells. A blood transfusion is a safe, common procedure in which blood ...

  1. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  2. Role of glutaredoxin 3 in iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is an essential mineral nutrient that is tightly regulated through mechanisms involving iron regulatory genes, intracellular storage, and iron recycling. Dysregulation of these mechanisms often results in either excess tissue iron accumulation (overload) or iron deficiency (anemia). Many bioche...

  3. Liver Iron Contents in Rats after Administration of Certain Iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of certain iron compounds on liver iron deposition was ... extra iron probably depends on the type of food prepared, .... main groups. Each main group consisted of 4 subgroups. (8 rats per subgroup) which received the same basic diet but differing amounts of iron of a specific type. Each animal was ...

  4. Iron deficiency anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Barragán-Ibañez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anaemia is a public health problem that affects all age groups. In Mexico, it is a common cause of morbidity, and accounts for 50% of cases of anaemia worldwide. It is more prevalent during the first 2 years of life, during adolescence and pregnancy. It is characterised by fatigue, weakness, pallor and koilonychia. Treatment is based on dietary recommendations and oral and intravenous iron supplements. In this review article, we summarise the characteristics of iron efficiency anaemia, its metabolism, epidemiology, symptoms and diagnosis, and explore different therapeutic approaches.

  5. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maximum stellar iron core mass mass of iron into a neutron star. The radius of this highly compressed theoretical sphere may be somewhat smaller than the actual radius of a real spherical mass of iron, just prior to core collapse, because an unstable real spherical mass of iron is likely to achieve the critical density only at its ...

  6. Nutritional concerns: need for iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, E M

    1987-10-01

    Depletion of iron stores is frequently seen in male and female distance runners. Possible causes of this iron depletion include inadequate iron intake especially among females and increased iron excretion through sweating and gastrointestinal blood loss. Animal studies suggest that iron deficiency without anemia can reduce endurance by lowering tissue cytochromes and the activity of certain muscle tissue enzymes. Iron supplementation appears to be beneficial in reducing blood lactate concentrations following heavy exercise. The amount of iron in the supplement appears to influence the amount of increase in hemoglobin and serum ferritin.

  7. CCDC 1408400: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-(tris(mu-5,5'-(diazene-1,2-diyl)bis(benzene-1,3-dicarboxylato))-bis(mu-oxo)-hexa-aqua-hexa-iron dichloride unknown solvate)

    KAUST Repository

    Cairns, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Willebrand disease is an inherited bleeding disorder that affects the blood’s ability to clot. This makes it ... could help develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron in the body and ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam Your doctor may ask about your medical history ... has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such ... explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... interfere with iron absorption. Risk Factors Infants and Young Children Infants and young children need a lot ... for a premature or low-birth-weight baby. Adults Who Have Internal Bleeding Adults who have internal ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and naproxen Certain rare genetic conditions such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, which causes bleeding in the bowels ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, salmon, iron-fortified breads and cereals, peas, tofu, dried ... If your condition is caused by certain rare genetic conditions, such as a TMRPSS6 gene mutation, you ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking the ground, such as ... Treatment will explain treatment-related complications or side effects. Diagnosis Iron-deficiency anemia may be detected during ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... doctor may recommend that you: Adopt healthy lifestyle changes such as heart-healthy eating patterns. Increase your ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also can cause internal bleeding. Other At-Risk Groups People who get kidney dialysis treatment may develop ... and young children and women are the two groups at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Special ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, ... symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... cells carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body. Anemia also can occur ... iron as they grow and begin to eat solid foods. Talk with your child's doctor about a ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may order a blood test called a complete blood count ( ... your risk factors , do a physical exam, or order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the body from absorbing enough iron. Certain eating patterns or habits may put you at higher risk ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Learn more about participating in a clinical ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the first prenatal visit. For pregnant women, medical care during pregnancy usually includes screening for anemia. Also, ... while checking for other problems. Specialists Involved Primary care doctors often diagnose and treat iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies ... with iron absorption. Risk Factors Infants and Young Children Infants and young children need a lot of ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... with iron absorption. Risk Factors Infants and Young Children Infants and young children need a lot of ... the condition in these groups. Infants and Young Children A baby's diet can affect his or her ...

  4. Banded Iron Formations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R; Konhauser, Kurt O; Kappler, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Sedimentary deposits of alternating iron-rich (20–40% Fe) and iron-poor, siliceous (40–50% SiO2) mineral layers that primarily precipitated throughout much of the late Archean (2.7–2.5 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.5– 1.8 Ga), but then remerged in the Neoproterozoic (0.8 Ga).......Sedimentary deposits of alternating iron-rich (20–40% Fe) and iron-poor, siliceous (40–50% SiO2) mineral layers that primarily precipitated throughout much of the late Archean (2.7–2.5 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.5– 1.8 Ga), but then remerged in the Neoproterozoic (0.8 Ga)....

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Heavy blood loss during their monthly periods Other risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed guidelines for ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... in which your blood has a lower than normal number of red blood cells. Red blood cells ... cells it does make have less hemoglobin than normal. Iron-deficiency anemia can cause fatigue (tiredness), shortness ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and cereals, peas, tofu, dried fruits, and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such ... tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. You can also take an iron ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. People ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during ... concentrating Dizziness Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the most common symptom. This can make it hard to ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming ... iron-deficiency anemia from trauma, surgery, or heavy menstrual periods. Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, including ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Search Form Search the NHLBI, use the drop down list to select: the entire site, the Health ... who have iron-deficiency anemia develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... of blood loss during their monthly periods. About 1 in 5 women of childbearing age has iron- ... Pediatrics recommends testing all infants for anemia at 1 year of age. Women and Girls Women of ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... low iron levels within months. Supplements come in pill form or in drops for children. Large amounts ... menstrual flow, your doctor may prescribe birth control pills to help reduce your monthly blood flow. In ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... more. Read less Reminders Return to Causes to review how blood loss, not consuming the recommended amount ... iron-deficiency anemia. Return to Risk Factors to review family history, lifestyle, unhealthy environments, or other factors ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency ... National Institute of Health Department of Health and Human Services OIG USA.gov

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lead in their blood from their environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make ... explain tests and procedures that your doctor may use to diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. Living With will ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Health Topics Health Topics A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science ... deficiency anemia. Endurance activities and athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed guidelines for who ... heavy menstrual flow, your doctor may prescribe birth control pills to help reduce your monthly blood flow. ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Special measures can help prevent the condition in these groups. ... is a complete blood count (CBC). The CBC measures many parts of your blood. This test checks ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... test called a complete blood count (CBC) to see if you have lower than normal red blood ... iron-deficiency anemia: Check for bleeding. Look to see whether your tongue, nails, or inner lining of ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Treatment will explain treatment-related complications or side effects. Diagnosis Iron-deficiency anemia may be detected during ... to your doctor if you are experiencing side effects such as a bad metallic taste, vomiting, diarrhea, ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... anemia is a common type of anemia . The term "anemia" usually refers to a condition in which ... to grow and develop. The iron that full-term infants have stored in their bodies is used ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A- ... Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Grants & Training Grants and Training Home Policies and Guidelines Funding Opportunities and Contacts Training and Career Development ... Study - Red Blood Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... people who have iron-deficiency anemia develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move the legs. This urge to move often occurs with strange ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... leafy green vegetables like turnip greens and spinach. Treatment To Stop Bleeding If blood loss is causing ... flow. In some cases, surgery may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... to find the energy to do normal activities. Headache Irregular heartbeat. This is a sign of more ... to receive IV iron. You may experience vomiting, headache, or other side effects right after the IV ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... The Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart ... your blood vessels. IV iron therapy presents some safety concerns. It must be done in a hospital ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... size of your liver and spleen Do a pelvic and rectal exam to check for internal bleeding ... bleeding in the stomach, upper intestines, colon, or pelvic organs. Treatment Treatment for iron-deficiency anemia will ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron or ferritin levels in your blood. More testing may be needed to rule out other types ... in the GI tract and may require further testing. Upper endoscopy to look for bleeding in the ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help ... but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... is caused by strong muscle contractions and the impact of feet repeatedly striking the ground, such as ... funding on iron-deficiency anemia. We stimulate high-impact research. Our Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and Working at the NHLBI Contact and ... to improve health, and where to find more information. Causes Your body needs iron to make healthy ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the tongue, cracks in the sides of the mouth, an enlarged spleen, and frequent infections. People who ... term but can't take iron supplements by mouth. This therapy also is given to people who ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... information, go to the Health Topics Blood Transfusion article. Iron Therapy If you have severe anemia, your ... and children talk about their experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Anemia Blood Tests ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also checks the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in your blood. Abnormal ... include: Iron-fortified breads and cereals Peas; lentils; white, red, and baked beans; soybeans; and chickpeas Tofu ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... stomach irritation, and heartburn. Iron also can cause constipation, so your doctor may suggest that you use ... and Blood Institute (NHLBI) leads or sponsors many studies aimed at preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A- ... inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners increase the likelihood of bleeding in the GI tract. ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ... Visit Children and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... improved health for people with iron-deficiency anemia. Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies program findings help to protect blood donors . NHLBI’s Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies (REDS) program , which began in ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... disease). Prescription medicines that reduce acid in the stomach also can interfere with iron absorption. Risk Factors ... and procedures may look for bleeding in the stomach, upper intestines, colon, or pelvic organs. Treatment Treatment ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... mouth Pale skin Swelling or soreness of the tongue Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest ... Check for bleeding. Look to see whether your tongue, nails, or inner lining of your eyelids are ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... your abdomen to check the size of your liver and spleen Do a pelvic and rectal exam ... of iron is red meat, especially beef and liver. Chicken, turkey, pork, fish, and shellfish also are ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... can cause internal bleeding. Other At-Risk Groups People who get kidney dialysis treatment may develop iron- ... the body needs to produce red blood cells. People who have gastric bypass surgery also may develop ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, ... iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... may be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk ... upper endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... cells carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body. Anemia also can occur ... Serum ferritin. Ferritin is a protein that helps store iron in your body. A measure of this ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and ... of the condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lead in their blood from their environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... can cause complications and may be life-threatening. Signs and Symptoms Common signs of iron-deficiency anemia ... abnormal heart rhythms and depression. Learn the warning signs of serious complications and have a plan Tell ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children who have lead in their blood from their ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... were born prematurely may be at an even higher risk, as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ages 1 and 2, especially if they ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current and future NHLBI efforts to improve health through research and ... blood donors. Cardiovascular Health Study identifies predictors of future health problems in older adults. The NHLBI-sponsored ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... be hard to get the recommended amount from food alone. Pregnant women need more iron to support the growth of their unborn babies, so their bodies produce more blood. With more ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... dark green leafy vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help ... has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... infancy has lasting effects. We are interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... GI tract. Inflammation from congestive heart failure or obesity . These chronic conditions can lead to inflammation that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Are you curious about how ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... supports concerns that iron deficiency during infancy and childhood can have long-lasting, negative effects on brain health, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends testing all ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... Learn about exciting research areas that NHLBI is exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some circumstances, including: During menstruation, especially if you experience heavy periods. During pregnancy, after delivery, or when ... more likely to receive IV iron. You may experience vomiting, headache, or other side effects right after ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... into the body from breathing in lead dust, eating lead in paint or soil, or drinking water ... prevent the body from absorbing enough iron. Certain eating patterns or habits may put you at higher ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... anemia at 1 year of age. Women and Girls Women of childbearing age may be tested for ... be screened for iron deficiency, and how often: Girls aged 12 to 18 and women of childbearing ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... age, sex, and whether you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. ... need 8 mg. Pregnant women need 27 mg. Breastfeeding girls under age 18 need 10 mg while ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk for iron-deficiency anemia if they're underweight or have chronic (ongoing) illnesses. Teenage girls who ... other dark green leafy vegetables Prune juice The Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods will show how ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treat iron-deficiency anemia. These doctors include pediatricians, family doctors, gynecologists/obstetricians, and internal medicine specialists. A hematologist (a blood disease specialist), a gastroenterologist (a digestive system specialist), and ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... improve health through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways ... from needing iron supplementation. Advancing research for improved health In support of our mission , we are committed ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... common type of anemia that occurs if you do not have enough iron in your body. People ... make it hard to find the energy to do normal activities. Headache Irregular heartbeat. This is a ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... bleeding in the GI tract. Inflammation from congestive heart failure or obesity . These chronic conditions can lead to ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Syndrome Other Resources Non-NHLBI Resources Anemia (MedlinePlus) "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iron" (Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health) Building 31 31 Center ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron to support the growth of their unborn babies, so their bodies produce more blood. With ... your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... All News NHLBI News NHLBI in the Press Research Features All Events Past Events Upcoming Events About ... NHLBI Entire Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the likelihood of bleeding in the GI tract. Inflammation from congestive heart failure or obesity . These chronic conditions can lead to inflammation that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Are you ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ... prevent complications such as abnormal heart rhythms and depression. Learn the warning signs of serious complications and ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways that NHLBI continues ... and protect individuals from needing iron supplementation. Advancing research for improved health In support of our mission , ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... lifestyle changes to avoid complications. Follow your treatment plan Do not stop taking your prescribed iron supplements ... warning signs of serious complications and have a plan Tell your doctor if you have any new ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies ... some stages of life, such as pregnancy and childhood, it may be hard to get enough iron ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also may help treat iron-deficiency anemia. Medical History Your doctor will ask about your signs and ... Reticulocytes are young, immature red blood cells. Over time, reticulocytes become mature red blood cells that carry ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... through research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways that NHLBI continues to translate current research into improved health for people with iron- ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... if you experience heavy periods. During pregnancy, after delivery, or when breastfeeding you may be consuming less ... store iron to prepare for blood loss during delivery. Screening and Prevention Your doctor may screen you ...

  3. Ocean iron fertilization

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Smetacek, V.

    In 2009 and 2010, an Indo-German scientific expedition dusted the ocean with iron to stimulate the biological pump that captures atmosphereic carbon dioxide. Two onboard scientists tell the story of this controversial project. Besides raising...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) Building 31 31 Center Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Learn ... and Usage No FEAR Act Grants and Funding Building 31 31 Center Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Learn ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as ice, dirt, paint, or starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... person’s body to make too much of a hormone called hepcidin. Hepcidin blocks the intestine from taking ... is inflammation, your liver makes more of a hormone called hepcidin. Hepcidin prevents iron from leaving cells ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular use of medicines such ... part of the small intestine just beyond the stomach. Even if you have enough iron in your ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency ... frequently. This study is located in New York City, and is recruiting by invitation only. View more ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children who have lead in their blood from ... a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency ...

  10. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  11. Highsilicone Austempered Ductile Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochański A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ductile iron casts with a higher silicone content were produced. The austempering process of high silicone ductile iron involving different austempering times was studied and the results presented. The results of metallographical observations and tensile strength tests were offered. The obtained results point to the fact that the silicone content which is considered as acceptable in the literature may in fact be exceeded. The issue is viewed as requiring further research

  12. Iron isomaltoside 1000: a new intravenous iron for treating iron deficiency in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikström, Björn; Bhandari, Sunil; Barany, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often suffer from iron deficiency anemia necessitating treatment with intravenous iron. This study was designed to assess the safety of iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer) in CKD patients. The secondary objective was to assess its effect on iron deficiency...

  13. Iron isomaltoside 1000: a new intravenous iron for treating iron deficiency in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikström, Björn; Bhandari, Sunil; Barany, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often suffer from iron deficiency anemia necessitating treatment with intravenous iron. This study was designed to assess the safety of iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer) in CKD patients. The secondary objective was to assess its effect on iron deficiency...... anemia....

  14. An aqueous all-organic redox-flow battery employing a (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl-containing polymer as catholyte and dimethyl viologen dichloride as anolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Tino; Winsberg, Jan; Grube, Mandy; Nischang, Ivo; Janoschka, Tobias; Martin, Norbert; Hager, Martin D.; Schubert, Ulrich S.

    2018-02-01

    Herein we present a new redox-flow battery (RFB) that employs a (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO) containing copolymer (P1) as catholyte and the viologen derivative N,N‧-dimethyl-4,4‧-bipyridinium dichloride (MV) as anolyte in an aqueous sodium chloride solution. This is the first time that a combination of an organic polymer and a low-molar-mass organic redox-active material is presented. The electrochemical behavior of the utilized charge-storage materials were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and feature reversible redox-reactions at E½ = 0.7 V (TEMPO/TEMPO+) and E½ = -0.6 V vs. AgCl/Ag (MV++/MV+•), which lead to a promising cell voltage of 1.3 V in the subsequent battery application. Studies were performed to determine the most suitable anion-exchange membrane (AEM), the ideal conducting salt concentration and the optimal flow rate. The resulting battery reveals a stable charge/discharge performance over 100 consecutive cycles with coulombic efficiencies of up to 95%, a high energy efficiency of 85% and an overall energy density of the electrolyte system of 3.8 W h L-1.

  15. Pagophagia in iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Tatsumi; Kawati, Yasunori

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between pagophagia (ice pica) and iron deficiency anemia was studied. All 81 patients with iron deficiency anemia defined as hemoglobin Pagophagia was defined as compulsive and repeated ingestion of at least one tray of ice or ice eating which was relieved after iron administration. Pagophagia was present in 13 patients (16.0%). All patients who received oral iron were periodically assessed employing a questionnaire on pagophagia and laboratory data. Iron therapy can cure the pagophagia earlier than hemoglobin recovery and repair of tissue iron deficiency. Although the pathogenesis of pagophagia is unclear, a biochemical approach involving the central nervous system might elucidate the mechanism underlying these abnormal behaviors.

  16. Dietary iron intake, iron status, and gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuilin; Rawal, Shristi

    2017-12-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to iron deficiency and related adverse pregnancy outcomes and, as such, are routinely recommended for iron supplementation. Emerging evidence from both animal and population-based studies, however, has raised potential concerns because significant associations have been observed between greater iron stores and disturbances in glucose metabolism, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes among nonpregnant individuals. Yet, the evidence is uncertain regarding the role of iron in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a common pregnancy complication which has short-term and long-term adverse health ramifications for both women and their children. In this review, we critically and systematically evaluate available data examining the risk of GDM associated with dietary iron, iron supplementation, and iron status as measured by blood concentrations of several indicators. We also discuss major methodologic concerns regarding the available epidemiologic studies on iron and GDM. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Mammalian iron metabolism and its control by iron regulatory proteins☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cole P.; Shen, Lacy; Eisenstein, Richard S.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular iron homeostasis is maintained by iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2). IRPs bind to iron-responsive elements (IREs) located in the untranslated regions of mRNAs encoding protein involved in iron uptake, storage, utilization and export. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding how IRPs are regulated by iron-dependent and iron-independent mechanisms and the pathological consequences of IRP2 deficiency in mice. The identification of novel IREs involved in diverse cellular pathways has revealed that the IRP–IRE network extends to processes other than iron homeostasis. A mechanistic understanding of IRP regulation will likely yield important insights into the basis of disorders of iron metabolism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cell Biology of Metals. PMID:22610083

  18. Iron or iron oxide grains in the interstellar medium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    Iron grains have often been proposed as a component of circumstellar and interstellar grains. It is apparent that 'cosmic abundance' circumstellar shells should condense iron-rich particles such as metallic iron, iron/nickel alloys and iron carbides. It is not, however, clear that these grains can survive in this state in the interstellar medium. In this paper the chemistry of iron particles in the diffuse interstellar medium is examined and it is concluded that these grains cannot survive as pristine metallic iron-rich entities. The reactivity of iron, and in particular its reaction with interstellar gas-phase oxygen and sulphur species, will result in the rapid degradation of the metal to an oxide, sulphide or even sulphate. The lack of metallic phases in the mineralogy of primitive interplanetary dust particles is consistent with the absence of metallic particles in the interstellar medium. (author)

  19. Bioavailability of iron from micro-encapsulated iron sprinkle supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Chandrani; Zlotkin, Stanley

    2002-09-01

    To improve the iron status of infants an effort was made to increase the iron content of complementary foods by adding 12.5 mg of elemental iron to the meal in the form of micro-encapsulated ferrous fumarate coated with a lipid. The contents of the packet were sprinkled directly on to infant foods. Relative absorption of iron from this supplement was determined in a prospective randomized study with 39 infants (mean age 33.6 +/- 5.2 weeks) with initial hemoglobin values greater than 100 g/L. They were fed two complementary foods (rice-based and wheat-based) in which the supplement labeled with stable isotopes of iron 57Fe and 58Fe was incorporated. The erythrocyte iron incorporation was measured in the blood by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrophotometry. The incorporation of iron was significantly higher 11.9% p sprinkles has proved to be efficacious in increasing the available iron intake of the infants.

  20. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. Keywords: iron deficiency, anemia, cognitive functions, supplementation

  1. Absorption of medicamental iron and iron from food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reizenstein, P.; Carlmark, B.; Ehn, L.; Forsberg, K.; Hoeglund, S.; Terpstra, T.

    1976-01-01

    Methods are reviewed for the measurement of iron absorption. The chemical balance method has been almost entirely supplanted by radioisotope methods, which include notably whole-body counting and measurement of incorporation of radioiron into red cells. A survey is also given of the various conditions that influence iron absorption, including chemical form of iron, amount of iron, accompanying diet. Absorption tests must be conducted under relevant conditions. (author)

  2. Single sheet iron oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Zhou

    activity. LDH single sheets have been reported to be effective sorbents, catalysts in electrochemical and photochemical reactions, and building thin films together with other nanomaterials for designing new functionalities. Here we focus on the delamination of FeII-FeIII LDHs into single sheet iron oxide...... was rapid compared to other iron oxides, reaching equilibrium within 60 minutes. Arsenic sorption and acid-base titration data could be successfully described with a 1pk Basic Stern Model (BSM). The point of zero charge was around 8. The intrinsic surface complexation equilibrium constants (log K...... became abundant at low pH. (3) Electrochemical reduction of chlorinated compounds using an SSI modified electrode. Here, the electrochemical reactivity of SSIs coated on indium tin oxide coated glass electrodes was investigated. Iron on the SSI modified electrode showed a typical Cyclic Voltammetry...

  3. Changes in serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron is a vital constituent of cells but in excess may be harmful and is associated with a raised risk for some malignant diseases including breast cancer. We aimed to study changes in iron profile in Sudanese females newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods: A case- control study in which serum iron, Total ...

  4. measurements of iron status and survival in african iron overload

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Dietary iron overload is common in southern. Africa and there is a misconception that the condition is benign. 'Early descriptions of the condition relied on autopsy studies, and the use of indirect measurements of iron status to diagnose this form of iron overload has not been clarified. Methods. The study ...

  5. Prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia and dietary iron intake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased prevalence of iron deficiency among infants can be attributed to the consumption of an iron deficient diet or a diet that interferes with iron absorption at the critical time of infancy, among other factors. The gradual shift from breast milk to other foods and liquids is a transition period which greatly contributes to ...

  6. Reactive iron in Black Sea Sediments: implications for iron cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.W.M.; Middelburg, J.J.; Heip, C.H.R.

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of reactive iron in sediments of the northwestern shelf, the shelf edge and the abyssal part of the Black Sea has been studied. In the euxinic Black Sea, iron sulfides (pyrite and iron monosulfide) are formed in the upper part of the anoxic water column and sink to the deep-sea

  7. Iron prophylaxis during pregnancy -- how much iron is needed? A randomized dose- response study of 20-80 mg ferrous iron daily in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Bergholt, Thomas; Eriksen, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    To determine the lowest dose of iron preventative of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy.......To determine the lowest dose of iron preventative of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy....

  8. Adsorptive Iron Removal from Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Iron is commonly present in groundwater worldwide. The presence of iron in the water supply is not harmful to human health, however it is undesirable. Bad taste, discoloration, staining, deposition in the distribution system leading to aftergrowth, and incidences of high turbidity are some of the aesthetic and operational problems associated with iron in water supplies. Iron removal from groundwater is, therefore, a major concern for water supply companies using groundwater sources....

  9. Phytases for improved iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Phytase enzymes present an alternative to iron supplements, because they have been shown to improve iron absorption by means of catalysing the degradation of a potent iron absorption inhibitor: phytic acid. Phytic acid is a hexaphosphate of inositol and is particularly prevalent in cereal grains...

  10. Wear resistance of cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pietrowski; G. Gumienny

    2008-01-01

    In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... funding on iron-deficiency anemia. We stimulate high-impact research. Our Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program now includes participants with anemia, which may help us understand how genes contribute to differences in disease severity and how patients respond to treatment. The ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... woman's risk for a premature or low-birth-weight baby. Adults Who Have Internal Bleeding Adults who have internal bleeding, such as intestinal bleeding, can develop iron-deficiency anemia due to blood loss. Certain conditions, such as colon cancer and bleeding ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need 15 mg. From ages 19 to 50, men need 8 mg and women need 18 mg. After age 51, both men and women need 8 mg. Pregnant women need ... 50 years need more iron than boys and men of the same age. Women are at higher ...

  14. Amorphous iron (II) carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sel, Ozlem; Radha, A.V.; Dideriksen, Knud

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis, characterization and crystallization energetics of amorphous iron (II) carbonate (AFC) are reported. AFC may form as a precursor for siderite (FeCO3). The enthalpy of crystallization (DHcrys) of AFC is similar to that of amorphous magnesium carbonate (AMC) and more...

  15. Iron deficiency in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaemia is a worldwide health problem affecting developed and developing countries. Children <5 years of age and women of child-bearing age are the most vulnerable. Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) ranked 15th and 14th in the global disability-adjusted life-years in. 1990 and 2010, respectively.[1] Globally, the ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move the legs. This ... may be a sign of infection, a blood disorder, or another ... may be a clue as to the cause of your anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, for ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... months, especially if they are fed only breast milk or are fed formula that is not fortified ... especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z Grants ... health for people with iron-deficiency anemia. Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies program findings help to protect blood ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as if you are following a ... unhealthy environments, or other factors that increase your risk of developing iron-deficiency ... to Screening and Prevention to review tests to screen for and strategies ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature or very small newborns . In collaboration with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children who have lead in ... sponsored Cardiovascular Health Study found that many older adults over 65 years of age had low hemoglobin levels. This was associated with ...

  3. Iron monoxide photodissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestakov, D. A.; Parker, D. H.; Baklanov, A. V.

    2005-02-01

    The photodissociation of Fe56O was studied by means of the velocity map imaging technique. A molecular beam of iron atoms and iron monoxide molecules was created using an electrical discharge with an iron electrode in a supersonic expansion of molecular oxygen. The ground state iron atom Fe(D45) and FeO concentrations in the molecular beam have been estimated. The dissociation energy of the FeO XΔ5 ground electronic state was found to be D00(FeO )=4.18±0.01eV. The effective absorption cross section of FeO at 252.39nm (vac), leading to the Fe(D45)+O(P3) dissociation channel, is ˜1.2×10-18cm2. A (1+1) resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization spectrum of Fe56O in the region 39550-39580 cm-1 with rotational structure has been observed, but not assigned. Angular distributions of Fe(D45) and Fe(D35) products for the channel FeO →Fe(D4,35)+O(P3) have been measured at several points in the 210-260nm laser light wavelength region. The anisotropy parameter varies strongly with wavelength for both channels.

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine (TOPMed) Program Non-NHLBI resources Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease ( ... Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) Building 31 31 Center Drive ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... research and scientific discovery. Improving health with current research Learn about the following ways that NHLBI continues to translate ... Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) to learn about research that NHLBI is funding on iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be a sign of infection, a blood disorder, or another condition. Finally, the CBC looks at mean corpuscular (kor-PUS-kyu-lar) volume (MCV). MCV is a measure of the average size of your red blood cells. The results may be a clue as to the cause of your anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, for ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infection. A history of gastrointestinal surgery, such as weight-loss surgery—especially gastric bypass—or gastrectomy. Certain rare ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may ask whether you might be pregnant. Physical Exam Your doctor will do a physical exam to look for signs of iron-deficiency anemia. ... liver and spleen Do a pelvic and rectal exam to check for internal bleeding Diagnostic Tests and ...

  9. Iron dominated magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Working at the NHLBI Contact and FAQs Accessible Search Form Search the NHLBI, use the drop down list to ... treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... where there is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as proton ... body. People with severe iron-deficiency anemia or who have chronic conditions such as kidney disease or celiac disease may be more likely to ...

  12. Electrolysis iron injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Ichiro; Aizawa, Motohiro; Usui, Naoshi; Osumi, Katsumi; Mizuniwa, Fumio.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a chemical cleaning device and a pipeline for cleaning in addition to an existent device comprising a vessel for supplying gaseous carbon dioxide under pressure, an electrolytic vessel made of an iron plate and a CO 2 disperser. The chemical cleaning device comprises a heater for heating a cleaning liquid, a cleaning liquid vessel for controlling and storing the cleaning liquid and a filter for capturing dissolved and defoliated iron. As the cleaning liquid, oxalic acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid or hydrogen peroxide is used solely or in combination. A closed loop is constituted to a portion in the device, where iron is formed by deposition, by the chemical cleaning device and the cleaning pipeline, and a recycling operation is conducted while heating to 30 to 60degC for a predetermined period to dissolve and remove deposited iron cruds. With such procedures, the device can be operated stably for a long period of time and radioactivity concentration of reactor water in a nuclear power plant can be reduced. (T.M.)

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... interferes with the body’s ability to make hemoglobin. Family history and genetics Von Willebrand disease is an ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. Are you a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor about delayed clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help ... Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... naproxen) Urinary tract bleeding Blood loss from severe injuries, surgery, or frequent blood drawings also can cause ... treat the ulcer. If a polyp or cancerous tumor in your intestine is causing ... this treatment, iron is injected into a muscle or an IV line in one of your ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z Grants & ... health for people with iron-deficiency anemia. Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies program findings help to protect blood ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lead in their blood from their environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make ... also take an iron supplement. Follow your doctor’s recommendations and treatments to control any conditions that lead ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... who have iron-deficiency anemia develop restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS is a disorder that causes a ... Topics Anemia Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Restless Legs Syndrome Other Resources Non-NHLBI Resources Anemia (MedlinePlus) "Dietary ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron ... anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, and other ... poorly because of money, social, health, or other problems. Follow a very low-fat diet over a ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... issues. For more information, go to the Health Topics Blood Transfusion article. Iron Therapy If you have severe anemia, ... experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Anemia Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Restless Legs Syndrome Other Resources Non-NHLBI Resources ...

  3. Iron Supplements for Infants at Risk for Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna C. MacQueen MD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Professional societies have published recommendations for iron dosing of preterm neonates, but differences exist between guidelines. To help develop standardized guidelines, we performed a 10-year analysis of iron dosing in groups at risk for iron deficiency: IDM (infants of diabetic mothers, SGA (small for gestational age, and VLBW premature neonates (very low birth weight, <1500 g. We analyzed iron dosing after red cell transfusions and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA. Of IDM, 11.8% received iron in the hospital; 9.8% of SGA and 27.1% of VLBW neonates received iron. Twenty percent of those who received iron had it started by day 14; 63% by 1 month. Supplemental iron was stopped after red cell transfusions in 73% of neonates receiving iron. An ESA was administered to 1677, of which 33% received iron within 3 days. This marked variation indicates that a consistent approach is needed, and using this report and a literature review, we standardized our iron-dosing guidelines.

  4. Iron biomineralization by anaerobic neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miot, Jennyfer; Benzerara, Karim; Morin, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    precipitation in the periplasm (in a few tens of minutes), followed by the formation of surface-bound globules. Moreover, we frequently observed an asymmetric mineral thickening at the cell poles. In parallel, the evolution of iron oxidation was quantified by STXM: iron both contained in the bacteria......Minerals formed by bio-oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) at neutral pH, their association with bacterial ultrastructures as well as their impact on the metabolism of iron-oxidizing bacteria remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated iron biomineralization by the anaerobic nitrate......-dependent iron-oxidizing bacterium Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 in the presence of dissolved Fe(II) using electron microscopy and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM). All detected minerals consisted mainly of amorphous iron phosphates, but based on their morphology and localization, three types...

  5. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 2: Grey Iron (Ⅲ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron , uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour metallographic photos. This book consists of five sections: Chapter 1 Introduction, Chapter 2 Grey Iron, Chapter 3 Ductile Iron, Chapter 4 Vermicular Cast Iron, and Chapter 5 White Cast Iron. CHINA FOUNDRY publishs this book in several parts serially,starting from the first issue of 2009.

  6. Iron-fortified wheat flour and iron deficiency among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kirsten A; Sullivan, Kevin M; Alasfoor, Deena; Parvanta, Ibrahim; Suleiman, Ali Jaffer Mohammed; Kaur, Meenu; Al-Hatmi, Fatima Obaid; Ruth, Laird J

    2012-09-01

    Iron deficiency is estimated to impact more than 1.6 billion individuals worldwide, affecting child, maternal, and perinatal mortality. Iron supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification are strategies to reduce the prevalence of iron deficiency. However, there are relatively few studies demonstrating the effectiveness of iron-fortified wheat flour as an intervention. To assess the relationship between average monthly per capita household consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour and iron deficiency among women of childbearing age in Oman. Data were obtained from the National Micronutrient Status and Fortified Food Coverage Survey, 2004. Iron deficiency status was compared between women living in households with a monthly per capita consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour of 1 kg or more and women living in households with a monthly per capita consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour of less than 1 kg. The analyses excluded women with elevated or unknown levels of C-reactive protein and controlled for characteristics of the women and household demographics. Consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour was associated with a lower prevalence of iron deficiency among women in our sample (adjusted odds ratio, 0.60), after controlling for age, employment status, marital status, intake of iron or multivitamin supplements, self-reported presence of a blood disorder, household income, educational level of head of household, and family size. These results suggest that women in our study living in households with a greater consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour have a lower prevalence of iron deficiency; however, additional study is needed.

  7. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373... Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron... cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe is installed for use as a service line, the part of the service...

  8. Iron-fortified milk can improve iron status in young women with low iron stores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholz-Ahrens, K.E.; Schaafsma, G.; Kip, P.; Elbers, F.; Boeing, H.; Schrezenmeir, J.

    2004-01-01

    A considerable proportion of the populations of developing and industrialised nations does not meet the recommended daily allowance for iron and are thus at risk of chronic iron-deficiency anaemia. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind study we investigated whether supplementation with iron-enriched

  9. High efficiency iron electrode and additives for use in rechargeable iron-based batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Sri R.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Aniszfeld, Robert; Manohar, Aswin; Malkhandi, Souradip; Yang, Bo

    2017-02-21

    An iron electrode and a method of manufacturing an iron electrode for use in an iron-based rechargeable battery are disclosed. In one embodiment, the iron electrode includes carbonyl iron powder and one of a metal sulfide additive or metal oxide additive selected from the group of metals consisting of bismuth, lead, mercury, indium, gallium, and tin for suppressing hydrogen evolution at the iron electrode during charging of the iron-based rechargeable battery. An iron-air rechargeable battery including an iron electrode comprising carbonyl iron is also disclosed, as is an iron-air battery wherein at least one of the iron electrode and the electrolyte includes an organosulfur additive.

  10. Studies on the pathogenesis in iron deficiency anemia Part 1. Urinary iron excretion in iron deficiency anemia patients and rats in various iron states

    OpenAIRE

    中西,徳彦

    1991-01-01

    In the "iron excretion test" , urinary iron excretion after injection of saccharated iron oxide has been reported to be accelerated in relapsing idiopathic iron deficiency anemia. To determine the relevance of urinary iron excretion to clinical factors other than iron metabolism, 15 clinical parameters were evaluated. The serum creatinine level was positively and the serum albumin level was negatively correlated with urinary iron excretion, showing coefficients of r=0.97,-0.86 respectively, a...

  11. The Iron Age Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Mytum

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to investment in walking the landscape, aerial photography, geophysical survey and excavation, there is a baseline of information on the distribution and types of enclosed settlement and examples of high-quality site-based data, often revealing complex site histories. These are our resources from which to extract meaning about the past — but what can actually be said about the Iron Age from all these data? What are the next stages in moving towards greater understanding? And what is the current management and presentation of the Iron Age to the public in Wales? This contribution reviews our current state of knowledge and its uses so that we can develop strategies to improve the data and communicate what it can tell us about the Welsh past.

  12. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bruntsch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of irony detection have commonly used ironic criticisms (i.e., mock positive evaluation of negative circumstances as stimulus materials. Another basic type of verbal irony, ironic praise (i.e., mock negative evaluation of positive circumstances is largely absent from studies on individuals' aptitude to detect verbal irony. However, it can be argued that ironic praise needs to be considered in order to investigate the detection of irony in the variety of its facets. To explore whether the detection ironic praise has a benefit beyond ironic criticism, three studies were conducted. In Study 1, an instrument (Test of Verbal Irony Detection Aptitude; TOVIDA was constructed and its factorial structure was tested using N = 311 subjects. The TOVIDA contains 26 scenario-based items and contains two scales for the detection of ironic criticism vs. ironic praise. To validate the measurement method, the two scales of the TOVIDA were experimentally evaluated with N = 154 subjects in Study 2. In Study 3, N = 183 subjects were tested to explore personality and ability correlates of the two TOVIDA scales. Results indicate that the co-variance between the ironic TOVIDA items was organized by two inter-correlated but distinct factors: one representing ironic praise detection aptitude and one representing ironic criticism detection aptitude. Experimental validation showed that the TOVIDA items truly contain irony and that item scores reflect irony detection. Trait bad mood and benevolent humor (as a facet of the sense of humor were found as joint correlates for both ironic criticism and ironic praise detection scores. In contrast, intelligence, trait cheerfulness, and corrective humor were found as unique correlates of ironic praise detection scores, even when statistically controlling for the aptitude to detect ironic criticism. Our results indicate that the aptitude to detect ironic praise can be seen as distinct from the aptitude to detect ironic

  13. Measurement of iron absorption from meals contaminated with iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, L.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described to measure in vitro the extent of isotopic exchange between the native nonheme food iron and added inorganic reduction to radioiron tracer. The food is digested with pepsin and trypsin in the presence of radioiron. The exchangeability of food iron is calculated from the specific activity in the food and in an extract of bathophenantroline in isoamyl alcohol obtained after digesting this food. The precision and accuracy of the method is illustrated by two kinds of studies, those in which different amounts of contamination iron are added to a meal and those evaluating contamination iron in natural meals. The present method will make it possible to measure validly iron absorption from meals contaminated with unknown amounts of iron of unknown exchangeability with the extrinsic radioiron tracer

  14. Iron metabolism and maternal-fetal iron circulation 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Słomka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential micronutrient for the proper functioning of most organisms. This element is used in oxygen transport, myelin and neurotransmitters synthesis, cell cycle and synthesis of nucleic acids. The importance of iron in the maturation of lymphocytes and proper functioning of the eye is also stressed. Newborns are particularly sensitive to imbalances in iron metabolism. Iron deficiency during pregnancy carries serious clinical consequences. It seems that a key role in the transport of iron between mother and fetus is plays by hepcidin and, described in 2010 zyklopen. The physiological role of proteins involved in iron metabolism and transport of this metal by the placenta are described in this paper. 

  15. Iron deficiency in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Augusto Naoum

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anemia is a frequent complication in cancer patients, both at diagnosis and during treatment, with a multifactorial etiology in most cases. Iron deficiency is among the most common causes of anemia in this setting and can develop in nearly half of patients with solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Surprisingly, this fact is usually neglected by the attending physician in a way that proper and prompt investigation of the iron status is either not performed or postponed. In cancer patients, functional iron deficiency is the predominant mechanism, in which iron availability is reduced due to disease or the therapy-related inflammatory process. Hence, serum ferritin is not reliable in detecting iron deficiency in this setting, whereas transferrin saturation seems more appropriate for this purpose. Besides, lack of bioavailable iron can be further worsened by the use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents that increase iron utilization in the bone marrow. Iron deficiency can cause anemia or worsen pre-existing anemia, leading to a decline in performance status and adherence to treatment, with possible implications in clinical outcome. Due to its frequency and importance, treatment of this condition is already recommended in many specialty guidelines and should be performed preferably with intravenous iron. The evidences regarding the efficacy of this treatment are solid, with response gain when combined with erythropoiesis stimulating agents and significant increments in hemoglobin as monotherapy. Among intravenous iron formulations, slow release preparations present more favorable pharmacological characteristics and efficacy in cancer patients.

  16. Tritium permeation through iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagi, Hideki; Hayashi, Yasunori

    1989-01-01

    An experimental method for measuring diffusion coefficients and permeation rates of tritium in metals around room temperature has been established, and their values in iron have been obtained by using the method. Permeation rates of tritium and hydrogen through iron were measured by the electrochemical method in which a tritiated aqueous solution was used as a cathodic electrolyte. Tritium and hydrogen were introduced from one side of a membrane specimen by cathodic polarization, while at the other side of the specimen the permeating tritium and hydrogen were extracted by potentiostatical ionization. The amount of permeated hydrogen was obtained by integrating the anodic current, and that of tritium was determined by measuring the radioactivity of the electrolyte sampled from the extraction side. Diffusion coefficients of tritium (D T ) and hydrogen (D H ) were determined from the time lag of tritium and hydrogen permeation. D T =9x10 -10 m 2 /s and D H =4x10 -9 m 2 /s at 286 K for annealed iron specimens. These values of D T and D H were compared with the previous data of the diffusion coefficients of hydrogen and deuterium, and the isotope effect in diffusion was discussed. (orig.)

  17. The obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurov, M.M.; Lugovenko, A.N.; Mirzoeva, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis. The method of synthesis of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis was elaborated. The structure of complex was determined.

  18. Iron deficiency among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, A S; Pedersen, O B; Magnussen, K

    2017-01-01

    and menopausal status are the strongest predictors of iron deficiency. Only little information on the health effects of iron deficiency in blood donors exits. Possibly, after a standard full blood donation, a temporarily reduced physical performance for women is observed. However, iron deficiency among blood...... donors is not reflected in a reduced self-perceived mental and physical health. In general, the high proportion of iron-deficient donors can be alleviated either by extending the inter-donation intervals or by guided iron supplementation. The experience from Copenhagen, the Capital Region of Denmark......, is that routine ferritin measurements and iron supplementation are feasible and effective ways of reducing the proportion of donors with low haemoglobin levels....

  19. The Aging of Iron Man

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf, Azhaar Ahmad; Clark, Maryam; So, Po-Wah

    2018-01-01

    Brain iron is tightly regulated by a multitude of proteins to ensure homeostasis. Iron dyshomeostasis has become a molecular signature associated with ageing which is accompanied by progressive decline in cognitive processes. A common theme in neurodegenerative diseases where age is the major risk factor, iron dyshomeostasis coincides with neuroinflammation, abnormal protein aggregation, neurodegeneration and neurobehavioral deficits. There is a great need to determine the mechanisms governin...

  20. Iron-Refractory Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yılmaz Keskin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Demir, oksijenin taşınması, DNA sentezi ve hücre çoğalması gibi çeşitli biyolojik reaksiyonlar için vazgeçilmez olduğundan, yaşam için zorunludur. Demir metabolizması ve bu elementin düzenlenmesiyle ilgili bilgilerimiz, son yıllarda belirgin şekilde değişmiştir. Demir metabolizması ile ilgili yeni bozukluklar tanımlanmış ve demirin başka bozuklukların kofaktörü olduğu anlaşılmaya başlamıştır. Hemokromatozis ve demir tedavisine dirençli demir eksikliği anemisi (IRIDA; “iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia” gibi genetik durumlar üzerinde yapılan çalışmalar, vücuttaki demir dengesini kontrol eden moleküler mekanizmalar ile ilgili önemli ipuçları sunmuştur. Bu ilerlemeler, gelecekte, hem genetik hem de kazanılmış demir bozukluklarının daha etkili şekilde tedavi edilmesi amacıyla kullanılabilir. IRIDA, demir eksikliği ile giden durumlarda, hepsidin üretimini baskılayan matriptaz-2’yi kodlayan TMPRSS6 genindeki mutasyonlardan kaynaklanmaktadır. Hastalığın tipik özellikleri, hipokrom, mikrositer anemi, çok düşük ortalama eritrosit hacmi, oral demir tedavisine yanıtsızlık (veya yetersiz yanıt ve parenteral demire kısmi yanıttır. Klasik demir eksikliği anemisinin aksine, serum ferritin değeri genellikle hafif düşük ya da normal aralıkta; serum ve idrar hepsidin değerleri ise, aneminin derecesi ile orantısız şekilde yüksek bulunur. Şimdiye kadar literatürde bildirilmiş olguların sayısı 100’ü geçmediği halde, IRIDA’nın, “atipik” mikrositik anemilerin en sık nedeni olduğu düşünülmektedir. Bu derlemenin amacı, IRIDA hakkındaki güncel bilgileri araştırıcılar ile paylaşmak ve bu alandaki farkındalıklarını arttırmaktır.

  1. Phytases for Improved Iron Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Nyffenegger, Christian; Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial phytases (EC 3.1.3.8) catalyse dephosphorylation of phytic acid, which is the primary storage compound for phosphorous in cereal kernels. The negatively charged phosphates in phytic acid chelate iron (Fe3+) and thus retards iron bioavailability in humans 1. Supplementation of microbial...... phytase can improve iron absorption from cereal-based diets 2. In order for phytase to catalyse iron release in vivo the phytase must be robust to low pH and proteolysis in the gastric ventricle. Our work has compared the robustness of five different microbial phytases, evaluating thermal stability...

  2. 46 CFR 56.60-10 - Cast iron and malleable iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cast iron and malleable iron. 56.60-10 Section 56.60-10... APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-10 Cast iron and malleable iron. (a) The low ductility of cast iron and malleable iron should be recognized and the use of these metals where shock loading may occur should be...

  3. Serum iron and total iron binding capacity levels among the abo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a common tropical disease. Iron plays a very important role in the human body. The understanding of the different blood groups ability to retain iron in their system can give an insight into their ability to handle the disease Iron deficiency anaemia. Serum Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) and ...

  4. 49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron... for Corrosion Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. (a) General graphitization. Each segment of cast iron or ductile iron pipe on which general graphitization is found to a...

  5. Iron oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Gareth S.

    2016-03-01

    The current status of knowledge regarding the surfaces of the iron oxides, magnetite (Fe3O4), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), haematite (α-Fe2O3), and wüstite (Fe1-xO) is reviewed. The paper starts with a summary of applications where iron oxide surfaces play a major role, including corrosion, catalysis, spintronics, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), biomedicine, photoelectrochemical water splitting and groundwater remediation. The bulk structure and properties are then briefly presented; each compound is based on a close-packed anion lattice, with a different distribution and oxidation state of the Fe cations in interstitial sites. The bulk defect chemistry is dominated by cation vacancies and interstitials (not oxygen vacancies) and this provides the context to understand iron oxide surfaces, which represent the front line in reduction and oxidation processes. Fe diffuses in and out from the bulk in response to the O2 chemical potential, forming sometimes complex intermediate phases at the surface. For example, α-Fe2O3 adopts Fe3O4-like surfaces in reducing conditions, and Fe3O4 adopts Fe1-xO-like structures in further reducing conditions still. It is argued that known bulk defect structures are an excellent starting point in building models for iron oxide surfaces. The atomic-scale structure of the low-index surfaces of iron oxides is the major focus of this review. Fe3O4 is the most studied iron oxide in surface science, primarily because its stability range corresponds nicely to the ultra-high vacuum environment. It is also an electrical conductor, which makes it straightforward to study with the most commonly used surface science methods such as photoemission spectroscopies (XPS, UPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The impact of the surfaces on the measurement of bulk properties such as magnetism, the Verwey transition and the (predicted) half-metallicity is discussed. The best understood iron oxide surface at present is probably Fe3O4(100); the structure is

  6. Iron and iron-related proteins in asbestosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: We tested the postulate that iron homeostasis is altered among patients diagnosed to have asbestosis. Lung tissue from six individuals diagnosed to have had asbestosis at autopsy was stained for iron, ferritin, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), and ferroportin 1 (FP...

  7. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION OF IRON (III) FROM OUENZA IRON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Nouioua

    2017-09-01

    Sep 1, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. The solvent extraction of iron (III) from the hydrochloric acid leach liquor of iron ore from mine of Ouenza, Algeria with tributylphosphate (TBP) in chloroform was studied. The effect of several parameters, such as contact time, HCl concentration, TBP concentration and chloride inorganic salt ...

  8. Daily versus weekly iron supplementation and prevention of iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To demonstrate the effectiveness and social feasibility of weekly versus daily iron supplementation in preventing and treating iron deficiency anaemia among anaemic mothers. Design: A longitudinal in nature. Setting: Seven urban slum communities in Teklehaimanot Wereda, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Subjects: ...

  9. Mineralogy and geochemistry of banded iron formation and iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    comparison with Krivoi Rog of Ukraine, and Nimba. Range, Liberia; Ore Geol. Rev. 9 311–324. Ghosh G and Mukhopadhyay J 2007 Reappraisal of the structure of the Western Iron Ore Group, Singhbhum craton, eastern India: Implications for the exploration of BIF-hosted iron ore deposits; Gondwana Res. 12. 525–532.

  10. Core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present studies of the magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. By combining Mossbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy we have been able to measure the change from a Fe3O4-like to a gamma-Fe2O3-like composition from the interface to the surface. Furthermore, we have o...

  11. Iron Sucrose Versus Oral Iron Therapy in Pregnancy Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syal Neeru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA is the most common medical problem in pregnancy. Parenteral iron is a useful treatment, although iron dextran use decreased due to anaphylaxis. Iron sucrose is a newer agent that has overcome the shortcomings of iron dextran. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerance of intravenous iron sucrose (IVIS therapy with oral iron (OI therapy in pregnant women with IDA and to study the factors influencing treatment. Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial included pregnant women between 14 and 36 weeks with established IDA who were treated with IVIS or OI (ferrous fumarate. All patients were monitored for laboratory response and adverse effects. Independent sample-t test, Chi square test and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Although hemoglobin increased in both the groups, increase in the reticulocyte count and percentage increase in hemoglobin was significantly higher in the IVIS group than in the OI group (23.62% vs. 14.11%. Serum ferritin was significantly higher in the IVIS group than in the OI group (P = 0.000. The IVIS group had no major side-effects. Compliance was good with OI, although 23% had gastrointestinal side-effects. Patient weight, gestation at diagnosis, initial hemoglobin and ferritin levels did not influence the response to treatment. Conclusion: IVIS is safe and effective in the treatment of IDA during pregnancy. Iron stores increased better with IVIS compared with OI.

  12. Iron-based superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Peter D; Yin, Wei-Guo

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents an in-depth review of experimental and theoretical studies on the newly discovered Fe-based superconductors.  Following the Introduction, which places iron-based superconductors in the context of other unconventional superconductors, the book is divided into three sections covering sample growth, experimental characterization, and theoretical understanding.  To understand the complex structure-property relationships of these materials, results from a wide range of experimental techniques and theoretical approaches are described that probe the electronic and magnetic proper

  13. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - White Cast Iron (Ⅱ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  14. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 2: Grey Iron (Ⅱ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  15. Anemia caused by low iron - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to prevent and treat iron deficiency. Alternative Names Anemia - iron deficiency - children Images Red blood cells, target cells Formed elements of blood Hemoglobin References Fleming MD. Disorders of iron and copper metabolism, the sideroblastic anemias, and lead toxicity. In: Orkin ...

  16. Reaction-path calculations and crystal structures of 1,1'-(ethylene-1,2-diyl)dipyridinium dichloride dihydrate and 1,1'-(ethylene-1,2-diyl)dipyridinium dibromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukiah, Mwaffak; Al-Ktaifani, Mahmoud M; Sabra, Mohammad K

    2016-02-01

    The design of new organic-inorganic hybrid ionic materials is of interest for various applications, particularly in the areas of crystal engineering, supramolecular chemistry and materials science. The monohalogenated intermediates 1-(2-chloroethyl)pyridinium chloride, C5H5NCH2CH2Cl(+)·Cl(-), (I'), and 1-(2-bromoethyl)pyridinium bromide, C5H5NCH2CH2Br(+)·Br(-), (II'), and the ionic disubstituted products 1,1'-(ethylene-1,2-diyl)dipyridinium dichloride dihydrate, C12H14N2(2+)·2Cl(-)·2H2O, (I), and 1,1'-(ethylene-1,2-diyl)dipyridinium dibromide, C12H14N2(2+)·2Br(-), (II), have been isolated as powders from the reactions of pyridine with the appropriate 1,2-dihaloethanes. The monohalogenated intermediates (I') and (II') were characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, while (I) and (II) were structurally characterized using powder X-ray diffraction. Both (I) and (II) crystallize with half the empirical formula in the asymmetric unit in the triclinic space group P-1. The organic 1,1'-(ethylene-1,2-diyl)dipyridinium dications, which display approximate C2h symmetry in both structures, are situated on inversion centres. The components in (I) are linked via intermolecular O-H...Cl, C-H...Cl and C-H...O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional framework, while for (II), they are connected via weak intermolecular C-H...Br hydrogen bonds into one-dimensional chains in the [110] direction. The nucleophilic substitution reactions of 1,2-dichloroethane and 1,2-dibromoethane with pyridine have been investigated by ab initio quantum chemical calculations using the 6-31G** basis. In both cases, the reactions occur in two exothermic stages involving consecutive SN2 nucleophilic substitutions. The isolation of the monosubstituted intermediate in each case is strong evidence that the second step is not fast relative to the first.

  17. 21 CFR 186.1374 - Iron oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron oxides. 186.1374 Section 186.1374 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1374 Iron oxides. (a) Iron oxides (oxides of iron, CAS Reg. No. 1332-37-2) are undefined mixtures of iron (II) oxide (CAS Reg. No. 1345-25-1, black cubic crystals) and iron (III...

  18. The case for iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.H.; Gordon, R.M.; Fitzwater, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    Excess major nutrients occur in offshore areas ranging from the tropical equatorial Pacific to the polar Antarctic. In spite of the great ecological differences in these environments, the authors believe they share a common trait: iron deficiency. Here they present the case of iron; they point out that all of these areas are far from Fe-rich terrestrial sources and that atmospheric dust loads in these regions are among the lowest in the world. The authors summarize experiments performed in three nutrient-rich areas: The Gulf of Alaska, the Ross Sea, and the equatorial Pacific. In general, populations without added Fe doubled at rates 11-40% of the expected maxima at various temperatures. The additions of nanomole quantities of Fe increased these doubling rates by factors of 2-3. In spite of the lack of Fe, tightly coupled phytoplankton/zooplankton communities seem to inhabit these major nutrient-rich areas. Since Fe is required for the synthesis of chlorophyll and nitrate reductase, little chlorophyll is found and NH 3 is the favored N source. Normal rate values of specific productivity indicate that these populations are healthy, but limited by the insufficient Fe supply. When Fe becomes available either artificially in bottle experiments or in the environment as Fe-rich land masses are approached, diatoms quickly bloom, chlorophyll levels increase, and nutrient stocks are rapidly depleted. These combined results indicate that Fe availability is the primary factor controlling phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea

  19. The Aging of Iron Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Azhaar; Clark, Maryam; So, Po-Wah

    2018-01-01

    Brain iron is tightly regulated by a multitude of proteins to ensure homeostasis. Iron dyshomeostasis has become a molecular signature associated with aging which is accompanied by progressive decline in cognitive processes. A common theme in neurodegenerative diseases where age is the major risk factor, iron dyshomeostasis coincides with neuroinflammation, abnormal protein aggregation, neurodegeneration, and neurobehavioral deficits. There is a great need to determine the mechanisms governing perturbations in iron metabolism, in particular to distinguish between physiological and pathological aging to generate fruitful therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present review is to focus on the age-related alterations in brain iron metabolism from a cellular and molecular biology perspective, alongside genetics, and neuroimaging aspects in man and rodent models, with respect to normal aging and neurodegeneration. In particular, the relationship between iron dyshomeostasis and neuroinflammation will be evaluated, as well as the effects of systemic iron overload on the brain. Based on the evidence discussed here, we suggest a synergistic use of iron-chelators and anti-inflammatories as putative anti-brain aging therapies to counteract pathological aging in neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is significantly ...

  1. Preventing Iron Deficiency and Anaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Anaemia, often due to iron deficiency, is one of the most widespread causes of mortality and morbidity in ... Pregnant women must make many new red blood cells, provide iron for the foetus and may lose much blood during .... Do not give tea and coffee to children. • Eat fermented porridges and germinate/malt cereals and ...

  2. Adsorptive Iron Removal from Groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Iron is commonly present in groundwater worldwide. The presence of iron in drinking water is not harmful to human health, however it is undesirable because of the associated aesthetic and operational problems, namely: bad taste, colour, stains on laundry and plumbing fixtures, and aftergrowth in the

  3. Studies of iron carbon alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, T.

    1971-01-01

    Precipitation of carbon in α iron during a thermal treatment was followed using the magnetic after effect. A study was made of the influence of different parameters such as quenching speed, annealing rate, carbon concentration with or without impurity, irradiation effects. A transient sur-saturation occurs during dissolution of carbon in iron at 500 C. (author) [fr

  4. Iron deficiency anemia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pochinok T.V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the role of iron in the human body is highlighted. The mechanism of development of iron deficiency states, their consequences and the basic principles of diagnosis and correction of children of different ages are shown.

  5. Adsorptive iron removal from groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Iron is commonly present in groundwater worldwide. The presence of iron in the water supply is not harmful to human health, however it is undesirable. Bad taste, discoloration, staining, deposition in the distribution system leading to aftergrowth, and incidences of high turbidity are some

  6. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the computations that follow have been made by assuming that a stellar core, existing just prior to core collapse, consists primarily of highly compressed and very hot iron nuclei and electrons. Although nuclei near iron in atomic number, as well as smaller concentrations of other subatomic particles, may also exist in a stellar ...

  7. Preventing Iron Deficiency and Anaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Eat fermented porridges and germinate/malt cereals and legumes to reduce phytates. • Eat foods fortified with iron if feasible, such as some wheat flours. Families can use home fortification products if available. • Breastfeed babies exclusively for 6 months and then to include iron-rich foods such as suitably prepared meat or ...

  8. The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Iron Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Burckhardt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard approaches are not appropriate when assessing pharmacokinetics of iron supplements due to the ubiquity of endogenous iron, its compartmentalized sites of action, and the complexity of the iron metabolism. The primary site of action of iron is the erythrocyte, and, in contrast to conventional drugs, no drug-receptor interaction takes place. Notably, the process of erythropoiesis, i.e., formation of new erythrocytes, takes 3−4 weeks. Accordingly, serum iron concentration and area under the curve (AUC are clinically irrelevant for assessing iron utilization. Iron can be administered intravenously in the form of polynuclear iron(III-hydroxide complexes with carbohydrate ligands or orally as iron(II (ferrous salts or iron(III (ferric complexes. Several approaches have been employed to study the pharmacodynamics of iron after oral administration. Quantification of iron uptake from radiolabeled preparations by the whole body or the erythrocytes is optimal, but alternatively total iron transfer can be calculated based on known elimination rates and the intrinsic reactivity of individual preparations. Degradation kinetics, and thus the safety, of parenteral iron preparations are directly related to the molecular weight and the stability of the complex. High oral iron doses or rapid release of iron from intravenous iron preparations can saturate the iron transport system, resulting in oxidative stress with adverse clinical and subclinical consequences. Appropriate pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics analyses will greatly assist our understanding of the likely contribution of novel preparations to the management of anemia.

  9. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron.Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron , uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditionalmaterials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  10. Iron deficiency in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, A F

    1982-06-01

    Iron in food is classified as belonging to the haem pool, the nonhaem pool, and extraneous sources. Haem iron is derived from vegetable and animal sources with varying bioavailability. Hookworm infestation of the intestinal tract affects 450 million people in the tropics. Schistosoma mansoni caused blood loss in 7 Egyptian patients of 7.5- 25.9 ml/day which is equivalent to a daily loss of iron of .6-7.3 mg daily urinary loss of iron in 9 Egyptian patients. Trichuris trichiura infestation by whipworm is widespread in children with blood loss of 5 ml/day/worm. The etiology of anemia in children besides iron deficiency includes malaria, bacterial or viral infections, folate deficiency and sickle-cell disease. Severe infections cause profound iron-deficiency anemia in children in central American and Malaysia. Plasmodium falciparum malaria-induced anaemia in tropical Africa lowers the mean haemoglobin concentration in the population by 2 g/dI, causing profound anaemia in some. The increased risk of premature delivery, low birthweight, fetal abnormalities, and fetal death is directly related to the degree of maternal anemia. Perinatal mortality was reduced from 38 to 4% in treated anemic mothers. Mental performance was significantly lower in anemic school children and improved after they received iron. Supplements of iron, soy-protein, calcium, and vitamins given to villagers with widespread malnutrition, iron deficiency, and hookworm infestation in Colombia reduced enteric infections in children. Severe iron-deficiency anemia was treated in adults in northern Nigeria by daily in Ferastral 10 ml, which is equivalent to 500 mg of iron per day. Choloroquine, folic acid, rephenium hydroxynaphthoate, and tetrachlorethylene treat adults with severe iron deficiency from hookworm infestation in rural tropical Africa. Blood transfusion is indicated if the patient is dying of anaemia or is pregnant with a haemoglobin concentration 6 gm/dl. In South East Asia, mg per day

  11. Instant Noodles and Iron Nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuntawiroon, Malulee; Sritongkul, Nopamon; Sookpeng Witoo

    2003-06-01

    Instant noodles represent the biggest category of instant foods in the supermarket. This study was undertaken to determine dietary availability for iron from their varieties without and with an addition of pork and/or vitamin C rich-vegetables by in vitro radiometric ( 59 Fe) method. The results showed that 8 to 13 percent of iron in the noodles was available for absorption of which contributed to 0.79 mg absorbed iron per day. This amount was too low to meet certain requirements for children, adolescents and menstruating women. With added pork or vegetables, iron availability increased by 2 to 3 times, and by 4 times with added pork and collard or cabbage (p<0.001). The amounts as high as 1.5 to 3.4 mg absorbed iron per day can meet the FAO/WHO requirements for most of the high-risk groups

  12. Magnetic resonance assessment of iron overload by separate measurement of tissue ferritin and hemosiderin iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ed X; Kim, Daniel; Tosti, Christina L; Tang, Haiying; Jensen, Jens H; Cheung, Jerry S; Feng, Li; Au, Wing-Yan; Ha, Shau-Yin; Sheth, Sujit S; Brown, Truman R; Brittenham, Gary M

    2010-08-01

    With transfusional iron overload, almost all the excess iron is sequestered intracellularly as rapidly mobilizable, dispersed, soluble ferritin iron, and as aggregated, insoluble hemosiderin iron for long-term storage. Established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicators of tissue iron (R(2), R(2)*) are principally influenced by hemosiderin iron and change slowly, even with intensive iron chelation. Intracellular ferritin iron is evidently in equilibrium with the low-molecular-weight cytosolic iron pool that can change rapidly with iron chelation. We have developed a new MRI method to separately measure ferritin and hemosiderin iron, based on the non-monoexponential signal decay induced by aggregated iron in multiple-spin-echo sequences. We have initially validated the method in agarose phantoms and in human liver explants and shown the feasibility of its application in patients with thalassemia major. Measurement of tissue ferritin iron is a promising new means to rapidly evaluate the effectiveness of iron-chelating regimens.

  13. Iron pnictide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegel, Marcus Christian

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this dissertation therefore has not only been the synthesis of various new superconducting and non-superconducting iron pnictides of several structural families but also their in-depth crystallographic and physical characterisation. In Chapters 3 - 6, the family of the ZrCuSiAs-type (1111) compounds is subject of discussion. The solid solution series La(Co x Fe 1-x )PO is analysed regarding magnetic and superconducting properties and the new compounds EuMnPF and REZnPO, as well as the new superconductor parent compound SrFeAsF are presented. Chapters 7 - 9 are dedicated to the new iron arsenide superconductors of the ThCr 2 Si 2 -type (122 family). Therein, also the discovery of the first superconductor in this structural family, Ba 0.6 K 0.4 Fe 2 As 2 , is unveiled. A detailed examination of the complete solid solution series (Ba 1-x K x )Fe 2 As 2 is presented. Moreover, the crystallographic phase transitions of the closely related compounds SrFe 2 As 2 and EuFe 2 As 2 are characterised and the superconductors Sr 1-x K x Fe 2 As 2 and Ca 1-x Na x Fe 2 As 2 are examined for magnetic and phononic excitations. In Chapter 10, the redetermined crystal structure of the superconductor Fe(Se 1-x Te x ) (11-type) is presented from a chemist's point of view. Chapters 11 - 14 look into the superconducting and non-superconducting iron arsenides of more complex structural families (32522-type and 21311-type). Therein, crystallographic and magnetic details of Sr 3 Sc 2 O 5 Fe 2 As 2 are presented and Ba 2 ScO 3 FeAs and Sr 2 CrO 3 FeAs, the first two members of the new 21311-type are portrayed. Sr 2 CrO 3 FeAs is looked at in close detail with various methods, so e.g. the spin structure of the magnetically ordered compound is solved and a possible reason for the absence of superconductivity in this compound is given. Finally, the superconductor Sr 2 VO 3 FeAs is scrutinised and necessary prerequisites for superconductivity in this compound are suggested. (orig.)

  14. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487 Section 192.487 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each... the purpose of this paragraph. (b) Localized corrosion pitting. Except for cast iron or ductile iron...

  15. High temperature oxidation of iron-iron oxide core-shell nanowires composed of iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, M; Brzozka, K; Lin, W S; Lin, H M; Tokarczyk, M; Borysiuk, J; Kowalski, G; Wasik, D

    2016-02-07

    This work describes an oxidation process of iron-iron oxide core-shell nanowires at temperatures between 100 °C and 800 °C. The studied nanomaterial was synthesized through a simple chemical reduction of iron trichloride in an external magnetic field under a constant flow of argon. The electron microscopy investigations allowed determining that the as-prepared nanowires were composed of self-assembled iron nanoparticles which were covered by a 3 nm thick oxide shell and separated from each other by a thin interface layer. Both these layers exhibited an amorphous or highly-disordered character which was traced by means of transmission electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The thermal oxidation was carried out under a constant flow of argon which contained the traces of oxygen. The first stage of process was related to slow transformations of amorphous Fe and amorphous iron oxides into crystalline phases and disappearance of interfaces between iron nanoparticles forming the studied nanomaterial (range: 25-300 °C). After that, the crystalline iron core and iron oxide shell became oxidized and signals for different compositions of iron oxide sheath were observed (range: 300-800 °C) using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. According to the thermal gravimetric analysis, the nanowires heated up to 800 °C under argon atmosphere gained 37% of mass with respect to their initial weight. The structure of the studied nanomaterial oxidized at 800 °C was mainly composed of α-Fe2O3 (∼ 93%). Moreover, iron nanowires treated above 600 °C lost their wire-like shape due to their shrinkage and collapse caused by the void coalescence.

  16. CALCIUM CARBONATE REDUCES IRON ABSORPTION FROM IRON SULFATE, BUT NOT WHEN IRON IS PRESENTED AS AN ORGANIC COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. CONCEIÇÃO

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Experimental and epidemiological evidences have demonstrated that calcium inhibits iron absorption; calcium carbonate being one of the most effective calcium sources to reduce iron absorption from dietary origin or from iron sulfate. In the present work, the short-term effect of calcium from calcium carbonate on iron absorption was studied in rats, using different iron compounds (monosodium ferric EDTA, iron-bys-glicine, iron peptide complex with iron sulfate as a control. Eighty (80 animals were divided into groups of 10 animals each with homogeneous weight. After 18h fast, the animals received by gavage 5 mL of a dispersion containing one of the iron compounds (1mg Fe/kg body weight, concomitantly or not with calcium carbonate at a molar ratio of 150:1 (Ca/Fe. Two hours after the administration, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected for serum iron determination (iron transfer rate from intestinal lumen to blood compartment. Additionally, the intestines were collected for soluble iron determination (available iron. The results demonstrated that calcium ion from calcium carbonate inhibits the iron absorption from iron sulfate, but not from organic iron (di- or trivalent complexes.

  17. Iron reductases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C D

    1980-01-01

    Cell-free extracts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contain enzyme activities which reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) when iron is provided in certain chelates, but not when the iron is uncomplexed. Iron reductase activities for two substrates, ferripyochelin and ferric citrate, appear to be separate enzymes because of differences in heat stabilities, in locations in fractions of cell-free extracts, in reductant specificity, and in apparent sizes during gel filtration chromatography. Ferric citrate iron reductase is an extremely labile activity found in the cytoplasmic fraction, and ferripyochelin iron reductase is a more stable activity found in the periplasmic as well as cytoplasmic fraction of extracts. A small amount of activity detectable in the membrane fraction seemed to be loosely associated with the membranes. Although both enzymes have highest activity reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced glutathione also worked with ferripyochelin iron reductase. In addition, oxygen caused an irreversible loss of a percentage of the ferripyochelin iron reductase following sparge of reaction mixtures, whereas the reductase for ferric citrate was not appreciably affected by oxygen. PMID:6766439

  18. Magnetic study of iron sorbitol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, F.J. E-mail: osoro@posta.unizar.es; Larrea, A.; Abadia, A.R.; Romero, M.S

    2002-09-01

    A magnetic study of iron sorbitol, an iron-containing drug to treat the iron deficiency anemia is presented. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the system contains nanometric particles with an average diameter of 3 nm whose composition is close to two-line ferrihydrite. The characterisation by magnetisation and AC susceptibility measurements indicates superparamagnetic behaviour with progressive magnetic blocking starting at 8 K. The quantitative analysis of the magnetic results indicates that the system consists of an assembly of very small magnetic moments, presumably originated by spin uncompensation of the antiferromagnetic nanoparticles, with Arrhenius type magnetic dynamics.

  19. The Marine Geochemistry of Iron and Iron Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    dispersed along the shelf of South America from the equator to the Orinoco river (- 1600 kin) (MEADE et al., 1985). Low salinity plumes from the Amazon...STEVEN and BROOKS, 1972; BORSTAD, 1982; KELLY et al., 2000; HELLWEGER and GORDON, 2002). The Orinoco River does not have the required freshwater flow or...Fractionation of iron isotopes could be an effective tool to investigate the geochemistry of iron. Trace metal clean plankton tows, river samples

  20. Determination of ferritin and hemosiderin iron in patients with normal iron stores and iron overload by serum ferritin kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hiroshi; Tomita, Akihiro; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Maeda, Hideaki; Hayashi, Hisao; Naoe, Tomoki

    2012-02-01

    We attempted to clarify the storage iron metabolism from the change in the serum ferritin level. We assumed that the nonlinear decrease in serum ferritin was caused by serum ferritin increase in iron mobilization. Under this assumption, we determined both ferritin and hemosiderin iron levels by computer-assisted simulation of the row of decreasing assay-dots of serum ferritin in 11 patients with normal iron stores free of both iron deficiency and iron overload; chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and iron deficiency anemia after treatment, and 11 patients with iron overload; hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) and transfusion-dependent anemias (TD). We determined the iron removal rates of 20 and 17 mg/day by administering mean doses of deferasirox at 631 and 616 mg/day in 2 TD during the period of balance of iron addition and removal as indicated by the serum ferritin returned to the previous level. The ferritin-per-hemosiderin ratio was almost the same in both HH and CHC. This matched the localized hepatic hemosiderin deposition in CHC with normal iron stores. We detected the ferritin increased by utilizing the hemosiderin iron in iron removal and the ferritin reduced by transforming ferritin into hemosiderin in iron additions. The iron storing capacity of hemosiderin was limitless, while that of ferritin was suppressed when ferritin iron exceeded around 5 grams. We confirmed the pathway of iron from hemosiderin to ferritin in iron mobilization, and that from ferritin to hemosiderin in iron deposition. Thus, serum ferritin kinetics enabled us to be the first to clinically clarify storage iron metabolism.