WorldWideScience

Sample records for bisexual male adolescents

  1. The Changing Experiences of Bisexual Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Max; McCormack, Mark; Anderson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with 15 openly bisexual male youth from sixth forms across the UK, this article documents positive experiences of bisexual male youth in school: participants had positive coming out experiences and did not encounter significant discrimination or harassment because of their sexual identity. Participants attribute this…

  2. The Internet's Multiple Roles in Facilitating the Sexual Orientation Identity Development of Gay and Bisexual Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Gary W; Serrano, Pedro A; Bruce, Douglas; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2016-09-01

    One emerging avenue for the exploration of adolescents' sexual orientation identity development is the Internet, since it allows for varying degrees of anonymity and exploration. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the role of the Internet in facilitating the sexual orientation identity development process of gay and bisexual male adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 63 gay/bisexual male adolescents (ages 15-23). Participants reported using a range of Internet applications as they explored and came to accept their sexual orientation identity, with the intended purpose and degree of anonymity desired determining which applications were used. Youth reported that the Internet provided a range of functions with regard to the exploration and acceptance of their sexual orientation identity, including (1) increasing self-awareness of sexual orientation identity, (2) learning about gay/bisexual community life, (3) communicating with other gay/bisexual people, (4) meeting other gay/bisexual people, (5) finding comfort and acceptance with sexual orientation, and (6) facilitating the coming out process. Future research and practice may explore the Internet as a platform for promoting the healthy development of gay and bisexual male adolescents by providing a developmentally and culturally appropriate venue for the exploration and subsequent commitment to an integrated sexual orientation identity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Negotiating dominant masculinity ideology: strategies used by gay, bisexual and questioning male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bianca D M; Harper, Gary W; Hidalgo, Marco A; Jamil, Omar B; Torres, Rodrigo Sebastián; Fernandez, M Isabel

    2010-03-01

    In the context of a U.S. dominant masculinity ideology, which devalues men who are not heterosexually identified, many gay, bisexual and questioning (GBQ) adolescent males must develop their own affirming and health-promoting sense of masculinity. In order to promote the well-being of GBQ young men, exploration of their reactions and responses to dominant images of masculinity is needed. We qualitatively analyzed interviews with 39 GBQ African American, Latino, and European American male adolescents (15-23 years old). Participants reported a range of responses to traditional masculinity ideologies, most of which centered on balancing presentations of masculine and feminine characteristics. Negotiation strategies served a variety of functions, including avoiding anti-gay violence, living up to expected images of masculinity, and creating unique images of personhood free of gender role expectations. These data suggest a complex picture of GBQ male adolescents' management of masculinity expectations and serve as a basis for culturally and developmentally specific HIV prevention programs.

  4. Exploring the Sexual Development Experiences of Black Bisexual Male Adolescents Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Anthony; Saunders, Brianna; Dodge, Brian; Harper, Gary; Arrington Sanders, Renata

    2018-01-03

    Scant research has sought to explore the development of dimensions of sexual orientation among Black bisexual male adolescents (BBMA). Understanding how sexual attractions, behaviors, and identities evolve among BBMA over time is crucial to understanding the most appropriate support strategies to provide during this developmental period. We sought to understand and describe the sexual orientation development experiences in a sample of BBMA over the course of 1 year. We further sought to understand the sociocontextual factors that may play a role during this development process. Fifteen BBMA, aged 15-19 years, were interviewed about sexual debut experiences (baseline) and were re-interviewed three times over a 1-year period about sexual attractions, behaviors, and identity at each follow-up point. A three-person team used inductive open coding to analyze each participant's data set. The mean Kinsey scale score for the sample was 2.93 (SD = 1.2) most closely translating to "heterosexual/gay-equally." A case study analysis was used to identify themes related to sexual attractions, behavior, and identity over time, within and across participants. Among the sample of young men, two unique groups were identified based on self-reported sexual identity and experiences of same- and other-sex sexual attractions and behaviors over time. The first group consisted of seven young men who consistently described their sexual identity as bisexual from baseline to the final follow-up. These young men also described similar experiences related to same- and other-sex sexual and romantic attractions and more consistently described same- and other-sex sexual behaviors. The second group consisted of eight young men that described changing sexual identity and same- and other-sex sexual romantic attractions over time. Participants described sociocontextual factors such as religion, masculinity, and homophobia played during their development. Findings from this study underscore the

  5. Online focus groups as an HIV prevention program for gay, bisexual, and queer adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; DuBois, L Zachary; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Prescott, Tonya L; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Seventy-five 14-18-year-old gay, bisexual, and queer (GBQ) males provided feedback about how their participation in national, online focus groups (FG) about GBQ sexual health related topics resulted in behavioral and attitudinal changes. Most sexually experienced youth agreed that their participation positively changed their views and behavioral intentions. Some said that being in the FG made them more comfortable talking about sex, their sexuality, and making safer choices such as negotiating condoms. Others indicated intentions to become more involved in the LGBT community. Sexually inexperienced FG participants similarly said that the FG discussion positively affected them-most commonly by reducing their sense of isolation as young GBQ men who were waiting to have sex. Many also thought that they would become more vocal advocates of abstinence and/or safe sex. Online FGs and facilitated discussion boards should be further explored as a low-cost HIV prevention program for GBQ youth.

  6. The male bisexuality debate revisited: some bisexual men have bisexual arousal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, A M; Sylva, David; Safron, Adam; Bailey, J Michael

    2012-02-01

    Self-identified bisexual men report high sexual arousal to both male and female stimuli, but no study to date has compellingly demonstrated that such men have a bisexual pattern of genital arousal. We examined sexual arousal patterns among bisexual men recruited using stringent criteria designed to exclude those who were less likely to have sexual interest in both sexes. Furthermore, we included a bisexual stimulus depicting a man engaged in sex simultaneously with another man and a woman. On average, the bisexual men showed a bisexual arousal pattern, with respect to both self-reported and genital arousal. Additionally, the bisexual men were more aroused by the bisexual stimulus compared with the homosexual and heterosexual men. Some bisexual-identified men have bisexual genital arousal patterns, although it remains unclear how common they are.

  7. A mixed-methods study of condom use and decision making among adolescent gay and bisexual males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; DuBois, L. Zachary; Prescott, Tonya L.; Ybarra, Michele L.

    2014-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men have the highest rates of new HIV infections in the U.S., but they have been understudied relative to other populations. As a formative step for the development of a text messaging HIV prevention intervention, this mixed methods study aimed to understand how adolescent gay and bisexual males (AGBM) make decisions about condom use and factors that may differ based on age, sexual experience, and rural versus urban residency. Four online, asynchronous focus groups were conducted with 75 14–18 year old AGBM across the U.S. Qualitative analyses uncovered themes related to relationship influences on condom use (e.g. marriage, trust), access issues, and attitudes and experiences that both encouraged as well as discouraged condom use. Mixed methods analyses explored differences between groups in endorsement of themes. For example, younger and sexually experienced participants were more likely to report the cost of condoms was prohibitive and sexually experienced and rural youth were more likely to describe being influenced by emotional aspects of the relationship. These data highlight both opportunities for as well as the importance of tailoring HIV prevention programs for sub-groups of AGBM. PMID:24906532

  8. Male bisexual arousal: a matter of curiosity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Rosenthal, Allen M; Cash, Brian M; Linsenmeier, Joan A W; Bailey, J Michael; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2013-12-01

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding whether bisexual-identified men are sexually aroused to both men and women. We hypothesized that a distinct characteristic, level of curiosity about sexually diverse acts, distinguishes bisexual-identified men with and without bisexual arousal. Study 1 assessed men's (n=277) sexual arousal via pupil dilation to male and female sexual stimuli. Bisexual men were, on average, higher in their sexual curiosity than other men. Despite this general difference, only bisexual-identified men with elevated sexual curiosity showed bisexual arousal. Those lower in curiosity had responses resembling those of homosexual men. Study 2 assessed men's (n=72) sexual arousal via genital responses and replicated findings of Study 1. Study 3 provided information on the validity on our measure of sexual curiosity by relating it to general curiosity and sexual sensation seeking (n=83). Based on their sexual arousal and personality, at least two groups of men identify as bisexual. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethical Considerations in Recruiting Online and Implementing a Text Messaging-Based HIV Prevention Program With Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Prescott, Tonya L; Phillips, Gregory L; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Bull, Sheana S; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-07-01

    There is a dearth of HIV prevention/healthy sexuality programs developed for adolescent gay and bisexual males (AGBM) as young as 14 years old, in part because of the myriad ethical concerns. To address this gap, we present our ethics-related experiences implementing Guy2Guy, a text messaging-based HIV prevention/healthy sexuality program, in a randomized controlled trial of 302 14- to 18-year-old sexual minority males. Potential risks and efforts to reduce these risks are discussed within the framework of the Belmont Report: Respect for persons, beneficence (e.g., risks and benefits), and justice (e.g., fair distribution of benefits and burdens). To ensure "respect for persons," online enrollment was coupled with telephone assent, which included assessing decisional capacity to assent. Beneficence was promoted by obtaining a waiver of parental permission and using a self-safety assessment to help youth evaluate their risk in taking part. Justice was supported through efforts to develop and test the program among those who would be most likely to use it if it were publicly available (e.g., youth who own a cell phone and are enrolled in an unlimited text messaging plan), along with the use of recruitment targets to ensure a racially, ethnically, and regionally diverse sample. It is possible to safely implement a sensitive and HIV prevention/healthy sexuality program with sexual minority youth as young as 14 years old when a rigorous ethical protocol is in place. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Verbal and Physical Abuse as Stressors in the Lives of Lesbian, Gay Male, and Bisexual Youths: Associations with School Problems, Running Away, Substance Abuse, Prostitution, and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews verbal and physical abuse that threatens well-being and physical survival of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths. Notes that this response to gay male, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents by significant others in their environment is often associated with several problematic outcomes, including school-related problems, running away,…

  11. Gay and Bisexual Adolescent Boys' Perspectives on Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Parenting Practices Related to Teen Sex and Dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; Thomann, Matthew; Coventry, Ryan; Macapagal, Kathryn; Mustanski, Brian; Newcomb, Michael E

    2017-12-26

    Close parent-adolescent relationships and specific parenting practices (e.g., communication about sex, monitoring) are associated with reduced sexual risk behavior among heterosexual youth. Despite gay/bisexual male youth being at increased risk of HIV, little is known about parental influences on their sexual behavior. As such, the goal of the current study was to examine parent-adolescent relationships and parenting practices related to teen sex and dating from the perspective of gay/bisexual adolescent boys. Online focus groups were conducted with 52 gay/bisexual male youth ages 14-17 years. Most gay/bisexual adolescent boys felt that their sexual orientation had an influence on their relationships with their parents and discussions about sex/dating. Although some felt that their relationships improved after coming out, a larger percentage reported that it put strain on their relationships. Discussions about sex/dating generally decreased after coming out, but some youth described positive conversations with their parents. Many reported that their parents struggled with whether or not to adapt parenting practices (e.g., rules about dating) after they came out. Youth consistently noted that parent-adolescent relationships and parenting practices depended on the adolescent's level of outness. Findings have important implications for refining HIV prevention programs for gay/bisexual adolescent boys, especially interventions that include parents.

  12. Male bisexuality and condom use at last sexual encounter: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, William L; Dodge, Brian

    2007-08-01

    Relatively little is known about condom use among bisexual men as separate and distinct from exclusively homosexual and heterosexual men. Most previous research on bisexual men has relied on non-probabilistic, high risk samples with limited generalizability. We examined the relationship between male behavioral bisexuality and condom use in the 2002 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Bisexually-active men positively differed from heterosexually- and homosexually-active men on every indicator of confounding risk. However, bisexually-active men did not report using condoms less often than other men during their last sexual encounters with males and females. Indeed, with female partners, bisexually-active men reported higher rates of condom use than other men. These relationships remained when all sociodemographic and confounding risk factors were held constant. Our results suggest that caution must be used when making assumptions about condom use in the general population of bisexual men from non-probabilistic samples.

  13. Bisexual Invisibility and the Sexual Health Needs of Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeit, Miriam R; Fisher, Celia B; Macapagal, Kathryn; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze bisexual female youth perspectives on their experiences accessing sexual health information and services provided by a doctor, nurse, or counselor. Specifically, we sought to: (1) understand how youth perceptions of providers' attitudes and behaviors affect their seeking and obtaining sexual health information and services; (2) examine how social stigmas within the family context might be associated with barriers to sexual health information and services; and (3) assess school-based sources of sexual health information. We utilized a mixed-method study design. Data from bisexual female youth were collected through an online questionnaire and asynchronous online focus groups addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health and HIV prevention. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Barriers to sexual healthcare included judgmental attitudes and assumptions of patient heterosexuality among healthcare providers, and missed opportunities for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing. Bisexual stigma within families was associated with restricted youth openness with providers, suggesting fear of disclosure to parent or guardian. School-based sexual health education was limited by a restrictive focus on abstinence and condoms and the exclusion of STI risk information relevant to sex between women. We recommend that practitioners integrate nonjudgmental questions regarding bisexuality into standard contraceptive and sexual health practices involving female youth, including discussion of HIV and STI risk reduction methods. Further support for bisexual health among adolescent girls can come through addressing stigmas of female bisexuality, increasing sensitivity to privacy while engaging parents, and expanding the reach of school-based sexual health education.

  14. Tobacco Product Use Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongying

    2017-04-01

    Sexual minority youth face health disparities and a high risk of substance abuse. This study sought to fully characterize the disparity of tobacco use and risk factors in this high-risk subpopulation. Using data from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the current use of various tobacco products (cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, cigars, and e-cigarettes) was compared according to sex and distinct sexual identities (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and unsure). Heterosexual/straight adolescents served as the control group. Of 14 703 respondents, 88.8% were heterosexual/straight, 2.0% were lesbian or gay, 6.0% were bisexual, and 3.2% were unsure about their sexual identity. Sexual minorities had a higher prevalence of tobacco product use than their heterosexual/straight counterparts. Sex had a significant effect on the disparities of tobacco use. Lesbian and bisexual girls had higher odds of reporting current use of any tobacco product, cigarettes, cigars, and e-cigarettes than did straight girls, whereas sexual minority boys had similar smoking behaviors compared with straight boys. Substance use, including marijuana use, drinking, and binge drinking, was significantly associated with any tobacco use. Tobacco use differs among subgroups of sexual minority youth, with lesbians and bisexual girls having a higher prevalence of tobacco use than their straight peers. Heterogeneity of tobacco use across distinct sexual identity groups underscores the need to develop evidence-based tobacco control strategies for sexual minority youth. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Male homosexuality: the adolescent's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remafedi, G

    1987-03-01

    Although homosexual activity is prevalent among US teenagers, adolescent homosexuality per se has been a poorly understood phenomenon. The purpose of this investigation is to describe the meaning and experience of homosexuality from the adolescent's perspective. Twenty-nine male teenagers, self-described as gay (79%) or bisexual (21%), volunteered to participate in a structured interview, the purpose of which was to examine the definition of homosexuality, the acquisition of a gay identity, and the impact of sexuality on family, peers, and community. The youths demonstrated well-established sexual identities by the consistency of their sexual fantasies, interests, and behaviors over time. Homosexuality was more frequently described as a general attraction to men (48%) and an indicator of positive personal attributes (33%) than as an isolated sexual behavior. The subjects reported strong negative attitudes from parents (43%) and friends (41%) toward their sexualities. Discrimination (37%), verbal abuse from peers (55%), and physical assaults (30%) were frequently cited problems. These stressors may place the boys at high risk for physical and psychosocial dysfunction.

  16. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  17. Examining the Role of Peer Relationships in the Lives of Gay and Bisexual Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Stuart L.

    2015-01-01

    School social workers can serve as valuable supporters of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youths in the public school system by providing services aimed to improve school climates for all students. This article describes a qualitative study that examined gay and bisexual adolescent experiences with peer support using a…

  18. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  19. Correlated Preferences for Male Facial Masculinity and Partner Traits in Gay and Bisexual Men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lijun; Zheng, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have documented the correlation between preferences for male facial masculinity and perceived masculinity: women who rate their male partner as more masculine tend to prefer more masculine faces. Men's self-rated masculinity predicts their female partner's preference for masculinity. This study examined the association between other trait preferences and preference for male facial masculinity among 556 gay and bisexual men across multiple cities in China. Participants were asked to choose the three most important traits in a romantic partner from a list of 23 traits. Each participant was then asked to choose a preferred face in each of 10 pairs of male faces presented sequentially, with each pair consisting of a masculinized and feminized version of the same base face. The results indicated that preferences for health and status-related traits were correlated with preferences for male facial masculinity in gay and bisexual men in China; individuals who were more health- or status-oriented in their preferences for a romantic partner preferred more masculine male faces than individuals with lower levels of these orientations. The findings have implications for the correlated preferences for facial masculinity and health- and status-related traits and may be related to perceived health and dominance/aggression of masculine faces based on a sample of non-Western gay and bisexual men.

  20. Psychotherapy of bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Richard C; Downey, Jennifer I

    2010-01-01

    We discuss clinical aspects of male bisexuality from a psychodynamic perspective. Bisexuality appears to be an attribute of some but not all men. The factors leading some men to be bisexual, and others exclusively homosexual or heterosexual are not presently known. Although bisexuality itself is not pathological, the adaptational issues of men with major psychiatric disorders who are also bisexual may be complex.

  1. Sexual orientation, bullying for being labeled gay or bisexual, and steroid use among US adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Mike C; Bradstreet, Tyler C

    2018-03-01

    Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids is a public health concern for adolescent boys. This study examined bullying based on being labeled gay/bisexual and steroid use among US adolescent boys, including sexual orientation disparities. Data from 2660 boys from the 2015 Youth Behavior Risk Survey were used. Among heterosexual boys, steroid use was higher among those who reported being bullied due to being labeled gay or bisexual. No such relationship existed among non-heterosexual boys. The results speak to the need to address issues of masculinity in clinical work with boys and young men.

  2. Employing Memory Narratives to Dissect the Well-Being of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Bradley James; Loewenstern, Joshua Noah

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) identities and negative psychoemotional outcomes among teens is well established; this study analyzed happy memory narratives written by 390 LGB adolescents to investigate positive life experiences that might improve the well-being of LGB youth. A significant number of narratives were…

  3. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adolescent School Victimization: Implications for Young Adult Health and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T.; Ryan, Caitlin; Toomey, Russell B.; Diaz, Rafael M.; Sanchez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescent school victimization due to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status is commonplace, and is associated with compromised health and adjustment. Few studies have examined the long-term implications of LGBT school victimization for young adult adjustment. We examine the association between reports of LGBT school…

  4. Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents: A Critical Challenge to Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Eli; Remafedi, Gary

    1989-01-01

    Claims that meeting the health care needs of homosexual and bisexual teenagers has become public health imperative. Points out stigma of homosexuality often gives rise to psychosocial problems for teenagers in process of sexual identity development. Offers suggestions to support healthy development, assist recovery from stigma, and avert…

  5. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  6. “…And Then There was the Down Low”: Introduction to Black and Latino Male Bisexualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Dodge, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Although a recent proliferation of mass media has drawn attention to “the new Down Low phenomenon” (presumably “secretive” homosexuality among married Black men), relatively little research has explored bisexual behavior and identity among ethnic minority men in the United States or elsewhere. Although the study of bisexuality in Black and Latino men is significant in its own right, disproportionate rates of HIV/AIDS among these men make the current dearth of scientific information even more urgent and concerning. In this special section, we have compiled a diverse array of empirical and theoretical perspectives on Black and Latino male bisexualities. A wide range of information on the individual, social, and sexual lives of these men, and potential relations to risk behavior, are presented. This article introduces this new body of work and offers suggestions for future research directions for culturally appropriate interventions for Black and Latino bisexual men. PMID:18506614

  7. Stereotype or success? Prime-time television's portrayals of gay male, lesbian, and bisexual characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raley, Amber B; Lucas, Jennifer L

    2006-01-01

    The current content analysis of prime-time network television during the fall of 2001 seeks to identify the representation of Gay male, Lesbian, and Bisexual characters in shows known to have one reoccurring homosexual character based on the theories of Clark and Berry. Clark (1969) established four stages of media representation for minority groups: non-representation, ridicule, regulation, and respect. The findings of the study support the premise that Gay males and Lesbians have passed Clark's stage of non-representation and have progressed into the stage of ridicule and some are moving into the stages of regulation and respect. Berry (1980) devised three periods based on the television portrayal of Blacks: The Stereotypic Age, The New Awareness, and Stabilization. Results were mixed, with only a partial support of the hypothesis that Gay males and Lesbians had advanced beyond The Stereotypic Age.

  8. Gynecomastia in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaine, Valerie; Cayci, Cenk; Simmons, Patricia S.; Petty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as an enlargement of the male breast. It is often benign, and can be the source of significant embarrassment and psychological distress. A general medical history and careful physical examination are essential to distinguish normal developmental variants from pathological causes. Treatment is geared toward the specific etiology when identified. In the majority of cases of pubertal gynecomastia, observation and reassurance are the mainstays of therapy as the condition usually resolves naturally. Pharmacological treatment and surgery are recommended only in selected cases. PMID:24872741

  9. Preventing Sexual Risk Behaviors among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents: The Benefits of Gay-Sensitive HIV Instruction in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Susan M.; Ledsky, Rebecca; Lehman, Thomas; Goodenow, Carol; Sawyer, Richard; Hack, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Compared the sexual risk taking behaviors of gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) and heterosexual adolescents, evaluating associations between gay-sensitive school HIV instruction and GLB adolescents' risk behaviors. Surveys indicated that GLB students had more high risk behaviors than heterosexual students, and those in schools with gay-sensitive…

  10. Parental Acceptance and Illegal Drug Use among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents: Results from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Yolanda C.; Crisp, Catherine; Rew, Donna Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Although gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) adolescents face many of the same developmental challenges as do heterosexual adolescents, they must also deal with the stress of being part of a stigmatized group. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which family support and involvement with the queer community may buffer the effects of…

  11. Gay and bisexual identity development among female-to-male transsexuals in North America: emergence of a transgender sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockting, Walter; Benner, Autumn; Coleman, Eli

    2009-10-01

    We studied a North American sample of female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals sexually attracted to men, aiming to understand their identity and sexuality in the context of a culture of transgender empowerment. Sex-reassigned FtM transsexuals, 18 years or older and attracted to men, were recruited via an FtM community conference and listserv. Participants (N = 25) responded to open-ended questions about identity development, sexual behavior, and social support. Data were analyzed by content analysis. Scores for sexual identity, self esteem, sexual functioning, and psychological adjustment were compared to those of a comparison group (N = 76 nontransgender gay and bisexual men). Of the 25 FtMs, 15 (60%) identified as gay, 8 (32%) as bisexual, and 2 (8%) as queer. All were comfortable with their gender identity and sexual orientation. The FtM group was more bisexual than the nontransgender gay and bisexual controls. No significant group differences were found in self esteem, sexual satisfaction, or psychological adjustment. For some FtMs, sexual attractions and experiences with men affirmed their gender identity; for others, self-acceptance of a transgender identity facilitated actualization of their attractions toward men. Most were "out" as transgender among friends and family, but not on the job or within the gay community. Disclosure and acceptance of their homosexuality was limited. The sexual identity of gay and bisexual FtMs appears to mirror the developmental process for nontransgender homosexual men and women in several ways; however, participants also had experiences unique to being both transgender and gay/bisexual. This signals the emergence of a transgender sexuality.

  12. Reaching Adolescent Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Men Online: Development and Refinement of a National Recruitment Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Tonya L; Phillips Ii, Gregory; DuBois, L Zachary; Bull, Sheana S; Mustanski, Brian; Ybarra, Michele L

    2016-08-04

    Using social networking websites to recruit research participants is increasingly documented in the literature, although few studies have leveraged these sites to reach those younger than 18 years. To discuss the development and refinement of a recruitment protocol to reach and engage adolescent gay, bisexual, and other teenaged men who have sex with men (AGBM). Participants were recruited for development and evaluation activities related to Guy2Guy, a text messaging-based human immunodeficiency virus infection prevention program. Eligibility criteria included being between 14 to 18 years old; being a cisgender male; self-identifying as gay, bisexual, and/or queer; being literate in English, exclusively owning a cell phone, enrolled in an unlimited text messaging plan, intending to keep their current phone number over the next 6 months, and having used text messaging for at least the past 6 months. Recruitment experiences and subsequent steps to refine the Internet-based recruitment strategy are discussed for 4 research activities: online focus groups, content advisory team, beta test, and randomized controlled trial (RCT). Recruitment relied primarily on Facebook advertising. To a lesser extent, Google AdWords and promotion through partner organizations working with AGBM youth were also utilized. Facebook advertising strategies were regularly adjusted based on preidentified recruitment targets for race, ethnicity, urban-rural residence, and sexual experience. The result was a diverse sample of participants, of whom 30% belonged to a racial minority and 20% were Hispanic. Facebook advertising was the most cost-effective method, and it was also able to reach diverse recruitment goals: recruitment for the first focus group cost an average of US $2.50 per enrolled participant, and it took 9 days to enroll 40 participants; the second focus group cost an average of US $6.96 per enrolled participant, and it took 11 days to enroll 40 participants. Recruitment for the

  13. Romantic Relationships and Their Social Context Among Gay/Bisexual Male Youth in the Castro District of San Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Strong, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the culture of romantic relationships among gay/bisexual male youth in the Castro District of San Francisco.The article seeks to specify the cultural ideology that informs these relationships, drawing upon ethnographic observation, autobiographical accounts, and informant cultural exegesis. The article also seeks to link thinking and experience inside romantic relationships (e.g., bonding, jealousy) to patterns of social behavior associated with romantic r...

  14. Marriage (In)equality: The Perspectives of Adolescents and Emerging Adults with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    The debate over whether same-sex couples should be allowed to enter into civil marriages continues in the United States. Forty-nine adolescents and emerging adults (ages 14-29) with lesbian, gay, and bisexual parents were interviewed for the current exploratory study, which examined how individuals perceived themselves and their families as being…

  15. Practice Parameter on Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual Sexual Orientation, Gender Nonconformity, and Gender Discordance in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicus, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents who are growing up gay, lesbian, bisexual, gender nonconforming, or gender discordant experience unique developmental challenges. They are at risk for certain mental health problems, many of which are significantly correlated with stigma and prejudice. Mental health professionals have an important role to play in fostering…

  16. The embodiment of tourism among bisexually-behaving Dominican male sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B

    2008-10-01

    While theories of "structure" and social inequality have increasingly informed global health efforts for HIV prevention--with growing recognition of the linkages between large-scale political and economic factors in the distribution and impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic--there is still little theorization of precisely how structural factors shape the very bodies and sexualities of specific populations and groups. In order to extend the theoretical understanding of these macro-micro linkages, this article examines how the growth of the tourism industry in the Dominican Republic has produced sexual practices and identities that reflect both the influence of large-scale structural processes and the resistant responses of local individuals. Drawing on social science theories of political economy, embodiment, and authenticity, I argue that an understanding of patterns of sexuality and HIV risk in the region requires analysis of how political-economic transformations related to tourism intersect with the individual experiences and practices of sexuality on the ground. The analysis draws on long-term ethnographic research with bisexually behaving male sex workers in two cities in the Dominican Republic, including participant observation, in-depth interviews, focus groups, and surveys. By examining the global and local values placed on these men's bodies and the ways sex workers use their bodies to broker tourists' pleasure, we may better understand how the large-scale structures of the tourism industry are linked to the specific meanings and practices of sexuality.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis serovar G infection in a bisexual male with urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawre, Jyoti; Dhawan, Benu; Saigal, Karnika; Khanna, Neena

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar G urogenital tract infection in a 33-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) seropositive Indian bisexual male. This case highlights the emergence of a new serovar in India. The patient was tested positive for C. trachomatis by both cryptic plasmid and omp A gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On further characterization using polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and omp A gene sequencing, the strain was found to be C. trachomatis serovar G. His spouse was also found to be infected with C. trachomatis serovar G. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on the clinical isolates obtained from both partners and were found to be identical to the isolates available in GenBank. The sexual network could not be traced further. Detection of a new genotype suggests importation of a new strain into the population probably by sexual contact with a person from a geographical area where the strain is common. Identifying circulating genotypes in the community can assist in developing strategies for improved sexually transmitted disease control.

  18. Rethinking Sexual Initiation: Pathways to Identity Formation among Gay and Bisexual Mexican Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Héctor; Fontdevila, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The topic of same-sex sexual initiation has generally remained understudied in the literature on sexual identity formation among sexual minority youth. This article analyzed the narratives of same-sex sexual initiation provided by 76 gay and bisexual Mexican immigrant men who participated in interviews for the Trayectos Study, an ethnographic study of sexuality and HIV risk. These participants were raised in a variety of locations throughout Mexico, where they also realized their same-sex attraction and initiated their sexual lives with men. We argue that Mexican male same-sex sexuality is characterized by three distinct patterns of sexual initiation-- one heavily-based on gender roles, one based on homosociality, and one based on object choice-- which inform the men’s interpretations regarding sexual roles, partner preferences, and sexual behaviors. We analyzed the social factors and forms of cultural/sexual socialization that lead sexual minority youth specifically to each of these three patterns of sexual initiation. Our findings confirm the importance of studying same-sex sexual initiation as a topic in its own right, particularly as a tool to gain a greater understanding of the diversity of same-sex sexual experiences and sexual identities within and among ethnic/cultural groups. PMID:20838869

  19. Motivators, concerns, and barriers to adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among gay and bisexual men in HIV serodiscordant male relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Ronald A.; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Lieber, Eli; Landovitz, Raphael J.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Leibowitz, Arleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that may facilitate or impede future adoption of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among gay and bisexual men in HIV-serodiscordant relationships. This qualitative study utilized semistructured interviews conducted with a multiracial/-ethnic sample of 25 gay and bisexual HIV-serodiscordant male couples (n=50 individuals) recruited from community settings in Los Angeles, CA. A modified grounded theory approach was employed to id...

  20. Zambian male adolescents' perceptions about premarital sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role adolescent boys play in premarital sexual activities, gender power relations, and the reproductive health risks they are exposed to, has received little attention in research. This qualitative study has aimed to explore Zambian male adolescents' perceptions and expectations about premarital sexual relationships.

  1. Measuring Attitudes Regarding Bisexuality in Lesbian, Gay Male, and Heterosexual Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Jonathan J.; Rochlen, Aaron B.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on studies on the development and validation of the Attitudes Regarding Bisexuality Scale (ARBS). In heterosexuals, subscales were strongly related to attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, frequency of religious attendance, political ideology, and prior contact. In lesbians and gay men, subscales correlated with prior experiences and…

  2. Practice parameter on gay, lesbian, or bisexual sexual orientation, gender nonconformity, and gender discordance in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, Stewart L

    2012-09-01

    Children and adolescents who are growing up gay, lesbian, bisexual, gender nonconforming, or gender discordant experience unique developmental challenges. They are at risk for certain mental health problems, many of which are significantly correlated with stigma and prejudice. Mental health professionals have an important role to play in fostering healthy development in this population. Influences on sexual orientation, gender nonconformity, and gender discordance, and their developmental relationships to each other, are reviewed. Practice principles and related issues of cultural competence, research needs, and ethics are discussed. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Female Bisexuality from Adolescence to Adulthood: Results from a 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Debates persist over whether bisexuality is a temporary stage of denial or transition, a stable "3rd type" of sexual orientation, or a heightened capacity for sexual fluidity. The present study uses 5 waves of longitudinal data collected from 79 lesbian, bisexual, and "unlabeled" women to evaluate these models. Both the "3rd orientation" and…

  4. Bisexual Behavior Among Male Injection Drug Users in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kathleen H; Neaigus, Alan; Wendel, Travis; Marshall, David M; Hagan, Holly

    2016-02-01

    Drug using men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) may be at high risk for HIV infection and transmitting HIV to sex partners. In 2012, injection drug users (IDUs) were sampled in New York City for the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling. Logistic regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 %CI) to determine correlates of bisexual behavior in the past 12 months. Of 333 participants, 47(14.1 %) reported MSMW. Variables independently associated (p bisexual sexual identity (vs. "straight") (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 92.6; 95 % CI 18.9, 454.5), Bronx residence [vs. Manhattan (aOR 8.4; 95 %CI 1.6,43.7)], past 12 month behaviors of having sex with ≥3 sex partners (aOR 18.1; 95 % CI 3.3,98.4), "sold" sex (aOR 8.5; 95 % CI 2.3, 31.5), "bought" sex (aOR 0.2; 95 % CI 0.1, 0.9), and injection methamphetamine use (aOR 20.5; 95 % CI 3.0, 139.7). MSM IDUs are an important subgroup to consider for HIV interventions, as they may not be reached through HIV prevention programming aimed at MSM.

  5. Condom use among gay/bisexual male substance abusers using the timeline follow-back method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, G M; Stall, R D; Paul, J P; Barrett, D C; Midanik, L T

    1996-01-01

    Sexual risk for HIV transmission under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs is not simply a cause-effect relationship: not everyone who drinks or uses other drugs has unprotected sex. The purpose of this study is to explore differences between substance using gay/bisexual men who use condoms during anal sex from those who do not. These differences are identified by comparing men whose anal sex while under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs is consistently protected to men whose anal sex while under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs is consistently unprotected. Gay/bisexual men entering substance abuse treatment at a gay-identified agency in San Francisco were recruited to complete surveys and to be interviewed about sexual behavior, substance use, and related variables using an extended version of the Timeline Follow-back (TL). The TL procedure uses a blank calendar form and a series of questions to cue recall of drinking, drug use, and anal intercourse on each of the 30 days prior to the last date of alcohol and/or drug use. Men whose anal sex while under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs is consistently unprotected were significantly more likely to report having less than a college education (p = .04), more likely to have an income of less than $20,000 (p = .01), more likely to use amyl nitrite (p = .01) and cocaine (p = .02), and more likely to report a higher frequency of anal sex (p = .007). In addition, they were less likely to approve of sex without love (p = .003), less likely to perceive that safer sex is the community norm (p friends to practice safer sex (p = .001). However, HIV status did not differentiate between the two groups. These two groups provide clear and interesting contrasts in terms of behavior, thus comparisons of the factors influencing sexual safety in these subgroups may enhance our understanding of risk taking. A better understanding of possible mediating variables can be important both in guiding future research in

  6. Gay and Bisexual Men's Perceptions of Police Helpfulness in Response to Male-Male Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Finneran

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Despite several recent studies documenting high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV among gay and bisexual men (GBM, the literature is silent regarding GBM’s perceptions of IPV within their community. We examine GBM’s perceptions of same-sex IPV: its commonness, its severity, and the helpfulness of a hypothetical police response to a GBM experiencing IPV.Methods: We drew data from a 2011 survey of venue-recruited GBM (n¼989. Respondents were asked to describe the commonness of IPV, severity of IPV, and helpfulness of a hypothetical police response to IPV among GBM and among heterosexual women. We fitted a logistic model for the outcome of viewing the police response to a gay/bisexual IPV victim as less helpful than for a female heterosexual IPV victim. The regression model controlled for age, race/ethnicity, education, sexual orientation, employment status, and recent receipt of physical, emotional, and sexual IPV, with key covariates being internalized homophobia and experiences of homophobic discrimination.Results: The majority of respondents viewed IPV among GBM as common (54.9% and problematic(63.8%. While most respondents had identical perceptions of the commonness (82.7% and severity (84.1% of IPV in GBM compared to heterosexual women, the majority of the sample (59.1% reported perceiving that contacting the police would be less helpful for a GBM IPV victim than for a heterosexual female IPV victim. In regression, respondents who reported more lifetime experiences of homophobic discrimination were more likely to have this comparatively negative perception (odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.17.Conclusion: The results support a minority stress hypothesis to understand GBM’s perceptions of police helpfulness in response to IPV. While IPV was viewed as both common and problematic among GBM, their previous experiences of homophobia were correlated with a learned anticipation of rejection and stigma from

  7. African American adolescent males living with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Pamela F

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to explore, through the concepts of self-perception and meaning, the lived experience of obesity in African American males between the ages of 13-17 years. Hermeneutic phenomenological design was used to guide the study. Thirteen inner-city African American males were enrolled. All participants had a documented body mass index of >95th percentile and were actively receiving treatment at a medical obesity clinic. Qualitative data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews. Self-perception and meaning are interrelated and important factors in understanding obesity uniquely from the adolescents view. If individuals do not understand that they are obese then they are unable to assign meaning to obesity within their life. Four main themes were discovered. The main themes were as follows: (1) It Don't Mean Nuthin'; (2) It's Just Me, Who I Am; (3) Something Bad Might Happen; and (4) I'm Confused and I Feel Bad. Patterns emerged that will allow health care workers to engage adolescents on a personal level, thereby increasing the potential for treatment outcomes consistent with weight management clinic goals. To realize successful outcomes for these adolescents, health care providers must incorporate the adolescents' understanding, knowledge, and values related to obesity in treatment planning. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Exploring the Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Questioning Adolescents in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Anne; White, Catherine Roller; Ryan, Caitlin; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Thomas, Preneka

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on the findings from a subset of gender identity and sexual orientation questions from The Casey Field Office Mental Health Study (CFOMH). It aims to contribute the experiences of youth in the care of Casey Family Programs to the increasing body of research on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) youth…

  9. Romantic relationships and their social context among gay/bisexual male youth in the Castro District of San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Stephen L; Arnold, Emily; Peterson, Eric; Strong, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the culture of romantic relationships among gay/bisexual male youth in the Castro District of San Francisco. The article seeks to specify the cultural ideology that informs these relationships, drawing upon ethnographic observation, autobiographical accounts, and informant cultural exegesis. The article also seeks to link thinking and experience inside romantic relationships (e.g., bonding, jealousy) to patterns of social behavior associated with romantic relationships (e.g., relationship sequestering, cheating), showing how both are informed by shared assumptions which make these emotions and gestures intelligible to the group. Beliefs about love, compatibility, and monogamy are explored. Reciprocity, including its degradation into negative forms, is examined with focus on the units of value that are exchanged in romantic relationships, in particular sentimental gifts. Gestures of commitment that mark commencement of a romantic relationship as well as extension of the dynamics of a relationship after "breakup" (as in "revenge sex" and "rebound relationships") are examined. Cultural systems that challenge adherence to a romantic ideology, such as a prestige economy associated with sex linked to an ethos of sexual exploration/recreation, are weighed against the pull of romance. "Drama," a hallmark of gay youth, is viewed in the context of romantic culture.

  10. Male and Female Delinquency Trajectories from Pre through Middle Adolescence and Their Continuation in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsheer, Johannes A.; van Dijkum, C.

    2005-01-01

    This study of male and female adolescent delinquency trajectories focuses on the prediction of late adolescence delinquency, based on earlier delinquency and social support. In this 3-wave longitudinal survey, 270 Dutch adolescents (113 males and 157 females) ages 12 to 14, were followed for a period of 6 years. For males, the level of delinquent…

  11. Relatos de experiência homossexual em adolescentes masculinos Reports on homosexual experience in male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella R. Taquette

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Na adolescência costuma ocorrer o primeiro contato sexual genital. Ao pesquisarmos a sexualidade dos adolescentes masculinos atendidos no NESA-UERJ, constatamos que 20,3% dos sexualmente ativos já tinham tido experiências homossexuais. Este artigo visa investigar as características desses rapazes que se relacionaram sexualmente com outros homens. Realizamos um estudo transversal, através de entrevistas com adolescentes atendidos no NESA, escolhidos aleatoriamente. Entrevistamos 105 rapazes, sendo 64 com experiência sexual e dentre eles, 13 (20,3% já tinham se relacionado sexualmente com homens. Entre esses últimos, apenas dois (15,4% se consideravam homossexuais e três (23,1% bissexuais. A maioria teve o primeiro coito com mulheres (69,2% e 46,2% do total dos rapazes (n=13 se prostituíram com homens. Encontramos uma associação significativa (pThe first genital contact occurs during adolescence. While studying the sexuality of male adolescents seen in NESA-UERJ, we found out that within the boys whom had started having sex, 20,3% have had homosexual experience. This article aims to analyze the characteristics of those boys whom have had sex with others men. We performed a cross-sectional study randomly interviewing male adolescents in NESA. We interviewed 105 male adolescents, where 64 of those have had sexual relationships. Within those 64, 13 (20,3% have already had sexual contact with another male. Within those 13 adolescents, only two (15,4% considered themselves as being homosexuals and three (23,1% bisexuals. The great majority (69,2% had their first sexual relationship with females and 46,2% of the all boys (n=13 had sex with males for money. There was a significant association (p<0,05 between homosexuality and prostitution. There was not any significant difference between homosexual relationship and the following variables: number of partners greater than two, condom use and being diagnosed with STD. We concluded that the

  12. Height-Based Indices of Pubertal Timing in Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairullah, Ammar; May, Margaret T.; Tilling, Kate; Howe, Laura D.; Leonard, Gabriel; Perrond, Michel; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    It is important to account for timing of puberty when studying the adolescent brain and cognition. The use of classical methods for assessing pubertal status may not be feasible in some studies, especially in male adolescents. Using data from a sample of 478 males from a longitudinal birth cohort, we describe the calculations of three independent…

  13. Body Image Disorder in Adolescent Males: Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Eric J.; Frame, Marsha Wiggins

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, men have been bombarded with images in society that depict the "ideal" male: strong, muscular, lean, with perfect features. What many adolescents do not realize is that most of the male bodies that they idealize can be acquired only with the use of anabolic steroids. Thus, many adolescent boys find themselves pursuing a body…

  14. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  15. Masculinity in adolescent males' early romantic and sexual heterosexual relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David L; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Ott, Mary A

    2015-05-01

    There is a need to understand better the complex interrelationship between the adoption of masculinity during adolescence and the development of early romantic and sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to describe features of adolescent masculinity and how it is expressed in the contexts of early to middle adolescent males' romantic and sexual relationships. Thirty-three 14- to 16-year-old males were recruited from an adolescent clinic serving a community with high sexually transmitted infection rates and were asked open-ended questions about their relationships-how they developed, progressed, and ended. Participants described a high degree of relationally oriented beliefs and behaviors related to romantic and sexual relationships, such as a desire for intimacy and trust. The males also described a more limited degree of conventionally masculine beliefs and behaviors. These beliefs and behaviors often coexisted or overlapped. Implications for the clinical care of similar groups of adolescents are described. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders among Male Adolescent Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    PUSTIV?EK, Suzana; HAD?I?, Vedran; DERVI?EVI?, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Eating disorders (ED) are an important and increasing problem in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the risk factors and the prevalence of risk for ED among male adolescent elite athletes and nonathletic controls. Differences between male athletes competing in aerobic, anaerobic and aerobic-anaerobic sports were examined as well. Methods This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were ...

  17. Homosexuality, Counseling, and the Adolescent Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Ellen R.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Authors report relatively high incidence of homosexuality among adolescents. They review various attitudes, theories and methods to treat homosexuality. Counselor should be aware of his/her own attitudes and reactions towards homosexuality and should be ready to discuss it in a direct, nonthreatened and open manner with adolescents and other…

  18. Handgrip Strength and Socially Dominant Behavior in Male Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Gallup

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Handgrip strength (HGS is highly heritable and a good overall measure of strength and muscle function. Indicative of blood testosterone levels and fat-free body mass, HGS is also highly sexually dimorphic. Recent psychological research shows that HGS is correlated with a number of social variables, but only in males. We conducted three studies to further investigate the relationship between HGS and measures of aggression and social competition among adolescents. Consistent with previous reports, correlations were almost exclusive to males, but this was only visible during late adolescence (i.e., high school. These findings support evolutionary hypotheses regarding grip strength in male-male competition and suggest that similar to measures of testosterone, HGS is a measure that is predictive of social behavior in older adolescent males.

  19. Sexual Health Risk Behavior Disparities Among Male and Female Adolescents Using Identity and Behavior Indicators of Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Poteat, V; Russell, Stephen T; Dewaele, Alexis

    2017-12-04

    Sexual minority adolescent sexual risk behavior studies often overlook young women, do not consider behavior- and identity-based sexual orientation indicators in combination, and focus mainly on condomless sex. We examined multiple risk behaviors in a large sample of adolescent young men and women using combined behavior- and identity-based indices. The 2015 Dane County Youth Assessment data included 4734 students in 22 high schools who had ever voluntarily engaged in sexual contact (51.7% male; 76.0% White, non-Hispanic). Items assessed having sex with unfamiliar partners, sex while using substances, using protection, and STI testing. Logistic regressions tested for disparities based on combined identity- and behavior-based sexual orientation indicators. For both young men and women, youth who reported heterosexual or questioning identities-but who had sex with same-sex partners-were at consistently greater risk than heterosexual youth with only different-sex partners. Also, for both young men and women, bisexuals with partners of both sexes more consistently reported higher risk than heterosexual youth than did bisexuals with only different-sex partners. Risk behavior for gay young men who had sex only with men mirrored those in extant literature. Risk levels differed for specific groups of sexual minority young women, thus deserving further attention. Findings underscore the need for sexual health research to consider sexual orientation in a more multidimensional manner.

  20. Female-to-male transgender adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Sarah E

    2011-10-01

    This article focuses on considerations for natal females who present in the adolescent years with concerns related to their gender. They maybe individuals previously evaluated in their childhood years who have persisted with gender variance or gender identity disorder (GID) in DSM-IV, or they may be presenting for the first time in their adolescent years. The article discusses how to assess adolescents who come for evaluation and what treatments and other resources are available for them and their families. Where there seem to be differences between boys and girls with gender identity issues, they will be noted.

  1. Parent-adolescent interaction: influence on the academic achievement of African American adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearin, Sherin A

    2002-01-01

    As the achievement gap between African American and while students persists, an examination of factors outside the school setting are essential. Acknowledging the dynamics of family environment as perceived by African American adolescent males is apposite to understanding the relationship between family environment and academic achievement. Utilizing an ecological perspective, this study describes the characteristics of family process variables and analyzes the adolescents' perception of parent-adolescent interaction and its influence on their psychological well-being. Results indicate that a substantial proportion of the 179 adolescent males who perceived parent-adolescent interaction as positive and were identified as having a stable psychological well-being, were more likely to have average to above-average grade point averages, high Stanford Nine scores and high achievement group membership, than those adolescent males who did not perceive parent-adolescent interaction as positive.

  2. Adolescent Male-to-Female Transgender Voice and Communication Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…

  3. Treating Mental Illness among Diabetic Black Male Adolescents: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Andrae; Fields, Lashawnda; O'Dwyer, Curtis; Scott, Marquisha Lawrence; Joe, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To examine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for treatment evidence for Black male adolescents suffering from comorbid mental illness and diabetes mellitus. Method: A review of the studies published in English-language journals was conducted. Results: We found no RCT focused on Black males with diabetes mellitus Type 2 (DMT2).…

  4. Black and White Adolescent Males' Perceptions of Ideal Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sharon H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studied ideal body size beliefs of 337 white and 159 black adolescent males. Findings point toward a greater approval and social acceptance of a larger body size for black females by black males. Cultural differences may be a factor to consider in designing appropriate weight control programs. (SLD)

  5. Adolescent Black Males' Drug Trafficking and Addiction: Three Theoretical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sharon E.

    1995-01-01

    Explains the incidence and nature of drug trafficking and chemical dependency among adolescent black males. The paper also discusses the social science theories of Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Molefi Asante to better understand the behaviors, and the consequences of those behaviors, of young black males who participate in drug trafficking. (GR)

  6. Adolescent Males in Dance: A Closer Look at Their Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zihao

    2011-01-01

    The pronounced gender imbalance in dance has been the norm for some time. Some studies focus on established male dancers and others focus on aspects of physical education in dance. However, studies about adolescent male dance students (nonprofessional dancers in any form) who take dance classes in a high school setting are almost nonexistent.…

  7. Motivators, concerns, and barriers to adoption of preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among gay and bisexual men in HIV-serodiscordant male relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ronald A; Kaplan, Rachel L; Lieber, Eli; Landovitz, Raphael J; Lee, Sung-Jae; Leibowitz, Arleen A

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that may facilitate or impede future adoption of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among gay and bisexual men in HIV-serodiscordant relationships. This qualitative study utilized semistructured interviews conducted with a multiracial/-ethnic sample of 25 gay and bisexual HIV-serodiscordant male couples (n=50 individuals) recruited from community settings in Los Angeles, CA. A modified grounded theory approach was employed to identify major themes relating to future adoption of PrEP for HIV prevention. Motivators for adoption included protection against HIV infection, less concern and fear regarding HIV transmission, the opportunity to engage in unprotected sex, and endorsements of PrEP's effectiveness. Concerns and barriers to adoption included the cost of PrEP, short- and long-term side effects, adverse effects of intermittent use or discontinuing PrEP, and accessibility of PrEP. The findings suggest the need for a carefully planned implementation program along with educational and counseling interventions in the dissemination of an effective PrEP agent.

  8. School Protective Factors and Substance Use Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents in California Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pedro, Kris Tunac; Esqueda, Monica Christina; Gilreath, Tamika D

    2017-06-01

    The majority of studies examining substance use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth have focused on a wide array of risk factors (e.g., victimization). Few studies have explored the protective role of schools. This study aims to fill this gap in the literature and inform programs aimed at reducing substance use among LGB youth. More specifically, this study explores the extent to which school connectedness and support from teachers and other adults at school are associated with substance use among LGB youth in school and within the past 30 days. A secondary analysis of the 2013-2015 California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS) was conducted to examine associations between school protective factors (i.e., school connectedness and adult support) and substance use among LGB youth, above and beyond a key risk factor, school victimization. The study outcomes were past 30-day and in-school use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, inhalants, prescription pain medication, and other illegal drugs. Overall, school connectedness and school adult support were associated with lower odds of substance use. For example, higher levels of school connectedness were associated with 22% decreased odds of past 30-day inhalant use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.72-0.86), and 25% decreased odds of past 30-day prescription pain medication use (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.69-0.82). Higher levels of adult support in school were also associated with 17% decreased odds of marijuana use on school property in the past 30 days (AOR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.77-0.91). The results indicate a need for substance use prevention programs that integrate school connectedness and adult support in school.

  9. Veridicality of self-concept of strength in male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mirko; Valkanover, Stefan; Conzelmann, Achim

    2013-06-01

    Changes in physical self-concept and veridicality (i.e., the appropriateness of one's self-perceptions to reality) during childhood and adolescence are related to performance in physical fitness, exercise, and global self-esteem, particularly in male adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined the relation between the self-concept of strength and actual strength in groups of male adolescents ages 12 to 15 years. For this purpose, 889 male adolescents (M age = 13.2 yr., SD = 1.0) were questioned about their self-concept of strength, after which a test of strength was carried out. The results showed that the correlation between self-concept of strength and actual strength was higher in older (14- and 15-year-old) than younger (12- and 13-year-old) adolescents. There was a statistically significant association between age group and veridicality, indicating that realistic self-concept is underrepresented among younger, but overrepresented among older adolescents. No association was found between the adolescents' physical activity and veridicality. The consequences for further research on the development of veridicality in the physical domain are discussed.

  10. Male-Partnered Bisexual Women's Perceptions of Disclosing Sexual Orientation to Family Across the Transition to Parenthood: Intensifying Heteronormativity or Queering Family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Allen, Katherine R; Ellawala, Themal; Ross, Lori E

    2018-01-01

    Drawing from queer and communication privacy management frameworks, this study examines the narratives of 22 bisexual, male-partnered women who were interviewed during the perinatal period and one year postnatally about their disclosures of sexual identity to family of origin. Most women rarely discussed their sexual identity with family; participants who had disclosed described such disclosures as provoking discomfort. Some women stated that their parental status seemed to invalidate the need to talk about their sexual history or identity with family, due its declining salience and increased concerns about judgment. This study reveals how partnership and parenthood statuses contribute to the intensification of heteronormative pressures in relation to family. Therapists should attend to the role of heteronormative values regarding partnering, family-building, and parenting. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  11. Violence against bisexuals, gays and lesbians in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Granados-Cosme, José Arturo

    2006-01-01

    An essential premise of this work is that three dominant ideologies explain oppression against BGL, as a result of a gender system: adhesion to gender stereotypes, androcentrism and heterosexism. Three hundred eighteen bisexual and gay males (BG) and 188 bisexual and lesbian females (BL) were surveyed. By means of a self-applied questionnaire, variables of interest were researched. The following trends were observed: an important number of men and women interviewed suffered violence in their childhood and adolescence because they defied gender stereotypes, and not because of their sexual orientation; BG males were more often victims of violence than BL females. Within the BG group, those who challenged gender stereotypes were more frequently attacked than those who did not; men were identified as aggressors more frequently than women; and in the BG group, gender stereotype transgression was associated with the perception of suffering violence in the future.

  12. Promiscuity Sexual Behavior in Male Adolescent in Wirobrajan

    OpenAIRE

    Isnugroho, Hernawan; Triratnawati, Atik; Supriyati, Supriyati

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of obtain a description of the factors that encourage the emergence of sexual behavior promiscuity and its impact on male adolescent in Wirobrajan, Yogyakarta. A case study was conducted in this study. The subject selection was done by snowball sampling technique. The data were collected by observation in August 2013. Research showed that first, the influence of peer group or peers is very dominant in the behavior of teen promiscuity. Secondly, the lack of adolescent awareness abo...

  13. Stigma towards PLWHA: the role of internalized homosexual stigma in Latino gay/bisexual male and transgender communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Molina, Yamile; Dirkes, Jessica

    2013-06-01

    Stigma negatively affects the health of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Negative attitudes and discriminatory actions towards PLWHA are thought to be based, among other factors, on stigma towards sexual minorities and beliefs about personal responsibility. Yet, there is little evidence to support these linkages and explain how they take place, especially among Latinos. This study analyzes attitudes towards PLWHA among 643 Latino gay/bisexual men and transgender (GBT) people. It examines whether discriminatory actions are predicted by beliefs about personal responsibility and internalized homosexual stigma. Results indicate that Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA is associated with HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs and Internalized Homosexual Stigma. Further, HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs partially mediates the relationship between Internalized Homosexual Stigma and Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA. Latino GBT persons who have internalized negative views about homosexuality may project those onto PLWHA. They may think PLWHA are responsible for their serostatus and, hence, deserving of rejection.

  14. Stigma towards PLWHA: The Role of Internalized Homosexual Stigma in Latino Gay/Bisexual Male and Transgender Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Molina, Yamile; Dirkes, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Stigma negatively affects the health of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Negative attitudes and discriminatory actions towards PLWHA are thought to be based, among other factors, on stigma towards sexual minorities and beliefs about personal responsibility. Yet, there is little evidence to support these linkages and explain how they take place, especially among Latinos. This study analyzes attitudes towards PLWHA among 643 Latino gay/bisexual men and transgender (GBT) people. It examines whether discriminatory actions are predicted by beliefs about personal responsibility and internalized homosexual stigma. Results indicate that Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA is associated with HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs and Internalized Homosexual Stigma. Further, HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs partially mediates the relationship between Internalized Homosexual Stigma and Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA. Latino GBT persons who have internalized negative views about homosexuality may project those onto PLWHA. They may think PLWHA are responsible for their serostatus and, hence, deserving of rejection. PMID:23631713

  15. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STD and Hepatitis Testing Resources Viral Hepatitis HPV Violence Prevention Adolescent and School Health Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you . LGBT Health About LGBT Health Gay and Bisexual Men ...

  16. Restoring Self-Esteem in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    When presented with the words self-esteem, it is most common in our society to immediately think of girls. It is not often that people ponder the effects of body image, athleticism, success, or even friendships for boys. Unfortunately in overlooking these concepts, we are doing a disservice to our male youth. This article addresses the effects of…

  17. Health Needs and Concerns of Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinch, Winifred J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined male college students' (N=159) concerns in the areas of alcohol and other drug use, automobile safety, weight and dieting, smoking, sexuality, coping and stress, and selection and utilization of health care services. Identified major problems with alcohol use, automobile safety, weight control, stress, and sexuality. Also identified…

  18. Attitudes about Male-Female Relations among Black Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…

  19. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  20. Unnecessary Roughness? School Sports, Peer Networks, and Male Adolescent Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which participation in high school interscholastic sports contributes to male violence. Deriving competing hypotheses from social control, social learning, and masculinity theories, I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test if (1) type of sport and (2) peer athletic…

  1. HPV Vaccination Coverage of Male Adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-Jun; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; O'Halloran, Alissa; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Smith, Philip J; Stokley, Shannon; Singleton, James A; Dunne, Eileen F

    2015-11-01

    In 2011, the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine use human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for male adolescents. We used the 2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen data to assess HPV vaccine uptake (≥1 dose) and series completion (≥3 doses). Multivariable logistic regression analysis and a predictive marginal model were conducted to identify independent predictors of vaccination among adolescent males aged 13 to 17 years. HPV vaccination coverage with ≥1 dose was 34.6%, and series completion (≥3 doses) was 13.9%. Coverage was significantly higher among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic white male adolescents. Multivariable logistic regression showed that characteristics independently associated with a higher likelihood of HPV vaccination (≥1 dose) included being non-Hispanic black race or Hispanic ethnicity; having mothers who were widowed, divorced, or separated; having 1 to 3 physician contacts in the past 12 months; a well-child visit at age 11 to 12 years; having 1 or 2 vaccination providers; living in urban or suburban areas; and receiving vaccinations from >1 type of facility (P vaccinations from all sexually transmitted diseases/school/teen clinics or other facilities were independently associated with a lower likelihood of HPV vaccination (P vaccination among male adolescents, uptake in 2013 was low in this population. Increased efforts are needed to improve vaccination coverage, especially for those who are least likely to be vaccinated. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Primary care management of sexually transmitted urethritis in adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Claire E

    2003-04-01

    To describe current knowledge about diagnosis, screening, and treatment of sexually transmitted urethritis among adolescent and young adult males. Current research, systematic reviews, consensus guidelines and the author's clinical experience. Urethritis, the most common sexually transmitted syndrome in young males, is most frequently caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Neisseria gonorrhea. Symptoms include dysuria and penile discharge, although up to 50% of males are asymptomatic. Risky sexual behaviors and lack of access to healthcare increase incidence of this infection. Transmission to female partners can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and neonatal infection. Young males with urethritis must be treated as soon as diagnosis is established. Consensus guidelines exist for diagnosis and treatment of gonococcal and non-gonococcal urethritis. Careful patient education is necessary to ensure successful treatment. Prevention of repeat infections requires partner treatment and detailed education about safer sexual practices. Improved access to preventive services for young males should be a healthcare priority.

  3. Eating disorder symptoms: association with perfectionism traits in male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO DE SOUSA FORTES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence indicates a relationship between perfectionism and eating disorder symptoms (EDS. However, there is no such empirical evidence in Brazilian scientific literature. Moreover, studies of EDS in the male sex are scarce. Objective To analyze a possible association between EDS and perfectionism traits in adolescent males. Methods Participants were 368 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years. We used the subscales of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale to assess EDS and perfectionism traits, respectively. Results The results indicated a statistically significant association between the high perfectionism trait and EDS (X2 = 16.40; Wald = 15.92; p = 0.001. Moreover, the findings showed no difference in the scores of the Diet (F(1, 367 = 2.14; p = 0.23 or Concern for Food and Bulimia (F(1, 367 = 2.44; p = 0.19 subscales according to groups of perfectionism. However, we identified a higher score on the Oral Self-Control subscale of the EAT-26 in the group with high perfectionism trait than adolescents with a low perfectionism trait (F(1, 367 = 13.88; p = 0.02. Discussion: EDS were associated with perfectionism in adolescent males.

  4. Hazards of Stigma: The Sexual and Physical Abuse of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Skay, Carol L.; Pettingell, Sandra L.; Reis, Elizabeth A.; Bearinger, Linda; Resnick, Michael; Murphy, Aileen; Combs, Leigh

    2006-01-01

    Some studies suggest lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) teens are at higher risk than peers for violence at home, in school, and in the community. That can bring them into the child welfare system or services for runaway and homeless teens. This study compared self-reported experiences of sexual and physical abuse based on sexual orientation and…

  5. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender hate crimes and suicidality among a population-based sample of sexual-minority adolescents in Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L

    2014-02-01

    We examined whether past-year suicidality among sexual-minority adolescents was more common in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Participants' data came from a racially/ethnically diverse population-based sample of 9th- through 12th-grade public school students in Boston, Massachusetts (n = 1292). Of these, 108 (8.36%) reported a minority sexual orientation. We obtained data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults with battery between 2005 and 2008 from the Boston Police Department and linked the data to the adolescent's residential address. Sexual-minority youths residing in neighborhoods with higher rates of LGBT assault hate crimes were significantly more likely to report suicidal ideation (P = .013) and suicide attempts (P = .006), than were those residing in neighborhoods with lower LGBT assault hate crime rates. We observed no relationships between overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes and suicidality among sexual-minority adolescents (P > .05), providing evidence for specificity of the results to LGBT assault hate crimes. Neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual-orientation disparities in adolescent suicidality, highlighting potential targets for community-level suicide-prevention programs.

  6. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders among Male Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustivšek, Suzana; Hadžić, Vedran; Dervišević, Edvin

    2015-03-01

    Eating disorders (ED) are an important and increasing problem in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the risk factors and the prevalence of risk for ED among male adolescent elite athletes and nonathletic controls. Differences between male athletes competing in aerobic, anaerobic and aerobic-anaerobic sports were examined as well. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted on 351 adolescents (athletes n = 228; controls n = 123). All participants were aged 15-17 at the time of measuring. Risk for ED was determined using a SCOFF questionnaire. The overall prevalence of the risk for ED in male adolescents was 24.8%, with no significant differences among athletes and controls or different subgroups of athletes (p>0.05), although the highest prevalence (37.2%) was registered in aerobic subgroup of athletes. Higher number of attempts to lose weight was associated with increased risk of ED in each group (athletes and controls). Other predictors referred to lack of breakfast and body composition in aerobic subgroup of athletes and number of meals and training frequency in anaerobic subgroup. The most common reasons for dieting were improvement of sport results (19.6-44.2%) and better self-esteem (41.5%) in athletes and controls respectively. Participation in the competitive sport itself is not associated with the increased risk for ED. It seems that risk factors for ED for adolescent athletes competing in aerobic and anaerobic sports represent a subject that deserves consideration and further investigation in the future.

  7. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders among Male Adolescent Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    PUSTIVŠEK, Suzana; HADŽIĆ, Vedran; DERVIŠEVIĆ, Edvin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eating disorders (ED) are an important and increasing problem in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the risk factors and the prevalence of risk for ED among male adolescent elite athletes and nonathletic controls. Differences between male athletes competing in aerobic, anaerobic and aerobic-anaerobic sports were examined as well. Methods This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted on 351 adolescents (athletes n = 228; controls n = 123). All participants were aged 15–17 at the time of measuring. Risk for ED was determined using a SCOFF questionnaire. Results The overall prevalence of the risk for ED in male adolescents was 24.8%, with no significant differences among athletes and controls or different subgroups of athletes (p>0.05), although the highest prevalence (37.2%) was registered in aerobic subgroup of athletes. Higher number of attempts to lose weight was associated with increased risk of ED in each group (athletes and controls). Other predictors referred to lack of breakfast and body composition in aerobic subgroup of athletes and number of meals and training frequency in anaerobic subgroup. The most common reasons for dieting were improvement of sport results (19.6–44.2%) and better self-esteem (41.5%) in athletes and controls respectively. Conclusions Participation in the competitive sport itself is not associated with the increased risk for ED. It seems that risk factors for ED for adolescent athletes competing in aerobic and anaerobic sports represent a subject that deserves consideration and further investigation in the future. PMID:27646623

  8. Eating Disorders in Adolescent and Young Adult Males: Presenting Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Megen; Lau, Josephine; Rubinstein, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Data on the clinical characteristics of adolescent males with eating disorders are limited. The purpose of this study was to describe the demographic characteristics, presenting vital signs, laboratory results, and relevant risk factors for eating disorders among males presenting to an outpatient adolescent and young adult medicine practice. Retrospective chart review of male eating disorder patients aged of 11-25 years presenting to the University of California, San Francisco Adolescent and Young Adult Eating Disorder Program between June 1, 2011, and November 1, 2014. Charts were reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics and risk factors for eating disorders. Thirty-three patients were included; mean age was 16 years. Patients presented with mean heart rate was 58.7 bpm, and orthostatic heart rate change was 22 bpm, with 51.5% meeting Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine hospital admission criteria. Mean percent of median body mass index was 88%. Of patients with available laboratory data, 33.3% were anemic, 23.8% leukopenic, 19.0% thrombocytopenic, and 10.0% neutropenic. Half had a history of a psychiatric disorder; 41.5% had a history of overweight or obesity, and 12.1% had a family history of an eating disorder. The DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria were retrospectively applied to patients, with an increase in diagnosis of anorexia nervosa from 36.4% to 48.5%. Diagnoses of Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, now Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder in DSM-5, decreased from 62.6% to 45.5%. Male patients with eating disorders presented with significant abnormalities; patients were bradycardic and orthostatic; and more than half met Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine admission criteria. Patients with available laboratory data demonstrated significant abnormalities consistent with malnutrition. Given that eating disorders are less likely to be detected in males, it is important to recognize early signs of malnutrition

  9. Pilot RCT Results of an mHealth HIV Prevention Program for Sexual Minority Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Prescott, Tonya L; Phillips, Gregory L; Bull, Sheana S; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-07-01

    Guy2Guy (G2G) is the first comprehensive HIV prevention program developed for sexual minority males as young as 14 years old and is delivered nationally via text messaging. Here, we report the results of the pilot randomized control trial. G2G was tested against an attention-matched "healthy lifestyle" control (eg, self-esteem). Both programs lasted 5 weeks and delivered 5 to 10 text messages daily. A 1-week booster was delivered 6 weeks subsequently. Participants were cisgender males ages 14 to 18 years old who were gay, bisexual, and/or queer and had an unlimited text messaging plan. Youth were recruited across the United States via Facebook and enrolled by telephone from October 2014 to April 2015. Ninety-day postintervention outcomes were condomless sex acts (CSA) and abstinence and, secondarily, HIV testing. We also examined these outcomes at intervention end and stratified them by sexual experience. At 90 days postintervention, there were no significant differences in CSAs or abstinence noted. Among participants who were sexually active at baseline, intervention participants were significantly more likely to report getting an HIV test (adjusted odds ratio = 3.42, P = .001). They were also less likely than control youth to be abstinent (adjusted odds ratio = 0.48, P = .05). CSAs were significantly lower for those in the intervention versus control at intervention end (incident rate ratio = 0.39, P = .04), although significance was lost once age was added to the analysis (incident rate ratio = 0.58, P = .26). G2G appears promising in increasing adolescent HIV testing rates. Sex-positive intervention messages appear to have increased the participants' comfort with having sex (ie, less abstinence) while not increasing their potential for HIV transmission (ie, more CSAs). Additional content or features may be needed to invigorate condom use. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Puberty and testosterone shape the corticospinal tract during male adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangelinan, Melissa M; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, G Bruce; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    Some of the known sex differences in white matter emerge during adolescence. Here, we replicate and extend our previous findings of sex differences in the structure of the corticospinal tract (Perrin et al. 2009; Hervé et al. 2009). In a large normative sample of adolescents, we observed age × sex interactions in the signal intensity of T1-weighted (T1W) images (n = 941) and in magnetization transfer ratio (MTR; n = 761); both features were inversely associated with age in males but not in females. Moreover, we hypothesized that the age-related differences in CST structure exhibited by males would be mediated by differences in puberty stage and levels of bioavailable testosterone. We confirmed this prediction using mediation analysis with bootstrapping. These findings suggest that sex differences in the CST structure observed during male adolescence may be due to multiple processes associated with puberty, including (but not limited to) the rising levels of testosterone.

  11. Counseling Bisexual Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Elizabeth B.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a brief conceptual statement about bisexuality. Offers a review of existing research studies, and suggests issues to consider when counseling bisexual clients. Defines bisexuality and discusses prevalence studies, identity development, and implications for counseling. Claims that bisexuality challenges traditional rules about sexual…

  12. Dysfunctional feedback processing in adolescent males with conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yidian; Chen, Haiyan; Jia, Huiqiao; Ming, Qingsen; Yi, Jinyao; Yao, Shuqiao

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in neural feedback-processing systems may play a role in the development of dysfunctional behavior in individuals diagnosed with conduct disorder (CD). The present study investigated the relation between CD adolescents and feedback processing by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) in a single outcome gambling task, which included reward valence (loss and gain) and reward magnitude (10 and 50cents) as outcomes. N2 and P3 components have been established as effective indicators in studies of behavioral disinhibition, reward processing, and decision-making. Eighteen adolescent males (age: 13-17years) diagnosed with CD and 19 healthy age-matched male controls were recruited. Compared to healthy controls, CD individuals exhibited reduced N2 amplitudes in response to loss condition. There was also a significant decreased P3 amplitude in all conditions. The amplitudes of P3 were negatively correlated with impulsivity scores across both groups, and the amplitudes of N2 were positively correlated with impulsivity scores across both groups. Our findings suggest that adolescents with CD may be impaired in neural sensitivity feedback and the processing of environmental cues compared to healthy controls. Moreover, N2 and P3 may be reliable indices to detect different sensitivity in reward and punishment feedback processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Test of Problem Behavior and Self-Medication Theories in Incarcerated Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related…

  14. Modelling the Progression of Male Swimmers’ Performances through Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilo J. Dormehl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient data on adolescent athletes is contributing to the challenges facing youth athletic development and accurate talent identification. The purpose of this study was to model the progression of male sub-elite swimmers’ performances during adolescence. The performances of 446 males (12–19 year olds competing in seven individual events (50, 100, 200 m freestyle, 100 m backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, 200 m individual medley over an eight-year period at an annual international schools swimming championship, run under FINA regulations were collected. Quadratic functions for each event were determined using mixed linear models. Thresholds of peak performance were achieved between the ages of 18.5 ± 0.1 (50 m freestyle and 200 m individual medley and 19.8 ± 0.1 (100 m butterfly years. The slowest rate of improvement was observed in the 200 m individual medley (20.7% and the highest in the 100 m butterfly (26.2%. Butterfly does however appear to be one of the last strokes in which males specialise. The models may be useful as talent identification tools, as they predict the age at which an average sub-elite swimmer could potentially peak. The expected rate of improvement could serve as a tool in which to monitor and evaluate benchmarks.

  15. A longitudinal study of interpersonal relationships among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents and young adults: mediational pathways from attachment to romantic relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Tyrel J; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-10-01

    The current study examined the potential for mental health to mediate associations between earlier attachment to parents and peers and later relationship adjustment during adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of sexual minority youth. Secondarily, the study examined associations between peer and parental attachment and relationship/dating milestones. Participants included 219 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth who participated in six waves of data collection over 3.5 years. Parental attachment was associated with an older age of dating initiation, while peer attachment was associated with longer relationship length. Both peer and parental attachment were significantly associated with mental health in later adolescence and young adulthood. Mental health mediated the association between peer attachment and main partner relationship quality. While the total indirect effect of parental attachment on main partner relationship quality was statistically significant, specific indirect effects were not. Implications for the application of attachment theory and integration of interpersonal factors into mental health intervention with sexual minority youth are discussed.

  16. Adolescent male chimpanzees do not form a dominance hierarchy with their peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Aaron A; Reddy, Rachna B; Mitani, John C

    2017-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are a prominent feature of the lives of many primate species. These hierarchies have important fitness consequences, as high rank is often positively correlated with reproduction. Although adult male chimpanzees strive for status to gain fitness benefits, the development of dominance relationships is not well understood. While two prior studies found that adolescent males do not display dominance relationships with peers, additional research at Ngogo in Kibale National Park, Uganda, indicates that adolescents there form a linear dominance hierarchy. These conflicting findings could reflect different patterns of rank acquisition across sites. An alternate possibility arises from a recent re-evaluation of age estimates at Ngogo and suggests that the report describing decided dominance relationships between adolescent males may have been due to the accidental inclusion of young adult males in the sample. To investigate these issues, we conducted a study of 23 adolescent male chimpanzees of known age during 12 months at Ngogo. Adolescent male chimpanzees exchanged pant grunts, a formal signal of submission, only 21 times. Recipients of pant grunts were late adolescent males, ranging between 14 and 16 years old. In contrast, younger adolescent males never received pant grunts from other males. Aggression between adolescent males was also rare. Analysis of pant grunts and aggressive interactions did not produce a linear dominance hierarchy among adolescent males. These data indicate that adolescent male chimpanzees do not form decided dominance relationships with their peers and are consistent with the hypothesis that the hierarchy described previously at Ngogo resulted from inaccurate age estimates of male chimpanzees. Because dominance relationships develop before adulthood in other primates, our finding that adolescent male chimpanzees do not do so is surprising. We offer possible explanations for why this is the case and suggest future studies

  17. HIV infection in male adolescents: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquette, Stella Regina; Rodrigues, Adriana de Oliveira; Bortolotti, Livia Rocha

    2015-07-01

    `The gradual reduction in the incidence of AIDS among men who have sex with men has not occurred in the youngest age group; on the contrary, it is growing. This paper examines the vulnerabilities of adolescent males at risk of HIV infection. This is a qualitative study conducted through interviews with HIV positive young men undergoing treatment, whose diagnosis was made during adolescence. The interviews were recorded and transcribed in full. They were analyzed by intensive reading, classified by issues, and interpreted from a hermeneutic-dialectic perspective in dialogue with the literature. We interviewed 16 young men whose diagnosis occurred between the ages of 11 and 19 and for all of them the method of HIV transmission was sexual; 12 of the men were homosexual and 4 were heterosexual. It was evident that vulnerable situations included disbelief in the possibility of contamination, subjection to sex, homophobia and commercial sexual exploitation. This study demonstrates the importance of the formulation of public policies on sexual and reproductive health, which include adolescents and young men. These policies should embody the perspective of masculinity in all its widest aspects, as well as actions in favor of sexual diversity.

  18. Condom use in incarcerated adolescent males: knowledge and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortot, Andrea T; Risser, William L; Cromwell, Polly F

    2006-01-01

    Information is limited on how well adolescents use condoms and where they learn how. The objective of this study was to determine how often incarcerated males used condoms incorrectly and where, how, and from whom they learned condom use. This study consisted of an interviewer-administered survey during intake physicals at a juvenile detention center. Results were based on self-report; condom use models were not used. During usual use among 141 males, errors included failure to secure the condom to the penis on withdrawal (37%), loss of erection before condom removal (18%), and failure to leave space at the tip (14%). Learning occurred at home (27%), school (23%), probation/detention facilities (14%), and community programs (3.4%). Subjects learned from educators/counselors (37%), family (27%), and friends (6.9%). Methods of learning included reading the package insert (45%), demonstrations (39%), explanations (33%), and media (19%). These adolescents had relatively few condom errors. Common methods of learning correct condom use included observing a demonstration, reading the package insert, and hearing an explanation. The last 2 methods are easy to implement.

  19. Contraception and Adolescent Males: An Opportunity for Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Molly J; Peters, Marissa; Sheeder, Jeanelle; Kaul, Paritosh

    2016-03-01

    To examine young men's awareness of emergency contraception (EC) and its association with their contraceptive decision-making contributions within a relationship. A convenience sample of English-speaking male patients aged 13-24 years were surveyed regarding their childbearing intentions, contraceptive awareness (including EC), perceived contraceptive knowledge, and communication about birth control with providers and within a relationship. An ethnically diverse sample of adolescent males was recruited with a mean age of 18.9 years. Most had previously been sexually active (75%) and felt it was important to avoid pregnancy (84%) and 61% reported ever having spoken to a health care provider about birth control (other than condoms), but only 42% had heard of EC. Participants who had heard of EC were more likely to have spoken to a health care provider about contraception in the past (51.5% vs. 29.8%; p = .050), to feel they should participate in contraceptive decisions in a relationship (97.4% vs. 76.5%; p = .006), and to have discussed contraception with a partner (76.9% vs. 29.2%; p contraceptive decisions within a relationship if they do not desire fatherhood. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gay and Bisexual Male Youth as Educator Activists and Cultural Workers: The Queer Critical Praxis of Three Canadian High-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Andre P.; Wells, Kristopher

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers how three Canadian high-school students--Ryan, Jeremy, and Bruce--engaged in queer critical praxis intended to free lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans-identified, and queer (LGBTQ) students from the silence, exclusion, and symbolic and physical violence that heterosexism and homophobia provoke in schools. We, the authors, construct…

  1. [Injuries in male and female adolescent soccer players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A S; Mayer, H M; Geißler, U; Rumpf, M C; Schneider, C

    2013-03-01

    This study addresses the epidemiology of injuries in adolescent male and female soccer players in Germany. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to analyse the injuries in male and female youth soccer players in Germany. This study was designed as a cross-sectional web-based survey. From March until December 2011 we investigated 1110 soccer players (male n = 841; female n = 269) aged 12 - 19 years (15.0 ± 2.0 years) from 60 clubs in Southern Germany. A total of 664 (79 %) of the 841 boys and 67 (25 %) of the 269 girls reported being injured due to soccer. The total number of injuries was 2373. Respectively the frequency of injury was 2.85 in boys and 7.10 in girls. The lower extremities were affected in 70 % of all reported cases. Strains were the most common injuries in the lower and upper extremities (35 %). The boys reported in 51.5 % of all injuries that the injury was non-contact in nature. In contrast, 52.1 % of the injuries in girls were reported as contact injuries. Similar amounts of injuries were observed in training versus games for both genders. Prevention procedures, such as a thorough warm-up, should be implemented before every game and training to reduce the risk of injury. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Bisexual Phenomena Among Gay-Identified Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semon, Theodore L; Hsu, Kevin J; Rosenthal, A M; Bailey, J Michael

    2017-01-01

    A high proportion of self-identified gay men exhibit aspects of bisexuality during their lives. Some identify as bisexual before later identifying as gay; this has been called transitional bisexuality. Although many gay men report no attraction to women-or even sexual disgust toward them-others report some slight attraction to women. The latter have been studied as mostly homosexual men. We studied men with and without a history of transitional bisexuality, as well as mostly homosexual (i.e., those with Kinsey scores of 5) and completely homosexual (i.e., those with Kinsey scores of 6) men with respect to their sexual history with women, their current self-reported sexual arousal and disgust toward women and men, and their patterns of genital sexual arousal to female and male stimuli. Gay men with a history of transitional bisexuality generally lacked current sexual attraction and sexual arousal to women, compared with other gay men. Thus, transitional bisexuality among future gay men is mostly a matter of transitional bisexual identification. In contrast, mostly homosexual men showed statistically significant increases in genital arousal to female stimuli, compared with completely homosexual men.

  3. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naing Nyi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1 the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2 mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3 there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  4. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior Regarding Condom Use in Urban Black Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michele D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined male adolescent behavior, attitudes, and knowledge concerning condom use. Findings from 241 sexually active black adolescent males revealed that factors associated with condom use included higher grade level, having 2 or more sexual partners in past 6 months, communication about contraception with sexual partner, desire for sexually…

  6. The Play Factor: Effect of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on Adolescent African-American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earls, Melissa K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on remedying the social skills deficits of adolescent African-American males. Additionally, the study investigated whether age and grade level impacted the outcome of the intervention. The participants were adolescent African-American males ages 10 to…

  7. Vitamin and mineral intake of twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Jakobsen, Jette; Friis, H

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the diet of adolescent male Kalenjin runners in a boarding school setting was adequate compared to FAO/WHO recommendations. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design study. SETTING: Marakwet High School in western Kenya. SUBJECTS: A study of twelve adolescent male Kalenjin ...

  8. Contraceptive Attitudes and Intention to Use Condoms in Sexually Experienced and Inexperienced Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleck, Joseph H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Assessed contraceptive attitudes and intention to use a condom at next intercourse among 1,880 adolescent males. Findings showed that about three-fifths of sexually experienced and inexperienced adolescent males intending to have sex in the next year reported an "almost certain chance" of condom use with a hypothetical future partner. (Author/PVV)

  9. Influential Factors on Adolescent Males' Non-Relational Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Cathy L.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent males are influenced by various social and cultural factors. This qualitative study sought to further understanding about adolescent males' thoughts and behaviors regarding sexual decision-making. Specific exploration encompassed the influences of the identified factors of parents, peers, media, first romantic relationship breakups, and…

  10. Developing Online Recruitment and Retention Methods for HIV Prevention Research Among Adolescent Males Who Are Interested in Sex with Males: Interviews with Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Ramirez, Jaime J; Carey, Michael P

    2017-12-21

    Adolescent males interested in sex with males (AMSM) are an important audience for HIV prevention interventions, but they are difficult to reach due to their age and social stigma. We aim to identify efficient methods to recruit and retain AMSM in online research. Interviews with 14-to-18-year-old AMSM (N=16) were conducted at 2017 Pride events in Boston, MA and Providence, RI. Participants reported that (1) social media platforms are viable recruitment venues; (2) recruitment advertisements should describe the study using colorful/bright pictures, familiar words, and information about compensation; (3) surveys should be study activities to increase retention. Soliciting input from AMSM provides critical guidance regarding recruitment and retention procedures to increase the efficiency of HIV prevention research for this at-risk group. ©Kimberly M Nelson, Jaime J Ramirez, Michael P Carey. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 21.12.2017.

  11. Breast feeding and blood lipid concentrations in male Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Post, Paulo; Lima, Rosângela C; De Leon Elizalde, Jacqueline W; Gerson, Branca Maria Cerezer; Barros, Fernando C

    2006-07-01

    To assess the association between breast feeding and blood lipid levels in adolescence. Population based prospective birth cohort study. City of Pelotas, Brazil. All hospital births taking place in 1982; 79% of all males (n = 2250) were followed up for 18 years, and 2089 blood samples were available. None. Total cholesterol and fractions (very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL)), LDL/HDL ratio, serum triglycerides. Three breast feeding variables were studied: total duration of breast feeding, duration of exclusive or predominant breast feeding, and ever compared with never breast fed. Adjusted analyses were controlled for family income, household assets index, maternal education, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), skin colour, birth weight, gestational age, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and adolescent BMI, and behavioural variables (fat content of diet, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol drinking). Only one association reached borderline significance (p = 0.05): LDL cholesterol was slightly higher among never (mean 41.0 mg/dl; 95% CI 39.4 to 42.7) than among ever breast fed men (38.6 mg/dl; 95% CI 38.6 to 40.3), in the adjusted analyses. All other associations were not significant (p> or =0.09). There was no evidence of effect modification according to preterm status, intrauterine growth retardation, socioeconomic level, growth velocity in the first two years of life, or nutritional status at 2 years of age. There was no clear association between breast feeding duration and serum lipid concentrations at the age of 18 years in this sample of Brazilian men.

  12. Crash injury risk behavior in adolescent latino males: the power of friends and relational connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Federico E; Anderson, Craig L

    2011-01-01

    The adolescent Latino male mortality profile is an anomaly when compared to an otherwise more favorable overall U.S. Latino population mortality profile. Motor vehicle crash fatalities bear a considerable proportion of mortality burden in this vulnerable population. Friend influence and relational connection are two contextual domains that may mediate crash injury risk behavior in these adolescents. Our study goal was to assess the role of friend influence over time and relational connections associated with crash injury risk behavior (CIRB) in adolescent Latino males. Waves I and II data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. Scale of CIRB, and three relational connections; school connectedness, parent connectedness, and expectation of academic success were developed and tested. Friend nomination data were available and the index student responses were linked to friend responses. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship of relational connections and friend CIRB on index student CIRB at wave I and II. Longitudinal analysis did not show significant evidence for friend influence among adolescent Latino males on CIRB. The best predictor of CIRB at wave II for adolescent Latino males was their CIRB at wave I. Relational connections were important yet exaggerated cross-sectionally but their effect was substantially attenuated longitudinally. The lack of friend influence on CIRB for adolescent Latino males may be specific to this demographic group or characteristic of the sample studied. Prevention strategies that focus on modulating friend influence in adolescent Latino males may not yield the desired prevention effects on CIRB.

  13. Elevated rates of suicidal behavior in gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, C; Tremblay, P

    2000-01-01

    Both clinical and epidemiological literature point to elevated rates of suicidal behaviors in gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth (GLBY). Recent North American and New Zealand studies of large populations (especially the US Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from several states) indicate that gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents (males in particular) can have rates of serious suicide attempts at least four times those of apparently heterosexual youth. There are various reasons why this figure is likely to be an underestimate. Reasons for these elevated rates of suicidal behavior include a climate of homophobic persecution in schools, and sometimes in family and community--values and actions that stigmatize homosexuality and that the youth who has not yet "come out" has to endure in silence.

  14. That's my STYLEoideum - Symptomatic os styloideum in an adolescent male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewska, Malwina; Haefeli, Mathias; Laesser, Urs; Niemann, Tilo

    2017-07-01

    We present a 15-year-old male patient with persistent localized pain on the dorsal side of the left wrist between the base of the 2nd and 3rd metacarpal bones and over the third carpometacarpal joint. It was diagnosed as an accessory metacarpal bone -Os styloideum. This entity may be detected on plain radiographs and in ultrasound examination and is often asymptomatic. Symptomatic os styloideum occurs more frequently in the dominant hand and may be treated conservatively with corticosteroid infiltration. A palpable prominence on the dorsal side of the wrist and focal pain evoked anxiety of the adolescent patient who searched medical consultation. In the clinical examination, a bony protrusion was confirmed and different possible diagnoses have been considered. After treatment with a corticosteroid infiltration of the third carpometacarpal joint under fluoroscopy the pain resolved completely. We would like to draw attention of clinicians and radiologists to this rare anatomical variant that normally is asymptomatic, and therefore not immediately recognized. Acquaintance with this entity and its early detection may lead to conservative treatment instead of surgical excision. A comprehensive literature search, review and discussion about os styloideum are provided in the article.

  15. Poker, Sports Betting, and Less Popular Alternatives: Status, Friendship Networks, and Male Adolescent Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCicco-Bloom, Benjamin; Romer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The authors argue that the recent increase in poker play among adolescent males in the United States was primarily attributable to high-status male youth who are more able to organize "informal" gambling games (e.g., poker and sports betting) than are low-status male youth who are left to gamble on "formal" games (e.g., lotteries and slot…

  16. Bisexual desire and familism: Latino/a bisexual young men and women in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Leau, Carmen Juana Yon; Sriram, Veena; Weinstein, Hannah Jean; del Aquila, Ernesto Vasquez; Parker, Richard

    2009-04-01

    Families are of critical importance for Latino communities in the USA. Familism - or the cultural value that weighs on interdependence between nuclear and extended family members for support, emotional connectedness, familial honour, loyalty and solidarity - has been demonstrated to reduce sexual health risks among heterosexual youth, yet this relationship has not been examined among Latino bisexual teenagers. In this study, we examined how familism shapes sexual-decision making regarding behaviour and expressions of bisexuality among Latino youth. To accomplish this, we conducted 25 in-depth interviews and ethnographic observations among bisexual male and female youth (15-19 years of age) for nine months in New York City. We carried out a recurrent theme analysis together with the selection of case studies to illustrate key themes regarding familism and Latino teenage bisexuality. Findings suggest that bisexual Latino youth valued closeness to their families by maintaining family ties and seeking their emotional and material support. The negative consequence for those who wanted to keep their bisexuality private is the constant surveillance of the family network. Familism is a complex construct that has a strong potential for providing insights into sexual health practices of bisexual Latino youth.

  17. Self-esteem Among Young Bisexual Women in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buer, Liliana; Anderssen, Norman; Malterud, Kirsti

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-esteem, perception of social acceptance and feeling of loneliness in a sample of young bisexual, lesbian and heterosexual women, including assessing self-esteem longitudinally across 13 years. The analyses were based on self......-completed questionnaires from the longitudinal study “Young in Norway” (13 years follow-up, 1992-2005). N=1,598 female participants at baseline and follow-up (45 bisexual women, 21 lesbian women, 1,532 heterosexual women), age 25-32 years at follow-up. At baseline, there were no differences in self-esteem, but at follow......-up bisexual women reported lower self-esteem, lower levels of perceived acceptance, and higher levels of loneliness. For bisexual women, self-esteem did not increase from adolescence to adulthood. At follow-up, loneliness had a stronger connection with self-esteem among bisexual women compared to lesbian...

  18. Psychic bisexuality and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Fausta

    2003-12-01

    This contribution is complementary to a previous publication (Ferraro, 2001), which examined the role of bisexuality in psychopathology. This second article concentrates on the relationship between psychic bisexuality and creativity. After a brief clarification regarding the relationship between psychic bisexuality and option of gender, the author takes up two meanings of the bisexuality concept, both of which are of pre-eminent significance to him. The first is psychic bisexuality as a quality of the self related to the feminine and masculine as pure elements; the second is psychic bisexuality as an expression of identification with both parents, mother and father. The author presents the thoughts of various authors who have examined the link between psychic bisexuality and creativity, based on the same foundation, and then puts forward the hypothesis that in some blocks of creativity an alteration to psychic bisexuality can be traced. This hypothesis is illustrated through two clinical cases that focus on the dynamics impeding creative capacities and illustrate how these dynamics are gradually overcome. In the first more detailed case, he presents a lack of masculine elements, while in the second, using a brief part of an analysis, he presents a predominant lack of feminine elements.

  19. Adolescent and adult male spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) respond differently to acute and chronic methylphenidate (Ritalin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Elyssa; Yang, Pamela B; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2009-01-01

    Eight groups of male adolescent and adult spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) were used in a dose response (saline, 0.6, 2.5, and 10 mg/kg) experiment of methylphenidate (MPD). Four different locomotor indices were recorded for 2 hours postinjection using a computerized monitoring system. Acutely, the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD did not elicit an increase in locomotor activity in either the adolescent or in the adult male SHR. The 2.5 and the 10.0 mg/kg doses increased activity in the adolescent and the adult rats. Chronically, MPD treatment when comparing adolescent and adult gave the following results: the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD failed to cause sensitization in the adolescent group but caused sensitization in the adult group, while the 2.5 and 10 mg/kg both caused sensitization in the adolescent and adult groups.

  20. Adolescent male sexual offenders' perceptions of their family characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, Gary Paul

    1991-01-01

    Literature on families of adolescent sexual offenders is sparse. Adolescents' perception of family structure, family adaptability and cohesion, parent-child communication, and family communication about sexuality are considered in an effort to identify family characteristics that distinguish families of adolescent sex offenders (n=39) from violent juvenile delinquents (n=25), non-violent juvenile delinquents (n=41), and from non-problem families (normative data). Families of sex offende...

  1. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  2. Acne vulgaris: Perceptions and beliefs of Saudi adolescent males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natour, Sahar H.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although acne vulgaris is common in adolescents, information on their understanding of acne is minimal. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the perceptions and beliefs of Saudi youth on acne. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred twenty-nine male students (aged 13–22 years) from 6 secondary schools in the Eastern Saudi Arabia completed a self-reported questionnaire on knowledge, causation, exacerbating and relieving factors of acne. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15.0. Results of subjects with acne, a family history of acne, and parents' educational levels were compared. Differences between the analyzed groups were assessed by a Chi-square test; p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Over half (58.9%) of the participants considered acne a transient condition not requiring therapy. Only 13.1% knew that the proper treatment of acne could take a long time, even several years. Over half (52%) thought acne can be treated from the first or after few visits to the doctor. Popular sources of information were television/radio (47.7%), friends (45.6%), and the internet (38%). Only 23.4% indicated school as a source of knowledge. Reported causal factors included scratching (88.5%) and squeezing (82.1%) of pimples, poor hygiene (83.9%), poor dietary habits (71.5%), and stress (54.1%). Ameliorating factors included frequent washing of the face (52.9%), exercise (41.1%), sunbathing (24.1%), and drinking of mineral water (21%). The correlations of these facts are discussed. CONCLUSION: Results of this study point out that misconceptions of acne are widespread among Saudi youth. A health education program is needed to improve the understanding of the condition. PMID:28163574

  3. Awareness of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Among Adolescent African American Males Who Have Sex with Males: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeabor, Onyekachi S; Martin, Nicolle; Orish, Verner N; Sanyaolu, Adekunle O; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

    2015-09-01

    African American adolescent males who have sex with males (MSMs) have a high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that has been directly linked to lack of access to primary care providers and reluctance to disclose their sexuality. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common STD with more than 40 different serotypes and can lead to anal/genital warts as well as oral and genital cancers. The HPV vaccine if taken prior to an adolescent becoming sexually active serves a prophylactic function. The HPV vaccine is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for girls and boys; however, HPV vaccination rates among adolescents within different minority and underserved communities have been disappointing even though these groups are disproportionately infected with the HPV virus and certain male-specific cancers. Little is known about the uptake of the vaccine among African American MSMs and thus the aim of this study. This qualitative study is based on the health belief model and assessed participants' level of awareness of HPV, the HPV vaccine, and HPV-related illnesses among 24 African American male adolescents between 16 and 18 years old who self identify as MSMs. As part of a larger study, two focus groups were conducted for African American MSMs. Participants failed to understand their potential risk for HPV given the higher rates of STD infection experienced by MSMs. They expressed very little knowledge of the HPV vaccine and are also not aware of the complications of HPV virus infection. However, they were very eager to know more about the virus and the vaccine. This study demonstrates the need for the development of health communication intervention and more research targeting African American MSMs and also the need for policy change towards making the HPV vaccine routine for males especially adolescents at no cost.

  4. Residential Wilderness Programs: The Role of Social Support in Influencing Self-Evaluations of Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Emily C.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the aspects of a residential wilderness experience that informed self-evaluations in male adolescents, ages 12-16. To assess change in self-evaluations and program factors associated with change, qualitative interviews were conducted with adolescents upon entry to the program and four months later. Participants'…

  5. ST Product Characteristics and Relationships with Perceptions and Behaviors among Rural Adolescent Males: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Elizabeth T.; Darius, Ellen F.; Walsh, Margaret M.; Chaffee, Benjamin W.

    2017-01-01

    Although smoking declines in the United States, the prevalence of male adolescent smokeless tobacco (ST; moist snuff and chewing tobacco) use remains unchanged. ST product characteristics, such as flavoring, packaging, and branding, could influence adolescents' ST initiation and continued use. This qualitative study examines the potential role of…

  6. Motor Proficiency and Physical Fitness in Adolescent Males with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study compared components of motor proficiency and physical fitness in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders, and assessed the associations between the two measures within each group. A total of 62 adolescent males with ("n" = 31) and without ("n" = 31) autism spectrum disorders aged 10-17 years completed…

  7. Exploring Family Factors and Sexual Behaviors in a Group of Black and Hispanic Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucibwa, Naphtal Kaberege; Modeste, Naomi; Montgomery, Susan; Fox, Curtis A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined family factors influencing sexual behavior among black and Hispanic adolescent males from San Bernardino County, California's 1996 Youth Survey. Family structure, parent sexual behaviors, and peer sexual norms closely associated with adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. Having a sibling who was a teen parent significantly associated…

  8. Peers Influence Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Males with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoorn, Jorien; Van Dijk, Eric; Crone, Eveline A.; Stockmann, Lex; Rieffe, Carolien

    2017-01-01

    Peer influence has a profound impact on decision-making in typically developing adolescents. In this study, we examined to what extent adolescent males (age 11-17 years; N = 144) with and without autism (ASD) were influenced by peer feedback on prosocial behavior, and which factors were related to individual differences in peer feedback…

  9. A profile of sexually active male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Chirinos,Jesús L.; Salazar,Victor C.; Brindis,Claire D.

    2000-01-01

    To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was l...

  10. Comparative Kinematic Analysis of the Snatch Lifts in Elite Male Adolescent Weightlifters

    OpenAIRE

    Erbil Harbili; Ahmet Alptekin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the linear kinematics of the barbell and the angular kinematics of the lower limb during the snatch lifts of two different barbell weights in elite male adolescent weightlifters. In the national team level, nine elite male adolescent weightlifters participated in the study. The snatch lifts were recorded by two video cameras under competitive conditions in preparation period before the European Junior Championship (Sony MiniDv PAL- 50 field/s) and the t...

  11. Evaluation of sexual maturity among adolescent male sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical changes of adolescence progress sequentially until a sexually mature adult results. Assessment of sexual maturation is essential in the clinical evaluation of adolescents, allowing evaluation of their developmental stage. Chronological age is not a reliable parameter for biological, psychological, and social.

  12. SEXUAL VICTIMIZATION AND ASSOCIATED RISKS AMONG LESBIAN AND BISEXUAL WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hequembourg, Amy L.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Parks, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines relationships among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), risky alcohol use, and adult sexual victimization among bisexual and lesbian women. Half (51.2%) of women reported CSA and 71.2% reported adult sexual victimization. Perpetrators were generally male, and 56.4% of women’s most recent adult sexual victimization incidents occurred after coming-out. Regression results indicated that adult sexual victimization severity was associated with a bisexual identity, more severe CSA history, more lifetime sexual partners, and higher alcohol severity scores. Compared to lesbians, bisexual women reported more severe adult sexual victimization experiences, greater revictimization, riskier drinking patterns, and more lifetime male sexual partners. PMID:23759663

  13. Sexual victimization and associated risks among lesbian and bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hequembourg, Amy L; Livingston, Jennifer A; Parks, Kathleen A

    2013-05-01

    This study examines relationships among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), risky alcohol use, and adult sexual victimization among bisexual and lesbian women. Half (51.2%) of women reported CSA and 71.2% reported adult sexual victimization. Perpetrators were generally male, and 56.4% of women's most recent adult sexual victimization incidents occurred after coming out. Regression results indicated that adult sexual victimization severity was associated with a bisexual identity, more severe CSA history, more lifetime sexual partners, and higher alcohol severity scores. Compared to lesbians, bisexual women reported more severe adult sexual victimization experiences, greater revictimization, riskier drinking patterns, and more lifetime male sexual partners.

  14. Contrasting adolescent female and male sexual aggression: a selfreport study on prevalence and predictors of sexual aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotboom, A.; Hendriks, J.; Verbruggen, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigated the prevalence of sexual aggression as reported by adolescent males and females in the Netherlands. Data were collected from a low-risk school-based sample (n= 219; 119 adolescent females and 100 adolescent males), a medium-risk school-based sample (vocational training)

  15. Report on an Intervention Involving Massage and Yoga for Male Adolescents Attending a School for Disadvantaged Male Adolescents in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L. A.; Potter, L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of providing an intervention involving massage and yoga in a school exclusively for male disadvantaged adolescents who experience emotional and behavioural difficulties. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires completed by teachers and pupils prior to, and completion of,…

  16. [Factors Associated with Suicide in Adolescents and Young People Self-Identified as Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual: Current State of the Literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda Roa, Carlos Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    A framework within sexual and reproductive health is presented to understand the mental health issues of the population of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adolescents and young people. Different ways of understanding the nature of internalized homophobia were developed. On the other hand, in suicidology studies it is understood that the risk of suicide consists of the steps of ideation, planning and attempted suicide, and that there is an increased risk of suicide in the LGB population. Numerous factors have been associated with suicide risk in this population, one of the main internalized homophobia and other mental health problems. By means of a literature review, to establish the possible relationship between internalized homophobia and ideation and attempted suicide in the LGB population, as well as to identify the mental health problems associated to suicide risk in sexually diverse communities. Articles in English and Spanish, mainly within the last five years, were reviewed. They included articles in peer reviewed journals, and databases, such as Google Scholar, Redalyc, Byreme, Ovid, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis, MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Ebsco. It was found in the available literature that internalized homophobia is associated with suicide ideation and attempts in adults. A state of science of the major mental health problems associated with suicide risk in young LGB people reported contradictory findings. While some studies showed an association between depression, anxiety and distress and suicidal ideation and attempts, in others, the data do not allow such a conclusion. The theoretical framework presents the most important conceptualizations of suicide risk and emphasizes the social type. It identifies issues of suicide prevention, protective factors that contribute towards this, as well as elements of psychotherapy for LGB consultants. It concludes and discusses the importance of studying the sexually diverse as regards determining factors

  17. Male Iranian adolescent's reasons for having an other-gender friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Nasim; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, AbouAli; Bukowski, William M; Panarello, Bianca

    2016-01-21

    The aim of this study was to identify the primary reasons why male Iranian adolescents enter into other-gender friendships. A qualitative study was conducted with a sample of 21 male adolescents recruited in public places in Tehran, Iran. Information about each boy's experiences with other-gender friends was collected via semi-structured interviews whose contents were analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis approach. Five reasons were identified for engaging in other-gender friendships: (a) for the purpose of entertainment, (b) financial benefits, (c) increased popularity with peers, (d) sensation seeking and (e) sexual experiences. This study revealed that adolescent males do not follow appropriate goals for communicating with the other-gender. In many cases, these goals could endanger their own health and the health of their other-gender friends. Future researchers must focus on identifying and understanding the factors that influence an adolescent to enter into an other-gender friendship.

  18. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  19. Brief Report: The Defense Mechanisms of Homophobic Adolescent Males--A Descriptive Discriminant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J.; White, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the role of defense mechanisms in homophobic attitudes of older male adolescents aged 17-18 years. A cross-sectional survey collected data from final year high school students (N = 86) attending an all male school in a regional centre in Victoria, Australia. The school was identified by teachers as having a problematic culture…

  20. Black Male Adolescents Navigating Microaggressions in a Traditionally White Middle School: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henfield, Malik S.

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of qualitative case study analysis, this study offers in-depth understanding of Black male middle school students' perceptions of racial microaggressions. It was found that Black male adolescents, depending on their backgrounds, are aware of different types of microaggressions. Implications for school counselors, teachers, and…

  1. Factors Contributing to Psycho-Social Ill-Health in Male Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Singh Chhabra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of psychosocial problems in male adolescents and find out various factors contributing to psycho-social ill health. Methods: 500 adolescents were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire to elicit the information about the psychosocial problems including depression, suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts. Association of academic performance, family problems, psychological problems and substance abuse was also included. Results: More than one third (39.6% adolescents were having psychological problems. These problems were significantly higher in middle adolescence (14-16 years, large extended families (> 8 members and lower socioeconomic status. Residence had no significant relation to psychological problems in the adolescents. On correlation, these adolescents with psychological problems were having significantly more academic problems, family disputes, domestic violence, lesser number of close friends and greater substance abuse. Conclusion: Considering that male adolescents from large families with lesser education and lower income had higher prevalence of psychosocial problems, it is essential for health care planners to design comprehensive family and health education programs for the adolescents. The family support, teacher student rapport and peer group communication should be strengthened to counteract unsafe behaviours in the adolescents.

  2. The Brotherhood: Empowering Adolescent African-American Males toward Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Shelby

    2009-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals that African-American males do not achieve at the same academic levels as their White counterparts. This article reports the effectiveness of a school-based male mentoring program established by a professional school counselor in an urban high school that formed a relationship of support for male students…

  3. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bisexual, and Transgender Health Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Overview (active tab) Objectives National Snapshots Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health View HP2020 Data for: Lesbian Gay Bisexual ...

  4. Opresión internalizada y prácticas sexuales de riesgo en varones homo-y bi-sexuales de México Internalized opression and high-risk sexual practices among homosexual and bisexual males, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ortiz Hernández

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar la relación entre prácticas sexuales de riesgo para infección por VIH y la opresión que éstos han internalizado debido al prejuicio y discriminación que se enfrentan varones bisexuales y homosexuales. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional, transversal, y analítico. Entre septiembre y noviembre del 2001 se aplicó un cuestionario a 318 hombres que acudieron a organizaciones e instituciones ubicadas en la Ciudad de México. Las variables indagadas fueron: homofobia internalizada, percepción del estigma, ocultamiento y prácticas sexuales en los seis meses previos a la encuesta. Mediante modelos de regresión logistica se estimó la relación (odds ratios de las formas de opresión internalizada con las prácticas sexuales de riesgo, ajustando por variables confusoras. RESULTADOS: De los entrevistados, 256 habían tenido por lo menos una relación sexual en los últimos seis meses, 50 respondieron no haberlas tenido y 12 no contestaron esta pregunta. Más del 30% de los varones no había utilizado preservativo cuando habían tenido sexo insertivo o receptivo. La homofobia internalizada se asoció con mayor riesgo de consumo de drogas antes o durante las relaciones sexuales, sexo insertivo sin condón, sexo receptivo sin condón y el tragar semen de otros hombres. CONCLUSIONES: Sigue siendo frecuente la adopción de prácticas sexuales de riesgo entre los varones bi y homosexuales. De las tres formas de opresión internalizada que se investigaron, la que se asoció con mayor probabilidad de prácticas sexuales de riesgo fue la homofobia internalizada. Esta información puede ser incorporada en el diseño de programas de promoción de uso de condón entre varones bi y homosexuales.OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between engaging in high-risk sexual practices for HIV infection and the internalized oppression of homo and bisexual males due to the prejudice and discrimination they face. METHODS: An observational cross

  5. Factors that adolescent males take into account in decisions about an unplanned pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkindale, Carolyn J; Condon, John T; Russell, Alan; Quinlivan, Julie A

    2009-08-01

    Little is known about what factors adolescent males consider important when making decisions concerning the resolution of an unplanned pregnancy with a teenage partner. Young men's influence on pregnancy outcome decisions can play an important part in the subsequent psychological adjustment of the female. The present report draws on data from a larger study with teenage males [Condon, J. T., Corkindale, C. J., Russell, A., & Quinlivan, J. A. (2006). Processes and factors underlying adolescent males' attitudes and decision-making in relation to an unplanned pregnancy. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 447-458], and extends the findings of that study. Using a 25-item scale embedded in an electronic role-play, data were obtained from 330 male Australian school students on their priorities and concerns in relation to possible outcomes of a partner's pregnancy. Common factors taken into account by almost the entire adolescent sample related to the negative effects of becoming a teenage father. The differences between participants were identified using cluster analysis, which produced three groupings. The majority group was characterised as 'well-balanced' (80.6%), and the two minority groups as 'unwilling/unready' (10.9%) and 'family-centred' (8.5%). Group membership was strongly predictive of the males' final decision regarding the hypothetical pregnancy outcome. Understanding adolescent attitudes and beliefs when faced with this decision may assist practitioners in their guidance of the young couple and help prevent negative psychological sequelae.

  6. The understanding of risk factors for eating disorders in male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgül, Sinem; Akdemir, Devrim; Kara, Mahmut; Derman, Orhan; Çetin, Füsun Çuhadaroğlu; Kanbur, Nuray

    2016-02-01

    The study aimed to describe the medical, psychiatric, and cultural features of adolescent males with an eating disorder (ED). This retrospective evaluation took place at Hacettepe University, İhsan Doğramacı Children's Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, and covered a 4-year period between 2010 and 2013. Sixty adolescents were diagnosed with an ED during this period, 47 (78.3%) were females and 13 were males (21.7%) male. All 13 male patients who met full criteria for an ED according to the DSM criteria were included. Medical and psychiatric records of male patients treated for an ED were re-evaluated. The most striking finding of the study was that the female to male ratio became 3.6:1, with the increasing number of male adolescents with an ED. In our study, medical findings and complications of males with ED were similar to those seen in females. However, the most predominant gender difference was the co occurrence of a comorbid physical or mental illness. It is imperative to raise awareness of EDs in males. Although the medical findings of the study suggest that male and female adolescents with EDs are clinically similar to each other, the understanding of certain gender-specific risk factors shown in our study, such as a medical illness and/or obesity and co-morbid psychiatric diagnosis, are essential in raising suspicion. Further studies that especially evaluate cultural and social factors that affect parenting styles for boys are important in addessing possible risk factors for the development of EDs in males within different societies.

  7. Parental alcohol involvement and adolescent alcohol expectancies predict alcohol involvement in male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, James A; Zucker, Robert A; Jester, Jennifer M; Puttler, Leon I; Fitzgerald, Hiram E

    2010-09-01

    Current models of adolescent drinking behavior hypothesize that alcohol expectancies mediate the effects of other proximal and distal risk factors. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that the effects of parental alcohol involvement on their children's drinking behavior in mid-adolescence are mediated by the children's alcohol expectancies in early adolescence. A sample of 148 initially 9-11 year old boys and their parents from a high-risk population and a contrast group of community families completed measures of drinking behavior and alcohol expectancies over a 6-year interval. We analyzed data from middle childhood (M age = 10.4 years), early adolescence (M age = 13.5 years), and mid-adolescence (M age = 16.5 years). The sample was restricted only to adolescents who had begun to drink by mid-adolescence. Results from zero-inflated Poisson regression analyses showed that 1) maternal drinking during their children's middle childhood predicted number of drinking days in middle adolescence; 2) negative and positive alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted odds of any intoxication in middle adolescence; and 3) paternal alcoholism during their children's middle childhood and adolescents' alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted frequency of intoxication in middle adolescence. Contrary to predictions, child alcohol expectancies did not mediate the effects of parental alcohol involvement in this high-risk sample. Different aspects of parental alcohol involvement, along with early adolescent alcohol expectancies, independently predicted adolescent drinking behavior in middle adolescence. Alternative pathways for the influence of maternal and paternal alcohol involvement and implications for expectancy models of adolescent drinking behavior were discussed.

  8. Culturally Responsive Social Skills Instruction for Adolescent Black Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Ervin, Porsha; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Keyes, Starr

    2011-01-01

    The cultural disconnect between black males and the school environment has been correlated with poor academic achievement and high discipline rates for Black males. Instructional strategies that draw upon the learner?s cultural background hold promise as one means for intervention. This paper addresses the social skills needs of black adolescent…

  9. Anorexia Nervosa: A Misdiagnosis of the Adolescent Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svec, Henry

    1987-01-01

    Discusses rarity of anorexia nervosa among male population with primary reference to differences from female symptomatology. Presents case which implies that anorexia nervosa in the male may be a marker for other more severe pathology. Presents findings which suggest a diagnostic strategy based on familial, behavioral, environmental, educational,…

  10. Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Females and Males: Risk and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Madeley, Mary Clare

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence and consequences of body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys and girls and discusses the role of body dissatisfaction in psychological disorders, including depression and eating disorders. Additionally, it explores predictors of the development of body dissatisfaction, including individual, familial, peer,…

  11. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Heterotypic Comorbidity in Externalizing Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Colin L.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Shannon, Katherine E.; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents with externalizing behavior disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) often present with symptoms of comorbid internalizing psychopathology. However, few studies have examined central nervous system correlates of such comorbidity. We evaluated interactions between…

  12. Homo/bissexualidade masculina: um estudo sobre práticas sexuais desprotegidas em Fortaleza Male homo/bisexuality: a study about unprotected sexual intercourse in Fortaleza, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério C. Gondim

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo transversal realizado junto a 400 homens de prática homo/bissexual onde se buscou analisar fatores relacionados ao envolvimento em relações sexuais desprotegidas, entre homo/bissexuais masculinos de Fortaleza (CE, no período de maio a agosto de 1995. Os dados foram coletados através de questionário semi-estruturado, aplicado por 10 entrevistadores. Os entrevistados foram agrupados em 5 classes sociais e 4 faixas etárias. Foi realizada uma análise univariada entre a variável dependente (envolvimento com Relações Sexuais Desprotegidas - RSD e os fatores predisponentes a estas, através de teste exato de Fischer. Dentre estes fatores, aqueles que se mostraram significativos foram incluídos na análise multivariada, através de regressão logística. Quarenta e sete por cento dos entrevistados se envolveram com relações sexuais desprotegidas (RSD e os fatores relacionados a este envolvimento foram: não possuir informações básicas sobre transmissão do HIV/AIDS, ter tido uma freqüência de relação sexual com outro homem maior ou igual a 1 vez no mês nos últimos 12 meses, ter tido 1 ou mais contatos sexuais com mulheres nos últimos 12 meses, sentir se muito excitado com sexo desprotegido, mostrar atitudes negativas em relação ao Sexo Mais Seguro, não conhecer alguém com AIDS e a não participação em organizações homossexuais. Um contingente ainda grande de homens com prática homo/bissexual se envolve em práticas de risco, necessitando de um aumento do nível de informação, erotização de outras práticas de menor risco e o fortalecimento das relações sociais visando efetivar os programas de prevenção do HIV/AIDS junto a esta população.A cross-sectional study was carried out with 400 homo/bisexual men. Data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire, applied by 10 interviewers. The objective was to analyze risk factors in the engagement of unprotected sexual intercourse (usi among homo/bisexual

  13. Gonadectomy Negatively Impacts Social Behavior of Adolescent Male Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, A. Brent; Morris, Richard W.; Ward, Sarah; Schmitz, Stephanie; Rothmond, Debora A.; Noble, Pam L.; Woodward, Ruth A.; Winslow, James T.; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Social behavior changes dramatically during primate adolescence. However, the extent to which testosterone and other gonadal hormones are necessary for adolescent social behavioral development is unknown. In this study, we determined that gonadectomy significantly impairs social dominance in naturalistic settings and changes reactions to social stimuli in experimental settings. Rhesus macaques were castrated (n = 6) or sham operated (n = 6) at age 2.4 years, group-housed for 2 years, and ethograms were collected weekly. During adolescence the gonadally intact monkeys displayed a decrease in subordinate behaviors and an increase in dominant behaviors, which ultimately related to a rise in social status and rank in the dominance hierarchy. We measured monkey’s reactions to emotional faces (fear, threat, neutral) of conspecifics of three ages (adult, peer, infant). Intact monkeys were faster to retrieve a treat in front of a threatening or infant face, while castrated monkeys did not show a differential response to different emotional faces or ages. No group difference in reaction to an innate fear-eliciting object (snake) was found. Approach and proximity responses to familiar versus unfamiliar conspecifics were tested, and intact monkeys spent more time proximal to a novel conspecific as compared to castrates who tended to spend more time with a familiar conspecific. No group differences in time spent with novel or familiar objects were found. Thus, gonadectomy resulted in the emergence of significantly different responses to social stimuli, but not non-social stimuli. Our work suggests that intact gonads, which are needed to produce adolescent increases in circulating testosterone, impact social behavior during adolescences in primates. PMID:19361511

  14. Risk factors associated with HIV infection among male homosexuals and bisexuals followed in an open cohort study: Project Horizonte, Brazil (1994-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva

    Full Text Available There has recently been an increase in HIV infection rates among men who have sex with men (MSM. This study aimed at investigating risk factors associated with incident HIV infection in a MSM cohort-Project Horizonte, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.This is a nested case-control study in an ongoing open cohort of homosexual and bisexual men, carried out in 1994-2010, during which 1,085 volunteers were enrolled. Each HIV seroconverted volunteer (case was compared with three randomly selected HIV negative controls, matched by admission date and age (±3 years. During follow-up, 93 volunteers seroconverted and were compared with 279 controls.The risk factors associated with HIV seroconversion were: contact with partner's blood during sexual relations (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.2-11.6, attendance at gay saunas in search for sexual partners (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.3-5.4, occasional intake of alcohol when flirting and engaging in sexual activity (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.3-5.1, inconsistent use of condoms in receptive anal sex (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.1-5.4, little interest to look up information about AIDS (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.0-6.7 particularly in newspapers (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.4-8.1.This study shows that MSM are still engaging in risk behavior, such as unprotected anal intercourse, despite taking part in a cohort study on various preventive measures. New preventive strategies in touch with the epidemic's development and the specificities of this particular population are needed.

  15. Heterosexuals attitudes toward bisexual men and women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M

    2002-11-01

    This paper examines heterosexual adults attitudes toward bisexual men and women using data from a 1999 national RDD survey (N = 1,335). Ratings on 101-point feeling thermometers were lower (less favorable) for bisexual men and bisexual women than for all other groups assessed--including religious, racial, ethnic, and political groups--except injecting drug users. More negative attitudes toward bisexuals were associated with higher age, less education, lower annual income, residence in the South and rural areas, higher religiosity, political conservatism, traditional values concerning gender and sexual behavior, authoritarianism, and lack of contact with gay men or lesbians. White heterosexual women expressed significantly more favorable attitudes than other women and all men. A gender difference was observed in attitudes toward bisexuals and homosexuals: Heterosexual women rated bisexuals significantly less favorably than they rated homosexuals, regardless of gender, whereas heterosexual men rated male targets less favorably than female targets, regardless of whether the target was bisexual or homosexual.

  16. Beyond Knowledge and Awareness: Enhancing Counselor Skills for Work with Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocarek, Catherine E.; Pelling, Nadine J.

    2003-01-01

    Whereas multicultural advances in the area of gay, lesbian, and bisexual issues have been made for increased knowledge and awareness, little development has been made regarding counselor skill building. This article outlines a model of training using role-playing to enhance counselor skill when working with gay male, lesbian, and bisexual male and…

  17. Relationships between prolonged neck/shoulder pain and sitting spinal posture in male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon M; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Smith, Anne J; Perry, Mark C

    2009-06-01

    Neck/shoulder pain (NSP) is a common problem for adolescents and posture has been suggested as an important risk factor. The aim of this cross sectional study was to examine the relationship between prolonged NSP and habitual sitting posture in adolescents. The habitual sitting postures of 1593, 14-year-old adolescents with and without prolonged NSP were assessed using sagittal plane digital photographs. Cervicothoracic and lumbopelvic posture angles were calculated from the digital images using motion analysis software. Adolescents reported experience of NSP by questionnaire. Differences between postures of males and females and those with and without prolonged NSP were examined using independent t-tests. The relationships between cervicothoracic and lumbopelvic postures and presence of prolonged NSP were investigated using logistic regression models controlling for gender. Prolonged NSP was reported by 5.3% of the adolescents, with females reporting a higher prevalence rate (6.5%) than males (4.2%). Females also sat more erect with a more lordotic lumbar posture than males. Adolescents with prolonged NSP had more flexed cervicothoracic posture, more erect trunk and more lumbar lordosis. When gender was controlled, only lumbar lordosis was related to the presence of prolonged NSP.

  18. Parent HPV vaccine perspectives and the likelihood of HPV vaccination of adolescent males

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, approximately one-third of US adolescent males age 13–17 y had received ≥1 doses of HPV vaccines and only 14% had received ≥3 doses. This study used a nationally representative, online survey to explore experiences and attitudes related to HPV vaccination among parents with adolescent sons. Analyses compared the perspective of parents who do not intend to initiate HPV vaccine for ≥1 adolescent son to that of parents who are likely to initiate or continue HPV vaccination. Of 809 paren...

  19. Predictors of Tobacco Smoking in Male Adolescents in Hamadan Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Barati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The cognitive determinants of social behaviors play an important role in adolescents' decision-making for starting smoking. The present study was therefore conducted to determine the predictors of tobacco smoking in male adolescents in Hamadan, Iran, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 810 male high school students in Hamadan selected through the multistage sampling method. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire with a section on participants' demographic information and another section based on the TPB constructs. Data were then analyzed in SPSS-18 and AMOS-18 using the Pearson correlation test and the indices of model fit. Results: Overall, 17.2% of the male adolescents reported to have smoked cigarettes in the past. Perceived behavioral control, subjective norms and attitude were the best predictors of behavioral intention for tobacco smoking, in the order of importance (P<0.001. Perceived behavioral control (&beta=-0.59 P<0.001 was a better predictor of the studied behavior than behavioral intention (&beta=0.11 P<0.001. In the structural equation model, TPB constructs accounted for 32% of behavioral intention variances and 50% of behavior variances. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the poor role of behavioral intention in reporting smoking behaviors in male adolescents. Other psychological factors that affect adolescents' decision-making regarding tobacco smoking should also be scrutinized.

  20. Explanatory models of obesity of inner-city African-American adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Pamela F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to construct an explanatory model of illness in inner-city African-American adolescent males using Kleinman's Explanatory Model of Illness as a framework. Thirteen males were enrolled in this study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to explore adolescents' perspectives regarding the nature, cause, prevention and responses to obesity; their perception of self; and meanings they attach to obesity with particular emphasis on existing attitudes, expectations, and values. Data analysis was achieved through a process of inductive content analysis. Findings, future research and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. From Romance to Magical Realism: Limits and Possibilities in Gay Adolescent Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Authors of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) adolescent novels have recently moved away from addressing the "problem" of sexual identity and have instead focused on personal and societal "acceptance" of non-normative sexualities. Within the increasing number of "acceptance" titles published depicting gay males,…

  2. Attitudes to female genital mutilation/cutting among male adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniran, Abiodun S; Ijaiya, Munirdeen A; Fawole, Adegboyega A; Balogun, Olayinka R; Adesina, Kikelomo T; Olatinwo, Abdul Waheed O; Olarinoye, Adebunmi O; Adeniran, Peace I

    2016-07-04

    The central role of males in female reproductive health issues in patriarchal societies makes them an important group in the eradication of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). To determine knowledge about and attitudes to FGM/C among male adolescents, and their preparedness to protect their future daughters from it. A cross-sectional survey among male adolescent students in Ilorin, Nigeria. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire after consent had been obtained from them or their parents. Statistical analysis was with SPSS version 20.0 (IBM, USA). A p-value of <0.05 was taken as significant. Of 1 536 male adolescents (mean age 15.09 (standard deviation 1.84) years, range 14 - 19), 1 184 (77.1%) were aware of FGM/C, 514 (33.5%) supported female circumcision, 362 (23.6%) would circumcise their future daughters, 420 (27.3%) were of the opinion that FGM/C had benefits, mostly as a necessity for womanhood (109, 7.1%), and 627 (40.8%) perceived it as wickedness against females; 546 (35.5%) were aware of efforts to eradicate FGM/C, and 42.2% recommended education as the most important intervention to achieve this. Education and involvement in advocacy may transform male adolescents into agents for eradication of FGM/C.

  3. SEXUAL VICTIMIZATION AND ASSOCIATED RISKS AMONG LESBIAN AND BISEXUAL WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Hequembourg, Amy L.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Parks, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines relationships among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), risky alcohol use, and adult sexual victimization among bisexual and lesbian women. Half (51.2%) of women reported CSA and 71.2% reported adult sexual victimization. Perpetrators were generally male, and 56.4% of women’s most recent adult sexual victimization incidents occurred after coming-out. Regression results indicated that adult sexual victimization severity was associated with a bisexual identity, more severe CSA his...

  4. Trends in adolescent males' abortion attitudes, 1988-1995: differences by race and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, S; Bradner, C

    2000-01-01

    Studying how adolescent males view abortion and how their attitudes toward abortion have changed over time can improve our understanding of the sexual, contraceptive and abortion behavior of these males and their partners. Data from the 1988 and 1995 National Survey of Adolescent Males are used to describe changes in young males' attitudes toward abortion over time, as well as differences in abortion attitudes by race and ethnicity. Multivariate models are used to examine the relationship between religiosity and abortion attitudes. Between 1988 and 1995, young males' approval of abortion decreased significantly. In 1995, 24% of U.S. males aged 15-19 agreed that it was all right for a woman to have an abortion "for any reason," down from 37% in 1988. This decrease was driven almost entirely by non-Hispanic white males; there was little change in the abortion attitudes of non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics. The decrease in white males' approval of abortion coincides with a significant increase in the self-reported importance of religion and in the proportion of whites who identified themselves as born-again Christians. The proportion of non-Hispanic white males indicating that religion was very important increased from 28% in 1988 to 34% in 1995, while the proportion identifying themselves as born-again increased from 18% to 24%. Multivariate analyses indicate that religiosity was more strongly related to the abortion attitudes of non-Hispanic whites than to those of Hispanics or non-Hispanic blacks. The large decrease in approval of abortion among white teenage males has closed the racial and ethnic gap in attitudes toward abortion that was evident in 1988, when such youth held significantly more liberal attitudes toward abortion than did either Hispanics or blacks. This trend toward more conservative abortion-related attitudes among whites coincides with increasingly conservative attitudes regarding premarital sex and greater religiosity among white male adolescents.

  5. “Aren't We All a Little Bisexual?”: The Recognition of Bisexuality in an Unlikely Place

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, E.; Adams, Adi

    2011-01-01

    The hypermasculine subculture of men's team sports has traditionally been characterized by the one-time rule of homosexuality: one same-sex sexual experience is normally equated with a homosexual orientation. Thus, men have been polarized into sexual identity categories, erasing bisexuality as a legitimate or viable category of sexual identification. Accordingly, in this research the authors examine the perspectives on bisexuality among team sport athletes. Interviewing 60 male soccer players...

  6. Spirituality, Religiosity, and Weight Management among African American Adolescent Males: The Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Marino A.; Beech, Bettina M.; Griffith, Derek M.; Thorpe, Roland J.

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality and religion have been identified as important determinants of health for adults; however, the impact of faith-oriented factors on health behaviors and outcomes among African American adolescent males has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religiosity and spirituality and obesity-related behaviors among 12–19 year old African American males (N=105) in the Jackson Heart Kids Pilot Study. Key variables of interest are church atte...

  7. Examination on sports consciousness and conditions influencing sports activity and physical fitness in adolescent male students

    OpenAIRE

    中, 比呂志; 出村, 慎一

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of factors such as sports consciousness, sports conditions and physical fitness to sports activity, and to examine the influence of sports consciousness and sports conditions on the improvement of physical fitness in adolescent male students. The Diagnostic Inventory for Sport Counseling (DISC) and physical fitness tests designed by the Ministry of Education in Japan were administered to 687 healthy male students aged 15 to 20 years. Si...

  8. Potential Factors Associated with Contraceptive Intention Among Adolescent Males in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Ruey-Hsia Wang; Min-Tao Hsu; Hsiu-Hung Wang

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the predictors of contraceptive intention in adolescent males in Taiwan. It used a cross-sectional design and a sample of 1,000 vocational high school male students to determine the potential factors associated with contraceptive intention. Data were collected on an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire, including personal background variables, prior sexual experience, contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive attitude, contraceptive self-efficacy, perception of peers' c...

  9. A profile of sexually active male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, J L; Salazar, V C; Brindis, C D

    2000-01-01

    To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was limited. Males tended to mainly discuss sexuality with their male peers (49.8%). Attitudes towards sexual activity and condom use were largely positive, although some males expressed ambivalent feelings towards the latter. Of the sample, 43% had ever had sex; age at first sexual intercourse was 13 years. While 88% of the sample would use condoms, 74% also gave reasons for not using them. Sexual activity was related to age, ever having repeated a grade, living with only one parent or in a mixed family, activities such as going to parties, use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs, and viewing pornographic videos or magazines. Many male adolescents were at risk of causing an unintended pregnancy or acquiring an STD.

  10. A profile of sexually active male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirinos Jesús L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was limited. Males tended to mainly discuss sexuality with their male peers (49.8%. Attitudes towards sexual activity and condom use were largely positive, although some males expressed ambivalent feelings towards the latter. Of the sample, 43% had ever had sex; age at first sexual intercourse was 13 years. While 88% of the sample would use condoms, 74% also gave reasons for not using them. Sexual activity was related to age, ever having repeated a grade, living with only one parent or in a mixed family, activities such as going to parties, use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs, and viewing pornographic videos or magazines. Many male adolescents were at risk of causing an unintended pregnancy or acquiring an STD.

  11. Premarital Contraceptives Usage among Male and Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornick, Joesph P.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Variables important in predicting female contraception usage were found to be those which involved dyadic commitment, conditions of love, self-esteem, and father's occupation (social class). The best predictors of male contraception usage involved experience in dating and internalization of role models via mother's and father's permissiveness.…

  12. Can probation officers identify remorse among male adolescent offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Adam; Cavanagh, Caitlin; Frick, Paul J; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2017-06-01

    Judgments about a youth's level of remorse are frequently used to make important decisions in the juvenile justice system that can have serious consequences to the person. Unfortunately, little is known about these ratings and what factors may influence them. In a sample of 325 1st-time youth offenders who were arrested for offenses of moderate severity, we tested whether probation officers' ratings of an adolescent's remorse soon after arrest were associated with the youth's self-report of showing a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, being arrested for a violent offense, and several demographic and background characteristics (e.g., age, race, socioeconomic status [SES], and intelligence). Our analyses indicated that both arrest for a violent offense and the adolescent's self-reported level of callous-unemotional (CU) traits were associated with probation officers' ratings of remorse. Further, youth age, SES, and intelligence neither were associated with these judgments nor moderated the association between CU traits and probation officers' ratings of remorse. However, youth race or ethnicity did moderate the association between CU traits and judgments of remorse, such that Latino youth who were high on CU traits showed a very low probability of being rated as remorseful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Potential Factors Associated with Contraceptive Intention Among Adolescent Males in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Hsia Wang

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the predictors of contraceptive intention in adolescent males in Taiwan. It used a cross-sectional design and a sample of 1,000 vocational high school male students to determine the potential factors associated with contraceptive intention. Data were collected on an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire, including personal background variables, prior sexual experience, contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive attitude, contraceptive self-efficacy, perception of peers' contraceptive behavior, perception of support from significant others, and parental-adolescent communication about contraception. A total of 230 participants (23% had prior sexual experience, 13% (30 of whom reported being involved in their girlfriends' pregnancies. Of the participants, 45% recognized the use of condoms as the most favorable contraceptive method for future sexual intercourse. Second to condom use, the combination of the calendar method and condom use was also popular (13.1%. Multiple stepwise regression indicated that better contraceptive attitudes, higher contraceptive self-efficacy, no prior sexual experience, more perception of peers' contraceptive behavior, and higher perception of support from significant others were predictors of higher contraceptive intention. The above predicting factors explained 31.9% of the total variance for contraceptive intention among adolescents. These results provide health professionals with important information to understand the reality adolescents encounter and to design effective contraceptive programs for male adolescents.

  14. Conduct Disorders in African American Adolescent Males: The Perceptions that Lead to Overdiagnosis and Placement in Special Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Eddie, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    African American adolescent males are significantly more likely than their Caucasian peers to receive a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder. In contrast, their Caucasian peers are more often diagnosed with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder. Discrepancies in the way diagnosis is made cause more African American adolescent males to be classified …

  15. Friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol consumption: The moderating role of performance-based peer influence susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, H.A.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Spijkerman, R.; Prinstein, M.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol use is moderated by performance-based peer influence susceptibility. Seventy-three male adolescents (M = 17 years) from three schools in the Netherlands were exposed to the drinking norms of

  16. Self-Esteem and Achievement of At-Risk Adolescent Black Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, D. Lynn; And Others

    The relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement of at-risk adolescent black males was studied for 42 students in grades 6, 7, and 8. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to provide global measures of self-esteem. School grades and scores from the Stanford Achievement Test battery were used to measure academic…

  17. Psychotic-like symptoms as a risk factor of violent recidivism in detained male adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colins, O.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.; Noom, M.; Broekaert, E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively examine whether psychotic-like symptoms (PLSs) are positively associated with violent recidivism and whether this relation is stronger when PLSs co-occur with substance use disorders (SUDs). Participants were 224 detained male adolescents from all youth

  18. Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peggy B.; Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the frequency and nature of mental health problems and symptoms among a group of 51 inner city male adolescents attending a teen health clinic. Results indicated participants experienced significant mental health problems and symptoms, such as relationship problems, problems with time and money, and symptoms of anger, depression, and…

  19. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  20. An Empirical "Real World" Comparison of Two Treatments with Aggressive Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Siv, Alexander M.; Matteson, Susan C.

    2005-01-01

    This research study compares the efficacy of Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT), an advanced form of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy based on Beck's theory of modes, and standard Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for adolescent males in residential treatment. The results showed MDT was superior to CBT in reducing both physical and sexual aggression and…

  1. Positive Parenting of Young Adolescents by Male Cohabiting Partners: The Roles of Coparenting Conflict and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…

  2. Self-reported psychopathic-like traits as predictors of recidivism in detained male adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colins, O.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; de Bolle, M.; Broekaert, E.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether psychopathic-like traits predict recidivism in detained youth. The current study investigated the predictive validity of self-report of psychopathic-like traits for official recidivism. Participants were 223 detained male adolescents from all three Flemish youth

  3. What Works for Adolescent Black Males at Risk of Suicide: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Sean; Scott, Marquisha Lawrence; Banks, Andrae

    2018-01-01

    We reviewed the controlled studies that report outcome findings for Black adolescent males 24 years of age and younger at risk of suicide. Our review identified 48 articles published from 2000 to 2015, 33 that met our initial criteria for full-text articles review, resulting in 6 that met all inclusion criteria. We sought to understand what works…

  4. Effects of repeated questionnaire administration in longitudinal studies of adolescent males' sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, C T; Udry, J R; Suchindran, C

    1994-02-01

    By comparing four similar groups of young adolescent males who completed questionnaires about their sexual behavior different numbers of times at various intervals, we explore the hypothesis that repeated questionnaire completion will affect sexual behavior. We find little support for the hypothesis even when the number of questionnaire administrations is very high.

  5. Contraceptive Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Black Adolescent Males Attending a Predominantly Black University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Jack, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of questionnaire responses of 107 Black adolescent male college students indicated that, while 85 percent used some contraceptive method, most subjects had less knowledge regarding the effectiveness of certain contraceptive methods, suggesting a need for more in-depth sex education programs. (CB)

  6. Assessing the Impact of a School-Based Group Approach with Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, T. Michael; Kurpius, Sharon Robinson

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of a school-based group intervention, "The Council for Boys and Young Men," specifically designed for adolescent males. The participants who attended an alternative school in a metropolitan area were randomly assigned to the intervention or to waitlist control groups. Measures assessed self-esteem, future…

  7. Altered Autonomic Functions and Distressed Personality Traits in Male Adolescents with Internet Gaming Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok

    2016-11-01

    Internet gaming addiction (IGA) has been associated with many negative health outcomes, especially for youth; however, few studies have examined the physiological parameters and personality features related to this addiction. This study aimed to identify differences in autonomic functions and distressed (type D) personality traits among Korean adolescent males with and without IGA. In a cross-sectional study, 68 adolescent males were recruited in a Korean city using convenience and snowball sampling methods. For each subject, heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were measured as autonomic functions and questionnaires were used to identify IGA and type D personality traits. Data were analyzed using descriptive analyses, t tests, χ 2 tests, and Pearson's correlation. Most HRV parameters significantly differed between the IGA and non-IGA groups (all p gaming was related to alterations in autonomic functions and distressed personality traits in male adolescents. These findings provide further understanding of the IGA phenomenon and highlight the need for interventions that address male adolescents with IGA.

  8. Adolescents' Judgments of Homophobic Harassment toward Male and Female Victims: The Role of Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Katherine E.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2017-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-six adolescents, drawn from a high school in a Midwestern suburb, provided judgments of a hypothetical incident of homophobic harassment with either a male or female victim. Participants also completed a revised version of the Macho Scale, measuring their endorsement of gender stereotypes (a = 0.75). Without the interaction…

  9. Factors that Adolescent Males Take into Account in Decisions about an Unplanned Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkindale, Carolyn J.; Condon, John T.; Russell, Alan; Quinlivan, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about what factors adolescent males consider important when making decisions concerning the resolution of an unplanned pregnancy with a teenage partner. Young men's influence on pregnancy outcome decisions can play an important part in the subsequent psychological adjustment of the female. The present report draws on data from a…

  10. Fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex of adolescent male and female suicide victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Conley, Robert R; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2009-01-01

    Prior epidemiological, prospective intervention, and peripheral and central fatty acid composition studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acid deficiency may be associated with the pathoaetiology of depression and suicide. In the present study, we determined the fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adolescent male and female suicide victims and age-matched controls. Fatty acid composition (wt% total fatty acids) and concentrations (micromol/g) were determined in the postmortem PFC (Brodmann area 10) of male and female adolescent (aged 13-20 years) suicide victims (n=20) and age-matched controls (n=20) by gas chromatography. None of the major polyunsaturated fatty acids including the principle brain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), monounsaturated fatty acids, or saturated fatty acids differed significantly between adolescent suicide victims and controls before or after segregation by gender. The arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6): DHA ratio and adrenic acid (22:4n-6) composition were negatively correlated with age at death in controls but not in suicides, and males exhibited a greater AA:DHA ratio irrespective of cause-of-death. These results demonstrate that adolescent male and female suicide victims do not exhibit DHA deficits in the postmortem PFC relative to age-matched controls, and suggest that suicide victims do not exhibit the normal age-related decrease in adrenic acid composition and the AA:DHA ratio.

  11. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  12. EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE IN MALE RABBITS FOLLOWING IN UTERO, ADOLESCENT OR POST-PUBERTAL EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or post-pubertal exposureTy T. Higuchi1, Jennifer S. Palmer1, L. Earl Gray Jr2., and D. N. Rao Veeramachaneni11Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort

  13. Influences of tobacco advertising exposure and conduct problems on smoking behaviors among adolescent males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Gilman, Stephen E; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Niaura, Raymond S

    2014-06-01

    Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males' excess risk for conduct problems and females' susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents' exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Adolescents completed baseline (2001-2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007-2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted.

  14. Adolescent environmental enrichment prevents behavioral and physiological sequelae of adolescent chronic stress in female (but not male) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brittany L; Morano, Rachel L; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Myers, Brent; Solomon, Matia B; Herman, James P

    2017-11-22

    The late adolescent period is characterized by marked neurodevelopmental and endocrine fluctuations in the transition to early adulthood. Adolescents are highly responsive to the external environment, which enhances their ability to adapt and recover from challenges when given nurturing influences, but also makes them vulnerable to aberrant development when exposed to prolonged adverse situations. Female rats are particularly sensitive to the effects of chronic stress in adolescence, which manifests as passive coping strategies and blunted hypothalamo-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) stress responses in adulthood. We sought to intervene by exposing adolescent rats to environmental enrichment (EE) immediately prior to and during chronic stress, hypothesizing that EE would minimize or prevent the long-term effects of stress that emerge in adult females. To test this, we exposed male and female rats to EE on postnatal days (PND) 33-60 and implemented chronic variable stress (CVS) on PND 40-60. CVS consisted of twice-daily unpredictable stressors. Experimental groups included: CVS/unenriched, unstressed/EE, CVS/EE and unstressed/unenriched (n = 10 of each sex/group). In adulthood, we measured behavior in the open field test and forced swim test (FST) and collected blood samples following the FST. We found that environmental enrichment given during the adolescent period prevented the chronic stress-induced transition to passive coping in the FST and reversed decreases in peak adrenocortical responsiveness observed in adult females. Adolescent enrichment had little to no effect on males or unstressed females tested in adulthood, indicating that beneficial effects are specific to females that were exposed to chronic stress.

  15. Teen dating violence perpetration and relation to STI and sexual risk behaviours among adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Miller, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G

    2014-06-01

    To investigate teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration (physical, sexual or psychological violence) and association with STI and related sexual risk behaviours among urban male adolescents. Adolescent male survey participants (N=134) were aged 14-20 years, recruited from urban health centres. Using crude and adjusted logistic regression, TDV perpetration was examined in relation to self-reported: STI, having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner, and consistent condom use. Over one-third of males (45%) reported any TDV; 42% reported sexual violence perpetration, 13% reported perpetrating physical violence against a dating/sexual partner and 11% reported psychological violence, including threats of physical or sexual violence. Approximately 15% of males reported having ever had an STI, one quarter reported having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner and 36% reported consistent condom use (past 3 months). In adjusted logistic regression models, TDV perpetration was significantly associated with self-reports of an STI (OR=3.3; 95% CI 1.2 to 9.2) and having sex with another person when they were supposed to be only having sex with their main partner (OR=4.8; 95% CI 2.0 to 11.4). There was no significant association between TDV perpetration and consistent condom use. Current study findings are the first within the literature on adolescents to suggest that greater STI and sexual risk behaviours among male adolescents perpetrating TDV may be one mechanism explaining increased STI among female adolescents reporting TDV victimisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Maternal deprivation effects on brain plasticity and recognition memory in adolescent male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Eva M; Valero, Manuel; de la Serna, Oscar; Aisa, Barbara; Borcel, Erika; Ramirez, Maria Javier; Viveros, María-Paz

    2013-05-01

    Data from both human and animal studies suggest that exposure to stressful life events at neonatal stages may increase the risk of psychopathology at adulthood. In particular, early maternal deprivation, 24 h at postnatal day (pnd) 9, has been associated with persistent neurobehavioural changes similar to those present in developmental psychopathologies such as depression and schizophrenic-related disorders. Most neuropsychiatric disorders first appear during adolescence, however, the effects of MD on adolescent animals' brain and behaviour have been scarcely explored. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the emotional and cognitive consequences of MD in adolescent male and female rats, as well as possible underlying neurobiological mechanisms within frontal cortex and hippocampus. Animals were exposed to a battery of behavioural tasks, from pnd 35 to 42, to evaluate cognitive [spontaneous alternation task (SAT) and novel object test (NOT)] and anxiety-related responses [elevated plus maze (EPM)] during adolescence. Changes in neuronal and glial cells, alterations in synaptic plasticity as well as modifications in cannabinoid receptor expression were investigated in a parallel group of control and adolescent (pnd 40) male and female animals. Notably, MD induced a significant impairment in recognition memory exclusively among females. A generalized decrease in NeuN expression was found in MD animals, together with an increase in hippocampal glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) expression exclusively among MD adolescent males. In addition, MD induced in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of male and female adolescent rats a significant reduction in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and postsynaptic density (PSD95) levels, together with a decrease in synaptophysin in frontal cortex and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in hippocampus. MD induced, in animals of both sexes, a significant reduction in CB1R expression, but an increase in CB2R that was

  17. Relationships between aggression and pubertal increases in testosterone: a panel analysis of adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, C T; Udry, J R; Campbell, B; Suchindran, C

    1993-01-01

    Existing data linking testosterone (T) and aggression in human adult males are surprisingly tenuous. In one of the few studies based on adolescent males, Olweus et al. (1988) demonstrated strong relationships between concurrent measures of T and aggression. However, the conclusions that could be drawn regarding developmental change were limited. Using data from a three-year panel study of 100 adolescent males (ages 12 to 13 at study entry), we examined whether there are significant relationships between concurrently collected measures of T and self-ratings of aggression, and whether the dramatic pubertal rise in T predicts subsequent change in aggression ratings. Panel analyses incorporating concurrent, lagged, and change measures found few significant relationships between aggression and T or pubertal development. The general absence of T/aggression relationships is discussed in the context of other empirical findings, the aggression measures used, and prepubertal differentiation on aggression.

  18. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ(2)-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents.

  19. Androgenic anabolic steroid use among male adolescents in Falkenberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, S

    1995-01-01

    Recent reports show that androgenic anabolic steroids are used by many teenagers, not as a deliberate attempt to give them strength, better athletic performance, etc., but to improve their looks. The so-called macho cult among young boys tempts them into using androgenic anabolic steroids to give them bigger muscles and a more powerful appearance. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of androgenic anabolic steroid use among teenagers in a small town and to create a platform for future work with the aim of decreasing the misuse of these drugs. In Falkenberg, a town in the county of Halland in the west of Sweden, the pupils at two high schools were investigated by means of an anonymous multiple-choice questionnaire. A total of 1383 students (688 males and 695 females) aged 14-19 years participated in the study, giving a participation rate of 96%. The number of answers completed was 99%. The use of androgenic anabolic steroids is a reality among male teenagers in Falkenberg, with 5.8% of them using the drugs. Among 15- to 16-year-old boys misuse of these drugs is as high as 10%, and of these 50% (5.0% of total) also inject ampoules of the drugs. This prevalence is alarming since the adverse effects of androgenic anabolic steroids are more serious in teenagers. Serious action must be taken to inform teenagers of the consequences of misusing drugs.

  20. Adolescent cannabis problems and young adult depression: male-female stratified propensity score analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Valerie S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Anthony, James C

    2008-09-15

    Cannabis use and depression are two of the most prevalent conditions worldwide. Adolescent cannabis use is linked to depression in many studies, but the effects of adolescent cannabis involvement on young adult depression remain unclear and may differ for males versus females. In this cohort study of youth from a mid-Atlantic metropolitan area of the United States, repeated assessments from 1985 (at age 6 years) through 2002 (at age 21 years) were made for 1,494 individuals (55% female). Measured covariate differences between individuals with and without cannabis problems were controlled via propensity score techniques. The estimated risk of young adult depression for adolescents with cannabis problems was not significantly different from that for comparison adolescents for either females (odds ratio = 0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.2, 2.3) or males (odds ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.8, 3.6). The evidence does not support a causal association linking adolescent-onset cannabis problems with young adult depression.

  1. Parent HPV vaccine perspectives and the likelihood of HPV vaccination of adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, approximately one-third of US adolescent males age 13-17 y had received ≥1 doses of HPV vaccines and only 14% had received ≥3 doses. This study used a nationally representative, online survey to explore experiences and attitudes related to HPV vaccination among parents with adolescent sons. Analyses compared the perspective of parents who do not intend to initiate HPV vaccine for ≥1 adolescent son to that of parents who are likely to initiate or continue HPV vaccination. Of 809 parents of sons age 11-17 years, half were classified as Unlikely to Initiate HPV vaccination and 39% as Likely to Vaccinate. A higher proportion of the Likely to Vaccinate group felt their son's doctor was knowledgeable about HPV vaccine, did a good job explaining its purpose, and spent more time discussing HPV vaccine; in contrast, over half of the Unlikely to Initiate group had never discussed HPV vaccine with their child's doctor. The majority of parents in both groups showed favorable attitudes to adolescent vaccination in general, with lower levels of support for HPV vaccine-specific statements. Physician-parent communication around HPV vaccine for adolescent males should build on positive attitude toward vaccines in general, while addressing parents' HPV vaccine-specific concerns.

  2. Think manager--think male in adolescents and its relation to sexism and emotions in leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ael, Cristina; Cuadrado, Isabel; Molero, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of the Think manager--think male, this study was conducted to examine the type of leadership role depending on gender in a sample of 158 Spanish adolescents -according to three types of leaders: "male middle leader", "female middle leader" and "middle leader in general". The kind of emotional expression (positive and negative) evoked by their leadership behaviors (task- and relationship- oriented) was also analyzed. Lastly, whether adolescents' sexist beliefs affected the attribution of traits and the emotional expression towards these leaders was examined. Results showed that task-oriented traits were more characteristic of the leadership role than relationship-oriented traits. Adolescents expressed more positive emotions towards a task-oriented leader and towards a leader behaving in ways associated with both task- and relationship- oriented styles, but only for men. Finally, hostile sexism predicted fewer task-oriented traits to female leaders, more negative affect towards task-oriented male leaders and towards counter-stereotypic leaders. These results were moderated by the sex of adolescents.

  3. Increased Maillard reaction products intake reduces phosphorus digestibility in male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Seiquer, Isabel; García, Marta Mesías; Galdó, Gabriel; Navarro, M Pilar

    2011-01-01

    To examine the effects of consuming diets rich in Maillard reaction products (MRPs) on phosphorus bioavailability in male adolescents. A 2-wk randomized two-period crossover trial was performed among healthy male adolescents aged 11-14 y (n = 20), with a 40-d washout period. The diets consumed were rich (brown diet) or poor (white diet) in MRPs. Three-day balances were performed on the last of each dietary period, and fasting blood samples were obtained. Dietary phosphorus utilization was examined by phosphorus intake in diet and phosphorus output in feces and urine, as measured colorimetrically by the vanadomolibdate procedure. Serum phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and total alkaline phosphatase were determined. A tendency to increase daily phosphorus fecal excretion was observed subsequent to the brown diet consumption compared with the white diet (P = 0.10), which led to significant reductions in phosphorus apparent absorption (P = 0.03) and fractional absorption (P = 0.04). Values of apparent phosphorus retention and bioavailability tended to decrease after the high-MRP diet. Serum parameters analyzed remained unchanged between diets and were within normal values. The consumption of a rich-MRP diet in male adolescents had a negative influence on dietary phosphorus absorption, tending to decrease the phosphorus balance. Given the actual dietary habits of adolescents, possible long-term repercussions of this kind of diet should be studied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative Kinematic Analysis of the Snatch Lifts in Elite Male Adolescent Weightlifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbil Harbili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the linear kinematics of the barbell and the angular kinematics of the lower limb during the snatch lifts of two different barbell weights in elite male adolescent weightlifters. In the national team level, nine elite male adolescent weightlifters participated in the study. The snatch lifts were recorded by two video cameras under competitive conditions in preparation period before the European Junior Championship (Sony MiniDv PAL- 50 field/s and the two heaviest successful lifts were selected for kinematic analysis. The little toe, ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder on the body and one point on the barbell were digitized using Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS, San Diego, CA, USA. Significant decreases were found in the maximum barbell height, the relative power output during the second pull, and the maximum vertical velocity of the barbell during the second pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05. Maximum extension velocity of the hip joint significantly increased during the first pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05. As the mass of the barbell increased, the maximum vertical velocity and the maximum height of the barbell and relative power output during the second pull decreased in the heaviest lift performed by adolescent weightlifters. Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters.

  5. Parental influences on sperm banking attempts among adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosky, James L; Flynn, Jessica S; Lehmann, Vicky; Russell, Kathryn M; Wang, Fang; Hardin, Robin N; Eddinger, Jasmine R; Zhang, Hui; Schenck, Lauren A-M; Schover, Leslie R

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the influence of parental sociodemographic, communication, and psychological factors on sperm collection attempts among at-risk adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer. Prospective, single group, observational study design. Pediatric oncology centers. Parents (N = 144) of 122 newly diagnosed adolescent males at increased risk for infertility secondary to cancer therapy. Survey-based assessment of parent factors associated with adolescent collection attempts. Attempt of manual collection of sperm. Parental recommendation to bank sperm (odds ratio [OR] 3.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-11.76) and perceived self-efficacy to facilitate banking (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.02-1.41) were associated with an increased likelihood of making a collection attempt. Parental recommendation to bank is a critical influence for sperm banking among adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer. These findings highlight the importance of effective communication between parents, patients, and health-care teams when discussing preservation options. Parent perceptions of their ability to facilitate sperm banking at the time of diagnosis should also be targeted in future interventions. NCT01152268. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Editorial: Special Issue on Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Lynne; Rosenthal, Doreen

    2001-01-01

    This editorial describes the barriers that exist to carrying out research with gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. It also discusses why it is important to promote research to this group. Describes the articles that address some of the issues related to this population in this volume of the Journal of Adolescence. (MKA)

  7. Bisexuality, minority stress, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; Dyar, Christina

    2017-03-01

    Bisexual individuals are at increased risk for negative health outcomes compared to heterosexual individuals and often compared to gay/lesbian individuals as well. The goal of this article is to summarize the current evidence-base on bisexual health disparities, to describe factors that influence them, and to review interventions designed to improve the health of bisexual individuals. Based on our review of the literature, we conclude that there is strong evidence that bisexual individuals are at increased risk for mental health and substance use problems. These disparities are evident across dimensions of bisexuality (identity, attraction, and behavior), but there are important nuances to these findings. There is also evidence that bisexual men are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) compared to heterosexual men and that bisexual women are at increased risk for STIs compared to both lesbians and heterosexual women. Although there are numerous causes of these disparities, a leading contributor is stress related to stigma and discrimination. Most of the interventions that have been developed for bisexual individuals are HIV prevention programs for behaviorally bisexual men of color. Despite less attention to mental health and substance use interventions for bisexual individuals, recent developments show promise in their potential application to this population. Bisexual individuals are at increased risk for mental health, substance use, and sexual health problems, and this is due, in part, to stigma and discrimination. Future research should continue to examine how different dimensions of bisexuality relate to health disparities and factors that influence them. There is also an urgent need to develop, test, and disseminate interventions to improve the health of bisexual individuals.

  8. Comparative kinematic analysis of the snatch lifts in elite male adolescent weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbili, Erbil; Alptekin, Ahmet

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the linear kinematics of the barbell and the angular kinematics of the lower limb during the snatch lifts of two different barbell weights in elite male adolescent weightlifters. In the national team level, nine elite male adolescent weightlifters participated in the study. The snatch lifts were recorded by two video cameras under competitive conditions in preparation period before the European Junior Championship (Sony MiniDv PAL- 50 field/s) and the two heaviest successful lifts were selected for kinematic analysis. The little toe, ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder on the body and one point on the barbell were digitized using Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS, San Diego, CA, USA). Significant decreases were found in the maximum barbell height, the relative power output during the second pull, and the maximum vertical velocity of the barbell during the second pull of the heaviest lift (p barbell increased, the maximum vertical velocity and the maximum height of the barbell and relative power output during the second pull decreased in the heaviest lift performed by adolescent weightlifters. Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters. Key pointsThe results demonstrate that the maximum strength of the extensor muscles of the hip during the first pull and their explosive strength during the second pull must be improved.Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters.

  9. Soy isoflavone consumption and age at pubarche in adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia-Siapco, Gina; Pribis, Peter; Oda, Keiji; Sabaté, Joan

    2017-07-15

    Isoflavones have estrogenic properties that may adversely affect pubertal development of boys. We examined if soy isoflavone consumption is associated with age at pubarche (first onset of pubic hair) in a male population with a wide range of soy intake. Boys aged 12-18 years (n = 248) who attended schools around Adventist universities in Southern California and Michigan self-reported their age at pubarche. Intake of soy isoflavones was assessed using a validated Web-based food frequency questionnaire; consumption levels were designated as low, moderate, and high. Descriptives, time-to-event analysis, and Cox proportional hazards regression that controlled for confounders were performed. Energy-adjusted mean intakes were 0.8-54.9 mg/d for total isoflavones, 0.4-22.1 mg/d for daidzein, and 0.4-28.0 mg/d for genistein. Moderate and high total soy isoflavone intake were significantly associated with earlier adjusted median age at pubarche: 12.58 years [RR (95% CI): 1.58 (1.06, 2.36)] for moderate and 12.50 years [RR (95% CI): 1.63 (1.03, 2.60)] for high vs. 13.00 years for low consumers. Similarly, daidzein and genistein consumption was also significantly associated with age at pubarche. No significant associations were found for facial hair for any of the isoflavones. Age at pubarche in this male population widely exposed to soy is within the reported range for boys' pubarcheal age; moderate/high consumers tend to have it earlier compared to low consumers. Further studies are needed to ascertain that substantial exposure to soy isoflavones does not adversely affect pubertal development of boys.

  10. Heteronormativity and sexual partnering among bisexual Latino men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Garcia, Jonathan; Wilson, Patrick A; Parker, Richard G; Severson, Nicolette

    2015-05-01

    Our analyses address the question of how bisexual Latino men organize their sexual partnerships. Heteronormativity can be understood as the set of social norms and normative structures that guide sexual partnering among men and women. We provide descriptive statistics to describe bisexual Latino men's sexual partnerships. Logistic and linear regression modeling were used to explore bivariate and multivariate relationships. Of our total sample (N = 142), 41.6 % had unprotected vaginal intercourse 2 months prior to the interview; 21.8 % had unprotected anal intercourse with female partners; 37.5 % had unprotected insertive anal intercourse with male partners; and 22.5 % had unprotected receptive anal intercourse with male partners. In our multivariate model, machismo was directly associated with meeting female partners through formal spaces (workplace, school, and/or church), but inversely associated with meeting male partners in formal spaces. Machismo was positively associated with meeting male sex partners through social networks (i.e., friendship and kinship networks). The more comfortable men were with homosexuality the less likely they were to meet men online and the more likely they were to meet men through social networks of friends and kinship. Interventions to reduce sexually transmitted diseases that target bisexual behavior as an epidemiological "bridge" of transmission from homosexual to heterosexual networks might very well benefit from a more complex understanding of how Latino bisexuality is patterned. Thus, this exploratory analysis might lead to a rethinking of how to address risk and vulnerability among Latino bisexual men and their sexual networks.

  11. Identity Profiles in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth: The Role of Family Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Hallie R.; Malik, Neena M.; Page, Matthew J. L.; Makynen, Emily; Lindahl, Kristin M.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual identity development is a central task of adolescence and young adulthood and can be especially challenging for sexual minority youth. Recent research has moved from a stage model of identity development in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth to examining identity in a non-linear, multidimensional manner. In addition, although families have been identified as important to youth's identity development, limited research has examined the influence of parental responses to youth's disclosure of their LGB sexual orientation on LGB identity. The current study examined a multidimensional model of LGB identity and its links with parental support and rejection. One hundred and sixty-nine LGB adolescents and young adults (ages 14–24, 56% male, 48% gay, 31% lesbian, 21% bisexual) described themselves on dimensions of LGB identity and reported on parental rejection, sexuality-specific social support, and non-sexuality-specific social support. Using latent profile analysis (LPA), two profiles were identified, indicating that youth experience both affirmed and struggling identities. Results indicated that parental rejection and sexuality-specific social support from families were salient links to LGB identity profile classification, while non-sexuality specific social support was unrelated. Parental rejection and sexuality-specific social support may be important to target in interventions for families to foster affirmed LGB identity development in youth. PMID:22847752

  12. Hyperparathyroidism Two Years after Radioactive Iodine Therapy in an Adolescent Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L. Gomez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism is a very rare complication following radioactive iodine therapy. There is typically a latency period of more than a decade following radiation exposure and, therefore, it is observed almost exclusively in adults. Consequently, pediatricians are not aware of the association. We present a case of primary hyperparathyroidism due to a solitary parathyroid adenoma occurring in an adolescent male two years following radioactive iodine treatment for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Periodic screening of serum calcium following ablative doses of radioactive iodine for thyroid cancer may be justified even in adolescents.

  13. Impact of exposure to idealised male images on adolescent boys' body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Paul; Paxton, Susan J

    2004-09-01

    Research examining the impact on adolescent boys of exposure to muscular, athletic, idealised male images has been limited. This research had two aims (i) to investigate the mean effect on state body satisfaction and mood of exposure to idealised male images in adolescent boys, and, (ii) to identify individual attributes that predicted change in state body satisfaction, depression and anxiety following image exposure. One hundred and six boys (mean age=15.6 years) completed a self-report questionnaire on body image attitudes and psychological status. One week later, participants were divided into two groups, one that viewed idealised male images (experimental condition) while the other viewed non-figure advertising images (control condition). Three body satisfaction Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and a depression and anxiety VAS were completed immediately prior to and following image exposure. In the experimental compared to control condition, there were no significant changes on Want Toned Body, Want to Change Body Shape, Depression and Anxiety VAS following image exposure. However, there was a significant improvement in Like Body Shape VAS. In the experimental group, high internalisation of the muscular, athletic ideal predicted more negative response to viewing images on the body image and Depression VAS. Prior body dissatisfaction significantly predicted negative response to Body Shape Liking and Anxiety VAS. While on average, adolescent boys in this research were not negatively affected by exposure to idealised male images, reaction to exposure is dependent on individual attributes.

  14. Voice change as a new measure of male pubertal timing: a study among Bolivian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R; Gurven, Michael; Cárdenas, Rodrigo A; Gaulin, Steven J C

    2013-05-01

    Age at menarche is often used to measure maturational tempo in girls. Unfortunately, no parallel marker exists for boys. It is suggested that voice change has a number of advantages as a marker of the timing and degree of male pubertal development. Traditional auxological methods are applied to voice change in order to compare differential development both between (males vs females; Tsimane vs North American; better vs worse condition) and within (voice vs height; fundamental frequency vs formant structure) populations. Fundamental and formant frequencies, as well as height and weight, were measured for 172 Tsimane males and females, aged 8-23. Participants were assigned to 'better' or 'worse' condition based on a median split of height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores. Results support dramatic vocal changes in males. Peak voice change among Tsimane male adolescents occurs∼1 year later than in an age-matched North American sample. Achieved adult male voices are also higher in the Tsimane. Tsimane males in worse condition experience voice change more than 1 year later than Tsimane males in better condition. Voice change has a number of attractive features as a marker of male pubertal timing including its methodological and technical simplicity as well as its social salience to group members.

  15. Impact of Counseling Received by Adolescents Undergoing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision on Knowledge and Sexual Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Patel, Eshan U; Dam, Kim H; Packman, Zoe R; Van Lith, Lynn M; Hatzold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V; Mavhu, Webster; Kahabuka, Catherine; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Seifert Ahanda, Kim; Ncube, Getrude; Lija, Gissenge; Bonnecwe, Collen; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2018-04-03

    Little is known regarding the impact of counseling delivered during voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services on adolescents' human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge, VMMC knowledge, or post-VMMC preventive sexual intentions. This study assessed the effect of counseling on knowledge and intentions. Surveys were conducted with 1293 adolescent clients in 3 countries (South Africa, n = 299; Tanzania, n = 498; Zimbabwe, n = 496). Adolescents were assessed on HIV and VMMC knowledge-based items before receiving VMMC preprocedure counseling and at a follow-up survey approximately 10 days postprocedure. Sexually active adolescents were asked about their sexual intentions in the follow-up survey. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by modified Poisson regression models with generalized estimating equations and robust variance estimators. Regarding post-VMMC HIV prevention knowledge, older adolescents were significantly more likely than younger adolescents to know that a male should use condoms (age 10-14 years, 41.1%; 15-19 years, 84.2%; aPR, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.19-1.60]), have fewer sex partners (age 10-14 years, 8.1%; age 15-19 years, 24.5%; aPR, 2.10 [95% CI, 1.30-3.39]), and be faithful to one partner (age 10-14 years, 5.7%; age 15-19 years, 23.2%; aPR, 2.79 [95% CI, 1.97-3.97]) to further protect himself from HIV. Older adolescents demonstrated greater improvement in knowledge in most categories, differences that were significant for questions regarding number of sex partners (aPR, 2.01 [95% CI, 1.18-3.44]) and faithfulness to one partner post-VMMC (aPR, 3.28 [95% CI, 2.22-4.86]). However, prevention knowledge levels overall and HIV risk reduction sexual intentions among sexually active adolescents were notably low, especially given that adolescents had been counseled only 7-10 days prior. Adolescent VMMC counseling needs to be improved to increase knowledge and postprocedure preventive sexual intentions.

  16. Effects of Client Bisexuality on Clinical Judgment: When Is Bias Most Likely to Occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Jonathan J.; Weiner, Jennifer L.; Chopp, Regina M.; Wong, Stephanie J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated whether psychotherapist bias related to client bisexuality is most likely to occur with respect to judgments about stereotype-relevant clinical issues. Participants were 108 psychotherapists who read a fictitious intake report about a male client who was portrayed as heterosexual, gay, or bisexual. Client…

  17. Stability of Bisexual Behavior and Extent of Viral Bridging Behavior Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M Reuel; Stall, Ron; Plankey, Michael; Shoptaw, Steve; Herrick, A L; Surkan, Pamela J; Teplin, Linda; Silvestre, Anthony J

    2017-05-01

    Bisexual men experience significant health disparities likely related to biphobia. Biphobia presents via several preconceptions, including that bisexuality is transitory, and that bisexual men act as viral bridges between men who have sex with men and heterosexual populations. We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of gay and bisexual men, the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, to test these preconceptions. Men reporting both male and female sexual partners (MSMW) between 2002 and 2009 (n = 111) were classified as behaviorally bisexual. We assessed five hypotheses over two domains (transience of bisexual behavior and viral bridging). No evidence was found supporting the transitory nature of bisexuality. Trajectories of bisexual behavior were not transient over time. We found little evidence to support substantial viral bridging behavior. Notably, HIV-positive MSMW reported lower proportions of female partners than HIV-negative MSMW. Our results provide no empirical support for bisexual transience and scant support for viral bridging hypotheses. Our results provide key data showing that male bisexual behavior may be stable over long time periods and that behaviorally bisexual men's risk to female sexual partners may be lower than expected.

  18. Passive Response to Stress in Adolescent Female and Adult Male Mice after Intermittent Nicotine Exposure in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Panayotis; Delis, Foteini; Rosko, Lauren; Volkow, Nora D

    2013-01-01

    Smoking is frequently co-morbid with depression. Although it is recognized that depression increases the risk for smoking, it is unclear if early smoking exposure may increase the risk for depression. To test this possibility we assessed the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on the Forced Swim Test (FST), which is used as a measure of passive coping, and depressive-like behavior in rodents, and on the open field test (OFT), which is used as a measure of locomotion and exploratory behavior. Male and female mice received daily saline or nicotine (0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg) injections from postnatal day (PD) 30 to PD 44. FST and OFT were performed either 1 or 30 days after the last injection (PD 45 and PD 74, respectively). In females, treatment with 0.3 mg/kg nicotine lead to increased FST immobility (64%) and decreased OFT locomotor activity (12%) one day following the last nicotine injection (PD 45); while no effects were observed in adulthood (PD 74). In contrast, on PD45, nicotine treatment did not change the male FST immobility but lead to lower OFT locomotor activity (0.6 mg/kg, 10%). In adulthood (PD 74), both nicotine doses lead to higher FST immobility (87%) in males while 0.6 mg/kg nicotine to lower OFT locomotor activity (13%). The results (i) identify females as more vulnerable to the immediate withdrawal that follows nicotine discontinuation in adolescence and (ii) suggest that adolescent nicotine exposure may enhance the risk for passive response towards unavoidable stress in adult males. PMID:24619539

  19. Impact of a Dialectic Behavior Therapy-Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) upon behaviorally challenged incarcerated male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah; Kesten, Karen; Zhang, Wanli; Trestman, Robert

    2011-05-01

    This article reports the findings of a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) intervention upon difficult-to-manage, impulsive, and/or aggressive incarcerated male adolescents. A secondary analysis of a subsample of 38 male adolescents who participated in the study was conducted. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used; descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted. Significant changes were found in physical aggression, distancing coping methods, and number of disciplinary tickets for behavior. The study supports the value of DBT-CM for the management of incarcerated male adolescents with difficult-to-manage aggressive behaviors. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Violence among young men: the importance of a gender-specific developmental approach to adolescent male suicide and homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Timothy R

    2015-05-01

    Suicide and homicide are much more commonly committed by adolescent males than females. Herein, a proposal in favor of gender-specific understanding and approach to these violent behaviors is presented. Social and healthcare service system factors, including issues of male adolescents' access to care and help-seeking behaviors, are reviewed alongside the epidemiology of adolescent suicide and homicide as a transition into a detailed discussion of the putative biological factors at play. An emphasis upon the male androgen testosterone organizes the discussion. Behavioral manifestations of this brain-based organizational model are presented with a focus on impulsivity, aggression, and externalizing dysregulated emotionality. Treatment considerations and implications are developed.

  1. Freud reconsidered: bisexuality, homosexuality, and moral judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, T F

    This article examines methodological problems and unacknowledged moral judgements in Freud's theory of homosexuality. Freud raises the issue of bisexuality in connection with the origins of homosexuality. When critically examined, the theory of bisexuality reduces to a theory of the capacity to be attracted to either females or males, and in that sense explains little about the origin of exclusive homosexual orientation. Freud's further investigations into the origin of homosexuality, strictly speaking, do not provide a clear explanation of sexual exclusivity. Finally, it is argued that Freud's moral assumptions color the nature of his conclusions. At the very least, without morally justifying his procedure, he transforms the course of psychosexual development as determined by psychoanalysis into a moral imperative against which homosexuality is judged a fixated and immature state.

  2. The effect of first nocturnal ejaculation timing on risk and sexual behaviors of Korean male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Ji Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThis study evaluated the effect of first nocturnal ejaculation timing on risk and sexual behaviors of Korean male adolescents.MethodsWe analyzed data from the 10th edition of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based survey that was conducted with male high school adolescents in grades 10–12. The survey included 17,907 adolescents, and 10,326 responded their experience of first nocturnal ejaculation. Of these, 595 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≤grade 4 (“early puberty” and 9,731 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≥grade 5 (“normal puberty”. We analyzed differences between these 2 groups in risk and sexual behaviors.ResultsEarly first nocturnal ejaculation showed a positive association with sexual intercourse (odds ratio [OR], 3.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.56–4.17, sexual debut at elementary school age (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 5.00–11.10, and having had a sexually transmitted disease (OR, 6.60; 95% CI, 3.94–11.08. After a multiple logistic regression to adjust for socio-demographic variables, early first nocturnal ejaculation was still positively associated with sexual intercourse (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 2.03–3.69, sexual debut at elementary school age (OR, 5.96; 95% CI, 3.47–10.22, and having had a sexually transmitted disease (OR, 5.17; 95% CI, 2.52–10.20. Early first nocturnal ejaculation was positively associated with alcohol consumption, smoking, and substance use. However, this was not statistically significant after adjusting for several socio-demographic variables.ConclusionThere is a positive association between early nocturnal ejaculation and sexual behaviors in male adolescents. Proactive education about sexual behaviors is required for adolescents who reach sexual maturity early.

  3. Testosterone induces molecular changes in dopamine signaling pathway molecules in the adolescent male rat nigrostriatal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertia D Purves-Tyson

    Full Text Available Adolescent males have an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, implicating testosterone in the precipitation of dopamine-related psychopathology. Evidence from adult rodent brain indicates that testosterone can modulate nigrostriatal dopamine. However, studies are required to understand the role testosterone plays in maturation of dopamine pathways during adolescence and to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s by which testosterone exerts its effects. We hypothesized that molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission [synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase, breakdown (catechol-O-methyl transferase; monoamine oxygenase, transport [vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT, dopamine transporter (DAT] and receptors (DRD1-D5] would be changed by testosterone or its metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 17β-estradiol, in the nigrostriatal pathway of adolescent male rats. We found that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone increased DAT and VMAT mRNAs in the substantia nigra and that testosterone increased DAT protein at the region of the cell bodies, but not in target regions in the striatum. Dopamine receptor D2 mRNA was increased and D3 mRNA was decreased in substantia nigra and/or striatum by androgens. These data suggest that increased testosterone at adolescence may change dopamine responsivity of the nigrostriatal pathway by modulating, at a molecular level, the capacity of neurons to transport and respond to dopamine. Further, dopamine turnover was increased in the dorsal striatum following gonadectomy and this was prevented by testosterone replacement. Gene expression changes in the dopaminergic cell body region may serve to modulate both dendritic dopamine feedback inhibition and reuptake in the dopaminergic somatodendritic field as well as dopamine release and re-uptake dynamics at the presynaptic terminals in the striatum. These testosterone-induced changes of molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission in males are primarily androgen

  4. Individual, familial and extra-familial factors associated with premarital sex among Bangladeshi male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Boulay, Marc

    2010-12-01

    A national survey found that more than one-tenth of unmarried Bangladeshi adolescents were sexually experienced and much of this experience involves high-risk behaviours such as unprotected sexual intercourse with commercial sex workers. However, very few studies have explored the factors that contribute to premarital sex among Bangladeshi adolescents. Data are from the 2004 Adolescent Reproductive Health Communication Midline Survey, a national survey in Bangladesh. Multivariate statistical methods were applied to identify risk and protective factors for premarital sex among Bangladeshi male adolescents. Among 1048 unmarried males between ages of 15 and 19 years, 12.8% reported ever having had sex. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that, in terms of the self system, having plans to study in the future were associated with a lower risk of engaging in premarital sex (odds ratio (OR) = 0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.25-0.59) while knowledge of reproductive health and life skills did not have a strong influence. Strong influences of both familial and extra-familial system were observed. Respect for parents' values and beliefs about sex was associated with decreased odds of premarital sex (OR = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.26-0.59). 'Ever talked with friends about sex-related issues' was associated with threefold increased odds and an increase in peer influence score was associated with increased odds of premarital sex. These results demonstrate that premarital sex among Bangladeshi male adolescents was influenced by numerous factors, and they should be taken into account in programs aiming to delay the age of sexual debut.

  5. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

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    Putkonen Hanna

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57. A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle and 4 (antisocial. Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective and facets 1 (interpersonal and 2 (affective. The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide

  6. Impact of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and obesity on cholesteryl ester transfer protein among adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschler, Valeria; Meroño, Tomas; Maccallini, Gustavo; Gomez Rosso, Leonardo; Aranda, Claudio; Brites, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) has been proposed to be associated with high risk of cardiovascular disease. Increased CETP activity was previously reported in obese adults, although its association with lifestyle behaviors has not been assessed in healthy adolescents. We undertook this study to determine the association between CETP activity and overweight/obesity, insulin resistance markers, components of the metabolic syndrome and lifestyle behaviors in healthy adolescent males. Data were collected from 164 adolescents from an amateur rugby club. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), Tanner stages, lipids, glucose, insulin and CETP activity were measured. Questionnaires for daily intake of breakfast, sweet drinks, milk, and hours of TV watching were completed. About 26% of the adolescents were obese and 23% overweight. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 6.7%. CETP activity was higher in obese than in normal and overweight adolescents (174 ± 35, 141 ± 30, and 149 ± 38%/ml/min, respectively; p TV watching >2 h/day (r = 0.17; p 0.02), and milk intake >3 glasses/day (r = 0.16; p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis showed that triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, TV watching >2 h/day, milk intake >3 glasses/day and BMI were significant independent predictors for CETP (R(2) = 0.41). Unhealthy lifestyle habits such as TV watching >2 h daily and milk intake higher than three glasses per day and the increase in BMI were shown to be closely associated with high CETP activity in apparently healthy adolescent males. Future longitudinal studies should be performed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2011 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Monthly measures of salivary testosterone predict sexual activity in adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, C T; Udry, J R; Suchindran, C

    1998-10-01

    Strong relationships between one-time serum testosterone (T) measures and sexual activity have been demonstrated in cross-sectional analyses of adolescent males. However, a subsequent longitudinal study of a separate adolescent sample, using semiannual plasma measures, failed to replicate cross-sectional findings. The present study reexamined the relationship between T and sexual activity using more frequently collected measures of salivary T and behavior. Saliva samples and weekly behavior checklists were collected over a 2-year period from the same panel sample of males on which semiannual analyses were based. Saliva samples representing measures approximately every fourth week of study participation were selected for T assay. The association between these monthly salivary T measures and weekly reports of incidents of sexual activity was assessed with repeated measures analyses. Higher levels of salivary T were significantly associated with an increasing hazard of coital initiation, and with more frequent coital and noncoital activity. Within-individual change analyses demonstrated that increases in salivary T were associated with increased sexual activity. Comparisons of models that varied specimen type, schedule of T measurement, and type of behavioral report indicated that all three factors contribute to the varying magnitude of hormone/behavior relationships that are demonstrated. These findings are consistent with a biosocial model of adolescent sexual development that pubertal changes in T are a causal factor in the timing of sexual initiation and the frequency of activity during adolescence.

  8. Peer attachment, specific patterns of internet use and problematic internet use in male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Iris; Tibubos, Ana N; Hardt, Jochen; Müller, Kai; Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E

    2017-10-01

    Problematic internet use may lead to serious psychosocial dysfunction. Recent studies have found comparable prevalence in both male and female adolescents. We pursue the neglected questions how male and female adolescents differ regarding their patterns of internet use and how gender, peer attachment and patterns of use are related to pathological internet use. In 2410 adolescents (1307 girls and 1103 boys) aged 12-18 years from different types of school we assessed peer attachment, frequency and use of eight specific applications and indicators of pathological internet use. Three patterns of internet use, 'social'; 'sex and games" and 'functional' were identified and connections between variables were modeled by ordered sequences of regression. We found that problematic internet use-sex and games as well as social usage-was more prevalent in boys. Insecure peer attachment predicted problematic internet use in both sexes. Also, excessive usage of internet games and sex mediated the influence of peer attachment insecurity on problematic internet use, but only for boys. Our study identified that adolescents with insecure peer attachment are at higher risk for problematic internet use. With regard to specific types of internet use, the consumption of online games and sex was identified as risk factor in boys with increasing age. Further studies are needed to understand and possibly subgroup problematic internet use behavior in girls. Our findings suggest that increasing the quality of peer relationships may be promising approach in the prevention and treatment of problematic internet use.

  9. Mental health of the male adolescent and young man: the Copenhagen statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Timothy R; Shah, Lesha D; Trelles, Pilar; Lin, Shih-Ku; Christensen, Dinne Skjærlund; Walther, Andreas; Sher, Leo

    2018-04-20

    Male adolescents and young men benefit when their mental health care is specialized to match their unique gendered and developmental needs. Sensitivity to the social circumstances of this population is important; additionally, the emerging ability to tailor care through knowledge gleaned from the intersection of psychiatry, neurology, and endocrinology informs care. This article summarized the views of six experts in the area of the adolescent and young adult male mental health. These experts were select members of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry's Task Force on Men's Mental Health. They convened to present two symposia on the topic of men's mental health at the 13th World Congress of Biological Psychiatry (WCBP) in Copenhagen, Denmark in 2017. In these works, a special focus is paid to addictive disorders, disruptive behavior disorders, aggression, and brain development. Collectively, the authors present an argument for the merits of a male-specific model of mental health care to advance the overall well-being of this population. Men's mental health should be recognized as a social issue as much as a medical issue, with special attention paid to problems such as unemployment, familial disruption, and substance abuse. These problems, and especially those of major societal impact including violence and suicide which are much more frequently the product of male youth and men, should have more male-tailored options for service provision that respond to men's mental health needs.

  10. Youth assets and sexual risk behavior: differences between male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Trisha; Gavin, Lorrie; Oman, Roy; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon

    2010-06-01

    Youth internal assets and external resources are protective factors that can help youth avoid potentially harmful behaviors. This study investigates how the relationship between youth assets or resources and two sexual risk behaviors (ever had sex and birth control use) varied by gender. Data were collected through in-home interviews from parent-adolescent dyads, including 1,219 females and 1,116 males. Important differences exist between male and female adolescents. Females with the nonparental role models or the family communication resource were more likely to report never having had sexual intercourse than were females without the resources. Among males, the aspirations for the future and responsible choices assets were associated with never having had sexual intercourse. Males and females had two assets or resources in common that were protective of never having had sex: peer role models and use of time (religion). Considering which youth assets and resources are more likely to positively influence sexual behaviors of males and females may be important when planning prevention programs with youth.

  11. Male-female differences in Scoliosis Research Society-30 scores in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W; Savage, Jason W; Schwartz, Daniel G; Carreon, Leah Y; Sucato, Daniel J; Sanders, James O; Richards, Benjamin Stephens; Lenke, Lawrence G; Emans, John B; Parent, Stefan; Sarwark, John F

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal cohort study. To compare functional outcomes between male and female patients before and after surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). There is no clear consensus in the existing literature with respect to sex differences in functional outcomes in the surgical treatment of AIS. A prospective, consecutive, multicenter database of patients who underwent surgical correction for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was analyzed retrospectively. All patients completed Scoliosis Research Society-30 (SRS-30) questionnaires before and 2 years after surgery. Patients with previous spine surgery were excluded. Data were collected for sex, age, Risser grade, previous bracing history, maximum preoperative Cobb angle, curve correction at 2 years, and SRS-30 domain scores. Paired sample t tests were used to compare preoperative and postoperative scores within each sex. Independent sample t tests were used to compare scores between sexes. A P value of Self-image/appearance had the greatest relative improvement. Males had better self-image/appearance scores preoperatively, better pain scores at 2 years, and better mental health and total scores both preoperatively and at 2 years. Both males and females were similarly satisfied with surgery. Males treated with surgery for AIS report better preoperative self-image, less postoperative pain, and better mental health than females. These differences may be clinically significant. For both males and females, the most beneficial effect of surgery is improved self-image/appearance. Overall, the benefits of surgery for AIS are similar for both sexes.

  12. Alcohol Binge Drinking during Adolescence or Dependence during Adulthood Reduces Prefrontal Myelin in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Wanette M.; Bengston, Lynn; Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Richardson, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    Teen binge drinking is associated with low frontal white matter integrity and increased risk of alcoholism in adulthood. This neuropathology may result from alcohol exposure or reflect a pre-existing condition in people prone to addiction. Here we used rodent models with documented clinical relevance to adolescent binge drinking and alcoholism in humans to test whether alcohol damages myelinated axons of the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 1, outbred male Wistar rats self-administered sweete...

  13. Long-Term Effects of Intermittent Adolescent Alcohol Exposure in Male and Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Marco, Eva M.; Peñasco, Sara; Hernández, María-Donina; Gil, Anabel; Borcel, Erika; Moya, Marta; Giné, Elena; López-Moreno, José Antonio; Guerri, Consuelo; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol is a serious public health concern that has a differential impact on individuals depending upon age and sex. Patterns of alcohol consumption have recently changed: heavy episodic drinking—known as binge-drinking—has become most popular among the youth. Herein, we aimed to investigate the consequences of intermittent adolescent alcohol consumption in male and female animals. Thus, Wistar rats were given free access to ethanol (20% in drinking water) or tap water for 2-h sessions during...

  14. Risk of disordered eating attitudes among male adolescents in five Emirates of the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Al-Lalla, Osama

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes among male adolescents in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 731 male students aged 15-18 years from five Emirates of the UAE. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to determine the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes in students. The findings revealed that the proportion of disordered eating attitudes in the UAE was relatively high compared with many developing and developed countries and ranged from 33.1% to 49.1%. Moreover, students living in the Emirates of Dubai and Al-Fujairah have double the risk of having disordered eating attitudes compared with students living in the other Emirates. The results suggest the need for screening adolescents for eating disorders, as well as for increased awareness and understanding of eating disorders and their associated risk factors in all male adolescents in the UAE. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Gender difference of alanine aminotransferase elevation may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels among male adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI, levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%, more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, p11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval were 24.7 (15.0-40.6 for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2; 5.5 (2.9-10.4 for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2; 2.7 (1.3-5.5 for Q5 (top 20th percentile hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1 for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. CONCLUSIONS: High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

  16. The Impact of iPad Multimodalities on the Literacy Skills of Adolescent Males Identified as Low-Achieving Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Literacy rates among male adolescents continue to fall below those of female adolescents, and this trend shows no indication of improving (Cheung & Slavin, 2014; Gurian & Stevens, 2007; Weins, 2005; Clark, 2006; Cantrell & Carter, 2009). This study aims to examine this trend by measuring the effects of extended literacy learning…

  17. A Model to Explain At-Risk/Problem Gambling among Male and Female Adolescents: Gender Similarities and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at testing a model in which cognitive, dispositional, and social factors were integrated into a single perspective as predictors of gambling behavior. We also aimed at providing further evidence of gender differences related to adolescent gambling. Participants were 994 Italian adolescents (64% Males; Mean age = 16.57).…

  18. Anorexia nervosa in male adolescents: body image, eating attitudes and psychological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gila, Araceli; Castro, Josefina; Cesena, José; Toro, Josep

    2005-03-01

    To evaluate body image and its relationship with psychological and behavioral traits associated with anorexia nervosa in male patients. Thirty male adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) were compared with 421 male adolescents from the general population. Body image was evaluated with the Subjective Body Dimensions Apparatus. Eating attitudes were evaluated by the Eating Attitudes Test in its 26-item version (EAT-26). In 19 AN patients and 200 boys from the comparison group, the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) was also administered. AN patients had higher mean scores in the EAT-26 and the Body Dissatisfaction scale on the EDI, but not on the other EDI scales. Both groups overestimated all parts of their bodies but AN patients presented a greater overestimation of shoulders (p = .007), hips (p = .01) and thighs (p = .019). Correlations in the anorexic group were high and negative between body overestimation and body mass index and also high but positive between overestimation and the EAT and the Drive for Thinness scale on the EDI. Overestimation did not correlate significantly with other EDI scales. Male patients with anorexia nervosa overestimate some parts of their bodies more often than controls; this overestimation is related to body mass index, abnormal eating attitudes and drive for thinness, but not to other psychological traits evaluated by the EDI.

  19. BEHAVIOUR HEALTH RISK AMONG ADOLESCENTS: A SCHOOL-BASED HEALTH SURVEY WITH THE FOCUS ON SMOKING IN MALE ADOLESCENTS AGED 12-15 IN DEPOK, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunik Kusumawardani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health intervention for adolescents is very crucial as the investment in building healthy life style and quality of learning process. Studies on health risk issues on adolescents in school setting and its relationship to academic score is limited. This study aims to describe behaviour risk factors among adolescents aged 12 to 15 years, and in particular studying smoking behaviour among male students. Method: This is a cross sectional study in the school setting. Samples are adolescents aged 12 to 15 years. This cross sectional study used pre-constructed self administered questionnaire adapted from Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS WHO and was conducted during July-August 2006. Total sample in this study was 1,651 students of 29 junior high schools in Depok, West Java, Indonesia. Descriptive data analysis was used to describe the proportion distribution of health risk issues and smoking behaviour. Results: The major behaviour health risk issues includes smoking, diet related risk behavior, unhygienic behavior, injury, physical activity and mental health related behaviour. The proportions were significantly different between male and female. The proportion of smoking 39.2% among males and 3.7% among females. In comparison with the male students who never smoked, those who smoke had significantly lower mean of academic score (mean: 6.90 (95%CI: 6.79-7.01 vs 7.13 (95% CI: 7.06-7.20 p-value: 0.001 and higher school absenteeism (6.4 vs 3.5, p-value: 0.001. Conclusion: Males and females adolescents had significantly different health risk issues. Involuntary smoking shows the highest proportion of health risk behaviour among both male and female adolescents. Smoking behaviour has significant relationship with the academic score among male adolescents.   Keywords: smoking, adolescent, behaviour risk factors, school-based health survey

  20. Coercive forms of sexual risk and associated violence perpetrated by male partners of female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jay G; McCauley, Heather L; Decker, Michele R; Miller, Elizabeth; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita

    2011-03-01

    Partner violence is associated with STDs among female adolescents, but the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Sexually coercive and deceptive behaviors of male partners that increase female STD risk may be factors in this relationship. A sample of 356 females aged 14-20 who attended adolescent health clinics in Greater Boston between April and December 2006 were assessed for physical and sexual violence perpetrated by male partners and for exposure to sexual risk factors. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between intimate partner violence and standard sexual risk behaviors (e.g., multiple partnerships) and coercive or deceptive sexual risk factors (e.g., coerced condom nonuse). More than two-fifths of the sample had experienced intimate partner violence. In adjusted analyses, adolescents reporting intimate partner violence were more likely than others to report standard sexual risk behaviors--multiple partners, anal sex and unprotected anal sex (odds ratios, 1.7-2.2). They also were more likely to report coercive or deceptive sexual risk factors--partner sexual infidelity, fear of requesting condom use, negative consequences of condom request, and coerced condom nonuse (2.9-5.3). The high prevalence of intimate partner violence against young women attending adolescent clinics strongly indicates the need to target this population for abuse-related interventions. This need is underlined by the observed association between partner violence and sexual risk involving coercion or deception by male partners. Clinic-based STD and pregnancy prevention efforts should include assessment of sexual risk factors that are beyond the control of young women, particularly for those experiencing abuse. Copyright © 2011 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  1. Long-Term Effects of Intermittent Adolescent Alcohol Exposure in Male and Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. Marco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a serious public health concern that has a differential impact on individuals depending upon age and sex. Patterns of alcohol consumption have recently changed: heavy episodic drinking—known as binge-drinking—has become most popular among the youth. Herein, we aimed to investigate the consequences of intermittent adolescent alcohol consumption in male and female animals. Thus, Wistar rats were given free access to ethanol (20% in drinking water or tap water for 2-h sessions during 3 days, and for an additional 4-h session on the 4th day; every week during adolescence, from postnatal day (pnd 28–52. During this period, animals consumed a moderate amount of alcohol despite blood ethanol concentration (BEC did not achieve binge-drinking levels. No withdrawal signs were observed: no changes were observed regarding anxiety-like responses in the elevated plus-maze or plasma corticosterone levels (pnd 53–54. In the novel object recognition (NOR test (pnd 63, a significant deficit in recognition memory was observed in both male and female rats. Western Blot analyses resulted in an increase in the expression of synaptophysin in the frontal cortex (FC of male and female animals, together with a decrease in the expression of the CB2R in the same brain region. In addition, adolescent alcohol induced, exclusively among females, a decrease in several markers of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission, in which epigenetic mechanisms, i.e., histone acetylation, might be involved. Taken together, further research is still needed to specifically correlate sex-specific brain and behavioral consequences of adolescent alcohol exposure.

  2. Long-Term Effects of Intermittent Adolescent Alcohol Exposure in Male and Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Eva M.; Peñasco, Sara; Hernández, María-Donina; Gil, Anabel; Borcel, Erika; Moya, Marta; Giné, Elena; López-Moreno, José Antonio; Guerri, Consuelo; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol is a serious public health concern that has a differential impact on individuals depending upon age and sex. Patterns of alcohol consumption have recently changed: heavy episodic drinking—known as binge-drinking—has become most popular among the youth. Herein, we aimed to investigate the consequences of intermittent adolescent alcohol consumption in male and female animals. Thus, Wistar rats were given free access to ethanol (20% in drinking water) or tap water for 2-h sessions during 3 days, and for an additional 4-h session on the 4th day; every week during adolescence, from postnatal day (pnd) 28–52. During this period, animals consumed a moderate amount of alcohol despite blood ethanol concentration (BEC) did not achieve binge-drinking levels. No withdrawal signs were observed: no changes were observed regarding anxiety-like responses in the elevated plus-maze or plasma corticosterone levels (pnd 53–54). In the novel object recognition (NOR) test (pnd 63), a significant deficit in recognition memory was observed in both male and female rats. Western Blot analyses resulted in an increase in the expression of synaptophysin in the frontal cortex (FC) of male and female animals, together with a decrease in the expression of the CB2R in the same brain region. In addition, adolescent alcohol induced, exclusively among females, a decrease in several markers of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission, in which epigenetic mechanisms, i.e., histone acetylation, might be involved. Taken together, further research is still needed to specifically correlate sex-specific brain and behavioral consequences of adolescent alcohol exposure. PMID:29234279

  3. The influence of male and female best friends on adolescent sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billy, J O; Udry, J R

    1985-01-01

    Using panel data from a junior high school system in an urban area of Florida, we examine whether adolescents' best same-sex and best opposite-sex friends' sexual intercourse behavior increases the likelihood that respondents who are virgins at round 1 will make the transition to intercourse between rounds of our study. We find no significant influence effects of friends of either sex for black males or females, or white males. In contrast, white females are influenced by the sexual behavior of both their best female friend and best male friend. A virgin white female whose best friends of both sexes were sexually experience at round 1 was almost certain to have sexual intercourse within the two years of our study.

  4. Testosterone Trajectories and Reference Ranges in a Large Longitudinal Sample of Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairullah, Ammar; Cousino Klein, Laura; Ingle, Suzanne M.; May, Margaret T.; Whetzel, Courtney A.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Paus, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pubertal dynamics plays an important role in physical and psychological development of children and adolescents. We aim to provide reference ranges of plasma testosterone in a large longitudinal sample. Furthermore, we describe a measure of testosterone trajectories during adolescence that can be used in future investigations of development. Methods We carried out longitudinal measurements of plasma testosterone in 2,216 samples obtained from 513 males (9 to 17 years of age) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We used integration of a model fitted to each participant’s testosterone trajectory to calculate a measure of average exposure to testosterone over adolescence. We pooled these data with corresponding values reported in the literature to provide a reference range of testosterone levels in males between the ages of 6 and 19 years. Results The average values of total testosterone in the ALSPAC sample range from 0.82 nmol/L (Standard Deviation [SD]: 0.09) at 9 years of age to 16.5 (SD: 2.65) nmol/L at 17 years of age; these values are congruent with other reports in the literature. The average exposure to testosterone is associated with different features of testosterone trajectories such as Peak Testosterone Change, Age at Peak Testosterone Change, and Testosterone at 17 years of age as well as the timing of the growth spurt during puberty. Conclusions The average exposure to testosterone is a useful measure for future investigations using testosterone trajectories to examine pubertal dynamics. PMID:25268961

  5. Association between adverse life events and addictive behaviors among male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grace P; Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Martins, Silvia S

    2012-01-01

    Adverse life events have been associated with gambling and substance use as they can serve as forms of escapism. Involvement in gambling and substance use can also place individuals in adversely stressful situations. To explore potential male-female differences in the association between addictive behavior and adverse life events among an urban cohort of adolescents. The study sample comprised of 515 adolescent participants in a randomized prevention trial. With self-reported data, four addictive behavior groups were created: nonsubstance users and nongamblers, substance users only, gamblers only, and substance users and gamblers. Multinomial logistic regression analyses with interaction terms of sex and adverse life events were conducted. Adverse life events and engaging in at least one addictive behavior were common for both sexes. Substance users and gamblers had more than twice the likelihood of nonsubstance users and nongamblers to experience any event as well as events of various domains (ie, relationship, violence, and instability). Neither relationship nor instability events' associations with the co-occurrence of substance use and gambling significantly differed between sexes. Conversely, females exposed to violence events were significantly more likely than similarly exposed males to report the co-occurrence of substance use and gambling. Findings from the current study prompt future studies to devote more attention to the development of effective programs that teach adaptive coping strategies to adolescents, particularly to females upon exposure to violence. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  6. Social experiences during adolescence affect anxiety-like behavior but not aggressiveness in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Neele; Jenikejew, Julia; Richter, S Helene; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2017-05-30

    Adolescence has lately been recognized as a key developmental phase during which an individual's behavior can be shaped. In a recent study with male mice varying in the expression of the serotonin transporter, escapable adverse social experiences during adolescence led to decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased exploratory and aggressive behavior compared to throughout beneficial experiences. Since in this study some behavioral tests took place with a delay of one week after the last social experiences have been made, it was not clear whether the observed effects really reflected the consequences of the experienced different social environments. To test this, the present study focused on the direct effects of beneficial and adverse social experiences on aggressiveness and anxiety-like behavior in C57BL/6J mice. In contrast to the previous study, behavioral testing took place immediately after the last social experiences had been made. Interestingly, whereas individuals from an escapable adverse environment showed significantly lower levels of anxiety-like and higher levels of exploratory behavior than animals from a beneficial environment, aggressive behavior was not affected. From this, we conclude that different social experiences during adolescence exert immediate effects on anxiety-like but not aggressive behavior in male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Brief report: An examination of the relationships between parental monitoring, self-esteem and delinquency among Mexican American male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roslyn M; Beutler, Larry E; An Ross, Sylvia; Clayton Silver, N

    2006-06-01

    The present study examined relationships between parental monitoring (mother and father), self-esteem, and delinquency among 95 adjudicated Mexican American male adolescents who were on probationary status with the juvenile justice system. Consistent with previous literature pertaining to familial processes and delinquency among the general adolescent population, findings from the current study revealed that parental monitoring was negatively associated with delinquency. In addition, self-esteem was shown to be positively correlated with delinquency. These results highlight the generalizability of previous research related to familial, emotional, and behavioral processes among Mexican American male adolescents.

  8. The sexual preference of female rats is influenced by males' adolescent social stress history and social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cheryl M; Cameron, Nicole M; Thompson, Madison A; Cumming, Mark J; Hodges, Travis E; Langett, Marissa

    2017-03-01

    Ongoing development of brain systems for social behaviour renders these systems susceptible to the influence of stressors in adolescence. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in mid-adolescence had decreased sexual performance compared with control males (CTL). Here, we test the hypotheses that SS in adolescence decreases the "attractiveness" of male rats as sexual partners compared with CTL rats and that dominance status is a protective factor against the effects of SS. The main prediction was that females would spend more time with CTL males than SS males, and that this bias would be greater for submissive than for dominant rats. Among dominant pairs (n=16), females preferred SS males, spending more time with and visiting more often SS than CTL males (each pair tested 5×), and SS males had shorter latencies to ejaculation, shorter inter-ejaculation intervals, and made more ejaculations compared with CTL males. Among submissive pairs (n=16), females spent more time with, visited more often, and displayed more paracopulatory behaviour with CTL than with SS males, and differences in sexual performance between SS and CTL males were modest and in the opposite direction from that in dominant pairs. The heightened motivation of SS males relative to CTL males for natural rewards may have attenuated differences in sexual performance in a paced mating context. In sum, the experience of stress in adolescence leads to long-lasting changes in males that are perceptible to females, are moderated by social status, and influence sexual behaviour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among inpatient adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD male war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide.

  10. The reliability and validity of the psychopathy checklist: youth version (PCL:YV) in nonincarcerated adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosson, David S; Cyterski, Trina D; Steuerwald, Brian L; Neumann, Craig S; Walker-Matthews, Susan

    2002-03-01

    Current knowledge about the validity of the psychopathy syndrome in youth is limited largely to studies relying on parent-teacher rating scales or slight modifications of adult measures. Recently, the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) was designed for use with adolescents. However, most studies that have used this measure examined incarcerated males and addressed only validity criteria related to antisocial behavior. We investigated the generality and construct validity of the psychopathy syndrome in an adolescent sample by assessing 115 adolescent males on probation with the PCL:YV. Reliability of measurement was high. PCL:YV ratings predicted not only antisocial behaviour but also other indices of childhood psychopathology, interpersonal behaviors associated with adult psychopathy, and a lack of attachment to parents. These findings suggest that the PCL:YV identifies a syndrome in adolescence consistent with theory and research on adult males.

  11. Testosterone and religiosity as predictors of sexual attitudes and activity among adolescent males: a biosocial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, C T; Udry, J R; Campbell, B; Suchindran, C; Mason, G A

    1994-04-01

    A biosocial model of the effects of early adolescent testosterone levels and religiosity on adolescent males' sexual attitudes and activity over a 3-year period was examined. Using panel data for approximately 100 boys who were 12.5/13.0 years old at study entry, significant additive effects of free testosterone and frequency of attendance at religious services were demonstrated on the transition to first intercourse and other aspects of sexual behaviour and attitudes. No interactive effects of the two predictors were found. Boys with higher free testosterone levels at study entry who never or infrequently attended religious services were the most sexually active and had the most permissive attitudes. Boys with lower free testosterone who attended services once a week or more were the least active and reported the least permissive attitudes. For some behaviours, differences between free testosterone/attendance groups increased over time, resulting in substantial behavioural differences by the final round of measurement 3 years later.

  12. Racial and gender identity among Black adolescent males: an intersectionality perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Scott, Marc A; Way, Niobe

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of social identity research has focused on race and racial identity, while gender identity, particularly among Black adolescents, remains underexamined. The current study used survey data from 183 Black adolescent males (13-16 years old) to investigate the development and relation between racial and gender identity centrality and private regard, and how these identities impact adjustment over time. It was found that dimensions of racial and gender identity were strongly correlated. Levels of racial centrality increased over time while gender centrality, and racial and gender private regard declined. In addition, racial and gender identity uniquely contributed to higher levels of psychological well-being and academic adjustment. These findings are discussed within the context of existing identity theories and intersectionality theory. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Bullying boys: the traumatic effects of bullying in male adolescent learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Susan Louise; Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kaymarlin

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the nature and extent of the relationship between bullying and trauma among male adolescent learners. Trauma was operationalised through the multiple constructs of post-traumatic stress, anxiety, depression, dissociation and anger. In this quantitative study, two objective measures were administered (viz. the Olweus Bullying/ Victimisation Scale and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for children) to a sample of male adolescent learners between the ages of 12 and 17, from a South African male-only high school (n = 486). Statistical analysis (correlational analysis and MANOVA) produced evidence to suggest that there was a statistically significant relationship between bullying and trauma, and this was strongest for the victim role. The relationship between bullying and trauma was dependent on the frequency of bullying; as the frequency of being bullied increased so too did the mean scores of all the five trauma subscales. In general, the findings indicated that learners presented with elevated levels of internalising trauma outcomes. Depression demonstrated the highest correlation with the victim role, followed by Posttraumatic stress. In addition, 22.4% of learners could be clinically and sub-clinically diagnosed with post-traumatic stress and 21.0% with dissociation. Overall, the findings corroborate the argument that repetitive stressful events (such as bullying) are related to symptom-clusters of ongoing trauma.

  14. Spirituality, Religiosity, and Weight Management Among African American Adolescent Males: The Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Griffith, Derek M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality and religion have been identified as important determinants of health for adults; however, the impact of faith-oriented factors on health behaviors and outcomes among African American adolescent males has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religiosity and spirituality and obesity-related behaviors among 12-19 year old African American males (N = 105) in the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study. Key variables of interest are church attendance, prayer, daily spirituality, weight status, attempts to lose weight, nutrition, physical activity, and stress. Daily spirituality is associated with whether an individual attempts to lose weight. The results from logistic regression models suggest that daily spirituality increases the odds that African American male adolescents attempt to lose weight (OR = 1.22, CI: 1.07-1.41) and have a history of diet-focused weight management (OR = 1.13, CI: 1.02-1.26). Future studies are needed to further explore the association between religion, spirituality, and obesity-related behaviors.

  15. A comparison of clinical characteristics between adolescent males and females with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Elisabeth; Ghaderi, Ata; Swenne, Ingemar

    2015-03-11

    Eating disorders (ED) are serious disorders that have a negative impact on both the psychological and the physiological well-being of the afflicted. Despite the fact that ED affect both genders, males are often underrepresented in research and when included the sample sizes are often too small for separate analyses. Consequently we have an unclear and sometimes contradictory picture of the clinical characteristics of males with ED. The aim of the present study was to improve our understanding of the clinical features of adolescent males with eating disorders. We compared age at presentation, weight at presentation, history of significantly different premorbid weight and psychiatric (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)) and somatic comorbidity (celiac disease and diabetes) of 58 males to 606 females seeking medical care for eating disorders at the Children's Hospital in Uppsala, Sweden during the years 1999-2012. As all boys were diagnosed with either AN or Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED) atypical AN, the age and weight comparisons were limited to those girls fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for AN or OSFED atypical AN. There was no significant difference in age at presentation. Differences in weight at presentation and premorbid weight history were mixed. A significantly higher percentage of males had a history of a BMI greater than two standard deviations above the mean for their corresponding age group. As well, there was a higher prevalence of ADHD among the males whereas celiac disease and diabetes only was found among the females. A better understanding of the clinical characteristics of males with ED at presentation should improve our ability to identify males with ED and thereby aid in tailoring the best treatment alternatives.

  16. Attentional bias and disinhibition toward gaming cues are related to problem gaming in male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holst, Ruth J; Lemmens, Jeroen S; Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Veltman, Dick J; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether behavioral tendencies commonly related to addictive behaviors are also related to problematic computer and video game playing in adolescents. The study of attentional bias and response inhibition, characteristic for addictive disorders, is relevant to the ongoing discussion on whether problematic gaming should be classified as an addictive disorder. We tested the relation between self-reported levels of problem gaming and two behavioral domains: attentional bias and response inhibition. Ninety-two male adolescents performed two attentional bias tasks (addiction-Stroop, dot-probe) and a behavioral inhibition task (go/no-go). Self-reported problem gaming was measured by the game addiction scale, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition criteria for pathological gambling and time spent on computer and/or video games. Male adolescents with higher levels of self-reported problem gaming displayed signs of error-related attentional bias to game cues. Higher levels of problem gaming were also related to more errors on response inhibition, but only when game cues were presented. These findings are in line with the findings of attentional bias reported in clinically recognized addictive disorders, such as substance dependence and pathological gambling, and contribute to the discussion on the proposed concept of "Addiction and Related Disorders" (which may include non-substance-related addictive behaviors) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. What African American Male Adolescents Are Telling Us about HIV Infection among Their Peers: Cultural Approaches for HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the beliefs of African American male adolescents concerning the high rates of HIV infection among their peers and their reasons for those beliefs. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of 16 male African Americans, and a thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Half of the participants believed that peers were…

  18. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual…

  19. HPV Vaccination among Adolescent Males: Results from the National Immunization Survey-Teen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Paul L.; Gilkey, Melissa B.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2013-01-01

    US guidelines provided a permissive recommendation forHPV vaccine for males in 2009, with an updated recommendation for routine vaccination in 2011. Dataon vaccine uptake among males, however, remain sparse. We analyzed 2010–2011 data (collected mostlyprior to the recommendation for routine vaccination) from the National Immunization Survey-Teen for a nationally representative sample of adolescent males ages 13–17 (n=22,365). We examined HPV vaccine initiation( receipt of at least one doseba sed on healthcare provider records) as the primary outcome. Analyses used weighted logistic regression. HPV vaccine initiation increased from 1.4% in 2010 to 8.3% in 2011. Parents who reported receiving a healthcare provider recommendation to get their sons HPV vaccine were much more likely to have vaccinated sons (OR=19.02, 95% CI: 14.36–25.19). Initiation was also higher among sons who were Hispanic (OR=1.83, 95% CI: 1.24–2.71) or who were eligible for the Vaccines for Children program (OR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.01–2.31). Only31.0% of parents with unvaccinated sons indicatedtheir sons were “somewhat likely” or “very likely” to receive HPV vaccine in the next year. The most common main reasons for parents not intending to vaccinate were believing vaccination is not needed or not necessary (24.5%), not having received a provider recommendation (22.1%), and lack of knowledge (15.9%). HPV vaccination is low among adolescent males in the US, and provider recommendation for vaccination is likely keyto improv ingvaccine uptake. Given the updated recommendation for routine vaccination and the changes in health insurance coverage that are likely to follow, continued efforts are needed to monitor HPV vaccination among males. PMID:23602667

  20. Evidence of a cumulative effect for risk factors predicting low bone mass among male adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrack, Michelle T; Fredericson, Michael; Tenforde, Adam S; Nattiv, Aurelia

    2017-02-01

    Limited research has evaluated risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) in male adolescent athletes. To evaluate predictors of low BMD (defined as BMD Z-score athletes. Male adolescent athletes completed a survey characterising sports participation, nutrition, stress fracture history, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured BMD and body composition. Independent t-tests and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) evaluated group differences; logistic regression evaluated low BMD risk factors. Runners (n=51) exhibited a lower body weight (p=0.02), body mass index (BMI) (kg/m 2 ) (p=0.02), per cent expected weight (p=0.02) and spine BMD Z-score (p=0.002) compared with non-runners (n=18). Single risk factors of low BMD included 30 in the past year (OR=6.4, 95% CI 1.5 to 27.1). The strongest two-variable and three-variable risk factors included weekly mileage >30+ stress fracture history (OR=17.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 185.6) and weekly mileage >30+stress fracture history (OR=17.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 185.6), respectively. Risk factors were cumulative when predicting low BMD (including 30, stress fracture history and <1 serving of calcium-rich food/day): 0-1 risk factors (11.1%), 2 risk factors (42.9%), or 3-4 risk factors (80.0%), p<0.001). Male adolescent runners exhibited lower body weight, BMI and spine BMD Z-score values. The risk of low BMD displayed a graded relationship with increasing risk factors, highlighting the importance of using methods to optimise bone mass in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Oppositional defiant disorder dimensions and subtypes among detained male adolescent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Barra, Steffen; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Walitza, Susanne; Plattner, Belinda

    2016-06-01

    In adolescent offenders, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and its dimensions/subtypes have been frequently ignored due to the stronger focus on criminal behaviours. The revised criteria of the DSM-5 now allow diagnosing ODD in older youths independent of conduct disorder (CD). This study aimed at analysing ODD dimensions/subtypes and their relation to suicidality, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and criminal behaviours after release from detention in a sample of detained male adolescents. Suicidality and psychiatric disorders (including ODD symptoms) were assessed in a consecutive sample of 158 male adolescents (Mage  = 16.89 years) from the Zurich Juvenile Detention Centre. Based on previous research findings, an irritable ODD dimension and a defiant/vindictive ODD dimension based on ODD symptoms were defined. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to identify distinct subtypes of adolescent offenders according to their ODD symptom profiles. Logistic regression and Cox regression were used to analyse the relations of ODD dimensions/ODD subtypes to comorbid psychopathology and criminal reoffenses from official data. The ODD-irritable dimension, but not the ODD defiant/vindictive dimension predicted comorbid anxiety, suicidality and violent reoffending. LCA identified four subtypes, namely, a no-ODD subtype, a severe ODD subtype and two moderate ODD subtypes with either defiant or irritable symptoms. The irritable ODD subtype and the severe ODD subtype were related to suicidality and comorbid affective/anxiety disorders. The irritable ODD subtype was the strongest predictor of criminal (violent) reoffending even when controlling for CD. The present findings confirm the presence of ODD dimensions/subtypes in a highly disturbed adolescent offender sample. Irritable youths were at risk of suicide and persistent criminal behaviours. Due to the severe consequences of irritability, a standardized assessment approach and a specific treatment is needed in prison to

  2. Stress, κ manipulations, and aversive effects of ethanol in adolescent and adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R I; Agoglia, A E; Morales, M; Varlinskaya, E I; Spear, L P

    2013-09-26

    Elevated ethanol use during adolescence, a potentially stressful developmental period, is accompanied by insensitivity to many aversive effects of ethanol relative to adults. Given evidence that supports a role for stress and the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system in mediating aversive properties of ethanol and other drugs, the present study assessed the role of KOR antagonism by nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in stressed (exposed to repeated restraint) and non-stressed male rats (Experiment 1), with half of the rats pretreated with nor-BNI before stressor exposure. In Experiment 2, CTA induced by the kappa agonist U62,066 was also compared in stressed and non-stressed adolescents and adults. A highly palatable solution (chocolate Boost) was used as the conditioned stimulus (CS), thereby avoiding the need for water deprivation to motivate consumption of the CS during conditioning. No effects of stress on ethanol-induced CTA were found, with all doses eliciting aversions in adolescents and adults in both stress conditions. However, among stressed subjects, adults given nor-BNI before the repeated stressor displayed blunted ethanol aversion relative to adults given saline at that time. This effect of nor-BNI was not seen in adolescents, findings that support a differential role for the KOR involvement in ethanol CTA in stressed adolescents and adults. Results from Experiment 2 revealed that all doses of U62,066 elicited aversions in non-stressed animals of both ages that were attenuated in stressed animals, findings that support a modulatory role for stress in aversive effects of KOR activation. Collectively, these results suggest that although KOR sensitivity appears to be reduced in stressed subjects, this receptor system does not appear to contribute to age differences in ethanol-induced CTA under the present test circumstances. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Grabara, M

    2014-01-01

    Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. T...

  4. Connecting the invisible dots: reaching lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents and young adults at risk for suicide through online social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silenzio, Vincent M B; Duberstein, Paul R; Tang, Wan; Lu, Naiji; Tu, Xin; Homan, Christopher M

    2009-08-01

    Young lesbian, gay, and bisexual (young LGB) individuals report higher rates of suicide ideation and attempts from their late teens through early twenties. Their high rate of Internet use suggests that online social networks offer a novel opportunity to reach them. This study explores online social networks as a venue for prevention research targeting young LGB. An automated data collection program was used to map the social connections between LGB self-identified individuals between 16 and 24 years old participating in an online social network. We then completed a descriptive analysis of the structural characteristics known to affect diffusion within such networks. Finally, we conducted Monte Carlo simulations of peer-driven diffusion of a hypothetical preventive intervention within the observed network under varying starting conditions. We mapped a network of 100,014 young LGB. The mean age was 20.4 years. The mean nodal degree was 137.5, representing an exponential degree distribution ranging from 1 through 4309. Monte Carlo simulations revealed that a peer-driven preventive intervention ultimately reached final sample sizes of up to 18,409 individuals. The network's structure is consistent with other social networks in terms of the underlying degree distribution. Such networks are typically formed dynamically through a process of preferential attachment. This implies that some individuals could be more important to target to facilitate the diffusion of interventions. However, in terms of determining the success of an intervention targeting this population, our simulation results suggest that varying the number of peers that can be recruited is more important than increasing the number of randomly-selected starting individuals. This has implications for intervention design. Given the potential to access this previously isolated population, this novel approach represents a promising new frontier in suicide prevention and other research areas.

  5. Muscular strength in male adolescents and premature death: cohort study of one million participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explore the extent to which muscular strength in adolescence is associated with all cause and cause specific premature mortality (<55 years). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants 1 142 599 Swedish male adolescents aged 16-19 years were followed over a period of 24 years. Main outcome measures Baseline examinations included knee extension, handgrip, and elbow flexion strength tests, as well as measures of diastolic and systolic blood pressure and body mass index. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios for mortality according to muscular strength categories (tenths). Results During a median follow-up period of 24 years, 26 145 participants died. Suicide was a more frequent cause of death in young adulthood (22.3%) than was cardiovascular diseases (7.8%) or cancer (14.9%). High muscular strength in adolescence, as assessed by knee extension and handgrip tests, was associated with a 20-35% lower risk of premature mortality due to any cause or cardiovascular disease, independently of body mass index or blood pressure; no association was observed with mortality due to cancer. Stronger adolescents had a 20-30% lower risk of death from suicide and were 15-65% less likely to have any psychiatric diagnosis (such as schizophrenia and mood disorders). Adolescents in the lowest tenth of muscular strength showed by far the highest risk of mortality for different causes. All cause mortality rates (per 100 000 person years) ranged between 122.3 and 86.9 for the weakest and strongest adolescents; corresponding figures were 9.5 and 5.6 for mortality due to cardiovascular diseases and 24.6 and 16.9 for mortality due to suicide. Conclusions Low muscular strength in adolescents is an emerging risk factor for major causes of death in young adulthood, such as suicide and cardiovascular diseases. The effect size observed for all cause mortality was equivalent to that for well established risk factors such as elevated body mass

  6. The classification of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms in male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sophie C; Baillie, Andrew J; Mond, Jonathan; Turner, Cynthia M; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) was categorised in DSM-5 within the newly created 'obsessive-compulsive and related disorders' chapter, however this classification remains subject to debate. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test competing models of the co-occurrence of symptoms of BDD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety, and eating disorders in a community sample of adolescents, and to explore potential sex differences in these models. Self-report questionnaires assessing disorder symptoms were completed by 3149 Australian adolescents. The fit of correlated factor models was calculated separately in males and females, and measurement invariance testing compared parameters of the best-fitting model between males and females. All theoretical models of the classification of BDD had poor fit to the data. Good fit was found for a novel model where BDD symptoms formed a distinct latent factor, correlated with affective disorder and eating disorder latent factors. Metric non-invariance was found between males and females, and the majority of factor loadings differed between males and females. Correlations between some latent factors also differed by sex. Only cross-sectional data were collected, and the study did not assess a broad range of DSM-5 defined eating disorder symptoms or other disorders in the DSM-5 obsessive-compulsive and related disorders chapter. This study is the first to statistically evaluate competing models of BDD classification. The findings highlight the unique features of BDD and its associations with affective and eating disorders. Future studies examining the classification of BDD should consider developmental and sex differences in their models. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Bisexual branching diffusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytnik, Leonid; Adler, Robert J.

    1993-12-01

    The limiting behavior of large systems of two types of Brownian particles undergoing bisexual branching is studied. Particles of each type generate individuals of both types, and the respective branching law is asymptotically critical for the two dimensional system, while being subcritical for each individual population. The main result of the paper is that the limiting behavior of suitably scaled sums and differences of the two populations is given by a pair of measure and distribution valued processes which, together, determine the limit behaviors of the individual populations. Proofs are based on the martingale problem approach to general state space processes. The fact that the limit involves both measure and distribution valued processes requires the development of some new methodologies of independent interest.

  8. Physical neglect in childhood as a predictor of violent behavior in adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, William M; Luchette, Jack A; Atterholt, Roxanne

    2018-05-01

    Research has established that childhood maltreatment experiences are associated with negative outcomes in adolescence, including violent and antisocial behavior (Chapple et al., 2005). Neglect is the most prevalent form of childhood maltreatment (U.S. DHHS, 2012), the consequences of which require further investigation. This study used archival data to explore whether childhood physical neglect increased the likelihood of violent behavior in a random sample of 85 males between the ages of 12-19 held at a long-term detention facility in the Northeastern United States. An anonymous survey gathered background information and data regarding childhood physical neglect and violent behavior in adolescence. A step-wise hierarchal regression model controlled for the effects of age, self-esteem, personal competency, depression, chemical drug use, family violence and a childhood history of physical abuse. Results showed that a history of childhood physical neglect was the strongest predictor of violent adolescent behavior in this sample when the data was tested for all moderator and mediator effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New parameters and reference values for monitoring iron status in Middle Eastern adolescent male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, S C; Varamenti, E; Elzain Elgingo, M; Bourdon, P C

    2014-04-01

    Hematological and biochemical parameters of 160 Middle Eastern adolescent male athletes (aged from 12-18 years) were tested in order to investigate their iron status and to establish reference values for this population. A focus of this study was also the investigation of Reticulocyte hemoglobin (RetHe) and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). Complete blood count, reticulocyte and sera parameters were analyzed at the beginning of the training season for these adolescent athletes. As the diagnosis of iron deficiency in adolescents is extremely difficult subjects were subdivided in three age groups (12-13, 14-15, 16-18). For most of the parameters our results confirmed the existing reference values reported in young athletes. Exceptions were however found with lower Mean Cell Volumes (79.9±4.3 fl) in this group when compared to other age matched data. RetHe, ferritin and sTfR levels were monitored for the interpretation of the iron status in this population and reference values for these parameters were also established. Information to help evidence based decision making about the need for supplementation or further investigations is provided to physicians and nutritionists. RetHe with a proposed threshold value of 25 pg expands the list of parameters which can be used to monitor athletes.

  10. Food and macronutrient intake of male adolescent Kalenjin runners in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L; Van Hall, Gerrit; Hambraeus, Leif

    2002-01-01

    A nutritional survey based on twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in Kenya during a 2-week field study was carried out in order to determine the composition of their diet and make a comparison with macronutrient recommendations for athletes. Food samples were collected for analysis of macronu...... protein and most essential amino acid intake as well as carbohydrate intake even though it was based on a small range of food items.......A nutritional survey based on twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in Kenya during a 2-week field study was carried out in order to determine the composition of their diet and make a comparison with macronutrient recommendations for athletes. Food samples were collected for analysis...... of macronutrient distribution and energy content from main meals and the macronutrient distribution and energy content of additional food intake were based on the information of a 24 h recall interview and estimated from food tables. The diet of the Kalenjin runners was very high in carbohydrate (71 % 8.7 g...

  11. The Relationship between Regular Sports Participation and Vigilance in Male and Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Rafael; Huertas, Florentino; Yuste, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Francesc; Sanabria, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between regular sport participation (soccer) and vigilance performance. Two groups of male and female adolescents differentiated in terms of their sport participation (athletes, n = 39, and non-athletes, n = 36) took part in the study. In one session, participants performed the Leger Multi-stage fitness test to estimate their aerobic fitness level. In the other session, participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) to evaluate their vigilance performance. Perceived arousal prior to the task and motivation toward the task were also measured in the PVT session. The results revealed that athletes had better cardiovascular fitness and showed better performance in the PVT. However, correlation analyses did not show any significant relationship between cardiovascular fitness and performance in the PVT. Athletes showed larger scores in motivation and perceived arousal measures with respect to non-athletes, although, once again, these variables were not correlated with PVT performance. Gender differences were observed only in the Leger test, with males showing greater fitness level than females. The major outcome of this research points to a positive relationship between regular sport participation and vigilance during adolescence. This relationship did not seem to be influenced by gender, perceived arousal, motivation toward the task or cardiovascular fitness. We discuss our results in terms of the different hypotheses put forward in the literature to explain the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning. PMID:25849873

  12. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevalence in Male Adolescents 4 Years After HPV-16/18 Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Tuomas; Söderlund-Strand, Anna; Petäjä, Tiina; Eriksson, Tiina; Jokiranta, Sakari; Natunen, Kari; Dillner, Joakim; Lehtinen, Matti

    2017-11-15

    We assessed human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence among HPV-16/18-vaccinated and unvaccinated Finnish male adolescents participating in chlamydia screening 4 years after vaccination with AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine in 2007-2009. Previously vaccinated (n = 395) or unvaccinated (n = 149) male adolescents were enrolled in 12 municipalities. First-void urine samples were tested for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68, and prevalence rates for HPV-16/18, and HPV-11/16/18/31/33/45 were reduced profoundly (0% vs 2.1% [P = .02] and 0.8% vs 5.3 [P = .002], respectively). Overall HPV DNA prevalence was also significantly reduced among HPV-16/18-vaccinated (4.1%) compared with unvaccinated subjects (10.1%) (P = .01). In this post hoc study, a highly significant reduction in HPV prevalence 4 years after vaccination suggests that the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine has protective efficacy in men. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Cis-bifenthrin induces immunotoxicity in adolescent male C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Gao, Xingli; He, Bingnan; Zhu, Jiawei; Lou, Huihui; Hu, Qinglian; Jin, Yuanxiang; Fu, Zhengwei

    2017-07-01

    Bifenthrin (BF) is an important synthetic pyrethroid. Previous studies have demonstrated that cis-BF exhibits toxic effects on development, the neurological, reproductive and endocrine system. In this study, we evaluated the immunotoxicity caused by cis-BF in adolescent male C57BL/6 mice. Mice were exposed orally to 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/d for 3 weeks. The results showed that body weight, spleen weight, and splenic cellularity decreased in mice exposed to 20 mg/kg/d cis-BF. Additionally, we found that the mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-1, and TNF-α, in peritoneal macrophages, the spleen, and the thymus were inhibited in the cis-BF-treated groups. Moreover, MTT assays demonstrated that cis-BF inhibited splenocyte proliferation stimulated by LPS or Con A, as well as the secretion of IFN-γ on Con A stimulation. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that exposure to cis-BF has the potential to induce immunotoxicity in adolescent male C57BL/6 mice. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Male adolescents' reactions to TV beer advertisements: the effects of sports content and programming context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, M D; Rouner, D; Murphy, K; Beauvais, F; Van Leuven, J; Rodríguez, M D

    1996-07-01

    This study examines white male adolescent responses to TV beer advertisements with and without sports content and to nonbeer ads when embedded in sports and entertainment programming. A total of 72 advertisements and 24 television program excerpts were randomly sampled from national television programming. White male adolescents (N = 157) recruited in a public school system each viewed six ads (one of each of three types of ad embedded in each of two types of programming) comprising the 2 x 2 x 3 factorial, within-subjects, mixed-model (random and fixed effects) experimental design along with an age-level blocking factor and random factors for commercial and program stimuli. Cognitive responses to each ad were content-analyzed. Individual difference variables including alcohol use behavior, sensation-seeking, masculinity and sports involvement were also measured. Subjects showed a consistent preference for beer ads with sports content. A significant three-way interaction between ad type, programming type and junior versus senior high-school age level also indicated that sports programming had an inconsistent effect on responses to beer ads but that nonbeer ads were responded to more positively during sports than during entertainment programming. Other analyses showed that subjects were more cognitively resistant to beer ads than to nonbeer ads. These results support public and official concerns that sports content in beer ads increase the ads appeal to underage youth. They do not support hypothesized concerns that sports programming might prime adolescents to be more receptive to beer ads. Implications for alcohol education efforts are discussed.

  15. Mental health differences between German gay and bisexual men and population-based controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Frank A; Franke, Gabriele H; Christiansen, Hanna

    2017-07-21

    International studies have revealed that gay and bisexual men present more mental health problems than the general male population. Furthermore, there is evidence that minority stress predicts mental health problems in gay and bisexual men. The aim of the present study is to provide initial data on mental health differences in Germany and to analyze the effect of minority stress. Mental health data on n = 1903 German gay and bisexual men and n = 958 men from a population-based sample were assessed using a shortened version of the SCL-90-S. The mental health of the two samples was compared. Furthermore, a linear regression was conducted for the gay and bisexual sample: mental health was used as the criterion and minority stressors as predictors. As compared to our population sample, gay and bisexual men demonstrated more mental health problems with a moderate effect size. In the regression, minority stress predicted mental health problems in the gay and bisexual sample. We observed pronounced mental health differences between gay and bisexual men versus the population sample. These differences could be at least partly due to the minority stress gay and bisexual men face. Research should focus on how to reduce and cope with minority stress.

  16. Effects of psychosocial stress on psychophysiological activity during risky decision-making in male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, Aleksandra; Fairchild, Graeme; Aitken, Michael R F; Clark, Luke

    2014-07-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increases in both perceived stress and risk-taking, although the effects of stress on risk-sensitive decision-making have received little attention in adolescent groups. We report psychophysiological data from the healthy control group of a larger project examining neuroendocrine and neuropsychological function in boys with conduct disorder. The present analysis focussed on healthy male adolescents (n = 66) performing a decision-making task that involved selection between two wheel-of-fortune gambles. The task was completed in a neutral state, and again following a psychosocial stress induction that robustly increased salivary cortisol levels and baseline autonomic arousal. Task-related changes in electrodermal activity (EDA) and heart rate (HR) were monitored during the receipt of win and loss outcomes. On gamble choice, stress attenuated the difference in risk taking between the losses-only and wins-only trials (the 'reflection effect') and reduced risk-taking on one further gamble type (i.e. a stress × gamble type interaction). In the neutral condition, EDA and HR deceleration responses were significantly greater for losses compared to wins. This physiological differentiation of losses and wins was reduced under stress, with a significant attenuation of the HR deceleration response. In addition, higher trait impulsivity scores predicted reduced EDA differentiation of the outcomes, and reduced EDA stress reactivity. As a limitation, the order of neutral and stress sessions was not counter-balanced. Reduced psychophysiological discrimination between positive and negative outcomes may contribute to the effects of stress on risky decision-making in adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rank among Peers during Game Competition Affects the Tendency to Make Risky Choices in Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jerome C; Nagase, Kohei; Naramura-Ohno, Sawako; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Morita, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that adolescents take more risks when they are with peers than when they are alone, presumably because the presence of peers can be a social reward/punishment that can bias decision making. Competition is inherent in peer interactions, and recent work has demonstrated that winning/losing is an intrinsic social reward/punishment. Taken together, it can be hypothesized that competition amongst peers affects adolescents' risky behavior. While there is much evidence that status amongst peers can relate to antisocial/aggressive behavior, it remains unclear whether risky behavior is affected. Moreover, the degree to which 'temporary status,' such as ranking in a short-term competitive game, affects behavior is uncertain, an important issue because adolescents might be sensitive to situations or factors which potentially destabilize existing hierarchies. In this experiment, these issues were directly explored in the classroom environment using smartphone technology and Wi-Fi setup. Male junior high school students (aged 14-15) performed a roulette game task on smartphones, playing either independently or against five classmates. In the latter case, the students' current ranks within the group of six were constantly presented on smartphone screens. To dissociate the effects of the students' reactions to ranks from their actual performances, unknown to the students, the ranks presented were actually predetermined so that about half of the students were continuously presented with high ranks whereas the other half were continuously presented with low ranks. We found that the students presented with low ranks made more risky plays than those not presented with ranks or those presented with high ranks. This result suggests that even temporary status significantly affects adolescents' risky behavior, and also demonstrates the usefulness of smartphones in examining and manipulating peer interactions in classroom experiments.

  18. Heteronormativity and Sexual Partnering Among Bisexual Latino Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Wilson, Patrick A.; Parker, Richard G.; Severson, Nicolette

    2015-01-01

    Our analyses address the question of how bisexual Latino men organize their sexual partnerships. Heteronormativity can be understood as the set of social norms and normative structures that guide sexual partnering among men and women. We provide descriptive statistics to describe bisexual Latino men’s sexual partnerships. Logistic and linear regression modeling were used to explore bivariate and multivariate relationships. Of our total sample (N = 142), 41.6% had unprotected vaginal intercourse 2 months prior to the interview; 21.8 % had unprotected anal intercourse with female partners; 37.5 % had unprotected insertive anal intercourse with male partners; and 22.5 % had unprotected receptive anal intercourse with male partners. In our multivariate model, machismo was directly associated with meeting female partners through formal spaces (workplace, school, and/or church), but inversely associated with meeting male partners in formal spaces. Machismo was positively associated with meeting male sex partners through social networks (i.e., friendship and kinship networks). The more comfortable men were with homosexuality the less likely they were to meet men online and the more likely they were to meet men through social networks of friends and kinship. Interventions to reduce sexually transmitted diseases that target bisexual behavior as an epidemiological “bridge” of transmission from homosexual to heterosexual networks might very well benefit from a more complex understanding of how Latino bisexuality is patterned. Thus, this exploratory analysis might lead to a rethinking of how to address risk and vulnerability among Latino bisexual men and their sexual networks. PMID:25128415

  19. Adolescent nicotine exposure produces less affective measures of withdrawal relative to adult nicotine exposure in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    O’Dell, Laura E.; Torres, Oscar V.; Natividad, Luis A.; Tejeda, Hugo A.

    2006-01-01

    Vulnerability to nicotine addiction is significantly increased in individuals who begin smoking during adolescence; however, the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain unclear. This study examined the motivational effects of nicotine withdrawal in adolescent (PND 27–42) and adult (PND 60–75) rats using the conditioned place aversion paradigm. Male Wistar rats were tested for their initial preference for either of two distinct compartments of our conditioning apparatus. Rats were then...

  20. Negotiating Bisexual Desire and Familism: The Case of Latino/a Bisexual Young Men and Women in New York City1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, M.; Yon Leau, C.; Sriram, X; Weinstein, H.; Vásquez del Aguila, E; Parker, R.c

    2009-01-01

    Families are of critical importance for Latino communities in the United States. Familism (i.e., the cultural value that weighs on the interdependence among nuclear and extended family members for support, emotional connectedness, familial honor, loyalty, and solidarity) has been demonstrated to reduce sexual health risks among heterosexual youth, and yet, this relationship has not been examined among Latino bisexual teenagers. In this study we examined how familism shapes sexual-decision making regarding behavior and expressions of bisexuality among Latino youth. To accomplish this, we conducted 25 in-depth interviews and ethnographic observations in social environments of bisexual male and female youth (15–19 years of age) for nine months (February – October 2007, New York City). We conducted a recurrent theme analysis together with the selection of case studies to illustrate key themes regarding familism and Latino teenage bisexuality. Our findings suggest that bisexual Latino youth valued closeness to their families by maintaining family ties, and seeking their emotional and material support. The negative consequence for those who wanted to keep their bisexuality private is the constant surveillance of the family network. Familism is a complex construct that has a strong potential for providing insights into sexual health practices of bisexual Latino youth. PMID:19296310

  1. Associations Between Sex Education and Contraceptive Use Among Heterosexually Active, Adolescent Males in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nicole; Buhi, Eric R; Elder, John P; Corliss, Heather L

    2017-05-01

    This study examined associations between reports of receiving education on topics commonly included in sex education (e.g., abstinence only, comprehensive) prior to age 18 years and contraceptive use at the last sex among heterosexually active, 15- to 20-year-old males in the United States. Cross-sectional data from 539 males participating in the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth were analyzed. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusting for confounding estimated associations between receipt of seven sex education topics (e.g., information on HIV/AIDS, how to say no to sex) and contraceptive use at the last sex (i.e., dual barrier and female-controlled effective methods, female-controlled effective method only, barrier method only, and no method). Nearly, all participants (99%) reported receiving sex education on at least one topic. Education on sexually transmitted diseases (94.7%) and HIV/AIDS (92.0%) were the most commonly reported topics received; education on where to get birth control was the least common (41.6%). Instruction about birth control methods (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32-6.87) and how to say no to sex (AOR = 3.39; CI = 1.33-8.64) were positively associated with dual contraception compared to no use. For each additional sex education topic respondents were exposed to, their odds of using dual methods compared to no method was 47% greater (AOR = 1.47; CI = 1.16-1.86). Exposure to a larger number of sex education topics is associated with young men's report of dual contraception use at the last sex. Comprehensive sex education, focusing on a range of topics, may be most effective at promoting safer sex among adolescent males. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Examining the effects of emotional and cognitive desensitization to community violence exposure in male adolescents of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K; So, Suzanna; Bai, Grace J; Tolan, Patrick H

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined pathways in a model of desensitization, the Pathologic Adaptation Model, in adolescent males of color. Specifically, the current study examined depressive symptoms and deviant beliefs as mediators of the association between community violence exposure and subsequent violent behavior. The current study included 250 African-American (67%) and Latino (33%) male adolescents (T1 mean age = 15.32) from the Chicago Youth Development Study. Consistent with the Pathologic Adaptation Model, results demonstrated that depressive symptoms mediated the association between the quadratic violence exposure term in middle adolescence and violent behaviors in late adolescence, but the direction of the mediation effect was dependent upon the levels of violence exposure in middle adolescence. However, deviant beliefs were not found to be a significant mediator. Emotional desensitization effects may increase the likelihood of violence perpetration in adolescent males exposed to community violence, and the implications for future research and intervention efforts are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Cyberbullying among male adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: prevalence, correlates, and association with poor mental health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence rates and multilevel correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators among male adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were also examined. The experiences of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in 251 male adolescents with ADHD were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were examined using multiple regression analysis. A total of 48 (19.1%) and 36 (14.3%) participants reported that they were cyberbullying victims or perpetrators, respectively. Those who had increased age and a higher parental occupational socioeconomic status, and reported more severe traditional passive bullying victimization were more likely to be cyberbullying victims. Those who had increased age and combined-type ADHD, and reported lower BAS reward responsiveness, more severe Internet addiction and more severe traditional passive bullying perpetration were more likely to be cyberbullying perpetrators. Cyberbullying victims reported more severe depression and suicidality than those who were not cyberbullying victims. A high proportion of male adolescents with ADHD are involved in cyberbullying. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents should monitor the possibility of cyberbullying involvement among male adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the cyberbullying correlates identified in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of sensation seeking and motivations for eating in female and male adolescents who binge eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Pompili, Sara; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Although different personality traits have been associated with the onset and maintenance of binge eating, the role of sensation seeking is still not well documented. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sensation seeking and motivations for eating in male and female adolescents who binge eat. 336 adolescents (196 boys and 140 girls, mean age 17.48) completed a survey composed of Binge Eating Scale, Motivation for Eating Scale, and Brief Sensation Seeking Scale. Our results showed that for female adolescents, binge eating was significantly correlated with age, body mass index (BMI), Environmental and Emotional Eating. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that BMI was a significant positive predictor of binge eating; Emotional and Physical Eating accounted for 34% of the variance. For male adolescents, binge eating was significantly correlated with age, BMI, Boredom susceptibility, Experience seeking, environmental, Social and Emotional Eating. The most significant variables that contribute to binge symptoms, were age and BMI (that accounted for 16% of the variance), Experience seeking and Boredom susceptibility (11%) and emotional eating (18%). Our results provided support for emotional motivations as significant triggers for binge eating behavior in both male and female adolescents. Although two sensation seeking dimensions were significant predictors of binge eating in males, sensation seeking was not associated to binge eating in the female subsample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol consumption: The moderating role of performance-based peer influence susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Hanneke A; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Spijkerman, Renske; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol use is moderated by performance-based peer influence susceptibility. Seventy-three male adolescents (M = 17 years) from three schools in the Netherlands were exposed to the drinking norms of "peers" (electronic confederates) in a chat room experiment. These peers were either popular or unpopular, and conveyed pro- or anti-alcohol norms. Peer influence susceptibility was defined as the change in adolescents' answers before and after exposure to the peer norms. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that the relationship between friends' drinking norms and adolescents' alcohol use (assessed during eight weekends) was moderated by susceptibility to the pro-alcohol norms of popular peers. This relationship was stronger for adolescents who were highly susceptible. These findings suggest that a behavioral measure of peer influence susceptibility could be useful in alcohol prevention programs to select adolescents at risk for negative peer socialization. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  6. Abstinence environment contributes to age differences in reinstatement of cocaine seeking between adolescent and adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Frantz, Kyle J

    2017-07-01

    Extinction responding and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking after 60-days of forced abstinence are attenuated in male rats that self-administered cocaine during adolescence, compared with adults. Given that environmental enrichment during abstinence decreases reinstatement among adults, a possible explanation for attenuated reinstatement among adolescents is that standard pair-housing in prior studies creates a more stimulating environment for younger rats. Therefore, we tested whether standard pair-housing is necessary for the attenuated reinstatement among adolescents by determining whether an impoverished environment during abstinence would increase reinstatement among adolescents, up to adult levels. Conversely, we also tested whether environmental enrichment could further decrease reinstatement among adolescents, and whether we could replicate effects of environmental enrichment to decrease reinstatement among adults down to adolescent levels (positive controls). Adolescent and adult male Wistar rats self-administered cocaine intravenously for 12days (fixed ratio 1; 0.36mg/kg per infusion; 2h sessions). Rats were then moved into enriched (grouped, large cages, novel toys), standard (pair-housed, shoebox cages), or impoverished (isolated, hanging cages) housing conditions. After 60days, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking were tested, followed by drug-primed reinstatement (0, 5, 10mg/kg cocaine, i.p.). Consistent with previous results, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement were attenuated in adolescent-onset groups compared with adults; this age difference also extended to drug-primed reinstatement. In support of the present hypothesis, an impoverished environment during abstinence increased reinstatement among adolescents to levels that were not different from adult standard-housing levels. These data suggest that abstinence environment influences the enduring effects of cocaine among adolescents as well as adults

  7. Bisexuality: the state of the union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Paula C Rodríguez

    2002-01-01

    In many contemporary Occidental societies, bisexuality is paradoxical. Commonly conceived as a combination of heterosexuality and homosexuality, bisexuality as such became conceivable only after the popularization of the hetero/homosexual dichotomy during the late 19th and 20th centuries. Paradoxically, however, the concepts of hetero- and homosexuality, reflecting the cultural belief that an individual's feelings of sexual attraction are naturally directed toward the other sex or, alternatively, toward the same sex, simultaneously renders bisexuality--as an attraction to both genders--inconceivable. In this article, I review the historical and cultural processes that produced the paradoxical conceivability of bisexuality. I then discuss the cultural attitudes toward bisexuality that result from this paradox and show how scientific research on bisexuality has been guided by popular conceptions of, and attitudes toward, bisexuality. Finally, I review efforts to reconceptualize bisexuality for both political and scientific purposes, and summarize recent research on bisexuality using these reconceptualizations. This summary includes research on the prevalence of bisexuality, prejudice against bisexuals, patterns of bisexual behavior, and the meaning of bisexual self-identity.

  8. The social and ecological integration of captive-raised adolescent male African elephants (Loxodonta africana) into a wild population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kate; Moore, Randall; Harris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    A rapid rise in the number of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) used in the tourism industry in southern Africa and orphaned elephants in human care has led to concerns about their long-term management, particularly males. One solution is to release them into the wild at adolescence, when young males naturally leave their herd. However, this raises significant welfare concerns: little is known about how well released elephants integrate into wild populations and whether they pose a greater threat to humans than wild elephants. We document the release of three captive-raised adolescent male African elephants in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Despite having been part of a herd of working elephants for at least eight years, the three males progressively integrated into the complex fission-fusion society of wild bull elephants. In the three years following release, they showed no tendency to be closer to human habitation, and there were no significant differences between wild and captive-raised adolescent males in the total number of social interactions, size of ranges and habitat use. However, the captive-raised elephants sparred less and vocalised more, and spent more time alone and in smaller social groups. Thereafter the released elephants continued to expand their ranges and interact with both mixed-sex herds and males. One male was shot by farmers 94 months after release, along with ten wild elephants, on a ranch outside the protected area. We show that captive-raised adolescent male elephants can integrate into a wild population. Long-term studies are required to determine the longevity, breeding success, and eventual fate of released male elephants, but we identified no significant short-term welfare problems for the released elephants or recipient population. Release of captive-raised mammals with complex social systems is a husbandry option that should be explored further.

  9. The social and ecological integration of captive-raised adolescent male African elephants (Loxodonta africana into a wild population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Evans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A rapid rise in the number of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana used in the tourism industry in southern Africa and orphaned elephants in human care has led to concerns about their long-term management, particularly males. One solution is to release them into the wild at adolescence, when young males naturally leave their herd. However, this raises significant welfare concerns: little is known about how well released elephants integrate into wild populations and whether they pose a greater threat to humans than wild elephants. We document the release of three captive-raised adolescent male African elephants in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Despite having been part of a herd of working elephants for at least eight years, the three males progressively integrated into the complex fission-fusion society of wild bull elephants. In the three years following release, they showed no tendency to be closer to human habitation, and there were no significant differences between wild and captive-raised adolescent males in the total number of social interactions, size of ranges and habitat use. However, the captive-raised elephants sparred less and vocalised more, and spent more time alone and in smaller social groups. Thereafter the released elephants continued to expand their ranges and interact with both mixed-sex herds and males. One male was shot by farmers 94 months after release, along with ten wild elephants, on a ranch outside the protected area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that captive-raised adolescent male elephants can integrate into a wild population. Long-term studies are required to determine the longevity, breeding success, and eventual fate of released male elephants, but we identified no significant short-term welfare problems for the released elephants or recipient population. Release of captive-raised mammals with complex social systems is a husbandry option that should be

  10. Genetic factors increase fecundity in female maternal relatives of bisexual men as in homosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Andrea Camperio; Iemmola, Francesca; Blecher, Stan R

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies on male homosexuals showed increased fecundity of maternal female relatives of homosexual probands, compared to those of heterosexual controls. We have suggested that these data could be explained by the transmission, in the maternal line, of an X-linked genetic factor that promotes androphilic behavior in females and homosexuality in males. Our original studies were on relatives of male subjects who declared themselves to be exclusively homosexual. However, the relationship between homosexuality and bisexuality, including the possibility of shared genetic factors, is complex and largely unexplored. To cast light on this issue, in the present study we examined whether relatives of bisexuals show the same indirect fitness advantage as previously demonstrated for homosexuals. Subjects completed a questionnaire on their sexual orientation, sexual behavior, and their own and their relatives' fecundity. We studied 239 male subjects, comprising 88 who were exclusively or almost exclusively heterosexual (pooled to comprise our "heterosexual" group), 86 who were bisexual, and 65 exclusively or almost exclusively homosexual individuals (pooled in our "homosexual" group). Bisexuals were here defined on the basis of self-identification, lifetime sexual behavior, marital status, and fecundity. We show that fecundity of female relatives of the maternal line does not differ between bisexuals and homosexuals. As in the previous study on homosexuals, mothers of bisexuals show significantly higher fecundity, as do females in the maternal line (cumulated fecundity of mothers, maternal grandparents, and maternal aunts), compared to the corresponding relatives of heterosexual controls.This study also shows that both bisexuals and homosexuals were more frequently second and third born. However, only homosexuals had an excess of older male siblings, compared to heterosexuals. We present evidence of an X-chromosomal genetic factor that is associated with bisexuality in men

  11. [Tooth eruption times of permanent teeth in male and female adolescents in Niedersachsen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedl, Jürgen S; Schoder, Volker; Friedrich, Reinhard E

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the eruption times of permanent teeth, excluding third molars, in a defined area population of a country district in Lower Saxony. The authors investigated 2495 oral findings of 664 patients (male 315, female 349) in a longitudinal study. The minimum age was 3.00 years and the maximum age 24.00 years. The dental findings were collected over a period of about 20 years (1980-2002). The oral findings per child/adolescent were assessed between one and 16 times. The eruption times of teeth in females are earlier than those for the same teeth in males. Further, the permanent dentition in females is completed earlier than in males. The tooth eruption occurs symmetrically in both jaws. The comparison of both jaws revealed a slightly advanced eruption of the lower jaw teeth for both sexes. There is a noteworthy change in the eruption sequence of the teeth. In contrast to other reports we determined that the eruption of the canine proceeds the eruption of the second premolar. We found no acceleration of the dentition when compared to other reports and confirmed the rules of tooth eruption in man. Oral examination of teeth is a simple tool to calculate tooth eruption intervals. This first investigation on a population of Lower Saxony revealed a change in the eruption sequence of permanent teeth. The findings are relevant for dental treatment planning and should be reconfirmed at certain intervals.

  12. Gender and culture: reported problems, coping strategies and selected helpers of male and female adolescents in 17 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J T; Baker, C E; Showalter, S M; Al-sarraf, Q; Atakan, S A; Borgen, W A; Guimaraes, I R; Giusti-ortiz, A L; Ishiyama, F I; Robertson, M

    1992-09-01

    This is the second report of a multinational project undertaken in 1988 by the International Round Table for the Advancement of Counseling that sought, among other things, to compare and contrast the reported problems, coping strategies, and help-seeking behavior of 2129 male and 2307 female adolescents from a total of three different socioeconomic backgrounds in each of 16 countries (Australia, Brazil, Canada, Greece, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Japan Kuwait, the Netherlands, the Philippines, China, Puerto Rico, Turkey, the US, and Venezuela) and from a "classless" background in Russia. The first report described the study and research methodology and cited preliminary findings that 1) problems and coping strategies tended to be universal and age-related; 2) impoverished subjects from Brazil, India, the Philippines, and Venezuela had more problems than any other adolescents; 3) problems were usually related to school, family, and identity rather than to sexuality; and 4) the most common coping strategy was individual problem-solving. This report compares male/female identification of up to three problems that cause worry, response to such problems, and help-seeking behavior. All adolescents cited problems in school, identity, and family. Males and females reported similar coping strategies and showed a strong dependence on individual coping strategies. Both males and females choose personal friends and family members as those most likely to help with problems. Males exhibited a higher percentage of problems related to school and a lower percentage of family problems. Russian adolescents reported more problems relating to altruism than any other group, especially males. These results imply that strong similarities exist for males and females, and the findings are worrisome in that problems related to sexuality were not cited. Counselors should expect the concerns of adolescents to be developmentally related and to overwhelm gender differences.

  13. Bisexual Safe Space(s) on the Internet: Analysis of an Online Forum for Bisexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maliepaard, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Discussions on bisexual safe space(s) and online bisexual spaces are limited. This paper explores the potential of an online forum for bisexuals, their partners, and people who are interested in bisexuality to function as an online safe space. To understand whether the analysed forum is successful

  14. Riddles of masculinity: gender, bisexuality, and thirdness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Gerald I

    2006-01-01

    Clinical examples are used to illuminate several riddles of masculinity-ambiguities, enigmas, and paradoxes in relation to gender, bisexuality, and thirdness-frequently seen in male patients. Basic psychoanalytic assumptions about male psychology are examined in the light of advances in female psychology, using ideas from feminist and gender studies as well as important and now widely accepted trends in contemporary psychoanalytic theory. By reexamining basic assumptions about heterosexual men, as has been done with ideas concerning women and homosexual men, complexity and nuance come to the fore to aid the clinician in treating the complex characterological pictures seen in men today. In a context of rapid historical and theoretical change, the use of persistent gender stereotypes and unnecessarily limiting theoretical formulations, though often unintended, may mask subtle countertransference and theoretical blind spots, and limit optimal clinical effectiveness.

  15. Developing an AIDS prevention intervention for incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Camila Alves; Peres, Rodrigo Alves; da Silveira, Fernando; Paiva, Vera; Hudes, Esther Sid; Hearst, Norman

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding AIDS among incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil and to develop an AIDS prevention intervention for this population. A questionnaire administered to 275 boys in São Paulo covered demographic and social characteristics, drugs, and HIV risk perception and behavior. Subsequently, we collected qualitative data on the development and implementation of a prevention program. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents were sexually experienced, most initiating by age 13; 22% were fathers. Injection drug use was reported by 5.5%, 12% had exchanged sex for money, 35% had more than 15 partners and 8% had homosexual experience. Although 72% had used condoms, only 9% used them consistently, and only 35% used one in their last intercourse before incarceration. Predictors of condom use included carrying condoms and endorsing the statement "I would use condoms with my girlfriend." Many said their lives include other risks more important than AIDS, such as survival in the crime scene. Initial efforts at prevention based on commonly used approaches of providing information to guide future rational decisions generated limited participation. However, when we worked with them to develop interventions based on their interests and needs, using modalities such as music, hip-hop arts, graffiti, and helping them to create an AIDS prevention compact disk, they responded with enthusiasm. These incarcerated adolescents are at extremely high social risk and report high levels of risk behavior for HIV infection. Interventions for these youth were better received when developed in collaboration with them and based on their beliefs, aspirations, and culture. The intervention that resulted went beyond AIDS to include issues such as violence, drugs, sexuality and human rights.

  16. Interrelations between temperament, character, and parental rearing in male delinquent adolescents in northern Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchkin, V V; Eisemann, M; Hägglöf, B; Cloninger, C R

    1998-01-01

    A comparison between 192 male delinquent adolescents and 121 controls from Northern Russia using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and Own Memories of Parental Rearing (EMBU) questionnaire on perceived parental rearing showed significant differences. The delinquent group had a higher level of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Self-transcendence, and also scored lower on Self-directedness. Delinquents who committed nonviolent crimes (thefts) appeared to have a higher level of Harm Avoidance compared with those who committed violent crimes (hooliganism, robbery, rape, and murder). As concerns perceived parental rearing practices, delinquents experienced more parental rejection and overprotection. Most of the personality dimensions were found to be highly correlated with the level of parental emotional warmth. Furthermore, both temperament traits and maternal rearing practices predicted the development of character dimensions. Findings are discussed in light of the interactive nature of parent-child relationships and of character development.

  17. Relationships Between GIS Environmental Features and Adolescent Male Physical Activity: GIS Coding Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Baranowski, Tom; Harris, Michael

    2006-04-01

    It is not clear if relationships between GIS obtained environmental features and physical activity differ according to the method used to code GIS data. Physical activity levels of 210 Boy Scouts were measured by accelerometer. Numbers of parks, trails, gymnasia, bus stops, grocery stores, and restaurants within the commonly used 400 m and 1-mile (1609.3 m) buffers of subject residences and distance to the nearest feature were calculated. Residential density, connectivity, and crime rate were calculated. Regression models with minutes of sedentary, light, or moderate-to-vigorous activity as dependent variables and environmental and demographics as independent variables were run with backward deletion of environmental variables. Park, crime, and gym variables were associated with physical activity, but relationships varied according to whether a 400 m, 1 mile, or nearest criteria was used. Environmental variables were associated with the physical activity of adolescent males, but the association was method dependent.

  18. Impaired Frontal-Basal Ganglia Connectivity in Male Adolescents with Conduct Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibiao Zhang

    Full Text Available Alack of inhibition control has been found in subjects with conduct disorder (CD, but the underlying neuropathophysiology remains poorly understood. The current study investigated the different mechanism of inhibition control in adolescent-onset CD males (n = 29 and well-matched healthy controls (HCs (n = 40 when performing a GoStop task by functional magnetic resonance images. Effective connectivity (EC within the inhibition control network was analyzed using a stochastic dynamic causality model. We found that EC within the inhibition control network was significantly different in the CD group when compared to the HCs. Exploratory relationship analysis revealed significant negative associations between EC between the IFG and striatum and behavioral scale scores in the CD group. These results suggest for the first time that the failure of inhibition control in subjects with CD might be associated with aberrant connectivity of the frontal-basal ganglia pathways, especially between the IFG and striatum.

  19. Evidence of favorable sleep-EEG patterns in adolescent male vigorous football players compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Gerber, Markus; Hatzinger, Martin; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2010-03-01

    Sleep is crucial for psychological functioning and daily performance. Both lay and scientific opinion hold that physical activity encourages restorative sleep. However, research on this in adolescence is limited. The aim of the present study was to compare sleep-EEG patterns of vigorous exercisers and controls. Twelve adolescent male football players (14 h of vigorous exercise per week) and 12 controls (1.5 h of vigorous exercise per week) matched for gender, age (about 16 years), and educational level, took part in the study. Sleep-EEG registration was performed following a day without exercise. Sleep-EEG analyses revealed that, compared to controls, the football players showed greater sleep efficiency, shortened sleep onset latency, less awakenings after sleep onset, more stage 4, and less REM sleep. Importantly, this pattern of results emerged following a day without exercise. Moreover, vigorous football players reported better daily performance and displayed less weeknight (Sunday to Thursday) to weekend night (Friday and Saturday nights) variation. Findings suggest that for the football players, vigorous exercise seemed to lead to longer-lasting electrophysiological change in brain activity irrespective of acute bouts of exercise.

  20. Atypical major depressive episode as initial presentation of intracranial germinoma in a male adolescent

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    Chen YT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Ting Chen,1,3,4 Kuan-Pin Su,2–5 Jane Pei-Chen Chang2–5 1Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 2Graduate Institute of Neural and Cognitive Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 3School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Department of Psychiatry, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 5Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK Abstract: A 17-year-old adolescent boy presented with atypical major depressive episode (MDE without specific focal neurological signs for 6 months. He had a diagnosis of intra­cranial germinoma, and the atypical MDE symptoms subsided after the operation. However, he had a relapse of atypical MDE 7 months after the first surgery. His mood and binge eating symptoms subsided, but intractable body weight gain only partially improved after treatment. When encountering manifestations of depression with atypical features, especially with binge eating symptoms in male children and adolescents, with early onset age, no family history, and prolonged depressive episodes, clinicians should consider not only mood disorders including bipolar spectrum disorders but also organic brain lesions such as intracranial germinoma. Keywords: intracranial germinoma, atypical major depressive episode, binge eating behavior, body weight gain

  1. Masculinity, vulnerability and prevention of STD/HIV/AIDS among male adolescents: social representations in a land reform settlement

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    Camila de Oliveira Arraes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the relationship of masculinity, vulnerability and prevention of STD / HIV / AIDS among adolescent males of a land reform settlement in central Brazil. METHOD: a qualitative study using as precepts the strands of social representations with teenagers between 12 to 24 years. RESULTS: three categories emerged - Perception of vulnerability; Gender and vulnerability; and, Prevention and vulnerability to STD / HIV / AIDS. Adolescents felt invulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases anchored in the social representations in favor of the male hegemony. An ignorance about forms of prevention for STD / HIV / AIDS was demonstrated in their statements. It is believed that institutional projects such as the School Health Program and the Men's Health Care Program constitute essential tools to minimize factors of vulnerability in this population, since the school is recognized as a social facility that promotes socialization of experiences and contributes to the construction of the identity of the adolescent. CONCLUSION: the social representations of masculinity collaborate for the vulnerable behavior of the adolescents for the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases. One hopes that this study can contribute to the production of knowledge and technical-scientific improvement of the professionals, especially the nurse, in order to discuss issues related to male sexuality of adolescents in the situation of the land reform settlement.

  2. The adolescent body image satisfaction scale for males: exploratory factor analysis and implications for strength and conditioning professionals.

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    Leone, James E; Mullin, Elizabeth M; Maurer-Starks, Suanne S; Rovito, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of reliability and validity for the Adolescent Body Image Satisfaction Scale (ABISS), an instrument previously developed to measure adolescent body image. A sample (N = 330) of adolescent males, aged 14-19 years, completed the ABISS to determine current body image satisfaction. Data were analyzed for measures of instrument composite reliability and initial content and construct validity. Exploratory factor analysis supported a 3-factor solution (16 total items), which explained 42.7% of variance in the model. Composite reliability for the subscales, body competence, body inadequacy, and internal conflict ranged from 0.64 to 0.82. Exploratory factor analysis of the ABISS provides initial psychometric support for a valid and reliable measure for assessing adolescent male body image, which also can be used as a needs assessment tool. Strength and conditioning professionals should be aware of their athlete and client psychological attributes, many of whom are adolescents. Understanding how adolescents view their bodies and their body image will assist professionals in designing appropriate, health-promotive strength programs, while at the same time monitoring for signs of body image dissatisfaction. Assessing body image can help heighten awareness and possibly encourage preventative programming to help avert negative health practices (e.g., performance-enhancing drug use, exercise addictions, disordered eating). The ABISS seems to have preliminary psychometric support to be a valid and reliable instrument that helps gauge at-risk populations.

  3. Suicide Attempts and Associated Factors in Male and Female Korean Adolescents A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Chin, Young Ran; Choi, Kyungwon

    2015-10-01

    Using data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, this study seeks to investigate associations of suicide attempts with family, individual, and behavioral factors on the basis of gender. Among male adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, who had poor subjective academic achievement, depression, experiences of smoking and sexual coitus, drug abuse, suicidal ideation and plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Among the female adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, had depression, low self-rated health, experiences of drug abuse and sexual coitus, and expressed unhappiness, suicidal ideation and suicide plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Thus, the development of a suicide prevention program for Korean adolescents requires different approaches for males and females.

  4. Social Bonds and School Bullying: A Study of Macanese Male Adolescents on Bullying Perpetration and Peer Victimization

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    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Chui, Wing Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background: School bullying research on Macanese adolescents is limited. Macau is a Special Administrative Region of China with over 95 % of the population is of Chinese descent. Yet, Macanese people are under substantial Western influences. Objective: Using a two male-only school sample of 365 participants aged between 10 and 17 years, this study…

  5. Salivary testosterone in female-to-male transgender adolescents during treatment with intra-muscular injectable testosterone esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, Hong N.; Schagen, Sebastian E. E.; Klink, Daniel T.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.

    2013-01-01

    In our hospital, female-to-male (FtM) transgender adolescents from the age of 16 are treated with two- or four-weekly intra-muscular injections of testosterone-esters. Some patients treated with four-weekly injections have complaints of fatigue and experience mood swings towards the end of the

  6. Biological Maturation in Adolescence and the Development of Drinking Habits and Alcohol Abuse among Young Males: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Tommy; Magnusson, David

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between biological maturation, as evidenced by skeletal growth, during adolescence and the development of drinking habits and alcohol abuse was studied for a representative group of Swedish males (N=88). Early and late maturers had more advanced drinking habits at age 14 years than did normally maturing subjects. (TJH)

  7. Salivary testosterone in female-to-male transgender adolescents during treatment with intra-muscular injectable testosterone esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, H.N.; Schagen, S.E.; Klink, D.T.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In our hospital, female-To-male (FtM) transgender adolescents from the age of 16 are treated with two- or four-weekly intra-muscular injections of testosterone-esters. Some patients treated with four-weekly injections have complaints of fatigue and experience mood swings towards the

  8. Happiness of Male Adolescents With Disabled Physical Mobility: Benefits of Mental Rehabilitation Based on Positive Thinking Skills Training

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    Mohammad Rostami

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: Positive thinking skills training can increase the happiness scores of adolescents with disabled physical mobility. Thus, we can say that method used in this study can be appropriate for psycho-educational interventions and counseling of physical mobility disabled male students. 

  9. Functional Connectivity Estimated from Resting-State fMRI Reveals Selective Alterations in Male Adolescents with Pure Conduct Disorder.

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    Feng-Mei Lu

    Full Text Available Conduct disorder (CD is characterized by a persistent pattern of antisocial behavior and aggression in childhood and adolescence. Previous task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have revealed widespread brain regional abnormalities in adolescents with CD. However, whether the resting-state networks (RSNs are altered in adolescents with CD remains unknown. In this study, resting-state fMRI data were first acquired from eighteen male adolescents with pure CD and eighteen age- and gender-matched typically developing (TD individuals. Independent component analysis (ICA was implemented to extract nine representative RSNs, and the generated RSNs were then compared to show the differences between the CD and TD groups. Interestingly, it was observed from the brain mapping results that compared with the TD group, the CD group manifested decreased functional connectivity in four representative RSNs: the anterior default mode network (left middle frontal gyrus, which is considered to be correlated with impaired social cognition, the somatosensory network (bilateral supplementary motor area and right postcentral gyrus, the lateral visual network (left superior occipital gyrus, and the medial visual network (right fusiform, left lingual gyrus and right calcarine, which are expected to be relevant to the perceptual systems responsible for perceptual dysfunction in male adolescents with CD. Importantly, the novel findings suggested that male adolescents with pure CD were identified to have dysfunctions in both low-level perceptual networks (the somatosensory network and visual network and a high-order cognitive network (the default mode network. Revealing the changes in the functional connectivity of these RSNs enhances our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of emotion and social cognition and the regulation of perception in adolescents with CD.

  10. The Role of Game Based Learning in the Health Literacy of African American Adolescent Males

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    Connell, Judith; Knight, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-first century literacy is more than being able to encode for spelling ability, decode for reading comprehension, and calculate for numeric reasoning. It demands the skills to negotiate the world of technology. Health literacy is lower than general literacy, and general literacy is lower among African American males than the overall population. The authors discuss the prospects of incorporating Game Based Learning approaches into strategies for teaching health literacy. Results of a survey administered to youth to determine their level of involvement in video game playing indicate that key elements must be in place to ensure that a game will be played. These include action, strategy, and entertainment. Future investigation will examine the knowledge level of African American adolescent males of the nexus of certain concepts of climate change and health literacy. Climate change has significant implications for human health. This understanding will produce a scientifically based foundation for curricular and instructional decisions that include GBL. Results of this study will be used to design a video game concept and will contribute to the body of knowledge concerning environmental justice and empower individuals to make informed decisions about their own health and those they influence.

  11. The posture of adolescent male handball players: A two-year study.

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    Grabara, Małgorzata

    2018-02-06

    Young athletes at the stage of growth acceleration tend to exhibit increased susceptibility to postural abnormalities, especially in the trunk region. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the posture in male adolescent handball players over two years of regular training sessions. The study group comprised 21 handball players. At the start of the study 15 participants were aged 14 and 6 participants were aged 15 (mean 14.25 ± 0.58). The measurements were repeated three times. Posture was assessed with a photogrammetric method based on the moiré phenomenon. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not reveal any significant differences between posture indicators obtained during the successive measurements. Sagittal plane posture indicators revealed significant changes in torso forward inclination angle and the shape of anteroposterior spinal curvatures. The latter consisted of significant deepening of the upper thoracic curve (angle α) and flattening of the lumbosacral curve (angle γ). A two-year period of handball training did not result in posture asymmetries in young male handball players. The observed changes in the shape of anteroposterior spinal curvatures might be related both to sports training and somatic parameters.

  12. Adolescent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure fails to affect THC-induced place and taste conditioning in adult male rats.

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    Wakeford, Alison G P; Flax, Shaun M; Pomfrey, Rebecca L; Riley, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent initiation of drug use has been linked to problematic drug taking later in life and may represent an important variable that changes the balance of the rewarding and/or aversive effects of abused drugs which may contribute to abuse vulnerability. The current study examined the effects of adolescent THC exposure on THC-induced place preference (rewarding effects) and taste avoidance (aversive effects) conditioning in adulthood. Forty-six male Sprague-Dawley adolescent rats received eight injections of an intermediate dose of THC (3.2mg/kg) or vehicle. After these injections, animals were allowed to mature and then trained in a combined CTA/CPP procedure in adulthood (PND ~90). Animals were given four trials of conditioning with intervening water-recovery days, a final CPP test and then a one-bottle taste avoidance test. THC induced dose-dependent taste avoidance but did not produce place conditioning. None of these effects was impacted by adolescent THC exposure. Adolescent exposure to THC had no effect on THC taste and place conditioning in adulthood. The failure to see an effect of adolescent exposure was addressed in the context of other research that has assessed exposure of drugs of abuse during adolescence on drug reactivity in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Higher drive for thinness in adolescent males with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus compared with healthy controls.

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    Svensson, M; Engström, I; Aman, J

    2003-01-01

    Eating behaviour in adolescent males with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) living in central Sweden was compared with that of healthy age-matched male controls using the Eating Disorder Inventory for Children and an interview. The patients were heavier than controls (p = 0.004) and had higher Drive for Thinness scores (p = 0.002). None was diagnosed as having a current eating disorder. The results of the study may indicate an increased risk of future eating disorders in males with IDDM.

  14. [Between contradictions and risks: Mexican male adolescents' views about teenage pregnancy and its association with sexual behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Jorge; Atienzo, Erika E; Campero, Lourdes; Suárez-López, Leticia

    2014-04-01

    To explore the opinions of Mexican male adolescents regarding teenage pregnancy and analyze its association with sexual behavior. This is a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire among a conventional sample of male students (15-19 years old) in eight public schools in Morelos and Mexico City. Analyses include multivariate models to identify the association between opinions and sexual behaviors. Overall, 68% agree that a teenage pregnancy is a negative event. In a hypothetical case, if a girlfriend got pregnant in this moment 56% would continue in the school whereas 18% would definitely abandon it. Those who affirm that a teenage pregnancy is something very bad have greater odds of using condoms (OR=1.8; pteenage pregnancy are associated with some sexual behaviors; however their opinions reflect several contradictions. The design of surveys directed exclusively to explore male adolescents' opinions about reproductive health is urgent.

  15. Troubling the canon: bisexuality and queer theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Mark A; Isgro, Kirsten L

    2006-01-01

    This essay explores the notion that bisexuality and contemporary bisexual political movements both align and trouble canons of queer theories of sexuality and gender. This project provides an historical review and assessment of recent bisexual theorizing to highlight key themes in its evolution as well as a discussion of how these themes have shaped the relationship of bisexuality and queer theory. Drawing on this assessment and a wider discussion of GLBT scholarship, we invite critical inquiry regarding the implications of bisexual theorizing on queer theory and vice versa. We address questions of bisexual epistemologies, its discursive roles within queer theory, and its impact on queer politics and organizing. Noting bisexuality's absence in much of this research and scholarship, we suggest these projects have been limited in their ability to fully and effectively address sexual subjectivity both in theory and in its everyday lived experience.

  16. Age Differences in Perceptions of and Motivations for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Among Adolescents in South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Eshan U; Kaufman, Michelle R; Dam, Kim H; Van Lith, Lynn M; Hatzold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V; Mavhu, Webster; Kahabuka, Catherine; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Seifert Ahanda, Kim; Ncube, Getrude; Lija, Gissenge; Bonnecwe, Collen; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2018-04-03

    The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) have set a Fast-Track goal to achieve 90% coverage of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) among boys and men aged 10-29 years in priority settings by 2021. We aimed to identify age-specific facilitators of VMMC uptake among adolescents. Younger (aged 10-14 years; n = 967) and older (aged 15-19 years; n = 559) male adolescents completed structured interviews about perceptions of and motivations for VMMC before receiving VMMC counseling at 14 service provision sites across South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were estimated using multivariable modified Poisson regression models with generalized estimating equations and robust standard errors. The majority of adolescents reported a strong desire for VMMC. Compared with older adolescents, younger adolescents were less likely to cite protection against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other sexually transmitted infections (aPR, 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], .66-.91) and hygienic reasons (aPR, 0.55; 95% CI, .39-.77) as their motivation to undergo VMMC but were more likely to report being motivated by advice from others (aPR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.54-2.29). Although most adolescents believed that undergoing VMMC was a normative behavior, younger adolescents were less likely to perceive higher descriptive norms (aPR, 0.79; .71-.89), injunctive norms (aPR, 0.86; 95% CI, .73-1.00), or anticipated stigma for being uncircumcised (aPR, 0.79; 95% CI, .68-.90). Younger adolescents were also less likely than older adolescents to correctly cite that VMMC offers men and boys partial HIV protection (aPR, 0.73; 95% CI, .65-.82). Irrespective of age, adolescents' main concern about undergoing VMMC was pain (aPR, 0.95; 95% CI, .87-1.04). Among younger adolescents, fear of pain was negatively associated with desire for VMMC (aPR, 0.89; 95% CI, .83-.96). Age-specific strategies are important to

  17. Refusal self efficacy, self esteem, smoking refusal skills and water pipe (Hookah) smoking among iranian male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimy, Mahmood; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Heidarnia, Ali Reza; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Shamsi, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use among adolescents is a major public health concern, and identifying predictors of smoking is necessary for planning prevention programs. The present study examined the relationship between refusal self efficacy, self esteem, smoking refusal skills and water pipe (hookah) smoking among Iranian male adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 380 Iranian male adolescents aged between 15-19 years selected by multistage sampling. The participants completed an anonymous, voluntary, self-report questionnaire. Variables independently associated with water pipe (WP) smoking were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. The mean age of the participants was 16.7±1.3 years. The prevalence of WP smoking was 17.3%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that knowledge (OR=0.56; 95% CI: (0.37-0.79), attitude (OR=0.69; 95% CI: (0.52-0.89), self esteem (OR=0.67; 95% CI: (0.55-0.82), smoking refusal skills (OR=0.73; 95% CI: (0.55-0.87), and self efficacy (OR=.82; 95% CI: (0.61-0.93) were all signifcant prediting facotrs for adolescents WP smoking. The findings have implications for public health interventions. Indeed, self efficacy and smoking refusal skills should be considered when developing tailored measures for the prevention of WP smoking among adolescents.

  18. Testosterone and pubertal development as predictors of sexual activity: a panel analysis of adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, C T; Udry, J R; Campbell, B; Suchindran, C

    1993-01-01

    Strong cross-sectional relationships between testosterone (T) and sexual activity have been found for human adolescent males, even when level of pubertal development is controlled; however, it has not been demonstrated that sexual behavior increases over time as a consequence of hormonal changes. The purpose of this paper was to extend previous cross-sectional findings by demonstrating that sexual behavior is initiated and increases within individuals over time as a direct function of changes in T levels, rather than indirectly through pubertal development. Analyses are based on a 3-year panel study of about 100 7th- and 8th-grade adolescent boys. Pubertal development and changes in pubertal development were significantly and positively related to changes in sexual ideation, noncoital behavior, and to the transition to sexual intercourse. Testosterone levels at study entry were significantly related to coital status at Time 1 and also predicted the transition to nonvirgin status. However, changes in hormone levels during the 3 years of study participation did not predict changes in ideation or noncoital sexual activity, regardless of the period of change or the lag time to effects. The panel data suggest, in contrast to earlier cross-sectional results, that change in pubertal development is related to the initiation of sexual activity because of its social stimulus value, and not solely because it is determined by, or is a proxy for, changing hormone levels. Possible causes of the different findings in the cross-sectional and panel data are examined, and the implications and meaning of hormone/behavior relationships based on single measures are discussed.

  19. Factors Associated with Anger among Male Adolescents in Western Iran: An Application of Social Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedzadeh Zavareh, Moammad Sadegh; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Hidarnia, Ali Reza

    2015-05-20

    Anger can be defined a natural emotional response that is gradually formed to protect us in dealing with threats, damages, assaults, and failures; while hatred is a change of attitude which is built following the persistence of anger towards a subject or an individual. One of the main reasons of adolescents' reference to the counseling centers is their anger accompanied by violence. This study aims to determine the social cognitive factors associated with anger among a population of adolescents in the west of Iran based on the social cognitive theory. Samples were selected based on multi-stage cluster sampling. Method including the first and the second-grade male high school students from Ilam town (N=360). The Spielberger's anger questionnaire (STAXI 2) and a self-designed questionnaire based on Bandura's social cognitive theory were employed as the data collection instruments in the present study. Of the selected population, 200 students were the first-grade and 160 students were the second-grade students. 135 students were the first child of the family, 150 students were the second or the third birth, and 75 students were the fifth or above in their families. Descriptive tests and correlation analysis were used to conduct the statistical analysis. Although there was a significant and inverse relationship between all the components of the theory and anger, the strongest relationship was seen in self-efficacy (-0.585) and the weakest relationship was seen in modeling (-0.297). If was concluded that helping people to know their abilities and have a better personal judgment in this case, can influence their anger control. In addition, the process of stress management can effectively increase an individual's emotional coping.

  20. Agreement between Two Methods of Dietary Data Collection in Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marc A; Rumbold, Penny L S; Cockburn, Emma; Russell, Mark; Stevenson, Emma J

    2015-07-17

    Collecting accurate and reliable nutritional data from adolescent populations is challenging, with current methods providing significant under-reporting. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of a combined dietary data collection method (self-reported weighed food diary, supplemented with a 24-h recall) when compared to researcher observed energy intake in male adolescent soccer players. Twelve Academy players from an English Football League club participated in the study. Players attended a 12 h period in the laboratory (08:00 h-20:00 h), during which food and drink items were available and were consumed ad libitum. Food was also provided to consume at home between 20:00 h and 08:00 h the following morning under free-living conditions. To calculate the participant reported energy intake, food and drink items were weighed and recorded in a food diary by each participant, which was supplemented with information provided through a 24-h recall interview the following morning. Linear regression, limits of agreement (LOA) and typical error (coefficient of variation; CV) were used to quantify agreement between observer and participant reported 24-h energy intake. Difference between methods was assessed using a paired samples t-test. Participants systematically under-reported energy intake in comparison to that observed (p methods ranged between -1.11 to 0.37 MJ·day(-1) (-256 to 88 kcal·day(-1)). The standard error of the estimate was low, with a typical error between measurements of 3.1%. These data suggest that the combined dietary data collection method could be used interchangeably with the gold standard observed food intake technique in the population studied providing that appropriate adjustment is made for the systematic under-reporting common to such methods.

  1. Attenuated effects of experimenter-administered heroin in adolescent vs. adult male rats: physical withdrawal and locomotor sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, James M.; Frantz, Kyle J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Early onset of heroin use during adolescence might increase chances of later drug addiction. Prior work from our laboratory suggests, however, that adolescent male rats are actually less sensitive than adults to some enduring effects of heroin self-administration. In the present study, we tested two likely correlates of sensitivity to behavioral reinforcement in rats: physical withdrawal and locomotor sensitization. Methods Adolescent (35 days old at start) and adult (79 days old) male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered escalating doses of heroin, increasing from 1.0 to 8.0 mg/kg (i.p.) every 12 hr, across 13 days. Somatic signs of spontaneous withdrawal were scored 12 and 24 hr after the last injection, then every 24 hr for 5 days; locomotion was recorded concurrently. Challenge injections of heroin (1 mg/kg i.p.) were given at 4 points: as the first of the escalating doses (day 1), at days 7 and 13 during the escalating regimen, and after 12 days of forced abstinence. Body mass and food intake were measured throughout experimentation. Results A heroin withdrawal syndrome was not observed among adolescents as it was among adults, including somatic signs as well as reduced locomotion, body mass, and food intake. On the other hand, heroin-induced locomotor sensitization did not differ across ages. Conclusion Reduced withdrawal is consistent with the attenuated reinforcing effects of heroin among adolescent male rats that we reported previously. Thus, it is possible that adolescent rats could reveal important neuroprotective factors for use in treatment of heroin dependence. PMID:22941050

  2. Bisexuality and the Youth Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gene F.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses bisexual modes of behavior in light of current attitudes within the youth culture and with the realization that on the basis of abailable research, generalization is difficult. Changing sex role values are discussed and some causative factors are placed in the context of current social trends. (Author/BW)

  3. Rapid Assessment for Coexistence of Vitamin B12 and Iron Deficiency Anemia among Adolescent Males and Females in Northern Himalayan State of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency has been observed among adolescents with iron deficiency anemia, but limited evidence is available from India. So, a rapid assessment was done to study the prevalence of iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12 deficiency among adolescent males and females in northern Himalayan state in India. Methods. Total 885 (female: 60.9% adolescents (11 to 19 completed years were surveyed from 30-cluster village from two community development blocks of Himachal Pradesh. Serum ferritin, folic acid, and vitamin B12 were estimated among randomly selected 100 male and 100 female adolescents. Results. Under-nutrition (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was observed among 68.9% of adolescents (male: 67.1%; female: 70.7; . Anemia was observed to be prevalent among 87.2% males and 96.7% females (. Mild form of anemia was observed to be the most common (53.9% form followed by moderate (29.7% anemia. Strikingly, it was found that all the adolescents were deficient in vitamin B12 and none of the adolescents was observed to be deficient in folic acid. Conclusion. Among both male and female adolescents anemia with vitamin B12 deficiency was observed to be a significant public health problem. Folic acid deficiency was not observed as a problem among surveyed adolescents.

  4. Suicide ideation and bullying among US adolescents: examining the intersections of sexual orientation, gender, and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anna S; James, Wesley; Abrutyn, Seth; Levin, Martin L

    2015-05-01

    We examined how race/ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation shape adolescents' likelihood of being bullied and vulnerability to suicide ideation. We analyzed pooled data from the 2009 and 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 75 344) to assess race/ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation variation in being bullied and suicide ideation. White and Hispanic gay and bisexual males, White lesbian and bisexual females, and Hispanic bisexual females were more likely to be bullied than were White heterosexual adolescents. Black lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths' vulnerability to being bullied was not significantly different from that of White heterosexual youths. Black and Hispanic heterosexual youths were less likely to be bullied than were White heterosexual youths. Despite differences in the likelihood of being bullied, sexual minority youths were more likely to report suicide ideation, regardless of their race/ethnicity, their gender, or whether they have been bullied. Future research should examine how adolescents' intersecting identities shape their experience of victimization and suicidality. School personnel should develop antibullying and antihomophobia policies in response to the disproportionate risk of being bullied and reporting suicidality among sexual minority youths.

  5. [Neutrality, bisexuality and androgyny of the psychoanalyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, F

    1993-06-01

    Proceeding from the fact that Western thought is based on Greek philosophy, the author pinpoints a feature specific to psychoanalysis. Unlike other sciences, which are grounded in the central (and latently homosexual) relation of rhetoric and dialogue between teacher and pupil, psychoanalytic dialogue centers around a heterosexual (male/female) relationship. Prototypic for this is the confrontation of the psychoanalyst with the "complex burden of female love". The fascination of philosophy lies in similarity, that of psychoanalysis in difference. The gender question, and more specifically the sex of the analyst, has been given little attention in connection with the transference/countertransference paradigm. With a discussion of the concepts of neutrality (Freud), bisexuality (Freud, Jung) and with reference to literary sources on androgyny (V. Woolf, Balzac, Le Guin) Molfino undertakes the attempt to take the gender discussion in psychoanalytic theory and practice a stage further.

  6. Active video games and energy balance in male adolescents: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbon, Aidan; McNeil, Jessica; Jay, Ollie; Tremblay, Mark S; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Active video games (AVGs) have been shown to acutely increase energy expenditure when compared with seated video games; however, the influence of AVGs on compensatory adjustments in energy intake and expenditure is largely unknown. The aim was to examine the acute effects of AVGs on energy intake and expenditure. With the use of a randomized crossover design, 26 male adolescents (mean ± SD age: 14.5 ± 1.4 y) completed three 1-h experimental conditions: resting control, seated video game play (Xbox 360; Microsoft), and AVG play (Kinect Adventures on Xbox 360) followed by an ad libitum lunch. A validated food menu was used to assess food intake immediately after the conditions and for the remainder of the day, and a dietary record was used for the subsequent 3-d period. Energy expenditure was measured by using portable indirect calorimetry throughout each experimental condition, and an accelerometer was used to assess the subsequent 3-d period. Appetite sensations were assessed by using visual analog scales at different time points during the testing day. The primary outcomes were acute (immediately after the conditions and 24-h) and short-term (3-d) energy intake and expenditure. Energy expenditure was significantly higher (~145%; P 0.49) and 3 d after the experimental conditions (~3%; P > 0.82). No significant differences were observed in absolute energy intake immediately after the conditions (~2%; P > 0.94) or in absolute energy intake 24 h (~5%; P > 0.63) and 3 d (~9%; P > 0.53) after the experimental conditions. Finally, appetite sensations were similar between conditions at all time points (P > 0.05). The increase in energy expenditure promoted by a single session of Kinect AVG play is not associated with increased food intake but is compensated for after the intervention, resulting in no measurable change in energy balance after 24 h. These results suggest that the potential of Kinect to reduce the energy gap underlying weight gain is offset within 24 h in

  7. Beyond ‘MSM’: Sexual Desire Among Bisexually-Active Latino Men in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Latino male bisexuality has been studied for the most part with a focus on men who have sex with men (MSM) and with little attention to sexual desire. The goal of this article is to present a comprehensive understanding of how sexual desire is organized, enacted through sexual activity, and interpreted in the sexual lives of bisexually-active Latino men. To achieve this aim, an analysis was made of 18 sexual histories of bisexually active Latino men who participated in a two-year ethnographic study. Four configurations of sexual desire were constructed to reflect what was found in this population of bisexually-active Latino men: (a) lifetime homoerotic desire and casual sex with women; (b) lifetime heteroerotic desire, but commercial sex with men; (c) lifetime heteroerotic/transgender desire; (d) lifetime sexual desire for women and men. These configurations are explored in detail in this article. The analysis presented here is intended to offer insights into the overall study of Latino male bisexuality and into the foundations for the design of HIV and STI prevention programs directed toward bisexually-active Latino men and their partners. PMID:26412977

  8. Abuse Experiences of Family Members, Child Maltreatment, and the Development of Sex Offending Among Incarcerated Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuish, Evan C; Cale, Jesse; Corrado, Raymond R

    2017-02-01

    Child sexual abuse is considered a risk factor for the development of sexual offending in adolescence. Beyond this, comparisons of the risk factor profiles between adolescent sex offenders (ASOs) and adolescent non-sex offenders (ANSOs) have uncovered minimal differences. However, differences between ASOs and ANSOs in terms of patterns in the abuse histories of their family members have rarely been studied. The aim in the current study was to retrospectively examine histories of abuse among family members of ASOs compared with ANSOs to determine whether and how these were related to youth abuse experiences and sexual offending in adolescence. The current study is based on a sample of 482 incarcerated male adolescents (ASOs = 67, ANSOs = 415). Latent class analysis was conducted to determine multidimensional familial abuse profiles, and a series of logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between family abuse profiles, youth abuse experiences, and adolescent sexual offending. Overall, familial abuse profiles were related to subsequent youth abuse experiences and sexual offending, and these abuse profiles differentiated ASOs and ANSOs.

  9. Northern excess in adolescent male firearm suicides: a register-based regional study from Finland, 1972-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Anniina; Keränen, Sirpa; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2014-01-01

    There are more firearms in Northern Finland as compared to Southern Finland, and a positive association between suicide rates and the number of firearms in a given region has been demonstrated in previous literature. Accordingly, the authors compared firearm suicide rates of Finnish adolescent (under 18 years) males in the two geographic regions. Young adult (18-24 years) and adult (25-44 years) males were used as reference groups. National data on cases of suicide in Northern and Southern Finland between 1972 and 2009 were obtained from Statistics Finland. Firearm suicides (n=5,423) were extracted according to ICD-classification (ICD-8/9: E955, ICD-10: X72-X75). The distribution of types of firearms (hunting gun, handgun, other) employed in suicides was also investigated. The adolescent male firearm suicide rate in Northern Finland was almost three times higher than that observed in Southern Finland, while there was no difference in rates of suicide by other methods. A northern excess in firearm suicide rates was also found among young adult and adult males. Hunting guns were the most common type of firearms employed in young male suicides, and their use was especially common in Northern Finland. Our results indicate that the use of firearms plays a major role in explaining the northern excess in young Finnish male suicide rates, and emphasize a need to advance suicide prevention according to specific regional characteristics.

  10. Consequences of adolescent ethanol exposure in male Sprague-Dawley rats on fear conditioning and extinction in adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, Margaret A.

    Some evidence suggests that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to alcohol-induced cognitive deficits and that these deficits may persist into adulthood. Five experiments were conducted to assess long-term consequences of ethanol exposure on tone and context Pavlovian fear conditioning in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiment 1 examined age-related differences in sensitivity to ethanol-induced disruptions of fear conditioning to a pre-conditioning ethanol challenge. Experiments 2 examined fear conditioning 22 days after early-mid adolescent (P28-48) or adult (P70-90) exposure to 4 g/kg i.g. ethanol or water given every other day (total of 11 exposures). In Experiment 3, mid-late adolescents (P35-55) were exposed in the same manner to assess whether timing of ethanol exposure within the adolescent period would differentially affect later fear conditioning. Experiment 4 assessed the influence of prior adolescent or adult ethanol exposure on the disrupting effects of a pre-conditioning ethanol challenge. In Experiment 5, neurogenesis (doublecortin---DCX) and cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase---ChAT) markers were measured to assess potential long-term ethanol-induced changes in neural mechanisms important for learning and memory. Results indicated that the long-lasting behavioral effects of ethanol exposure varied depending on exposure age, with early-mid adolescent exposed animals showing attenuated context fear retention (a relatively hippocampal-dependent task), whereas mid-late adolescent and adult exposed animals showed slower context extinction (thought to be reliant on the mPFC). Early-mid adolescent ethanol-exposed animals also had significantly less DCX and ChAT expression than their water-exposed counterparts, possibly contributing to deficits in context fear. Tone fear was not influenced by prior ethanol exposure at any age. In terms of age differences in ethanol sensitivity, adolescents were less sensitive than adults to ethanol

  11. Sexual behaviour and knowledge of adolescent males in the Molopo region of Bophuthatswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kau

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy is one of the many public health problems facing the community in Bophuthatswana and neighbouring areas: Health professionals have attempted to address the problem yet little has been done to determine the role of the adolescent male in the prevention of this community problem. This study addresses the male adolescent’s sexual behaviour, his attitude towards contraception, contraceptive use and premarital pregnancy. The study revealed that most of the respondents commenced sexual practices at about 12years of age. These young men believed that girls should prove their fertility before marriage, although they viewed contraception as a joint responsibility between the two partners. The respondents were found to have a positive attitude towards contraception and contraceptive use, yet when they were asked what method of contraception they used since they were sexually active, only 24,5% reported use of a condom. Ignorance about reproduction and the effects of contraceptives Was confirmed When 48% of the respondents indicated that they were unaware of the fact that pregnancy could result from first coitus, and they also believed that oral contraceptives had dangerous side effects. The study further revealed that parents did not discuss teenage pregnancy and contraception with their children, instead this subject was discussed among friends at school. Respondents expressed fear when asked why the subject was never discussed with parents, some actually stated that their parents would ‘flog’ them if they initiated the subject on sex and related matters. The urgent need for formalised sex education in Bophuthatswana was expressed by 77% of the respondents.

  12. Contributions of Multicultural Counseling to Counselor Competence with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Tania; Selvidge, Mary M. D.

    2003-01-01

    This article outlines the contributions of multicultural counseling to 3 areas of counselor competence with lesbian, gay male, and bisexual male and female (LGB) clients: conceptualization of competence, counselor education, and assessment of counselor competence. The authors describe the foundations of multicultural counseling and extend the…

  13. Peer Contexts for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: Reducing Stigma, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Stacey S.; Romeo, Katherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Peer relationships are a vital part of adolescents' lives. For lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, whether these relationships are supportive and positive, or filled with stigma, prejudice, and discrimination rests, to some degree, on their heterosexual peers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality. For while LGBT youth may…

  14. Identity Profiles in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth: The Role of Family Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Hallie R.; Malik, Neena M.; Page, Matthew J. L.; Makynen, Emily; Lindahl, Kristin M.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual identity development is a central task of adolescence and young adulthood and can be especially challenging for sexual minority youth. Recent research has moved from a stage model of identity development in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth to examining identity in a non-linear, multidimensional manner. In addition, although families…

  15. Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youths' Perceptions of Their High School Environments and Comfort in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Diane E.

    2003-01-01

    Study investigated gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents' perceptions of their school environment; their experiences with victimization and professional support in school; and individual, peer, and family factors associated with perceptions of and comfort in school environments. Findings suggest school social workers can play key roles in…

  16. Is the algorithm used to process heart rate variability data clinically relevant? Analysis in male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Antonio Henrique Germano; Farah, Breno Quintella; Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; Bastos-Filho, Carmelo José Albanez; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Lima, Aluísio Henrique Rodrigues de Andrade; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2016-01-01

    To analyze whether the algorithm used for the heart rate variability assessment (fast Fourier transform versus autoregressive methods) influenced its association with cardiovascular risk factors in male adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 1,152 male adolescents (aged 14 to 19 years). The low frequency, high frequency components (absolute numbers and normalized units), low frequency/high frequency ratio, and total power of heart rate variability parameters were obtained using the fast Fourier transform and autoregressive methods, while the adolescents were resting in a supine position. All heart rate variability parameters calculated from both methods were different (palgoritmo usado para avaliação da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (transformada rápida de Fourier versus autoregressivo) influencia em sua associação com fatores de risco cardiovascular adolescentes do gênero masculino. Estudo transversal, que incluiu 1.152 adolescentes do gênero masculino (14 a 19 anos). Componentes de baixa e alta frequência (absolutos e unidades normalizadas), razão componente de baixa frequência/componente de alta frequência e poder total da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca foram obtidos em repouso, na posição supina, usando os métodos transformada rápida de Fourier e autorregressivo. Todos os parâmetros da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca para ambos os métodos foram diferentes (p<0,05). Entretanto, um pequeno tamanho do efeito (<0,1) foi observado para todos os parâmetros. Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse entre os métodos variaram de 0,96 a 0,99, enquanto os coeficientes de variação foram de 7,4 a 14,8%. A circunferência abdominal foi negativamente associada com o componente de alta frequência, e positivamente associada com o componente de baixa frequência e o balanço simpatovagal (p<0,001 para a transformada rápida de Fourier e o autorregressivo em todas as associações). A pressão arterial sistólica foi

  17. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified. PMID:25729154

  18. That’s my STYLEoideum - Symptomatic os styloideum in an adolescent male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewska, Malwina; Haefeli, Mathias; Laesser, Urs; Niemann, Tilo

    2017-01-01

    We present a 15-year-old male patient with persistent localized pain on the dorsal side of the left wrist between the base of the 2nd and 3rd metacarpal bones and over the third carpometacarpal joint. It was diagnosed as an accessory metacarpal bone -Os styloideum. This entity may be detected on plain radiographs and in ultrasound examination and is often asymptomatic. Symptomatic os styloideum occurs more frequently in the dominant hand and may be treated conservatively with corticosteroid infiltration. A palpable prominence on the dorsal side of the wrist and focal pain evoked anxiety of the adolescent patient who searched medical consultation. In the clinical examination, a bony protrusion was confirmed and different possible diagnoses have been considered. After treatment with a corticosteroid infiltration of the third carpometacarpal joint under fluoroscopy the pain resolved completely. We would like to draw attention of clinicians and radiologists to this rare anatomical variant that normally is asymptomatic, and therefore not immediately recognized. Acquaintance with this entity and its early detection may lead to conservative treatment instead of surgical excision. A comprehensive literature search, review and discussion about os styloideum are provided in the article. PMID:29299098

  19. Prolonged catatonic stupor successfully treated with aripiprazole in an adolescent male with schizophrenia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirino, Eiji

    2010-10-01

    We present the case of a fifteen-year-old adolescent male with schizophrenia who had long-term catatonic stupor and was successfully treated with aripiprazole. The onset of his stupor manifested rapidly after experiencing prodromal symptoms for two months. He was left untreated without adequate food ingestion for three weeks because of his parents' religious faith, and was severely dehydrated and malnourished upon admission to our hospital. After his physical recovery, treatment with risperidone (0.5-2.0 mg, 5 weeks) was started. However, hypersedation occurred, and the risperidone was switched to aripiprazole, with dose increases up to 18 mg/day (5 months). As a result, he recovered from his totally noncommunicative state. Aripiprazole, which has a unique pharmacological mechanism of action distinct from other atypical antipsychotics and an excellent safety profile, may be effective in the treatment of some schizophrenic patients with stupor, which sometimes carries a risk of physical debilitation and requires special attention due to the risk of adverse drug reactions.

  20. Shoulder proprioception is not related to throwing speed or accuracy in elite adolescent male baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeston, Jonathan; Adams, Roger D; Rooney, Kieron

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence throwing speed and accuracy is critical to performance in baseball. Shoulder proprioception has been implicated in the injury risk of throwing athletes, but no such link has been established with performance outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe any relationship between shoulder proprioception acuity and throwing speed or accuracy. Twenty healthy elite adolescent male baseball players (age, 19.6 ± 2.6 years), who had represented the state of New South Wales in the past 18 months, were assessed for bilateral active shoulder proprioception (shoulder rotation in 90° of arm abduction moving toward external rotation using the active movement extent discrimination apparatus), maximal throwing speed (MTS, meters per second measured via a radar gun), and accuracy (total error in centimeters determined by video analysis) at 80 and 100% of MTS. Although proprioception in the dominant and nondominant arms was significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.54, p proprioception and performance. Shoulder proprioception was not a significant determinant of throwing performance such that high levels of speed and accuracy were achieved without a high degree of proprioception. There is no evidence to suggest therefore that this particular method of shoulder proprioception measurement should be implemented in clinical practice. Consequently, clinicians are encouraged to consider proprioception throughout the entire kinetic chain rather than the shoulder joint in isolation as a determining factor of performance in throwing athletes.

  1. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabara, M

    2015-03-01

    Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified.

  2. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Grabara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified.

  3. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Grabara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified.

  4. ["It takes two to tango": a study on inconsistent use of male condoms by adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geluda, Kátia; Bosi, Maria Lucia Magalhães; da Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves; Trajman, Anete

    2006-08-01

    This study assessed gender-related aspects involved in the inconsistent use of male condoms by adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Four focus groups were conducted, two with each gender, two in a public school and two in a private school, totaling 34 participants, comparing gender and social status. The resulting material was analyzed using a critical interpretative approach. Among the emerging themes, "gender relations" were chosen, consisting of three dimensions: trust, submission, and initiative. So-called unequal gender power was not detected in the adolescents' discourse, which however revealed an apparent inequality in negotiation and initiative in condom use. Differences between public and private schools were subtle. Some changes may be occurring in the field of adolescent sexual behavior. The results indicate the importance of channels for dialogue, taking into account the singularity of groups in order to establish intervention strategies adapted to subjects and different historical and cultural contexts.

  5. Vitamin D status and musculoskeletal health in adolescent male ballet dancers a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducher, Gaele; Kukuljan, S; Hill, B; Garnham, A P; Nowson, C A; Kimlin, M G; Cook, J

    2011-09-01

    Adequate vitamin D levels during growth are critical to ensuring optimal bone development. Vitamin D synthesis requires sun exposure; thus, athletes engaged in indoor activities such as ballet dancing may be at relatively high risk of vitamin D insufficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of low vitamin D levels in young male ballet dancers and its impact on musculoskeletal health. Eighteen male ballet dancers, aged 10 to 19 years and training for at least 6 hours per week, were recruited from the Australian Ballet School, Melbourne, Australia. Serum 25(OH)D and intact PTH were measured in winter (July) from a non-fasting blood sample. Pubertal stage was determined using self-assessed Tanner criteria. Body composition and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the whole body and lumbar spine were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Injury history and physical activity levels were assessed by questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained from 16 participants. Serum 25(OH)D levels ranged from 20.8 to 94.3 nmol/L, with a group mean of 50.5 nmol/L. Two participants (12.5%) showed vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)D level 50 nmol/L). No relationship was found between vitamin D status, PTH levels, body composition, and aBMD. The most commonly reported injuries were muscle tears and back pain. The average number of injuries reported by each dancer was 1.9 ± 0.4 (range: 0 to 5). There was no difference in the frequency of reported injuries between subjects with vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (2.1 ± 0.6 injuries) and those with normal vitamin D levels (1.4 ± 0.6 injuries). This pilot study showed that more than half of highly-trained young male ballet dancers presented with low levels of vitamin D in winter. Further investigations in larger samples of adolescent athletes are needed to determine if this could negatively impact bone growth and place them at higher risk for musculoskeletal injuries.

  6. Comparison of Physical Fitness Parameters with EUROFIT Test Battery of Male Adolescent Soccer Players and Sedentary Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür ERİKOĞLU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare physical fitness parameters of male adolescent soccer players and sedentary counterparts. A total of 26 male adolescents participated in this study voluntarily: Active soccer players (n: 3, age x : 13,00 ± 0,00 and sedentary counterparts (n: 13, age x :12,92 ± 0,75. The EUROFIT test battery was used to determine physical fitness. The test battery includes body height and weight measurements, touching the discs, flamingo balan ce, throwing health ball, vertical jumping, sit and reach, sit - up for 30 s, 20 meter sprint run, and 20 meter shuttle run tests. Data were analyzed by Mann Whitney U test. Significance was defined as p.05. In conclusion, children who do sports are more successful on most of the fitness parameters than sedentary children.

  7. We’re Here and We’re Queer: Sexual Orientation and Sexual Fluidity Differences Between Bisexual and Queer Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Woulfe, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Theorists and researchers have noted an overlap between bisexually-identified and queer-identified individuals. Whereas early definitions of bisexuality may have been predominantly binary (i.e., attracted to women and men), in recent years there has been a move toward a more “queer” understanding of bisexuality (e.g., attraction to more than one gender beyond female and male). The purpose of this study was to examine similarities and differences between bisexually-identified and queer-identified adult women, ages 18–66 years, on sociodemographic characteristic, two dimensions of sexual orientation (sexual behaviors and attractions), fluidity in attractions and sexual orientation identity, and identity centrality and affirmation in an online sample (N = 489), which was mostly from the United States (73.5%). Our results indicated that bisexual and queer women were similar in terms of sociodemographic characteristics, with the exception of education; queer women were more educated than bisexual women. Queer women were also more likely than bisexual women to report variability in their sexual behaviors and attractions and more fluidity in their sexual orientation identity. Additionally, queer women reported higher levels of identity centrality and affirmation than bisexual women. Considerations for sexual minority women’s health research are discussed. PMID:29249909

  8. Types of Adolescent Male Dating Violence Against Women, Self-Esteem, and Justification of Dominance and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Aguado, Maria Jose; Martinez, Rosario

    2015-09-01

    The recognition of the seriousness of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the need to prevent it has led to the study of its inception in relationships established in adolescence. This study uses latent class analysis to establish a typology of male adolescents based on self-reports of violence against a girl in dating relationships. The participants were 4,147 boys in Spain aged 14 to 18 years from a probabilistic sample. Four discrete, identifiable groups were derived based on 12 indicators of emotional abuse, intimidation, coercion, threats, physical violence, and violence transmitted via communication technologies. The first group consists of non-violent adolescent boys. A second group comprises those boys who isolate and control their partners. Boys who exert only medium-level emotional abuse form the third group, whereas the fourth is formed by teenage boys who frequently engage in all types of violence. Compared with the non-violent adolescents in a multinomial logistic regression, the other groups show lower self-esteem and display a greater justification of male dominance and IPV against women; greater justification of aggression in conflict resolution; they have also received more dominance and violence messages from adults in their family environment; and they perceive IPV behaviors against women as abuse of lesser importance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Effect of yoga on positive–Negative affect and self-esteem on tribal male adolescents- A randomized control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Mohan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Effect of yoga on positive–negative affectivity and self-esteem in tribal adolescents. Material and Methods: This is a pilot randomized control study. Several chits were made in which the name of all the available students was written. The youngest boy from the group selected 30 chits for yoga group and the remaining students were included in the control group. The yoga group included 30 male adolescents between the age of 10 years and 18 years (M = 14.4, SD = 3.51. Control group included 25 male adolescents between the age of 10 years and 18 years (M = 13.3, SD = 1.90. PANAS-C and Rosenberg self-esteem scales were used to measure the positive–negative affectivity and self-esteem, respectively. Data was collected before and after interventions. Results: Study shows significant increase in positive affect (P = 0.008 and negative affect (P = 0.047 in experimental group as compared to control group's positive affect (P = 0.468 and negative affect (P = 0.156. Self-esteem in experimental group slightly reduced (P = 0.927. Similarly, self-esteem in control group reduced (P = 0.019. Conclusion: Study suggests that two weeks of yoga practice has a significant impact on positive-negative affect in tribal adolescents.

  10. Working with the Bisexual Client: How Far Have We Progressed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, B. Grant; Hagedorn, W. Bryce

    2001-01-01

    Examines topics such as sexual identity development, factors that influence one's identification with bisexuality, and issues that affect bisexual individuals. Addresses the characteristics and skills of the effective counselor intent on working with the bisexual community. (Contains 20 references.) (GCP)

  11. Altered Resting-State EEG Microstate Parameters and Enhanced Spatial Complexity in Male Adolescent Patients with Mild Spastic Diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Jia, Huibin; Wu, Xiangci; Yu, Dongchuan; Feng, Yi

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the resting-state EEG microstate parameters and spatial complexity in male adolescent patients with mild spastic diplegia (MSD). Resting-state EEG data were collected from male adolescent patients with MSD and healthy controls with eyes closed. EEG microstate and omega complexity analysis were performed. Microstate analysis revealed that the occurrence rate of microstate class A and D were significantly higher and the duration of microstate class B was significantly lower in the patients compared to healthy controls, which indicated that the temporal complexity may be higher and certain cognitive functions may be impaired in these patients. Omega complexity analysis showed that the global omega complexity of alpha-2 band was significantly higher in the patients than the controls. Besides, compared to the anterior regional omega complexities, the posterior regional omega complexities were significantly lower in the delta, theta, alpha-1 and alpha-2 bands, but significantly higher in the beta-2 and gamma-1 bands. And the regional omega complexities in the delta, theta and alpha-1 bands were significantly higher in the patients than controls. The present study reveals that in male adolescent patients with MSD, the temporal and spatial complexities of EEG signal are enhanced, which may be closely associated with the altered brain functions in these patients.

  12. Inactionable/unspeakable: Bisexuality in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Popova, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I argue that inclusion of bisexual employees in workplace contexts is hindered by the interaction of two key factors. On the one hand, bisexuality is frequently "invisible" diversity based predominantly around identity, while workplaces are action-oriented environments. On the other hand, where bisexuality becomes "actionable" in a workplace context (e.g. in its intersections with polyamory), it is insufficiently conformist or respectable for most employers to be able to account...

  13. Neuroendocrine stress reactivity of male C57BL/6N mice following chronic oral corticosterone exposure during adulthood or adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahanoor, Ziasmin; Sultana, Razia; Baker, Madelyn R; Romeo, Russell D

    2017-12-01

    Adolescence is associated with the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the major neuroendocrine axis mediating the hormonal stress response. Adolescence is also a period in development marked by a variety of stress-related vulnerabilities, including psychological and physiological dysfunctions. Many of these vulnerabilities are accompanied by a disrupted HPA axis. In adult mice, a model of disrupted HPA function has been developed using oral chronic corticosterone administration via the drinking water, which results in various physiological and neurobehavioral abnormalities, including changes in stress reactivity and anxiety-like behaviors. In an effort to further complement and extend this model, we tested the impact of HPA disruption in adolescent mice. We also examined whether this disruption led to different outcomes depending on whether the treatment happened during adolescence or adulthood. In the current set of experiments, we exposed adult (70days of age) or adolescent (30days of age) male C57BL/6N mice to 4 weeks of either 0 or 25μg/ml oral corticosterone via their drinking water. We measured body weight during treatment and plasma corticosterone levels and activation of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as indexed by FOS immunohistochemistry, before and after a 30min session of restraint stress. Our data indicate that adolescent animals exposed to chronic corticosterone showed weight loss during treatment, an effect not observed in adults. Further, we found stress failed to elevate plasma corticosterone levels in treated mice, regardless of whether exposure occurred in adulthood or adolescence. Despite this reduced hormonal responsiveness, we found significant neural activation in the PVN of both adult- and adolescent-treated mice, indicating a dissociation between stress-induced peripheral and central stress responses following chronic corticosterone exposure. Moreover, stress-induced neural activation in the PVN was unaffected

  14. Pervasive, hard-wired and male: Qualitative study of how UK adolescents view alcohol-related aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Lydia; Brown, Stephen L; Young, Bridget; Fereday, Richard; Coyne, Sarah M; Qualter, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory studies of alcohol-inexperienced adolescents show that aggression can be primed by alcohol-related stimuli, suggesting that alcohol-related aggression is partly socially learned. Script theory proposes that alcohol-related aggression 'scripts' for social behaviors are culturally-available and learned by individuals. The purpose of the study was to understand the content and origins of alcohol-related aggression scripts learned by adolescents. This qualitative focus group study of 40 adolescents (ages 14-16 years) examined alcohol-related aggression scripts. Participants believed aggression and severe injury to be pervasive when young people drink. Viewed through a biological lens, participants described aggression as an 'instinctive' and 'hard-wired' male trait facilitated by intoxication. As such, alcohol-related aggression was not seen as intended or personally controllable and participants did not see it in moral terms. Females were largely viewed as either bystanders of inter-male aggression or potential victims of male sexual aggression. Participants attributed their views on the frequency and nature of alcohol-related aggression to current affairs and reality television, which they felt portrayed a reality of which they had little experience. The origins of the explicitly biological frameworks that participants used seemed to lie in pre-existing beliefs about the nature of gender differences. Perceptions of the pervasiveness of male alcohol-related aggression, and the consequent failure to view alcohol-related aggression in moral terms, could dispose some young people to alcohol-related aggression. Interventions could target (1) the beliefs that alcohol-related aggression is pervasive and uncontrollable in males, and (2) participants' dysfunctional views of masculinity that underpin those beliefs.

  15. Circulating MOTS-c levels are decreased in obese male children and adolescents and associated with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Caiqi; Zhang, Cai; Wu, Wei; Liang, Yan; Wang, Anru; Wu, Shimin; Zhao, Yue; Hou, Ling; Ning, Qin; Luo, Xiaoping

    2018-04-25

    A novel bioactive peptide, mitochondrial-derived peptide (MOTS-c), has recently attracted attention as a potential prevention or therapeutic option for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MOTS-c profiles have not yet been reported in human obesity and T2DM. We aimed to determine circulating MOTS-c levels in obesity and explore the association between MOTS-c levels and various metabolic parameters. In this case-control study, 40 obese children and adolescents (27 males) and 57 controls (40 males) were recruited in the Hubei Province of China in 2017. Circulating MOTS-c levels were measured, clinical data (e.g., glucose, insulin and lipid profile) were recorded, and anthropometric measurements were performed. Finally, we investigated correlations between MOTS-c levels and related variables. MOTS-c levels were significantly decreased in the obese group compared with the control group (472.61 ± 22.83 ng/mL vs. 561.64 ± 19.19 ng/mL, p c levels were significantly decreased in obese male children and adolescents compared to their counterparts (465.26 ± 24.53 ng/mL vs. 584.07 ± 21.18 ng/mL, p 0.05). Further, MOTS-c levels were negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), BMI standard deviation score, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c in the male cohort. Circulating MOTS-c levels were decreased in obese male children and adolescents and correlated with markers of insulin resistance and obesity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Exercise reduces body fat and improves insulin sensitivity and pancreatic β-cell function in overweight and obese male Taiwanese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Kuang-Chung; Kwok, Ching-Fai

    2018-01-01

    Background Improvements in insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell function have been shown following exercise in adults with obesity; however, few adolescent-based studies have been conducted. This study examined the impact of exercise training on body fat and insulin sensitivity and secretion in overweight and obese adolescents. Methods The effects of a 12-week exercise program on the parameters of adiposity and glucose homeostasis were investigated in 47 overweight and obese male adolesce...

  17. The association of sexual orientation with self-rated health, and cigarette and alcohol use in Mexican adolescents and youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Tello, Blanca Lilia Gómez; Valdés, Jesús

    2009-07-01

    Evidence of health inequities associated with sexual orientation has been gathered for industrialized countries. The situation for lesbians, gay males, and bisexuals (LGB) from middle- or low-income countries may be worse than those in industrialized nations. Here, we analyze the relationship of sexual orientation with self-rated health and cigarette and alcohol use among a representative sample of Mexican adolescents and youths between the ages of 12 and 29 years, in order to explore whether this association is mediated by discrimination and violence. Three dimensions of sexual orientation (affective attraction, sexual behavior, and identity) were assessed. The outcomes were self-rated health and cigarette and alcohol use. Compared to heterosexuals, LGB youths more frequently smoked >or=6 cigarettes per day, reported having experienced family violence, having crimes perpetrated against them, and having experienced violations of their rights. Among males, gays and bisexuals exhibited a higher risk of poor health than heterosexuals. Compared to heterosexual women, lesbians and bisexual women were more likely to consume alcohol. Many differences in self-rated health and substance use according to sexual orientation were explained by having experienced discrimination and violence. We concluded that lesbian and bisexual females have a higher prevalence of cigarette and alcohol use. It is necessary to develop policies and programs aimed at the reduction of substance abuse among LGB youths (focusing on females who engage in sexual contact with persons of the same gender) and to work against discrimination and violence experienced by LGB people, particularly against non-heterosexual males.

  18. Counseling Received by Adolescents Undergoing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Moving Toward Age-Equitable Comprehensive Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Patel, Eshan U; Dam, Kim H; Packman, Zoe R; Van Lith, Lynn M; Hatzold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V; Mavhu, Webster; Kahabuka, Catherine; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Seifert Ahanda, Kim; Ncube, Getrude; Lija, Gissenge; Bonnecwe, Collen; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2018-04-03

    The minimum package of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services, as defined by the World Health Organization, includes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, HIV prevention counseling, screening/treatment for sexually transmitted infections, condom promotion, and the VMMC procedure. The current study aimed to assess whether adolescents received these key elements. Quantitative surveys were conducted among male adolescents aged 10-19 years (n = 1293) seeking VMMC in South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. We used a summative index score of 8 self-reported binary items to measure receipt of important elements of the World Health Organization-recommended HIV minimum package and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief VMMC recommendations. Counseling sessions were observed for a subset of adolescents (n = 44). To evaluate factors associated with counseling content, we used Poisson regression models with generalized estimating equations and robust variance estimation. Although counseling included VMMC benefits, little attention was paid to risks, including how to identify complications, what to do if they arise, and why avoiding sex and masturbation could prevent complications. Overall, older adolescents (aged 15-19 years) reported receiving more items in the recommended minimum package than younger adolescents (aged 10-14 years; adjusted β, 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], .12-.21; P < .001). Older adolescents were also more likely to report receiving HIV test education and promotion (42.7% vs 29.5%; adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.02) and a condom demonstration with condoms to take home (16.8% vs 4.4%; aPR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.30-4.58). No significant age differences appeared in reports of explanations of VMMC risks and benefits or uptake of HIV testing. These self-reported findings were confirmed during counseling observations. Moving toward age-equitable HIV prevention services during adolescent VMMC likely requires

  19. Effects of drug and alcohol abuse upon pituitary-testicular function in adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, F; Ringenberg, L; MacDonald, D; Barnes, J; Hu, C S; Duckett, G; Sweetland, M; Root, A

    1986-01-01

    To assess the effects of drug and alcohol abuse (DAA) on the physical changes and hormones of puberty in adolescents, 26 males (13 5/12-22 years) enrolled in a drug rehabilitation program were examined. In 22 subjects four timed blood samples were obtained sequentially at 15 minute intervals for measurement of serum concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHAS). The mean duration of DAA was 3.7 years, with marijuana and alcohol being the most frequently abused substances. The study subjects were compared to a matched control group of non-substance-abusing teenagers. All heights and weights of the DAA subjects fell within two standard deviations of the mean on the Tanner Growth Charts and no statically significant differences in the Tanner stages of sexual maturation were found between the DAA and control groups. The mean (+/- SD) testosterone level of the DAA group (221 +/- 109 ng/dl) was less than half that of the control group (477 +/- 193 ng/dl, p less than 0.001). Mean LH concentration in the DAA group (3.9 +/- 3.0 mIU/ml) was significantly less than that of the control group (10 +/- 4.9 mIU/ml, p less than 0.01). In both the DAA and control populations there was a significant (p less than 0.01) correlation between serum concentrations of LH and testosterone. The mean FSH level of the DAA group (3.3 +/- 1.1 mIU/ml) was significantly less (p less than 0.02) than that of the control group (4.7 +/- 1.9 mIU/ml). To assess the effects of treatment, six boys underwent repeat blood sampling 7-12 months after drug and alcohol withdrawal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Identifying mechanisms that underlie links between COMT genotype and aggression in male adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Langley, Kate; Northover, Clare; Hubble, Kelly; Rubia, Katya; Schepman, Karen; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita

    2016-04-01

    There is a known strong genetic contribution to aggression in those with ADHD. In a previous investigation of a large population cohort, impaired 'emotional/social cognitive' processing, assessed by questionnaire, was observed to mediate the link between COMT Val158Met and aggression in individuals with ADHD. We set out to replicate and extend this finding in a clinical sample, using task-based and physiological assessments of emotional and cognitive processing. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that directly assessed emotional processing mediates the link between COMT Val158Met and aggression in young people with ADHD. Males aged 10-17 years with ADHD were recruited from UK community clinics (n = 194). Research diagnostic interviews (parent and child) were used to assess psychopathology and generate DSM-IV Conduct Disorder symptom scores. Participants completed tasks assessing executive function (response inhibition and set shifting), empathy for fear, sadness and happiness, and fear conditioning [measured using skin conductance responses (SCR) to aversive stimuli]. COMT Val allele carriers showed poorer response inhibition (F = 5.27, p = .02) and set shifting abilities (F = 6.45, p = .01), reduced fear empathy (F = 4.33, p = .04) and reduced autonomic responsiveness (lower SCRs) to the conditioned aversive stimulus (F = 11.74, p = .001). COMT Val158Met did not predict impairments in recognising others' emotions or affective empathy for happiness or sadness. Mediation analysis revealed that impaired fear-related mechanisms indirectly mediated the link between COMT Val158Met and aggression. Our findings suggest fear mechanisms as possible targets for psychological interventions to disrupt links between genetic risk and aggressive outcomes in ADHD. Our findings also reveal the potential of hypothesis-driven approaches for identifying neuropsychological mechanisms that mediate genetic risk effects on behaviour and psychopathology. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of

  1. Body image dissatisfaction and anthropometric indicators in male children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, E P; Minatto, G; Berria, J; Silva, S F Dos S; Fidelix, Y L; Ribeiro, R R; Santos, K D; Petroski, E L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body image dissatisfaction and body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) and to identify which of these anthropometric indicators are more strongly associated, and finally to estimate the prevalence of overweight and high body adiposity in male children and adolescents, according to maturational stages. Overall, 1499 students aged from 7 to 17 years from Cascavel, PR, Brazil, were evaluated. Body image was self-rated through the body silhouette scale. Body weight, height and triceps and subscapular skinfolds were measured and BMI and BF% were calculated. Sexual maturity was self-assessed by the development of pubic hair. Data analysis used the Fisher exact test, the χ(2)-test and multinomial logistic regression. Body image dissatisfaction because of excess weight was associated with BMI and BF%, whereas in prepubertal students, this association did not remain in the adjusted analysis. In pubescent students, both BMI (odds ratio (OR)=5.25, confidence interval (CI) 95%=3.06-9.01) and BF% (OR=2.42, CI 95%=1.60-3.66), and in post-pubescent students for BMI (OR=3.77, CI 95%=1.33-10.70), the association remained. Body image dissatisfaction because of thinness was associated only with BF% in pubescent (OR=0.50, CI 95%= 0.33-0.75) and post-pubescent students (OR=0.38, CI 95%= 0.16-0.94). Body image dissatisfaction was associated with BMI and BF%, especially in pubescent and post-pubescent students.

  2. Hopelessness as a Predictor of Suicide Ideation in Depressed Male and Female Adolescent Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kristin L; Nakonezny, Paul A; Owen, Victoria J; Rial, Katherine V; Moorehead, Alexandra P; Kennard, Beth D; Emslie, Graham J

    2017-12-21

    We examined hopelessness as a predictor of suicide ideation in depressed youth after acute medication treatment. A total of 158 depressed adolescents were administered the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) as part of a larger battery at baseline and at weekly visits across 6 weeks of acute fluoxetine treatment. The Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) was administered at baseline and week 6. A negative binomial regression model via a generalized estimating equation analysis of repeated measures was used to estimate suicide ideation over the 6 weeks of acute treatment from baseline measure of hopelessness. Depression severity and gender were included as covariates in the model. The negative binomial analysis was also conducted separately for the sample of males and females (in a gender-stratified analysis). Mean CDRS-R total scores were 60.30 ± 8.93 at baseline and 34.65 ± 10.41 at week 6. Mean baseline and week 6 BHS scores were 9.57 ± 5.51 and 5.59 ± 5.38, respectively. Per the C-SSRS, 43.04% and 83.54% reported having no suicide ideation at baseline and at week 6, respectively. The analyses revealed that baseline hopelessness was positively related to suicide ideation over treatment (p = .0027), independent of changes in depression severity. This significant finding persisted only for females (p = .0024). These results indicate the importance of early identification of hopelessness. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  3. Western-style diet induces insulin insensitivity and hyperactivity in adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwitz, Shannon E; Woodie, Lauren N; Blythe, Sarah N

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents has increased rapidly over the past 30 years, as has the incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In 2012, it was found that overweight children have a twofold higher chance of developing ADHD than their normal weight counterparts. Previous work has documented learning and memory impairments linked to consumption of an energy-dense diet in rats, but the relationship between diet and ADHD-like behaviors has yet to be explored using animal models. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the role of diet in the etiology of attention and hyperactivity disorders using a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control diet or a Western-style diet (WSD) for ten weeks, and specific physiological and behavioral effects were examined. Tail blood samples were collected to measure fasting blood glucose and insulin levels in order to assess insulin insensitivity. Rats also performed several behavioral tasks, including the open field task, novel object recognition test, and attentional set-shifting task. Rats exposed to a WSD had significantly higher fasting insulin levels than controls, but both groups had similar glucose levels. The quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) indicated the development of insulin resistance in WSD rats. Performance in the open field test indicated that WSD induced pronounced hyperactivity and impulsivity. Further, control diet animals were able to discriminate between old and novel objects, but the WSD animals were significantly impaired in object recognition. However, regardless of dietary condition, rats were able to perform the attentional set-shifting paradigm. While WSD impaired episodic memory and induced hyperactivity, attentional set-shifting capabilities are unaffected. With the increasing prevalence of both obesity and ADHD, understanding the potential links between the two conditions is of clinical

  4. Sexual health and life experiences: Voices from behaviourally bisexual Latino men in the Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Omar; Reece, Michael; Schnarrs, Philip; Rhodes, Scott; Goncalves, Gabriel; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Kelle, Guadalupe; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Research on behaviourally bisexual Latino men in the USA has not yet examined sexual health issues among men living in diverse areas of the nation, including the Midwest. A community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach was used to engage a diverse sample of 75 behaviourally bisexual men (25 White, 25 Black, and 25 Latino). Semi-structured interviews were conducted and, in this paper, standard qualitative analysis procedures were used to explore data from the 25 Latino participants. Men described their unique migration experiences as behaviourally bisexual men in this area of the USA, as well as related sexual risk behaviours and health concerns. Lack of culturally congruent public health and community resources for behaviourally bisexual men in the Midwestern USA were identified as significant barriers. As in other studies, familial and community relationships were significant for the participants, especially in terms of the decision to disclose or not disclose their bisexuality. Additionally, alcohol and other drugs were often used while engaging in sexual behaviours particularly with male and transgender, as well as female, partners. Behaviourally bisexual Latino men may benefit from receiving positive and affirmative individual- and structural-level support in regards to their unique experiences in this and other settings. PMID:21815839

  5. Sexual Behavior in Male Adolescents with Autism and Its Relation to Social-Sexual Skills in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwaidi, Mohamed A.; Daghustani, Wid H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify common sexual behavior among adolescents with autism, where parents and teachers of sixty-one male adolescents from twelve to twenty-one years of age were recruited from three cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They were asked to respond to a sexual behavior questionnaire, and a social-sexual skills…

  6. A profile of sexually active male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru Perfil de los adolescentes varones sexualmente activos en colegios secundarios de Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús L. Chirinos; Victor C. Salazar; Claire D. Brindis

    2000-01-01

    To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was l...

  7. Adolescent female rats are more resistant than males to the effects of early stress on prefrontal cortex and impulsive behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Jaclyn M.; Shumake, Jason; Colorado, Rene A.; Conejo-Jimenez, Nelida; Gonzalez-Pardo, Hector; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that adolescent Sprague-Dawley females may be more resistant than males to display impulsive behavior and lower prefrontal cortex thickness after mother–infant separation (MS). Starting at postnatal day 2 (P2), the MS group was separated 6 hours/day and the early handled (EH) group 15 min/day for 10 days, and another group was standard facility reared (SFR). Subjects were examined for novel open-field activity (P28), light–dark apparatus (P29), familiar open-field (P30) and frontal cortical thickness. This protocol resulted in impulsive behavior in MS rats relative to EH and SFR, but this effect was less pronounced in females than males. MS affected the two sexes differently in terms of decreased prefrontal cortex dorsoventral thickness, with this effect being significant in males but not females. Neuroanatomical and behavioral documentation that adolescent females are more resistant than males to ADHD-like effects of maternal separation have not been previously reported. PMID:19125421

  8. Factors associated with early adoption of the HPV vaccine in US male adolescents include Hispanic ethnicity and receipt of other vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Kepka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent males' HPV vaccine initiation and completion in the United States is far below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% 3-dose completion among boys. In 2012, less than 7% of males ages 13–17 years had completed the 3-dose series. The Diffusion of Innovations framework guided this investigation of factors related to early adoption of HPV vaccination among male adolescents. Provider-validated data from the 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen for male adolescents ages 13–17 years were analyzed via a multivariable Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios for factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Adolescent males who are Hispanic and those who are up to date on other recommended adolescent vaccinations were most likely to complete the HPV vaccine. Public health interventions are needed to improve low HPV vaccination rates among adolescent males in the United States. Description of early adopters of the HPV vaccine provides historical context of HPV vaccination acceptance that is needed to inform the design of targeted vaccination interventions to prevent negative HPV-associated outcomes.

  9. Self-Concept, Self-Esteem, and Body Attitudes among Japanese Male and Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In comparison to American adolescent data sets, Japanese adolescents are found to have lower self-esteem and less favorable views of their bodies' attractiveness and effectiveness. Sex differences in self-concept account for more variance in the Japanese cohorts than in comparative American ones. Types of self-concept differences are similar in…

  10. Antecedents of the Male Adolescent Identity Crisis: Age, Grade, and Physical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Randall M.; Dick, Andrew J.; Coyl-Shepherd, Diana D.; Ogletree, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Erikson (1950) contends that the physical changes associated with puberty serve as a catalyst for adolescents to question childhood identifications and to consolidate these with current self-conceptions, personal ideologies, interpersonal values, and future aspirations. Erikson describes the adolescent identity crisis as the developmental period…

  11. [The value of 5-HTT gene polymorphism for the assessment and prediction of male adolescence violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Liu, Xiang; Yang, Zhen-xing; Qiu, Chang-jian; Ma, Xiao-hong

    2012-08-01

    To establish an adolescent violence crime prediction model, and to assess the value of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphism for the assessment and prediction of violent crime. Investigative tools were used to analyze the difference in personality dimensions, social support, coping styles, aggressiveness, impulsivity, and family condition scale between 223 adolescents with violence behavior and 148 adolescents without violence behavior. The distribution of 5-HTT gene polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR and 5-HTTVNTR) was compared between the two groups. The role of 5-HTT gene polymorphism on adolescent personality, impulsion and aggression scale also was also analyzed. Stepwise logistic regression was used to establish a predictive model for adolescent violent crime. Significant difference was found between the violence group and the control group on multiple dimensions of psychology and environment scales. However, no statistical difference was found with regard to the 5-HTT genotypes and alleles between adolescents with violent behaviors and normal controls. The rate of prediction accuracy was not significantly improved when 5-HTT gene polymorphism was taken into the model. The violent crime of adolescents was closely related with social and environmental factors. No association was found between 5-HTT polymorphisms and adolescent violence criminal behavior.

  12. Effects of Parental Behavior on Tobacco Use by Young Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Janet N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluated social-developmental model of early adolescent tobacco involvement among 204 seventh-grade boys. Even after controlling for effects of parental and sibling tobacco use, positive relationships were found between harsh/inconsistent parenting and adolescent tobacco use, and negative relationships between nurturant/involved parenting…

  13. A study to assess the prevalence and pattern of substance use among male adolescents in suburban area of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Thankam Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: To assess the prevalence and pattern of substance use among male adolescents in Sunder Nagari, New Delhi. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was designed to assess the prevalence and pattern of substance use among male adolescents in New Delhi. One hundred and ten adolescents were conveniently selected from Sunder Nagari, New Delhi. Adolescents aged more than 11 years and able to read and write Hindi or English were included in the study. A structured questionnaire for demographic variables was developed by researchers. To assess the prevalence and pattern of substance use, a structured questionnaire was prepared with the reliability coefficient of 0.94 (test-retest reliability with a content validity index of 0.90 between the experts. Data were collected from the subjects after getting their written consent. Data analyzed using statistical package SPSS version 17.0. The level of significance was set as P < 0.05. Results: The study findings revealed that nearly more than half (55.6% of the male adolescents reported the use of one or more substances in their lifetime. About 44.26% of the adolescents started to use substances before 13 years of age. Most common reason specified by the subjects to take substance were to be liked by friends (57.38%, to feel like an adult (24.6%, and few of them reported: “like the feeling of substances” (13.11% as reason for taking substances. Common substances used by the subjects were any kind of tobacco (77.05%, inhalants (26.23%, and alcohol (11.47%. Most of the subjects were getting substances from their friends (85.25% and only a few (14.75% by themselves. Association analyses revealed that adolescents who studied less than 10th standard reported more usage of any kind of substances than who studied more than 10th standard. More prevalence of substance use was seen among adolescents who were from nuclear family. Subjects who had less than two siblings reported more substance

  14. Voluntary Binge Consumption of Ethanol in a Sweetened, Chocolate-Flavored Solution by Male and Female Adolescent Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosová, Dominika; Spear, Linda Patia

    2017-03-01

    The still maturing adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to lasting consequences of ethanol (EtOH) exposure. Yet, human adolescents are the age group most likely to engage in binge drinking (a pattern of drinking leading to blood EtOH concentrations (BECs) of 80 mg/dl or greater). Most studies to date assessing the long-term effects of adolescent EtOH exposure in outbred rodent populations have either used experimenter-administered EtOH to produce BECs in the binge range or assessed voluntary intake of EtOH at well below binge levels. Beginning with a modified schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) procedure, this study examined the suitability of several approaches to induce voluntary binge-like consumption during adolescence in an outbred rat strain. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats were food deprived to 85% projected free-feeding weights beginning on postnatal day (P) 24 and were given 30 minutes of access to 10% EtOH in chocolate Boost ® or Boost ® alone daily from P28 to P41 (followed later by their daily allocation of food). Animals were tested within operant chambers (Exp. 1a, 1b and Exp. 2) or home and novel cages (Exp. 3). Animals received either scheduled delivery of banana pellets to examine SIP (Exp. 1a,b) or massed pellet presentation (Exp. 2 and Exp. 3). Blood samples were collected via the lateral tail vein on P33 and P41. Intakes produced BECs frequently in the binge range (>80 mg/dl) and modeled binge-like consumption patterns, with high consumption days typically followed by 1 to 2 days of lower consumption; this variability was less evident with Boost ® alone. Consumption was not schedule induced and was generally high across all studies, although consumption in males appeared to be particularly pronounced when animals were tested in the presence of their cage mate. Binge-like patterns of EtOH consumption were produced using these procedures in adolescent Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes and may prove to be a useful

  15. An open-label trial of aripiprazole in the treatment of aggression in male adolescents diagnosed with conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Samuel; Calarge, Chadi; Kolar, Anne; Holman, Timothy; Barnett, Mitchell; Perry, Paul

    2011-11-01

    The adverse effect profiles of typical and atypical antipsychotics are problematic because of their extrapyramidal and endocrine adverse effects, respectively. Ten adolescent male patients diagnosed with conduct disorder received aripiprazole in doses of ≤20 mg/d in an open-label, intent-to-treat design to establish and characterize the efficacy of the drug in reducing aggressive behavior. Based on clinician and parent observations, aripiprazole was effective in reducing aggressive behavior in adolescent boys. The change in clinician-observed aggression ratings appears to have been driven by a decrease in physical aggression, whereas the change in parent-observed aggression ratings appears to have been driven by a decrease in verbal aggression and aggression against objects and animals. Aripiprazole was an effective and relatively well-tolerated treatment for overall aggression in adolescent males with conduct disorder, in the view of both clinicians and parents. Depending on the observer, aripiprazole improved aggression categorized as physical aggression, verbal aggression, and aggression against objects and animals.

  16. Adolescence and the ontogeny of the hormonal stress response in male and female rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Russell D; Patel, Ravenna; Pham, Laurie; So, Veronica M

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent development is marked by many changes in neuroendocrine function, resulting in both immediate and long-term influences on an individual's physiology and behavior. Stress-induced hormonal responses are one such change, with adolescent animals often showing different patterns of hormonal reactivity following a stressor compared with adults. This review will describe the unique ways in which adolescent animals respond to a variety of stressors and how these adolescent-related changes in hormonal responsiveness can be further modified by the sex and previous experience of the individual. Potential central and peripheral mechanisms that contribute to these developmental shifts in stress reactivity are also discussed. Finally, the short- and long-term programming effects of chronic stress exposure during adolescence on later adult hormonal responsiveness are also examined. Though far from a clear understanding of the neurobehavioral consequences of these adolescent-related shifts in stress reactivity, continued study of developmental changes in stress-induced hormonal responses may shed light on the increased vulnerability to physical and psychological dysfunctions that often accompany a stressful adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The invisible stereotypes of bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivony, Alon; Lobel, Thalma

    2014-08-01

    Bisexual men have little public visibility, yet previous reports indicate that heterosexuals have specific prejudicial attitudes towards them. This article reports on two studies that examined the stereotypical beliefs of heterosexual men and women regarding bisexual men. In Study 1 (n = 88), we examined awareness of social stereotypes (stereotype knowledge). Most of the participants were unable to describe the various stereotypes of bisexual men. Contrary to previous studies, low-prejudiced participants had more stereotype knowledge than high-prejudiced participants. In Study 2 (n = 232), we examined prejudice in a contextual evaluation task that required no stereotype knowledge. Participants evaluated a single target character on a first date: a bisexual man dating a heterosexual woman, a bisexual man dating a gay man, a heterosexual man dating a heterosexual woman, or a gay man dating a gay man. The findings indicated that participants implemented stereotypical beliefs in their evaluation of bisexual men: compared to heterosexual and gay men, bisexual men were evaluated as more confused, untrustworthy, open to new experiences, as well as less inclined towards monogamous relationships and not as able to maintain a long-term relationship. Overall, the two studies suggest that the stereotypical beliefs regarding bisexual men are prevalent, but often not acknowledged as stereotypes. In addition, the implementation of stereotypes in the evaluations was shown to be dependent on the potential romantic partner of the target. Possible theoretical explanations and implications are discussed.

  18. Should different marketing communication strategies be used to promote healthy eating among male and female adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; Ng, Yu-Leung; Prendergast, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine how interpersonal norms, media norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy had an influence on healthy eating intention among adolescents. A probability sample of 544 adolescents aged 12 to 18 was conducted. Results indicated that girls had a more favorable attitude and intention toward healthy eating than boys. Healthy eating intention among boys was predicted by attitude, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy, and among girls was predicted by perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Different marketing strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescent boys and girls should be adopted.

  19. To Message or Browse? Exploring the Impact of Phone Use Patterns on Male Adolescents' Consumption of Palatable Snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Ethan; Goh, Daniel; Vijayakumar, Kamalakannan M; Liu, Jean C J

    2017-01-01

    Surveys of mobile phone usage suggest that adolescents habitually use their phones while eating. In this study, we explored whether the manner in which one uses a mobile phone - to engage in a social or non-social activity - can affect appetite regulation. Participants were fifty male adolescents randomly assigned to engage in one of the following phone-based activities: (1) sending and receiving messages (social activity), or (2) reading a neutral article (non-social activity). When given the opportunity to snack, participants in the messaging group consumed more snacks that those who read the article. Our findings correspond to a large literature emphasizing social influences on food intake, and suggest that phone use patterns may predispose an individual to overeating.

  20. Type 2 Neural Progenitor Cell Activation Drives Reactive Neurogenesis after Binge-Like Alcohol Exposure in Adolescent Male Rats

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    Chelsea R. Geil Nickell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive alcohol consumption during adolescence remains a significant health concern as alcohol drinking during adolescence increases the likelihood of an alcohol use disorder in adulthood by fourfold. Binge drinking in adolescence is a particular problem as binge-pattern consumption is the biggest predictor of neurodegeneration from alcohol and adolescents are particularly susceptible to the damaging effects of alcohol. The adolescent hippocampus, in particular, is highly susceptible to alcohol-induced structural and functional effects, including volume and neuron loss. However, hippocampal structure and function may recover with abstinence and, like in adults, a reactive burst in hippocampal neurogenesis in abstinence may contribute to that recovery. As the mechanism of this reactive neurogenesis is not known, the current study investigated potential mechanisms of reactive neurogenesis in binge alcohol exposure in adolescent, male rats. In a screen for cell cycle perturbation, a dramatic increase in the number of cells in all phases of the cycle was observed at 7 days following binge ethanol exposure as compared to controls. However, the proportion of cells in each phase was not different between ethanol-exposed rats and controls, indicating that cell cycle dynamics are not responsible for the reactive burst in neurogenesis. Instead, the marked increase in hippocampal proliferation was shown to be due to a twofold increase in proliferating progenitor cells, specifically an increase in cells colabeled with the progenitor cell marker Sox2 and S-phase (proliferation marker, BrdU, in ethanol-exposed rats. To further characterize the individual subtypes of neural progenitor cells (NPCs affected by adolescent binge ethanol exposure, a fluorescent quadruple labeling technique was utilized to differentiate type 1, 2a, 2b, and 3 progenitor cells simultaneously. At one week into abstinence, animals in the ethanol exposure groups had an increase in

  1. Craving for cigarette smoking among male adolescents in Isfahan based on mindfulness and emotional self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratabadi, Mehdi; Halvaiepour, Zohreh; Abootorabi, Seyed Hashem

    2017-06-06

    Background Cigarette smoking among adolescents and its consequences are categorized as serious health problems. Cigarette craving is influenced by various psycho-social factors. Objective This study aimed to investigate desire and intention to smoke based on mindfulness and emotional self-regulation in adolescents. Methods In this correlational study conducted based on structural equation modeling, a sample of 350 male students was randomly selected from different schools of education districts in Isfahan. Three questionnaires, including Hooked on Nicotine Checklist, emotional regulation inventory, and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale were employed. Data were analyzed using χ2, correlation coefficient and structural modeling tests. In this regard, SPSS and AMOS software were used. Results The results showed that 62% of male students had experienced cigarette smoking at least once. There was a significant inverse correlation between cigarette craving and emotional reappraisal (r = -0.48), expressive suppression (r = -0.58) and mindfulness (r = -0.55), respectively (p self-regulation had indirect effects on nicotine craving. A total of 58% of the variance in nicotine craving was explained by the study variables. Conclusion The results showed that the high percentage of male students hooked on smoking is an important issue. In this regard, students' psychological issues such as efficient mechanisms of emotional regulation and their knowledge of the risks of smoking must be addressed by authorities and families.

  2. Hypopituitarism After Multiple Concussions: A Retrospective Case Study in an Adolescent Male

    OpenAIRE

    Ives, Jeffrey C; Alderman, Mark; Stred, Susan E

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development of hypopituitarism in an adolescent athlete after multiple concussions and to raise awareness among sports medicine clinicians concerning the growing concern of hypopituitarism in concussion injury surveillance and management.

  3. Family Rejection, Social Isolation, and Loneliness as Predictors of Negative Health Outcomes (Depression, Suicidal Ideation, and Sexual Risk Behavior) among Thai Male-to-Female Transgender Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadegarfard, Mohammadrasool; Meinhold-Bergmann, Mallika E.; Ho, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of family rejection, social isolation, and loneliness on negative health outcomes among Thai male-to-female transgender adolescents. The sample consisted of 260 male respondents, of whom 129 (49.6%) were self-identified as transgender and 131 (50.4%) were self-identified as cisgender (nontransgender). Initial…

  4. Predictors of Adolescent Male Body Image Dissatisfaction: Implications for Negative Health Practices and Consequences for School Health from a Regionally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, James E.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Kittleson, Mark; Welshimer, Kathleen J.; Partridge, Julie A.; Robertson, Stacia L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescent males are more likely to sustain intentional and unintentional injuries, be involved in a physical confrontation, and be successful in suicide attempts. Body image dissatisfaction (BID) has been linked as a possible contributing factor to these negative health behaviors and risks; however, research is limited with males. The…

  5. Pituitary insufficiency following traumatic thoracic injury in an adolescent male patient

    OpenAIRE

    Gilis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Kluczyński, Łukasz; Wilusz, Małgorzata; Pantofliński, Jacek; Turek-Jabrocka, Renata; Pach, Dorota; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Traumatic thoracic injuries in adolescents are rare but could be connected with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and development of chronic hypopituitarism. Early recognition of these endocrine problems is a significant challenge to clinicians. We present difficulties in diagnosis of hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency following traumatic thoracic injury in adolescence. We also review the literature of similar cases. Patient concerns: We present a case of a 24-years-old mal...

  6. Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Services and Implications for the Provision of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Results of a Systematic Literature Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R Kaufman

    Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC is a critical HIV prevention tool. Since 2007, sub-Saharan African countries with the highest prevalence of HIV have been mobilizing resources to make VMMC available. While implementers initially targeted adult men, demand has been highest for boys under age 18. It is important to understand how male adolescents can best be served by quality VMMC services.A systematic literature review was performed to synthesize the evidence on best practices in adolescent health service delivery specific to males in sub-Saharan Africa. PubMed, Scopus, and JSTOR databases were searched for literature published between January 1990 and March 2014. The review revealed a general absence of health services addressing the specific needs of male adolescents, resulting in knowledge gaps that could diminish the benefits of VMMC programming for this population. Articles focused specifically on VMMC contained little information on the adolescent subgroup. The review revealed barriers to and gaps in sexual and reproductive health and VMMC service provision to adolescents, including structural factors, imposed feelings of shame, endorsement of traditional gender roles, negative interactions with providers, violations of privacy, fear of pain associated with the VMMC procedure, and a desire for elements of traditional non-medical circumcision methods to be integrated into medical procedures. Factors linked to effective adolescent-focused services included the engagement of parents and the community, an adolescent-friendly service environment, and VMMC counseling messages sufficiently understood by young males.VMMC presents an opportune time for early involvement of male adolescents in HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health programming. However, more research is needed to determine how to align VMMC services with the unique needs of this population.

  7. Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Services and Implications for the Provision of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Results of a Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Van Lith, Lynn M; Mallalieu, Elizabeth C; Waxman, Aliza; Hatzhold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V; Kasedde, Susan; Lija, Gissenge; Hasen, Nina; Ncube, Gertrude; Samuelson, Julia L; Bonnecwe, Collen; Seifert-Ahanda, Kim; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is a critical HIV prevention tool. Since 2007, sub-Saharan African countries with the highest prevalence of HIV have been mobilizing resources to make VMMC available. While implementers initially targeted adult men, demand has been highest for boys under age 18. It is important to understand how male adolescents can best be served by quality VMMC services. A systematic literature review was performed to synthesize the evidence on best practices in adolescent health service delivery specific to males in sub-Saharan Africa. PubMed, Scopus, and JSTOR databases were searched for literature published between January 1990 and March 2014. The review revealed a general absence of health services addressing the specific needs of male adolescents, resulting in knowledge gaps that could diminish the benefits of VMMC programming for this population. Articles focused specifically on VMMC contained little information on the adolescent subgroup. The review revealed barriers to and gaps in sexual and reproductive health and VMMC service provision to adolescents, including structural factors, imposed feelings of shame, endorsement of traditional gender roles, negative interactions with providers, violations of privacy, fear of pain associated with the VMMC procedure, and a desire for elements of traditional non-medical circumcision methods to be integrated into medical procedures. Factors linked to effective adolescent-focused services included the engagement of parents and the community, an adolescent-friendly service environment, and VMMC counseling messages sufficiently understood by young males. VMMC presents an opportune time for early involvement of male adolescents in HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health programming. However, more research is needed to determine how to align VMMC services with the unique needs of this population.

  8. Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Services and Implications for the Provision of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Results of a Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lith, Lynn M.; Mallalieu, Elizabeth C.; Waxman, Aliza; Hatzhold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V.; Kasedde, Susan; Lija, Gissenge; Hasen, Nina; Ncube, Gertrude; Samuelson, Julia L.; Bonnecwe, Collen; Seifert-Ahanda, Kim; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Tobian, Aaron A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is a critical HIV prevention tool. Since 2007, sub-Saharan African countries with the highest prevalence of HIV have been mobilizing resources to make VMMC available. While implementers initially targeted adult men, demand has been highest for boys under age 18. It is important to understand how male adolescents can best be served by quality VMMC services. Methods and Findings A systematic literature review was performed to synthesize the evidence on best practices in adolescent health service delivery specific to males in sub-Saharan Africa. PubMed, Scopus, and JSTOR databases were searched for literature published between January 1990 and March 2014. The review revealed a general absence of health services addressing the specific needs of male adolescents, resulting in knowledge gaps that could diminish the benefits of VMMC programming for this population. Articles focused specifically on VMMC contained little information on the adolescent subgroup. The review revealed barriers to and gaps in sexual and reproductive health and VMMC service provision to adolescents, including structural factors, imposed feelings of shame, endorsement of traditional gender roles, negative interactions with providers, violations of privacy, fear of pain associated with the VMMC procedure, and a desire for elements of traditional non-medical circumcision methods to be integrated into medical procedures. Factors linked to effective adolescent-focused services included the engagement of parents and the community, an adolescent-friendly service environment, and VMMC counseling messages sufficiently understood by young males. Conclusions VMMC presents an opportune time for early involvement of male adolescents in HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health programming. However, more research is needed to determine how to align VMMC services with the unique needs of this population. PMID:26938639

  9. Anxious Attachment, Social Isolation, and Indicators of Sex Drive and Compulsivity: Predictors of Child Sexual Abuse Perpetration in Adolescent Males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A

    2016-03-01

    It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Adolescent Male Conduct-Disordered Patients in Substance Use Disorder Treatment: Examining the "Limited Prosocial Emotions" Specifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Joseph T; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Young, Susan E; Rhee, Soo Hyun; McWilliams, Shannon K; Dunn, Robin; Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Thurstone, Christian; Hopfer, Christian J

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the DSM-5-defined conduct disorder (CD) with limited prosocial emotions (LPE) among adolescents in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment, despite the high rates of CD in this population. We tested previously published methods of LPE categorization in a sample of male conduct-disordered patients in SUD treatment (n=196). CD with LPE patients did not demonstrate a distinct pattern in terms of demographics or co-morbidity regardless of the categorization method utilized. In conclusion, LPE, as operationalized here, does not identify a distinct subgroup of patients based on psychiatric comorbidity, SUD diagnoses, or demographics.

  11. Vulnerabilidade de gênero para a paternidade em homens adolescentes Gender vulnerability for parenthood among male adolescents

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    Anecy de Fátima Faustino Almeida

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as relações de gênero vivenciadas por adolescentes do sexo masculino e como elas contribuem para torná-los vulneráveis à gravidez na adolescência. MÉTODOS: Estudo qualitativo realizado em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, em 2003. Participaram 13 adolescentes masculinos com menos de 20 anos, com um único filho de até 11 meses, cuja mãe estava na mesma faixa etária do pai. Realizaram-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas gravadas. Após transcrição, procedeu-se à análise temática de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: Identificaram-se estereótipos de gênero em que se destacavam papéis de líder, provedor e ativo sexualmente, bem como a rejeição a ser cuidador. Esses papéis apareceram consolidados principalmente na perspectiva dos entrevistados acerca do trabalho como marcador de sua condição de homem e provedor da família. A liderança dos adolescentes prevaleceu no relacionamento com a mãe de seu filho, notadamente na iniciativa das relações sexuais e no uso de contraceptivos. A gravidez foi considerada por eles como "por acaso" e inesperada, mas a paternidade foi vivenciada como uma prova final de sua condição de homens adultos. CONCLUSÕES: Verificou-se a condição de vulnerabilidade dos adolescentes para a paternidade em virtude da socialização de gênero nos moldes tradicionais. Isso foi evidenciado com a ausência dos papéis relativos ao cuidado consigo próprio e com os outros, com a incorporação precoce de papéis de dominação sexual masculina e de trabalhador e pai, ou seja, deixar de ser criança e alcançar a condição de homem.OBJECTIVE: To analyze gender relations perceived by male adolescents and how they contribute to making them more vulnerable to pregnancy during adolescence. METHODS: Qualitative study carried out in Campo Grande, Midwestern Brazil, in 2003. Subjects were 13 male adolescents under 20 years of age, fathers of an only child aged up to 11 months whose mother was in the same

  12. Attitudes toward Bisexual Men and Women among a Nationally Representative Probability Sample of Adults in the United States.

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    Brian Dodge

    Full Text Available As bisexual individuals in the United States (U.S. face significant health disparities, researchers have posited that these differences may be fueled, at least in part, by negative attitudes, prejudice, stigma, and discrimination toward bisexual individuals from heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. Previous studies of individual and social attitudes toward bisexual men and women have been conducted almost exclusively with convenience samples, with limited generalizability to the broader U.S.Our study provides an assessment of attitudes toward bisexual men and women among a nationally representative probability sample of heterosexual, gay, lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. Data were collected from the 2015 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB, via an online questionnaire with a probability sample of adults (18 years and over from throughout the U.S. We included two modified 5-item versions of the Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Scale (BIAS, validated sub-scales that were developed to measure attitudes toward bisexual men and women. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, gamma regression, and paired t-tests. Gender, sexual identity, age, race/ethnicity, income, and educational attainment were all significantly associated with participants' attitudes toward bisexual individuals. In terms of responses to individual scale items, participants were most likely to "neither agree nor disagree" with all attitudinal statements. Across sexual identities, self-identified other participants reported the most positive attitudes, while heterosexual male participants reported the least positive attitudes. As in previous research on convenience samples, we found a wide range of demographic characteristics were related with attitudes toward bisexual individuals in our nationally-representative study of heterosexual, gay/lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. In particular, gender emerged as a significant

  13. Attitudes toward Bisexual Men and Women among a Nationally Representative Probability Sample of Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbenick, Debby; Friedman, M. Reuel; Schick, Vanessa; Fu, Tsung-Chieh (Jane); Bostwick, Wendy; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Pletta, David; Reece, Michael; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2016-01-01

    As bisexual individuals in the United States (U.S.) face significant health disparities, researchers have posited that these differences may be fueled, at least in part, by negative attitudes, prejudice, stigma, and discrimination toward bisexual individuals from heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. Previous studies of individual and social attitudes toward bisexual men and women have been conducted almost exclusively with convenience samples, with limited generalizability to the broader U.S. population. Our study provides an assessment of attitudes toward bisexual men and women among a nationally representative probability sample of heterosexual, gay, lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. Data were collected from the 2015 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB), via an online questionnaire with a probability sample of adults (18 years and over) from throughout the U.S. We included two modified 5-item versions of the Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Scale (BIAS), validated sub-scales that were developed to measure attitudes toward bisexual men and women. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, gamma regression, and paired t-tests. Gender, sexual identity, age, race/ethnicity, income, and educational attainment were all significantly associated with participants' attitudes toward bisexual individuals. In terms of responses to individual scale items, participants were most likely to “neither agree nor disagree” with all attitudinal statements. Across sexual identities, self-identified other participants reported the most positive attitudes, while heterosexual male participants reported the least positive attitudes. As in previous research on convenience samples, we found a wide range of demographic characteristics were related with attitudes toward bisexual individuals in our nationally-representative study of heterosexual, gay/lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. In particular, gender emerged as a significant

  14. Childhood Gender Atypicality, Victimization, and PTSD among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Augelli, Anthony R.; Grossman, Arnold H.; Starks, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined childhood gender atypicality, lifetime victimization based on sexual orientation, and current mental health, including trauma symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), among 528 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Nearly 80% reported verbal victimization, 11% physical, and 9% sexual, with males reporting significantly…

  15. Functional bisporangiate cones in Pinus johannis (Pinaceae): Implications for the evolution of bisexuality in seed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Whipple, Amy V; Piñero, Daniel; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Domínguez, C A

    2011-01-01

    Bisexuality (male and female function in one structure) has been reported as a key innovation of angiosperms. Although there are several reports of "teratological" bisporangiate (bisexual) cones in gymnosperms, there have been none on the viability of their ovules and pollen. Analyses of the development and arrangement of female and male structures on bisporangiate cones of Pinus johannis enables us to gain insight on the origin of bisexuality in seed plants, for both angiosperms and gymnosperms. Viability of bisporangiate cones was assayed by performing manual crosses and using anatomical and histological methods. We determined that bisporangiate cones of P. johannis produce functional pollen and ovules. Male and female organs occupy basal and apical positions, respectively, the same positions found in almost all bisporangiate strobili in gymnosperms and bisexual flowers in angiosperms. The viability and spatial distribution of female and male organs of bisporangiate cones and their frequent occurrence in gymnosperms suggest a common mechanism in all seed plants for the production of bisporangiate structures. This idea is further supported by the presence of homologous genes for sexual organ identity in gymnosperms and angiosperms as reported by other authors. The lack of bisporangiate structure in gymnosperms may be primarily due to selection to avoid inbreeding rather than to genetic constraint.

  16. Sexual Behaviors and Experiences among Behaviorally Bisexual Men in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Reece, Michael; Martinez, Omar; Goncalves, Gabriel; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Research examining the sexual behaviors and experiences of behaviorally bisexual men is limited. Most studies focus primarily on highlighting sexual risk behaviors among groups of “men who have sex with men (MSM)” or “gay and bisexual men,” which may not be appropriate in terms of behaviorally bisexual men’s sexual repertoires with both men and women. This study aimed to assess a broad range of sexual behaviors and associated experiences among bisexual men living in the midwestern United States. An interviewer-administered questionnaire containing items from the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior assessed lifetime and recent (i.e., past six months and last event) sexual behaviors and experiences with both male and female partners among a diverse sample of 75 behaviorally bisexual men. Responses were quantified and analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistics. A wide range of sexual behaviors with partners of both genders was found. Vaginal intercourse and oral sex with both men and women were the most commonly reported behaviors. Subjective reports of pleasure, arousal, and sexual function during sexual activity were similar with both male and female partners. Many participants reported using condoms during insertive sexual behaviors with male and female partners, but less during oral sex. Unprotected receptive anal sex was less commonly reported. Overall, participants reported a variety of sexual behaviors and experiences; however, unlike other populations, they shared these with partners of both genders. Results have implications for interventions targeting the sexual behaviors and associated issues among behaviorally bisexual men. PMID:22187027

  17. Internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction of at-risk black male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enger, J M; Howerton, D L; Cobbs, C R

    1994-06-01

    We investigated the relationship between three factors--internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction--for at-risk Black male adolescents in the United States. Forty-two male students in Grades 6, 7, and 8 who had been identified by their teachers as being at risk completed the Locus of Control Scale for Children (Nowicki & Strickland, 1973), the Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1967), and the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (Blake, 1991). A moderate positive relationship found between self-esteem and parental verbal interaction was consistent with a previous finding for White high school students. A moderate negative relationship found between locus of control and self-esteem differed from a previous finding of no significant relationship for Black elementary children. A weak, yet significant, negative relationship was found between locus of control and parental verbal interaction.

  18. The plight of absent fathers caused by migrant work: Its traumatic impact on adolescent male children in Zimbabwe

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    Ananias K. Nyanjaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article revealed the degree of trauma experienced by male adolescents when their fathers are absent. The cost of this absence could not be balanced with the material benefits the children have enjoyed, for the benefits have been outweighed by the trauma that children experience in the absence of their fathers. The emotions and tears expressed during the research journey have revealed that material support cannot compensate for the love and presence children expect from their fathers. The deep hurt instilled in their hearts by the periods of absence angered them and led to traumatic experiences. The protracted period of living with only one primary caregiver has imprisoned them into the feminised environment, thereby robbing them of a male identity. Therefore, this article was devoted to creating a shepherding model of caring for boys whose fathers are absent.

  19. A cross-cultural study investigating body features associated with male adolescents' body dissatisfaction in Australia, China, and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David; Hucker, Alice; Waterhouse, Monique; binti Mamat, Norul Hidayah; Xu, Xiaoyan; Cochrane, Jamie; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated how dissatisfaction with particular aspects of the body was associated with overall body dissatisfaction among male adolescents in Western and Asian cultures. One hundred and six Malaysian Malays, 55 Malaysian Chinese, 195 Chinese from China, and 45 non-Asian Australians aged 12 to 19 years completed a questionnaire assessing dissatisfaction with their overall body and dissatisfaction with varying aspects of their body. Dissatisfaction with the face, height, and hair was positively correlated with overall body dissatisfaction among Malaysian Malays after body mass index, age and dissatisfaction with body areas typically included in measures (weight/shape, upper, middle, and lower body, and muscles) had been controlled for. Dissatisfaction with the face was positively correlated with overall body dissatisfaction among Malaysian Chinese. These findings demonstrate the differences in body focus for males from different cultures and the importance of using assessment measures that address all possible areas of body focus. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. The Experiences of Tobacco Use among South-Western Taiwanese Adolescent Males

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    Rei-Mei Hong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Most smokers start young. Initiation of cigarette smoking at an earlier age leads to more life-years for tobacco use, makes quitting harder, and increases the risk of serious health consequences. Despite these challenges, research focusing on smoking behavior among adolescent boys in Taiwan is rare. Although the Taiwanese government enacted the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in 2009, aimed at prevention and reducing the rate of smoking, the percentage of high school students who smoke has continued to increase. In 2006, 7.5% of adolescent boys engaged in smoking. By 2012 the rate had increased to 24.6%. This paper explores the experiences that contribute to adolescent Taiwanese boys making the decision to smoke. A phenomenological approach to inquiry was used as the philosophical foundations for this study with twelve adolescent boys who engaged in smoking behaviors. Data was gathered through two face-to-face semi-structured interviews and a focus group. Data analysis was performed using Colaizzi’s analysis method. Findings indicated that decisions to begin smoking were motivated by curiosity and as a means of establishing friendships while decisions to continue smoking were linked to the addictive nature of smoking and as a means of coping with stress and passing the time. The findings can be used to inform the prevention of tobacco use and to reduce the high smoking rates among adolescent boys.

  1. Role models and occupational ambitions of in-school male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Ahmad Azmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A role model is perceived as worthy of imitation, their selection can indicate significant elements of psychosocial health and self-projection in adolescents. Patterns of behavior and lifestyle choices established during adolescence can have immediate and lasting effects on health. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was undertaken in the schools of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. The sample frame was 2347, out of which a sample of 390 students was studied. Data collected were entered and analyzed by SPSS for Windows version 10%. Results: Majority (62.7% of adolescents revealed that their role models were Film Star (34.8% and their Teachers (27.9%, Parents (14.3%, Sportsman (12.0%. Politicians as the role models were opted by least proportion (1.2%. Desire of future occupation was Businessmen (27.9%, Doctor (18.6, and Engineer (14.4%. Conclusion: Nearly all adolescents had a role model. There is greater impact of cinema on the minds of adolescents, which resulted in choosing film actors as their role model. Aspiration of future occupation was not related to the characteristics of the role model.

  2. The role of adolescent behaviors in the female-male disparity in obesity incidence in US black and white young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Whitney R; Stevens, June; Kaufman, Jay S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-07-01

    In the United States, black women are at much greater risk for obesity than black men. We explored whether adolescent behaviors (family dinners, hours of television, playing sports with mother, playing sports with father, bouts of physical activity) were associated with gender disparity in 6-year obesity incidence in young adulthood. We used data from the nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine adolescent behaviors in nonimmigrant black (n = 1,503) and white (n = 4,452) youths in 1994-95 (aged 11-19 years) and 1995-96 (aged 12-20). We assessed gender disparity in obesity incidence (female incidence minus male incidence) during young adulthood (2001-02; aged 18-26). Standardized gender disparities were calculated using race- and gender-stratified, covariate-adjusted logistic regression models in which males and females were set to the same distributions of adolescent behaviors. In adolescence, black females reported less leisure-time physical activity and lower likelihood of playing sports with either parent compared with black males. Setting adolescent behaviors equal for black males and females did not reduce the estimated gender disparity in obesity incidence (nonstandardized: 9.8 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5, 15.1); fully standardized: 10.2 percentage points (5.2, 15.2)). There was little gender disparity in whites before or after adjustments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine to what extent behavioral differences during adolescence might account for gender disparity in obesity incidence in black young adults. Male-female differences in these adolescent behaviors did not appear to underlie the gender gap in young adult obesity.

  3. Stability of Sexual Attractions Across Different Timescales: The Roles of Bisexuality and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lisa M; Dickenson, Janna A; Blair, Karen L

    2017-01-01

    We examined the stability of same-sex and other-sex attractions among 294 heterosexual, lesbian, gay, and bisexual men and women between the ages of 18 and 40 years. Participants used online daily diaries to report the intensity of each day's strongest same-sex and other-sex attraction, and they also reported on changes they recalled experiencing in their attractions since adolescence. We used multilevel dynamical systems models to examine individual differences in the stability of daily attractions (stability, in these models, denotes the tendency for attractions to "self-correct" toward a person-specific setpoint over time). Women's attractions showed less day-to-day stability than men's, consistent with the notion of female sexual fluidity (i.e., heightened erotic sensitivity to situational and contextual influences). Yet, women did not recollect larger post-adolescent changes in sexual attractions than did men, and larger recollected post-adolescent changes did not predict lower day-to-day stability in the sample as a whole. Bisexually attracted individuals recollected larger post-adolescent changes in their attractions, and they showed lower day-to-day stability in attractions to their "less-preferred" gender, compared to individuals with exclusive same-sex or exclusive other-sex attractions. Our results suggest that both gender and bisexuality have independent influences on sexual fluidity, but these influences vary across short versus long timescales, and they also differ for attractions to one's "more-preferred" versus "less-preferred" gender.

  4. Lesbian and bisexual women's sexual healthcare experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Siân; Cook, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    To develop insight into the experiences of lesbian and bisexual women accessing sexual health services and an understanding of their needs within the New Zealand context. Lesbian and bisexual women are typically invisible in healthcare settings due to heteronormative assumptions. As lesbian and bisexual women are reluctant to come out to clinicians, opportunities for targeted opportunistic health education are often missed. Lesbian and bisexual women have different needs from both heterosexual women and gay men when seeking healthcare. There has been little exploration of the experiences of lesbian and bisexual women accessing healthcare in the New Zealand context. Qualitative descriptive design. Participants (n = 6) were recruited via advertisements and snowball sampling. Those recruited lived in a provincial city in New Zealand; self-identified as lesbian or bisexual; and met the inclusion criteria. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were used to obtain narrative data about participants being recipients of healthcare. Five themes were identified within the data set: Heteronormativity; The conundrum of safer sex; Implied and overt homophobia; Engagement with health promotion; and Resilience. This study highlighted the difficulties that lesbian and bisexual women face when seeking sexual healthcare, primarily due to clinicians' heteronormative assumptions. Lesbian and bisexual women have found ways of navigating the health system that make them feel safe(r) despite experiencing many adversities such as homophobia. This study's findings can be used to guide further research to identify ways to optimise clinicians' engagement with lesbian and bisexual women. Recognition of diversity and skilful communication are essential to rectify inequities and effectively target health information. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Dopamine uptake inhibitors but not dopamine releasers induce greater increases in motor behavior and extracellular dopamine in adolescent rats than in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Q David; Morris, Sarah E; Arrant, Andrew E; Nagel, Jacqueline M; Parylak, Sarah; Zhou, Guiying; Caster, Joseph M; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2010-10-01

    Most life-long drug addiction begins during adolescence. Important structural and functional changes in brain occur during adolescence and developmental differences in forebrain dopamine systems could mediate a biologic vulnerability to drug addiction during adolescence. Studies investigating age differences in psychostimulant responses have yielded mixed results, possibly because of different mechanisms for increasing extracellular dopamine. Recent research from our laboratory suggests that adolescent dopamine systems may be most affected by selective dopamine uptake inhibitors. We investigated age-related behavioral responses to acute administration of several dopamine uptake inhibitors [methylphenidate, 1-{2-[bis-(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl}-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (GBR12909), and nomifensine] and releasing agents [amphetamine and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] in adolescent and adult male rats. Methylphenidate and amphetamine effects on stimulated dopamine efflux were determined using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in vivo. Dopamine uptake inhibitors but not dopamine releasing agents induced more locomotion and/or stereotypy in adolescent relative to adult rats. MDMA effects were greater in adults at early time points after dosing. Methylphenidate but not amphetamine induced much greater dopamine efflux in periadolescent relative to adult rats. Periadolescent male rats are particularly sensitive to psychostimulants that are DAT inhibitors but are not internalized and do not release dopamine. Immaturity of DAT and/or DAT associated signaling systems in adolescence specifically enhances behavioral and dopaminergic responses in adolescence.

  6. The interactive effect of the MAOA-VNTR genotype and childhood abuse on aggressive behaviors in Chinese male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Ming, Qingsen; Wang, Xiang; Yao, Shuqiao

    2016-06-01

    Gene-environment interactions that moderate aggressive behavior have been identified in association with the MAOA (monoamine oxidase A) gene. The present study examined the moderating effect of MAOA-VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) on aggression behavior relating to child abuse among Chinese adolescents. A sample of 507 healthy Chinese male adolescents completed the Child Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and Youth Self-report of the Child Behavior Checklist. The participants' buccal cells were sampled and subjected to DNA analysis. The effects of childhood abuse (CTQ-SF scores), MAOA-VNTR [high-activity allele (H) versus low-activity allele (L)], and their interaction in aggressive behaviors were analyzed by linear regression. Child maltreatment was found to be a significant independent factor in the manifestation of aggressive behavior, whereas MAOA activity was not. There was a significant interaction between MAOA-VNTR and childhood maltreatment in the exhibition of aggressive behaviors. In the context of physical or emotional abuse, boys in the MAOA-L group showed a greater tendency toward aggression than those in the MAOA-H group. Aggressive behavior arising from childhood maltreatment is moderated by MAOA-VNTR, which may be differentially sensitive to the subtype of childhood maltreatment experienced, among Chinese adolescents.

  7. Family rejection as a predictor of negative health outcomes in white and Latino lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Caitlin; Huebner, David; Diaz, Rafael M; Sanchez, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    We examined specific family rejecting reactions to sexual orientation and gender expression during adolescence as predictors of current health problems in a sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults. On the basis of previously collected in-depth interviews, we developed quantitative scales to assess retrospectively in young adults the frequency of parental and caregiver reactions to a lesbian, gay, or bisexual sexual orientation during adolescence. Our survey instrument also included measures of 9 negative health indicators, including mental health, substance abuse, and sexual risk. The survey was administered to a sample of 224 white and Latino self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults, aged 21 to 25, recruited through diverse venues and organizations. Participants completed self-report questionnaires by using either computer-assisted or pencil-and-paper surveys. Higher rates of family rejection were significantly associated with poorer health outcomes. On the basis of odds ratios, lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults who reported higher levels of family rejection during adolescence were 8.4 times more likely to report having attempted suicide, 5.9 times more likely to report high levels of depression, 3.4 times more likely to use illegal drugs, and 3.4 times more likely to report having engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse compared with peers from families that reported no or low levels of family rejection. Latino men reported the highest number of negative family reactions to their sexual orientation in adolescence. This study establishes a clear link between specific parental and caregiver rejecting behaviors and negative health problems in young lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Providers who serve this population should assess and help educate families about the impact of rejecting behaviors. Counseling families, providing anticipatory guidance, and referring families for counseling and support can help make a critical

  8. The effects of plyometric training followed by detraining and reduced training periods on explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effects of (a) plyometric training on explosive strength indicators in adolescent male basketball players and (b) detraining and reduced training on previously achieved explosive strength gains. Two groups were formed: an experimental and a control group. The former was submitted to a 10-week in-season plyometric training program, twice weekly, along with regular basketball practice. Simultaneously, the control group participated in regular basketball practice only. At the end of this period, the experimental group was subdivided into 2 groups: a reduced training group and a detraining group. All participants were assessed on squat jump, countermovement jump, Abalakov test, depth jump, mechanical power, and medicine ball throw at the beginning and at the end of the 10-week in-season plyometric training and on weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 of the in-season detraining and reduced training periods. In the first phase of the study, the experimental group significantly increased all the assessed indicators (p training showed positive effects on upper- and lower-body explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players. Moreover, we can state that both detraining and a reduced training program indistinctly contribute to maintenance of strength levels. These results highlight the unique power that basketball-specific training seems to have on the sustainability and maintenance of sport performance.

  9. The Transition From Thinness-Oriented to Muscularity-Oriented Disordered Eating in Adolescent Males: A Clinical Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Stuart B; Griffiths, Scott; Mitchison, Deborah; Mond, Jonathan M

    2017-03-01

    Robust empirical evidence has illustrated a rising prevalence of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among males, noting that both may be oriented more toward muscularity-as opposed to thinness-oriented concerns. While an elevated prevalence of premorbid anorexia nervosa (AN) has been noted among those with muscle dysmorphia, little evidence has examined the process of this transition from thinness-oriented to muscularity-oriented disordered eating. This clinical observation presents a case of AN in an adolescent male, whose symptom presentation transitioned during the course of treatment for AN, into more muscularity-oriented disordered eating. Despite the core body image disturbance and disordered eating behaviors being retained, the behavioral expression of muscularity-oriented disordered eating was difficult to detect during treatment for AN, and he was discharged from treatment as his muscularity-oriented disordered eating escalated. Transdiagnostic crossover between thinness-oriented and muscularity-oriented disordered eating represents an important clinical concern, which may be challenging to measure and assess. Implications for treatment are discussed, and the early detection of muscularity-oriented disordered eating. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Behavioral Measure of Costly Helping: Replicating and Extending the Association with Callous Unemotional Traits in Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Joseph T; Dalwani, Manish S; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; McWilliams, Shannon K; Raymond, Kristen M; Crowley, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Some conduct-disordered youths have high levels of callous unemotional traits and meet the DSM-5's "with limited prosocial emotions" (LPE) specifier. These youths often do aggressive, self-benefitting acts that cost others. We previously developed a task, the AlAn's game, which asks participants to repeatedly decide whether to accept or reject offers in which they will receive money but a planned charity donation will be reduced. In our prior work, more "costly helping" (i.e., rejecting the offered money and protecting the donation) was associated with lower callous unemotional traits. Here we extend that prior work in a larger sample of adolescent male patients with serious conduct problems and controls, and test whether this association is mediated specifically by a Moral Elevation response (i.e., a positive emotional response to another's act of virtue). The adolescent male participants were: 45 patients (23 with LPE) and 26 controls, who underwent an extensive phenotypic assessment including a measure of Moral Elevation. About 1 week later participants played the AlAn's game. All AlAn's game outcomes demonstrated significant group effects: (1) money taken for self (p = 0.02); (2) money left in the charitable donation (p = 0.03); and, (3) costly helping (p = 0.047). Controls took the least money and did the most costly helping, while patients with LPE took the most money and did the least costly helping. Groups also significantly differed in post-stimulus Moral Elevation scores (p = 0.005). Exploratory analyses supported that the relationship between callous unemotional traits and costly helping on the AlAn's game may be mediated in part by differences in Moral Elevation. The AlAn's game provides a standardized behavioral measure associated with callous unemotional traits. Adolescents with high levels of callous unemotional traits engage in fewer costly helping behaviors, and those differences may be related to blunting of positive emotional responses.

  11. A Behavioral Measure of Costly Helping: Replicating and Extending the Association with Callous Unemotional Traits in Male Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Sakai

    Full Text Available Some conduct-disordered youths have high levels of callous unemotional traits and meet the DSM-5's "with limited prosocial emotions" (LPE specifier. These youths often do aggressive, self-benefitting acts that cost others. We previously developed a task, the AlAn's game, which asks participants to repeatedly decide whether to accept or reject offers in which they will receive money but a planned charity donation will be reduced. In our prior work, more "costly helping" (i.e., rejecting the offered money and protecting the donation was associated with lower callous unemotional traits. Here we extend that prior work in a larger sample of adolescent male patients with serious conduct problems and controls, and test whether this association is mediated specifically by a Moral Elevation response (i.e., a positive emotional response to another's act of virtue.The adolescent male participants were: 45 patients (23 with LPE and 26 controls, who underwent an extensive phenotypic assessment including a measure of Moral Elevation. About 1 week later participants played the AlAn's game.All AlAn's game outcomes demonstrated significant group effects: (1 money taken for self (p = 0.02; (2 money left in the charitable donation (p = 0.03; and, (3 costly helping (p = 0.047. Controls took the least money and did the most costly helping, while patients with LPE took the most money and did the least costly helping. Groups also significantly differed in post-stimulus Moral Elevation scores (p = 0.005. Exploratory analyses supported that the relationship between callous unemotional traits and costly helping on the AlAn's game may be mediated in part by differences in Moral Elevation.The AlAn's game provides a standardized behavioral measure associated with callous unemotional traits. Adolescents with high levels of callous unemotional traits engage in fewer costly helping behaviors, and those differences may be related to blunting of positive emotional responses.

  12. The Difference in Comorbidities and Behavioral Aspects between Internet Abuse and Internet Dependence in Korean Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, June-Young; Park, E-Jin; Kwon, Min; Choi, Ji-Hye; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Sam Wook; Lee, Chang-Uk; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the differences in psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects in accordance with the severity of Internet addiction in male adolescents. One hundred and twenty-five adolescents from four middle and high schools in Seoul were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups according to a diagnostic interview by psychiatrists. The psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects of subjects were evaluated through psychiatric clinical interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition), the Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Internet Addiction Test, and a self-reported questionnaire about behavioral aspects. The psychiatric comorbidity distributions were significantly different in the abuse and dependence groups, particularly in terms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and mood disorder items. The Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Internet Addiction Test scores were also significantly different among the three groups. There were significant differences in 10 of the 20 items of the Internet Addiction Test between the non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups. There were significant differences in seven items between the non-addict and abuse groups, but no differences between subjects in the abuse and dependence groups. Significant differences were observed in three items between the abuse and dependence groups, but there were no significant differences between the non-addict and abuse groups. In terms of behavioral aspects, scores for abusive, sexual, and decreased social interest behaviors were highest in the dependence group, and lowest in the non-addict group. However, the behavioral aspects of decreased interpersonal relationships did not show this difference between groups. This study suggests that there are differences in psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral

  13. Program for Adolescents (Male and Female) in Corrective Institutions- Rikers Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Shirley A.

    This project funded under Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I, was designed to improve the mathematics skills of 328 males and females serving prison sentences or awaiting trial in the Rikers Island Penitentiary. For the male population exclusively, the project was designed to improve reading skills and English usage and comprehension. The…

  14. Broadening the Concept of Adolescent Promiscuity: Male Accountability Made Visible and the Implications for Family Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankoski, Mary E.; Payer, Rosemary; Steinberg, Marilyn

    1996-01-01

    Looks at male promiscuity and the gender bias that holds females accountable for sexual activity. Examines communication patterns, family structure, and other factors. Argues that family therapists can alter family communication patterns, redefine boundaries, and promote healthy parental involvement to make an impact on the issue of male sexual…

  15. The Relationship between Pubertal Timing and Delinquent Behavior in Maltreated Male and Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between pubertal timing and delinquent behavior across two time points in a sample of 303 maltreated and 151 comparison adolescents aged between 9 and 13 years at enrollment. The first aim was to examine the relationship between pubertal timing and delinquency for the total sample and then to test for gender…

  16. Quality of Life of Adolescent Males with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolski, Tari D.; Edwards, Todd C.; Patrick, Donald L.; Varley, Patti; Way, Margaret E.; Buesching, Don P.

    2004-01-01

    Most psychosocial research on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has focused on deficits in school, family, or behavioral functioning without incorporating perceived quality of life (QoL) or the adolescents' perspective. The Youth Quality of Life Instrument-Research Version (YQOL-R), was used to assess self-perceived QoL in a…

  17. Attentional bias and disinhibition toward gaming cues are related to problem gaming in male adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holst, R.J.; Lemmens, J.S.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.; Veltman, D.J.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine whether behavioral tendencies commonly related to addictive behaviors are also related to problematic computer and video game playing in adolescents. The study of attentional bias and response inhibition, characteristic for addictive disorders, is

  18. Attentional Bias and Disinhibition Toward Gaming Cues Are Related to Problem Gaming in Male Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holst, Ruth J.; Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen; Veltman, Dick J.; Goudriaan, Anna E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine whether behavioral tendencies commonly related to addictive behaviors are also related to problematic computer and video game playing in adolescents. The study of attentional bias and response inhibition, characteristic for addictive disorders, is

  19. Attentional bias and disinhibition toward gaming cues are related to problem gaming in male adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holst, R.J.; Lemmens, J.S.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.; Veltman, D.J.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine whether behavioral tendencies commonly related to addictive behaviors are also related to problematic computer and video game playing in adolescents. The study of attentional bias and response inhibition, characteristic for addictive disorders, is

  20. Boys Meet Girls' Rights: Bolivian Adolescent Males' Claims of Commitment to Gender Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study exploring the effects of community-based human rights and pro-equality education on Bolivian adolescent boys. By privileging the boys' own voices, the study examines how the boys' sense of solidarity toward others, derived from the citizenship duties and collegiality emphasised in non-governmental…

  1. Depression as a Moderator of Sociocultural Influences on Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Females and Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…

  2. Associated Factors for Self-Reported Binge Eating among Male and Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Sylvie; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Adolescents (n=3,287) completed questionnaire concerning eating behaviors. Found that binge eaters had disorderly eating habits (skipping meals, snacking, eating sweets, unbalanced diets), concern with body shape (feeling too fat), and depressive symptoms more often than nonbinge eaters did. Relationship between binging episodes and eating habits,…

  3. Weightlifting Training and Hormonal Responses in Adolescent Males: Implications for Program Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Andrew C.; Schilling, Brian K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses monitoring of the training tolerance of junior- aged weightlifters, focusing on: whether the hormonal system can be used to monitor training status; puberty and the hormonal environment; whether training stresses can be monitored by the hormonal environment; adolescent weightlifters' hormonal response during a lifting session; whether…

  4. Male or Female Therapists for Eating-Disordered Adolescents: Guidelines Suggested by Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilker, Larry

    1993-01-01

    Explores which therapist-patient gender matches facilitate most patient growth and avoid detriment to female patients with eating disorders. Distills relevant variables from literature on eating disorders, adolescence, transference and countertransference, and psychotherapy to suggest guidelines for effective matches. Sees therapist and patient…

  5. The Diet Quality of Competitive Adolescent Male Rugby Union Players with Energy Balance Estimated Using Different Physical Activity Coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy; Harries, Simon K; Williams, Rebecca L; Lum, Cheryl; Callister, Robin

    2016-09-07

    The aims of the current study were to comprehensively assess the dietary intakes and diet quality of a sample of Australian competitive adolescent rugby union players and compare these intakes with National and Sports Dietitians Association (SDA) Recommendations for adolescent athletes. A secondary aim investigated applying different physical activity level (PAL) coefficients to determine total energy expenditure (TEE) in order to more effectively evaluate the adequacy of energy intakes. Cross-sectional. Anthropometrics and dietary intakes were assessed in 25 competitive adolescent male rugby union players (14 to 18 years old). Diet was assessed using the validated Australian Eating Survey (AES) food frequency questionnaire and diet quality was assessed through the Australian Recommended Food Score. The median dietary intakes of participants met national recommendations for percent energy (% E) from carbohydrate, protein and total fat, but not carbohydrate intake when evaluated as g/day as proposed in SDA guidelines. Median intakes of fibre and micronutrients including calcium and iron also met national recommendations. Overall diet quality was classified as 'good' with a median diet quality score of 34 (out of a possible 73); however, there was a lack of variety within key food groups including carbohydrates and proteins. Non-core food consumption exceeded recommended levels at 38% of the daily total energy intake, with substantial contributions from takeaway foods and sweetened beverages. A PAL coefficient of 1.2-1.4 was found to best balance the energy intakes of these players in their pre-season. Adolescent rugby players met the percent energy recommendations for macronutrients and attained an overall 'good' diet quality score. However, it was identified that when compared to specific recommendations for athletes, carbohydrate intakes were below recommendations and these players in their pre-season reported high consumption of non-core foods, particularly sugar

  6. The Diet Quality of Competitive Adolescent Male Rugby Union Players with Energy Balance Estimated Using Different Physical Activity Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy; Harries, Simon K.; Williams, Rebecca L.; Lum, Cheryl; Callister, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of the current study were to comprehensively assess the dietary intakes and diet quality of a sample of Australian competitive adolescent rugby union players and compare these intakes with National and Sports Dietitians Association (SDA) Recommendations for adolescent athletes. A secondary aim investigated applying different physical activity level (PAL) coefficients to determine total energy expenditure (TEE) in order to more effectively evaluate the adequacy of energy intakes. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometrics and dietary intakes were assessed in 25 competitive adolescent male rugby union players (14 to 18 years old). Diet was assessed using the validated Australian Eating Survey (AES) food frequency questionnaire and diet quality was assessed through the Australian Recommended Food Score. Results: The median dietary intakes of participants met national recommendations for percent energy (% E) from carbohydrate, protein and total fat, but not carbohydrate intake when evaluated as g/day as proposed in SDA guidelines. Median intakes of fibre and micronutrients including calcium and iron also met national recommendations. Overall diet quality was classified as ‘good’ with a median diet quality score of 34 (out of a possible 73); however, there was a lack of variety within key food groups including carbohydrates and proteins. Non-core food consumption exceeded recommended levels at 38% of the daily total energy intake, with substantial contributions from takeaway foods and sweetened beverages. A PAL coefficient of 1.2–1.4 was found to best balance the energy intakes of these players in their pre-season. Conclusions: Adolescent rugby players met the percent energy recommendations for macronutrients and attained an overall ‘good’ diet quality score. However, it was identified that when compared to specific recommendations for athletes, carbohydrate intakes were below recommendations and these players in their pre

  7. The Diet Quality of Competitive Adolescent Male Rugby Union Players with Energy Balance Estimated Using Different Physical Activity Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Burrows

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of the current study were to comprehensively assess the dietary intakes and diet quality of a sample of Australian competitive adolescent rugby union players and compare these intakes with National and Sports Dietitians Association (SDA Recommendations for adolescent athletes. A secondary aim investigated applying different physical activity level (PAL coefficients to determine total energy expenditure (TEE in order to more effectively evaluate the adequacy of energy intakes. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometrics and dietary intakes were assessed in 25 competitive adolescent male rugby union players (14 to 18 years old. Diet was assessed using the validated Australian Eating Survey (AES food frequency questionnaire and diet quality was assessed through the Australian Recommended Food Score. Results: The median dietary intakes of participants met national recommendations for percent energy (% E from carbohydrate, protein and total fat, but not carbohydrate intake when evaluated as g/day as proposed in SDA guidelines. Median intakes of fibre and micronutrients including calcium and iron also met national recommendations. Overall diet quality was classified as ‘good’ with a median diet quality score of 34 (out of a possible 73; however, there was a lack of variety within key food groups including carbohydrates and proteins. Non-core food consumption exceeded recommended levels at 38% of the daily total energy intake, with substantial contributions from takeaway foods and sweetened beverages. A PAL coefficient of 1.2–1.4 was found to best balance the energy intakes of these players in their pre-season. Conclusions: Adolescent rugby players met the percent energy recommendations for macronutrients and attained an overall ‘good’ diet quality score. However, it was identified that when compared to specific recommendations for athletes, carbohydrate intakes were below recommendations and these players in their

  8. Association between playing computer games and mental and social health among male adolescents in Iran in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mehrnoosh; RezaeiDehaghani, Abdollah; Mehrabi, Tayebeh; RezaeiDehaghani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    As adolescents spend much time on playing computer games, their mental and social effects should be considered. The present study aimed to investigate the association between playing computer games and the mental and social health among male adolescents in Iran in 2014. This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 210 adolescents selected by multi-stage random sampling. Data were collected by Goldberg and Hillier general health (28 items) and Kiez social health questionnaires. The association was tested by Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and independent t-test. Computer games related factors such as the location, type, length, the adopted device, and mode of playing games were investigated. Results showed that 58.9% of the subjects played games on a computer alone for 1 h at home. Results also revealed that the subjects had appropriate mental health and 83.2% had moderate social health. Results showed a poor significant association between the length of games and social health (r = -0.15, P = 0.03), the type of games and mental health (r = -0.16, P = 0.01), and the device used in playing games and social health (F = 0.95, P = 0.03). The findings showed that adolescents' mental and social health is negatively associated with their playing computer games. Therefore, to promote their health, educating them about the correct way of playing computer games is essential and their parents and school authorities, including nurses working at schools, should determine its relevant factors such as the type, length, and device used in playing such games.

  9. Social instability stress in adolescent male rats reduces social interaction and social recognition performance and increases oxytocin receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Travis E; Baumbach, Jennet L; Marcolin, Marina L; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2017-09-17

    Social experiences in adolescence are essential for displaying context-appropriate social behaviors in adulthood. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in adolescence had reduced social interactions with unfamiliar peers compared with non-stressed controls (CTL). Here we determined whether SS altered social recognition and social reward and brain oxytocin and vasopressin receptor density in adolescence. We confirmed that SS rats spent less time interacting with unfamiliar peers than did CTL rats (p=0.006). Furthermore, CTL rats showed a preference for novel over familiar conspecifics in a social recognition test whereas SS rats did not, which may reflect reduced recognition, impaired memory, or reduced preference for novelty in SS rats. The reward value of social interactions was not affected by SS based on conditioned place preference tests and based on the greater time SS rats spent investigating stimulus rats than did CTL rats when the stimulus rat was behind wire mesh (p=0.03). Finally, oxytocin receptor binding density was higher in the dorsal lateral septum and nucleus accumbens shell in SS rats compared with CTL rats (p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively). No effect of SS was found for vasopressin 1a receptor binding density in any of the brain regions analyzed. We discuss the extent to which the differences in social behavior exhibited after social instability in adolescence involve changes in social salience and social competency, and the possibility that changes in oxytocin signaling in the brain underlie the differences in social behavior. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stress during adolescence increases novelty seeking and risk taking behavior in male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eToledo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of major physical, hormonal and psychological change. It is also characterized by a significant increase in the incidence of psychopathologies and this increase is gender-specific. Likewise, stress during adolescence is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. Previously, using a rat model of psychogenic stress (exposure to predator odor followed by placement on an elevated platform during the pre-pubertal period (postnatal days 28-30, we reported sex-specific effects on auditory and contextual fear conditioning. Here, we study the short-term impact of psychogenic stress before and during puberty (postnatal days 28-42 on behavior (novelty seeking, risk taking, anxiety and depression and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis activation during late adolescence (postnatal days 45-51. Peri-pubertal stress decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased risk taking and novelty seeking behaviors during late adolescence (measured with the elevated plus maze, open field and exposure to novel object tests and intake of chocopop pellets before or immediate after stress. Finally neither depressive-like behavior (measured at the forced swim test nor HPA response to stress (blood corticosterone and glucose were affected by peri-pubertal stress. Nevertheless, when controlling for the basal anxiety of the mothers, animals exposed to peri-pubertal stress showed a significant decrease in corticosterone levels immediate after an acute stressor. The results from this study suggest that exposure to mild stressors during the peri-pubertal period induces a broad spectrum of behavioral changes in late adolescence, which may exacerbate the independence-building behaviors naturally happening during this transitional period (increase in curiosity, sensation-seeking and risk taking behaviors.

  11. Health Risk Behaviors in a Representative Sample of Bisexual and Heterosexual Female High School Students in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Hughto, Jaclyn M.; Biello, Katie B.; Reisner, Sari L.; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Heflin, Katherine J.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Differences in sexual health-related outcomes by sexual behavior and identity remain underinvestigated among bisexual female adolescents. Methods: Data from girls (N?=?875) who participated in the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance survey were analyzed. Weighted logistic regression models were fit to examine sexual and…

  12. Applying Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making to Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datti, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Incorporating J. D. Krumboltz's (1979) social learning theory of career decision making, the author explores career development issues for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (GLBTQ) adolescents and young adults. Unique challenges for the GLBTQ population are discussed, specific recommendations for effective career counseling with…

  13. Social defeat stress induces depression-like behavior and alters spine morphology in the hippocampus of adolescent male C57BL/6 mice

    OpenAIRE

    I?iguez, Sergio D.; Aubry, Antonio; Riggs, Lace M.; Alipio, Jason B.; Zanca, Roseanna M.; Flores-Ramirez, Francisco J.; Hernandez, Mirella A.; Nieto, Steven J.; Musheyev, David; Serrano, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Social stress, including bullying during adolescence, is a risk factor for common psychopathologies such as depression. To investigate the neural mechanisms associated with juvenile social stress-induced mood-related endophenotypes, we examined the behavioral, morphological, and biochemical effects of the social defeat stress model of depression on hippocampal dendritic spines within the CA1 stratum radiatum. Adolescent (postnatal day 35) male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to defeat episodes fo...

  14. Ahead of the game protocol: a multi-component, community sport-based program targeting prevention, promotion and early intervention for mental health among adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Stewart A; Swann, Christian; Batterham, Marijka; Boydell, Katherine M; Eckermann, Simon; Fogarty, Andrea; Hurley, Diarmuid; Liddle, Sarah K; Lonsdale, Chris; Miller, Andrew; Noetel, Michael; Okely, Anthony D; Sanders, Taren; Telenta, Joanne; Deane, Frank P

    2018-03-21

    There is a recognised need for targeted community-wide mental health strategies and interventions aimed specifically at prevention and early intervention in promoting mental health. Young males are a high need group who hold particularly negative attitudes towards mental health services, and these views are detrimental for early intervention and help-seeking. Organised sports provide a promising context to deliver community-wide mental health strategies and interventions to adolescent males. The aim of the Ahead of the Game program is to test the effectiveness of a multi-component, community-sport based program targeting prevention, promotion and early intervention for mental health among adolescent males. The Ahead of the Game program will be implemented within a sample drawn from community sporting clubs and evaluated using a sample drawn from a matched control community. Four programs are proposed, including two targeting adolescents, one for parents, and one for sports coaches. One adolescent program aims to increase mental health literacy, intentions to seek and/or provide help for mental health, and to decrease stigmatising attitudes. The second adolescent program aims to increase resilience. The goal of the parent program is to increase parental mental health literacy and confidence to provide help. The coach program is intended to increase coaches' supportive behaviours (e.g., autonomy supportive behaviours), and in turn facilitate high-quality motivation and wellbeing among adolescents. Programs will be complemented by a messaging campaign aimed at adolescents to enhance mental health literacy. The effects of the program on adolescent males' psychological distress and wellbeing will also be explored. Organised sports represent a potentially engaging avenue to promote mental health and prevent the onset of mental health problems among adolescent males. The community-based design, with samples drawn from an intervention and a matched control community

  15. Highly palatable food access during adolescence increased anxiety-/depression-like behaviors in male, but not in female, rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Doyun; Park, Kyungpyo; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2017-04-11

    This study was conducted to examine the sexual dimorphic effects of highly palatable food (HPF) access during adolescence on the neurochemistry and depression-/anxiety-like behaviors of rats. Male and female Sprague-Dawley pups had free access to chocolate cookie rich in fat (HPF) from postnatal day 28 in addition to ad libitum chow, and the control groups received only chow. The food conditions were continued throughout the entire experimental period, and the neurochemical and behavioral measurements were performed during young adulthood. Rats were subjected to the ambulatory activity, elevated plus maze, and forced swim tests. Corticosterone levels during 2 h of restraint stress were analyzed with radioimmunoassay, and ΔFosB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) with Western blot analysis. Cookie access did not affect body weight gain and total caloric intake in both sexes; however, it increased retroperitoneal fat depot only in males. The time spent in open arms during elevated plus maze test was decreased and immobility during forced swim test was increased in cookie-fed males, but not in cookie-fed females. Main effect of food condition on the stress-induced corticosterone increase was observed in males, but not in females, and cookie access increased BDNF expression in the NAc only in males. Increased BDNF expression in the NAc and fat depot, in addition to the stress axis dysfunction, may play roles in the pathophysiology of depression- and/or anxiety-like behaviors induced by cookie access.

  16. Identifying mechanisms that underlie links between COMT genotype and aggression in male adolescents with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    van Goozen, Stephanie H.M.; Langley, Kate; Northover, Clare; Hubble, Kelly; Rubia, Katya; Schepman, Karen; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Thapar, Anita

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Background: There is a known strong genetic contribution to aggression in those with ADHD. In a previous investigation of a large population cohort, impaired 'emotional/social cognitive' processing, assessed by questionnaire, was observed to mediate the link between COMT Val158Met and aggression in individuals with ADHD. We set out to replicate and extend this finding in a clinical sample, using task-based and physiological assessment...

  17. Does Motor Competence Affect Self-Perceptions Differently for Adolescent Males and Females?

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Rose; Dawne Larkin; Helen Parker; Beth Hands

    2015-01-01

    Little is understood about the impact of level of motor competence on self-perceptions in adolescence, in particular how this may differentially affect girls and boys. A sample of 1,568 14-year-old participants (766 girls and 802 boys) were grouped into four motor competence levels (very low to high) based on the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND). Self-perceptions were assessed using the Self-Perc...

  18. Metabolic, endocrine and appetite-related responses to acute and daily milk snack consumption in healthy, adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benjamin P; Stevenson, Emma J; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2017-01-01

    Comprising of two experiments, this study assessed the metabolic, endocrine and appetite-related responses to acute and chronic milk consumption in adolescent males (15-18 y). Eleven adolescents [mean ± SD age: 16.5 ± 0.9 y; BMI: 23.3 ± 3.3 kg/m 2 ] participated in the acute experiment and completed two laboratory visits (milk vs. fruit-juice) in a randomized crossover design, separated by 7-d. Seventeen adolescents [age: 16.1 ± 0.9 y; BMI: 21.8 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ] completed the chronic experiment. For the chronic experiment, a parallel design with two groups was used. Participants were randomly allocated and consumed milk (n = 9) or fruit-juice (n = 8) for 28-d, completing laboratory visits on the first (baseline, day-0) and last day (follow-up, day-28) of the intervention phase. On laboratory visits (for both experiments), measures of appetite, metabolism and endocrine responses were assessed at regular intervals. In addition, eating behavior was quantified by ad libitum assessment under laboratory conditions and in the free-living environment by weighed food record. Acute milk intake stimulated glucagon (P = 0.027 [16.8 pg mL; 95% CI: 2.4, 31.3]) and reduced ad libitum energy intake relative to fruit-juice (P = 0.048 [-651.3 kJ; 95% CI: -1294.1, -8.6]), but was comparable in the free-living environment. Chronic milk intake reduced free-living energy intake at the follow-up visit compared to baseline (P = 0.013 [-1910.9 kJ; 95% CI: -554.6, -3267.2]), whereas the opposite was apparent for fruit-juice. Relative to baseline, chronic milk intake increased the insulin response to both breakfast (P = 0.031) and mid-morning milk consumption (P = 0.050) whilst attenuating blood glucose (P = 0.025). Together, these findings suggest milk consumption impacts favorably on eating behavior in adolescent males, potentially through integrated endocrine responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness in males, and upper limbs muscular strength in females, are positively related with 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma concentrations in European adolescents: the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtueña, J; Gracia-Marco, L; Huybrechts, I; Breidenassel, C; Ferrari, M; Gottrand, F; Dallongeville, J; Sioen, I; Gutierrez, A; Kersting, M; Kafatos, A; Manios, Y; Widhalm, K; Moreno, L A; González-Gross, M

    2013-09-01

    High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (strength (B = 0.168; P lower BMI and high fitness score presented significant higher 25(OH)D concentrations than those at lower fitness score in the other BMI groups (P limbs muscular strength are positively associated with 25(OH)D concentrations in male and female adolescents, respectively. Adiposity in males and low fat free mass in females are related to hypovitaminosis D. The interaction between fitness and BMI has a positive effect on 25(OH)D concentrations. Therapeutic interventions to correct the high rates of vitamin D deficiency in adolescents should consider physical fitness.

  20. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids and Condom Use: Potential Mechanisms in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Gordon, Janna R.; Safren, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has revealed a significant bivariate relationship between anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and reduced condom use among adolescent boys. However, to date, no known studies have explored the psychological mechanisms that may explain this relationship. Thus, the current study sought to examine two possible mediators in the association between AAS and condom use—depressive symptoms and substance use. Data were extracted from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents. Participants were 3,780 U.S. high school boys who responded to self-report items assessing a number of health behaviors, including symptoms of depression, substance use, AAS use, and use of condoms during their most recent act of intercourse. Both depression and substance use were significant mediators in the relationship between AAS and condom use. However, when these effects were contrasted, the indirect effect of substance use was significantly stronger in magnitude than the effect of depression. Although AAS use is associated with sexual risk behaviors among adolescent boys, significant variance in this relationship is accounted for by elevated levels of depression and substance use, with substance use demonstrating a particularly salient pathway. PMID:23718635

  1. Demographic analysis of arrhenotokous parthenogenesis and bisexual reproduction of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tianbo; Chi, Hsin; Gökçe, Ayhan; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Bin

    2018-02-20

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a serious pest that is capable of bisexual and arrhenotokous reproduction. In arrhenotokous reproduction, virgin females initially produce male offspring; later, when their sons are sexually mature, the mothers begin bisexual reproduction by carrying out oedipal mating with their sons. Because a virgin female produces many male offspring before oedipal mating occurs, multiple oedipal mating is common. In this study, we investigated the effect of multiple oedipal mating on the population growth of F. occidentalis by using the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. In the arrhenotokous cohorts, all unfertilized eggs developed into males. In the bisexual cohorts, the offspring sex ratio was significantly female biased with the mean number of female offspring and male offspring being 72.68 and 29.00, respectively. These were the same as the net reproductive rate of female offspring and male offspring. In arrhenotokous cohorts, the number of males available for oedipal mating significantly affected the production of female offspring. The number of female offspring increased as the number of sons available for oedipal mating increased. Correctly characterizing this unique type of reproduction will provide important information for predicting the timing of future outbreaks of F. occidentalis, as well as aiding in formulating successful management strategies against the species.

  2. Combat sports practice favors bone mineral density among adolescent male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Raouf; Hassen Zrour, Saoussen; Rebai, Haithem; Neffeti, Fadoua; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Bergaoui, Naceur; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of combat sports practice on bone mineral density (BMD) and to analyze the relationship between bone parameters and anthropometric measurements, bone markers, and activity index (AI). In other words, to detect the most important determinant of BMD in the adolescent period among combat sports athletes. Fifty athletes engaged in combat sports, mean age 17.1±0.2 yr, were compared with 30 sedentary subjects who were matched for age, height, and pubertal stage. For all subjects, the whole-body BMD, lumbar spine BMD (L2-L4), and BMD in the pelvis, arms, and legs was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and anthropometric measurements were evaluated. Daily calcium intake, bone resorption, and formation markers were measured. BMD measurements were greater in the combat sports athletes than in the sedentary group (pAI was strongly correlated with all BMD measurements particularly with the whole body, legs, and arms. Negative correlations were observed between bone markers and BMD in different sites. The common major predictor of BMD measurements was AI (pAI associated to lean body mass determined whole-body BMD until 74%. AI explained both BMD in arms and L2-L4 at 25%. AI associated to height can account for 63% of the variance in BMD legs. These observations suggested that the best model predicting BMD in different sites among adolescent combat sports athletes was the AI. Children and adolescents should be encouraged to participate in combat sports to maximize their bone accrual. Copyright © 2015 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marc A; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J; Russell, Mark

    2015-10-02

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day(-1) (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day(-1) (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg(-1) BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day(-1) (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg(-1) BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of -1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (-2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (-2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players.

  4. Effects of bingeing on fat during adolescence on the reinforcing effects of cocaine in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gandía, M Carmen; Cantacorps, Lídia; Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Aguilar, María A; Manzanares, Jorge; Valverde, Olga; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2017-02-01

    Binge eating is a specific form of overeating characterized by intermittent excessive eating. In addition to altering the neurobiological reward system, several studies have highlighted that consumption of palatable food increases vulnerability to drug use. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a high-fat diet consumed in a binge pattern during adolescence on the reinforcing effects of cocaine. After 40 days of binge-eating for 2 h, three days a week (PND 29-69), the reinforcing effects of cocaine on conditioning place preference and intravenous self-administration paradigm were evaluated in adolescent male mice. Circulating leptin and ghrelin levels and the effects of bingeing on fat on CB1 mu opioid receptor (MOr) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR) gene expression in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc) and Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) were also assessed. Our results showed a significant escalation in the consumption of a high-fat diet between the first and last week. High-fat binge (HFB) animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of a subthreshold dose of cocaine in the paradigms assayed, and animals under fat withdrawal were more vulnerable to the reinstatement of conditioned place preference. HFB mice also showed enhanced cocaine self-administration. After fat withdrawal, exposure to a new fat binge reinstated cocaine seeking. Although HFB did not modify leptin levels, a decrease in plasmatic ghrelin was observed. Moreover, this pattern of fatty diet resulted in a reduction of MOr and CB1 gene expression in the NAcc and an increase in GHSR expression in the VTA. We propose that bingeing on fat during adolescence induces long-lasting changes in the brain through the sensitization of brain reward circuits, which predisposes individuals to seek cocaine during adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between playing computer games and mental and social health among male adolescents in Iran in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mehrnoosh; RezaeiDehaghani, Abdollah; Mehrabi, Tayebeh; RezaeiDehaghani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: As adolescents spend much time on playing computer games, their mental and social effects should be considered. The present study aimed to investigate the association between playing computer games and the mental and social health among male adolescents in Iran in 2014. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 210 adolescents selected by multi-stage random sampling. Data were collected by Goldberg and Hillier general health (28 items) and Kiez social health questionnaires. The association was tested by Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and independent t-test. Computer games related factors such as the location, type, length, the adopted device, and mode of playing games were investigated. Results: Results showed that 58.9% of the subjects played games on a computer alone for 1 h at home. Results also revealed that the subjects had appropriate mental health and 83.2% had moderate social health. Results showed a poor significant association between the length of games and social health (r = −0.15, P = 0.03), the type of games and mental health (r = −0.16, P = 0.01), and the device used in playing games and social health (F = 0.95, P = 0.03). Conclusions: The findings showed that adolescents’ mental and social health is negatively associated with their playing computer games. Therefore, to promote their health, educating them about the correct way of playing computer games is essential and their parents and school authorities, including nurses working at schools, should determine its relevant factors such as the type, length, and device used in playing such games. PMID:27095988

  6. An exploration of the attitudinal and perceptual dimensions of body image among male and female adolescents from six Latin American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Laura H; Holbert, Donald; Peña, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Using survey methodology, this exploratory study examined the attitudinal and perceptual dimensions of body image among 1,272 eighth- and ninth-grade males and females from higher and lower socioeconomic backgrounds in Buenos Aires, Argentina (n = 195), Guatemala City, Guatemala (n = 212), Havana, Cuba (n = 213), Lima, Peru (n = 218), Panama City, Panama (n = 195), and Santiago, Chile (n = 239). The two dimensions of body image were assessed by showing the participants nine male and nine female silhouettes depicting body sizes ranging from extremely thin (#1) to extremely obese (#9). Approximately 50% of the male and female adolescents chose silhouette #3 as best depicting the attractive male body. Silhouette #2 was chosen by 45% of the females as best depicting feminine attractiveness, while 45% of the males chose silhouette #3. When identifying the silhouette that best depicted the healthy male body, 26% of the participants chose silhouette #2, 41% chose #3, and 19% chose #4. Silhouette #2 was selected by 33% of the adolescents as best depicting the healthy female body, 38% chose #3, and 14% chose #4. In all cities, the effect of body mass index (BMI) on body satisfaction was highly significant (p cities, a significantly higher (p < 0.05) percentage of females than males desired to be thinner, the exception being Havana, where the distribution of desired change in body size was almost identical for males and females. Findings suggest a need for culturally sensitive, age- and gender-specific preventive interventions focusing on the importance of achieving a healthy weight during adolescence to promote body size acceptance among adolescents who are at a healthy weight.

  7. Ohio Appalachia public health department personnel: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability, and acceptance and concerns among parents of male and female adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Oldach, Benjamin R.; Katz, Mira L.

    2012-01-01

    Public health departments (n=48) serving the 32 counties of Ohio Appalachia were contacted to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability and to assess patient and parental attitudes, perceived barriers, and decisional differences about vaccination for male and female adolescents. Nurses or nursing supervisors in 46 of 48 health departments agreed to participate with 45 (97.8%) reporting that HPV vaccines were available for males and females. HPV vaccination barriers reported mo...

  8. Female and male adolescents' subjective orientations to mathematics and the influence of those orientations on postsecondary majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Felkner, Lara; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn; Schneider, Barbara; Grogan, Erin

    2012-11-01

    Although important strides toward gender parity have been made in several scientific fields, women remain underrepresented in the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences (PEMCs). This study examines the effects of adolescents' subjective orientations, course taking, and academic performance on the likelihood of majoring in PEMC in college. Results indicate that racial-ethnic and gender underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are interrelated and should be examined with attention to the intersecting factors influencing female and racial-ethnic minority adolescents' pathways toward careers in these fields. Among those who major in PEMC fields, women closely resemble men with respect to their subjective orientations. The effects of subjective orientations on women's chances of majoring in PEMC vary by their secondary school mathematics course completion levels. Women who take more mathematics courses are more likely to major in PEMC; however, course taking alone does not attenuate gender disparities in declaring these majors. High mathematics ability (as measured by standardized test scores in the 10th grade) appears to be positively associated with women's selection of social, behavioral, clinical, and health science majors. This association is less robust (and slightly negative) for women in PEMC. While advanced course taking appears to assist women in selecting PEMC majors, women who enter these fields may not be as strong as those who select other, less male-dominated scientific fields.

  9. Endocrine and molecular investigations in a cohort of 25 adolescent males with prominent/persistent pubertal gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, F; Gaspari, L; Mbou, F; Philibert, P; Audran, F; Morel, Y; Biason-Lauber, A; Sultan, C

    2016-03-01

    Pubertal gynecomastia is a common condition observed in up to 65% of adolescent males. It is usually idiopathic and tends to regress within 1-2 years. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we investigated 25 adolescent males with prominent (>B3) and/or persistent (>2 years) pubertal gynecomastia (P/PPG) to determine whether a hormonal/genetic defect might underline this condition. Endocrine investigation revealed the absence of hormonal disturbance for 18 boys (72%). Three patients presented Klinefelter syndrome and three a partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) as a result of p.Ala646Asp and p.Ala45Gly mutations of the androgen receptor gene. The last patient showed a 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency as a result of a compound heterozygous mutation of the CYP17A1 gene leading to p.Pro35Thr(P35T) and p.Arg239Stop(R239X) in the P450c17 protein. Enzymatic activity was analyzed: the mutant protein bearing the premature stop codon R239X showed a complete loss of 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activity. The mutant P35T seemed to retain 15-20% of 17α-hydroxylase and about 8-10% of 17,20-lyase activity. This work demonstrates that P/PPG had an endocrine/genetic cause in 28% of our cases. PAIS may be expressed only by isolated gynecomastia as well as by 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. Isolated P/PPG is not always a 'physiological' condition and should thus be investigated through adequate endocrine and genetic investigations, even though larger studies are needed to better determine the real prevalence of genetic defects in such patients. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Sexual identity development among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths: consistency and change over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Hunter, Joyce; Braun, Lisa

    2006-02-01

    A longitudinal report of 156 gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths examined changes in sexual identity over time. Fifty-seven percent of the youths remained consistently self-identified as gay/lesbian, 18% transited from bisexual to gay/lesbian, and 15% consistently identified as bisexual over time. Although youths who consistently identified as gay/lesbian did not differ from other youths on time since experiencing sexual developmental milestones, they reported current sexual orientation and sexual behaviors that were more same-sex centered and they scored higher on aspects of the identity integration process (e.g., more certain, comfortable, and accepting of their same-sex sexuality, more involved in gay-related social activities, more possessing of positive attitudes toward homosexuality, and more comfortable with others knowing about their sexuality) than youths who transited to a gay/lesbian identity and youths who consistently identified as bisexual. Contrary to the hypothesis that females are more sexually fluid than males, female youths were less likely to change identities than male youths. The finding that youths who transited to a gay/lesbian identity differed from consistently gay/lesbian youths suggests that identity integration continues after the adoption of a gay/lesbian sexual identity.

  11. Effects of Contraceptive Education on Adolescent Male Contraceptive Behavior and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between contraceptive education and teenage male contraceptive behavior was investigated. Findings indicated that brief or moderately in-depth contraceptive education had little effect on contraceptive behavior. The teenage pregnancy and other sex-related problems may make parents and schools more amenable to comprehensive…

  12. Stereotype Threat, Gender-Role Conformity, and New Zealand Adolescent Males in Choirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Penelope; Rubie-Davies, Christine Margaret; Hattie, John Allan

    2017-01-01

    Choirs have been stereotypically gendered feminine in many national contexts. When gender-role conformity has been expected in such settings, male choral participation and performance has often been rendered gender incongruent and consequently threatening. Gender stereotype threat was explored as a factor which might instigate a potentially…

  13. A Case Study of an Adolescent Male with XXXXY Klinefelter's Syndrome. Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Margaret K.; Radlinski, Sara

    1988-01-01

    The developmental history of a 14-year-old male with Klinefelter's Syndrome (XXXXY) is described. The boy's physical development was consistent with many patterns described in the XXXXY literature, although his retardation was not as severe as expected from the literature. (Author/DB)

  14. Effects of Teacher-to-Student Relatedness on Adolescent Male Motivation in a Weight Training Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddoes, Zack; Prusak, Keven; Barney, David; Wilkinson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the motivational profiles of male junior high weight training students differ across levels of teacher-to-student relatedness. One hundred and sixty six students participated in one of two units of instruction. Contextual motivation was measured using the Sport Motivation Scale II-Physical Education…

  15. Motivational Factors Influencing the Academic Achievement of Adolescent African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Mary Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study investigated the nuances of understanding motivational factors with respect to the problem of academic underachievement among African American males (AAM). This research is compelling because AAM still under perform as they progress through the educational system despite more than a decade of interventions targeting the…

  16. Frequent Users of Pornography. A Population Based Epidemiological Study of Swedish Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedin, Carl Goran; Akerman, Ingrid; Priebe, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    Frequent use of pornography has not been sufficiently studied before. In a Swedish survey 2015 male students aged 18 years participated. A group of frequent users of pornography (N = 200, 10.5%) were studied with respect to background and psychosocial correlates. The frequent users had a more positive attitude to pornography, were more often…

  17. Does Motor Competence Affect Self-Perceptions Differently for Adolescent Males and Females?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rose

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is understood about the impact of level of motor competence on self-perceptions in adolescence, in particular how this may differentially affect girls and boys. A sample of 1,568 14-year-old participants (766 girls and 802 boys were grouped into four motor competence levels (very low to high based on the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND. Self-perceptions were assessed using the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. Boys had higher self-perceptions of global self-worth, athletic competence, and physical appearance, whereas girls had higher scores for close friendships and behavioral conduct. Main effects in the predicted direction were found for motor competence for self-perceptions of global self-worth, athletic competence, physical appearance, close friendships, social acceptance, and romantic appeal. These findings indicate that level of motor competence is important in many aspects of self-perceptions, affecting girls and boys differently. Higher motor competence has a protective effect on psychosocial health, particularly for girls.

  18. Prevalence of eating disorders in female and male adolescents (14-15 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelsås, Einar; Bjørnstrøm, Christian; Götestam, K Gunnar

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to establish the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) in adolescents of both genders. To our knowledge, such data have not previously been published using both DSM-IV and DSM-III-R criteria. The study sample consisted of 1960 adolescents (1026 girls and 934 boys), 14-15 years of age. The participants completed the Survey for Eating Disorders (SEDs), including DSM-III-R and DSM-IV diagnoses for all subcategories of ED. Lifetime prevalence of any ED among girls was 17.9% anorexia nervosa (AN) 0.7%, bulimia nervosa (BN) 1.2%, binge eating disorder (BED) 1.5%, and EDs not otherwise specified (EDNOS) 14.6%. Corresponding numbers for boys for any ED is 6.5%, AN 0.2%, BN 0.4%, BED 0.9%, and EDNOS 5.0%. Our prevalence rates on AN, BN, and BED largely support previous school/community-based studies, while our figures on EDNOS were rather high. Generally, we found high numbers for boys with ED.

  19. Aerobic Capacity, Activity Levels and Daily Energy Expenditure in Male and Female Adolescents of the Kenyan Nandi Sub-Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R Gibson

    Full Text Available The relative importance of genetic and socio-cultural influences contributing to the success of east Africans in endurance athletics remains unknown in part because the pre-training phenotype of this population remains incompletely assessed. Here cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity levels, distance travelled to school and daily energy expenditure in 15 habitually active male (13.9±1.6 years and 15 habitually active female (13.9±1.2 adolescents from a rural Nandi primary school are assessed. Aerobic capacity ([Formula: see text] was evaluated during two maximal discontinuous incremental exercise tests; physical activity using accelerometry combined with a global positioning system; and energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method. The [Formula: see text] of the male and female adolescents were 73.9±5.7 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1 and 61.5±6.3 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1, respectively. Total time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activities per day was 406±63 min (50% of total monitored time, 244±56 min (30%, 75±18 min (9% and 82±30 min (10%. Average total daily distance travelled to and from school was 7.5±3.0 km (0.8-13.4 km. Mean daily energy expenditure, activity-induced energy expenditure and physical activity level was 12.2±3.4 MJ(. day(-1, 5.4±3.0 MJ(. day(-1 and 2.2±0.6. 70.6% of the variation in [Formula: see text] was explained by sex (partial R(2 = 54.7% and body mass index (partial R(2 = 15.9%. Energy expenditure and physical activity variables did not predict variation in [Formula: see text] once sex had been accounted for. The highly active and energy-demanding lifestyle of rural Kenyan adolescents may account for their exceptional aerobic fitness and collectively prime them for later training and athletic success.

  20. Versatility and addiction in gaming: the number of video-game genres played is associated with pathological gaming in male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Ammannato, Giulio; Primi, Caterina

    2015-02-01

    This study tested the predictive power of gaming versatility (i.e., the number of video game genres engaged in) on game addiction in male adolescents, controlling for time spent on gaming. Participants were 701 male adolescents attending high school (Mage=15.6 years). Analyses showed that pathological gaming was predicted not only by higher time spent on gaming, but also by participation in a greater number of video game genres. Specifically, the wider the array of video game genres played, the higher were the negative consequences caused by gaming. Findings show that versatility can be considered as one of the behavioral risk factors related to gaming addiction, which may be characterized by a composite and diversified experience with video games. This study suggests that educational efforts designed to prevent gaming addiction among youth may also be focused on adolescents' engagement in different video games.

  1. Ohio Appalachia public health department personnel: human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability, and acceptance and concerns among parents of male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldach, Benjamin R; Katz, Mira L

    2012-12-01

    Public health departments (n = 48) serving the 32 counties of Ohio Appalachia were contacted to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability and to assess patient and parental attitudes, perceived barriers, and decisional differences about vaccination for male and female adolescents. Nurses or nursing supervisors in 46 of 48 health departments agreed to participate with 45 (97.8 %) reporting that HPV vaccines were available for males and females. HPV vaccination barriers reported most frequently were lack of knowledge about the vaccines, concerns about potential side effects, the newness of the HPV vaccines, and parents believing their children were not sexually active or were too young to receive an HPV vaccine. Provider reports of the primary differences in the acceptability of an HPV vaccine among parents of males compared to the parents of females were lack of awareness that an HPV vaccine was available for males, not understanding why the vaccine should be given to males, and fear of vaccination increasing sexual promiscuity among female adolescents. Half of the health departments (n = 24) reported that parents of females were more receptive toward HPV vaccination, 16 health departments reported no difference in acceptability based on gender of the child, and 5 health departments reported that parents of males were more receptive. This study suggests that there are different informational needs of males and females and parents of male and female children when making an informed decision about HPV vaccination. Findings highlight content to include in strategies to increase HPV vaccination rates among Appalachia Ohio residents.

  2. Empirical Comparison of Three Treatments for Adolescent Males with Physical and Sexual Aggression: Mode Deactivation Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Social Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Jennings, Jerry L.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Hunter, Linda A.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2005-01-01

    This research study compared the efficacy of three treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment with conduct disorders and/or personality dysfunctions and documented problems with physical and sexual aggression. The results showed that Mode Deactivation Therapy, an advanced form of cognitive behavioral therapy based on…

  3. Sex Education for Male Adolescent Sex Offenders in a Group Setting Led by General Psychiatry Residents: A Literature Review and Example in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, R. Gregg; Boyd, Mary S.

    2009-01-01

    Male adolescents have been credited with a significant percentage of sex crimes in recent years. They are a heterogeneous population with offenses spanning the same range found among adult offenders. A lack of interpersonal social skills relevant to intimate relationships and inaccurate knowledge regarding appropriate sexual behaviors contribute…

  4. Self-Reported Emotional and Behavioral Problems, Family Functioning and Parental Bonding among Psychiatric Outpatient Adolescent Offspring of Croatian Male Veterans with Partial PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarajlic Vukovic, Iris; Boricevic Maršanic, Vlatka; Aukst Margetic, Branka; Paradžik, Ljubica; Vidovic, Domagoj; Buljan Flander, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male veterans has been linked with impaired family relationships and psychopathology in their children. Less is known about symptoms in children of veterans with partial PTSD. Objective: To compare mental health problems, family functioning and parent-child bonding among adolescent offspring of…

  5. A Case Study of the Identity Development of an Adolescent Male with Emotional Disturbance and 48, XYYY Karyotype in an Institutional Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to utilize a phenomenological case study design to investigate the individual and social identity development of an adolescent male who had been placed in a high-security group home setting. The participant had been identified with emotional disturbance (ED), and 48, XYYY karyotype. The participant described his social…

  6. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Dutch Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version--Findings from a Sample of Male Adolescents in a Juvenile Justice Treatment Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jacqueline; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo; Hillege, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Psychopathy Check List: Youth Version (PCL:YV) in a sample of male adolescents admitted to a secure juvenile justice treatment institution (N = 98). Hare's four-factor model is used to examine reliability and validity of the separate dimensions of…

  7. Part II: Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers and Delinquent Youth--Further Group Comparisons of Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, George S.; Burton, David L.; Howard, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper published in the "Journal of Child Sexual Abuse," we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers (Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to…

  8. Physical Activity of Male and Female Adolescents Living in a Town and a City in the Context of Public Health Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynarski, Wladyslaw; Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Rozpara, Michal; Garbaciak, Wieslaw

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the physical activity of male and female adolescents from Poland living in a town (Czechowice-Dziedzice) and in a city (Katowice). Material and methods: The research involved 431 high school students aged 16-18 years (249 from Czechowice-Dziedzice and 182 from Katowice). Physical activity was measured by the short form of the…

  9. The effect of 12-month participation in osteogenic and non-osteogenic sports on bone development in adolescent male athletes. The PRO-BONE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Barker, Alan R; Ubago-Guisado, Esther

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Research investigating the longitudinal effects of the most popular sports on bone development in adolescent males is scarce. The aim is to investigate the effect of 12-month participation in osteogenic and non-osteogenic sports on bone development. DESIGN: A 12-month study...

  10. A Review and Empirical Comparison of Three Treatments for Adolescent Males with Conduct and Personality Disorder: Mode Deactivation Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Social Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.

    2006-01-01

    This research study compared the efficacy of three treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment with conduct disorders and/or personality dysfunctions and documented problems with physical and sexual aggression. The results showed that Mode Deactivation Therapy, an advanced form of cognitive behavioral therapy based on…

  11. A Review and Empirical Comparison of Two Treatments for Adolescent Males with Conduct and Personality Disorder: Mode Deactivation Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Jennings, Jerry L.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2005-01-01

    This research study compared the efficacy of two treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment with conduct disorders and/or personality dysfunctions and documented problems with physical and sexual aggression. The results showed that Mode Deactivation Therapy, an advanced form of cognitive behavioral therapy based on…

  12. "I Have Goals to Prove All Those People Wrong and Not Fit into Any One of Those Boxes": Paths of Resistance to Stereotypes among Black Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Way, Niobe

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents form their identities by both accommodating (endorsing) and resisting (challenging) cultural stereotypes. Most research on Black males focuses on how they accommodate to negative stereotypes (e.g., delinquency, aggression), but a growing literature emphasizes how youth resist stereotypes. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed to…

  13. A Boxing-Oriented Exercise Intervention for Obese Adolescent Males: Findings from a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah P. Shultz, Lee Stoner, Danielle M. Lambrick, Andrew M. Lane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, obese Māori and Pasifika adolescents are at risk of numerous cardio-metabolic conditions with raising physical activity levels being proposed as a useful intervention. The present study used a mixed method design to explore the effects of a non-contact boxing-oriented training programme designed in terms of improvements to cardio-metabolic variables. Traditional recruitment strategies (media, referrals were employed, with limited success leading to 3 adolescent boys (14-15 y participating in the pilot intervention. Exercise sessions included 30 minutes of non-contact boxing training, followed by 30 minutes of progressive resistance training. Participants attended three 1h training sessions each week, for a total of 12 weeks. Physiological variables included anthropometric indices, visceral fat thickness, central blood pressures, central arterial stiffness (augmentation index: AIx, and carotid arterial stiffness (β. Results revealed that there was no trend for change in body weight (125.5 ± 12.1 kg vs. 126.5 ± 11.0 kg or BMI (39.3 ± 4.1 kg·m-2 vs. 39.0 ± 4.6 kg·m-2. However, there was a moderate decrease in visceral fat thickness (4.34 ± 2.51 cm vs 3.65 ± 1.11 cm, d = 0.36. There was no change in central pulse pressure (38.7 ± 7.3 mmHg vs. 38.3 ± 5.0 mmHg, however, there was a small improvement in β (3.01 ± 0.73 vs. 2.87 ± 0.84, d = 0.18. Focus group interview data with participants and their parents were used to explore issues related to motivation to participation. Results revealed participants commented on how the programme has led to new friendships, changes to their physical appearance, and increased physical fitness. Parents commented on increased self-confidence, better performance in school, and a willingness to take part in new activities. In conclusion, it appears participating in the boxing oriented training programme was motivating to participants who engaged and had some physiological benefits in obese

  14. Perceived Social Support from Family and Friends and Early Maladaptive Schemas among Female and Male Delinquent and Non-delinquent Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita khodabakhshi koolaee1

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Adolescence, period of transition from childhood to adulthood, is time with changes in social, psychological, behavioral, and physical situations. These changes combined with the cultural, social and family backgrounds’ adolescents, can lead to social problems such as social deviations (delinquency.This study aims to compare the components of perceived social support and early maladaptive schemas in adolescents (male and female delinquent and non-delinquent.Materials and Methods: This research was based on comparative and causal method. In this research, 100 delinquent adolescents (80 male and 20 female using convenience sampling method and 100 non-delinquent adolescents (80 male and 20 female using Cluster sampling method were selected. They completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS questionnaires and Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF. Data analysis was performed via descriptive statistics (Mean and SD. and analytic methods such as independent T-test.Results: Delinquent adolescents had higher mean of early maladaptive schemas and instead had lower level of social support. In addition, delinquent boys had higher early maladaptive schemas mean compared to non-delinquent boys and they had different levels of social support. There was a significant difference in perceived social support between delinquent and non-delinquent girls. Also, there was a significant difference between early maladaptive schemas of delinquent and non-delinquent girls.              Conclusion: The findings showed the importance of providing background for strengthening of social support. Identification of early maladaptive schemas as patterns of emotional and cognitive damage in adolescence can be useful to provide appropriate psychological services to improve the quality of life and increased health-related behaviors of delinquent individual.

  15. Adolescent Binge Drinking Leads to Changes in Alcohol Drinking, Anxiety, and Amygdalar Corticotropin Releasing Factor Cells in Adulthood in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Karanikas, Chrisanthi A.; Richardson, Heather N.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy episodic drinking early in adolescence is associated with increased risk of addiction and other stress-related disorders later in life. This suggests that adolescent alcohol abuse is an early marker of innate vulnerability and/or binge exposure impacts the developing brain to increase vulnerability to these disorders in adulthood. Animal models are ideal for clarifying the relationship between adolescent and adult alcohol abuse, but we show that methods of involuntary alcohol exposure are not effective. We describe an operant model that uses multiple bouts of intermittent access to sweetened alcohol to elicit voluntary binge alcohol drinking early in adolescence (∼postnatal days 28–42) in genetically heterogeneous male Wistar rats. We next examined the effects of adolescent binge drinking on alcohol drinking and anxiety-like behavior in dependent and non-dependent adult rats, and counted corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) cell in the lateral portion of the central amygdala (CeA), a region that contributes to regulation of anxiety- and alcohol-related behaviors. Adolescent binge drinking did not alter alcohol drinking under baseline drinking conditions in adulthood. However, alcohol-dependent and non-dependent adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol binge drinking did exhibit increased alcohol drinking when access to alcohol was intermittent. Adult rats that binged alcohol during adolescence exhibited increased exploration on the open arms of the elevated plus maze (possibly indicating either decreased anxiety or increased impulsivity), an effect that was reversed by a history of alcohol dependence during adulthood. Finally, CRF cell counts were reduced in the lateral CeA of rats with adolescent alcohol binge history, suggesting semi-permanent changes in the limbic stress peptide system with this treatment. These data suggest that voluntary binge drinking during early adolescence produces long-lasting neural and behavioral effects with

  16. Adolescent binge drinking leads to changes in alcohol drinking, anxiety, and amygdalar corticotropin releasing factor cells in adulthood in male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W Gilpin

    Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking early in adolescence is associated with increased risk of addiction and other stress-related disorders later in life. This suggests that adolescent alcohol abuse is an early marker of innate vulnerability and/or binge exposure impacts the developing brain to increase vulnerability to these disorders in adulthood. Animal models are ideal for clarifying the relationship between adolescent and adult alcohol abuse, but we show that methods of involuntary alcohol exposure are not effective. We describe an operant model that uses multiple bouts of intermittent access to sweetened alcohol to elicit voluntary binge alcohol drinking early in adolescence (~postnatal days 28-42 in genetically heterogeneous male Wistar rats. We next examined the effects of adolescent binge drinking on alcohol drinking and anxiety-like behavior in dependent and non-dependent adult rats, and counted corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF cell in the lateral portion of the central amygdala (CeA, a region that contributes to regulation of anxiety- and alcohol-related behaviors. Adolescent binge drinking did not alter alcohol drinking under baseline drinking conditions in adulthood. However, alcohol-dependent and non-dependent adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol binge drinking did exhibit increased alcohol drinking when access to alcohol was intermittent. Adult rats that binged alcohol during adolescence exhibited increased exploration on the open arms of the elevated plus maze (possibly indicating either decreased anxiety or increased impulsivity, an effect that was reversed by a history of alcohol dependence during adulthood. Finally, CRF cell counts were reduced in the lateral CeA of rats with adolescent alcohol binge history, suggesting semi-permanent changes in the limbic stress peptide system with this treatment. These data suggest that voluntary binge drinking during early adolescence produces long-lasting neural and behavioral effects

  17. A boxing-oriented exercise intervention for obese adolescent males: findings from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Sarah P; Stoner, Lee; Lambrick, Danielle M; Lane, Andrew M

    2014-12-01

    In New Zealand, obese Māori and Pasifika adolescents are at risk of numerous cardio-metabolic conditions with raising physical activity levels being proposed as a useful intervention. The present study used a mixed method design to explore the effects of a non-contact boxing-oriented training programme designed in terms of improvements to cardio-metabolic variables. Traditional recruitment strategies (media, referrals) were employed, with limited success leading to 3 adolescent boys (14-15 y) participating in the pilot intervention. Exercise sessions included 30 minutes of non-contact boxing training, followed by 30 minutes of progressive resistance training. Participants attended three 1h training sessions each week, for a total of 12 weeks. Physiological variables included anthropometric indices, visceral fat thickness, central blood pressures, central arterial stiffness (augmentation index: AIx), and carotid arterial stiffness (β). Results revealed that there was no trend for change in body weight (125.5 ± 12.1 kg vs. 126.5 ± 11.0 kg) or BMI (39.3 ± 4.1 kg·m(-2) vs. 39.0 ± 4.6 kg·m(-2)). However, there was a moderate decrease in visceral fat thickness (4.34 ± 2.51 cm vs 3.65 ± 1.11 cm, d = 0.36). There was no change in central pulse pressure (38.7 ± 7.3 mmHg vs. 38.3 ± 5.0 mmHg), however, there was a small improvement in β (3.01 ± 0.73 vs. 2.87 ± 0.84, d = 0.18). Focus group interview data with participants and their parents were used to explore issues related to motivation to participation. Results revealed participants commented on how the programme has led to new friendships, changes to their physical appearance, and increased physical fitness. Parents commented on increased self-confidence, better performance in school, and a willingness to take part in new activities. In conclusion, it appears participating in the boxing oriented training programme was motivating to participants who engaged and had some physiological benefits in obese

  18. Detained Male Adolescent Offender's Emotional, Physical and Sexual Maltreatment Profiles and Their Associations to Psychiatric Disorders and Criminal Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Plattner, Belinda

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyse patterns of emotional, physical and sexual maltreatment in detained male juvenile offenders using latent class analysis (LCA). The association of maltreatment related LCA profiles with psychopathology and criminal behaviors was also studied. LCA based on the items of the Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse was performed in a sample of 260 male adolescent offenders (mean age = 16.5 years, SD = 1.29 years). Chi square tests and general linear models were performed to assess the associations of CTQ profiles with categorical interview-based psychiatric disorders, dimensional Youth Self-Report problem scales, and officially registered offenses. LCA suggested a three class solution: (1) a no/mild trauma (NM; 76 %) (2) emotional and physical trauma (EP; 18 %) and (3) emotional, physical, and sexual trauma (EPS; 8 %). The classes EP and EPS were related to a variety of psychiatric disorders and self-reported mental health problems. Furthermore, EPS showed higher presence of a subsequent re-incarceration compared to NM. A majority of sexually abused juveniles also experienced emotional and physical abuse reflecting gravely disturbed family systems. Multiple abuse in childhood was associated with a broad variety of disorders including externalizing disorders and repeated criminal offending. Such findings indicate that trauma assessment is also relevant in externalizing youth. A comprehensive treatment approach for detained boys with multiple abuse experiences is required targeting both mental health needs and the reduction of criminal behaviors.

  19. Examining a Dual-Process Model of Desensitization and Hypersensitization to Community Violence in African American Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K; Bai, Grace J; Simic, Dusan

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine a dual-process model of reactivity to community violence exposure in African American male adolescents from urban communities. The model focused on desensitization and hypersensitization effects as well as desensitization and hypersensitization as predictors of aggressive behavior. Participants were 133 African American male high school students, mean age = 15.17 years, SD = 0.96. Participants completed measures of exposure to community violence, depressive symptoms, hyperarousal symptoms, aggressive beliefs, and aggressive behaviors at two time points. Community violence exposure predicted changes in aggression, β = .25, p = .004, and physiological arousal, β = .22, p = .010, over time, but not aggressive beliefs. The curvilinear association between community violence exposure and changes in depression over time was not significant, β = .42, p = .083, but there was a significant linear association between the exposure to community violence (ECV) and changes in levels of depression over time, β = .21, p = .014. Results indicated a significant mediation effect for hyperarousal on the association between community violence exposure and aggressive behavior, B = 0.20, 95% CI = [0.04, 0.54]. Results showed support for physiological hypersensitization, with hypersensitization increasing the risk for aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  20. Substance use avoidance among Iranian male adolescents: a comparison of three versions of the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavousi, Mahmoud; Montazeri, Ali; Hidarnia, Alireza; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Taremian, Farhad; Haerimehrizi, Aliasghar

    2015-08-01

    The theory of reasoned action (TRA) is one of the most common models in predicting health-related behaviors and is used more often in health education studies. This study aimed to add two control constructs (perceived behavioral control - PBC and self-efficacy - SE) to the TRA and compare them using the structural equation modeling (SEM) for substance use avoidance among Iranian male adolescents in order to find out which model was a better fit in predicting the intention. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected from a random sample of high school male students (15-19 years of age) using a questionnaire containing items related to the TRA plus items reflecting two additional constructs (SE and PBC). In all, 433 students completed the questionnaires. The results obtained from SEM indicated a better fit to the data for the TRA with SE compared to the TPB (TRA with PBC) and TRA (χ2/df=2.55, RMSEA=0.072, CFI=0.96, NFI=0.94, NNFI=0.95, SRMR=0.058). Comparing SE and PBC, the results showed that self-efficacy was a better control construct in improving the TRA and predicting substance use avoidance intention (41%). The TRA with SE had a better model fit than TPB and the original version of the TRA.

  1. Adolescent Males in Secondary School in Ireland: Alcohol Use and Depressed Mood

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Per capita alcohol consumption by Irish teenagers has doubled over the past three decades. There has also been a doubling of the suicide rate among young men. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between alcohol consumption and negative mood (as measured by elements of the Beck Depression Inventory) in a sample (n = 169) of final-year secondary school male students. A questionnaire was devised to ascertain frequency, type and quantity of alcohol consumed, as well as attitudes ...

  2. Facilitators and Impediments for Elective Music and Sport in Adolescent Males

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Waters; Gary E. McPherson; Emery Schubert

    2014-01-01

    Within the culture of an all-male private school, sport often holds a special status as compared with music. As an area of learning and participation, sport is typically associated with masculinity and receives broad social acceptance, whereas music is often seen at the margins of the curriculum and considered as an activity for a select few who are innately talented. Because of these perceptions, participation rates f...

  3. Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purves-Tyson Tertia D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR or indirect by conversion to 17β-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER. How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5α-reductase. We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and monoamine oxygenase (MAO A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5α-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ERα and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ERα mRNA down-regulation and ERβ mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5α reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting

  4. Facilitators and Impediments for Elective Music and Sport in Adolescent Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Waters

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the culture of an all-male private school, sport often holds a special status as compared with music. As an area of learning and participation, sport is typically associated with masculinity and receives broad social acceptance, whereas music is often seen at the margins of the curriculum and considered as an activity for a select few who are innately talented. Because of these perceptions, participation rates for males are often higher for sport than they are for music. With this as our context, this study examined differences between the two elective subjects of music and sport, by seeking to investigate boys’ motivation to choose whether or not to elect music and sport in the final years of high school. The study utilized an online survey that was completed by 293 subjects (13 to 16 years old, school years 8 to 10. Results indicate that the boys were more motivated to select elective sport rather than music (42.7% vs. 4.8%, respectively, with 49.8% choosing neither music nor sport. A comparison of facilitators of elective music and sport revealed similarities across the two domains, with interest in the subject (music or sport receiving the highest mean rating for elective facilitation. Seven of the nine impediment scales were significantly higher for music (only importance of the subject and parental influence were statistically identical across sport and music. The study is the first of which we are aware that directly compares music and sport as school subjects, and as such, offers insight into the different motivational forces that act to either facilitate or impede students’ choice of these subjects within an all-male private school.

  5. Pathways from Racial Discrimination to Multiple Sexual Partners Among Male African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A.; Pocock, Alexandra M.; Brody, Gene H.

    2014-01-01

    African American male adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men’s experience with racial discrimination. PMID:25937821

  6. Post-term birth is associated with greater risk of obesity in adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrand, Jacques; Soboleva, Tanya K; Shorten, Paul R; Derraik, José G B; Hofman, Paul; Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin; Hochberg, Ze'ev; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2012-05-01

    To test the hypothesise that post-term birth (>42 weeks gestation) adversely affects longitudinal growth and weight gain throughout childhood. A total of 525 children (including 17 boys and 20 girls born post-term) were followed from birth to age 16 years. Weight and height were recorded prospectively throughout childhood, and respective velocities from birth to end of puberty were calculated using a mathematical model. At birth, post-term girls were slimmer than term girls (ponderal index, 27.7 ± 2.6 kg/m(3) vs 26.3 ± 2.8 kg/m(3); Pterm boys were 11.8 kg heavier than term subjects (body mass index [BMI], 25.4 ± 5.5 kg/m(2) vs 21.7 ± 3.1 kg/m(2); Pterm boys and 7% in term boys (Pterm boys and 13% in term boys (Pterm boys at age 1.5-7 years (Pterm boys at age 3 years, with the difference increasing thereafter. BMI and growth were similar in post-term and term girls. In this post-term birth cohort, boys, but not girls, demonstrated accelerated weight gain during childhood, leading to greater risk of obesity in adolescence. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hispanic Young Males' Mental Health From Adolescence Through the Transition to Fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Craig F; Abbott, Collin; Rutsohn, Joshua; Penedo, Frank

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine the associations between the transition to fatherhood and depressive symptoms scores among Hispanic men. Using the sample of Hispanic men included in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, depressive symptom scores were examined from 1994 to 2008. A "fatherhood-year" data set was created that included the men's Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores as well as residency status with the child. By regressing age-adjusted standardized depressive symptom scores, associations between mental health scores of Hispanic men and their transition to fatherhood were identified. Among the 1,715 Hispanic men, resident ( n = 502) and nonresident ( n = 99) Hispanic fathers reported an increase in depressive symptom scores (CES-D) during the first 5 years after entrance into fatherhood (β = 0.150, 95% CI [0.062, 0.239] and β = 0.153, 95% CI [0.034, 0.271], respectively) compared to non-fathers ( n = 1,114), representing an increase of 10% for resident fathers and a 15% for nonresident fathers. Hispanic non-fathers reported a decrease in depressive symptom scores (CES-D) during parallel ages. Hispanic fathers, regardless of residency status, reported increased depressive symptoms in the first 5 years after the transition into fatherhood, a period critical in child development.

  8. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E; Hall, Jeffrey E

    2016-02-01

    Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n = 577; 14 % Black, 5 % other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach.

  9. Body Image Dissatisfaction Is Increased in Male and Overweight/Obese Adolescents in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Malete

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine linkages between obesity, physical activity, and body image dissatisfaction, with consideration of socioeconomic status (SES and urbanization in adolescents in Botswana. Materials and Methods. A nationally representative, cross-sectional survey in 707 secondary school students included measured height and weight to determine overweight (OW or obesity (OB using World Health Organization standards; physical activity (PA using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; and body image satisfaction using the Body Ideals Questionnaire. SES was described by private school versus public school attendance. Results and Discussion. OW/OB students felt farther from ideal and greater dissatisfaction with their weight and body proportions than optimal weight students. Boys felt greater difference from ideal and more dissatisfaction with muscle tone, chest size, and strength than girls. Lower SES students and those from rural villages had more minutes of PA than higher SES or urban students. In this rapidly developing African country, these trends reflect the nutrition transition and offer opportunity to motivate OW/OB students and boys for PA as a health promotion obesity prevention behavior. Conclusions. As urbanization and improved SES are desirable and likely to continue, the public health system will be challenged to prevent obesity while preserving a healthy body image.

  10. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E.; Hall, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n=577; 14% Black, 5% other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach. PMID:25831994

  11. Exercise coupled with dietary restriction reduces oxidative stress in male adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Feng, Feihu; Xiong, Xiaoling; Li, Rui; Chen, Ning

    2017-04-01

    The increased oxidative stress is usually observed in obese population, but the control of body weight by calorie restriction and/or exercise training can ameliorate oxidative stress. In order to evaluate oxidative stress in response to exercise and dietary restriction in obese adolescents, a total of 20 obese volunteers were enrolled in a 4-week intervention program including exercise training and dietary restriction. Body compositions and blood samples were analysed before and after 4-week intervention, and biomarkers associated with oxidative stress were examined. After 4-week exercise training coupled with dietary restriction, physical composition parameters including body mass, body mass index (BMI), lean body mass, body fat mass and fat mass ratio had obvious reduction by 12.43%, 13.51%, 5.83%, 25.05% and 14.52%, respectively. In addition, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) revealed a remarkable enhancement. On the other hand, protein carbonyls (PC) exhibited an obvious reduction. Moreover, total thiols and nitrites with respect to baseline revealed a reducing trend although no significant difference was observed. Therefore, the 4-week exercise intervention coupled with dietary restriction is benefit for the loss of body weight and the mitigation of oxidative stress in obese population so that it can be a recommendable intervention prescription for the loss of body weight.

  12. Adolescent experiences of violence and relation to violence perpetration beyond young adulthood among an urban sample of Black and African American males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Lawrence, Danielle A; Santana, M C; Welles, C Seth L; Horsburgh, C Robert; Silverman, Jay G; Rich, John A; Raj, Anita

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if experiences of physical violence during early and late adolescence (12-21 years) places urban Black males at increased risk for interpersonal violence perpetration beyond young adulthood (30 years and older). Participants of this cross-sectional study were Black and African American men (N = 455) between the ages of 30 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the Northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of adolescent experiences of violence to: (1) past 6 month street violence involvement and (2) past year intimate partner violence perpetration. Ten percent of the sample reported that they experienced adolescent victimization. Men reporting adolescent victimization were significantly more likely to report past 6-month street violence involvement (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 3.2, 95 % CI = 1.7-6.3) and past 6 month intimate partner violence perpetration (AOR = 2.8, 95 % CI = 1.8-5.4) compared to men who did not report such victimization. Study findings suggest that in order to prevent adulthood perpetration of violence, more work is needed to address experiences of victimization among young Black males, particularly violence experienced during adolescence.

  13. Not just bi the bi: the relationship between essentialist beliefs and attitudes about bisexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbard, Katherine; de Visser, Richard O.

    2015-01-01

    In the literature about bisexuality few studies consider bisexual people’s beliefs about bisexuality and none examine essentialist beliefs about bisexuality. In the present study 244 participants (bisexual n = 58, lesbian/gay n = 54 and heterosexual n =132) from the UK were asked via online questionnaire about their attitudes towards bisexuality, homosexuality and heterosexuality, and how stable they perceived bisexuality, homosexuality and heterosexuality to be. They were also asked about t...

  14. Bisphenol-A exposure during adolescence leads to enduring alterations in cognition and dendritic spine density in adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Rachel E; Luine, Victoria; Diaz Weinstein, Samantha; Khandaker, Hameda; DeWolf, Sarah; Frankfurt, Maya

    2015-03-01

    We have previously demonstrated that adolescent exposure of rats to bisphenol-A (BPA), an environmental endocrine disrupter, increases anxiety, impairs spatial memory, and decreases dendritic spine density in the CA1 region of the hippocampus (CA1) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) when measured in adolescents in both sexes. The present study examined whether the behavioral and morphological alterations following BPA exposure during adolescent development are maintained into adulthood. Male and female, adolescent rats received BPA, 40μg/kg/bodyweight, or control treatments for one week. In adulthood, subjects were tested for anxiety and locomotor activity, spatial memory, non-spatial visual memory, and sucrose preference. Additionally, stress-induced serum corticosterone levels and dendritic spine density in the mPFC and CA1 were measured. BPA-treated males, but not females, had decreased arm visits on the elevated plus maze, but there was no effect on anxiety. Non-spatial memory, object recognition, was also decreased in BPA treated males, but not in females. BPA exposure did not alter spatial memory, object placement, but decreased exploration during the tasks in both sexes. No significant group differences in sucrose preference or serum corticosterone levels in response to a stress challenge were found. However, BPA exposure, regardless of sex, significantly decreased spine density of both apical and basal dendrites on pyramidal cells in CA1 but had no effect in the mPFC. Current data are discussed in relation to BPA dependent changes, which were present during adolescence and did, or did not, endure into adulthood. Overall, adolescent BPA exposure, below the current reference safe daily limit set by the U.S.E.P.A., leads to alterations in some behaviors and neuronal morphology that endure into adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pituitary insufficiency following traumatic thoracic injury in an adolescent male patient: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Kluczyński, Łukasz; Wilusz, Małgorzata; Pantofliński, Jacek; Turek-Jabrocka, Renata; Pach, Dorota; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja

    2017-11-01

    Traumatic thoracic injuries in adolescents are rare but could be connected with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and development of chronic hypopituitarism. Early recognition of these endocrine problems is a significant challenge to clinicians. We present difficulties in diagnosis of hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency following traumatic thoracic injury in adolescence. We also review the literature of similar cases. We present a case of a 24-years-old male. In 2007, at the age of 15 he underwent a severe traffic accident followed by thoracic injury with concussion, hemothorax and dissection of the aorta requiring aortic stent-graft implantation. During the post-traumatic period, transient polydipsia and polyuria symptoms were observed. The patient had no medical history of any serious disease before the accident, his growth and pubertal development was normal. After the accident the patient did not undergo any routine medical check-ups. In 2013 gonadal axis deficiency was diagnosed during investigation of libido problems. Following the diagnosis testosterone replacement therapy was initiated. Further endocrinological investigation was carried out in 2016. The patient's main complaints were decreased mood and poor physical fitness. BMI was 27.34 kg/m, with a tendency to abdominal fat distribution. The patient's height is 160 cm, while Mid Parental Height (MPH) is 173.5 cm. Decreased bone density was found in DEXA examination. Serum growth hormone level (GH) was normal while insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level was below normal. Insulin tolerance test (ITT) and low levels of IGF-1 confirmed somatotropic axis deficiency. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the hypothalamo-pituitary region showed no abnormalities. PROP 1 and other common genetic mutations associated with GH deficits were excluded. Testosterone treatment was continued. The patient increased physical activity and implemented diet. The patient has lost weight, improved physical activity

  16. Nutritional disturbances by adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Stassart, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional disturbances are frequent by adolescents. That is a psychological defense against dependance toward the mother but also a middle to remain in a childish position i.e. either as a fat baby - in the fall of obesity- or as the ideal pre- or bisexual great child - in the case of anorexia.

  17. Ethical, moral, and theological insights into advances in male pediatric and adolescent fertility preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstein, J J; Halpern, J; Gadzinski, A J; Brannigan, R E; Smith, J F

    2017-07-01

    The successful treatment of boys with cancer has led to increasing attention to preserving their quality of life after completing cancer therapy. One of the top priorities for living a full life is keeping open the opportunity to have children. While sperm banking for males facing sterilizing cancer treatment can be effective, this approach requires subsequent use of reproductive procedures such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intrauterine insemination (IUI) to achieve a pregnancy. Advances in fertility preservation techniques may allow pre-pubertal boys to conceive using advanced stem cell technologies and stem cell transplantation in the future. This review summarizes the ethical positions of leading medical societies and explores the religious and moral stances of major religious institutions regarding these options. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  18. "We Might Get Some Free Beers": Experience and Motivation for Transactional Sex Among Behaviorally Bisexual Men in Vientiane, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, Anna L; Pasomsouk, Nakhornphet; Hughes, Chad; van Gemert, Caroline; Higgs, Peter; Sychareun, Vanphanom; Hellard, Margaret; Power, Robert

    2017-05-01

    People engaging in transactional sex are considered a key population for HIV prevention. Prior quantitative surveys demonstrated that behaviorally bisexual men in Vientiane, Laos commonly transact sex. In 2013, we conducted a qualitative study to explore behaviorally bisexual men's experience, motivations, and perceptions related to transactional sex in Vientiane. Behaviorally bisexual men were recruited from bars, nightclubs, and dormitories for five focus group discussions (FGDs) and 11 in-depth interviews (n = 31). Additionally, young women were recruited from a university, garment factory, and nightclub for four FGDs (n = 22). Transcripts were translated and thematically coded. Bisexual male participants most commonly described being paid for sex by male-to-female transgender people and buying sex from women. Both male and female participants reported that older, single women pay younger men for sex. Negotiation and direction of sexual transactions are influenced by age, attraction, and wealth. Common motivations for selling sex included the need for money to support family or fund school fees, material gain, or physical pleasure. Transactional sex was often opportunistic. Some behaviorally bisexual men reported selling sex in order to pay another more desirable sex partner or to buy gifts for their regular sex partner. Participants perceived high risk associated with intercourse with female sex workers but not with other transactional sex partners. Health interventions are needed to improve knowledge, risk perception, and health behaviors, but must recognize the diversity of transactional sex in Vientiane. Both physical and virtual settings may be appropriate for reaching behaviorally bisexual men and their partners.

  19. Development and psychometric properties of a self-regulation scale about leisure time physical activity in Iranian male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Abasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-regulation is one of the current psychological concepts that have been known as a determinant of leisure time physical activity. Due to cultural and social diversity in different societies and age groups, application of specific questionnaires is essential to perform investigations about physical activities. The aim of this study is development and evaluation of psychometric properties of a self-regulation questionnaire about leisure time physical activity in Iranian male adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013, and data of 603 male students from 12 high schools in Isfahan were collected. A comprehensive literature review and similar questionnaire review were conducted and 25 items were selected or developed to measure self-regulation. Comprehensibility of items was evaluated in a pilot study and an expert panel evaluated face and content validity. Exploratory factors analysis (EFA was used for evaluation of construct validity and extraction of sub-constructs of self-regulation. Leisure time physical activity was assessed using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Results: The mean age of the participants was 16.3 years (SD =1.0 and the range was 15-19 years. Cronbach′s α coefficient of the questionnaire in the pilot and main study was 0.84 and 0.90, respectively. EFA resulted in four sub-constructs including "enlistment of social support," "goal setting," "self-construction," and "self-monitoring," which explained 63.6% of the variance of self-regulation. Conclusions: Results of this investigation provide some support to the validity and reliability of the 16-item questionnaire of self-regulation abut leisure time physical activity in the target group.

  20. Effects of complex training on explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a complex training program, a combined practice of weight training and plyometrics, on explosive strength development of young basketball players. Twenty-five young male athletes, aged 14-15 years old, were assessed using squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov test (ABA), depth jump (DJ), mechanical power (MP), and medicine ball throw (MBT), before and after a 10-week in-season training program. Both the control group (CG; n = 10) and the experimental group (EG; n = 15) kept up their regular sports practice; additionally, the EG performed 2 sessions per week of a complex training program. The EG significantly improved in the SJ, CMJ, ABA, and MBT values (p training to improve the upper and lower body explosivity levels in young basketball players. In conclusion, this study showed that more strength conditioning is needed during the sport practice season. Furthermore, we also conclude that complex training is a useful working tool for coaches, innovative in this strength-training domain, equally contributing to a better time-efficient training.