WorldWideScience

Sample records for biseibutsu bio technology

  1. Bio-technologies; Biotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawitz, X. [Systems Bio Industries, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies which describes the measures taken by Systems Bio-Industries company to adapt its central heating plants, turbines, engines and dryers to the new French 2910 by-law about thermal efficiency and environmental impact of heating plants. The project of development of a cogeneration system in the Angouleme site is briefly described. (J.S.)

  2. Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2004-01-30

    A key finding of this research program was that Laccase Mediator Systems (LMS) treatments on high-kappa kraft could be successfully accomplished providing substantial delignification (i.e., > 50%) without detrimental impact on viscosity and significantly improved yield properties. The efficiency of the LMS was evident since most of the lignin from the pulp was removed in less than one hour at 45 degrees C. Of the mediators investigated, violuric acid was the most effective vis-a-vis delignification. A comparative study between oxygen delignification and violuric acid revealed that under relatively mild conditions, a single or a double LMS{sub VA} treatment is comparable to a single or a double O stage. Of great notability was the retention of end viscosity of LMS{sub VA} treated pulps with respect to the end viscosity of oxygen treated pulps. These pulps could then be bleached to full brightness values employing conventional ECF bleaching technologies and the final pulp physical properties were equal and/or better than those bleached in a conventional ECF manner employing an aggressively O or OO stage initially. Spectral analyses of residual lignins isolated after LMS treated high-kappa kraft pulps revealed that similar to HBT, VA and NHA preferentially attack phenolic lignin moieties. In addition, a substantial decrease in aliphatic hydroxyl groups was also noted, suggesting side chain oxidation. In all cases, an increase in carboxylic acid was observed. Of notable importance was the different selectivity of NHA, VA and HBT towards lignin functional groups, despite the common N-OH moiety. C-5 condensed phenolic lignin groups were overall resistant to an LMS{sub NHA, HBT} treatments but to a lesser extent to an LMS{sub VA}. The inactiveness of these condensed lignin moieties was not observed when low-kappa kraft pulps were biobleached, suggesting that the LMS chemistry is influenced by the extent of delignification. We have also demonstrated that the current

  3. Nano-Bio Quantum Technology for Device-Specific Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.

    2009-01-01

    The areas discussed are still under development: I. Nano structured materials for TE applications a) SiGe and Be.Te; b) Nano particles and nanoshells. II. Quantum technology for optical devices: a) Quantum apertures; b) Smart optical materials; c) Micro spectrometer. III. Bio-template oriented materials: a) Bionanobattery; b) Bio-fuel cells; c) Energetic materials.

  4. Brief overview of BioMicroNano Technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourley, Paul Lee

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the fields of biological micro-electromechanical systems (bioMEMs) and associated nanobiotechnologies, collectively denoted as BioMicroNano. Although they are developing at a very rapid pace and still redefining themselves, several stabilized areas of research and development can be identified. Six major areas are delineated, and specific examples are discussed and illustrated. Various applications of the technologies are noted, and potential market sizes are compared.

  5. Development of production technology for bio diesel fuel and feasibility test of bio diesel engine (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Y.J.; Ju, U.S.; Park, Y.C. [National Kyung Sang University (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    At the beginning of the 21 st century two urgent tasks which our global countries would face with could be the security of the alternative energy source as a preparation against the fossil energy exhaustion and the development of the clean energy source to protect the environment from pollution. The above two problems should be solved together. The bio diesel oil which is made by methylesterfication of bio oil has very low sulfur content than does the diesel oil. Therefore, there is a great possibility to solve the pollution problem caused by the exhaust gas from diesel engine vehicles. So, bio oil has been attracted with attentions as an alternative and clean energy source. Advanced countries began early to develop the bio diesel oil suitable to their respective conditions. Recently their production stage have reached to the commercial level partially. The sudden increase of energy demand followed by a rapid growth of industry and the serious situation about the environmental pollution caused by the exhaust has from diesel engine vehicles occupying 42% of distribution among all vehicles have called attention of our government to consider the importance of alternative and clean energy sources for the future on the national scale. This study is consisted of three main parts; - The development of production technology for bio diesel oil. - The development of the atomization improvement method and nozzle for high viscous vegetable oils. - Feasibility test of bio diesel engine. (author) 119 refs., 52 tabs., 88 figs.

  6. New York Nano-Bio Molecular Information Technology (NYNBIT) Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Digendra K

    2008-12-19

    This project presents the outcome of an effort made by a consortium of six universities in the State of New York to develop a Center for Advanced technology (CAT) in the emerging field of Nano-Bio-Molecular Information Technology. The effort consists of activities such as organization of the NYNBIT incubator, collaborative research projects, development of courses, an educational program for high schools, and commercial start-up programs.

  7. Zhongrun,Heading for Advanced Bio-Energy Technology%Zhongrun, Heading for Advanced Bio-Energy Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Huaibei Zhongrun Bio-energy Technology Development Co.,Ltd.is a high-tech Sino-US joint venture,also a participator of the 12th CHITEC.Its majority shareholder is Anhui Huaibei Mining Group and it is co-sponsored by Anhui Guohua Group and US Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.

  8. Electrochemical and Magnetic Technologies for Bio Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    The electrochemical and magnetic biosensors have an advantage because of the easy miniaturization of electric device components as compared with photometric instruments. These technologies have been applied to develop portable, compact and inexpensive biochip devices. A commercially successful example is the glucose sensor using enzyme transducers, which was originally reported by Clark and Lyons [1] to measure glucose by detecting the decrease in oxygen by pO2 electrode when glucose is converted to gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Electrochemical biosensors can be separated into three typical assay systems using amperometric, potentiometric or conductometric transducers. Furthermore, various magnetosensors using magnetic particles have been developed over a decade in place of photometric biosensors. In this chapter, recent advances in electrochemical and magnetic biosensors toward development of portable, compact and inexpensive biochip devices have been focused.

  9. Center for BioBased Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Jerry [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Funding will support the continuation of the Center for Advanced Bio-based Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology Center (CABB) in the development of bio-based polymers and emission reduction technologies for the metal casting industry. Since the formation of the center several new polymers based on agricultural materials have been developed. These new materials have show decreases in hazardous air pollutants, phenol and formaldehyde as much as 50 to 80% respectively. The polymers termed bio-polymers show a great potential to utilize current renewable agricultural resources to replace petroleum based products and reduce our dependence on importing of foreign oil. The agricultural technology has shown drastic reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds and requires further development to maintain competitive costs and productivity. The project will also research new and improved inorganic binders that promise to eliminate hazardous emissions from foundry casting operations and allow for the beneficial reuse of the materials and avoiding the burdening of overcrowded landfills.

  10. Evaluation of bio-remediation technologies for PAHs contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural attenuation is a new concept related to polluted soil remediation. Can be understood like an 'in situ' bio-remediation process with low technical intervention. This low intervention may be in order to follow the behaviour of pollutants 'monitored natural attenuation' or include an optimisation process to improve biological remediation. The use of this technology is a fact for light hydrocarbon polluted soil, but few is known about the behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this process. PAHs are more recalcitrant to bio-remediation due to their physic-chemical characteristics, mainly hydrophobicity and electrochemical stability. PAHs are a kind of pollutants widely distributed in the environment, not only in the proximity of the source. This linked to the characteristics of some of them related to toxicity and mutagenicity implies its inclusion as target compounds from an environmental point of view. Their low availability, solubility and the strong tendency to bind to soil particle, especially to the organic phase affect PAHs biological mineralisation. So, if the pollutant is not available to microorganisms it can not be bio-degraded. Bioavailability can be assessed form several but complementary points of view: physico-chemical and biological. First including the term availability and the second to point out the capacity of soil microorganisms to mineralize PAHs. Availability and Bio-degradability must be determined, as well as the presence and activity of specific degraders among the soil organisms, once settled these points is necessary to study the biological requirements to optimise biodegradation kinetics of these compounds. In this work we present a study carried out on a soil, contaminated by PAHs, the study includes three main topics: bioavailability assessment (both term availability and bio-degradability), bio-remediation assessment, once optimised conditions for natural attenuation and finally a simulation of the

  11. Biogas and BioFertilizer Production Using Green Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basically, it is technology which created and used in a way that conserves natural resources and the environment. This technology also can be environmental friendly because the use of this technology is supposed to reduce the amount of waste and pollution that is created during production and consumption. These food wastes will come from animal bone, crab skeleton, fish skeleton, rice, noodle, vegetable and others. We collect all of these wastes and then keep it in plants, and then we make sure that this waste will turn into biogas via anaerobic digestion. All of these involved hydrolysis, fermentation, aceto genesis and methano genesis process. Methane that produced will be used in biomass plant to generate electricity. Meanwhile bio fertilizer that produced will be applied on agriculture sectors as fertilizer for plants.

  12. Survey report of FY 1997 on the feasibility of microbial biotechnology for reuse of environmental pollutants; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kankyo osen busshitsu no shigenka no tame no biseibutsu bio technology no riyo kanosei chi kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    An investigation was conducted with the aim of elucidating the foundations for effective utilization of environmental pollutants or unused resources which are likely to be causal substances of environmental pollutants, as resources, using biotechnology. Composting of agricultural waste, production of microbial mycelium proteins and microbial fermentation materials were suggested as main examples of effective utilization of unused resources by microorganisms. Selection of active microorganisms in the livestock waste, clarification of the mechanism of action and the establishment of treatment conditions are essential to new developments in this field. In the field of marine products industry, it was pointed out that the recycling of waste using microorganisms and enzyme treatment is the most promising approach to the effective utilization of resources. In the field of food industry, applications as the culture media for mushrooms, for enzyme production and for the production of physiologically active materials as well as fuel were clarified. Was also pointed out the significance of studies on the microorganisms and enzymes in resources containing cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, and the waste from these resources, lignocellulose. Were also proposed the composting of household waste, methane fermentation, and fermentative production of organic acid and hydrogen from waste. Possibility and significance of fermentative production of organic acid from sewage sludge were suggested. 314 refs., 46 figs., 33 tabs.

  13. Fiscal 1998 research report. Study on the feasibility of microorganism biotechnology for effective use of environmental pollutants. Pt. 2; 1998 nendochosa hokokusho. Kankyo osen busshitsu no shigenka no tame no biseibutsu bio technology riyo kanosei ni kansuru chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Study was made on the feasibility of microorganism biotechnology for effective use of environmental pollutants and unused resources. Microorganisms and microorganism enzymes for decomposing lignocellulose were viewed, and uses of hydrolysis products were summarized. Production of microorganisms applicable to fodder, composting, and production of energy sources (methane, hydrogen, ethanol) were studied. Use of vegetable fiber residues such as beer lees as fungus cultivation medium and conversion to valuable substances were also studied. Microorganisms treatment (MT) of wastes in fats and oils industry was summarized. Effective use of MT of protein waste from marine products was studied. MT of manures with the greatest impact on environment as livestock waste was summarized. The necessity of separate collection of domestic wastes, and composting and methane fermentation of kitchen garbage were reported. The feasibility of MT of plastic wastes, and decomposition of halogenated methane with high toxicity were also studied. (NEDO)

  14. From Science History and Applications Developments of Life System to Bio-Imaging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Li-min; LOU Wei; HE Guo-sen

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents brief science history and application developments of imaging technology,and discusses the bio-imaging technology. Real-time image measurement techniques and parallel processing of a realistic example is given. Finally coming converging technology of nano-bio-Info-cgno (NBIC) is extended for future trend.

  15. Description of Ethical Bio-Technology Assessment Tools for Agriculture and Food Production. Interim Report Ethical Bio-TA Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, V.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of 'Ethical Bio-TA Tools' project is to develop and improve tools for the ethical assessment of new technologies in agriculture and food production in general and modern biotechnologies in particular. The developed tools need to be designed for various purposes and contexts. They shoul

  16. The environmentally friendly technology for bio fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Bio fuel production and use have been discussed this time in EC and in Latvia as alternative energy sources. The national resources allow producing liquid fuels - bio diesel and bi oethanol from rape seeds and grain correspondingly. Liquid bio fuels can be recommended especially for auto transport in big towns to reduce the pollution of air. A system for environmentally friendly production of bio fuel from agricultural raw materials has been developed, which permit a complex utilization of byproducts an wastes for obtaining of valuable food-stuffs and industrial products, providing the agricultural production requirements and supporting with local mineral fertilizers. Such a bio fuel production includes the agricultural and industrial productions in a united biotechnological system. Production objects of system interact: the products, by-products and wastes from one object are used as raw materials, auxiliary materials or heat carriers in other system's objects. This integrated agro-industrial production system would allow the production of feeds and chemical products, along with bio fuels. In this work, a model of a system for a conventional administrative rural region is presented, exemplified with the case of Latvia. The model is developed for three forms of bio fuel production, i.e. ethanol, bio diesel and biogas as local energy source. Bio diesel is produced using ethanol as transesterifying agent of rape-seed oil fatty acids. This bio diesel is a blend of rape-seed oil fatty acid ethyl esters (REE) and consists solely from renewable raw materials. The capacity of distillery of system is 40 million litters per year and bio diesel 35000 ton. Important for agriculture is protein reach press cakes the byproduct from bio diesel production (66000 t/y). This byproduct can be exported as well. Biogas reactors of system can be used for utilization of wastes from town if necessary. Recommended bio system occupates up to 150.000 ha of agriculture lands

  17. Technological Cooperation Networks at Bio-Manguinhos: the Role of Information and Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Pereira de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies and discusses the contribution of information and communication technologies (ICTs to the technological cooperation projects of Bio-Manguinhos, a pharmaceutical manufacturer that belongs to Osvaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ, responsible for producing vaccines, reagents and biopharmaceuticals, with priority on meeting the needs of the Brazilian public health system. It is a case study with a qualitative approach for descriptive and explanatory purposes. The data were collected from 14 interviews conducted with managers of research and development (R&D projects with high relevance to the organization. The results allow concluding that the ICTs requiring greater interdependence between partners and two-way knowledge flows have not yet been used. They also show the importance of closer cooperation between the information technology (IT and R&D areas. A future positioning of Bio-Manguinhos as a technological center focused on discovery and sale of new active ingredients can favor the use of tools that promote greater integration between the partners of technology cooperation networks.

  18. France's bio-energy sector -Technologies and resources to meet demand in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France by 2020, bio-energies must supply at least 20 Mtoe of final energy, but beyond that year no target has been fixed. There remain many uncertainties: the effective availability of the nation's renewable biomass, the pecking order in terms of competition for its various uses and the environmental gains to be reaped from agricultural bio-fuels. Compounding these elements are a host of promising technologies currently undergoing development. In order to explore possible futures, scenarios for demand and the availability of agricultural and forestry resources have been developed. In 2050, taking a trend scenario for resource mobilisation, France's bio-energy sector should be able to supply 23 Mtoe of final energy and 30 Mtoe with a moderate recourse to imports. Implementation of a ceiling for the mix of first generation bio-fuels at filling stations would serve to accelerate the penetration of advanced technologies: rapid pyrolysis, gasification and production of oil with micro-seaweed. But this would result in a shortage of ligno-cellulosic biomass. Also, there are opportunities, given the availability of resources, to promote the development of bio-heat, bioelectricity and bio-fuels. Further strategic reflection is therefore necessary, covering all the bio-energy sources, in order to install an appropriate, clear-cut and stable regulatory framework, indispensable for decision taking by economic agents. (authors)

  19. Development of an innovative bio-binder using Asphalt-rubber technology

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, J.; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Williams, R. Christopher; Rover, Marjorie; Machado, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    This research work evaluates several parameters that can affect Asphalt Rubber (AR) binder performance and applies the AR technology to the development of an innovative renewable bio-binder that can fully and cost-effectively replace asphaltic bitumen derived from petroleum in flexible pavement construction. The “Binder Accelerated Separator” method was used to divide the constituents of the Asphalt Rubber and bio-binder (residual binder and swelled rubber). The physical and chemi...

  20. TO APPLICATION OF BIO-GAS UNITS: ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy Nga Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the published papers written by national and foreign researchers reveals that an increasing global energy deficit, exhaustion of  fossil organic and nuclear fuels, chemical and radio-active contamination of the environment are main reasons in favour of  thorough investigation  and wide introduction of non-conventional and renewable energy sources. Nowadays Vietnamese Institute of Energy Science has been developing the state-of-the-art bio-gas technologies on the  basis of application and modernization of Chinese and Dutch family-style technologies. The most rational technologies are combined ones which operate using various types of energy raw materials, for example, solar and bio-gas energy because usage of solar energy expands operational possibilities of the bio-gas system, ensures its operation within wide temperature range creating necessary parameters for the required technological task.

  1. The state-of-the-art laser bio-cladding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jichang; Fuh, J. Y. H.; Lü, L.

    2010-11-01

    The current state and future trend of laser bio-cladding technology are discussed. Laser bio-cladding is used in implants including fabrication of metal scaffolds and bio-coating on the scaffolds. Scaffolds have been fabricated from stainless steel, Co-based alloy or Ti alloy using laser cladding, and new laser-deposited Ti alloys have been developed. Calcium phosphate bioceramic coatings have been deposited on scaffolds with laser to improve the wear resistence and corrosion resistence of implants and to induce bone regeneration. The types of biomaterial devices currently available in the market include replacement heart valve prosthesis, dental implants, hip/knee implants, catheters, pacemakers, oxygenators and vascular grafts. Laser bio-cladding process is attracting more and more attentions of people.

  2. RESEARCH ON BIO-BRIQUETTE TECHNOLOGY%生物质型煤技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛玉如; 骆仲泱; 蒋林; 方梦祥; 岑可法

    2001-01-01

    Bio-briquette is a new kind of coal briquettes made up of coal, biomass and sulphur retention agent. Bio-briquette technology combines irrenewable fossil energy and renewable biomass, embodying both functions of synthetic utilization of energy and reduction of air po-llution. In this paper, the current development of bio-briquette technology in and abroad is introduced and the production crafts, compressive strength, firing (burning) performance, combustion mechanism and sulphur retention characteristics of bio-briquette are analyzed. What′s more, the necessity for development of bio-briquette technology and some problems of industrialization in China are expatiated. At the end of this paper, the prospect and orientation of bio-briquette technology are discussed.%生物质型煤是由原煤、生物质和固硫剂混合压制而成的一种新型型煤.生物质型煤技术将不可再生的化石能源与可再生的生物质能结合起来,具有综合利用能源和减少环境污染的双重功能.介绍了生物质型煤技术在国内外的发展现状,分析了生物质型煤技术的几个关键问题,论述了中国发展生物质型煤技术的重要性和工业化应用中存在的问题,展望了生物质型煤技术的发展前景及方向.

  3. 78 FR 70617 - In the Matter of Pure H20 Bio-Technologies, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Pure H20 Bio-Technologies, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading November 22, 2013... information concerning the securities of Pure H20 Bio-Technologies, Inc. because questions have arisen as...

  4. Development of a Teat Bio-sealant and Evaluation of its Technological and Functional Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Cock, Liliana; Pabón-Rodríguez, Omar Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    A teat bio-sealant was developed using Weissella cibaria, and the bio-sealant's technological and functional properties were assessed. The development included four experimental phases that were analyzed using independent experimental designs. Initially, sterilized or pasteurized Aloe vera gels were used, and the effect of heat treatment was investigated. In the second phase, the effects of time, storage temperature, and addition of cryopreservatives on the viability of the probiotic were observed. The third phase consisted of evaluating the synergistic effects of the cryopreservatives. The fourth phase involved selecting a material that would provide viscosity to the teat sealant. Technological and functional properties were measured in terms of viability of W. cibaria, and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae was also analyzed. A mixture of milk powder and glycerol preserved this antimicrobial activity. Pullulan provided greater viscosity and maintained the technological and functional properties of the bio-sealant for 29 days. This teat bio-sealant can be used as an alternative for the prevention of bovine mastitis. PMID:27084703

  5. Development of a Teat Bio-sealant and Evaluation of its Technological and Functional Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Cock, Liliana; Pabón-Rodríguez, Omar Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    A teat bio-sealant was developed using Weissella cibaria, and the bio-sealant's technological and functional properties were assessed. The development included four experimental phases that were analyzed using independent experimental designs. Initially, sterilized or pasteurized Aloe vera gels were used, and the effect of heat treatment was investigated. In the second phase, the effects of time, storage temperature, and addition of cryopreservatives on the viability of the probiotic were observed. The third phase consisted of evaluating the synergistic effects of the cryopreservatives. The fourth phase involved selecting a material that would provide viscosity to the teat sealant. Technological and functional properties were measured in terms of viability of W. cibaria, and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae was also analyzed. A mixture of milk powder and glycerol preserved this antimicrobial activity. Pullulan provided greater viscosity and maintained the technological and functional properties of the bio-sealant for 29 days. This teat bio-sealant can be used as an alternative for the prevention of bovine mastitis.

  6. Energy life cycle assessment of rice straw bio-energy derived from potential gasification technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Chen, Ci-Syuan; Shaw, Dai-Gee; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Ma, Hsiao-Kan

    2011-06-01

    To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain and be capable of being produced in large quantities without reducing food supplies. Amounts of agricultural waste are produced and require treatment, with rice straw contributing the greatest source of such potential bio-fuel in Taiwan. Through life-cycle accounting, several energy indicators and four potential gasification technologies (PGT) were evaluated. The input energy steps for the energy life cycle assessment (ELCA) include collection, generator, torrefaction, crushing, briquetting, transportation, energy production, condensation, air pollution control and distribution of biofuels to the point of end use. Every PGT has a positive energy benefit. The input of energy required for the transportation and pre-treatment are major steps in the ELCA. On-site briquetting of refused-derived fuel (RDF) provides an alternative means of reducing transportation energy requirements. Bio-energy sources, such as waste rice straw, provide an ideal material for the bio-fuel plant.

  7. Application of structural health monitoring technologies to bio-systems: current status and path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Suresh; Srivastava, Shashank; Suresh, Rupali; Moharana, Sumedha; Kaur, Naveet; Gupta, Ashok

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a case for extension of structural health monitoring (SHM) technologies to offer solutions for biomedical problems. SHM research has made remarkable progress during the last two/ three decades. These technologies are now being extended for possible applications in the bio-medical field. Especially, smart materials, such as piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) patches and fibre-Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, offer a new set of possibilities to the bio-medical community to augment their conventional set of sensors, tools and equipment. The paper presents some of the recent extensions of SHM, such as condition monitoring of bones, monitoring of dental implant post surgery and foot pressure measurement. Latest developments, such as non-bonded configuration of PZT patches for monitoring bones and possible applications in osteoporosis detection, are also discussed. In essence, there is a whole new gamut of new possibilities for SHM technologies making their foray into the bi-medical sector.

  8. Technological change of the energy innovation system: From oil-based to bio-based energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonglimpiyarat, Jarunee [College of Innovation, Thammasat University, Anekprasong Building 7th Fl., Prachan Rd., Bangkok 10200 (Thailand)

    2010-03-15

    This paper concerns the structural developments and the direction of technological change of the energy innovation system, based on the studies of Kuhn's model of scientific change and Schumpeter's model of technological change. The paper uses the case study of Thai government agencies for understanding the way governments can facilitate technological innovation. The analyses are based on a pre-foresight exercise to examine the potential of the bio-based energy and investigate a set of development policies necessary for the direction of energy system development. The results have shown that bio-based energy is seen as the next new wave for future businesses and one of the solutions to the problem of high oil prices to improve the world's economic security and sustainable development. (author)

  9. Fiscal 1998 R and D project on global environmental industrial technology. Research result report on DNA analysis and information processing technology for photosynthesis microorganisms (Development of CO{sub 2} fixation and effective use technology by using bacteria and algae); 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Kogosei biseibutsu nado DNA kaiseki joho shori gijutsu no kenkyu (saikin sorui nado riyo nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1998 research result on DNA analysis and information processing technology for photosynthesis microorganisms. On the study on DNA analysis technology by triple-strand formation method, as the comparison study result of a READ method, stable triple- strand formation method and hairpin method, a READ method showed the highest triple-strand formation efficiency for target DNA. On the study on accurate separation technology of specific genes, establishment of protocols was promoted for solid-phase probe technology, subtract technology and leveling technology. On the study on DNA microarray analysis technology by high-efficiency hybridization method, the analysis technology of genes by hybridization method using DNA chips is under investigation. In addition, the high- efficiency analysis technology of specific DNA segments by using an affinity sensor, and the high-accuracy cloning technology for DNA with altered primary structure were also studied. (NEDO)

  10. Evaluation of complementary technologies to reduce bio engine emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blowes, J.H.

    2003-09-01

    This report summaries the results of a study examining the technical and economic feasibility of exhaust gas treatment technologies for reducing emissions from diesel engines burning pyrolysis oil to within internationally recognised limits. Details are given of the burning of pyrolysis oils in reciprocating engines, the reviewing of information on pyrolysis oils and engines, and the aim to produce detailed information for securing investment for a British funded diesel project. The burning of the pyrolysis oils in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to allow efficient combustion with acceptable exhaust emission limits is discussed along with the problems caused by the deterioration of the injection system.

  11. Fractional Catalytic Pyrolysis Technology for the Production of Upgraded Bio-oil using FCC Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Mante, Nii Ofei Daku

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis technology is one of the thermochemical platforms used to produce high quality bio-oil and chemicals from biomass feedstocks. In the catalytic pyrolysis process, the biomass is rapidly heated under inert atmosphere in the presence of an acid catalyst or zeolite to promote deoxygenation and cracking of the primary vapors into hydrocarbons and small oxygenates. This dissertation examines the utilization of conventional fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst in the fractiona...

  12. Synthetics, mineral oils, and bio-based lubricants chemistry and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnick, Leslie R

    2005-01-01

    As the field of tribology has evolved, the lubrication industry is also progressing at an extraordinary rate. Updating the author's bestselling publication, Synthetic Lubricants and High-Performance Functional Fluids, this book features the contributions of over 60 specialists, ten new chapters, and a new title to reflect the evolving nature of the field: Synthetics, Mineral Oils, and Bio-Based Lubricants: Chemistry and Technology. The book contains chapters on all major lubricant fluids used in a wide range of applications. For each type of lubricant, the authors discuss the historical develo

  13. Lessons learned from U.S. Department of Defense 911-Bio Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T.; Gasper, W.; Lacher, L.; Newsom, D.; Yantosik, G.

    1999-07-06

    The US Department of Defense (DoD), in cooperation with other federal agencies, has taken many initiatives to improve its ability to support civilian response to a domestic biological terrorism incident. This paper discusses one initiative, the 911-Bio Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations (ACTDs), conducted by the Office of the Secretary of Defense during 1997 to better understand: (1) the capability of newly developed chemical and biological collection and identification technologies in a field environment; (2) the ability of specialized DoD response teams to use these new technologies within the structure of cooperating DoD and civilian consequence management organizations; and (3) the adequacy of current modeling tools for predicting the dispersal of biological hazards. This paper discusses the experience of the ACTDs from the civilian community support perspective. The 911-Bio ACTD project provided a valuable opportunity for DoD and civilian officials to learn how they should use their combined capabilities to manage the aftermath of a domestic biological terrorism incident.

  14. Mini and micro CHP technologies: opportunities of bio-fuelled microturbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro-turbines are a distributed generation technology with a power output of 30 - 250 kWe. They are single-stage, single-shaft, low pressure ratio gas turbines that produce a high quality electrical output at an efficiency of 21 - 31%. Due to the high-value heat stream of the exhaust gas, it is a promising technology for small-scale heat and power generation with an overall efficiency of 75 - 81%. Micro-turbine systems offer very low maintenance costs, low supervision, and extremely low emissions of NOx and CO without exhaust gas treatment. Beside natural gas, the most frequently used fuel, various bio-gases and liquid bio-fuels, like methanol can be used. Despite difficult economics, micro-turbines can match other generation technologies even today. An example for this is the low-BTU-gas utilisation at landfills. Current research investigates micro-turbine operation on vegetable oil, for safe stand-alone generation in environmentally sensitive areas. (authors)

  15. Current perspectives of bio-ceramic technology in endodontics: calcium enriched mixture cement - review of its composition, properties and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Utneja, Shivani; Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in bio-ceramic technology has revolutionised endodontic material science by enhancing the treatment outcome for patients. This class of dental materials conciliates excellent biocompatibility with high osseoconductivity that render them ideal for endodontic care. Few recently introduced bio-ceramic materials have shown considerable clinical success over their early generations in terms of good handling characteristics. Calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Endosequence sealer, a...

  16. Bio-Refineries Bioprocess Technologies for Waste-Water Treatment, Energy and Product Valorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Cowan, A.

    2010-04-01

    Increasing pressure is being exerted on communities and nations to source energy from forms other than fossil fuels. Also, potable water is becoming a scarce resource in many parts of the world, and there remains a large divide in the demand and utilization of plant products derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The most extensive user and manager of terrestrial ecosystems is agriculture which is also the de facto steward of natural resources. As stated by Miller (2008) no other industry or institution comes close to the comparative advantage held for this vital responsibility while simultaneously providing food, fiber, and other biology-based products, including energy. Since modern commercial agriculture is transitioning from the production of bulk commodities to the provision of standardized products and specific-attribute raw materials for differentiated markets, we can argue that processes such as mass cultivation of microalgae and the concept of bio-refineries be seen as part of a `new' agronomy. EBRU is currently exploring the integration of bioprocess technologies using microalgae as biocatalysts to achieve waste-water treatment, water polishing and endocrine disruptor (EDC) removal, sustainable energy production, and exploitation of the resultant biomass in agriculture as foliar fertilizer and seed coatings, and for commercial extraction of bulk commodities such as bio-oils and lecithin. This presentation will address efforts to establish a fully operational solar-driven microalgae bio-refinery for use not only in waste remediation but to transform waste and biomass to energy, fuels, and other useful materials (valorisation), with particular focus on environmental quality and sustainability goals.

  17. p-BioSPRE-an information and communication technology framework for transnational biomaterial sharing and access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Gabriele; Schröder, Christina; Schera, Fatima; Dobkowicz, Matthias; Kiefer, Stephan; Heidtke, Karsten R; Hänold, Stefanie; Nwankwo, Iheanyi; Forgó, Nikolaus; Stanulla, Martin; Eckert, Cornelia; Graf, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Biobanks represent key resources for clinico-genomic research and are needed to pave the way to personalised medicine. To achieve this goal, it is crucial that scientists can securely access and share high-quality biomaterial and related data. Therefore, there is a growing interest in integrating biobanks into larger biomedical information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructures. The European project p-medicine is currently building an innovative ICT infrastructure to meet this need. This platform provides tools and services for conducting research and clinical trials in personalised medicine. In this paper, we describe one of its main components, the biobank access framework p-BioSPRE (p-medicine Biospecimen Search and Project Request Engine). This generic framework enables and simplifies access to existing biobanks, but also to offer own biomaterial collections to research communities, and to manage biobank specimens and related clinical data over the ObTiMA Trial Biomaterial Manager. p-BioSPRE takes into consideration all relevant ethical and legal standards, e.g., safeguarding donors' personal rights and enabling biobanks to keep control over the donated material and related data. The framework thus enables secure sharing of biomaterial within open and closed research communities, while flexibly integrating related clinical and omics data. Although the development of the framework is mainly driven by user scenarios from the cancer domain, in this case, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and Wilms tumour, it can be extended to further disease entities. PMID:24567758

  18. DNA CHIPS RESEARCH BASED ON BioMEMS TECHNOLOGIES%基于BioMEMS技术的DNA芯片研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔大付

    2001-01-01

    近年来基于微电子机械系统(MEMS)技术研究和开发的一个新领域就是BioMEMS,特别是对生物芯片和生物化学微分析系统的研究.文中叙述了基于BioMEMS技术的DNA芯片研究,介绍了几种不同结构的DNA芯片,以及DNA-PCR扩增器芯片、DNA-CE毛细管电泳芯片、微流动控制器件和实验室芯片(Lab on a Chip)等.还报告了作者们成功采用MEMS技术,研制成集成化微结构型PCR-DNA扩增芯片,芯片上包括有加热器、温度传感器、2μL容积的反应池以及输入输出通道;能实现快速扩增,最快加热速度为15 ℃/s,降温速度为10℃/s.研制成Si-玻璃,玻璃-玻璃和玻璃-PDMS三种结构的毛细管电泳芯片,沟道宽200 μm,深200μm.研制成一种表面等离子体谐振(SPR)生化分析系统,其入射光扫描角范围从40°到70°,分辨率0.1%度,可测折射率范围1.04~1.47.

  19. Changes of the Chemistry Teacher Candidates’ Attitudes towards and Views about Information and Communication Technologies: ChemBioDraw Application

    OpenAIRE

    Paşa, Salih; BOLAT, Yusuf İslam; KARATAŞ, Faik Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine technology attitudes of chemistry teacher candidates by using ChemBioDraw software as computer assisted teaching material in Organic Structural Analysis class for planned four weeks. Furthermore, it was also intended students thoughts about using technology and visualization software in education. This study was carried out as applicable for the mixed method approach. In this regard, a pre- and post-test single group experimental design was administrated ...

  20. BioKonversion technology recovers, remediates and reuses waste and hydrocarbons from oil drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topf, A.

    2008-01-15

    Houston-based Nopal Group has developed a solution to dispose of oilfield waste in a safe and cost-effective manner. The company is actively engaged in a large-scale project to remediate a 400-hectare site on the Aspheron Peninsula in Azerbaijan. The site is currently regarded as the most polluted place in the world after a century of oil extraction with little regard for the surrounding environment. The Nopal Group will use its patented BioKonversion technology, which cleanses the soil of hydrocarbons in a two-part process using a large machine known as the Green Machine. Several pipelines will need to be relocated, and ancient drilling rigs that have been there as long as 100 years will have to be dealt with. The cleanup cost has been estimated at between $20 million to $40 million, and will take between 18 and 36 months, depending on how deep into the ground the machines have to dig for hydrocarbons. The 90-foot by 40-foot machine processes drill cuttings, contaminated soil and drill fluids by first separating the dirt from the liquid hydrocarbons, which can be recycled or refined for resale. The remaining dirt, which still contains 3 to 7 percent oil, is then placed into a centrifuge and mixed with a heating agent and other elements, including naturally oleophilic kenaf powder. The process micronizes and absorbs hydrocarbons. Once the process is finished, the hydrocarbons are immediately non-detectable and non-leachable. The leftover benign dirt can be used as landfill cover, or mixed with road aggregate. BioKonversion can also be adapted for use on oil rigs. This article demonstrated that the process has clear advantages over traditional oilfield remediation methods such as land farming. Opportunities exist to utilize the process in Venezuela and Kuwait. 1 fig.

  1. Convergence of knowledge, technology and society beyond convergence of nano-bio-info-cognitive technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bainbridge, William; Tonn, Bruce; Whitesides, George

    2013-01-01

    Convergence of knowledge and technology for the benefit of society (CKTS) is the core opportunity for progress in the 21st century, based on five principles: (1) the interdependence of all components of nature and society, (2) enhancement of creativity and innovation through evolutionary processes of convergence that combine existing principles, and divergence that generates new ones, (3) decision analysis for research and development based on system-logic deduction, (4) higher-level cross-domain languages to generate new solutions and support transfer of new knowledge, and (5) vision-inspired basic research embodied in grand challenges. Solutions are outlined for key societal challenges, including creating new industries and jobs, improving lifelong wellness and human potential, achieving personalized and integrated healthcare and education, and securing a sustainable quality of life for all. This report provides a ten-year “NBIC2” vision within a longer-term framework for converging technology and human...

  2. Bio Hydrogen Production from Pharmaceutical Waste Water Treatment by a Suspended Growth Reactor Using Environmental Anaerobic Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, R. Hema; Mohan, S. Venkata; Swamy, A. V. V. S.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is considered as the future fuel. The present work on “Bio Hydrogen Production from Pharmaceutical Waste Water Treatment by a Suspended Growth Reactor Using Environmental Anaerobic Technology. This is an appreciated approach at wealth generation through value addition to wastes. The optimization process included the selection of ideal co-substrate (sucrose) and nitrogen source (DAP) to examine the feasibility of hydrogen production from industrial effluent in a 50%-50% mix...

  3. Intelligent Surfaces in Biotechnology Scientific and Engineering Concepts, Enabling Technologies, and Translation to Bio-Oriented Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grandin, H Michelle; Whitesides, George M

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of smart and responsive surfaces in biotechnology and their applications A wave of recent advances in cell biology, biophysics, chemistry, and materials science has enabled the development of a new generation of smart biomaterials. Intelligent Surfaces in Biotechnology: Scientific and Engineering Concepts, Enabling Technologies, and Translation to Bio-Oriented Applications provides readers with a comprehensive overview of surface modifications and their applications, including coverage of the physico-chemical properties, characterization methods, smart coating techno

  4. Current perspectives of bio-ceramic technology in endodontics: calcium enriched mixture cement - review of its composition, properties and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utneja, Shivani; Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

    2015-02-01

    Advancements in bio-ceramic technology has revolutionised endodontic material science by enhancing the treatment outcome for patients. This class of dental materials conciliates excellent biocompatibility with high osseoconductivity that render them ideal for endodontic care. Few recently introduced bio-ceramic materials have shown considerable clinical success over their early generations in terms of good handling characteristics. Calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Endosequence sealer, and root repair materials, Biodentine and BioAggregate are the new classes of bio-ceramic materials. The aim of this literature review is to present investigations regarding properties and applications of CEM cement in endodontics. A review of the existing literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for CEM cement from January 2006 to December 2013. CEM cement has a different chemical composition from that of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) but has similar clinical applications. It combines the biocompatibility of MTA with more efficient characteristics, such as significantly shorter setting time, good handling characteristics, no staining of tooth and effective seal against bacterial leakage.

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of cassava peels and manure: a technological approach for biogas generation and bio-fertilizer production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern global society faces great challenges in supply of energy and management of wastes in sustainable ways. One way of resolving the local challenges is to develop environmentally appropriate and socio economically viable biotechnological processes for converting biomass to energy. The general principles of anaerobic bio-digestion, digester design and features of bio-digestion are presented in the feature article, focusing on the prospects of utilizing cassava peels as a readily available lignocellulose feedstock for co-digestion with manure for the production of biogas and bio-fertilizer. Aside of the high cyanogenic properties, cassava peels would require pre-treatment before use as a substrate, hence, a multi-stage and high rate digestion system might be adopted in efficient digestion of cassava peels. To optimize carbon-nitrogen ratio for efficient digestion, cassava should be co-digested with manure. The socio-economic benefits of the anaerobic co-digestion technology and key policy measures to be implemented to harness bio-energy from agricultural wastes are also outlined. (au)

  6. Research Extension and Education Programs on Bio-based Energy Technologies and Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Sam [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station; Harper, David [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station; Womac, Al [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station

    2010-03-02

    The overall objectives of this project were to provide enhanced educational resources for the general public, educational and development opportunities for University faculty in the Southeast region, and enhance research knowledge concerning biomass preprocessing and deconstruction. All of these efforts combine to create a research and education program that enhances the biomass-based industries of the United States. This work was broken into five primary objective areas: • Task A - Technical research in the area of biomass preprocessing, analysis, and evaluation. • Tasks B&C - Technical research in the areas of Fluidized Beds for the Chemical Modification of Lignocellulosic Biomass and Biomass Deconstruction and Evaluation. • Task D - Analyses for the non-scientific community to provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of biomass supply, demand, technologies, markets and policies; identify a set of feasible alternative paths for biomass industry development and quantify the impacts associated with alternative path. • Task E - Efforts to build research capacity and develop partnerships through faculty fellowships with DOE national labs The research and education programs conducted through this grant have led to three primary results. They include: • A better knowledge base related to and understanding of biomass deconstruction, through both mechanical size reduction and chemical processing • A better source of information related to biomass, bioenergy, and bioproducts for researchers and general public users through the BioWeb system. • Stronger research ties between land-grant universities and DOE National Labs through the faculty fellowship program. In addition to the scientific knowledge and resources developed, funding through this program produced a minimum of eleven (11) scientific publications and contributed to the research behind at least one patent.

  7. 生物油精制技术研究进展%Progress in Bio-oil Refining Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾帅; 杨洪雪; 苗玮; 许庆利; 颜涌捷

    2012-01-01

    The study mainly introduces five kinds of bio-oil refining methods-hydrogenation, catalytic pyrolysis, emulsion, catalytic esterification and molecular distillation. Bio-oil refining technologies have their respective problems. For example, catalytic pyrolysis has advantages of simple equipment and low cost but catalyst is easily coked and deactivation: emulsion has simple operation but high cost and more energy consumption: catalytic esterification is a good modification methods but the quality of oil is not high after modification. All these bio-oil refining technologies are hard to realize industrialization. Finally, a new method of bio-oil refining in the CO/H2O systems was also introduced.%主要介绍了催化加氢、催化裂解、乳化、催化酯化、分子蒸馏这5种生物油精制方法.由于生物油精制技术都存在各自的问题,如:催化裂解具有设备简单、成本低等优点,但其催化剂容易结焦失活;乳化操作简单,但成本和耗能较多;催化酯化是一种较好的改性方法,但是改性后油的品质不高.这些都使生物油精制技术难以实现工业化.提出了一种在CO/H2O体系中精制生物油的新方法.

  8. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium field / Development of technology to treat aquatic environment by using microorganisms fixed on carbon fabrics (abbreviation: carbon/aquatic environment project) (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium bun`ya / tanso sen`i nansoshiki eno biseibutsu kochaku gensho wo riyoshita mizukankyo seibi gijutsu no kaihatsu (ryakusho: tanso mizu kankyo project) daiichi nendo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Out of the development of technology to arrange the aquatic environment using phenomena of microorganism fixation on carbon fiber soft textures, the paper stated the fiscal 1997 result. On carbon fibers in a state of swaying in water, microorganisms in water fix in an amazingly large quantity. A catalog was compiled of 58 kinds of carbon fabrics trially woven and knitted. When carbon fiber is used as activated sludge carrier, activity of microorganism lasts more than one year. Only a little amount of surplus sludge is generated. The fixed microorganisms are more active in case of carbon fiber than in case of nylon and polyester fibers. Fiber texture models of carbon fiber fixing activated sludge groups were proposed. By pump operation, the water flow inside/outside microorganism groups is being accelerated. Several new strains of bacillus carboniphilus were isolated/identified from soil and marsh. To grasp relationships of characteristics among three elements such as the state of aquatic environment, fiber, and microorganism group, the experiment was prepared. Preliminary work is conducted to derive a simple equation for facility design, and experimental directions to obtain design conditions were proposed. 6 refs., 166 figs., 47 tabs.

  9. Panorama 2011: New bio-fuel production technologies: overview of these expanding sectors and the challenges facing them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerous research programmes looking at new-generation biofuels that were initiated over the last ten years are now starting to bear fruit. Although no plants are producing and marketing biofuels yet, the large-scale, industrial feasibility of second-generation bio-fuel production at competitive cost may be demonstrated in the short-term. As far as third generation biofuels derived from algal biomass are concerned, there is a great deal of R and D interest in the sector, but the technology is still only in its infancy. (author)

  10. Business Development of Solid Waste Treatment Technology and Bio-Fertilizer Production through a Danish-Vietnamese Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David

    organization called access2innovation and has had the close cooperation of an international development NGO, SustainableEnergy, throughout all stages in the process. In addition to seed funding from access2innovation, the partnership has received funding from the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affair’s development...... forward through socially and culturally embedded negotiations among its actors, shaping the technology in question. Additionally, the business development process is seen in an institutional perspective, demonstrating how Danish technology transferal is capable of being adapted to the Vietnamese physical...... of the outlying suburbs of the Vietnamese capital city of Hanoi, which is dimensioned to be able to treat 30,000 tons municipal solid waste per year. The technology in question involves the highly refined separation of the organic waste fraction into so-called bio-pulp, which only has a 0,01% content of plastic...

  11. Application of Bio -hydrogen Production Technology%生物制氢技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金明兰

    2012-01-01

    氢气具有清洁、可更新的优点,是最具发展潜力、最理想的新能源之一.由于生物制氢技术具有无污染、可再生、成本低等优点,受到国内外广泛的关注,在新能源的研究利用中占有越来越重要的位置.本文较系统地综述了国内外各种生物制氢技术的产生背景、基本原理和应用现状,总结了该技术的优点和面临的问题,探讨其在环境科学中的应用前景.%The hydrogen is a kind of most development potential and best energy source for clean and renewable. Compared with other hydrogen production methods, the technology of bio - hydrogen production was hold more im- portant situation in new energy research for the advantages of being free of pollution, being renewable and with low costs. This presentation comprises a review of the technology of bio - hydrogen production development background, basic technical mechanism and current applications was presented. Its merits and locals were summarized, as well as potential and future perspectives of its applications in environmental science were also approached.

  12. Nano-Bio-Technology and Sensing Chips: New Systems for Detection in Personalized Therapies and Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Carrara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Further advances in molecular medicine and cell biology also require new electrochemical systems to detect disease biomarkers and therapeutic compounds. Microelectronic technology offers powerful circuits and systems to develop innovative and miniaturized biochips for sensing at the molecular level. However, microelectronic biochips proposed in the literature often do not show the right specificity, sensitivity, and reliability required by biomedical applications. Nanotechnology offers new materials and solutions to improve the surface properties of sensing probes. The aim of the present paper is to review the most recent progress in Nano-Bio-Technology in the area of the development of new electrochemical systems for molecular detection in personalized therapy and cell culture monitoring.

  13. Novas tecnologias reprodutivas conceptivas: bioética e controvérsias New reproductive conception technologies: bioethics and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Tamanini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de alguns dos múltiplos aspectos éticos/bioéticos e de gênero no campo das novas tecnologias reprodutivas conceptivas (NTRc. A literatura nele apresentada aponta para a pluralidade de situações e abordagens possíveis em um campo multidimensional e controvertido. Explicita alguns princípios éticos/bioéticos do agir biomédico encontrados durante pesquisa com casais heterossexuais que fizeram reprodução assistida e com médic@s especialistas em reprodução humana no Sul do Brasil.1 Apresenta os pressupostos éticos/bioéticos sancionadores do agir médico e da continuidade dos chamados tratamentos para engravidar, e analisa os mecanismos utilizados para reerguer as expectativas dos casais em situação de desconfiança ou de insucesso.This article concerns some of the multiple ethical-bioethical and gender issues in the field of new reproductive and contraceptive technologies. The literature presented points to the plurality of possible situations and approaches in a multidimensional and controversial field. It presents some ethical-bioethical principals of biomedical action found in the study of heterosexual couples who use assisted reproduction. and of medical specialists in human reproduction in southern Brazil. It presents the ethical-bioethical presumptions that sanction medical behavior and the continuity of the so-called impregnation treatments, and analyzes the mechanisms used to raise the expectations of couples who lack confidence or success.

  14. Refuse derived bio-organics and immobilized soybean peroxidase for green chemical technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnacca, Giuliana; Laurenti, Enzo; Vigna, Erika;

    2012-01-01

    A silica monolith was prepared from commercial silica powder dispersed in water containing polymeric water soluble bio-organics (SBO) isolated from composted urban vegetable wastes. The monolith and the pristine powder were characterized for their morphology and reactivity for immobilizing Soybean...... the maximum reagent conversion achieved with P-SBP was much lower (75% of reagent conversion). The M-SBP was more easily recovered from the reaction medium and found more stable than P-SBP upon repeated catalyst recycling (after 20 cycles 75-80% of the initial activity was retained by both immobilized samples...

  15. High-Quality Genome Assembly and Annotation for Plasmodium coatneyi, Generated Using Single-Molecule Real-Time PacBio Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jung-Ting; Pakala, Suman B; Geraldo, Juliana A; Lapp, Stacey A; Humphrey, Jay C; Barnwell, John W; Kissinger, Jessica C; Galinski, Mary R

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium coatneyi is a protozoan parasite species that causes simian malaria and is an excellent model for studying disease caused by the human malaria parasite, P. falciparum Here we report the complete (nontelomeric) genome sequence of P. coatneyi Hackeri generated by the application of only Pacific Biosciences RS II (PacBio RS II) single-molecule real-time (SMRT) high-resolution sequence technology and assembly using the Hierarchical Genome Assembly Process (HGAP). This is the first Plasmodium genome sequence reported to use only PacBio technology. This approach has proven to be superior to short-read only approaches for this species. PMID:27587810

  16. Steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment refining technology of plant biomass to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Pretreatment is a key unit operation affecting the refinery efficiency of plant biomass. However, the poor efficiency of pretreatment and the lack of basic theory are the main challenges to the industrial implementation of the plant biomass refinery. The purpose of this work is to review steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment as a means of overcoming the intrinsic characteristics of plant biomass, including recalcitrance, heterogeneity, multi-composition, and diversity. The main advantages of the selective use of steam explosion and other combinatorial pretreatments across the diversity of raw materials are introduced. Combinatorial pretreatment integrated with other unit operations is proposed as a means to exploit the high-efficiency production of bio-based products from plant biomass. Finally, several pilot- and demonstration-scale operations of the plant biomass refinery are described. Based on the principle of selective function and structure fractionation, and multi-level and directional composition conversion, an integrated process with the combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments as the core should be feasible and conform to the plant biomass refinery concept. Combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments should be further exploited based on the type and intrinsic characteristics of the plant biomass used, the bio-based products to be made, and the complementarity of the processes.

  17. Application of bio-huff-`n`-puff technology at Jilin oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Yan-Fed Xue; Gang Dai; Ling Zhao [Institute of Microbiology, Beijing (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An enriched culture 48, capable of adapting to the reservoir conditions and fermenting molasses to produce gas and acid, was used as an inoculum for bio- huff-`n`-puff tests at Fuyu oil area of Jilin oil field. The production well was injected with water containing 4-6% (v/v) molasses and inoculum, and then shut in. After 15-21 days, the well was placed back in operation. A total of 44 wells were treated, of which only two wells showed no effects. The daily oil production of treated wells increased by 33.3-733.3%. Up to the end of 1994, the oil production was increased by 204 tons per well on average. Results obtained from various types of production wells were discussed.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium avium, Isolated from Commercial Domestic Pekin Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica), Determined Using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Heng; Chen, Hong-Xi; Zhou, Wang-Shu; Wang, Jiang-Bo; Liu, Ma-Feng; Wang, Ming-Shu; Cheng, An-Chun; Jia, Ren-Yong; Chen, Shun; Sun, Kun-Feng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Yue; Zhu, De-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium is an important pathogenic bacterium in birds and has never, to our knowledge, reported to be isolated from domestic ducks. We present here the complete genome sequence of a virulent strain of Mycobacterium avium, isolated from domestic Pekin ducks for the first time, which was determined by PacBio single-molecule real-time technology. PMID:27587804

  19. BioSentinel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — BioSentinel technology will provide critical information about how living systems, from humans down to cells, adapt, respond and survive in deep space, beyond LEO...

  20. A Multi-scale, Multi-disciplinary Approach for Assessing the Technological, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Bio-based Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrgard, Markus; Sukumara, Sumesh; Campodonico Alt, Miguel Angel;

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, bio-based chemicals have gained interest as a renewable alternative to petrochemicals. However, there is a significant need to assess the technological, biological, economic and environmental feasibility of bio-based chemicals, particularly during the early research phase. Recently......, the Multi-scale framework for Sustainable Industrial Chemicals (MuSIC) was introduced to address this issue by integrating modelling approaches at different scales ranging from cellular to ecological scales. This framework can be further extended by incorporating modelling of the petrochemical value chain...

  1. A multi-scale, multi-disciplinary approach for assessing the technological, economic and environmental performance of bio-based chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrgård, Markus; Sukumara, Sumesh; Campodonico, Miguel; Zhuang, Kai

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, bio-based chemicals have gained interest as a renewable alternative to petrochemicals. However, there is a significant need to assess the technological, biological, economic and environmental feasibility of bio-based chemicals, particularly during the early research phase. Recently, the Multi-scale framework for Sustainable Industrial Chemicals (MuSIC) was introduced to address this issue by integrating modelling approaches at different scales ranging from cellular to ecological scales. This framework can be further extended by incorporating modelling of the petrochemical value chain and the de novo prediction of metabolic pathways connecting existing host metabolism to desirable chemical products. This multi-scale, multi-disciplinary framework for quantitative assessment of bio-based chemicals will play a vital role in supporting engineering, strategy and policy decisions as we progress towards a sustainable chemical industry. PMID:26614653

  2. Development of Bio-Hydrogen Production Technology from Organic Wastewater%有机废水生物制氢资源化技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈燕飞; 胡岚; 张咏

    2013-01-01

    There are some advantages of clean , energy-saving, resource-saving for biological hydrogen production technology .The bio-hydrogen production reaction can take place in conditions of normal temperature , pressure and neutral pH by microorganism .The way to carry out bio-hydrogen production from organic wastewater achieves the recovering resource and decreases the cost , which is consistent with strategic planning for sustainable development .In this paper , the classification and biological principle of bio -hydrogen production were introduced, and the technology development of bio -hydrogen production from organic wastewater was discussed .In the last, the new technology of bio-hydrogen production was presented .%生物制氢技术具有清洁、节能和不消耗矿物资源等突出优点,依赖微生物自身的新陈代谢,在常温、常压和接近中性的温和条件下即可进行,以有机废水为制氢原料,既实现了废弃物资源化,又可降低成本,是一条符合可持续发展战略的废水资源化途径。本文介绍了生物制氢类型及生物学原理,并就以有机废水为原料的生物制氢研究进展进行了讨论,归纳出生物制氢最新技术进展。

  3. Bio-Technological Characterization of the Saccharomyces bayanus Yeast Strains in Order to Preserve the Local Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enikő Gaspar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The wine yeasts have multiple and important applications in the industry, aiming to obtain pure cultures and the selection of those strains which, according to the lab investigations, present superior bio-technological properties. In this study we monitored three types of Saccharomyces bayanus yeast strains, isolated from indigenous grapes varieties, Apold Iordana, Italian Blaj Riesling and Royal Feteasca from Jidvei area, which are present in the collection of the Biotechnologies and Microbiology Research Center of SAIAPM University. The yeast strains were subject to alcoholic fermentation in malt must at different temperatures, in the presence of alcohol, sugar and SO2 in various concentrations. The obtained results led to selecting of those strains which had best results regarding the alcoholic tolerance, osmo-tolerance, fermentation speed under stress conditions and resistance to SO2. These results can have practical applications in using the indigenous strains, isolated from grapes which are from inside the country, so that we preserve the local specificity, and reduce imports regarding this area.

  4. Lamination And Microstructuring Technology for a Bio-Cell Multiwell array

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, E; Neumann, A; Bottcher, L; Braun, T; Bauer, J; Reichl, H; Iafelice, B; Destro, F; Gambari, R

    2008-01-01

    Microtechnology becomes a versatile tool for biological and biomedical applications. Microwells have been established long but remained non-intelligent up to now. Merging new fabrication techniques and handling concepts with microelectronics enables to realize intelligent microwells suitable for future improved cancer treatment. The described technology depicts the basis for the fabrication of a elecronically enhanced microwell. Thin aluminium sheets are structured by laser micro machining and laminated successively to obtain registration tolerances of the respective layers of 5..10\\^A$\\mu$m. The microwells lasermachined into the laminate are with 50..80\\^A$\\mu$m diameter, allowing to hold individual cells within the well. The individual process steps are described and results on the microstructuring are given.

  5. Bio-Inspired/-Functional Colloidal Core-Shell Polymeric-Based NanoSystems: Technology Promise in Tissue Engineering, Bioimaging and NanoMedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyad S. Haidar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern breakthroughs in the fields of proteomics and DNA micro-arrays have widened the horizons of nanotechnology for applications with peptides and nucleic acids. Hence, biomimetic interest in the study and formulation of nanoscaled bio-structures, -materials, -devices and -therapeutic agent delivery vehicles has been recently increasing. Many of the currently–investigated functionalized bio-nanosystems draw their inspiration from naturally-occurring phenomenon, prompting the integration of molecular signals and mimicking natural processes, at the cell, tissue and organ levels. Technologically, the ability to obtain spherical nanostructures exhibiting combinations of several properties that neither individual material possesses on its own renders colloidal core-shell architectured nanosystems particularly attractive. The three main developments presently foreseen in the nanomedicine sub-arena of nanobiotechnology are: sensorization (biosensors/ biodetection, diagnosis (biomarkers/bioimaging and drug, protein or gene delivery (systemic vs. localized/targeted controlled–release systems. Advances in bio-applications such as cell-labelling/cell membrane modelling, agent delivery and targeting, tissue engineering, organ regeneration, nanoncology and immunoassay strategies, along the major limitations and potential future and advances are highlighted in this review. Herein, is an attempt to address some of the most recent works focusing on bio-inspired and -functional polymeric-based core-shell nanoparticulate systems aimed for agent delivery. It is founded, mostly, on specialized research and review articles that have emerged during the last ten years.

  6. 2010 World bio-energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having evoked the bio-energy price awarded to a Brazilian for his works on the use of eucalyptus as energy source, this report proposes a synthesis of the highlights of the conference: discussions about sustainability, bio-energies as an opportunity for developing countries, the success of bio-energies in Sweden, and more particularly some technological advances in the field of biofuels: a bio-LPG by Biofuel-solution AB, catalysis, bio-diesel from different products in a Swedish farm, a second generation ethanol by the Danish company Inbicon, a large scale methanization in Goteborg, a bio-refinery concept in Sweden, bio-gases

  7. Bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources

  8. Highly sensitive detection of human IgG using a novel bio-barcode assay combined with DNA chip technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhenbao [Central South University, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (China); Zhou, Bo, E-mail: zhoubo1771@163.com [The Affiliated Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University, Department of Gerontology (China); Wang, Haiqing; Lu, Feng; Liu, Tianjun; Song, Cunxian; Leng, Xigang, E-mail: lengxigyky@163.com [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College (China)

    2013-09-15

    A simple and ultrasensitive detection of human IgG based on signal amplification using a novel bio-barcode assay and DNA chip technology was developed. The sensing platform was a sandwich system made up of antibody-modified magnetic microparticles (Ab-MMPs)/human IgG/Cy3-labeled single-stranded DNA and antibody-modified gold nanoparticles (Cy3-ssDNA-Ab-AuNPs). The MMPs (2.5 {mu}m in diameter) modified with mouse anti-human IgG monoclonal-antibodies could capture human IgG and further be separated and enriched via a magnetic field. The AuNPs (13 nm in diameter) conjugated with goat anti-human IgG polyclonal-antibodies and Cy3-ssDNA could further combine with the human IgG/Ab-MMP complex. The Cy3-ssDNA on AuNPs was then released by TCEP to hybridize with the DNA chip, thus generating a detectable signal by the fluorescence intensity of Cy3. In order to improve detection sensitivity, a three-level cascaded signal amplification was developed: (1) The MMP enrichment as the first-level; (2) Large quantities of Cy3-ssDNA on AuNPs as the second-level; (3) The Cy3-ssDNA conjugate with DNA chip as the third-level. The highly sensitive technique showed an increased response of the fluorescence intensity to the increased concentration of human IgG through a detection range from 1 pg mL{sup -1} to 10 ng mL{sup -1}. This sensing technique could not only improve the detection sensitivity for the low concentration of human IgG but also present a robust and efficient signal amplification model. The detection method has good stability, specificity, and reproducibility and could be applied in the detection of human IgG in the real samples.

  9. Highly sensitive detection of human IgG using a novel bio-barcode assay combined with DNA chip technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and ultrasensitive detection of human IgG based on signal amplification using a novel bio-barcode assay and DNA chip technology was developed. The sensing platform was a sandwich system made up of antibody-modified magnetic microparticles (Ab-MMPs)/human IgG/Cy3-labeled single-stranded DNA and antibody-modified gold nanoparticles (Cy3-ssDNA-Ab-AuNPs). The MMPs (2.5 μm in diameter) modified with mouse anti-human IgG monoclonal-antibodies could capture human IgG and further be separated and enriched via a magnetic field. The AuNPs (13 nm in diameter) conjugated with goat anti-human IgG polyclonal-antibodies and Cy3-ssDNA could further combine with the human IgG/Ab-MMP complex. The Cy3-ssDNA on AuNPs was then released by TCEP to hybridize with the DNA chip, thus generating a detectable signal by the fluorescence intensity of Cy3. In order to improve detection sensitivity, a three-level cascaded signal amplification was developed: (1) The MMP enrichment as the first-level; (2) Large quantities of Cy3-ssDNA on AuNPs as the second-level; (3) The Cy3-ssDNA conjugate with DNA chip as the third-level. The highly sensitive technique showed an increased response of the fluorescence intensity to the increased concentration of human IgG through a detection range from 1 pg mL−1 to 10 ng mL−1. This sensing technique could not only improve the detection sensitivity for the low concentration of human IgG but also present a robust and efficient signal amplification model. The detection method has good stability, specificity, and reproducibility and could be applied in the detection of human IgG in the real samples

  10. Opportunities for bio-based packaging technologies to improve the quality and safety of fresh and further processed muscle foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Catherine Nettles

    2006-09-01

    It has been well documented that vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging materials, made from polyethylene- or other plastic-based materials, have been found to improve the stability and safety of raw or further processed muscle foods. However, recent research developments have demonstrated the feasibility, utilization, and commercial application of a variety of bio-based polymers or bio-polymers made from a variety of materials, including renewable/sustainable agricultural commodities, and applied to muscle foods. A variety of these bio-based materials have been shown to prevent moisture loss, drip, reduce lipid oxidation and improve flavor attributes, as well as enhancing the handling properties, color retention, and microbial stability of foods. With consumers demanding more environmentally friendly packaging and a desire for more natural products, bio-based films or bio-polymers will continue to play an important role in the food industry by improving the quality of many products, including fresh or further processed muscle foods. PMID:22062722

  11. Bio-technologies; Biotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawitz, X. [Systemes Bio-Industries, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France)

    1997-12-31

    The impact of the French 2910 decree concerning pollution emission (emission levels of boilers, turbines, engines and dryers) on the calculation of chimney stack height, gas ejection minimum speed and influence of obstacles, is reviewed. The energy efficiency improvement of 400 kW to 50 MW boilers and the implementation of a cogeneration plant are also described

  12. New technology of bio-heap leaching uranium ore and its industrial application in Ganzhou uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioleaching mechanism of uranium ore is discussed. Incubation and selection of new strain, biomembrane oxidizing tank--a kind of new equipment for bacteria culture and oxidation regeneration of leaching agent are also introduced. The results of industrial experiment and industrial production are summarized. Compared with conventional heap leaching, bioleaching period and acid amount are reduced, oxidant and leaching agent are saved, and uranium concentration in leaching solution is increased. It is the first time to realize industrial production by bio-heap leaching in Chinese uranium mine. New equipment-biomembrane oxidizing tank give the basis of bio-heap leaching industrial application. Bio-heap leaching process is an effective technique to reform technique of uranium mine and extract massive low-content uranium ore in China. (authors)

  13. Towards ideal NOx control technology for bio-oils and a gas multi-fuel boiler system using a plasma-chemical hybrid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A multi-fuel boiler system combined with NOx aftertreatment is developed. • NOx is removed from flue gas by a plasma-chemical hybrid process. • Waste bio-oils are utilized as renewable energy source and for CO2 reduction. • Ultra low NOx emission less than 2 ppm is achieved. • The boiler system is applicable for industrial use. - Abstract: A super-clean boiler system comprising a multi-fuel boiler and a reactor for plasma-chemical hybrid NOx aftertreatment is developed, and its industrial applications are examined. The purpose of this research is to optimally reduce NOx emission and utilize waste bio-oil as a renewable energy source. First, NO oxidation using indirect plasma at elevated flue gas temperatures is investigated. It is clarified that more than 98% of NO is oxidized when the temperature of the flue gas is less than 130 °C. Three types of waste bio-oils (waste vegetable oil, rice bran oil, and fish oil) are burned in the boiler as fuels with a rotary-type burner for CO2 reduction considering carbon neutrality. NOx in the flue gases of these bio-oils is effectively reduced by the indirect plasma-chemical hybrid treatment. Ultralow NOx emission less than 2 ppm is achieved for 450 min in the firing of city natural gas fuel. The boiler system can be successfully operated automatically according to unsteady steam demand and using an empirical equation for Na2SO3 supply rate, and can be used in industries as an ideal NOx control technology

  14. BioMEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Explosive growth in the field of Microsystem Technology has introduced a variety of promising products in major disciplines from microelectronics to life sciences. 'Biomes' is a discipline which focuses on microsystems for living systems. This work presents the exciting field of bio-microsystems.

  15. Technological Options to Ameliorate Waste Treatment of Intensive Pig Production in China:An Analysis Based on Bio-Economic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wen-cong; MA Yong-xi; Holger Bergmann

    2014-01-01

    Ameliorating waste treatment by technological improvements affects the economic and the ecological-environment beneifts of intensive pig production. The objective of the research was to develop and test a method to determine the technical optimization to ameliorate waste treatment methods and gain insight into the relationship between technological options and the economic and ecological effects. We developed an integrated bio-economic model which incorporates the farming production and waste disposal systems to simulate the impact of technological improvements in pig manure treatment on economic and environmental benefits for the case of a pilot farm in Beijing, China. Based on different waste treatment technology options, three scenarios are applied for the simulation analysis of the model. The simulation results reveal that the economic-environmental beneifts of the livestock farm could be improved by reducing the cropland manure application and increasing the composting production with the current technologies. Nevertheless, the technical efifciency, the waste treatment capacity and the economic beneifts could be further improved by the introduction of new technologies. It implies that technological and economic support policies should be implemented comprehensively on waste disposal and resource utilization to promote sustainable development in intensive livestock production in China.

  16. 生物酶催化有机废气处理技术应用%Application of Organic Waste Gas Treatment Technology of Bio-enzyme Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐爱玖; 林祥进; 孙祥章

    2015-01-01

    针对目前环境中废气污染治理情况,提出基于复合生物酶技术的废气两相催化吸附处理新型工艺技术。该技术利用高效复合生物酶催化与活性炭进行两相组合联合处理方法,处理废气中的烷烃类、苯类、多环芳烃类等有机化合物及无机化合物等污染物质,具有投资省、占地少、处理效率高、运行费用低等特点,可广泛应用于工农业生产及日常生活中产生的废气治理。%Based on the situation of waste gas polution and treatment in the environment, the paper puts forward the new-type technologies based on the waste gas two-phase catalysis, adsorption and treatment of composite bio-enzyme tech-nology. By using high effect, composite bio-enzyme catalysis and actived carbon, the technology carries through two-phase combination treatment methods to treat the polutants of organic compounds and non-organic compounds such as alkanes, benzene and PAH, which have characteristics of low costs, less land, high efifciency of treatment and low operation costs etc.. It can be applied to treat waste gas in the industrial and agricultural production and daily life.

  17. Incorporating stakeholder preferences in the selection of technologies for using invasive alien plants as a bio-energy feedstock: applying the analytical hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, W J; Stafford, W H L; Forsyth, G G; Le Maitre, D C

    2012-05-30

    Invasive alien plants (IAPs) impose significant social costs on the population of the Agulhas Plain region in South Africa due to their adverse impacts on ecosystem goods and services (decreased water supply and increased fire risk). While the cost of clearing IAPs is considerable, this paper assesses opportunities to reduce some of the social and environmental burdens (e.g. disruptions of ecosystems which have negative impacts on livelihoods) by using IAP biomass to produce bio-energy. However, such an initiative could increase financial dependency on these plants and is thus considered to be a major risk factor which could create adverse incentives to illegally grow these plants. A participatory decision-making process with active stakeholder participation is a key element in managing such an initiative. We used a multi-stakeholder engagement process and the analytical hierarchy process to define and weigh suitable criteria for the assessment of different "IAP biomass to bio-energy" technology scenarios on the Agulhas Plain. Feasible scenarios were constructed by means of an expert panel which were then ranked according to stakeholder preference. The six criteria were: minimising impacts on natural resources; job creation; certainty of benefits to local people in the study area; development of skills for life; technology performance and cost efficiency. This ranking was largely determined by the preference for resource efficiency in terms of minimising impacts on natural ecosystems and the localisation of benefits. The smaller, modular technologies were consequently preferred since these realise direct local benefits while developing local skills and capacity in their manufacture, sales and maintenance. The rankings as obtained in this study are context-bound, which implies that the findings only have limited application to areas with similar biophysical and socio-economic characteristics. However, the method itself is fully generalisable, and the same

  18. Bio-plastic (poly-hydroxy-alkanoate) production from municipal sewage sludge in the Netherlands: a technology push or a demand driven process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemink, E D; van Nieuwenhuijzen, A F; Wypkema, E; Uijterlinde, C A

    2016-01-01

    Valorisation of components from municipal 'waste' water and sewage sludge gets more and more attention in order to come to a circular economy by developing an efficient 'waste' to value concept. On behalf of the transition team 'Grondstoffenfabriek' ('Resource factory') a preliminary research was performed for all the Dutch water boards to assess the technical and economical feasibility of poly-hydroxy-alkanoate (PHA)-production from sewage sludge, a valuable product to produce bio-plastics. This study reveals that the production of bio-plastics from sewage sludge is feasible based on technical aspects, but not yet economically interesting, even though the selling price is relatively close to the actual PHA market price. (Selling price is in this particular case the indicative cost effective selling price. The cost effective selling price covers only the total production costs of the product.) Future process optimization (maximizing the volatile fatty acids production, PHA storage capacity, etc.) and market developments are needed and will result in cost reductions of the various sub-processes. PHA-production from sewage sludge at this stage is just a technology; every further research is needed to incorporate the backward integration approach, taking into account the market demand including associated product quality aspects.

  19. Towards Ideal NOx and CO2 Emission Control Technology for Bio-Oils Combustion Energy System Using a Plasma-Chemical Hybrid Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, M.; Fujishima, H.; Yamato, Y.; Kuroki, T.; Tanaka, A.; Otsuka, K.

    2013-03-01

    A pilot-scale low-emission boiler system consisting of a bio-fuel boiler and plasma-chemical hybrid NOx removal system is investigated. This system can achieve carbon neutrality because the bio-fuel boiler uses waste vegetable oil as one of the fuels. The plasma-chemical hybrid NOx removal system has two processes: NO oxidation by ozone produced from plasma ozonizers and NO2 removal using a Na2SO3 chemical scrubber. Test demonstrations of the system are carried out for mixed oils (mixture of A-heavy oil and waste vegetable oil). Stable combustion is achieved for the mixed oil (20 - 50% waste vegetable oil). Properties of flue gas—e.g., O2, CO2 and NOx—when firing mixed oils are nearly the same as those when firing heavy oil for an average flue gas flow rate of 1000 Nm3/h. NOx concentrations at the boiler outlet are 90 - 95 ppm. Furthermore, during a 300-min continuous operation when firing 20% mixed oil, NOx removal efficiency of more than 90% (less than 10 ppm NOx emission) is confirmed. In addition, the CO2 reduction when heavy oil is replaced with waste vegetable oil is estimated. The system comparison is described between the plasma-chemical hybrid NOx removal and the conventional technology.

  20. Towards Ideal NOx and CO2 Emission Control Technology for Bio-Oils Combustion Energy System Using a Plasma-Chemical Hybrid Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot-scale low-emission boiler system consisting of a bio-fuel boiler and plasma-chemical hybrid NOx removal system is investigated. This system can achieve carbon neutrality because the bio-fuel boiler uses waste vegetable oil as one of the fuels. The plasma-chemical hybrid NOx removal system has two processes: NO oxidation by ozone produced from plasma ozonizers and NO2 removal using a Na2SO3 chemical scrubber. Test demonstrations of the system are carried out for mixed oils (mixture of A-heavy oil and waste vegetable oil). Stable combustion is achieved for the mixed oil (20 – 50% waste vegetable oil). Properties of flue gas—e.g., O2, CO2 and NOx—when firing mixed oils are nearly the same as those when firing heavy oil for an average flue gas flow rate of 1000 Nm3/h. NOx concentrations at the boiler outlet are 90 – 95 ppm. Furthermore, during a 300-min continuous operation when firing 20% mixed oil, NOx removal efficiency of more than 90% (less than 10 ppm NOx emission) is confirmed. In addition, the CO2 reduction when heavy oil is replaced with waste vegetable oil is estimated. The system comparison is described between the plasma-chemical hybrid NOx removal and the conventional technology.

  1. Intellectual Property Rights Strategies of the Modern Bio-technology Enterprises Based on the Innovation Process%基于创新过程的现代生物技术企业知识产权策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯薇; 银路

    2012-01-01

    This paper starts from the basic process of the technology innovation, analyses the IPR characters of the modern bio-technology enterprises in different stages of the innovation process, constructs an model combining the IPR strategies and the innovation process of the modern bio-technology, discusses the different IPR strategies which should be adopted by the modern bio-technology enterprises in different innovation stages. It is expected to contribute to the practice of the IPR protection of the modern bio-technology enterprises.%从技术创新的基本过程出发,分析了现代生物技术企业在不同创新阶段知识产权所具有的特点,建立了现代生物技术知识产权策略与创新过程相结合的模型,探讨了现代生物技术企业在技术创新的不同阶段所应采取的知识产权策略,以期对现代生物技术企业的知识产权保护实践有所贡献.

  2. Progress in Bio-manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Yongnian; Wang Xiaohong; Xiong Zhuo; Liu Haixia; Li Shengjie

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we made a thorough and systematic expatiation of the definition, connotation and composition of bio-manufacture. Based on the different development stages and process of bioengineering, its main research direction and corresponding researches were reviewed. Furthermore, from the viewpoint of disciplinary crossing, integration and development, the main technological development direction of bio-engineering in the coming years was pointed out.

  3. Translating silicon nanowire BioFET sensor-technology to embedded point-of-care medical diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea; Zulfiqar, Azeem; Patou, François;

    2013-01-01

    to be detected. However, in order to translate this technology from the bench to the bedside, a number of key issues need to be taken into consideration: Integrating nanobiosensors-based technology requires to overcome the difficult tradeoff between imperatives for high device reproducibilty and associated...

  4. Research on environmental bioecosensing technology using ecological information; Seitaikei joho ni yoru kankyo bio eco sensing gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The bioecosensing technology was studied which detects and identifies feeble signals generated by biosystem communication in wide biological environment. The following were reported as current notable environmental biosensing technologies: a quick measurement method of environmental contaminants using immunological measurement method, analysis method of ecological state of microorganism using DNA probes, observation of ecosystem by bioluminescent system, measurement method of environmental changes and contaminants using higher animals and plants, and detection method of chemical contaminants using chemotaxis of microorganism. As a result, the new bioecosensing/monitoring technology in molecular level was suggested for identifying comprehensive environmental changes which could not be measured by previous physical and chemical methods, as changes in ecosystem corresponding to environmental changes. As the wide area remote sensing technology of environmental ecological information, sensing technology on the earth, aircraft and satellite was also discussed. 247 refs., 55 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. Production of bio-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having indicated the various possible origins of biomass, this paper considers the issue of bio-energies, i.e., energies produced with biomass related to forest or agriculture production. Some indicators are defined (share of renewable energies, share of biomass in the energy production and consumption, number of production units). Stake holders are identified. Then, major and emerging trends are identified and discussed. The major trends are: development and diversification of renewable energies, development of bio-fuels with the support of incentive policies, prevalence of the wood-energy sector on the whole renewable energies, increase of surfaces dedicated to bio-fuels since the end of the 1990's, a French biogas sector which is late with respect to other countries. The emerging trends are: the important role of oil price in the development of bio-fuels, a necessary public support for the development of biogas, mobilization of research and development of competitiveness poles for bio-industries. Some prospective issues are also discussed in terms of uncertainties (soil availabilities, environmental performance of bio-fuels, available biomass resource, need of a technological advance, and evolution of energy needs on a medium term, tax and public policy). Three hypotheses of bio-energy evolutions are discussed

  6. Which future for aviation bio-fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collective report proposes a detailed overview of the evolution of aviation fuels and bio-fuels from technological, regulatory and economic points of view. It also proposes a road-map for possible future evolutions, and outlines the different assessments between American and European countries regarding the predictions for the beginning of industrial production and use of bio-jet-fuel. After having recalled international objectives, an overview of European and French commitments for technological and operational advances, and a discussion of the role of bio-fuels in the carbon cycle, the report presents various technical constraints met in aircraft industry and describes the role bio-fuels may have. The next part proposes an overview of bio-fuels which are industrially produced in the world in 2013. The authors then focus on aviation bio-fuels (main production processes, thermo-chemical processes), discuss the political context, and examine obstacles, partnerships and the role of public authorities

  7. Measuring and visualizing Nano -Bio converging technologies and its enlightenment%“纳米-生物”会聚技术的测度及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾春娟

    2012-01-01

    运用专利计量与信息可视化技术手段,对会聚技术进行测度与可视化分析,是一个较新的研究课题。对纳米-生物(NB)会聚技术测度与可视化分析的结果显示,2000-2009年间,NB会聚技术呈现出快速发展的势头;NB会聚技术共涉及到4 998个不同的技术小类,其中"细菌、真菌、病毒等的测试与探测技术"是最重要的领域;NB会聚技术的热点主题,主要集中在核酸、碳纳米管、制备方法、生物标本、癌症治疗、靶标分子等方面。中国政府和科学技术界,应通过加强纳米与生物技术领域的合作,拓展纳米与生物技术的合作领域和合作主题,培养更多的NB会聚技术领域人才等途径,推动中国NB会聚技术的不断发展。NB会聚技术的测度与可视化分析方法,可应用于其他会聚技术领域。%It is a new research subject that measures and visualizes (NANO -BIO -INFO -COGN) NBIC converging technolo- gies via patentometric and information visualization techniques. The results of measuring and visualizing of ( NANO - BIO) NB converging technology indicates that NB converging technology demonstrates an upsurging trend during the period of 2000 - 2009 ; NB converging technology involves total 4,998 different sub - technology classifications, and focuses on test and detection of bac- teria, fungi, and viruses; the hot topics of NB technology are nucleic acid/nucleic acids, carbon nanotube/carbon nanotubes, preparation method, biological sample, cancer treatment, target molecule, etc. Chinese government and S&T community should take measures to strengthen the collaboration between nano - biotechnology fields in order to expand the collaborative fields and topics, to cultivate more NB researchers, and to promote NB converging technology in China. The methodology of measuring and visualizing NB converging technology in here could be applied to other fields of converging technologies.

  8. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in transilvanian plateau of romania studied by the moss bio monitoring Technique employing nuclear and related analytical Techniques and gis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents data for 39 elements of 69 moss samples (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected in the Transilvanian Plateau of Romania. This results have obtained in the framework of the project Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Rural and Urban Areas of Romania Studied by the Moss Bio monitoring Technique Employing Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques and GIS Technology carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.The samples collected have been analyzed by ENAA with the exception of Cu, Cd, and Pb which were determined by AAS. IAEA certified materials were used to ensure the quality of the measurements. The regional concentration variations of selected elements are presented in the form of maps constructed by GIS technology. Extremely high values are observed for elements such as Cu, Zn, As and Sb in parts of this territory affected by local metal industries. The levels are among the highest observed in the world, and could be partly responsible for the unfortunate health situation in some of these areas

  9. Design and Implementation of Technology Enabled Affective Learning Using Fusion of Bio-Physical and Facial Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Arindam; Chakrabarti, Amlan

    2016-01-01

    Technology Enabled Learning is a cognitive, constructive, systematic, collaborative learning procedure, which transforms teaching-learning pedagogy where role of emotion is very often neglected. Emotion plays significant role in the cognitive process of human being, so the transformation is incomplete without capturing the learner's emotional…

  10. Biological Visualization, Imaging and Simulation(Bio-VIS) at NASA Ames Research Center: Developing New Software and Technology for Astronaut Training and Biology Research in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    The Bio- Visualization, Imaging and Simulation (BioVIS) Technology Center at NASA's Ames Research Center is dedicated to developing and applying advanced visualization, computation and simulation technologies to support NASA Space Life Sciences research and the objectives of the Fundamental Biology Program. Research ranges from high resolution 3D cell imaging and structure analysis, virtual environment simulation of fine sensory-motor tasks, computational neuroscience and biophysics to biomedical/clinical applications. Computer simulation research focuses on the development of advanced computational tools for astronaut training and education. Virtual Reality (VR) and Virtual Environment (VE) simulation systems have become important training tools in many fields from flight simulation to, more recently, surgical simulation. The type and quality of training provided by these computer-based tools ranges widely, but the value of real-time VE computer simulation as a method of preparing individuals for real-world tasks is well established. Astronauts routinely use VE systems for various training tasks, including Space Shuttle landings, robot arm manipulations and extravehicular activities (space walks). Currently, there are no VE systems to train astronauts for basic and applied research experiments which are an important part of many missions. The Virtual Glovebox (VGX) is a prototype VE system for real-time physically-based simulation of the Life Sciences Glovebox where astronauts will perform many complex tasks supporting research experiments aboard the International Space Station. The VGX consists of a physical display system utilizing duel LCD projectors and circular polarization to produce a desktop-sized 3D virtual workspace. Physically-based modeling tools (Arachi Inc.) provide real-time collision detection, rigid body dynamics, physical properties and force-based controls for objects. The human-computer interface consists of two magnetic tracking devices

  11. The development of municipal solid waste treatment technology based on refuse derived fuel and bio-gasification integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of MSW generated in big cities in Malaysia is very alarming. In Kuala Lumpur, the total waste generated is about 2,500 t/day. The existing landfills are being overused and should have been closed by now. However, till today, the solution is not really in place. The Government is planning to build a 1200 t/day Gasification and Ash Melting (GAMF) plant to partially resolve the above problem in Kuala Lumpur. However, even though environmentally rated as one of the best, technology is not cheap, thus failed to meet the BATNEEC concept. Currently, the Government, through the Strategic Master Plan, encourages the development of local technologies that are cheap and yet comply to international standards. As such, a private company, Recycle Energy Sdn Bhd (RESB), took the initiative to develop the RDF from Malaysian MSW. MINT Incineration and Renewable Energy Center (MIREC) has been commissioned to collaborate in the development of this technology, together with Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). A 15 t/day pilot scale RDF plant was established in 2001 in Kajang, to refine the concept as well as to establish more data. One year later, the company was given permission by the Government to set up a 700 t/day commercial facility in Semenyih, based on early success of the pilot testing done in Kajang. The integration of RDF, Anaerobic Digester and Fuel Cell Technology is adopted to generate in house power and export to the national grid, besides recycling a portion of the waste materials. This integration seems to be the best environmental as well as economic option that complies to BATNEEC concept. This paper highlights and discusses the issues and challenges in the process of developing RDF technology, both at the pilot scale R and D as well as the commercial scale plant planning

  12. A primer to ‘bio-objects’: new challenges at the interface of science, technology and society

    OpenAIRE

    Dabrock, Peter; Braun, Matthias; Ried, Jens; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnological and life science innovations do not only lead to immense progress in diverse fields of natural science and technical research and thereby drive economic development, they also fundamentally affect the relationship between nature, technology and society. Taken this seriously, the ethical and societal assessment of emerging biotechnologies as for example synthetic biology is challenged not only to constrain on questions of biosafety and biosecurity but also to face the societal...

  13. Discussion on Bio-pharmaceutical Technology Characteristic Specialty Construction%生物制药技术特色专业建设的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡晶晶; 王雅洁; 王蔷; 宋小平

    2015-01-01

    It aims to discuss issues concerning distinguishing specialty construction and personnel cultivation mode. Take bio-pharmaceutical technology specialty in a univeristy, a provincial characteristic specialty construction site, as an example, this paper summarized the teaching practice and proposed the construction of characteristic speciality in terms of personnel cultivation mode reform, enriching specialty connotation, speciality construction criteria, strengthening social service function and refining specialty features, maintaining that adherence to innovative construction and elevation of personnel cultivation quality are crucial to the sustainable development of speciality courses.%探讨特色专业建设及其人才培养模式问题。以某校省级特色专业建设点———生物制药技术专业为例,总结教学实践,并从改革人才培养模式、充实专业内涵、建设专业标准、增强社会服务功能、凝练专业特色等方面提出建设特色专业的工作构想,认为坚持创新性特色建设和提高人才培养质量是专业可持续发展的根本保障。

  14. BIO 100 Course tutorial/ indigohelp

    OpenAIRE

    sssASF

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.indigohelp.com   BIO 100 Assignment: The Scientific Method BIO 100 Exercise: UNESCO Research BIO 100 CheckPoint: Living Organisms BIO 100 Assignment: PopEcoLab BIO 100 Assignment: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration BIO 100 Assignment: DemographyLab BIO 100 Final Project: UNESCO Paper BIO 100 CheckPoint: Theories of Biology BIO 100 Assignment: Pearson Lab Scavenger Hunt BIO 100 CheckPoint: Plants vs. Animals ...

  15. Climatic response variability and machine learning: development of a modular technology framework for predicting bio-climatic change in pacific northwest ecosystems"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, E.; Gessler, P. E.; Flathers, E.

    2015-12-01

    The creation and use of large amounts of data in scientific investigations has become common practice. Data collection and analysis for large scientific computing efforts are not only increasing in volume as well as number, the methods and analysis procedures are evolving toward greater complexity (Bell, 2009, Clarke, 2009, Maimon, 2010). In addition, the growth of diverse data-intensive scientific computing efforts (Soni, 2011, Turner, 2014, Wu, 2008) has demonstrated the value of supporting scientific data integration. Efforts to bridge this gap between the above perspectives have been attempted, in varying degrees, with modular scientific computing analysis regimes implemented with a modest amount of success (Perez, 2009). This constellation of effects - 1) an increasing growth in the volume and amount of data, 2) a growing data-intensive science base that has challenging needs, and 3) disparate data organization and integration efforts - has created a critical gap. Namely, systems of scientific data organization and management typically do not effectively enable integrated data collaboration or data-intensive science-based communications. Our research efforts attempt to address this gap by developing a modular technology framework for data science integration efforts - with climate variation as the focus. The intention is that this model, if successful, could be generalized to other application areas. Our research aim focused on the design and implementation of a modular, deployable technology architecture for data integration. Developed using aspects of R, interactive python, SciDB, THREDDS, Javascript, and varied data mining and machine learning techniques, the Modular Data Response Framework (MDRF) was implemented to explore case scenarios for bio-climatic variation as they relate to pacific northwest ecosystem regions. Our preliminary results, using historical NETCDF climate data for calibration purposes across the inland pacific northwest region

  16. Precision methylome characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) using PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingxiang; Zhong, Jun; Jia, Xinmiao; Liu, Guan; Kang, Yu; Dong, Mengxing; Zhang, Xiuli; Li, Qian; Yue, Liya; Li, Cuidan; Fu, Jing; Xiao, Jingfa; Yan, Jiangwei; Zhang, Bing; Lei, Meng; Chen, Suting; Lv, Lingna; Zhu, Baoli; Huang, Hairong; Chen, Fei

    2016-01-29

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most common infectious diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). To panoramically analyze MTBC's genomic methylation, we completed the genomes of 12 MTBC strains (Mycobacterium bovis; M. bovis BCG; M. microti; M. africanum; M. tuberculosis H37Rv; H37Ra; and 6 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates) belonging to different lineages and characterized their methylomes using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. We identified three (m6)A sequence motifs and their corresponding methyltransferase (MTase) genes, including the reported mamA, hsdM and a newly discovered mamB. We also experimentally verified the methylated motifs and functions of HsdM and MamB. Our analysis indicated the MTase activities varied between 12 strains due to mutations/deletions. Furthermore, through measuring 'the methylated-motif-site ratio' and 'the methylated-read ratio', we explored the methylation status of each modified site and sequence-read to obtain the 'precision methylome' of the MTBC strains, which enabled intricate analysis of MTase activity at whole-genome scale. Most unmodified sites overlapped with transcription-factor binding-regions, which might protect these sites from methylation. Overall, our findings show enormous potential for the SMRT platform to investigate the precise character of methylome, and significantly enhance our understanding of the function of DNA MTase. PMID:26704977

  17. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Supplementary survey on research and development of carbon dioxide fixation and effective utilization technologies utilizing bacteria and algae (the survey on feasibility of bio-technologies to create economic effects, such as the biological CO2 fixation technology); 1999 nendo saikin sorui nado riyo nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu futai chosa. Keizaiteki koka wo soshutsusuru seibutsuteki CO{sub 2} koteigijutsu nado no biotechnology no kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Bio-technologies including the biological CO2 fixation technology, or the green bio-technologies (GBT) are the technologies indispensable in realizing the change to a resource circulating and environment harmonizing society that accompanies economical growth, or in other words, the 'sustainable development'. In quantifying the feasibility of these technologies, the GBTs that contribute to creating Japan's international competitive power and employment were specified, and an approach to establish the realization target in 2010 was adopted, upon identifying the general condition of the related markets inside and outside the country. The GBT is the technology that makes the best use of Japan's independent strength created by combining the enzyme engineering and fermentation engineering with the 'genome science' (HEART). The targets are to substitute four million kiloliters of petroleum with a resource circulation type energy generated by the bio-technology; apply the bio-technology to about 30% of products and processes produced or used in Japan's chemical industries; and aim at creating markets by using environmental measurement and analysis, treatment of hard-to-decompose substances, and supports on tree planting as the three pillars. A simulation on return on investment in GBT business suggests the effect of promoting PFI. (NEDO)

  18. Bioética e avaliação tecnológica em saúde Bioethics and health care technology assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin Roland Schramm

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A vigência simultânea do paradigma biotecnocientífico (que incentiva a incorporação tecnológica e da cultura dos limites (que seleciona as tecnologias constitui um grande desafio aos sistemas sanitários atuais, suscitando debates éticos e políticos sobre as escolhas a serem feitas. A avaliação tecnológica em saúde diz respeito à análise das conseqüências dos cuidados em saúde e das políticas de saúde, e apresenta pontos de interseção com a bioética, apesar de serem campos distintos. A importância das implicações éticas e sociais da avaliação tecnológica é cada vez mais reconhecida, mas a maioria das publicações tem enfatizado apenas os aspectos metodológicos e científicos. Existem vários tipos de interesses envolvidos na incorporação tecnológica, fontes de conflitos de valores. As implicações éticas incluem aquelas relativas aos ensaios clínicos para aferir sua eficácia; à avaliação da boa ou má prática médica; à forma de incorporar as novas tecnologias e à sua efetividade; ao acesso e à alocação de recursos disponíveis. A incorporação da dimensão ética na avaliação tecnológica possibilitará melhor compreensão da prática de saúde e um avanço em direção ao seu aprimoramento.The simultaneous existence of a biotechnoscientific paradigm (which emphasizes technological incorporation and a culture of limits (which selects technologies challenges current health systems, raising ethical and political discussions as to the choices to be made. Health care technology assessment is mainly concerned with the consequences of health care and health care policies. Thus, there is significant overlap between this activity and bioethics, even though they are different fields of knowledge. Although the importance of ethical and social issues arising in technology assessment has been recognized, most publications emphasize only methodological and scientific aspects. There are different interests

  19. 面向资源与环境的生物基化学品技术创新与展望%Bio-based chemicals technology innovation and prospects facing resource and environment challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鑫; 陈骁; 咸漠

    2015-01-01

    Bio-based chemicals are synthesized from sustainable and renewable biomass by biological catalysts. The superiorities of the new industrial mode are obvious,such as independence of fossil resources,and avoidance of energy consumption and pollution. Taking account of the sustainable development of resource and environment,green synthesis will dominate in future bio-based chemicals manufacturing,i.e. using renewable biomass to substitute fossil resources. In this article,development of bio-based chemicals was reviewed from the aspects of research and industrialization. In the future, bio-based chemicals technology will be diversified in terms of feedstocks,efficient transformation systems and high-valuable products. The key scientific problems related to high-effective bio-transformation process was discussed,together with the future development direction of bio-based materials production,which combined biological technology with other technologies (e.g. biology, chemical or process control).%生物基化学品是以可再生的生物质为原料,以生物细胞或酶蛋白为催化剂合成的产品。由于摆脱了对化石原料的依赖,同时避免了石油基产品制备过程的高能耗高污染,为了资源和环境的绿色、可持续发展,以可再生的生物质资源为原料,以生物转化技术制备化学品是未来发展的主要趋势。本文对目前国内外生物基化学品研发及生产概况进行综述,预测生物基化学品制造业将朝着为原料多元化、生物转化过程高效化、产品高值化的方向发展,针对生物转化过程高效化的关键科学问题进行深入探讨,提出生物学科与其他学科交叉融合是生物基化学品制造技术未来的发展方向,包括生物技术自身融合、生物与化工技术融合及生物与过程控制技术融合。

  20. Increase of Bio-Gas Power Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sednin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of industrial technologies for obtaining gas-synthesis which is applicable for bio-gas enrichment process. Comparative characteristics are given in the paper. The paper thoroughly considers a technology of dry methane conversion as the most expedient variant recommended for the application in this case. The bio-gas enrichment carried out during its production expands possibilities and efficiency of its application.

  1. Increase of Bio-Gas Power Potential

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sednin; О. Kraetskaya; I. Prokoрenia

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a review of industrial technologies for obtaining gas-synthesis which is applicable for bio-gas enrichment process. Comparative characteristics are given in the paper. The paper thoroughly considers a technology of dry methane conversion as the most expedient variant recommended for the application in this case. The bio-gas enrichment carried out during its production expands possibilities and efficiency of its application.

  2. Bio-nanopatterning of Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Chun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBio-nanopatterning of surfaces is a very active interdisciplinary field of research at the interface between biotechnology and nanotechnology. Precise patterning of biomolecules on surfaces with nanometre resolution has great potential in many medical and biological applications ranging from molecular diagnostics to advanced platforms for fundamental studies of molecular and cell biology. Bio-nanopatterning technology has advanced at a rapid pace in the last few years with a variety of patterning methodologies being developed for immobilising biomolecules such as DNA, peptides, proteins and viruses at the nanoscale on a broad range of substrates. In this review, the status of research and development are described, with particular focus on the recent advances on the use of nanolithographic techniques as tools for biomolecule immobilisation at the nanoscale. Present strengths and weaknesses, as well future challenges on the different nanolithographic bio-nanopatterning approaches are discussed.

  3. Bio-ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    -20% for transportation. At that time, the electric car/fuel cell car has probably had time enough to mature, and it has a much higher energy efficiency. Therefore, bio-ethanol is not the right intermediate (short term) technology, and it is not the right long term technology either......Throughout the world, nations are seeking ways to decrease CO2 emissions and to reduce their dependency on fossil fuels, especially oil and gas deriving from so-called politically unstable regions. The efforts comprise the energy sector (heat and electricity) as well as the transport sector......, that biomass substitutes gas in the heat & power sector and gas substitute oil in the transport sector. By taking this path, we overall achieve almost twice as high a CO2 reduction and save almost twice as much oil, as if we want to substitute the oil via car engines through conversion to ethanol. We must...

  4. Bio-films and processes of bio-corrosion and bio-deterioration in oil-and gas-processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholodenko, V.P.; Irkhina, I.A.; Chugunov, V.A.; Rodin, V.B.; Zhigletsova, S.K.; Yermolenko, Z.M.; Rudavin, V.V. [State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Obolensk, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    As a rule, oil- and gas-processing equipment and pipelines are attacked by different microorganisms. Their vital ability determines processes of bio-deterioration and bio-corrosion that lead often to technological accidents and severe environmental contamination. Bio-films presenting a complex association of different microorganisms and their metabolites are responsible for most of damages. In this context, to study the role bio-films may play in processes of bio-damages and in efficacy of protective measures is important. We have developed method of culturing bio-films on the surface of metal coupons by using a natural microbial association isolated from oil-processing sites. Simple and informative methods of determining microbiological parameters of bio-films required to study bio-corrosion processes are also developed. In addition, a method of electron microscopic analysis of bio-films and pitting corrosion is offered. Using these methods, we conducted model experiments to determine the dynamics of corrosion processes depending on qualitative and quantitative composition of bio-films, aeration conditions and duration of the experiment. A harmful effect of soil bacteria and micro-mycetes on different pipeline coatings was also investigated. Experiments were conducted within 3-6 months and revealed degrading action of microorganisms. This was confirmed by axial tension testing of coatings. All these approaches will be used for further development of measures to protect gas- and oil-processing equipment and pipelines against bio-corrosion and bio-damages (first of all biocides). (authors)

  5. Bio-fuel production potential in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is based on the ESTO Study: Techno- Economic Feasibility of Large-Scale Production of Bio-Fuels in EU-Candidate Countries. Bio-fuel production has not been taken into account significantly until now in Romania, being limited to small- scale productions of ethanol, used mostly for various industrial purposes. However the climatic conditions and the quality of the soil are very suitable in the country for development of the main crops (wheat, sugar-beet, sunflower and rape-seed) used in bio-ethanol and bio-diesel production. The paper intended to consider a pertinent discussion of the present situation in Romania's agriculture stressing on the following essential items in the estimation of bio-fuels production potential: availability of feed-stock for bio-fuel production; actual productions of bio-fuels; fuel consumption; cost assessment; SWOT approach; expected trends. Our analysis was based on specific agricultural data for the period 1996-2000. An important ethanol potential (due to wheat, sugar-beet and maize cultures), as well as bio-diesel one (due to sun-flower and rape-seed) were predicted for the period 2005-2010 which could be exploited with the support of an important financial and technological effort, mainly from EU countries

  6. Fiscal 1998 research report. Survey on R and D, and application technology of biotechnology; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Bio technology no kenkyu kaihatsu, sangyoka gijutsu nado ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Survey was made mainly on use of biotechnology as resource saving and energy saving processes. Biotechnology is in wide use in a pharmaceutical field, while its application is on the increase in agriculture, food, chemistry, energy and environment fields. The USA is ahead of Japan and Europe. In the USA, there are more than 1000 ventures, and R and D of biotechnology, in particular, gene analysis and manipulation techniques are in progress together with acquisition of patents. In biomass energy, production of ethanol from corn, and development of biodiesel are in progress in the USA and Europe, respectively. Use of biomass should be promoted because of its global environment compatibility and sustainable productivity. In the future bio-market, genome analysis and its application are most important, however, Japan is behind in such technology in the world. The Joint approach by industry, university and government is necessary from the viewpoint of a future marketability and international competitiveness. Promotion of a public acceptance and nurture of creative talents are also important. (NEDO)

  7. Effect of bio-augmentation technology on sludge composition%生物强化技术在污泥堆肥处理中的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙先锋; 杨波波; 朱欣洁; 胡善爽; 李自昕

    2015-01-01

    为了探究生物强化技术在污泥堆肥处理中的优势, 以接种量分别为0. 2%和0. 4%的复合生物菌剂研究对污泥堆肥的作用效果, 分析了温度、 有机质含量、 铵态氮、 硝态氮、 重金属含量、 蛔虫卵死亡率和种子发芽指数( GI) 的动态变化, 结果表明: 接种复合生物菌剂处理较对照组 ( CK) 对堆肥指标有一定的影响, 能够提高堆体升温速率及延长高温持续时间、 加速有机质的降解、 促进铵态氮与硝态氮的转化、 降低重金属含量、 提高蛔虫卵死亡率、 提高种子发芽指数, 其中复合生物菌剂接种量为0. 4%时作用效果较为明显, 有利于污泥堆肥.%To explore the advantage of sludge composted by bio-augmentation technology, 0. 2% and 0. 4% of compound biologi-cal inoculation was applied respectively, and the temperature, organic matter content, ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, heavy metal content, ascaris eggs mortality and the seed germination index ( GI) were analyzed. The results showed that the com-pound biological inoculation had influence on compost index, it improved the rate of high temperature, prolonged the time of composting, accelerated the degradation of organic matter, promoted the transformation of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitro-gen, decreased the heavy metal content, increased ascaris eggs mortality, and enhanced seed germination index. When the quantity of compound biological inoculation was 0. 4%, the effect was most obvious and was most beneficial to sludge composting.

  8. 生物技术企业接力创新中的知识产权运营模式研究--以生物制药为例%Study on the Operation Models of the Intellectual Property Rights of the Bio-technology Enterprises during the Relay Innovation--Taking Bio-pharmaceutical for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯薇; 银路; 李天柱; 马佳

    2014-01-01

    现代生物技术的创新过程具有明显的“接力创新”的特质,而知识产权运营对于相关企业在“接力创新”中获利显得尤为重要。在生物技术的“接力创新”过程中,基于不同的创新阶段和时机,专家型公司和核心公司可能选择不同的接力模式。在已有研究的基础上,以生物制药企业为样本,深入探讨两类公司不同接力方式下的不同知识产权运营模式,为我国现代生物技术企业的知识产权管理和实践提供有效借鉴。%The innovation process of the modern bio-technology is characterized by “relay innovation”, meanwhile, the operation of the intellectual property rights is especially important to the relative enterprises. During the process of the relay innovation, the expert company and the core company will choose different relay modes based on the different stage and timing of the innovation. On the basis of the existing research, taking the bio-pharmaceuticalenterprises as example, it discusses thoroughly the different operation modes of the intellectual property rights of the expert company and the core company under the different ways of relay cooperation. We are looking forward to providing effective references to the modern bio-technology enterprises in China for the intellectual property rights management and practice.

  9. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  10. Technologies for bio-fuel production from algae%藻类制取生物燃料技术研究中技术路线的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵学良

    2012-01-01

    The article explains the thoughts on how to achieve efficient and cost-effective bio-energy production from algae,analyzing the technologies regarding how to raise the algae concentration,cultivate large and easy-to-harvest algae and the technology for the processing of high-water-content algae.The author believes that CO2 in the flue gas can effectively enhance the algae concentration while cutting CO2 emission and that bio-energy production from large algae is a feasible technology.The author also believes anaerobic fermentation is an efficient and feasible way for bio-energy conversion from algae.%分析了藻类制取生物燃料的优点和实现产业化存在的突出问题,从提高养殖浓度、养殖易于收割的大型藻类、开发适合加工高含水量藻类的工艺三个方面提出了研究开发的思路,认为利用烟气中的CO2养殖油藻可以把减排CO2与提高油藻养殖浓度有机地结合;养殖大型海藻生产生物燃料;厌氧发酵法将藻类转化为生物燃料是高效、可行的技术路线。

  11. Fiscal 1993 report on results of R and D on innovative technology for producing advanced biomaterial; 1993 nendo senshin bio zairyo no sosei kako gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    R and D was conducted on a bio-functional material that is formed by synthesizing non-natural amino acids required for the manifestation of the function, incorporating the amino acids into new bio-functional peptides to be synthesized, and fixing the peptides on a substrate such as plastics. Activities were carried out in three areas, which were (1) innovative technologies for producing functional molecules, (2) R and D on materialization technologies of functional molecules: technique of pattern formation by photochemical reaction and of fixation, and technique of preparing peptide film using vacuum thin film forming technology, and (3) comprehensive investigation and adjustment. In (1), migration stimulating activity for microphage was selected as a molecular recognition evaluation system, and on the basis of the structural analysis result of a non-peptide compound/imidazolin compound having migration stimulating activity, molecular structural design was carried out for peptides having migration stimulating activity. The result of the analysis revealed that the spatial arrangement of three phenyl nuclei and the presence of basic structures were important. Among the 22 peptides so designed, only Cbz-Phe-Phe-His-NH{sub 2} showed the migration stimulating activity. For the design, a peptide molecule design system CHARMm/QUANTA/PM3 was used. (NEDO)

  12. Fabrication of Solid Phase Extraction Deoxyribonucleic Acid Chips Based on Bio-Microelectron-Mechanical System Technology%基于BioMEMS技术的DNA固相萃取芯片的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兴; 崔大付; 刘长春; 蔡浩原

    2006-01-01

    基于BioMEMS技术,制备一种新型的Si-PDMS-玻璃结构的DNA固相萃取微流控芯片.在硅基片上制备4种固相载体,分析不同载体的性质和制备特点,优选多孔氧化硅作为萃取DNA的固相载体.对比研究芯片的封装工艺,优选压制法制备PDMS-玻璃盖片,采用粘接技术封装芯片.芯片成功提取老鼠全血中的基因组DNA,提取效率为23.5×10-9g/μL全血,并成功进行PCR反应,达到试剂盒水平.固相萃取微流控芯片具有与其他样品处理芯片、PCR芯片和电泳芯片相集成的潜力,可实现对复杂生物样品的检测和分析.

  13. PacBio Sequencing and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthony Rhoads; Kin Fai Au

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule, real-time sequencing developed by Pacific BioSciences offers longer read lengths than the second-generation sequencing (SGS) technologies, making it well-suited for unsolved problems in genome, transcriptome, and epigenetics research. The highly-contiguous de novo assemblies using PacBio sequencing can close gaps in current reference assemblies and characterize structural variation (SV) in personal genomes. With longer reads, we can sequence through extended repetitive regions and detect mutations, many of which are associated with dis-eases. Moreover, PacBio transcriptome sequencing is advantageous for the identification of gene isoforms and facilitates reliable discoveries of novel genes and novel isoforms of annotated genes, due to its ability to sequence full-length transcripts or fragments with significant lengths. Addition-ally, PacBio’s sequencing technique provides information that is useful for the direct detection of base modifications, such as methylation. In addition to using PacBio sequencing alone, many hybrid sequencing strategies have been developed to make use of more accurate short reads in conjunction with PacBio long reads. In general, hybrid sequencing strategies are more affordable and scalable especially for small-size laboratories than using PacBio Sequencing alone. The advent of PacBio sequencing has made available much information that could not be obtained via SGS alone.

  14. Bio-mimetic Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Haecheon

    2009-11-01

    Bio-mimetic engineering or bio-mimetics is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology (from Wikipedia). The concept itself is old, but successful developments have been made recently, especially in the research field of flow control. The objective of flow control based on the bio-mimetic approach is to develop novel concepts for reducing drag, increasing lift and enhancing aerodynamic performance. For skin friction reduction, a few ideas have been suggested such as the riblet from shark, compliant surface from dolphin, microbubble injection and multiple front-body curvature from penguin, and V-shaped protrusion from sailfish. For form drag reduction, several new attempts have been also made recently. Examples include the V-shaped spanwise grooves from saguaro cactus, overall shape of box fish, longitudinal grooves on scallop shell, bill of swordfish, hooked comb on owl wing, trailing-edge protrusion on dragonfly wing, and fillet. For the enhancement of aerodynamic performance, focuses have been made on the birds, fish and insects: e.g., double layered feather of landing bird, leading-edge serration of humpback-whale flipper, pectoral fin of flying fish, long tail on swallowtail-butterfly wing, wing flapping motion of dragonfly, and alula in birds. Living animals adapt their bodies to better performance in multi purposes, but engineering requires single purpose in most cases. Therefore, bio-mimetic approaches often produce excellent results more than expected. However, they are sometimes based on people's wrong understanding of nature and produce unwanted results. Successes and failures from bio-mimetic approaches in flow control will be discussed in the presentation.

  15. Bio diesel, v. 15(58)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of bio-fuels/bio-diesel is more political and economical than it is technological. The technology of the production is the same as it was 200 years ago. The economy closed the usage of bio-fuels in the middies of the 20 Th century and put it back on the agenda of the world economy at the beginning of the 21 st century. With price of more then 70 US$ per barrel of grudge oil, production and usage of bio-fuels becomes more economical category rather than political and ecological. If we, additionally, add secondary, yet nowadays very important factors, as ecological protection, recycling the emission of poisonous gasses, exploitation of agro sector, then the reincarnation of bio-fuels is very interesting, and for Macedonia a potentially strategic category. The basics of the biography is to follow in the article paying special attention on the characteristics, standards, production, processing and usage of the bio-diesel fuel as well as the blended B20 and B5. (Author)

  16. Bio diesel, v. 15(59)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of bio-fuels/bio-diesel is more political and economical than it is technological. The technology of the production is the same as it was 200 years ago. The economy closed the usage of bio-fuels in the middies of the 20 Th century and put it back on the agenda of the world economy at the beginning of the 21 st century. With price of more then 70 US$ per barrel of grudge oil, production and usage of bio-fuels becomes more economical category rather than political and ecological. If we, additionally, add secondary, yet nowadays very important factors, as ecological protection, recycling the emission of poisonous gasses, exploitation of agro sector, then the reincarnation of bio-fuels is very interesting, and for Macedonia a potentially strategic category. The basics of the biography is to follow in the article paying special attention on the characteristics, standards, production, processing and usage of the bio-diesel fuel as well as the blended B20 and B5. (Author)

  17. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratories The Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  18. Survival and growth of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa l.) inoculated with an am fungus (Glomus intraradices) in contaminated soils treated with two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a group of persistent and toxic soil pollutants that are of major public concern due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic property. Phyto-remediation is the use of plants and their associated microorganisms for remediation of polluted soils. Phyto-remediation could be used in conjunction with other remediation technologies to reduce the contamination to safe levels and maintain or restore soil physico-chemical and biological properties. Most plant species form mycorrhizas with symbiotic fungi. It was shown that AM fungi enhance survival and plant growth in PAH contaminated soils. Mycorrhizal fungi also enhance the biotransformation or biodegradation of PAH, although the effect differed between soils. A rhizosphere and myco-rhizosphere gradient of PAH concentrations was observed, with decreased PAH concentration with decreased distance to roots. Different microbial communities were found in the rhizosphere of AM and non-mycorrhizal plants in comparison to bulk soil, suggesting that AM could affect PAH degradation by changing microbial communities. We investigated the effect of mycorrhizal fungi and nutrients on the ability of alfalfa to grow on soil contaminated with PAHs before and after two remediation treatments. We used soil from an industrial site (Homecourt, North East part of France) highly contaminated with PAH (2000 mg kg-1), which has been partially treated by two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption). The bio-pile treatment consisted of piling the contaminated soil with stimulation of aerobic microbial activity by aeration and addition of nutrient solution, and reduced PAH concentration to around 300 mg kg-1. With the thermal desorption treatment the soil was heated to around 500 deg. C so that PAH vaporized and were separated from the soil. The residual PAH concentration in soil was 40 mg kg-1. Treated and non-treated contaminated soil was planted with alfalfa (Medicago

  19. CHARACTERIZATION, BIO-FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND SHELF-LIFE STUDIES OF LOCALLY ISOLATED BIO-FERTILIZER STRAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Vipin Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing and potash mobilizing bacterial strains were isolated from rhizosphere soil of agricultural land, the isolated bacterial strains were further characterized by a series of biochemical reactions and identified as genus Azotobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas respectively. A technology for their mass multiplication and their bio-formulation has been developed. Fly-ash was used as carrier materials for bio-formulation development of bio-fertilizer strains. Sh...

  20. Bio-enzymatic Technology Used in Carrageenan Wastewater Treatment Engineering Practice%生物酶催化技术应用于卡拉胶废水处理工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐爱玖; 林祥进; 孙祥章

    2012-01-01

      卡拉胶废水成分复杂,含有难生化降解的有机污染物种类多,且浓度高,碱性大,含盐量高,按现有的处理工艺,很难达到排放标准。本文以福建省石狮市中科海藻制品发展有限公司卡拉胶废水处理工程为例,阐述了生物酶催化技术在卡拉胶废水处理中的应用。通过在生化系统建立酶体系,利用生物酶催化作用,提高废水中难降解有机物的可生化性与可处理性,从而使出水达到《污水综合排放标准》(GB8978—1996)规定的一级排放标准。%  The complex composition of carrageenan wastewater contains difficult biochemical degradation of many kinds of organic pol utants, and high concentrations, alkaline, high salt content. It is difficult to achieve the emission standards according to the existing treatment process. By taking carrageenan wastewater treatment works of Fujian Shishi City Seaweed Products Development Co., Ltd. as an example, the article describes the application of bio-enzymatic technology in wastewater treatment of carrageenan. Enzyme system is set in bio-chemical system, the article uses bio-enzyme catalysis to improve biochemistry and treatment of in-degradability of organic matter in wastewater, so as to meet the first grade discharge standard stipulated in (GB8978-1996).

  1. 稻草生化制浆新技术的实验室研究及中试生产%The laboratory research and pilot production of the new technology of bio-chemical pulping from rice straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱鹭生

    2001-01-01

    The paper introduces the results of the laboratory research and pilot production of the new technology of bio-chemical pulping from rice straw. The research results and pilot production show that the bio-chemical pulps treated with No.38 engineering bacterium enzyme has approximately the same physical and mechanical property as that of quality broad-leaved wood pulp,and the its pulping effluent is much lower than that of straw pulp from the traditional alkali method,thus the environmental protection measures are in some degree realized.%本文报导了我国稻草生化制浆新技术的研究及中试投产成果。研究成果及中试显提提要:示了用No.38工程菌酶处理的生化浆,其物理机械性能达到与优质阔叶木浆相媲美提提要:的程度,制浆排水的负载亦比常规碱法草浆低得多,排水污染防治措施有所落实。

  2. Development of bioenergy technology for rural micro mills production of milk, ice and bio fertilizer; Desenvolvimento de tecnologia de bioenergia rural para micro usinas de producao de leite, gelo e bio fertilizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvam, Pagandai V. Pannir; Almeida, Louizy Minora C.A. de; Israel, S.B.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: pannirbr@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The generation of thermal energy is the great importance for the agribusiness of dairy industry to conservation the quality of milk, taking into account that the electricity is the main source currently used for the thermal energy input. The small agribusiness dairy industry currently practiced in Brazil faces several problems related to the cost of electricity and the distance of rural properties of networks of power. In the current scenario of Brazilian dairy production, there is need for the generation of cold for the milk cooling, and also the heat for the production of hot water around 50 deg C to 60 deg C and also for cleaning of equipment used for milk production and processing. The main objective of this study is the modeling and simulation of integrated recovery process of solid waste, effluents and bioconversion. The specific project objectives are: comparison study of options and technological routes of low cost material for power generation using conventional and innovative digester; study of new technologies in the use of organic waste for anaerobic digestion for biogas and fertilizer production; enabling the use of low cost digesters with appropriate technology and alternative materials (composites); minimize problems such as environmental pollution and shortage of electricity in rural agroindustry related to milk. A system was developed for energy generating based on the work of UNICAMP (Universidade Estadual de Campinas) using the water-water heat pump for simultaneous production of ice for cooling of milk and hot water for cleaning and disinfecting facilities and equipment. The results obtained in this project were done using process simulation software Superpro design. (author)

  3. Bio fuels price; El precio de los biocombustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotman, D.

    2008-07-01

    he process of producing ethanol from corn is very expensive. The best bio-fuel is very far from the service stations and the farmers show difficulties to change his work methods. Really have we a suitable technology to produce bio-fuels?.

  4. BioRefine Yearbook 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, T.; Kauppi, M. (eds.) (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Alakangas, E. (ed.) (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland))

    2011-11-15

    The BioRefine - new biomass products programme is approaching its final active year 2012. The programme contains several significant industrial research and development projects that aim to demonstrate large scale biorefineries. At the same time, a number of projects are led by SMEs focusing on smaller localised solutions. The programme is co-operating closely with Forestcluster Ltd, one of the Strategic Centres for Science, Technology and Innovation in Finland, which is owned by major forest-related companies and institutes. Forestcluster has launched a second phase of its Future Biorefinery (FuBio) programme, which aims to create a new world-leading-competence platform in the field of biorefinery and to develop new value chains in which wood is refined into materials and chemicals. Together the two programmes are a central part of the Finnish biorefining entity. One of the main goals of the BioRefine programme has been to bring together multidisciplinary research and development competences and different business areas for creating sustainable and commercially viable biorefinery concepts. With the increasing pressure on low-carbon processes and on the efficient and sustainable use of raw materials, the need for a multidisciplinary approach has become evident. Bioeconomy aims to bring these different competence and business areas into close co-operation for creating new solutions based on non-fossil raw materials. In the future, the holistic and multidisciplinary approach to utilising biomass resources efficiently and in an environmentally and economically sustainable way will be increasingly emphasized

  5. Development of BioMEMS Sensor System Technology%生物微传感器系统技术的发展及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓华; 赵倩

    2013-01-01

    概述了BioMEMS生物微传感器系统的原理、特点、分类,分析了生物微传感器系统技术的发展状况.由于生物微传感器系统识别元件中的敏感材料含有生命物质,故具有体积小、选择性好、灵敏度高、反应速度快等优点,可广泛应用于医学、工业、农业、军事和环境监测等领域.

  6. Fiscal 1998 R and D project on global environmental industrial technology. R and D result report on environment- friendly production technology (advanced chemical synthesis reactor); 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Kankyo chowagata seisan gijutsu (kokino kagaku gosei bio reactor) kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For high-efficiency production of substances by bioreactor, study was made on a bio-control mechanism as its elementary technology. On the study of breeding technology by expression control, the structure design of a control region and development of new expression vectors had been finished, and study was made on breeding of high-efficiency recombinant production cells by using candidate expression vectors. On the study of breeding technology by multi-stage enzyme reaction control, the enzyme gene of a system synthesizing cysteine from glycerol was searched, and hydroxypyruvaldehyde hydrogenase gene was isolated as substance production model. Cysteine production Escherichia coli combined with serineacetyl transferase gene was also prepared. In addition, study started on cloning of hydroxyacetone oxidase gene. On development of reactor system technology, for conversion of serine to cysteine, study was made on optimization of a reaction condition by theory of enzyme reaction rate. (NEDO)

  7. Overcoming barriers to increased bio-energy use. Suggestions for a high impact policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few options that are likely to result in a high impact policy towards ensuring increased use of bio-energy in the developing world are discussed. Such options are: Moving towards greater energy security /guarantee, bio-energy technology transfer platforms, documentation in bio-energy businesses, removing risk perceptions in financing, increasing private entrepreneur stakes, etc. (K.A.)

  8. Negotiating Liberalism and Bio-Politics: Stylizing Power in Defense of the Mall Curfew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsden, Brian

    2008-01-01

    While Michel Foucault's "technologies of the self" are useful in explaining the convergence of liberalism and bio-politics, they fail to account for the appeal of juridical mechanisms that administer the conventions of bio-political control. A productive site from which to explore this convergence is provided by the "mall curfew," a bio-political…

  9. EUBrazilOpenBio - Niche modelling services

    OpenAIRE

    Rebello, Vinod; De Giovanni, Renato; Candela, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    This report concerns Ecological Niche Modelling - also known as environmental niche modelling - as used in the EUBrazilOpenBio Project to provide, through the aggregation of various computational and data technologies, a coherent and integrated research environment to be used by scientists and external applications, particularly from the area of biodiversity.

  10. Bio-politics Reflexes” or something about what happens with Bio-politics today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorella Manolache

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Under the pressure dictated by Western modernity movements, life finally enters within strategic (long term relationships circuit. The present study establishes that, bio-politics and bio-power denounces the paradigm of politicization of the biological life. Foucault’s late writings confirm the subordination of bio-politics to the technologies of power, which integrate / reduce life to biological continuity of the species, to the objectification of individual body or investigation of self-techniques, that would allow (beyond the corset of the institutional, the (re affirmation of subjectivity as a force or a form of resistance. The present reactivation of the bio model establishes that we cannot evade Foucault’s view, in which, the biology- meeting – politics confirms that, none of the terms no longer retains its original meaning.

  11. BioProject

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The BioProject database provides an organizational framework to access information about research projects with links to data that have been or will be deposited...

  12. BioSystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NCBI BioSystems Database provides integrated access to biological systems and their component genes, proteins, and small molecules, as well as literature...

  13. Design and evaluation of a portable device for the measurement of bio-impedance cardiography

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Qinghai; Heinig, Andreas; Kanoun, Olfa

    2011-01-01

    Electrical impedance of biological matter is known as electrical bio-impedance or simply as bio-impedance. Bio-impedance devices are of great value for monitoring the pathological and physiological status of biological tissues in clinical and home environments. The technological progress in instrumentation has significantly contributed to the progress that has been observed during the last past decades in impedance spectroscopy and electrical impedance cardiograph. Although bio-impedance is n...

  14. Bio energy; Bioenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    Energy from biomass has an amount of nearly 70% in the power generation from renewable energy source. In Germany, the share of bio energy in the energy consumption amounts nearly eight per cent. The contribution reports on the form, utilization and practical examples of application of bio energy under consideration of critical aspects. It also presents possibilities to guarantee a sustainable cultivation of energy crops and the precedence of the production of food stuffs.

  15. Engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Thomas F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying goal of synthetic biology is to make the process of engineering biological systems easier. Recent work has focused on defining and developing standard biological parts. The technical standard that has gained the most traction in the synthetic biology community is the BioBrick standard for physical composition of genetic parts. Parts that conform to the BioBrick assembly standard are BioBrick standard biological parts. To date, over 2,000 BioBrick parts have been contributed to, and are available from, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts. Results Here we extended the same advantages of BioBrick standard biological parts to the plasmid-based vectors that are used to provide and propagate BioBrick parts. We developed a process for engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts. We designed a new set of BioBrick parts that encode many useful vector functions. We combined the new parts to make a BioBrick base vector that facilitates BioBrick vector construction. We demonstrated the utility of the process by constructing seven new BioBrick vectors. We also successfully used the resulting vectors to assemble and propagate other BioBrick standard biological parts. Conclusion We extended the principles of part reuse and standardization to BioBrick vectors. As a result, myriad new BioBrick vectors can be readily produced from all existing and newly designed BioBrick parts. We invite the synthetic biology community to (1 use the process to make and share new BioBrick vectors; (2 expand the current collection of BioBrick vector parts; and (3 characterize and improve the available collection of BioBrick vector parts.

  16. Preliminary Report on Extraction Technology of Bio-Flocculant From Moringa oleifera%辣木天然絮凝剂提取工艺研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白旭华; 黎小清; 伍英

    2013-01-01

      报道辣木天然絮凝剂提取工艺研究的初歩结果:用超临界CO2流体萃取技术对辣木种子进行脱脂处理,获取优质脱脂粉;用真空浸提,薄膜蒸发浓缩,凝胶层析与膜分离纯化,真空冷冻干燥等工艺,制备出天然絮凝剂;试验样品贮存24个月,固体絮凝剂的絮凝率>91%,液态絮凝剂的絮凝率>85%。%The initial results from study on flocculant producing of Moringa oleifera are reported. The seed of Moringa oleifera is degreased through SFE-CO2(Supercritical Fluid Extraction) to obtain quality non-fatty seedcake. Bio-flocculant is then pre-pared by vacuum extraction, evaporation and concentration of film, gel chromatography, separation and purification of film and freeze drying. After stored the sample for 24 months, the flocculation rate is above 91 percent for solid flocculant and 85 percent for the liquid.

  17. ProBio3 project: how to achieve scientific and technological challenges to boost the sustainable microbial production of lipids as biojet fuel and chemical compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allouche Yohan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The deal of ProBio3 project is to develop the microbial conversion on specific fatty acids of carbon substrates from renewable resources and industrial by-products. The main application fields are BiojetFuels and green chemistry. The objectives focus on the identification of renewable feedstock suitable for microbial nutritional requirements, the development of an intensive bioprocess, the proof of feasibility at pilot scale (m3 with the evaluation of environmental, economic and societal impacts. During 8 years, 16 French partners (9 research units LISBP, MICALIS, IJPB, IGM, IMFT, SQPOV, TSE, TWB, IFPen, 4 industries Airbus, EADS, Sofiproteol, Tereos et 3 technical centres ITERG, CVG, CREOL associate their interdisciplinary competences from Life Sciences to Process Engineering including Economic and Social Sciences. With Investissement d’Avenir financial support, the expected impacts are increases of fundamental knowledge of lipid metabolism in oleaginous microorganisms, development of high-throughput tools to fasten industrial engineering strains and fermentation strategies, new extraction processes involving green solvents and realistic scale up studies towards an industrial pilot; with undeniable innovative aspects, the deal is to get competitive assets for leading international positions on a new biological route.

  18. Survey on the possibility of international cooperation on production technology of biohydrogen; Bio suiso seizo gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    R and D on the production technology of hydrogen by biotechnology is one of the effective projects for worldwide energy supply technology and global environment protection technology in the 21st century. The research trend of various institutions promoting R and D on production technology of biohydrogen in the U.S.A. and other countries was surveyed together with the possibility of international cooperation. The production technology of biohydrogen is being watched over the world. Various researches are in promotion corresponding to environmental conditions as follows: search of not only photosynthetic bacteria but also such bacteria with hydrogen productivity as algae and anaerobic bacteria, and the gene engineering study for improving the hydrogen productivity of target microorganisms. All the institutions visited for this survey have great expectations in wide cooperative study in the future. On the possibility of international cooperation on the production technology of biohydrogen, the further precise survey should be promoted for developing more effective technologies based on the previous survey results. 156 refs., 10 tabs.

  19. Bio-inspired vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  20. Bio-inspired vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980's, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ''neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  1. BioMEMS in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuxoll, Eric

    2013-11-01

    The drive to design micro-scale medical devices which can be reliably and uniformly mass produced has prompted many researchers to adapt processing technologies from the semiconductor industry. By operating at a much smaller length scale, the resulting biologically-oriented microelectromechanical systems (BioMEMS) provide many opportunities for improved drug delivery: Low-dose vaccinations and painless transdermal drug delivery are possible through precisely engineered microneedles which pierce the skin's barrier layer without reaching the nerves. Low-power, low-volume BioMEMS pumps and reservoirs can be implanted where conventional pumping systems cannot. Drug formulations with geometrically complex, extremely uniform micro- and nano-particles are formed through micromolding or with microfluidic devices. This review describes these BioMEMS technologies and discusses their current state of implementation. As these technologies continue to develop and capitalize on their simpler integration with other MEMS-based systems such as computer controls and telemetry, BioMEMS' impact on the field of drug delivery will continue to increase.

  2. Research of environmental bioecosensing technology using ecological information. Part 2; Seitaikei joho ni yoru kankyo bio ecosencing gijutsu ni kansuru chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Basic considerations of exploring and cultivating environmental reporter organisms are summarized. Mechanism of genetic engineering amplification and molecular biological amplification, and approach to combining them to a hardware as a bioindicator system are investigated. For the current status of molecular biological measurement technology for measuring ecological environment and its application, environmental diagnosis from a phyropathological viewpoint, environmental diagnosis using microorganisms, test fabrication of genetic sensor, and overseas examples of environmental monitoring network are described. For the application of ecological information and functions for developing innovative environmental remediation technology, issues and potential areas for research and development regarding the bioremediation technology in which the US has achieved a progress for the benefit of soil environment remediation are summarized. For the phytoremediation, an area of bioremediation, the metabolism of microorganisms which live in the rhizosphere, and the technology for controlling the microorganisms in the soil through plants are investigated. 66 refs., 50 figs., 17 tabs.

  3. Microfluidics and photonics for Bio-System-on-a-Chip: a review of advancements in technology towards a microfluidic flow cytometry chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Jessica; Chen, Chun-Hao; Cho, Sung Hwan; Qiao, Wen; Tsai, Frank; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2008-10-01

    Microfluidics and photonics come together to form a field commonly referred to as 'optofluidics'. Flow cytometry provides the field with a technology base from which both microfluidic and photonic components be developed and integrated into a useful device. This article reviews some of the more recent developments to familiarize a reader with the current state of the technologies and also highlights the requirements of the device and how researchers are working to meet these needs.

  4. Large scale production of bio methane from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meijden, C.M.; Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Van der Drift, A.; Vreugdenhil, B.J.; Smit, R. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    An increasing number of countries is setting objectives and obligations to replace part of their fossil natural gas consumptions by bio-methane to reduce CO2 emissions. The production of bio-methane via digestion has been developed and is implemented on a small scale. The limited amount of suitable digestible feedstock demands for development of a technology which can convert a wider range of biomass fuels, such as wood into bio-methane. Gasification is such a route. Gasification technology offers the possibility to convert lignocellulosic biomass (e.g. residual wood) into a combustible gas. This gas can be converted into natural gas quality gas (bio-methane) by catalytic processes. Bio-fuels such as bio-methane produced from biomass have the potential to become a CO2 negative fuel, because part of the biomass carbon is separated as CO2 during the production process. If this pure CO2 stream is sequestrated, these bio-fuels become even CO2 negative. This might be an attractive option for reducing the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Several bio-methane demonstration projects are underway based on thermal gasification of woody biomass. The most well known is the 20 MWth GoBiGas project in Gothenburg by Goeteborg Energi and E.ON. ECN (Energy research Centre of the Netherlands) has developed an alternative gasification process (MILENA), optimized for the production of bio-methane. This system has an overall efficiency of 70% from wood to bio-methane. The technology is demonstrated at lab scale (30 kWth) and pilot scale (800 kWth). A 12 MWth demonstration plant is under preparation in close cooperation with the HVC Group who plan to act as launching customer.

  5. A Science and Business Equation for Collaborative Corporate Innovation. Business Strategy, IP Strategy, RandD Strategy: an all-in-one Business Model. A review with a Bio-Technology and Green Chemistry Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Rebouillat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Not all the best people work for you... This is likely one of the motivator for open-innovation in terms of future business development. IP, RandD and Business strategies are becoming one. The adjacent technology analysis, ATA©, goes beyond prior art and freedom to operate traditional approaches providing a new role to the IP strategist still preventing excessive lawyering. Coaching and mediating turn out to be part of this role given the broad interdisciplinary and multi-science skills required.Green chemistry and biotechnology are no exception since in essence they are multi-science founded and still today require an upfront pioneering state of mind. Largely regulatory driven the related businesses may enjoy the open-innovation approach even more or may end-up andquot;not having the choiceandquot;. Two cases, involving advanced technologies in the sectors of Advanced Materials for Protection and Bio-based Material Engineering, are been used to illustrate the suitability of the proposed collaborative and participative business equation.This review, mostly intended for educational purposes, using illustrative situations close enough to reality, establishes a state of the art foundation for the layman and unexposed professionals. A number of fundamental references, more than 12 foundation books are cited to provide to the implementer a self-standing source of established literature.

  6. Bio-H2. Application potential of biomass related hydrogen production technologies to the Dutch energy infrastructure of 2020-2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study supports the implementation of biomass related hydrogen production technologies, within the goals of the Dutch government. A market analyses has been made of the application potential of hydrogen within the Dutch energy infrastructure of the future. A technology analysis has been made by means of determination of the important technical, ecological and economic figures of biomass related hydrogen production technologies and a comparison with other alternative conventional and renewable hydrogen production technologies. The industrial interest for the final implementation of biomass related hydrogen production technologies has been analysed by means of a round-table discussion. From the study and round-table discussion the following conclusions can be drawn for the market analysis, technology analysis and technology/market combinations of hydrogen from biomass. Market analysis: In the long term centralised hydrogen production is the most attractive option, because of low costs of hydrogen production. For the short- and midterm decentralised hydrogen production is an option as an intermediate solution. Technology analysis: For the conversion of biomass to H2 there are four thermochemical processes and five biochemical processes. In general thermochemical processes are large-scale, high efficiency, lab/pilot status with expensive feedstock. Biochemical processes are small-scale, low efficiency, lab/pilot status with gate-fee priced feedstock. Market-Technology combinations: Small-scale markets such as micro-CHP and mixing of hydrogen and natural gas are only expected in the transition phase (2020-2050). Large-scale markets such as the hydrogen production for the national pipeline for refuelling stations will be developed after 2050. The pipeline on city scale is feasible for the short term as well for the long term. It is recommended to carry out additional studies for those cases, which seem to be most promising, viz.: (1) hydrogen production by

  7. Modern Carbohydrate Microarray Bio-chip Technologies%糖芯片制备和应用的最新研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万锕俊; 王琨; 张洪才; 李慧丽; 王德农

    2012-01-01

    糖芯片是一种研究微量糖与生物大分子之间相互作用的生物检测技术,因其具有用量少、快速、高效和高通量等特点,现已被广泛应用到药物开发、免疫学、临床诊断和细菌检测等诸多领域中.近年来,尽管对糖芯片的制备方法和应用进行了较为深入的研究,但对糖芯片的制备方法和应用的综述还较少报道.本文主要介绍糖芯片的制备原理、非化学修饰和化学修饰制备糖芯片的最新方法,然后对糖芯片在自组装等方面应用的最新进展进行综述,并对糖芯片所遇到的挑战和发展趋势也作了展望.%Carbohydrate microarray (glyco-chip) , is one of modern biotechnologies for monitoring the molecular interactions between carbohydrate ligands and other biomacromolecules. It is characterized by micro-scale, quickness, high sensitivity and high-throughput and is widely applicable in many fields. Its promising R&D areas include, but are not limited to, biology, basic medical research, clinical diagnostics, drug development and bio-material & reagent industry. This article intends to summarize methods that are currently used for the construction of glyco-chips, such as immobilization of either chemically modified or non-modified carbohydrates and procedures of self-assembly for production of three-dimensional glyco-chips. Current challenges and future trends in the R&D of glyco-chips are also discussed.

  8. BioFET-SIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hediger, M. R.; Martinez, K. L.; Nygård, J.;

    2013-01-01

    Biosensors based on nanowire field effect transistor (FET) have received much attention in recent years as a way to achieve ultra-sensitive and label-free sensing of molecules of biological interest. The BioFET-SIM computer model permits the analysis and interpretation of experimental sensor...... signals through its web-based interface www.biofetsim.org. The model also allows for predictions of the effects of changes in the experimental setup on the sensor signal. After an introduction to nanowire-based FET biosensors, this chapter reviews the theoretical basis of BioFET-SIM models describing both...... single and multiple charges on the analyte. Afterwards the usage of the interface and its relative command line version is briefly shown. Finally, possible applications of the BioFET-SIM model are presented. Among the possible uses of the interface, the effects on the predicted signal of pH, buffer ionic...

  9. Status and potential of bio-methane fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document first indicates and describes the various bio-methane production processes which can be implemented on a short term (use of organic wastes or effluents), on a medium term (from energetic crops) and on a longer term (gasification). It discusses and assesses the potential production of bio-methane fuel from different sources and processes. It describes the steps of the production of bio-methane fuel from biogas, with notably biogas refinement to produce bio-methane through three processes (de-carbonation, desulfurization, dehydration). Cost productions are assessed. Expected technology advances are evoked. Finally, the authors outline the contribution of bio-methane in the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector

  10. Fluidized Bed Gasification as a Mature And Reliable Technology for the Production of Bio-Syngas and Applied in the Production of Liquid Transportation Fuels: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Verkooijen, Adrian H. M.; Wiebren de Jong; Marcin Siedlecki

    2011-01-01

    Biomass is one of the renewable and potentially sustainable energy sources and has many possible applications varying from heat generation to the production of advanced secondary energy carriers. The latter option would allow mobile services like the transportation sector to reduce its dependency on the fossil fuel supply. This article reviews the state-of-the-art of the fluidization technology applied for the gasification of biomass aimed at the production of gas for subsequent synthesis of ...

  11. Fluidized Bed Gasification as a Mature And Reliable Technology for the Production of Bio-Syngas and Applied in the Production of Liquid Transportation Fuels—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian H.M. Verkooijen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is one of the renewable and potentially sustainable energy sources and has many possible applications varying from heat generation to the production of advanced secondary energy carriers. The latter option would allow mobile services like the transportation sector to reduce its dependency on the fossil fuel supply. This article reviews the state-of-the-art of the fluidization technology applied for the gasification of biomass aimed at the production of gas for subsequent synthesis of the liquid energy carriers via, e.g., the Fischer-Tropsch process. It discusses the advantages of the gasification technology over combustion, considers the size of the conversion plant in view of the local biomass availability, assesses the pros and cons of different gasifier types in view of the application of the product gas. Subsequently the article focuses on the fluidized bed technology to discuss the main process parameters and their influence on the product composition and the operability of the gasifier. Finally a synthesis process (FT is introduced shortly to illustrate the necessary gas cleaning steps in view of the purity requirements for the FT feed gas.

  12. Research Progress of Gold Bio-leaching Technology from Waste Printed Circuit Board%电子垃圾中金的生物浸取技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁昌金

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous development of science and technology, electronic equipments renew fast-er and faster. If these waste equipments can be used environmentally friendly, not only can they reduce the envi-ronmental pressure, but also can make up for the shortage of resources. Biological metallurgy is a rapid develop-ment of technology, which can overcome the problems of traditional pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy exist-ing in the metal recycling, and is a promising green metallurgical method. As a means of biological metallurgy, using cyanide-generating bacteria to leach gold from waste printed circuit board powder it has attracted a great attention in recent years. This paper introduces research progress of gold bio-leaching technology, especially the gold leaching technology of cyanide-generating bacteria, then analyses its mechanism, gold leaching pro-cess, influencing factors, and the limitation of gold bio-leaching technology. Finally it points out that the biolog-ical method combined with physical and chemical methods, complement each other, is the development trend of gold bioleaching.%随着经济的增长和科技的进步,电子垃圾成为全球增长最快的垃圾。如果能用环境友好型的方式对电子垃圾中的有用资源进行回收,不仅可以减少环境压力,而且还可以弥补资源的短缺。生物冶金是一种快速发展的技术,它可以克服传统的湿法冶金和火法冶金在金属回收中存在的问题,是一种很有前途的绿色环保的冶金方法。作为生物冶金的一种方式,利用产氰细菌从废弃印刷线路板粉末中提取金,近年来更受到人们的关注。文章对生物浸金技术,尤其是产氰生物的浸金技术作了综述,分析了其在浸金过程中的机理、过程、影响因素,以及生物浸金技术的限制,最后指出将生物法与物理、化学方法相结合,取长补短,是未来生物浸金的发展趋势。

  13. Public Perception of Bio fuels; Percepcion Publica de los Biocombustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Priolo, V.

    2011-11-10

    The deployment of bio fuels has generated a significant controversy in the energy, agricultural and environmental fields. Governments and promoters around the world have advocated for developing bio fuels based on their potential contribution to emissions reduction and energy security. But opposition to bio fuels has growth in the last years. Environmental NGO's and other stake holders have called for a review of the environmental and social sustainability of energy crops. This controversy has characterized the public debate around bio fuels. In this context, and given the need to improve public involvement in energy technologies, this article reports an investigation of Spanish citizens' perceptions about bio fuels. The study investigated the perceptions of informed citizens and the reasoning basis underlying beliefs and attitudes. The study finds an initial positive association of bio fuels to a clean and natural fuel that is mitigated by participants' concerns on the practical usage of bio fuels and the social and environmental impacts. Study participants' reactions show the need to differentiate among the diverse groups of publics holding differing views and a different reaction to information on the benefits and costs of bio fuels. (Author) 9 refs.

  14. Bio-Culturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2007-01-01

    The article argues on the basis of analyses of successful films for children that not only cultural determinants but also innate determinats are important, and that film studies should combine cultural studies with cognitive theory, evolutionary theory and neuroscience, an approach that is called...... Bio-culturalism....

  15. Research cooperation project in fiscal 1998. General report on research cooperation related to mine waste water treatment technology by utilizing biotechnology; 1998 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Bio riyo ni yoru kohaisui shori gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku sokatsu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes cooperative development of bio-treatment technology for mine waste water generated by operating mines in China. Certain types of bacteria have capability to oxidize ferrous iron in the waste water into ferric iron ions. The bacteria cause ferric iron oxides in low pH regions to get deposited, and can remove them from sedimentation by using cheap calcium carbonate as a neutralizer. Volumetric reduction in waste sediments may also be achieved during removing heavy metals in a pretreatment process. Great advance may be expected in taking actions to prevent water quality contamination. This paper summarizes activities taken in fiscal 1998. Eight site surveys in total were carried out using 47 persons in total. Major activities included operation study guidance of a pilot plant, and surveys for measures on heavy metal generation sources in Wushan Mine. In addition, site surveys were performed at Dexing Mine and Yinshan Zinc Mine. Subsequently from fiscal 1997, a bench scale testing equipment used in Japan and consumables were transported to China. The operation study data on the pilot plant were put into order and analyzed. Concept design was also made on a waste water treatment facility for Wushan Mine. (NEDO)

  16. Diamond bio electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions. PMID:19745488

  17. Existing and emerging detection technologies for DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) finger printing, sequencing, bio- and analytical chips: a multidisciplinary development unifying molecular biology, chemical and electronics engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Khanna, Vinod

    2007-01-01

    The current status and research trends of detection techniques for DNA-based analysis such as DNA finger printing, sequencing, biochips and allied fields are examined. An overview of main detectors is presented vis-à-vis these DNA operations. The biochip method is explained, the role of micro- and nanoelectronic technologies in biochip realization is highlighted, various optical and electrical detection principles employed in biochips are indicated, and the operational mechanisms of these detection devices are described. Although a diversity of biochips for diagnostic and therapeutic applications has been demonstrated in research laboratories worldwide, only some of these chips have entered the clinical market, and more chips are awaiting commercialization. The necessity of tagging is eliminated in refractive-index change based devices, but the basic flaw of indirect nature of most detection methodologies can only be overcome by generic and/or reagentless DNA sensors such as the conductance-based approach and the DNA-single electron transistor (DNA-SET) structure. Devices of the electrical detection-based category are expected to pave the pathway for the next-generation DNA chips. The review provides a comprehensive coverage of the detection technologies for DNA finger printing, sequencing and related techniques, encompassing a variety of methods from the primitive art to the state-of-the-art scenario as well as promising methods for the future.

  18. 生物湿法冶金技术回收废弃线路板中有价金属的研究进展%Review on recovering precious metals from wasted circuit board by bio-hydrometallurgy technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾伟民; 朱海珍; 叶子婕; 夏明晨; 喻子凌; 王新天

    2013-01-01

    The quantity of circuit board produced and abandoned has increased with the development of electronics industry. The characteristics of pyrometallurgical recovery, mechanical recovery and wet recovery, such as low recovery ratio, high cost and environmental pollution fails to recover the precious metals from wasted circuit board. This article discusses the feasibility and economic value of precious metals recovery from wasted circuit board by bio-hydrometallurgy by the sequence of dismantling-broken-biological leaching-follow-up treatment. The physiological and biochemical properties of the metallurgical microbials at the medium temperature, moderate thermophilic and moderate thermophilic are introduced respectively. The application prospect of the recovering precious metals from wasted circuit board by bio-hydrometallurgy technology is forecasted.%  随着电子工业的发展,线路板的生产量和废弃量日益增加。传统的火法回收、机械回收、湿法回收等废弃线路板的处理方法金属回收率低、成本高,且极易造成环境污染,不能很好地回收线路板中的有价金属。文中论述了采用生物湿法冶金技术通过拆解-破碎-生物浸出-后续处理4个步骤回收废弃线路板中有价金属的可行性以及该方法能够带来的巨大经济效益,介绍了常用的中温、中等嗜热、极度嗜热冶金微生物的生理生化性质。最后展望了生物湿法冶金技术在未来废弃线路板高效回收方面的应用前景。

  19. Spatial Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Programming language technology can contribute to the development and understanding of Systems Biology by providing formal calculi for specifying and analysing the dynamic behaviour of biological systems. Our focus is on BioAmbients, a variation of the ambient calculi developed for modelling mobi...... mobility in computer systems. We present a static analysis for capturing the spatial structure of biological systems and we illustrate it on a few examples....

  20. Panorama 2011: Water and bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, water is seen as a major sustainability criterion for bio-energies. Although the biofuels being produced by food crops are subject to the same risks as the farming sector as far as water resources are concerned, future sectors have a significant potential to reduce these risks, and this potential needs to be better understood in order for biofuels as a resource and their related technologies to develop properly. (authors)

  1. Beehold : the colony of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L) as a bio-sampler for pollutants and plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Bio-sampling is a function of bio-indication. Bio-indication with honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L) is where the research fields of environmental technology and apiculture overlap. The honeybees are samplers of the environment by collecting unintentionally and simultaneously, along with nectar, p

  2. BioNet Digital Communications Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Kevin; Kuzminsky, Sebastian; Williams, Shea

    2010-01-01

    BioNet v2 is a peer-to-peer middleware that enables digital communication devices to talk to each other. It provides a software development framework, standardized application, network-transparent device integration services, a flexible messaging model, and network communications for distributed applications. BioNet is an implementation of the Constellation Program Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) Interoperability specification, given in CxP 70022-01. The system architecture provides the necessary infrastructure for the integration of heterogeneous wired and wireless sensing and control devices into a unified data system with a standardized application interface, providing plug-and-play operation for hardware and software systems. BioNet v2 features a naming schema for mobility and coarse-grained localization information, data normalization within a network-transparent device driver framework, enabling of network communications to non-IP devices, and fine-grained application control of data subscription band width usage. BioNet directly integrates Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) as a communications technology, enabling networked communications with assets that are only intermittently connected including orbiting relay satellites and planetary rover vehicles.

  3. Future Biorefinery strategic focus area of Forestcluster Ltd. - FuBio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaedda, L. (Forestcluster Ltd, Helsinki (Finland)), email: lars.gadda@forestcluster.fi; Weymarn, N. von (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), email: niklas.weymarn@vtt.fi

    2011-11-15

    Forestcluster Ltd. was founded in 2007 to aid in the implementation of the National Research Strategy of the Finnish forest-based sector. Forestcluster is also one of the six Strategic Centres for Science, Technology and Innovation in Finland. Future Biorefinery (hereinafter: Fu- Bio) is one of the three strategic focus areas of Forestcluster. FuBio is planned to last for five years. The main objective of FuBio is to establish, in Finland, globally competitive knowledge platforms within the field of wood biorefinery R and D for the renewal of the forest industry and creation of new business. FuBio is focused on development of novel value chains, in which wood is refined into especially materials and chemicals. A knowledge platform, in this context, includes people, but also new process concepts, improved processing technologies, including new propriety technologies, as well as state-of-the-art preindustrial processing equipment, novel business ideas and coarse tools to evaluate the business potential of the concepts. The FuBio activities were initiated in March 2009, when the 2-year research programme, 'FuBio Joint Research 1', was launched. In June 2011, two new programmes were launched, namely: 'FuBio Joint Research 2' and 'FuBio Products from dissolved cellulose'. The FuBio programmes are partly financed by the Tekes BioRefine programme. (orig)

  4. International Collaboration on bio-hydrogen R and D. Report for the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE), Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesing, B.

    1998-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of the foreseeable depletion of fossil energy resources and of expected global climatic changes due to the emission of greenhouse gases future energy systems are required which meet the growing world energy demand but do not depend on fossil fuels. One possible option which is discussed as a clean and environmentally friendly energy source for the 21{sup st} century is the conversion of solar energy into hydrogen. Hydrogen as an environmentally friendly energy source can also be an integral part of a zero-emission economy because it can contribute to the minimization of toxic dispersion (especially the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}) and to the maximization of sustainable use of renewable resources. It has been known for more than 50 years that certain living organisms are able to produce hydrogen. Biological hydrogen production has several comparative advantages over competing hydrogen production technologies such as photovoltaic or solarthermic electricity generation plus water hydrolysis. These advantages are - simpler systems: hydrogen production from direct water splitting without involvement of electricity/electrolysis, - self-regenerating systems, - biologically degradable systems: disposal can be coupled to the production of additional value-added substances, - flexible systems: production organisms can adapt to changing environmental conditions, - versatile systems: production organisms which are tailor-made to special environmental conditions can be selected. (orig.)

  5. The Emergence and Challenging Growth of the Bio-Ethanol Innovation System in Taiwan (1949–2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Chao-Chen Chung; Siang-Cing Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan from the perspective of a technology innovation system (TIS). Taiwan is a newly industrialized country and is not currently a main producer of bio-ethanol. This study analyzes the evolution of bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan and places a particular emphasis on challenges that present policies face in the context of potential long-term bio-ethanol development. Through an evaluation of the consistency of the present researc...

  6. Fiscal 1998 research report. Industrial science and technology research project / R and D on accelerative construction technology of bio-functions; 1998 nendo kasokugata seibutsu kino kochiku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project aims at establishment of new basic biotechnology by preparing an artificial variation/selection system in a laboratory based on the molecular level information on bio-evolution mechanism. This report summarized the fiscal 1998 results. For analysis of the experimental system for in vitro evolution of protein molecules, it is necessary to make adaptive walk efficient based on the obtained feature information of a fitness landscape. The fitness landscape was studied using the heat resistance and specific activity of LOD (lactate oxidase) as fitness, and a practical system for screening clones was established. A crone superior in heat resistance and specific activity was obtained by repeating random variation, effective amino acid substitution and screening. Cystatin B is a specific inhibitor of cysteine protease (including Cathepsin K). Improvement of a specificity of Cystatin B to Cathepsin K was attempted by partially substituting its amino acid sequence. In the case of cysteine where two amino acid residues for mutation are linked closely, a mutant activity was additive to amino acid substitution. (NEDO)

  7. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model that modula......In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model...

  8. BIOS Security Analysis and a Kind of Trusted BIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenliu; Xu, Rongsheng

    The BIOS's security threats to computer system are analyzed and security requirements for firmware BIOS are summarized in this paper. Through discussion about TCG's trust transitivity, a new approach about CRTM implementation based on BIOS is developed. In this paper, we also put forward a new trusted BIOS architecture-UTBIOS which is built on Intel Framework for EFI/UEFI. The trustworthiness of UTBIOS is based on trusted hardware TPM. In UTBIOS, trust encapsulation and trust measurement are used to construct pre-OS trust chain. Performance of trust measurement is also analyzed in the end.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION, BIO-FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND SHELF-LIFE STUDIES OF LOCALLY ISOLATED BIO-FERTILIZER STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing and potash mobilizing bacterial strains were isolated from rhizosphere soil of agricultural land, the isolated bacterial strains were further characterized by a series of biochemical reactions and identified as genus Azotobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas respectively. A technology for their mass multiplication and their bio-formulation has been developed. Fly-ash was used as carrier materials for bio-formulation development of bio-fertilizer strains. Shelf-life studies of the bio-formulations were carried out during storage period. The selected isolates were found to be potent nitrogen fixer, phosphate solubilizers showing clear halo zone around their colonies and potash mobilizer showing mobilization of potassium on respective medium. A general decline in cfu count was noticed in fly-ash based bio-formulations. All the bio-formulations however, retained more than 108 cfu/g viable propagules up to 270 days. The present studies were shown encouraging results in respect to fly-ash as carrier materials for bio-fertilizer strains which are comparable to other commercially available carrier materials.

  10. Engineering tissue with BioMEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Jeffrey T; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2011-11-01

    In summary, microfluidic-BioMEMS platforms are increasingly contributing to tissue engineering in many different ways. First, the accurate control of the cell environment in settings suitable for cell screening and with imaging compatibility is greatly advancing our ability to optimize cell sources for a variety of tissue-engineering applications. Second, the microfluidic technology is ideal for the formation of perfusable networks, either to study their stability and maturation or to use these networks as templates for engineering vascularized tissues. Third, the approaches based on microfluidic and BioMEMS devices enable engineering and the study of minimally functional modules of complex tissues, such as liver sinusoid, kidney nephron, and lung bronchiole. This brief article highlighted some of the unique advantages of this elegant technology using representative examples of tissue-engineering research. We focused on some of the universal needs of the area of tissue engineering: tissue vascularization, faithful recapitulation in vitro of functional units of our tissues and organs, and predictable selection and differentiation of stem cells that are being addressed using the power and versatility of microfluidic-BioMEMS platforms.

  11. Liquid Bio fuels: Vegetable Oils and Bi oethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European energy policy has defined clear objectives to reduce the high dependency on fossil petroleum imports, and to increase the security of sustainable energy supply for the transport sector. Moreover, the European environmental policy is requesting clean fuels that reduce environmental risks. Liquid Bio fuels (vegetable oils and bio ethanol) appear to be in a good position to contribute to achieve these goals expressed by the established objective of European Union to reach for bio fuels a market share of 5% of motor vehicle consumption. This work presents the current state and perspectives of the production and utilisation of liquid fuels from agricultural sources by reviewing agricultural feedstocks for energy sector, conversion technologies and different ways to use bio fuels. Environmental and economical aspects are also briefly analysed. (Author) 10 refs

  12. Envirobiosens. New trends in bio-sensing for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, S. [Cranfield Biothechnology Centre, Cranfield University (United Kingdom); Cosnier, S. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble I, Lab. d' Electrochimie Organique et de Photochimie Redox, UMR CNRS 5630, 38 (France); Magner, E. [Limerick University, Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Sciences (Ireland)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The development of useful sensor systems to monitor multiple pollutants is needed for many environmental applications like the pollution monitoring and processing. The advantages of chemical sensors, bio-sensors and bio-mimetic systems should be exploited to fill specific niche applications in environmental engineering. Sensors offer particular advantages as they can be used for rapid field assessment of pollution risks, including the effects of pollutant mixtures. This conference reviews the current state of the art for bio-sensors operating in the environment and in environmental processes to develop bio-sensors practical applications in the environmental technology. The papers are presented in three parts: enzymatic sensors for environmental monitoring; affinity sensors for environmental application; cell and tissue sensors for environmental analysis, future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  13. BioShuttle-mediated Plasmid Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Braun, Leonie von Brasch, Ruediger Pipkorn, Volker Ehemann, Juergen Jenne, Herbert Spring, Juergen Debus, Bernd Didinger, Werner Rittgen, Waldemar Waldeck

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient gene transfer into target tissues and cells is needed for safe and effective treatment of genetic diseases like cancer. In this paper, we describe the development of a transport system and show its ability for transporting plasmids. This non-viral peptide-based BioShuttle-mediated transfer system consists of a nuclear localization address sequence realizing the delivery of the plasmid phNIS-IRES-EGFP coding for two independent reporter genes into nuclei of HeLa cells. The quantification of the transfer efficiency was achieved by measurements of the sodium iodide symporter activity. EGFP gene expression was measured with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and quantified with biostatistical methods by analysis of the frequency of the amplitude distribution in the CLSM images. The results demonstrate that the “BioShuttle”-Technology is an appropriate tool for an effective transfer of genetic material carried by a plasmid.

  14. BioShuttle-mediated Plasmid Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Klaus; von Brasch, Leonie; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Ehemann, Volker; Jenne, Juergen; Spring, Herbert; Debus, Juergen; Didinger, Bernd; Rittgen, Werner; Waldeck, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    An efficient gene transfer into target tissues and cells is needed for safe and effective treatment of genetic diseases like cancer. In this paper, we describe the development of a transport system and show its ability for transporting plasmids. This non-viral peptide-based BioShuttle-mediated transfer system consists of a nuclear localization address sequence realizing the delivery of the plasmid phNIS-IRES-EGFP coding for two independent reporter genes into nuclei of HeLa cells. The quantification of the transfer efficiency was achieved by measurements of the sodium iodide symporter activity. EGFP gene expression was measured with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and quantified with biostatistical methods by analysis of the frequency of the amplitude distribution in the CLSM images. The results demonstrate that the “BioShuttle”-Technology is an appropriate tool for an effective transfer of genetic material carried by a plasmid. PMID:18026568

  15. A Novel Approach for Information Content Retrieval and Analysis of Bio-Images using Datamining techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyagari Sri Nagesh; G.P.Saradhi Varma; Govardhan, A.

    2012-01-01

    In Bio-Medical image processing domain, content-based analysis and Information retrieval of bio-images is very critical for disease diagnosis. Content-Based Image Analysis and Information Retrieval (CBIAIR) has become a significant part of information retrieval technology. One challenge in this area is that the ever-increasing number of bio-images acquired through the digital world makes the brute force searching almost impossible. Medical Image structural objects content and object identific...

  16. Industrialized Production Technology of Complex Bio-organic Fertilizer by Using the Stem and Leaf of Banana and Pineapple%利用香蕉菠萝茎叶工厂化生产复合生物有机肥关键技术研究①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡石滋; 田世尧; 肖维强; 刘传和; 李春雨

    2016-01-01

    This paper discussed the industrialized production technology of the complex bio-organic fertilizer by using the stem leaf of banana and pineapple as raw materials, mainly studied the production process and key technical points of bio-organic fertilizer based on biological fermentation, and put forward the technological process, parameter and technical indicator of the industrialized production of bio-organic fertilizer, applied the independently developed complex microbial agents, fermentation equipments and granulated technology to make up the flow process technology and achieve industrial continuous production. Under these optimum technology conditions, the organic fertilizer produced by the fermentation treatment of banana and pineapple stem leaf qualified with the national industry standards.%探讨现阶段以香蕉菠萝茎叶为原料生产复合生物有机肥的工厂化生产技术,重点研究以生物发酵为核心的生物有机肥的生产工艺及关键技术要点,并提出工厂化生产生物有机肥的工艺流程、工艺参数和技术指标,利用自主开发研制的复合发酵菌剂和发酵设备,并结合造粒技术的应用,可构成流水工艺,实现工业化连续生产。优化工艺条件下,香蕉菠萝废弃茎叶经生物发酵处理生产出的有机肥产品符合国家行业标准。

  17. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anu, Sharma; Gayatri, Sharma

    2016-05-01

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  18. bioética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier León Correa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el inicio de la publicación de la revista Cuadernos de Bioética, hemos podido comprobar una evolución importante en el desarrollo de esta disciplina, tanto en España como en Latinoamérica, que son los ámbitos donde muy especialmente se difunde. Trataré de señalar los aspectos que considero de mayor interés en los inicios y desarrollo de esta nueva disciplina, para poder entender mejor los retos actuales que enfrenta y cuáles son las líneas que ha seguido la revista en esta andadura inicial, y que deberá seguir para responder a los retos de los próximos años. Es un reto la realidad que vivimos en nuestros países, con la aprobación de leyes impuestas desde los poderes públicos con muy poca —o ninguna— discusión social que se parezca de lejos al diálogo tolerante racional que propugna la Bioética; con las reformas aceleradas e indecisas de los sistemas de salud; con el cambio del rol del médico y de la relación médico-paciente desde un paternalismo aún presente a un modelo participativo o contractual sin defi nir claramente; con importantes desigualdades en el acceso a la atención de salud dentro de cada propio país, pero a la vez con un creciente reconocimiento de los derechos de los pacientes y de su necesaria participación para mejorar la calidad de la asistencia clínica. Tiene especial importancia valorar cuáles han sido los instrumentos del éxito y de la difusión de la Bioética clínica, y cuáles pueden ser las nuevas propuestas para el desarrollo de la Bioética como una disciplina de debate ético social y político, ligada a las exigencias éticas de la justicia y el desarrollo social. Hemos de ver cuál ha sido el aporte en estos quince años de la revista Cuadernos de Bioética, con la colaboración de cientos de autores de diversos países, en que se ha mantenido fi el a la propuesta de los que la iniciamos en Santiago de Compostela en el año 1990: construir un buen aporte al debate actual de Bio

  19. BioSAR Airborne Biomass Sensing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.; Johnson, P.

    2007-05-24

    This CRADA was developed to enable ORNL to assist American Electronics, Inc. test a new technology--BioSAR. BioSAR is a an airborne, low frequency (80-120 MHz {approx} FM radio frequencies) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology which was designed and built for NASA by ZAI-Amelex under Patrick Johnson's direction. At these frequencies, leaves and small branches are nearly transparent and the majority of the energy reflected from the forest and returned to the radar is from the tree trunks. By measuring the magnitude of the back scatter, the volume of the tree trunk and therefore the biomass of the trunks can be inferred. The instrument was successfully tested on tropical rain forests in Panama. Patrick Johnson, with American Electronics, Inc received a Phase II SBIR grant from DOE Office of Climate Change to further test and refine the instrument. Mr Johnson sought ORNL expertise in measuring forest biomass in order for him to further validate his instrument. ORNL provided ground truth measurements of forest biomass at three locations--the Oak Ridge Reservation, Weyerhaeuser Co. commercial pine plantations in North Carolina, and American Energy and Power (AEP) Co. hardwood forests in southern Ohio, and facilitated flights over these forests. After Mr. Johnson processed the signal data from BioSAR instrument, the processed data were given to ORNL and we attempted to derive empirical relationships between the radar signals and the ground truth forest biomass measurements using standard statistical techniques. We were unsuccessful in deriving such relationships. Shortly before the CRADA ended, Mr Johnson discovered that FM signal from local radio station broadcasts had interfered with the back scatter measurements such that the bulk of the signal received by the BioSAR instrument was not backscatter from the radar but rather was local radio station signals.

  20. Bio-forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewhella, J. (Jill)

    2004-01-01

    Bioforensics presents significant technical challenges. Determining if an outbreak is natural or not, and then providing evidence to trace an outbreak to its origin is very complex. Los Alamos scientists pioneered research and development that has generated leading edge strain identification methods based on sequence data. Molecular characterization of environmental background samples enable development of highly specific pathogen signatures. Economic impacts of not knowing the relationships at the molecular level Many different kinds of data are needed for DNA-based bio-forensics.

  1. Panorama 2007: New Bio-fuel Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New pathways are emerging in the wake of the boom in the biofuels market. Their development is driven by the search for improved product quality and a broader range of natural plant feedstock. Interested in these new pathways, the oil companies are seeking to differentiate themselves on a market that promises to be very competitive in future. This is a turning point in a sector that has historically been dominated by agro-food companies. (author)

  2. What is BioOne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2005-01-01

    BioOne is a Web-based aggregation of full-text, high-impact bioscience research journals. Most of its titles are published by small societies or non-commercial publishers and have not been previously available in electronic format. This column describes the BioOne database and gives some basic information about the best ways to search its content.

  3. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  4. Recovery of Metals and Stabilization of Arsenic from (Bio-)Leaching Operations by Engineered Biological Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Contreras, P.A.; weghuis, M.O.; Weijma, J.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of biotechnological stabilization of arsenic from (bio-) leaching operations. One of the latest applications of the Thioteq technology is arsenic immobilization. The Thioteq-scorodite biorecovery reactor is an aerobic system to immobilise arsenic in bio-scorodit

  5. 77 FR 19744 - Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc., Advanced Viral Research Corp., Brantley Capital Corp., Brilliant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... COMMISSION Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc., Advanced Viral Research Corp., Brantley Capital Corp., Brilliant Technologies Corporation, 4C Controls, Inc., and 2-Track Global, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading March 29... information concerning the securities of Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc. because it has not filed any...

  6. Fiscal 1993 technological survey report. R and D project for industrial science and technology (Assignment by NEDO/R and D of biochip - survey on biological research of biochip); 1993 nendo bio soshi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Bio soshi seibutsu kenkyu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    As a part of the R and D of a biochip, for the purpose of establishing fundamental technology in connection with a biochip having a new function that is nonexistent in a semiconductor, a committee for biological research and survey of biochip was organized, operating research activities, surveying and compiling research situations and technological trend at the forefront of each field, in regard to information processing in the biological field, brain-memory related information processing in the medical field, and biologically simulated information processing in the engineering field. The results were summarized in the following seven areas. 1. neurology of memory, 2. the frontal lobe and recognition, 3. function of the olfactory lobe and neural connection between the olfactory lobe and the hippocampus, 4. the cerebral fundus nucleus and function, 5. coordinate change from vision to motion in the brain, and 6. control of transient potassium current by the astroglia cell in the mouth and the hippocampus cultured nerve cell. (NEDO)

  7. Past, Present, and Future Production of Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Yu, Fei; Gajjela, Sanjeev

    2009-04-01

    Bio-oil is a liquid product produced by fast pyrol-ysis of biomass. The fast pyrolysis is performed by heating the biomass rapidly (2 sec) at temperatures ranging from 350 to 650 oC. The vapors produced by this rapid heating are then condensed to produce a dark brown water-based emulsion composed of frag-ments of the original hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin molecules contained in the biomass. Yields range from 60 to 75% based on the feedstock type and the pyrolysis reactor employed. The bio-oil pro-duced by this process has a number of negative prop-erties that are produced mainly by the high oxygen content (40 to 50%) contributed by that contained in water (25 to 30% of total mass) and oxygenated compounds. Each bio-oil contains hundreds of chemi-cal compounds. The chemical composition of bio-oil renders it a very recalcitrant chemical compound. To date, the difficulties in utilizing bio-oil have limited its commercial development to the production of liq-uid smoke as food flavoring. Practitioners have at-tempted to utilize raw bio-oil as a fuel; they have also applied many techniques to upgrade bio-oil to a fuel. Attempts to utilize raw bio-oil as a combustion engine fuel have resulted in engine or turbine dam-age; however, Stirling engines have been shown to successfully combust raw bio-oil without damage. Utilization of raw bio-oil as a boiler fuel has met with more success and an ASTM standard has recently been released describing bio-oil characteristics in relation to assigned fuel grades. However, commercialization has been slow to follow and no reports of distribution of these bio-oil boiler fuels have been reported. Co-feeding raw bio-oil with coal has been successfully performed but no current power generation facilities are following this practice. Upgrading of bio-oils to hydrocarbons via hydroprocessing is being performed by several organizations. Currently, limited catalyst life is the obstacle to commercialization of this tech-nology. Researchers

  8. Bio-Mimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Algieri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported.

  9. Social Science Insights for the BioCCS Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Maree Dowd

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BioCCS is a technology gaining support as a possible emissions reduction policy option to address climate change. The process entails the capture, transport and storage of carbon dioxide produced during energy production from biomass. Globally, the most optimistic energy efficiency scenarios cannot avoid an average temperature increase of +2 °C without bioCCS. Although very much at the commencement stage, bioCCS demonstration projects can provide opportunity to garner knowledge, achieve consensus and build support around the technology’s properties. Yet many challenges face the bioCCS industry, including no guarantee biomass will always be from sustainable sources or potentially result in carbon stock losses. The operating environment also has no or limited policies, regulations and legal frameworks, and risk and safety concerns abound. Some state the key problem for bioCCS is cultural, lacking in a ‘community of support’, awareness and credibility amongst its own key stakeholders and the wider public. Therefore, the industry can benefit from the growing social science literature, drawing upon other energy and resource based industries with regard to social choice for future energy options. To this end, the following scoping review was conducted in order to ascertain gaps in existing public perception and acceptance research focusing on bioCCS.

  10. Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-ethanol is playing an important role in renewable energy for transport according to Thai government policy. This study aims to evaluate the energy efficiency and renewability of bio-ethanol system and identify the current significant environmental risks and availability of feedstocks in Thailand. Four of the seven existing ethanol plants contributing 53% of the total ethanol fuel production in Thailand have been assessed by the net energy balance method and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A renewability and net energy ratio portfolio has been used to indicate whether existing bio-ethanol production systems have net energy gain and could help reduce dependency on fossil energy. In addition, LCA has been conducted to identify and evaluate the environmental hotspots of 'cradle to gate' bio-ethanol production. The results show that there are significant differences of energy and environmental performance among the four existing production systems even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, feedstock transportion, fuel used in ethanol plants, operation practices and technology of ethanol conversion and waste management practices. Recommendations for improving the overall energy and environmental performance of the bio-ethanol system are suggested in order to direct the bio-ethanol industry in Thailand towards environmental sustainability.

  11. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Bio-Oil for Chemicals and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2006-02-14

    The scope of work includes optimizing processing conditions and demonstrating catalyst lifetime for catalyst formulations that are readily scaleable to commercial operations. We use a bench-scale, continuous-flow, packed-bed, catalytic, tubular reactor, which can be operated in the range of 100-400 mL/hr., from 50-400 C and up to 20MPa (see Figure 1). With this unit we produce upgraded bio-oil from whole bio-oil or useful bio-oil fractions, specifically pyrolytic lignin. The product oils are fractionated, for example by distillation, for recovery of chemical product streams. Other products from our tests have been used in further testing in petroleum refining technology at UOP and fractionation for product recovery in our own lab. Further scale-up of the technology is envisioned and we will carry out or support process design efforts with industrial partners, such as UOP.

  12. HSP as bio dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the more important passages for the field of the radiological protection, from the discovery, beginnings of the utilization of the radiations emitting, passing to the legislation proposals and the transformations that had been suffer to establish the international standards of radiological protection. The paradigms on the effects and chronologically the emanated discoveries of the cellular research and the measurement of cellular products in the species and the diverse alive beings making emphasis in evaluating the expression of the heat-shock proteins caused by low doses of gamma radiation, these are used as radiation bio monitors and of other agents that cause cellular stress and lastly a prospective of the future of the radiobiology. (Author)

  13. Bio diesel production from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae appear to be an emerging source of biomass for bio diesel that has the potential to completely displace fossil fuel. Two thirds of earth's surface is covered with water, thus alga e would truly be renewable option of great potential for global energy needs. This study discusses specific and comparative bio diesel quantitative potential of Cladophora sp., also highlighting its biomass (after oil extraction), pH and sediments (glycerine, water and pigments) quantitative properties. Comparison of Cladophora sp., with Oedogonium sp., and Spirogyra sp., (Hossain et al., 2008) shows that Cladophora sp., produce higher quantity of bio diesel than Spirogyra sp., whereas biomass and sediments were higher than the both algal specimens in comparison to the results obtained by earlier workers. No prominent difference in pH of bio diesel was found. In Pakistan this is a first step towards bio diesel production from algae. Results indicate that Cladophora sp., provide a reasonable quantity of bio diesel, its greater biomass after oil extraction and sediments make it a better option for bio diesel production than the comparing species. (author)

  14. Upgrading the lubricity of bio-oil via homogeneous catalytic esterification under vacuum distillation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to accelerate the application of bio-oil in the internal combustion engines, homogeneous catalytic esterification technology under vacuum distillation conditions was used to upgrade the crude bio-oil. The lubricities of the crude bio-oil (BO) and refined bio-oil with homogeneous catalytic esterification (RBOhce) or refined bio-oil without catalyst but with distillation operation (RBOwc) were evaluated by a high frequency reciprocating test rig according to the ASTM D 6079 standard. The basic physiochemical properties and components of the bio-oils were analyzed. The surface morphology, contents and chemical valence of active elements on the worn surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that RBOhce has better lubricities than those of BO, but RBOwc has worse lubricities than those of BO. The tribological mechanisms of the bio-oils are attributed to the combined actions of lubricating films and factors that will break the film. Compared with BO, plenty of phenols in RBOwc results in corrosion of the substrate and destroys the integrity of the lubricating films, which is responsible for its corrosive wear. However, more esters and alkanes in RBOhce contribute to forming a complete boundary lubricating film on the rubbed surfaces which result in its excellent antifriction and antiwear properties. - Highlights: • Refined bio-oil was prepared through homogeneous catalytic esterification technology. • Properties of the bio-oils before and after refining were assessed by HFRR. • Refined bio-oil showed better lubricities than crude bio-oil. • More esters and alkanes in refined bio-oil contributed to forming superior boundary lubrication

  15. Bio-composites : opportunities for value-added biobased materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drzal, L.T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science]|[Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Composite Materials and Structures Center

    2003-07-01

    In order to reduce dependency on foreign oil, there is a growing need to develop and commercialize new bio-based green materials and technologies that can produce bio-based structural materials that are competitive with current synthetic products. The use of bio-based products would also improve the environment and create new opportunities for the agricultural economy. This paper described ongoing research into bio-based materials and products that replace petroleum-based products. In particular, it examined the use of biocomposites made by embedding natural/biofibers such as kenaf, hemp, flax, jute, henequen, pineapple leaf fiber, corn stalk fibers and native Michigan grasses into petroleum-derived traditional plastics such as polypropylene, unsaturated polyesters and epoxies. It also examines the use of green biocomposites developed by embedding these bio-fibers into renewable resource-based bioplastics such as cellulosic plastics and soy-based plastics. New processing methods that combine biofibers with plastics were needed to produce the biocomposites with desirable mechanical properties. The study showed that biofiber reinforced petroleum-based plastic biocomposites can produce a structural material that offers a balance between ecology, economy and technology. The potential for using these materials for automotive and building materials was also presented. 1 tab., 28 figs.

  16. Bio-Glasses An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Julian

    2012-01-01

    This new work is dedicated to glasses and their variants which can be used as biomaterials to repair diseased and damaged tissues. Bio-glasses are superior to other biomaterials in many applications, such as healing bone by signaling stem cells to become bone cells.   Key features:  First book on biomaterials to focus on bio-glassesEdited by a leading authority on bio-glasses trained by one of its inventors, Dr Larry HenchSupported by the International Commission on Glass (ICG)Authored by members of the ICG Biomedical Glass Committee, with the goal of creating a seamless textb

  17. Bio-economic Household Modelling for Agricultural Intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruseman, G.

    2000-01-01

    This study contributes to the quest for sustainable agricultural intensification through the development of a quantitative bio-economic modelling framework that allows assessment of new technology and policy measures in terms of household welfare and sustainability indicators. The main aim of the st

  18. Fiscal 1997 R and D project on industrial science and technology under a consignment from NEDO. R and D of the technology of accelerated formation of bio-functions (R and D of the technology of creation of novel advanced enzymes); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Kasokugata seibutsu kino kochiku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (shingata kokino koso sosei gijutsu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes R and D on creation technique of novel advanced enzymes. In fiscal 1997, a novel mutagenesis technique was developed to obtain more kinds of mutational genes by shuffling between clonal genes as compared with the previous homogeneous recombination. A genotype- and phenotype-linking technology was developed by expressing random motifs (peptide as components of the active site of protein) on bacteria, and by developing a single-motif protein library. Study was made on a selection system for functional molecules of catalytic activities in a gene level, and a selection system for function of signal transduction. Analysis and evaluation study on vitro experimental technology can be efficiently promoted by recognizing the fitness landscape of target protein molecules. As a result, instead of the conventional method which needs several cycles of mutation and screening of 3-4 week/cycle, an efficient method possible to obtain multiple mutants was established. Research work was also promoted by various organizations to develop an accelerated formation technology of bio-functions. 68 refs., 51 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Navigating the Bio-Politics of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nick; Motzkau, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Childhood research has long shared a bio-political terrain with state agencies in which children figure primarily as "human futures". In the 20th century bio-social dualism helped to make that terrain navigable by researchers, but, as life processes increasingly become key sites of bio-political action, bio-social dualism is becoming less useful…

  20. bioCEED Survey 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hole, Torstein Nielsen; Jeno, Lucas Matias; Holtermann, Kristin; Raaheim, Arild; Velle, Gaute; Simonelli, Anne Laure; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2016-01-01

    The bioCEED Survey 2015 is a baseline study of major tertiary-level biology education in Norway. The survey addresses themes such as learning in practice, transferable skills, motivation, laboratory and field learning, didactical approaches specifically relevant to biology education, knowledge needs and experiences of biologists in the workforce. The bioCEED Survey 2015 reports the results from four separate sub-surveys of tertiary-level biology education, mapping the experiences, attitu...

  1. Fiscal 1997 R and D project on industrial science and technology under a consignment form NEDO. R and D of the technology of accelerated formation of bio-functions; 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Kasokugata seibutsu kino kochiku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As a part of the study on accelerated formation of bio- functions, analysis technology of experimental systems for in vitro evolution of protein molecules was studied. For the analysis, recognition of a fitness landscape is indispensable. Improvement of adaptive walk is possible through its analysis in an ordered space based on features of the landscape. By the last fiscal year, the knowledge of the fitness (heat-stability) landscape was obtained in the experimental system of PEP (prolyl endopeptidase) in which an adaptive walk mechanism was found to function effectively (mutated protein with a heat-stability effectively improved by adaptive walk was obtained). To obtain more general fitness landscape information, landscapes of various proteins to a fitness should be examined, and the effectiveness of approaches to efficient adaptive walk on the fitness other than a heat-stability should be clarified. The second experimental system using LOD (lactate oxidase) was thus constructed to examine the heat-stability landscape. In addition, the system of in vitro molecular evolution of proteinase inhibitor (Cystatin B) was constructed. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. First Complete Genome Sequence of the Skin-Improving Lactobacillus curvatus Strain FBA2, Isolated from Fermented Vegetables, Determined by PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kazuma; Shiroma, Akino; Tamotsu, Hinako; Ohki, Shun; Shimoji, Makiko; Ashimine, Noriko; Shinzato, Misuzu; Minami, Maiko; Nakanishi, Tetsuhiro; Teruya, Kuniko; Satou, Kazuhito; Suzuki, Chise; Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Miho; Mizumachi, Koko; Aoki, Reiji; Miyata, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Kazue; Ohtake, Yasuyuki; Eguchi-Ogawa, Tomoko; Moriya, Naoko; Hagi, Tatsuro; Nomura, Masaru; Hirano, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus curvatus was determined by PacBio RS II. The single circular chromosome (1,848,756 bp, G+C content of 42.1%) of L. curvatus FBA2, isolated from fermented vegetables, contained low G+C regions (26.9% minimum) and 43 sets of >1,000-bp identical sequence pairs. No plasmids were detected. PMID:27587811

  3. Agrice 2004. Activity report - from bio-resources to industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been ten years since AGRICE was founded to support technological research in the field of bio-products. Even if bio-products are indeed a commercial reality, and growing in diversity, they are still marginal in the marketplace. However, the amplification of the greenhouse effect, our increasing energy dependence, the inexorable rise in oil prices, international competition and the emergence of a genuine political awareness are all factors that converge in favour of bio-products, offering a promising future. Of course, the development of bio-products is dependent on a number of conditions: biomass resources, technological advances, mobilisation of actors through dynamic research programmes (conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for alternative fuels or hydrogen, bio-technology applied to chemicals), new agro-industrial supply chains, financial instruments to bridge the cost gap with fossil fuels, a national strategy supported by a public authority dedicated to non-food uses. In the immediate future, the recent decision to open up the biofuels market via implementation of the European biofuels directive (5.75% of the market in 2010) provides an opportunity to lay the groundwork for a veritable industry of plant-based products, opening the way to the bio-refineries of the future. There is considerable potential for the development of bio-products in France. An additional 25 to 30 million tonnes-oil-equivalent (toe) of agricultural and forestry biomass could be processed into energy and industrial bio-products in France. Accordingly we can set our sights on an overall objective of substituting plant feedstocks for petroleum used in fuels and chemicals, on the order of 10% in 2020, and 20 to 30% by 2030-2050. To achieve these goals many technological advances will be necessary, with constant attention to the requirements of sustainable development. In this respect AGRICE is an invaluable tool for guiding, catalysing and supporting research efforts in these fields

  4. A Bio-Based Fuel Cell for Distributed Energy Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony Terrinoni; Sean Gifford

    2008-06-30

    The technology we propose consists primarily of an improved design for increasing the energy density of a certain class of bio-fuel cell (BFC). The BFCs we consider are those which harvest electrons produced by microorganisms during their metabolism of organic substrates (e.g. glucose, acetate). We estimate that our technology will significantly enhance power production (per unit volume) of these BFCs, to the point where they could be employed as stand-alone systems for distributed energy generation.

  5. Recent trends in global production and utilization of bio-ethanol fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. A number of environmental and economic benefits are claimed for bio-fuels. Bio-ethanol is by far the most widely used bio-fuel for transportation worldwide. Production of bio-ethanol from biomass is one way to reduce both consumption of crude oil and environmental pollution. Using bio-ethanol blended gasoline fuel for automobiles can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. Bio-ethanol can be produced from different kinds of raw materials. These raw materials are classified into three categories of agricultural raw materials: simple sugars, starch and lignocellulose. Bio-ethanol from sugar cane, produced under the proper conditions, is essentially a clean fuel and has several clear advantages over petroleum-derived gasoline in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality in metropolitan areas. Conversion technologies for producing bio-ethanol from cellulosic biomass resources such as forest materials, agricultural residues and urban wastes are under development and have not yet been demonstrated commercially. (author)

  6. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  7. Bio and health informatics meets cloud : BioVLab as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Heejoon; Jung, Inuk; Lee, Hyungro; Marru, Suresh; Lee, Seong-Whan; Kim, Sun

    2013-01-01

    The exponential increase of genomic data brought by the advent of the next or the third generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and the dramatic drop in sequencing cost have driven biological and medical sciences to data-driven sciences. This revolutionary paradigm shift comes with challenges in terms of data transfer, storage, computation, and analysis of big bio/medical data. Cloud computing is a service model sharing a pool of configurable resources, which is a suitable workbench to address these challenges. From the medical or biological perspective, providing computing power and storage is the most attractive feature of cloud computing in handling the ever increasing biological data. As data increases in size, many research organizations start to experience the lack of computing power, which becomes a major hurdle in achieving research goals. In this paper, we review the features of publically available bio and health cloud systems in terms of graphical user interface, external data integration, security and extensibility of features. We then discuss about issues and limitations of current cloud systems and conclude with suggestion of a biological cloud environment concept, which can be defined as a total workbench environment assembling computational tools and databases for analyzing bio/medical big data in particular application domains.

  8. Hair flow sensors: from bio-inspiration to bio-mimicking—a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Junliang; (Bill Yu, Xiong

    2012-11-01

    A great many living beings, such as aquatics and arthropods, are equipped with highly sensitive flow sensors to help them survive in challenging environments. These sensors are excellent sources of inspiration for developing application-driven artificial flow sensors with high sensitivity and performance. This paper reviews the bio-inspirations on flow sensing in nature and the bio-mimicking efforts to emulate such sensing mechanisms in recent years. The natural flow sensing systems in aquatics and arthropods are reviewed to highlight inspirations at multiple levels such as morphology, sensing mechanism and information processing. Biomimetic hair flow sensors based on different sensing mechanisms and fabrication technologies are also reviewed to capture the recent accomplishments and to point out areas where further progress is necessary. Biomimetic flow sensors are still in their early stages. Further efforts are required to unveil the sensing mechanisms in the natural biological systems and to achieve multi-level bio-mimicking of the natural system to develop their artificial counterparts.

  9. Bio and health informatics meets cloud : BioVLab as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Heejoon; Jung, Inuk; Lee, Hyungro; Marru, Suresh; Lee, Seong-Whan; Kim, Sun

    2013-01-01

    The exponential increase of genomic data brought by the advent of the next or the third generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and the dramatic drop in sequencing cost have driven biological and medical sciences to data-driven sciences. This revolutionary paradigm shift comes with challenges in terms of data transfer, storage, computation, and analysis of big bio/medical data. Cloud computing is a service model sharing a pool of configurable resources, which is a suitable workbench to address these challenges. From the medical or biological perspective, providing computing power and storage is the most attractive feature of cloud computing in handling the ever increasing biological data. As data increases in size, many research organizations start to experience the lack of computing power, which becomes a major hurdle in achieving research goals. In this paper, we review the features of publically available bio and health cloud systems in terms of graphical user interface, external data integration, security and extensibility of features. We then discuss about issues and limitations of current cloud systems and conclude with suggestion of a biological cloud environment concept, which can be defined as a total workbench environment assembling computational tools and databases for analyzing bio/medical big data in particular application domains. PMID:25825658

  10. Wood to Bio-Methane demonstration project in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meijden, C.M.; Van der Drift, A.; Rietveld, G. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands); Koenemann, J.W. [Dahlman Renewable Technology, P.O. Box 438, 3140 AK Maassluis (Netherlands); Sierhuis, W. [HVCgroup, P.O. Box 9199, 1800 GD, Alkmaar (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) has developed a biomass gasification technology, called the MILENA technology. The Milena gasification technology has a high cold gas efficiency and high methane yield, making it very suitable for gas engine and turbine applications as well as upgrading of the gas into Bio-Methane. An overall efficiency from biomass to power of over 30% is possible, whereas 70% efficiency is achievable from biomass to gas grid quality methane. HVC Group (situated in Alkmaar, North Holland) is a modern public service waste company. HVC converts waste streams which cannot be recycled into usable forms of energy. HVC has a 75 MWth waste wood boiler in operation which produces heat and electricity, and an anaerobic digester which converts domestic fruit, vegetable and garden waste into Bio-Methane. HVC expects an important role for Bio-Methane in the future and HVC has decided to join ECN with the development, demonstration and implementation of the MILENA Bio-Methane technology. Linked to the Bio-Methane demonstration project is the Netherlands Expertise Centre for Biomass Gasification. The MILENA demonstration project and the Gasification Expert Centre are supported by the following companies and organizations: HVC, TAQA, Gasunie, Dahlman, province of North Holland, the Alkmaar municipality and ECN. In 2010 and 2012 extensive lab-scale and pilot scale tests have been executed by ECN and HVC to proof that the gasification and gas cleaning technology is ready for commercial application. The final step in this test program was a duration test in the 800 kWth MILENA pilot plant coupled to the OLGA tar removal unit. The goal was to show high availability. The result of the test was an availability of the gasifier of 96% and an overall availability (including gas cooling and gas cleaning) of 85%. The results of the duration tests convinced HVC and the other partners that the technology is ready for scale-up. The results produced in the

  11. 电磁防护仿生技术研究的进展与展望%Research progress and prospect on study of Bio-inspired electromagnetic protection technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常小龙; 赵国亮; 武翠霞; 满梦华

    2013-01-01

    In order to acquire the thoughts from the biology and design electronic system with high reliability using mechanism from biology, the development of bio-inspired electromagnetic protection is summarized newly appeared these years. The content of investigation about bio-inspired electromagnetic protection is illustrated and the fruits having been obtained are displayed. Biological neural system is a high complicated information processing and controlling system with the characteristic of self-organization and self-adaptatioa And neural system is very robust for its ability of fault tolerance. So a novel thought to study bio-inspired electromagnetic protection is discussed based on the way of neural information processing and coding, as well as implementation by integrated circuit.%为了从生物中汲取灵感,进而设计抗干扰能力强、可靠性高的电子系统,对近些年新兴的电磁防护仿生技术的发展脉络进行了详细总结.阐述了电磁防护仿生技术主要研究内容,并展示了现阶段电磁防护仿生研究已取得的成果.生物的神经系统是高度复杂的信息处理和控制系统,具有自组织和自适应的优良特性,同时也具有很高的容错能力.因此,结合神经信息处理方式、编码特点和集成电路实现,进一步探讨和分析了进行电磁防护仿生研究的新思路.

  12. Optimising the bio-piling of weathered hydrocarbons within a risk management framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, R.; Brassington, K.; Sinke, A.; Crossley, J.; Paton, G.; Semple, K.; Risdon, G.; Jacobson, Ch.; Daly, P.; Jackman, S.; Lethbridge, G.; Pollard, S. [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Thirty years of research into petroleum microbiology and bio-remediation have bypassed an important observation - that many hydrocarbon contaminated sites posing potential risks to human health harbour weathered, 'mid-distillate' or heavy oils rather than 'fresh product'. Ex-situ bio-piling is an important technology for treating soils contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons. However, its performance continues to be represented by reference to reductions in the hydrocarbon 'load' in the soils being treated, rather than reductions in the risks posed by the hydrocarbon contamination. The absence of 'risk' from the vocabulary of many operators and remediation projects reduces stakeholder (regulatory, investor, landowner, and public) confidence in remediation technologies, and subsequently limits the market potential of these technologies. Stakeholder confidence in the bio-piling of weathered hydrocarbons may be improved by demonstrating process optimisation within a validated risk management framework. To address these issues, a consortium led by Cranfield University's Integrated Waste Management Centre has secured funding from the UK Government's Bio-remediation LINK programme. Project PROMISE (involving BP, SecondSite Regeneration Ltd., Dew Remediation Ltd., TES Bretby (Mowlem Group), technology translators PERA, and academics from Aberdeen, Cranfield and Lancaster Universities) aims to improve market confidence in bio-piling by demonstrating how this treatment may be applied within a risk management context. For weathered hydrocarbons in particular, the underpinning scientific components of process control, waste diagnostics, environmental fate modelling, and risk assessment have yet to be fully integrated to allow bio-piling projects to be verified with improved confidence. The Joint Research Council Review of Bio-remediation recognised this in calling explicitly for the positioning of bio-remediation within a

  13. Optimising the bio-piling of weathered hydrocarbons within a risk management framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty years of research into petroleum microbiology and bio-remediation have bypassed an important observation - that many hydrocarbon contaminated sites posing potential risks to human health harbour weathered, 'mid-distillate' or heavy oils rather than 'fresh product'. Ex-situ bio-piling is an important technology for treating soils contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons. However, its performance continues to be represented by reference to reductions in the hydrocarbon 'load' in the soils being treated, rather than reductions in the risks posed by the hydrocarbon contamination. The absence of 'risk' from the vocabulary of many operators and remediation projects reduces stakeholder (regulatory, investor, landowner, and public) confidence in remediation technologies, and subsequently limits the market potential of these technologies. Stakeholder confidence in the bio-piling of weathered hydrocarbons may be improved by demonstrating process optimisation within a validated risk management framework. To address these issues, a consortium led by Cranfield University's Integrated Waste Management Centre has secured funding from the UK Government's Bio-remediation LINK programme. Project PROMISE (involving BP, SecondSite Regeneration Ltd., Dew Remediation Ltd., TES Bretby (Mowlem Group), technology translators PERA, and academics from Aberdeen, Cranfield and Lancaster Universities) aims to improve market confidence in bio-piling by demonstrating how this treatment may be applied within a risk management context. For weathered hydrocarbons in particular, the underpinning scientific components of process control, waste diagnostics, environmental fate modelling, and risk assessment have yet to be fully integrated to allow bio-piling projects to be verified with improved confidence. The Joint Research Council Review of Bio-remediation recognised this in calling explicitly for the positioning of bio-remediation within a risk management framework. The PERF report (Thermo

  14. Bio nitrate Project: a new technology for water nitrate elimination by means of ionic exchange resins; Proyecto Bionitrate: una nueva tecnologia para la eliminacion de nitratos en aguas mediante resinas de intercambio ionico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano Ortiz, J.

    2009-07-01

    The use of ion exchange resins for nitrate elimination from water generates a waste containing a sodium chloride mixture plus the retained nitrates. this waste must be correctly disposed. In this project, the resin ionic form is modified to be regenerated with other compounds, different from the common salt, which are interesting because of the presence of mineral nutrition. So, with Bio nitrate Project, nitrates are recovered and the regeneration waste is apt to be use as fertilizer, for agricultural uses, or as complementary contribution of nutrients in biological water treatment. (Author) 27 refs.

  15. Lecture notes on: Electrical theory behind the measurement of body fluids with bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS):with applications to the measurement device 4200 HYDRA ECF/ICF Bio-Impedance Spectrum Analyzer from Xitron Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Jødal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Teksten beskriver, hvordan volumen af kropsvæsker kan måles/estimeres med teknikken bio-impedans-spektroskopi (BIS). De første kapitler forudsætter kun lidt eller ingen teknisk/matematisk viden og kan forhåbentlig læses af enhver, som er interesseret i teknikken. Senere kapitler bliver mere tekniske, men indledes med opsummeringer af konklusionerne. Meningen med noterne er at give en forståelse af teknikken, dens forudsætninger og dens begrænsninger. Der tages udgangspunkt i et konkret appara...

  16. A Bio-economics Study of the Life Cycle of Technological Innovation%技术创新生命周期的生物经济学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文辉

    2004-01-01

    认识技术创新活动的生物学规律性显得日益重要.为此,文章从技术创新活动的时间性状着手,探讨了技术创新活动的生命周期性和周期递减性等生物学规律性,并作出了相应的案例说明.文章采用了将经济学与生物学进行交叉研究和类比分析的Bio-economics方式.

  17. BioGrid Australia and GRHANITE™: privacy-protecting subject matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Douglas Iain Ross; Rafael, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    BioGrid Australia provide infrastructure for research currently spanning 16 hospital-based clinical institutions and 50 databases across Victoria, Australia. To-date BioGrid have utilised a probabilistic record linkage engine (Sun Oracle Java CAPS eIndex) that utilises patient identifiers (albeit in a secure manner) during record linkage. BioGrid are now incorporating privacy-protecting record linkage technology from the University of Melbourne Rural Health Academic Centre (GRHANITE™). For the first time in Australia, the GRHANITE™technology is allowing primary care data linkage projects to happen on a large scale (70 sites, 200 planned to date). By utilising GRHANITE™privacy-protecting record linkage technologies, BioGrid are now able to overcome the privacy issues inherent in linking data across national jurisdictional boundaries. By utilising GRHANITE™privacy-protecting record linkage technologies all inter-jurisdictional public health and hospital clinical data collected by BioGrid can be systematically linked to primary care data for research for the first time. This paper describes the architecture of the combined BioGrid and GRHANITE™systems, provides evidence of the efficacy of the linkage technologies and heralds the start of a new era in privacy-protected, record linked research in Australia. PMID:21893908

  18. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs

  19. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J. J.; Dorronsoro Arenal, J. L.; Rojas Garcia, E.; Perez Pastor, R.; Garcia Alonso, S.

    2007-09-27

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs.

  20. Production, separation and applications of phenolic-rich bio-oil--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo-Sik

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of current research trends in the production and separation of phenolic-rich bio-oils, as well as their applications. The first part of this paper highlights the strong dependency of the phenolic content of bio-oil on the kinds of biomass feedstock, reaction system, reaction conditions, and the type of catalysts used in their production. More recent separation technologies are also discussed in the second part of the paper. The final part of the paper deals with recent experimental results from applications of phenolic-rich bio-oils in the synthesis of phenolic resins. The paper suggests that the microwave-assisted pyrolysis of palm residues is a promising route for phenolic-rich bio-oil production, and that the use of supercritical CO2 and switchable hydrophilicity solvents during extraction, as well as molecular distillation techniques, can be applied to increase the recovery of phenolic compounds from bio-oils. PMID:25239785

  1. Automated seeding of specialised wiki knowledgebases with BioKb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullins John J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wiki technology has become a ubiquitous mechanism for dissemination of information, and places strong emphasis on collaboration. We aimed to leverage wiki technology to allow small groups of researchers to collaborate around a specific domain, for example a biological pathway. Automatically gathered seed data could be modified by the group and enriched with domain specific information. Results We describe a software system, BioKb, implemented as a plugin for the TWiki engine, and designed to facilitate construction of a field-specific wiki containing collaborative and automatically generated content. Features of this system include: query of publicly available resources such as KEGG, iHOP and MeSH, to generate 'seed' content for topics; simple definition of structure for topics of different types via an administration page; and interactive incorporation of relevant PubMed references. An exemplar is shown for the use of this system, in the creation of the RAASWiki knowledgebase on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS. RAASWiki has been seeded with data by use of BioKb, and will be the subject of ongoing development into an extensive knowledgebase on the RAAS. Conclusion The BioKb system is available from http://www.bioinf.mvm.ed.ac.uk/twiki/bin/view/TWiki/BioKbPlugin as a plugin for the TWiki engine.

  2. Synthetic and Bio-Artificial Tactile Sensing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Carrozza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art of artificial tactile sensing, with a particular focus on bio-hybrid and fully-biological approaches. To this aim, the study of physiology of the human sense of touch and of the coding mechanisms of tactile information is a significant starting point, which is briefly explored in this review. Then, the progress towards the development of an artificial sense of touch are investigated. Artificial tactile sensing is analysed with respect to the possible approaches to fabricate the outer interface layer: synthetic skin versus bio-artificial skin. With particular respect to the synthetic skin approach, a brief overview is provided on various technologies and transduction principles that can be integrated beneath the skin layer. Then, the main focus moves to approaches characterized by the use of bio-artificial skin as an outer layer of the artificial sensory system. Within this design solution for the skin, bio-hybrid and fully-biological tactile sensing systems are thoroughly presented: while significant results have been reported for the development of tissue engineered skins, the development of mechanotransduction units and their integration is a recent trend that is still lagging behind, therefore requiring research efforts and investments. In the last part of the paper, application domains and perspectives of the reviewed tactile sensing technologies are discussed.

  3. Bio politics - The bio-environment - bio-culture of the Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bio-environment has been the single most important correlation in human history and can successfully promote international co-operational co-operation and understanding. With the construction of a network for collaboration, the 'Danube Countries' can come together in celebration of their culture and heritage. As the Danube flows from the Black Forest to the Black Sea, it carries messages of peace, hope and co-operation. Applying these messages to every endeavour can improve our quality of life and lead to a brighter future. Since its inception in 1985, the Bio politics International Organization (B.I.O.) has been labouring to raise awareness of the urgent need to instate a new system of norms and principles, compatible with sound environmental management and with the most important task of ensuring global literacy on environmental issues. Along with critically re-assessing the concept of profit, the goal is to adopt a system of bio centric values, where respect for the bio-environment will govern our every action and thought

  4. Bio THELYS: A new sludge reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauzy, Julien; Cretenot, Didier; Patria, Lucie; Fernandes, Paulo; Sauvegrain, Patrick; Levasseur, Jean-Pierre

    2003-07-01

    New technologies for reducing the sludge production of municipal or industrial WWTP have been appeared during the last few years. One of these innovative processes, Bio THELYS, consists in enhancing the biodegradability of sludge by a stage of thermal hydrolysis. The hydrolysed sludge could then be sent upstream to a biological step either aerobic or anaerobic. The objective is to increase the global mineralisation of the pollution entering the WWTP in order to decrease the waste leaving it, i.e. mainly the sludge. A 2500 population equivalent prototype was installed on a WWTP, in Champagne - France. Thermal hydrolysis is carried out under a temperature of 150-185{sup o}C, a pressure of 10-15 bar with an hydraulic retention time of 30-60 minutes. Thermal hydrolysis is implemented on a secondary recycling loop on the biological basin. Trials started in 1999 and are still on operation. A close monitoring of the WWTP was set up focusing especially on sludge characteristics, treated water quality, yield of sludge production reduction and plant operation. Bio THELYS could achieve a reduction in sludge production up to 70% on the plant. (author)

  5. The DBCLS BioHackathon: standardization and interoperability for bioinformatics web services and workflows. The DBCLS BioHackathon Consortium*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayama Toshiaki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Web services have become a key technology for bioinformatics, since life science databases are globally decentralized and the exponential increase in the amount of available data demands for efficient systems without the need to transfer entire databases for every step of an analysis. However, various incompatibilities among database resources and analysis services make it difficult to connect and integrate these into interoperable workflows. To resolve this situation, we invited domain specialists from web service providers, client software developers, Open Bio* projects, the BioMoby project and researchers of emerging areas where a standard exchange data format is not well established, for an intensive collaboration entitled the BioHackathon 2008. The meeting was hosted by the Database Center for Life Science (DBCLS and Computational Biology Research Center (CBRC and was held in Tokyo from February 11th to 15th, 2008. In this report we highlight the work accomplished and the common issues arisen from this event, including the standardization of data exchange formats and services in the emerging fields of glycoinformatics, biological interaction networks, text mining, and phyloinformatics. In addition, common shared object development based on BioSQL, as well as technical challenges in large data management, asynchronous services, and security are discussed. Consequently, we improved interoperability of web services in several fields, however, further cooperation among major database centers and continued collaborative efforts between service providers and software developers are still necessary for an effective advance in bioinformatics web service technologies.

  6. Reliability and Validity of the Zephyr[TM] BioHarness[TM] to Measure Respiratory Responses to Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailstone, Jono; Kilding, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The Zephyr[TM] BioHarness[TM] (Zephyr Technology, Auckland, New Zealand) is a wireless physiological monitoring system that has the ability to measure respiratory rate unobtrusively. However, the ability of the BioHarness[TM] to accurately and reproducibly determine respiratory rate across a range of intensities is currently unknown. The aim of…

  7. Bio-methane & Bio-hydrogen. Status and perspectives of biological methane and hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Janssen, M.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Eerst wordt het kader geschetst voor de potentiële rol van bio-methaan en bio-waterstof in de energiehuishouding en de invloeden daarop van de ontwikkeling van eindgebruikstechnologie en infrastructuur, en het energiebeleid. Daarna wordt uitvoerig ingegaan op de technieken voor bio-methaan en bio-wa

  8. REPORT: BioMedBridges standards workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Conte, Nathalie; Hancocks, Tom; Suhr, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This workshop, co-organized by BioMedBridges WP3 and 12, was held on 24-25 June and hosted by BioMedBridges partners at VUMC in Amsterdam. Attendees included BioMedBridges personnel, members from the ESFRI BMS research infrastructures and invited external experts from existing standards organisations. The following aspects of data standardisation were explored: Defining entity identifiers and identifiers best practice Development of a Meta models and Mappings Registry for bio...

  9. BioMagResBank.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, E.L.; Akutsu, H.; Doreleijers, J.; Harano, Y.; Ioannidis, Y.E.; Lin, J.; Livny, M.; Mading, S.; Maziuk, D.; Miller, Z.; Nakatani, E.; Schulte, C.F.; Tolmie, D.E.; Wenger, R Kent; Yao, H.; Markley, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The BioMagResBank (BMRB: www.bmrb.wisc.edu) is a repository for experimental and derived data gathered from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies of biological molecules. BMRB is a partner in the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB). The BMRB archive consists of four main data deposi

  10. Comparing centralized and decentralized bio-energy systems in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the dual pressures of an energy crisis and rising greenhouse gas emissions, biomass energy development and utilisation has become part of the national energy strategy in China. The last decade has witnessed a strong promotion of both centralised and decentralised bio-energy systems in rural China. The government seems to have a strong preference for centralised (village-based) bio-energy systems in recent years. However, these government-driven systems have not worked without difficulties, particularly regarding economic and technological viability and maintenance. Studies on the advantages and disadvantages of decentralised and centralised bio-energy systems are rare. This study aims to shed light on the performances of these two systems in terms of social, economic and environmental effects. Through interviewing local officials and village leaders and surveying farmers in 12 villages in Shandong Province, it was found that bio-energy systems should be selected based on the local circumstances. The diversity of the local natural, economic and social situations determines the size, place, technology and organisational model of the bio-energy system. - Highlights: • Biomass energy development has become part of the national energy strategy in China. • The dis-/advantages of decentralized and centralized bio-energy systems are evaluated. • Bio-energy systems should be selected based on the local circumstances

  11. The Emergence and Challenging Growth of the Bio-Ethanol Innovation System in Taiwan (1949–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chen Chung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan from the perspective of a technology innovation system (TIS. Taiwan is a newly industrialized country and is not currently a main producer of bio-ethanol. This study analyzes the evolution of bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan and places a particular emphasis on challenges that present policies face in the context of potential long-term bio-ethanol development. Through an evaluation of the consistency of the present research, technology, development and innovation (RTDI policies as well as the influence of these policies on the functional dynamics of bio-ethanol innovation system, mechanisms prohibiting the system from flourishing are determined. It is suggested that the production of bio-ethanol in Taiwan would be achieved if the government: (1 fixes long-term targets for both domestic bio-ethanol development and emission reduction; and (2 comprehensively designs a set of interrelated RTDI policies in accordance with the functional pattern of the bio-ethanol innovation system and consistently implements these policies. If such measures were implemented, it is considered that the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan would flourish.

  12. The Emergence and Challenging Growth of the Bio-Ethanol Innovation System in Taiwan (1949-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chao-Chen; Yang, Siang-Cing

    2016-02-19

    This study explores the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan from the perspective of a technology innovation system (TIS). Taiwan is a newly industrialized country and is not currently a main producer of bio-ethanol. This study analyzes the evolution of bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan and places a particular emphasis on challenges that present policies face in the context of potential long-term bio-ethanol development. Through an evaluation of the consistency of the present research, technology, development and innovation (RTDI) policies as well as the influence of these policies on the functional dynamics of bio-ethanol innovation system, mechanisms prohibiting the system from flourishing are determined. It is suggested that the production of bio-ethanol in Taiwan would be achieved if the government: (1) fixes long-term targets for both domestic bio-ethanol development and emission reduction; and (2) comprehensively designs a set of interrelated RTDI policies in accordance with the functional pattern of the bio-ethanol innovation system and consistently implements these policies. If such measures were implemented, it is considered that the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan would flourish.

  13. BioCreative V BioC track overview: collaborative biocurator assistant task for BioGRID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Chang, Christie S; Oughtred, Rose; Rust, Jennifer; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Carter, Jacob; Ananiadou, Sophia; Matos, Sérgio; Santos, André; Campos, David; Oliveira, José Luís; Singh, Onkar; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Emily Chia-Yu; Chang, Yung-Chun; Su, Yu-Chen; Chu, Chun-Han; Chen, Chien Chin; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Peng, Yifan; Arighi, Cecilia; Wu, Cathy H; Vijay-Shanker, K; Aydın, Ferhat; Hüsünbeyi, Zehra Melce; Özgür, Arzucan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Kwon, Dongseop; Dolinski, Kara; Tyers, Mike; Wilbur, W John; Comeau, Donald C

    2016-01-01

    BioC is a simple XML format for text, annotations and relations, and was developed to achieve interoperability for biomedical text processing. Following the success of BioC in BioCreative IV, the BioCreative V BioC track addressed a collaborative task to build an assistant system for BioGRID curation. In this paper, we describe the framework of the collaborative BioC task and discuss our findings based on the user survey. This track consisted of eight subtasks including gene/protein/organism named entity recognition, protein-protein/genetic interaction passage identification and annotation visualization. Using BioC as their data-sharing and communication medium, nine teams, world-wide, participated and contributed either new methods or improvements of existing tools to address different subtasks of the BioC track. Results from different teams were shared in BioC and made available to other teams as they addressed different subtasks of the track. In the end, all submitted runs were merged using a machine learning classifier to produce an optimized output. The biocurator assistant system was evaluated by four BioGRID curators in terms of practical usability. The curators' feedback was overall positive and highlighted the user-friendly design and the convenient gene/protein curation tool based on text mining.Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org/tasks/biocreative-v/track-1-bioc/. PMID:27589962

  14. Production of bio-oil with flash pyrolysis; Biooeljyn tuotanto flash-pyrolyysillae ja sen poltto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyroenen, T. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The target of the R and D work is to study the production of bio-oils using Flash-pyrolysis technology and utilisation of the bio-oil in oil-fuelled boilers. The PDU-unit was installed at VTT Energy in Otaniemi in April 1996. The first test were carried out in June. In the whole project Vapo Oy is responsible for: acquiring the 20 kg/h PDU-device for development; follow up of the engine tests; the investment of 5 MW demonstration plant; to carry on the boiler and engine tests with Finnish bio-oils. (orig.)

  15. Catalytic Steam Reforming of Bio-Oil to Hydrogen Rich Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Jensen, Anker Degn; Dahl, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Bio-oil is a liquid produced by pyrolysis of biomass and its main advantage compared with biomass is an up to ten times higher energy density. This entails lower transportation costs associated with the utilization of biomass for production of energy and fuels. Nevertheless, the bio-oil has a low heating value and high content of oxygen, which makes it unsuited for direct utilization in engines. One prospective technology for upgrading of bio-oil is steam reforming(SR), which can be used to p...

  16. Fiscal 1997 R and D project on industrial science and technology under a consignment from NEDO. R and D of the synthesis and processing of advanced biomaterials (fixation and effective utilization of carbon dioxide using peptides); 1997 nendo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Senshin bio zairyo no sosei kako gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (peptide oyo nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In fiscal 1997, study was made on formation of peptides with a biogenic function and molecular recognition function, and peptide materials. The existing automatic design technique of peptides including non-natural amino acids was applied to design of complementary peptides of proteins with known structures to optimize a development technique of ligand. Practical function of peptides as advanced receptor ligand was verified by applying the existing conformation control technique to stable holding of peptide active conformation. Creation of bio-materials, and development of preparation technology of bio-substrates and materializing technology of functional molecular materials were carried out. To construct an electron transfer system by self- organized body of peptides formed on a substrate, a peptide molecular device was prepared and verified using linkers. To use peptides as photoelectron functional molecule, metallized peptide with main helix structure was prepared. The possibility of molecular materials with a fixation function of CO2 was examined. A high-sensitivity bio-sensor was also mentioned. 75 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs.

  17. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  18. Engineering BioInformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ With the completion of human genome sequencing, a new era of bioinformatics st arts. On one hand, due to the advance of high throughput DNA microarray technol ogies, functional genomics such as gene expression information has increased exp onentially and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. Conventional m eans of storing, analysing and comparing related data are already overburdened. Moreover, the rich information in genes , their functions and their associated wide biological implication requires new technologies of analysing data that employ sophisticated statistical and machine learning algorithms, powerful com puters and intensive interaction together different data sources such as seque nce data, gene expression data, proteomics data and metabolic pathway informati on to discover complex genomic structures and functional patterns with other bi ological process to gain a comprehensive understanding of cell physiology.

  19. Bio-based C-3 Platform Chemical: Biotechnological Production and -Conversion of 3-Hydroxypropionaldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, Roya

    2013-01-01

    Demands for efficient, greener, economical and sustainable production of chemicals, materials and energy have led to development of industrial biotechnology as a key technology area to provide such products from bio-based raw materials from agricultural-, forestry- and related industrial residues and by-products. For the bio-based industry, it is essential to develop a number of building blocks or platform chemicals for C2-C6 chemicals and even aromatic chemicals. 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3H...

  20. An integrated approach for efficient biomethane production from solid bio-wastes in a compact system

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, H.; Tao, Y; Temudo, M.; Schooneveld, M.; Bijl, H.; Ren, N.; Wolf, M.; Heine, C.; Foerster, A.; Pelenc, V.; Kloek, J.; van Lier, J B; De Kreuk, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Solid bio-wastes (or organic residues) are worldwide produced in high amount and increasingly considered bioenergy containers rather than waste products. A complete bioprocess from recalcitrant solid wastes to methane (SW2M) via anaerobic digestion (AD) is believed to be a sustainable way to utilize solid bio-wastes. However, the complex and recalcitrance of these organic solids make the hydrolysis process inefficient and thus a rate-limiting step to many AD technologies. Effort ha...

  1. Evaluation of Bio-field Treatment on Physical and Structural Properties of Bronze Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi; Gopal Nayak; Rama Mohan Tallapragada

    2015-01-01

    Bronze, a copper-tin alloy, widely utilizing in manufacturing of gears, bearing, and packing technologies due to its versatile physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of bio-field treatment on physical and structural properties of bronze powder. Bronze powder was divided into two samples, one served as control and the other sample was received bio-field treatment. Control and treated bronze samples were characterized using x-ray di...

  2. Transgenic Plants as Expression Factories for Bio Pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Wani, Shabir. H.; Sah, Saroj K.

    2015-01-01

    At present agriculture not only provides food, but is also used for the production of pharmaceuticals or industrial compounds such as pharmaceutical drugs, vaccines along with biodegradable plastic and industrial chemicals. Since last three decades, plant genetic engineering has played a vital role in the production of bio-pharmaceutical products from crops. Due to technological advancement of genetic engineering, biotechnologist are able to engineer plants by using living organism with the h...

  3. Introduction to the bio-optics: design and application

    OpenAIRE

    Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Xu, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The “Bio-Optics: Design and Application” symposium, held on April 12–15, 2015, in Vancouver, BC, was an important step in a continuous journey to closely connect technological design advancement and biomedical applications. The symposium presented a broad range of innovations in diagnostic devices, endoscopy, optical microscopy, optical coherence tomography, multi-modal imaging, and highlighted specific applications including cancer diagnostics, detection of infectious disease and point of ca...

  4. CForBio: a network monitoring Chinese forest biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Feng; Xiangcheng Mi; Hui Yan; Frank Yonghong Li; Jens-Christian Svenning; Keping Ma

    2016-01-01

    China harbors a rich variety of forest types and forest-associated biodiversity,linked to both historical and contemporary environmental factors.However,being a country with a large population and rapid economic development,its diverse forest is facing unprecedent challenges.The Chinese Forest Biodiversity Network (CForBio) was initiated 12 years ago to study the maintenance of biodiversity in China's forest ecosystems.In this review,we first summarize research progress in CForBio,and then give suggestions for future research.In the past 12 years,the research based on CForBio mainly focused on local ecological factors,such as environment filtering,biotic interactions and small-scale dispersal limitation.We suggest that future studies in CForBio should (1) continue research on trees,but expand more on insects,birds,mammals,microbes and other organism groups;(2)investigate the effects of widespread defaunation on forest biodiversity,structure and functioning;(3) evaluate the diverse effects of climate change on forest composition,structure and functioning;(4) include new technologies,such as remote sensing,to better monitor and study forest biodiversity change and maintenance.

  5. Chemicals from biomass - BioForest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiningen, A. van (Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland), Dept. of Forest Products Technology), e-mail: adriaan.vanheiningen@aalto.fi; Granstroem, T. (Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland), Dept.of Biotechnology and Chemical Technology), e-mail: tom.granstrom@aalto.fi

    2011-11-15

    The objective of the BioForest project is to develop the science and technology of a series of integrated processing steps which economically convert mixed hardwood and softwood biomass and recycled fibers into commodity chemicals at an existing forest products complex which also produces wood and/or pulp and paper. The commodity products will be produced from the biomass carbohydrates using a novel biomass fractionation process, a modified ABE (Acetone- Butanol-Ethanol) fermentation process, and a novel continuous solvent recovery method from the fermentation liquid. The mixture of solvents produced by the modified ABE process consists of isopropanol, butanol and ethanol. The key technological barriers which have been accomplished in the Bioforest project are following: 1. Fundamental understanding of the kinetics of delignification, hemicellulose dissolution and cellulose degradation during SEW fractionation of softwood and hardwood 2. Optimization of SEW fractionation of softwood biomass with a total treatment time as short as 30 minutes 3. Simultaneous SEW fractionation of hardwood and softwood biomass 4. Production of a high concentration (> 100 g/L) hemicellulose monosugar solution from SEW spent fractionation liquor at a sugar yield larger than 85% by multistep conditioning 5. Construction of E.coli strain harboring isopropanol dehydrogenase gene capable of acetone conversion to isopropanol 6. Successful fermentation of the conditioned hemicellulose monosugar solution to ABE (Acetone, Butanol, Ethanol) solvents using advanced column technology (patent pending) or semi-solid pulp fermentations with the volumetric productivities of 5.5 and 13.5 g/L h respectively. (orig.)

  6. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  7. Types for BioAmbients

    CERN Document Server

    Capecchi, Sara; 10.4204/EPTCS.19.7

    2010-01-01

    The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues). Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  8. Evaluation of bio-energy potential using world energy models; Sekai energy model ni yoru bio energy no potential hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, J.; Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    Bio-energy potential is evaluated using world energy models. The world energy model is a dynamic model by which the total cost of energy systems between 1995 and 2055 can be minimized on the basis of the optimization type world energy demand and supply model. For the given utilization costs of transportation, recovery and planting, the utilization of bio-energy is promoted even under the cost minimization condition. However, the utilization amount varies in a wide range by changing the utilization costs. Among conversion technologies of bio-energy, it is biomass liquefaction that provides the largest utilization amount. Thermal demand, direct combustion for power generation, and biomass gasification follow to the above. Biomass-integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) is to be used up to 2020. It is not to be used after 2030, due to the complete shift to the biomass liquefaction. For a model including the utilization of fast breeder after 2030, the utilization amount of bio-energy is not to change. Competition with food and land utilization is to be investigated. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Sugarcane bio ethanol and bioelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches the Brazilian sugar cane production and processing model, sugarcane processing, sugarcane reception, sugarcane preparation and juice extraction, juice treatment, fermentation, distillation, sector efficiencies and future improvement - 2007, 2015 and 2025, present situation (considering the 2007/2008 harvesting season), prospective values for 2015 and for 2025, bioelectricity generation, straw recovery, bagasse availability, energy balance, present situation, perspective for improvements in the GHG mitigation potential, bio ethanol production chain - from field to tank, and surplus electricity generation.

  10. UPGRADING OF BIO-OIL MOLECULAR DISTILLATION FRACTION WITH SOLID ACID CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjun Zhu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular distillation technology has been adopted to obtain a bio-oil fraction rich in carboxylic acids and ketones. This unique bio-oil fraction was then upgraded with a La-promoted solid acid catalyst. Three washing pretreatments were used to prepare catalysts A, B, and C, with the intention of reducing the amounts of residual sulfuric acid. Model reactions were used to estimate their catalytic activities and the residual amounts of sulfuric acid. Catalyst B, with washing after calcination, displayed higher catalytic activity (80.83% and lower residual amount of sulfuric acid (50 μmol/g. The catalysts were characterized by techniques such as BET, XRD, and SEM to explain the differences in their catalytic activities. The optimum catalyst B was used in the upgrading of the bio-oil molecular distillation fraction. After upgrading, the corrosivity of the bio-oil fraction declined and its storage stability was improved. The carboxylic acid content in the upgraded bio-oil fraction decreased from 18.39% to 2.70%, while the ester content increased from 0.72% to 31.17%. The conversion of corrosive carboxylic acids to neutral esters reduced the corrosivity of the bio-oil fraction. Moreover, the ketones with unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds (such as 2-cyclopenten-1-one, 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, etc. were converted into saturated compounds, which improved the stability of the bio-oil fraction.

  11. BioN∅T: A searchable database of biomedical negated sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Shashank

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negated biomedical events are often ignored by text-mining applications; however, such events carry scientific significance. We report on the development of BioN∅T, a database of negated sentences that can be used to extract such negated events. Description Currently BioN∅T incorporates ≈32 million negated sentences, extracted from over 336 million biomedical sentences from three resources: ≈2 million full-text biomedical articles in Elsevier and the PubMed Central, as well as ≈20 million abstracts in PubMed. We evaluated BioN∅T on three important genetic disorders: autism, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, and found that BioN∅T is able to capture negated events that may be ignored by experts. Conclusions The BioN∅T database can be a useful resource for biomedical researchers. BioN∅T is freely available at http://bionot.askhermes.org/. In future work, we will develop semantic web related technologies to enrich BioN∅T.

  12. Study of bio-oil and bio-char production from algae by slow pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. A thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) was used to investigate the pyrolytic characteristics and essential components of algae. It was found that the temperature for the maximum degradation, 322 °C, is lower than that of other biomass. With our fixed-bed reactor, 125 g of dried Spirulina Sp. algae was fed under a nitrogen atmosphere until the temperature reached a set temperature between 450 and 600 °C. It was found that the suitable temperature to obtain bio-char and bio-oil were at approximately 500 and 550 °C respectively. The bio-oil components were identified by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The saturated functional carbon of the bio-oil was in a range of heavy naphtha, kerosene and diesel oil. The energy consumption ratio (ECR) of bio-oil and bio-char was calculated, and the net energy output was positive. The ECR had an average value of 0.49. -- Highlights: •Bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. •Suitable temperature to obtained bio-oil and bio-char were at about 550 and 500 °C. •Saturated functional carbon of bio-oil was heavy naphtha, kerosene, diesel oil. •ECR had an average value of 0.49

  13. Mahajan named director of Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2006-01-01

    Roop L. Mahajan, an internationally known researcher with expertise ranging from nanotechnology to bio micro-electro-mechanical systems (Bio-MEMS), will become the director of Virginia Tech's Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS), effective July 1.

  14. MEOR field pilot test; Biseibutsu EOR fuirudo tesuto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonebayashi, E.; Asaumi, H.; Taguchi, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Ono, K. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-30

    Since 1996, JNOC and JPGCL(Jilin Petroleum Group Co. Ltd.) have been carrying out MEOR pilot test in Fuyu-oilfield China. The objectives are; (1) improving oil recovery in the field, (2) evaluating laboratory-screened microorganisms in a real field, and (3) clarifying the oil recovery mechanisms. The construction of surface facility was finished at the end of June, 1997. The microorganisms (TRC-322, TU-7A) were pre-incubated in this plant before injection. TRC-322 and TU-7A were injected into 14 wells in target blocks: East 24-23 Block and East 24-26 Block and showed a high growth and metabolism in this reservoir as detected by a new monitoring method (including gene engineering technique). A new cored well was drilled in the center of the target block (East 24-26 Block) for the purpose of collecting recent reservoir data. (author)

  15. Research on Key Technologies of Self-adaptive Immune Monitoring of Bio-inspired Manufacturing System%类生物化制造系统自适应免疫监控关键技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐敦兵; 郑堃; 顾文斌; 汤定山

    2011-01-01

    利用生物免疫机制及人工免疫系统的相关算法,结合类生物化制造系统模型,建立了一套制造系统免疫监控系统,并运用层次分析模型给出了该免疫监控系统健康评估的策略.对模拟实验的结果进行了分析,结果表明,所设计的免疫监控系统对制造系统的内外环境干扰具有良好的自适应性,对系统的健康状态评估也与系统的实际状况相符,从而证明了该免疫监控系统的有效性.%Combining the control model of bio-inspired manufacturing system (BIMS) with the algorithms of artificial immune system (ALS), this paper established an immune monitoring system (IMS). Besides, this paper proposed the strategies of health assessment of manufacturing system with the help of analytic hierarchy process(AHP) model. Finally,a simulation experiment was carried out based on the IMS proposed herein, and the results show that the system has a good adaptability for the changes of internal and external environments of manufacturing system. It can also give a reasonable evaluation of the manufacturing system which can match the actual state very well.Therefore, the proposed IMS has good effectiveness and reliability.

  16. Bio-Organic Electronics—Overview and Prospects for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Mühl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, both biodegradable and bio-based electronics have attracted increasing interest, but are also controversially discussed at the same time. Yet, it is not clear whether they will contribute to science and technology or whether they will disappear without major impact. The present review will address several aspects while showing the potential opportunities of bio-organic electronics. An overview about the complex terminology of this emerging field is given and test methods are presented which are used to evaluate the biodegradable properties. It will be shown that the majority of components of organic electronics can be substituted by biodegradable or bio-based materials. Moreover, application scenarios are presented where bio-organic materials have advantages compared to conventional ones. A variety of publications are highlighted which encompass typical organic devices like organic light emitting diodes, organic solar cells and organic thin film transistors as well as applications in the field of medicine or agriculture.

  17. Fifth International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Snášel, Václav

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains accepted papers presented at IBICA2014, the 5th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-inspired Computing and Applications. The aim of IBICA 2014 was to provide a platform for world research leaders and practitioners, to discuss the full spectrum of current theoretical developments, emerging technologies, and innovative applications of Bio-inspired Computing. Bio-inspired Computing remains to be one of the most exciting research areas, and it is continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life problems. The main driving force of the conference was to further explore the intriguing potential of Bio-inspired Computing. IBICA 2014 was held in Ostrava, Czech Republic and hosted by the VSB - Technical University of Ostrava.

  18. 4th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krömer, Pavel; Snášel, Václav

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains accepted papers presented at IBICA2013, the 4th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-inspired Computing and Applications. The aim of IBICA 2013 was to provide a platform for world research leaders and practitioners, to discuss the full spectrum of current theoretical developments, emerging technologies, and innovative applications of Bio-inspired Computing. Bio-inspired Computing is currently one of the most exciting research areas, and it is continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life problems. The main driving force of the conference is to further explore the intriguing potential of Bio-inspired Computing. IBICA 2013 was held in Ostrava, Czech Republic and hosted by the VSB - Technical University of Ostrava.

  19. Panorama 2007: Potential biomass mobilization for bio-fuel production worldwide, in Europe and in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One key factor in ensuring the success of bio-fuel technologies, which are expected to see high growth, is the availability of biomass resources. Although the targets set in Europe and France for the replacement of petroleum products in the transport sector by 2010 can be met by converting farm surpluses into biofuels, in order to proceed further, it will be necessary to mobilize a resource that is more abundant and potentially less costly: ligno-cellulosic materials, i.e. wood or straw. The future of biofuels depends on establishing the much-awaited 'second generation' bio-fuel pathways able to convert ligno-cellulosic materials to ethanol, bio-diesel and bio-kerosene. (author)

  20. Interface Design Of Digital Platform For Bio Signal Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jongsik; Park; Moonsu; Jang; Seongoo; Lee

    2010-01-01

    <正>Bio-sensor arrays for multi-channel recording have been developed recently and signal processing platforms for those signals have been studied actively.But it’s thereal situation which these technologies are generally developed and studied respectively.So the interface design between recording array and signal processing platform is also an important issue to make bio-sensor signal processing system.In this paper,we proposed interface which has unique protocols to control sensor array and operate platform.There are two types of protocols in the interface.One is between sensor array and MCU in platform and the other is between MCU and board for wireless communication.Basically,each protocol has two kinds of modes(single,frame)and it can be extended if needed.

  1. LIF bio-aerosol threat triggers: then and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFreez, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Bio-aerosol terrorist attacks have been carried out against civilians in the United States and elsewhere. Unfortunately, recurrence appears inevitable. A fast, reliable, and inexpensive bioaerosol threat detection trigger can be an important tool for detect-to-protect and detect-to-treat countermeasure scenarios. Bio-aerosol threat detection triggers employing light, historically laser light but recently LED light, for induced native- or auto-fluorescence (LIF) have been developed for well over a decade without a generally accepted solution being found. This paper presents a brief history of LIF triggers and reviews many vendor efforts, past and current. Various technical approaches and design considerations are discussed. Triggers from ICx technology, currently available or in development, are also discussed.

  2. Bio-methane & Bio-hydrogen. Status and perspectives of biological methane and hydrogen production

    OpenAIRE

    Wijffels, R. H.; Janssen, M.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Eerst wordt het kader geschetst voor de potentiële rol van bio-methaan en bio-waterstof in de energiehuishouding en de invloeden daarop van de ontwikkeling van eindgebruikstechnologie en infrastructuur, en het energiebeleid. Daarna wordt uitvoerig ingegaan op de technieken voor bio-methaan en bio-waterstof productie. Achtereenvolgens worden belicht: methaanproductie via anaërobe vergisting, biologische waterstofproductie via (donker) fermentatie, en fotobiologische waterstofproductie.

  3. Bio-Matematik ved Roskilde Universitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2010-01-01

    Ved Institut for Natur, Systemer og Modeller ved Roskilde Universitet finder man en velkonsolideret gruppe af forskere, BioMath-gruppen, der beskæftiger sig med Bio-Matematik og Bio-Medicinsk Modellering. Faktisk startede BioMath-gruppen på det tidligere Institut for Studiet af Matematik og Fysik...... pumper; 3) Endokrin fysiologi; 4) Type 1 og type 2 diabetes; 5) Populationsdynamik og sygdomsspredning; og 6) Parameterestimering i patient-specifikke modeller.   Udover overnævnte modelleringsområder har vi ved instituttet en stærk tradition for at beskæftige os med metaaspekter af modellering, f...

  4. Bio-logic设备优点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 世界第一台数字脑电图是Bio-logic厂家设计并生产 世界第一台数字视频脑电图是Bio-logic厂家设计并生产 在中国市场"癫痫刀"这个概念,也为Bio-logic厂家所推广 在美国市场,脑电图仪器的行业标准是以Bio-logic产品为基准定制的.

  5. Fusion of Nuclear and Emerging Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation discussed the following subjects: emerging technology; nuclear technology; fusion emerging and nuclear technology; progressive nature of knowledge; optically stimulated luminescence - application of luminescence technology to sediments; Biosystemics technology -convergence nanotechnology, ecological science, biotechnology, cognitive science and IT - prospective impact on materials science, the management of public system for bio-health, eco and food system integrity and disease mitigation

  6. Bio-fuels: the rush to industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ambitious goals of the French government fire with enthusiasm the bio-fuel sector which is in the fair way to become an industry at a whole. However, in order to build in time the requested ethanol and bio-diesel units the government will have to speed up the approval procedures and to maintain the financial incentive policy. (J.S.)

  7. Microorganisms interacting in a bio filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barba-Avila, M. D.; Flores-Tene, F. J.; Moreno-Terrazas, R.; Ramirez-Lopez, E. M.

    2009-07-01

    Biofilm microorganisms developed on a bio filter support media allow the metabolism of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to carbon dioxide and water. VOCs are present in polluted gaseous streams for varied industrial activities. The main objective of this study was to identify the microorganisms present in the biofilm developed on a bio filter support media using molecular biology techniques. (Author)

  8. The 3rd DBCLS BioHackathon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katayama, Toshiaki; Wilkinson, Mark D; Micklem, Gos;

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: BioHackathon 2010 was the third in a series of meetings hosted by the Database Center for Life Sciences (DBCLS) in Tokyo, Japan. The overall goal of the BioHackathon series is to improve the quality and accessibility of life science research data on the Web by bringing toget...

  9. A Science and Business Equation for Collaborative Corporate Innovation. Business Strategy, IP Strategy, RandD Strategy: an all-in-one Business Model. A review with a Bio-Technology and Green Chemistry Focus

    OpenAIRE

    Serge Rebouillat

    2013-01-01

    Not all the best people work for you... This is likely one of the motivator for open-innovation in terms of future business development. IP, RandD and Business strategies are becoming one. The adjacent technology analysis, ATA©, goes beyond prior art and freedom to operate traditional approaches providing a new role to the IP strategist still preventing excessive lawyering. Coaching and mediating turn out to be part of this role given the broad interdisciplinary and multi-science skills requi...

  10. Analysis of bio-identification technology and its application in the field of security%浅析生物识别技术及其在安防领域中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕立波

    2009-01-01

    @@ 前言 生物识别技术(Biometric Identification Technology)是利用人体生物特征进行身份认证的一种技术.生物特征是唯一可以测量或自动识别和验证的生理特性或行为方式,其分为生理特征和行为特征.

  11. Review on Pyrolysis and Carbonization Technology of Solid Bio-Based Fuel%生物质固体燃料热解炭化技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 郭明辉

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of solid biomass pyrolysis and carbonization was introduced.Then the production technology and equipments related to solid biomass pyrolysis and carbonization process were expounded.The re-search status of the biomass pyrolysis and carbonization process were reviewed.The countermeasures were proposed and the development tendency of biomass pyrolysis and carbonization technology were predicted based on the dis-cussion about the existing problems of biomass pyrolysis technology at present.%通过介绍生物质固体燃料热解炭化技术的机理,阐述其生产工艺与生产设备,综述生物质固体燃料热解炭化技术的研究进展,对现阶段生物质固体燃料热解技术存在的问题进行探讨,提出相应的解决措施,预测生物质固体燃料热解炭化技术的发展趋势。

  12. BioSIGHT: Interactive Visualization Modules for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wee Ling

    1998-01-01

    Redefining science education to harness emerging integrated media technologies with innovative pedagogical goals represents a unique challenge. The Integrated Media Systems Center (IMSC) is the only engineering research center in the area of multimedia and creative technologies sponsored by the National Science Foundation. The research program at IMSC is focused on developing advanced technologies that address human-computer interfaces, database management, and high- speed network capabilities. The BioSIGHT project at IMSC is a demonstration technology project in the area of education that seeks to address how such emerging multimedia technologies can make an impact on science education. The scope of this project will help solidify NASA's commitment for the development of innovative educational resources that promotes science literacy for our students and the general population as well. These issues must be addressed as NASA marches towards the goal of enabling human space exploration that requires an understanding of life sciences in space. The IMSC BioSIGHT lab was established with the purpose of developing a novel methodology that will map a high school biology curriculum into a series of interactive visualization modules that can be easily incorporated into a space biology curriculum. Fundamental concepts in general biology must be mastered in order to allow a better understanding and application for space biology. Interactive visualization is a powerful component that can capture the students' imagination, facilitate their assimilation of complex ideas, and help them develop integrated views of biology. These modules will augment the role of the teacher and will establish the value of student-centered interactivity, both in an individual setting as well as in a collaborative learning environment. Students will be able to interact with the content material, explore new challenges, and perform virtual laboratory simulations. The BioSIGHT effort is truly cross

  13. Singular Strategic Project on bio climatic architecture and solar cooling (PSE-ARFRISOL); Proyecto Singular Estrategico sobre arquitectura bioclimatica y frio solar (PSE-ARFRISOL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras Celemin, M. R.

    2008-07-01

    The R and D activities for the scientific-technological singular strategic Project on Bio climatic Architecture and Solar Cooling PSE-ARFRISOL are being carried out from November 2005 to December 2010. This project aims to demonstrate that bio climatic architecture and low-temperature solar energy are the appropriate basic elements for climatization of future buildings. (Author) 12 refs.

  14. Développement d'une filière de production de bio-GNV à partir de biogaz agricole à l'echelle individuelle

    OpenAIRE

    Sarperi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Bio-NGV (bio- Natural Gas for Vehicles) is a bio-fuel based on the biogas in which components such as CO2and H2S are removed. But the economical feasibility of available and commercial technologies to perform these removals is limited to 80 Nm3/h of treated biogas. Regarding farm scale biogas plant, fuel needs of 1 fill-upper day would represent the treatment of only 1 Nm3/hof raw biogas. The aim of our work was to develop a solution economically adapted to farm scale to produce bio-NGV from ...

  15. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartel eVanholme

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy towards sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green and industrial (white biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy.

  16. From bioethics to a sociology of bio-knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alan

    2013-12-01

    Growing recognition of bioethics' shortcomings, associated in large part with its heavy reliance on abstract principles, or so-called principlism, has led many scholars to propose that the field should be reformed or reconceptualised. Principlism is seen to de-contextualise the process of ethical decision-making, thus restricting bioethics' contributions to debate and policy on new and emergent biotechnologies. This article examines some major critiques of bioethics and argues for an alternative normative approach; namely, a sociology of bio-knowledge focussing on human rights. The article discusses the need for such an approach, including the challenges posed by the recent rise of 'the bio-economy'. It explores some potential alternative bases for a normative sociology of bio-knowledge, before presenting the elements of the proposed human rights-focused approach. This approach, it is argued, will benefit from the insights and concepts offered by various fields of critical scholarship, particularly the emergent sociology of human rights, science and technology studies, Foucaultian scholarship, and feminist bioethics.

  17. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanholme, Bartel; Desmet, Tom; Ronsse, Frederik; Rabaey, Korneel; Van Breusegem, Frank; De Mey, Marjan; Soetaert, Wim; Boerjan, Wout

    2013-01-01

    The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy toward sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green) and industrial (white) biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy. PMID:23761802

  18. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. ► Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. ► Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. ► Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. ► Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  19. Modeling the Kinetics of Deactivation of Catalysts during the Upgrading of Bio-Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Robert S.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Wang, Huamin

    2015-01-25

    The fouling of catalysts for the upgrading of bio-oils appears to be very different from the fouling of catalysts for the hydroprocessing of petroleum-derived streams. There are two reasons for the differences: a) bio-oil contains polarizable components and phases that can stabilize reaction intermediates exhibiting charge separation and b) bio-oil components contain functional groups that contain O, notably carbonyls (>C=O). Aldol condensation of carbonyls affords very different pathways for the production of oligomeric, refractory deposits than does dehydrogenation/polymerization of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. Colloquially, we refer to the bio-oil derived deposits as “gunk” to discriminate them from coke, the carbonaceous deposits encountered in petroleum refining. Classical gelation, appears to be a suitable model for the “gunking” reaction. Our work has helped explain the temperature range at which bio-oil should be pre-processed (“stabilized”) to confer longer lifetimes on the catalysts used for more severe processing. Stochastic modeling (kinetic Monte Carlo simulations) appears suitable to capture the rates of oligomerization of bio-oil. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  20. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sortino, Orazio [Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche Agrochimiche e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipasquale, Mauro [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Montoneri, Enzo, E-mail: enzo.montoneri@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Valorizzazione e Protezione delle Risorse Agroforestali, Universita di Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  1. Low-Severity Hydroprocessing to Stabilize Bio-oil: TechnoEconomic Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tews, Iva J.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2014-08-31

    The impetus for this study was the suggestion that recent developments in fast pyrolysis (FP) bio-oil production had indicated instability of the bio-oil in storage which might lead to unacceptable viscosity increases. Commercial operation of FP in Finland began in 2014 and the distribution of the bio-oil to isolated users has been proposed as the long-term plan. Stability of the shipped bio-oil therefore became a concern. Experimental results at PNNL with low-severity hydroprocessing of bio-oil for stabilization has validated a process in which the stability of the bio-oil could be improved, as measured by viscosity increase following storage of the product at 80 °C for 24h. In the work reported here the assessed process configuration consists of fast pyrolysis followed by low temperature and pressure hydroprocessing to produce a stable fuel oil product. The product could then be stored for an extended period of time without significant viscosity increase. This work was carried out as part of a collaborative project between Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The public funding agents for the work were Tekes in Finland and the Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. The effort was proposed as an evaluation of the process developed in earlier collaboration and jointly invented by VTT and PNNL researchers.

  2. Emission testing of jatropha and pongamia mixed bio diesel fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation is based on the emission characteristics of mixed bio diesel fuel in a four stroke single cylinder compression ignition engine at constant speed. Refined oils of jatropha and pongamia are converted into bio diesel by acid catalyzed esterification and base catalyzed transesterification reactions. The jatropha and pongamia bio diesel were mixed in equal proportions with conventional mineral diesel fuel. Four samples of fuel were tested namely, diesel fuel, B10, B20 and B40. The emission analysis showed B20 mixed bio diesel fuel blend having better results as compared to other samples. There is 60% and 35% lower emission of carbon monoxide and in sulphur dioxide observed while consuming B20 blended fuel respectively. The test result showed NOx emissions were 10% higher from bio diesel fuel, as compared to conventional diesel fuel. However, these emissions may be reduced by EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) technology. Present research also revealed that that B20 mixed bio diesel fuel can be used, without any modification in a CI engine. (author)

  3. Nanotechnology-based polymeric bio(muco)adhesive platforms for controlling drug delivery - properties, methodologies and applications; Plataformas bio(muco) adesivas polimericas baseadas em nanotecnologia para liberacao controlada de farmacos - propriedades, metodologias e aplicacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Flavia Chiva; Chorilli, Marlus; Gremiao, Maria Palmira Daflon, E-mail: pgremiao@fcfar.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Farmacos e Medicamentos

    2014-06-01

    Studies using bio(muco)adhesive drug delivery systems have recently gained great interest, which can promote drug targeting and more specific contact of the drug delivery system with the various absorptive membranes of the body. This technological platform associated with nanotechnology offers potential for controlling drug delivery; therefore, they are excellent strategies to increase the bioavailability of drugs. The objective of this work was to study nanotechnology-based polymeric bio(muco)adhesive platforms for controlling drug delivery, highlighting their properties, how the bio(muco)adhesion can be measured and their potential applications for different routes of administration. (author)

  4. Revolutionary Design for Astronaut Exploration — Beyond the Bio-Suit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Dava J.; Canina, Marita; Trotti, Guillermo L.

    2007-01-01

    The Bio-Suit System is designed to revolutionize human space exploration by providing enhanced astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) locomotion and performance based on the concepts of a `second skin' capability. The novel Bio-Suit concept provides an overall exploration system realized through symbiotic relationships between a suite of advanced technologies, creative design, human modeling and analysis, and new mission operations techniques. By working at the intersection of engineering, design, life sciences and operations, new emergent capabilities and interrelationships result for applications to space missions, medical rehabilitation, and extreme sports activities. In many respects, the Bio-Suit System mimics Nature (biomimetics). For example, the second skin is capable of augmenting our biological skin by providing mechanical counter-pressure. We have designed and tested prototypes that prove mechanical counter-pressure feasibility. The `epidermis' of our second skin suit is patterned from 3D laser scans that incorporate human skin strain field maps for maximum mobility and natural movements, while requiring minimum energy expenditure for exploration tasks. We provide a technology roadmap for future design, pressure production and technology investments for the Bio-Suit System. Woven into the second skin are active materials to enhance human performance as well as to provide necessary performance metrics (i.e., energy expenditure). Wearable technologies will be embedded throughout the Bio-Suit System to place the explorer in an information-rich environment enabling real-time mission planning, prediction, and visualization. The Bio-Suit System concept augments human capabilities by coupling human and robotic abilities into a hybrid of the two, to the point where the explorer is hardly aware of the boundary between innate human performance and robotic activities.

  5. Generalized report on the research cooperation promoting project. Research cooperation related to the mine waste water treatment technology utilizing biotechnology; Kenkyu kyoryoku suishin jigyo sokatsu hokokusho. Bio riyo ni yoru kohaisui shori gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper is a generalized report in relation with the mine waste water treatment technology utilizing biotechnology, from among the promotion projects for research cooperation with China. Ferric iron (Fe{sup 3+}), which precipitates at low pH, is produced by utilizing bacteria which derives energy from oxidizing ferrous iron (Fe{sup 2+}) in the waste water, and the iron is precipitated and removed by using low-cost calcium carbonate as a neutralizing agent. Joint researches and developments have been carried out on selection of optimal kinds of bacteria, cultivation of bacteria oxidizing iron at high efficiency, optimal removal system of heavy metals in mine waste water, and recovery of useful resources. Japanese engineers were sent to sites in China, Chinese researchers were received in Japan, and pilot plants were operated and studied. For the purpose of proliferating and enlightening the result of the project, a seminar was held in Beijing in February 1998. In order for the achievements derived up to fiscal 1998 to be used in diverse fields, fiscal 1999 will carry out follow-ups, including assistance, for the voluntary researches performed by China. The follow-ups will also include confirmation on the state of testing the iron oxidizing bacteria technology, technical guidance, and analyses and discussions on the data. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 1994 report on results of R and D on innovative technology for producing advanced biomaterial; 1994 nendo senshin bio zairyo no sosei kako gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    A material that manifests biological function is being developed by synthesizing peptide containing non-natural amino acids and by combining with a material such as a silicon substrate. Activities were conducted in the two areas of (1) development of innovative technologies for producing functional molecules (structure/function design of peptide) and (2) development of materialization technologies of functional molecules. In (1), for the purpose of developing a method of simulating the function of a low molecular weight compound by peptides, using as the lead compound, Cbz-Phe-Phe-His-NH{sub 2}, which is the minimum active manifestation unit having a macropharge migration stimulating activity, various conversions were tried with the aim of improving the activity, revealing that the activity changed greatly by the conversions. Dehydroalanine-containing tripeptide derivatives, which were synthesized on the basis of the result of a molecular design by computer, showed 1,000 times more activity than the lead compound. In (2), experiments for forming a crystal thin film of peptides were conducted using a pattern forming fixation process of peptides by a photo-reactive cross-linking reagent and by means of an organic crystal growth multiple beam apparatus. (NEDO)

  7. Market survey Hungary. Bio-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in Hungary and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. RES is the priority issue to which a lot of attention is paid both at governmental and private level; private investors should view RES as a new niche for their business activities. Standard approach based on a thoroughly done preparation of the project in terms of profitability and risk assessment is necessary in order to avoid potential financial losses due to changed market conditions or differences between assumptions and business reality. Some recommendations for entry on the Hungarian bio energy market are presented: (1) Generally, look for success stories in the Netherlands first and then look for places where such proved and time-tested technologies could be used in Hungary with respect to local specifics. In such way, you can find market niches where investment can be made or new products can be launched; (2) For retail selling it is appropriate to establish business contacts with existing dealers and associations and offer own products through their distribution network. This scheme has the advantage of low initial costs as well as risks involved; (3) In the case of large investments into equipment complexes using RES it seems more appropriate to refer directly either to municipal authorities on whose cadastre the investment should take place or to specialized consultancy agencies that can support the plan with additional information on legal requirements, national programmes supporting RES or available technology. Of course, direct collaboration with well-established local partner can be beneficial for both sides too; (4) If you want to receive up-to-date information on particular aspects of the biomass market in Hungary, you can refer to some governmental organisations associations referred in the key contact addresses.

  8. Market survey Hungary. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in Hungary and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. RES is the priority issue to which a lot of attention is paid both at governmental and private level; private investors should view RES as a new niche for their business activities. Standard approach based on a thoroughly done preparation of the project in terms of profitability and risk assessment is necessary in order to avoid potential financial losses due to changed market conditions or differences between assumptions and business reality. Some recommendations for entry on the Hungarian bio energy market are presented: (1) Generally, look for success stories in the Netherlands first and then look for places where such proved and time-tested technologies could be used in Hungary with respect to local specifics. In such way, you can find market niches where investment can be made or new products can be launched; (2) For retail selling it is appropriate to establish business contacts with existing dealers and associations and offer own products through their distribution network. This scheme has the advantage of low initial costs as well as risks involved; (3) In the case of large investments into equipment complexes using RES it seems more appropriate to refer directly either to municipal authorities on whose cadastre the investment should take place or to specialized consultancy agencies that can support the plan with additional information on legal requirements, national programmes supporting RES or available technology. Of course, direct collaboration with well-established local partner can be beneficial for both sides too; (4) If you want to receive up-to-date information on particular aspects of the biomass market in Hungary, you can refer to some governmental organisations associations referred in the key contact addresses

  9. BioSense/SR-BioSpectra demonstrations of wide area/early warning for bioaerosol threats: program description and early test and evaluation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Jean-Robert; Buteau, Sylvie; Lahaie, Pierre; Mathieu, Pierre; Roy, Gilles; Nadeau, Denis; McFee, John; Ho, Jim; Rowsell, Susan; Ho, Nicolas; Babin, François; Cantin, Daniel; Healey, Dave; Robinson, Jennifer; Wood, Scott; Hsu, Jack

    2011-11-01

    Threats associated with bioaerosol weapons have been around for several decades and have been mostly associated with terrorist activities or rogue nations. Up to the turn of the millennium, defence concepts against such menaces relied mainly on point or in-situ detection technologies. Over the last 10 years, significant efforts have been deployed by multiple countries to supplement the limited spatial coverage of a network of one or more point bio-detectors using lidar technology. The addition of such technology makes it possible to detect within seconds suspect aerosol clouds over area of several tens of square kilometers and track their trajectories. These additional capabilities are paramount in directing presumptive ID missions, mapping hazardous areas, establishing efficient counter-measures and supporting subsequent forensic investigations. In order to develop such capabilities, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) and the Chemical, Biological, Radiological-Nuclear, and Explosives Research and Technology Initiative (CRTI) have supported two major demonstrations based on spectrally resolved Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) lidar: BioSense, aimed at defence military missions in wide open spaces, and SR-BioSpectra, aimed at surveillance of enclosed or semienclosed wide spaces common to defence and public security missions. This article first reviews briefly the modeling behind these demonstration concepts. Second, the lidar-adapted and the benchtop bioaerosol LIF chambers (BSL1), developed to challenge the constructed detection systems and to accelerate the population of the library of spectral LIF properties of bioaerosols and interferents of interest, will be described. Next, the most recent test and evaluation (T&E) results obtained with SR-BioSpectra and BioSense are reported. Finally, a brief discussion stating the way ahead for a complete defence suite is provided.

  10. Hyper bio assembler for 3D cellular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Fumihito; Yamato, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Hyper Bio Assembler for Cellular Systems is the first book to present a new methodology for measuring and separating target cells at high speed and constructing 3D cellular systems in vitro. This book represents a valuable resource for biologists, biophysicists and robotic engineers, as well as researchers interested in this new frontier area, offering a better understanding of the measurement, separation, assembly, analysis and synthesis of complex biological tissue, and of the medical applications of these technologies. This book is the outcome of the new academic fields of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology’s Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research in Japan.

  11. Biophotonic imaging: lighting the way for chem/bio detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripp, Steven; Jegier, Patricia; Lopes, Nicholas

    2009-05-01

    Biophotonic imaging is a versatile and powerful tool, that when combined with living microbial bioreporters, can be applied in diagnostic technologies for sensitive, nondestructive, real-time monitoring of chemical and biological targets. Bioreporters, consisting of bacteria as well as the viruses (bacteriophage) that infect them, can be genetically engineered to emit visible light upon interaction with a specific chemical or biological entity. By interfacing these bioreporters with imaging cameras or miniaturized integrated circuit microluminometers, fully standalone detection units are formed that can be deployed for intelligent distributed multi-target chem/bio monitoring.

  12. Transgenic Plants as Expression Factories for Bio Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabir H Wani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At present agriculture not only provides food, but is also used for the production of pharmaceuticals or industrial compounds such as pharmaceutical drugs, vaccines along with biodegradable plastic and industrial chemicals. Since last three decades, plant genetic engineering has played a vital role in the production of bio-pharmaceutical products from crops. Due to technological advancement of genetic engineering, biotechnologist are able to engineer plants by using living organism with the help of different transformation techniques like Agrobacterium mediated transformation, biolistic gene gun, and so on to produce biopharmaceuticals products for diagnostic purposes as well as nutritional supplements.

  13. Solution processing of microcavity for BioMEMS application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Vu Nam; Ukita, Yoshiaki; Takamura, Yuzuru; Mitani, Tadaoki; Shimoda, Tatsuya; Dung Dang, Thi My; Chien Dang, Mau

    2014-09-01

    Compared to the conventional silicon-based technology, the solution process appears to be a revolution in the field of micro/nanofabrication due to its advantages of high efficiency in material and energy consumption and the use of low cost material. In this paper, we introduce a new approach to fabricate BioMEMS devices using this novel technology to make microcavity. Zirconium oxide patterns were formed on the silicon substrate simply by spin coating its precursor and thermal imprinting technique. We used poly-propylene carbonate (PPC) for the sacrificial material due to its unique pyrolysis property. The PPC was coated on the ZrO patterns and excess film was etched by oxygen plasma but retaining PPC structure between the lines of ZrO pattern. Then another ZrO layer was coated to encapsulate the PPC. The final microcavity structures were obtained by just baking the substrate by pyrolyzing the PPC. The obtained results show the approach’s prospect of becoming an ideal alternative for the current BioMEMS micro/nanofabrication technologies

  14. The Application of Ultrasound in 3D Bio-Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an emerging and promising technology in tissue engineering to construct tissues and organs for implantation. Alignment of self-assembly cell spheroids that are used as bioink could be very accurate after droplet ejection from bioprinter. Complex and heterogeneous tissue structures could be built using rapid additive manufacture technology and multiple cell lines. Effective vascularization in the engineered tissue samples is critical in any clinical application. In this review paper, the current technologies and processing steps (such as printing, preparation of bioink, cross-linking, tissue fusion and maturation) in 3D bio-printing are introduced, and their specifications are compared with each other. In addition, the application of ultrasound in this novel field is also introduced. Cells experience acoustic radiation force in ultrasound standing wave field (USWF) and then accumulate at the pressure node at low acoustic pressure. Formation of cell spheroids by this method is within minutes with uniform size and homogeneous cell distribution. Neovessel formation from USWF-induced endothelial cell spheroids is significant. Low-intensity ultrasound could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Its use is at low cost and compatible with current bioreactor. In summary, ultrasound application in 3D bio-printing may solve some challenges and enhance the outcomes. PMID:27164066

  15. The Application of Ultrasound in 3D Bio-Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D bioprinting is an emerging and promising technology in tissue engineering to construct tissues and organs for implantation. Alignment of self-assembly cell spheroids that are used as bioink could be very accurate after droplet ejection from bioprinter. Complex and heterogeneous tissue structures could be built using rapid additive manufacture technology and multiple cell lines. Effective vascularization in the engineered tissue samples is critical in any clinical application. In this review paper, the current technologies and processing steps (such as printing, preparation of bioink, cross-linking, tissue fusion and maturation in 3D bio-printing are introduced, and their specifications are compared with each other. In addition, the application of ultrasound in this novel field is also introduced. Cells experience acoustic radiation force in ultrasound standing wave field (USWF and then accumulate at the pressure node at low acoustic pressure. Formation of cell spheroids by this method is within minutes with uniform size and homogeneous cell distribution. Neovessel formation from USWF-induced endothelial cell spheroids is significant. Low-intensity ultrasound could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Its use is at low cost and compatible with current bioreactor. In summary, ultrasound application in 3D bio-printing may solve some challenges and enhance the outcomes.

  16. The Application of Ultrasound in 3D Bio-Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufeng

    2016-05-05

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an emerging and promising technology in tissue engineering to construct tissues and organs for implantation. Alignment of self-assembly cell spheroids that are used as bioink could be very accurate after droplet ejection from bioprinter. Complex and heterogeneous tissue structures could be built using rapid additive manufacture technology and multiple cell lines. Effective vascularization in the engineered tissue samples is critical in any clinical application. In this review paper, the current technologies and processing steps (such as printing, preparation of bioink, cross-linking, tissue fusion and maturation) in 3D bio-printing are introduced, and their specifications are compared with each other. In addition, the application of ultrasound in this novel field is also introduced. Cells experience acoustic radiation force in ultrasound standing wave field (USWF) and then accumulate at the pressure node at low acoustic pressure. Formation of cell spheroids by this method is within minutes with uniform size and homogeneous cell distribution. Neovessel formation from USWF-induced endothelial cell spheroids is significant. Low-intensity ultrasound could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Its use is at low cost and compatible with current bioreactor. In summary, ultrasound application in 3D bio-printing may solve some challenges and enhance the outcomes.

  17. BIO::Phylo-phyloinformatic analysis using perl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Klaas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phyloinformatic analyses involve large amounts of data and metadata of complex structure. Collecting, processing, analyzing, visualizing and summarizing these data and metadata should be done in steps that can be automated and reproduced. This requires flexible, modular toolkits that can represent, manipulate and persist phylogenetic data and metadata as objects with programmable interfaces. Results This paper presents Bio::Phylo, a Perl5 toolkit for phyloinformatic analysis. It implements classes and methods that are compatible with the well-known BioPerl toolkit, but is independent from it (making it easy to install and features a richer API and a data model that is better able to manage the complex relationships between different fundamental data and metadata objects in phylogenetics. It supports commonly used file formats for phylogenetic data including the novel NeXML standard, which allows rich annotations of phylogenetic data to be stored and shared. Bio::Phylo can interact with BioPerl, thereby giving access to the file formats that BioPerl supports. Many methods for data simulation, transformation and manipulation, the analysis of tree shape, and tree visualization are provided. Conclusions Bio::Phylo is composed of 59 richly documented Perl5 modules. It has been deployed successfully on a variety of computer architectures (including various Linux distributions, Mac OS X versions, Windows, Cygwin and UNIX-like systems. It is available as open source (GPL software from http://search.cpan.org/dist/Bio-Phylo

  18. Green technology foresight of high technology: a social shaping of technology approach to the analysis of hopes and hypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    High tech visions play an important part in public technology policy and are often promoted through technology foresights. The article presents and analyses results from a green technology foresight of nano-, bio- and information- and communication technologies initiated by the Danish Environmental...

  19. Bio-inspired computation in telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She; Ting, TO

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired computation, especially those based on swarm intelligence, has become increasingly popular in the last decade. Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications reviews the latest developments in bio-inspired computation from both theory and application as they relate to telecommunications and image processing, providing a complete resource that analyzes and discusses the latest and future trends in research directions. Written by recognized experts, this is a must-have guide for researchers, telecommunication engineers, computer scientists and PhD students.

  20. Bio Gas Oil Production from Waste Lard

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán Varga; Csaba Tóth; Sándor Kovács; Tamás Kasza; Péter Baladincz; Jenő Hancsók

    2011-01-01

    Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product) over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigat...

  1. Bio Optofluidics Cell Sorter – cell-BOCS Concept and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Tue; Glückstad, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The cell-BOCS is a novel microfluidics based cell-sorting instrument utilizing next generation optical trapping technology developed at the Technical University of Denmark. It is targeted emerging bio-medical research and diagnostics markets where it for certain applications offers a number...

  2. Assessing farm innovations and responses to policies: a review of bio-economic farm models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.J.C.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2007-01-01

    Bio-economic farm models (BEFMs) are developed to enable assessment of policy changes and technological innovations, for specific categories of farming systems. A rapidly growing number of research projects is using these models and there is increasing interest for application. The paper critically

  3. Cognitive bio-radar: The natural evolution of bio-signals measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafaia, Daniel; Oliveira, Beatriz; Ferreira, Pedro; Varum, Tiago; Vieira, José; Tomé, Ana

    2016-10-01

    In this article we discuss a novel approach to Bio-Radar, contactless measurement of bio-signals, called Cognitive Bio-Radar. This new approach implements the Bio-Radar in a Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform in order to obtain awareness of the environment where it operates. Due to this, the Cognitive Bio-Radar can adapt to its surroundings in order to have an intelligent usage of the radio frequency spectrum to improve its performance. In order to study the feasibility of such implementation, a SDR based Bio-Radar testbench was developed and evaluated. The prototype is shown to be able to acquire the heartbeat activity and the respiratory effort. The acquired data is compared with the acquisitions from a Biopac research data acquisition system, showing coherent results for both heartbeat and breathing rate.

  4. Cognitive bio-radar: The natural evolution of bio-signals measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafaia, Daniel; Oliveira, Beatriz; Ferreira, Pedro; Varum, Tiago; Vieira, José; Tomé, Ana

    2016-10-01

    In this article we discuss a novel approach to Bio-Radar, contactless measurement of bio-signals, called Cognitive Bio-Radar. This new approach implements the Bio-Radar in a Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform in order to obtain awareness of the environment where it operates. Due to this, the Cognitive Bio-Radar can adapt to its surroundings in order to have an intelligent usage of the radio frequency spectrum to improve its performance. In order to study the feasibility of such implementation, a SDR based Bio-Radar testbench was developed and evaluated. The prototype is shown to be able to acquire the heartbeat activity and the respiratory effort. The acquired data is compared with the acquisitions from a Biopac research data acquisition system, showing coherent results for both heartbeat and breathing rate. PMID:27578058

  5. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  6. Biopoder & regulação da tecnologia: o caráter normativo da análise de risco dos OGMs Bio-power & technology regulation: the normative character of GMO risk analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Pelaez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a regulação da tecnologia como um processo de disputa de poder através do qual o caráter de neutralidade do conhecimento científico é adotado como uma instância legitimadora das agências reguladoras. Utiliza-se como estudo de caso o processo de disputa na regulação dos organismos geneticamente modificados a partir de dois princípios fundamentais: o Princípio de Equivalência Substancial, adotado pelos EUA; e o Princípio de Precaução, adotado pelos países da União Européia.This paper analyses the regulation of technology as a process of power dispute through which the character of neutrality of scientific knowledge is adopted as a legitimising factor of regulating bodies. The dispute for the regulation of genetically modified organisms is taken as a case study from two fundamental principles: the Principle of Substantial Equivalence adopted by the USA; and the Precautionary Principle adopted by European Union Countries.

  7. SCR at bio fuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project the cause for and the extent of catalyst deactivation has been investigated when using 100 % wood as fuel. The trend of deactivation has been studied as a function of the flue gas temperature, the type of catalyst and the type of combustion technique used. The field tests have been performed in the CFB boiler in Norrkoeping, firing forest residues, and in the boiler in Jordbro, firing pulverized wood (PC). Samples of four different commercial catalyst types have been exposed to flue gas in a test rig connected to the convection section of the boiler. The samples have been analysed at even time intervals. The results after 2 100 hours show a large difference in deactivation trend between the two plants; when using a conventional honeycomb catalyst 80 % of the original activity remains in the CFB boiler but only 20 % remains in the PC boiler. The deactivation in the CFB boiler is about 3 - 4 times faster than what is expected for a conservative design for a coal fired boiler. The results show that the general deactivation trend is similar for the plate and the honeycomb catalyst types. With a catalyst optimised for bio fuels the deactivation rate was about 2/3 compared with a conventional catalyst. At an operating temperature of 315 deg C the deactivation was not as rapid as at 370 deg C. The amount of easily dissolved potassium increases on the surface of the catalyst, especially in the PC boiler, and this is probably the reason for the deactivation. The total amount of potassium in the flue gas is about 5 times higher in the CFB boiler compared with the PC boiler. This indicates that only a certain form of potassium attacks the catalyst and that the total alkali content of the fuel is not a good indicator of the deactivation tendency. The potassium on the catalyst dissolves easily in both water and sulphuric acid. A wash of deactivated catalyst samples with water resulted in higher activity than for the fresh samples if the washing was supplemented

  8. Bio-methane. Challenges and technical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the new energy sectors in development, biogas has many benefits: several valorization possibilities (bio-methane, electricity and heat), continuous production, easy storage. In Europe, and particularly in France, the bio-methane market will be in the next years a driver for the improvement of the economic, environmental and social performance of the actors of the value chain of biogas. ENEA releases a report on the current state of the bio-methane market in Europe. This publication mainly describes: An outlook of the market evolution and the corresponding stakes for the actors of this sector, the technical and economic characteristics, maturity level and specificities of each biogas upgrading process, An analysis of the French regulatory framework for bio-methane injection into the grid

  9. Wireless MEMs BioSensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crossfield is proposing to develop a low cost, single chip plant bio-monitor using an embedded MEMs based infrared (IR) spectroscopy gas sensor for carbon dioxide...

  10. Bio-fuels of the first generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly recalled the objective of use of renewable energies and the role bio-fuels may play, this publication briefly presents various bio-fuels: bio-diesel (from colza, soybean or sunflower oil), and ethanol (from beet, sugar cane, wheat or corn). Some key data regarding bio-fuel production and use in France are briefly commented. The publication outlines strengths (a positive energy assessment, a decreased dependency on imported fossil fuels and a higher supply safety, a diversification of agriculture revenues and prospects, a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions) and weaknesses (uncertainty regarding the evolution of soil use, an environmental impact related to farming methods) of this sector. Actions undertaken by the ADEME in collaboration with other agencies and institutions are briefly overviewed

  11. 2nd generation biogas. BioSNG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The substitution of natural gas by a renewable equivalent is an interesting option to reduce the use of fossil fuels and the accompanying greenhouse gas emissions, as well as from the point of view of security of supply. The renewable alternative for natural gas is green natural gas, i.e. gaseous energy carriers produced from biomass comprising both biogas and Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG). Via this route can be benefited from all the advantages of natural gas, like the existing dense infrastructure, trade and supply network, and natural gas applications. In this presentation attention is paid to the differences between first generation biogas and second generation bioSNG; the market for bioSNG: grid injection vs. transportation fuel; latest update on the lab- and pilot-scale bioSNG development at ECN; and an overview is given of ongoing bioSNG activities worldwide

  12. Negated bio-events: analysis and identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz Raheel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negation occurs frequently in scientific literature, especially in biomedical literature. It has previously been reported that around 13% of sentences found in biomedical research articles contain negation. Historically, the main motivation for identifying negated events has been to ensure their exclusion from lists of extracted interactions. However, recently, there has been a growing interest in negative results, which has resulted in negation detection being identified as a key challenge in biomedical relation extraction. In this article, we focus on the problem of identifying negated bio-events, given gold standard event annotations. Results We have conducted a detailed analysis of three open access bio-event corpora containing negation information (i.e., GENIA Event, BioInfer and BioNLP’09 ST, and have identified the main types of negated bio-events. We have analysed the key aspects of a machine learning solution to the problem of detecting negated events, including selection of negation cues, feature engineering and the choice of learning algorithm. Combining the best solutions for each aspect of the problem, we propose a novel framework for the identification of negated bio-events. We have evaluated our system on each of the three open access corpora mentioned above. The performance of the system significantly surpasses the best results previously reported on the BioNLP’09 ST corpus, and achieves even better results on the GENIA Event and BioInfer corpora, both of which contain more varied and complex events. Conclusions Recently, in the field of biomedical text mining, the development and enhancement of event-based systems has received significant interest. The ability to identify negated events is a key performance element for these systems. We have conducted the first detailed study on the analysis and identification of negated bio-events. Our proposed framework can be integrated with state-of-the-art event

  13. Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation to be applied in research on regulated microbial cell growth including their underlying physiological mechanisms, in vivo characterization of cell constituents and manufacturing of nanostructures and meta-materials.......We are developing a Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation to be applied in research on regulated microbial cell growth including their underlying physiological mechanisms, in vivo characterization of cell constituents and manufacturing of nanostructures and meta-materials....

  14. Bioética: el nuevo humanismo

    OpenAIRE

    Borja Castañeda, Jorge; Universidad Veracruzana

    2013-01-01

    La importancia que la bioética ha adquirido en los últimos años demanda una reflexión sobre sus orígenes, objetivos y perspectivas, sobre todo en un mundo que cambia día a día, de tal manera que plantear una refundación de la bioética es una forma de reconocer su importancia como el humanismo del presente siglo.

  15. Cuestiones de Bioética

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Ruiz-Calderón, José Miguel

    1991-01-01

    Bajo la forma simplificada de la quaestio de la escolástica se tratan cuestiones referentes a la relación moral y derecho, la acción cristiana en la sociedad, los orígenes de la bioética, la posibilidad y conveniencia de cosntruir una bioética neutral o los posibles límites a la investigación científica.

  16. 生物滴滤技术处理二硫化碳机理研究%Research on the Mechanism of the Treatment of Carbon Disulfide by Bio-trickling Filter Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许杰; 陶金; 王水平; 王贤斌

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of the treatment of carbon disulfide by biotricking filter technology , a biotricking filter during the experiment was set up.In the process of experiment , the best operating conditions of microbial treatment of carbon disulfide to be obtained was as follows: the pH was 7.5 , the spray quantity was 1.5 L/h, the concentration of air was 101.15 mg/m3 , gas residence time was 68.67 s by simulation experiment at first.After that , the optimal conditions were studied.It was investigated that the carbon disulfide in the transformation mechanism of microorganisms was to generate SO 2-4 and CO2.%为了研究生物滴滤技术处理二硫化碳的机理,我们在实验过程中搭建了一座生物滴滤塔。在进行实验的过程中,我们首先通过实验模拟获得微生物处理二硫化碳的最佳运行条件是pH为7.5,喷淋量为1.5 L/h,进气浓度为101.15 mg/m3,气体停留时间为68.67 s。随后我们就在此最佳运行条件下进行研究,并最终探讨得知二硫化碳在微生物体内的转化机理是生成SO2-4和CO2。

  17. BioJava: an open-source framework for bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, R. C. G.; Down, T. A.; Pocock, M.; Prlić, A.; Huen, D; James, K.; Foisy, S.; Dräger, A.; Yates, A; Heuer, M.; Schreiber, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: BioJava is a mature open-source project that provides a framework for processing of biological data. BioJava contains powerful analysis and statistical routines, tools for parsing common file formats and packages for manipulating sequences and 3D structures. It enables rapid bioinformatics application development in the Java programming language. Availability: BioJava is an open-source project distributed under the Lesser GPL (LGPL). BioJava can be downloaded from the BioJava website...

  18. SQUID systems for bio magnetic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review paper illustrates the different SQUID based systems used for bio magnetic imaging. The review is divided into nine sections. The first three sections are introductory: section 1 is a short overview of the topic; section 2 summarizes how the bio magnetic fields are generated and what are the basic mathematical models for the field sources; section 3 illustrates the principles of operation of the SQUID device. Sections 4-8 are specifically devoted to the description of the different systems used for bio magnetic measurements: section 4 discusses the different types of detection coils; section 5 illustrates the SQUID sensors specifically designed for bio magnetic applications together with the necessary driving electronics, with special emphasis on high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) SQUIDs, since HTS devices are still in a developing stage; section 6 illustrates the different noise reduction techniques; section 7 describes the different multichannel sensors presently operating; and, finally, section 8 gives a hint of what kind of physiological and/or clinical information may be gathered by the bio magnetic technique. Section 9 suggests some future trends for the bio magnetic technique. (author)

  19. BioXSD: the common data-exchange format for everyday bioinformatics web services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalas, M.; Puntervoll, P.; Joseph, A.;

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: The world-wide community of life scientists has access to a large number of public bioinformatics databases and tools, which are developed and deployed using diverse technologies and designs. More and more of the resources offer programmatic web-service interface. However, efficient use...... of the resources is hampered by the lack of widely used, standard data-exchange formats for the basic, everyday bioinformatics data types. Results: BioXSD has been developed as a candidate for standard, canonical exchange format for basic bioinformatics data. BioXSD is represented by a dedicated XML Schema...

  20. Autonomic networking-on-chip bio-inspired specification, development, and verification

    CERN Document Server

    Cong-Vinh, Phan

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing mainstream importance and unique advantages of autonomic networking-on-chip (ANoC) technology, Autonomic Networking-On-Chip: Bio-Inspired Specification, Development, and Verification is among the first books to evaluate research results on formalizing this emerging NoC paradigm, which was inspired by the human nervous system. The FIRST Book to Assess Research Results, Opportunities, & Trends in ""BioChipNets"" The third book in the Embedded Multi-Core Systems series from CRC Press, this is an advanced technical guide and reference composed of contributions from prominent re

  1. Bio-jETI: a service integration, design, and provisioning platform for orchestrated bioinformatics processes

    OpenAIRE

    Margaria, Tiziana; Kubczak, Christian; Steffen, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Background With Bio-jETI, we introduce a service platform for interdisciplinary work on biological application domains and illustrate its use in a concrete application concerning statistical data processing in R and xcms for an LC/MS analysis of FAAH gene knockout. Methods Bio-jETI uses the jABC environment for service-oriented modeling and design as a graphical process modeling tool and the jETI service integration technology for remote tool execution. Conclusions As a service definition and...

  2. Biological and Chemical Information Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amos, Martyn; Dittrich, Peter; McCaskill, John;

    2011-01-01

    Biological and chemical information technologies (bio/chem IT) have the potential to reshape the scientific and technological landscape. In this paper we briefly review the main challenges and opportunities in the field, before presenting several case studies based on ongoing FP7 research projects....

  3. Techno-economic performance analysis of bio-oil based Fischer-Tropsch and CHP synthesis platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techno-economic potential of the UK poplar wood and imported oil palm empty fruit bunch derived bio-oil integrated gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (BOIG-FT) systems for the generation of transportation fuels and combined heat and power (CHP) was investigated. The bio-oil was represented in terms of main chemical constituents, i.e. acetic acid, acetol and guaiacol. The compositional model of bio-oil was validated based on its performance through a gasification process. Given the availability of large scale gasification and FT technologies and logistic constraints in transporting biomass in large quantities, distributed bio-oil generations using biomass pyrolysis and centralised bio-oil processing in BOIG-FT system are technically more feasible. Heat integration heuristics and composite curve analysis were employed for once-through and full conversion configurations, and for a range of economies of scale, 1 MW, 675 MW and 1350 MW LHV of bio-oil. The economic competitiveness increases with increasing scale. A cost of production of FT liquids of 78.7 Euro/MWh was obtained based on 80.12 Euro/MWh of electricity, 75 Euro/t of bio-oil and 116.3 million Euro/y of annualised capital cost. -- Highlights: → Biomass to liquid process and gas to liquid process synthesis. → Biorefinery economic analysis. → Pyrolysis oil to biofuel. → Gasification and Fischer-Tropsch. → Process integration, pinch analysis and energy efficiency.

  4. Bio-refinery system integrated with pulp and paper mills using black liquor gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, Muhammad

    2010-07-01

    Mitigation of climate change and energy security are major driving forces for increased biomass energy utilization. The pulp and paper industry consumes a large proportion of biomass worldwide that include bark, wood residues, and black liquor. Due to the fact that modern pulp and paper industries have established infrastructure for handling and processing biomass, it is possible to lay foundation for future gasification based bio-refineries to co-produce electricity, chemicals or bio-fuels together with pulp and paper products. There is a potential to export electricity or bio-fuels by improving today's existing chemical pulp and paper mills integrating gasification technology.The present study evaluates the energy conversion performance of integrated black liquor gasification (BLG) within the chemical pulp mills in comparison with conventional pulp mill energy system. The objective is to investigate and compare various BLG technologies and bio-fuel production routes. The comparison is performed to identify the advantageous route based on system performance indicators e.g. bio-fuel production potential, fuel to product efficiency (FTPE), biomass import, overall system thermal energy efficiency, on-site CO{sub 2} reduction using carbon capture, and potential CO{sub 2} offsets from bio-fuel use in transport sector.The study on a variety of BLG configurations shows promising results for potential bio-fuel production offering significant contributions toward fossil fuel savings, emission reductions, and improved energy security. Methanol, synthetic natural gas (SNG) and dimethyl ether (DME) show promising features as potential fuel candidates. The comparative results show significantly larger bio-fuel production potential of black liquor conversion to SNG from catalytic hydrothermal gasification than DME, methanol or SNG production from the dry BLG (DBLG) and Chemrec BLG (CBLG) systems. The energy ratio of SNG production from the CHG system is higher than DME and

  5. BioMEMS and Lab-on-a-Chip Course Education at West Virginia University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of Biological/Biomedical MicroElectroMechanical Systems (BioMEMS and microfluidic-based lab-on-a-chip (LOC technology to biological and biomedical research and applications, demands for educated and trained researchers and technicians in these fields are rapidly expanding. Universities are expected to develop educational plans to address these specialized needs in BioMEMS, microfluidic and LOC science and technology. A course entitled BioMEMS and Lab-on-a-Chip was taught recently at the senior undergraduate and graduate levels in the Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering at West Virginia University (WVU. The course focused on the basic principles and applications of BioMEMS and LOC technology to the areas of biomedicine, biology, and biotechnology. The course was well received and the enrolled students had diverse backgrounds in electrical engineering, material science, biology, mechanical engineering, and chemistry. Student feedback and a review of the course evaluations indicated that the course was effective in achieving its objectives. Student presentations at the end of the course were a highlight and a valuable experience for all involved. The course proved successful and will continue to be offered regularly. This paper provides an overview of the course as well as some development and future improvements.

  6. The Characteristics and Bio-control Technology of Odor Pollution at Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfill Sites%城市生活垃圾填埋场恶臭污染特征和生物控制技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 熊骏生; 陶凌燕; 叶灵波; 秦雪艳; 徐梦婷; 丁颖

    2014-01-01

    Along with rapid development of Chinese cities ,the production of MSW is increasing daily .Sanitary landfill is currently the main mean of the treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste . However ,landfill odor nuisances occur frequently ,which seriously affect the work ,life and health of the residents in surrounding areas .Therefore ,studying the odor pollution prevention and control techniques ,understanding the major odor sources of the landfill ,odor components as well as its temporal and spatial distribution characteristics ,grasping the research progress of bio-control technology of odor , are of important practical significances .%随着中国城市经济的迅猛发展,城市垃圾的产量也与日俱增。卫生填埋是目前处理处置城市生活垃圾的主要方式,但垃圾填埋场恶臭扰民事件频发,其恶臭污染问题已经严重影响到周边区域居民的工作、生活和健康。因此,开展垃圾填埋场恶臭污染特征和防控技术研究,了解垃圾填埋场的主要恶臭发生源、恶臭气体主要成分及其时空分布特征,掌握垃圾填埋场恶臭生物控制技术的最新研究进展,具有重要的现实意义。

  7. Small proton exchange membrane fuel cell power station by using bio-hydrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志祥; 毛宗强; 王诚; 任南琪

    2006-01-01

    In fermentative organic waste water treatment process, there was hydrogen as a by-product. After some purification,there was about 50% ~ 70% hydrogen in the bio-gas, which could be utilized for electricity generation with fuel cell. Half a year ago, joint experiments between biological hydrogen production in Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT) and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) power station in Tsinghua University were conducted for electricity generation with bio-hydrogen from the pilot plant in HIT. The results proved the feasibility of the bio-hydrogen as a by-product utilization with PEMFC power station and revealed some problems of fuel cell power station for this application.

  8. Synergistic collaboration of gut symbionts in Odontotermes formosanus for lignocellulosic degradation and bio-hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Gincy Marina; Mathew, Dony Chacko; Lo, Shou-Chen; Alexios, Georgy Mathew; Yang, Jia-Cih; Sashikumar, Jagathala Mahalingam; Shaikh, Tanveer Mahamadali; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2013-10-01

    In this work, gut microbes from the macrotermitine termite Odontotermes formosanus the cellulolytic Bacillus and fermentative Clostridium were studied in batch experiments using different carbon substrates to bio-mimic the termite gut for hydrogen production. Their fungus comb aging and the in vitro lignocellulosic degradation of the mango tree substrates by the synergistic interaction of Bacillus, Clostridium and Termitomyces were detected by Solid-state NMR. From the results, Bacillus species acted as a mutualist, by initiating an anaerobic environment for the growth of Clostridium, for bio-hydrogen production and the presence of Termitomyces enhanced the lignocellulosic degradation of substrates in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the synergistic collaboration of these three microbes can be used for termite-derived bio-fuel processing technology.

  9. A Review of Hydrothermal Liquefaction Bio-Crude Properties and Prospects for Upgrading to Transportation Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome A. Ramirez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL presents a viable route for converting a vast range of materials into liquid fuel, without the need for pre-drying. Currently, HTL studies produce bio-crude with properties that fall short of diesel or biodiesel standards. Upgrading bio-crude improves the physical and chemical properties to produce a fuel corresponding to diesel or biodiesel. Properties such as viscosity, density, heating value, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur content, and chemical composition can be modified towards meeting fuel standards using strategies such as solvent extraction, distillation, hydrodeoxygenation and catalytic cracking. This article presents a review of the upgrading technologies available, and how they might be used to make HTL bio-crude into a transportation fuel that meets current fuel property standards.

  10. Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA): Student Performance, Student Perceptions, and Instructor Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Fleming, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that computer animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry and in this mixed-methods study, we investigate the educational effectiveness of Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA), a 3-D software, in four undergraduate biochemistry classes at different universities. Statistically significant findings indicate that…

  11. BioCD: Self-referencing interferometer for biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Manoj

    The holy-grail of modern medical science is to provide personalized health-care. An individual's state of health can be correlated to the pattern of concentration of several 'marker' molecules, for e.g. the presence of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) beyond a certain threshold in the body is a strong indication of prostate cancer. To realize the dream of personalized healthcare, a large number of markers have to be identified and correlated to the state of health across diverse populations. The identified markers have to be quantified subsequently to define an individual's state of health. The technology used to achieve the above should be sensitive, accurate, reliable, high-throughput and should be cheap and simple enough to be able to be available in a clinician's office. Interferometry has been used as a sensitive metrology tool in fields ranging from semiconductor inspection to astronomy. This thesis demonstrates a self-referencing interferometric biosensor (BioCD) with a surface normal design potentially capable of scaling up to thousands of tests per sensor substrates. The sensor concept is similar to an optical CD in that gold microstructures fabricated on the BioCD surface act as wavefront splitting interferometers. In contrast to the optical CD, the BioCD operates in a condition called quadrature, which provides maximum linear response to small phase changes caused by protein binding events. The gold microstructures generate a carrier wave when the BioCD is spun, and protein binding is detected as a modulation of an envelope of the carrier wave pattern created by the immobilized capture proteins. By immobilizing reference and target proteins, differential measurements that automatically subtract out non-specific binding can be obtained. We have demonstrated a detection limit of about 1 ng/ml with this technology, which is a clinically relevant figure for many human and veterinary applications. The specific and non-specific binding signals are separated by

  12. More chemistry between green and growth. The opportunities and dilemmas of a bio-based economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bio-based economy is one in which enterprises manufacture non-food products from biomass. Such products include fuel for the transport industry, chemicals, materials, and energy. Biomass is the biological material of living or recently living organisms, either animal or vegetable. With technology becoming more sophisticated, it is growing easier to turn plants, trees, crops, and residual animal waste into biomass. Waste and waste streams are increasingly being used as input in production processes, thereby gaining an economic value of their own. They are giving rise to new, sustainable products with considerable added value that replace products based on non-renewable materials. New bio-based products may offer the Netherlands new economic opportunities. The Dutch can already boast a number of distinct advantages in that respect, thanks to the sophistication of their industrial sector, agro-industry, chemicals and energy industries, and transport and logistics sector - all key sectors in a bio-based economy. However, the growing world population and increasing level of prosperity worldwide, and the environmental and climate problems associated with such growth, are adding to the complexity of policy-making aimed at developing a bio-based economy. The shift from fossil-based to bio-based materials must be part of a comprehensive policy aimed at achieving a sustainable economy.

  13. Evaluation of the production potential of bio-oil from Vietnamese biomass resources by fast pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural activities in Vietnam generate about 62 million tonnes of biomass (rice straw, rice husk, bagasse, corn cob, corn stover, etc.) annually. In this work, four different types of biomass from Vietnam, namely rice straw, rice husk, factory bagasse, and corn cob, have been studied as potential raw materials to produce bio-oil by fast pyrolysis technology. Test runs were conducted in a fluidized-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C and residence time less than 2 s. Size and moisture content of the feed were less than 2 mm and 2%, respectively. It was found that yields of bio-oil as a liquid product obtained from pyrolysis of these feedstocks were more than 50% and that obtained from the bagasse was the highest. Bio-oil quality from Vietnamese biomass resources satisfies ASTM D7544-12 standard for pyrolysis liquid biofuels. These results showed the potential of using biomass in Vietnam to produce bio-oil which could be directly used as a combustion fuel or upgraded into transportation fuels and chemicals. - Highlights: • Four types of Vietnamese biomass were firstly analyzed in detail. • Optimal conditions for fast pyrolysis reaction for Vietnamese biomass types. • Bio-oil product adapted to the standard specification for pyrolysis liquid biofuel

  14. Bio-inspired 3D microenvironments: a new dimension in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Chelsea M; Alge, Daniel L; Anseth, Kristi S

    2016-04-01

    Biomaterial scaffolds have been a foundational element of the tissue engineering paradigm since the inception of the field. Over the years there has been a progressive move toward the rational design and fabrication of bio-inspired materials that mimic the composition as well as the architecture and 3D structure of tissues. In this review, we chronicle advances in the field that address key challenges in tissue engineering as well as some emerging applications. Specifically, a summary of the materials and chemistries used to engineer bio-inspired 3D matrices that mimic numerous aspects of the extracellular matrix is provided, along with an overview of bioprinting, an additive manufacturing approach, for the fabrication of engineered tissues with precisely controlled 3D structures and architectures. To emphasize the potential clinical impact of the bio-inspired paradigm in biomaterials engineering, some applications of bio-inspired matrices are discussed in the context of translational tissue engineering. However, focus is also given to recent advances in the use of engineered 3D cellular microenvironments for fundamental studies in cell biology, including photoresponsive systems that are shedding new light on how matrix properties influence cell phenotype and function. In an outlook for future work, the need for high-throughput methods both for screening and fabrication is highlighted. Finally, microscale organ-on-a-chip technologies are highlighted as a promising area for future investment in the application of bio-inspired microenvironments. PMID:26942469

  15. Bio-solubilization of Chinese lignite Ⅱ: protein adsorption onto the lignite surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Su-dong; TAO Xiu-xiang; SHI Kai-yi

    2009-01-01

    Lignite bio-solubilization is a promising technology for converting solid lignite into oil. This study concerns the adsorption of lignite-solubilizing enzymes onto the lignite surface. Adsorption capacity, infrared spectral analysis and driving forces analysis are studied as a way to help understand the bio-solubilization mechanism. The results show that the amount of lignite bio-solubilization is proportional to the amount of adsorbed lignite-solubilizing enzymes. An increase in lignite-solubilizing enzyme adsorption of 10% leads to a 7% increase in lignite bio-solubilization. However, limited amounts of enzymes can be adsorbed by the lignite, thus resulting in low percentages of bio-solubilization. Infrared spectral analysis shows that side chains, such as hydroxyl and carbonyl, of the lignite structure are the main, and necessary, structures where lignite-solubilizing enzymes attachto the lignite. Furthermore, driving force analysis indicates that the electrostatic force between lignite and enzymes is the main adsorption mechanism. The forces are influenced by solution pH levels, the zeta potential of the lignite and the isoelectric points of the enzymes.

  16. Design, construction and operation of bio-filters for odour control sewage treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eitner, D.; Gethke, H.G. (G+E Umwelttechnologie GmbH, Aachen (DE))

    1987-01-01

    It is known from waste water technology that the micro-organisms existing in a clarification plant under living conditions as optimal as possible, are capable of decomposing pollution in waste water. This knowledge has been used to search for low-cost waste air treatment technologies. Odour substances of a waste air are decomposed by microbial procedures. The possibility of biological waste air clarification by means of bio-filter plants or compost filter plants is discussed in this paper. There are indications of this technology as early as in the year 1928. Technical progress can be noted with this technology, as well.

  17. Future Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Stojmenovic, Ivan; Choi, Min; Xhafa, Fatos; FutureTech 2013

    2014-01-01

    Future technology information technology stands for all of continuously evolving and converging information technologies, including digital convergence, multimedia convergence, intelligent applications, embedded systems, mobile and wireless communications, bio-inspired computing, grid and cloud computing, semantic web, user experience and HCI, security and trust computing and so on, for satisfying our ever-changing needs. In past twenty five years or so, Information Technology (IT) influenced and changed every aspect of our lives and our cultures. These proceedings foster the dissemination of state-of-the-art research in all future IT areas, including their models, services, and novel applications associated with their utilization.

  18. A new bio-active glass ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1960 fine ceramics such as alumina have been used side by side with metallic materials for bone and joint replacement. They have high mechanical strength and are free from corrosion problem faced by metals. However they don't bond to the natural living bone and hence are called bio-inactive. This was followed by the development of bio-active glasses and glass-ceramics which bond to the natural bone but have low mechanical strength. In the present work a new bio-active glass-ceramic, based on CaO-SiO/sub 2/-P/sub 2/O/sub 3/-MgO composition, has been developed which has mechanical strength compared to that of a bio-inactive glass ceramic and also bonds strongly to the natural bone. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals wollastanite and apatite phases in the glass ceramic. A new bio-active cement has also been developed which can be used to join broken pieces of bone or by itself at a filler. (author)

  19. Bio-oil production from cotton stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton stalk was fast pyrolyzed at temperatures between 480 deg. C and 530 deg. C in a fluidized bed, and the main product of bio-oil is obtained. The experimental result shows that the highest bio-oil yield of 55 wt% was obtained at 510 deg. C for cotton stalk. The chemical composition of the bio-oil acquired was analyzed by GC-MS, and its heat value, stability, miscibility and corrosion characteristics were determined. These results showed that the bio-oil obtained can be directly used as a fuel oil for combustion in a boiler or a furnace without any upgrading. Alternatively, the fuel can be refined to be used by vehicles. Furthermore, the energy performance of the pyrolysis process was analyzed. In the pyrolysis system used in our experiment, some improvements to former pyrolysis systems are done. Two screw feeders were used to prevent jamming the feeding system, and the condenser is equipped with some nozzles and a heat exchanger to cool quickly the cleaned hot gas into bio-oil

  20. Learning bio-micro-nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Mendelson, Mel I

    2013-01-01

    Thinking Small and BigIntroductionBit of Technology HistoryTera-to-Pico MultipliersSize of ThingsWhat Is ""Small Technology?""Memory Lane in ElectronicsApplicationsKey ConceptsQuestions and ProblemsReferencesBiomolecules and CellsIntroductionScience of EvolutionPowers of ""10"" RevisitedBuilding a Human CellBiomoleculesProtein FoldingIdentifying BiomoleculesForensic MethodsGenetic Variation: MutationsKey ConceptsQuestions and ProblemsReferencesMolecular ChemistryIntroductionPeriodic TableSome Chemical DefinitionsChemical BondingMacromoleculesPolymer ExamplesColloidsSolid NanomoleculesKey Conce

  1. BIOS、CMOS和BIOS SETUP程序

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海丽切木·阿不来提

    2004-01-01

    BIOS SETUP程序的任务是将硬件参数存放在BIOS参数存储器——CMOS中,CMOS需要电池供电来保存这些参数,以便于下次启动时使用.本文主要介绍了BIOS ROM的概念,BIOS的存放地点,BIOS的分类,BIOS主要内容,BIOS功能,CMOS RAM的概念,CMOS RAM的特点,CMOS RAM的内容,BIOS SETUP程序,SETUP存放地点,SETUP的类型,进入SETUP程序的方法和SETUP的设置等内容.

  2. Upscaling of Bio-mediated Soil Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. T. DeJong; B. C. Martinez; B. M. Mortensen; D. C. Nelson; J. T. Waller; M. H. Weil; T. R. Ginn; T. Weathers; T. Barkouki; Y. Fujita; G. Redden; C. Hunt; D. Major; B. Tunyu

    2009-10-01

    As demand for soil improvement continues to increase, new, sustainable, and innocuous methods are needed to alter the mechanical properties of soils. Recent research has demonstrated the potential of bio-mediated soil improvement for geotechnical applications (DeJong et al. 2006, Whiffin et al. 2007). Upscaling the bio-mediated treatment process for in situ implementation presents a number of challenges to be addressed, including soil and pore fluid interactions, bioaugmentation versus biostimulation of microbial communities, controlled distribution of mediated calcite precipitation, and permanence of the cementation. Current studies are utilizing large-scale laboratory experiments, non-destructive geophysical measurements, and modeling, to develop an optimized and predictable bio-mediated treatment method.

  3. Dry electrode bio-potential recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Gaetano; Bifulco, Paolo; McEwan, Alistair; Nasehi Tehrani, Joubin; Calvo, Rafael A; Romano, Maria; Ruffo, Mariano; Shephard, Richard; Cesarelli, Mario; Jin, Craig; Mohamed, Armin; van Schaik, André

    2010-01-01

    As wireless bio-medical long term monitoring moves towards personal monitoring it demands very high input impedance systems capable to extend the reading of bio-signal during the daily activities offering a kind of "stress free", convenient connection, with no need for skin preparation. In particular we highlight the development and broad applications of our own circuits for wearable bio-potential sensor systems enabled by the use of an FET based amplifier circuit with sufficiently high impedance to allow the use of passive dry electrodes which overcome the significant barrier of gel based contacts. In this paper we present the ability of dry electrodes in long term monitoring of ECG, EEG and fetal ECG.

  4. Status and potential of bio-methane fuel; Etat des lieux et potentiel du biomethane carburant Etude ADEME, AFGNV, ATEE Club Biogaz, GDF SUEZ, IFP, MEEDDAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document first indicates and describes the various bio-methane production processes which can be implemented on a short term (use of organic wastes or effluents), on a medium term (from energetic crops) and on a longer term (gasification). It discusses and assesses the potential production of bio-methane fuel from different sources and processes. It describes the steps of the production of bio-methane fuel from biogas, with notably biogas refinement to produce bio-methane through three processes (de-carbonation, desulfurization, dehydration). Cost productions are assessed. Expected technology advances are evoked. Finally, the authors outline the contribution of bio-methane in the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector

  5. Innovative bio filtration for treatment of wastewater from communities and industry; Biofiltracion innovadora para el tratamiento de aguas residuales producidas por poblaciones e industrias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekoulov, I.; Rudiger, A.; Barz, M.

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays biological treatments are more and more required to clean municipal and industrial wastewater. More than 500 wastewater treatment plant use bio filtration. Bio filtration is a compact aerated reactor which does not imply expensive investments anymore. The real advantage of using bio filters is the aptitude to adapts the treatment to a wide range of entering polluting load, and also to low temperatures of wastewater. However, this technology needs a frequent cleaning that involves to stop the installation. Aquabiotec has solved this issue by enhancing a sequential cleaning. This new generation of bio filtration is able to treat wastewater steadily, with the same efficiency (>90%) and for lower costs compared to a classical bio filter. (Author) 6 refs.

  6. Application of Bio-informatics in Biology Research%生物信息学在生物学研究领域的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟双; 徐冲; 陈丽媛; 陈杰

    2011-01-01

    The effects of bio-informatics on biological research were summarized in this article. The application survey of bio-informatics in bio-technology, bio-medicine, agriculture, food, environment, energy, and other research fields was also introduced. The significance of bio-informatics to serve the biological scientific research was elaborated as well.%综合叙述了生物信息学对生物学科研工作的影响,介绍了生物信息学在生物技术、生物医学、农业、食品、环境、能源等研究领域的应用概况,阐述了生物信息学为生物科研工作服务的意义.

  7. Industrialization of Technology on Bio-degradable Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On August 14, 2004, aresearch project titled "Preparation of Aliphatic Ester Polycarbonate and Degradable Foam Plastics by Using Carbon Dioxide" passed its technical appraisal by experts under the sponsorship of the National Bureau of Environmental Protection.

  8. Radiolitically Synthesized Hybrid Nanosystems for Bio-Nano-Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report a review of the main results and the studies carried out under the scope of the IAEA CRP project: Nanoscale Radiation Engineering of Advanced Materials for Potential Biomedical Application is presented. In particular two topics are discussed: radiation synthesizing of Ag nanoparticles in hydrogels for potential biomedical application and decoration of carbon nanotubes with Ag clusters by gamma irradiation. (author)

  9. Report on the behalf of the Parliamentary Office for the assessment of scientific and technological choices on: from biomass to bio-economy: a strategy for France. Problematic and conclusions of the public hearing of the 25 June 2015. National Assembly Nr 3489, Senate Nr 380

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report first gives an overview of the different uses of biomass. It notably outlines the role of biomass in energy transition. It notices that this sector is facing always better identified challenges despite a lack of public strategy during the past years. Now, a new public policy is to be carried out within the framework of a true strategy of bio-economy. This part is concluded by the examination by the Office of a feasibility study. The second part reports the content of a public hearing, 'The strategy for biomass in France: a step towards bio-economy', which was held in June 2015. It comprised two round tables. The first one addressed processes, a situational analysis, and perspectives. The second one addressed the relationship between the biomass strategy and the bio-economy strategy

  10. Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng

    Rising concerns of inadequate petroleum supply, volatile crude oil price, and adverse environmental impacts from using fossil fuels have spurred the United States to promote bio-fuel domestic production and develop advanced energy systems such as fuel cells. The present dissertation analyzed the bio-fuel applications in a solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit from environmental, economic, and technological perspectives. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamics was applied to evaluate the environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emission, fossil energy consumption) of producing bio-fuels from waste biomass. Landfill gas from municipal solid wastes and biodiesel from waste cooking oil are both suggested as the promising bio-fuel options. A nonlinear optimization model was developed with a multi-objective optimization technique to analyze the economic aspect of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel ternary blends used in transportation sectors and capture the dynamic variables affecting bio-fuel productions and applications (e.g., market disturbances, bio-fuel tax credit, policy changes, fuel specification, and technological innovation). A single-tube catalytic reformer with rhodium/ceria-zirconia catalyst was used for autothermal reformation of various heavy hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel, and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel) to produce a hydrogen-rich stream reformates suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cell systems. A customized mixing chamber was designed and integrated with the reformer to overcome the technical challenges of heavy hydrocarbon reformation. A thermodynamic analysis, based on total Gibbs free energy minimization, was implemented to optimize the operating environment for the reformations of various fuels. This was complimented by experimental investigations of fuel autothermal reformation. 25% biodiesel blended with 10% ethanol and 65% diesel was determined to be viable fuel for use on a truck travelling with

  11. Fütterungsrichtlinien 2010 nach Bio Suisse

    OpenAIRE

    Früh, Barbara; Chevillat, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    Die Bio Suisse will ihren Slogan "Ist die Knospe drauf - ist Bio drin" glaubwürdig umsetzen. Dazu gehört auch, dass die Tiere artgerecht und möglichst vollständig mit Knospefutter gefüttert werden. Das Ziel 100 Prozent Biofutter ist bei den Wiederkäuern seit Ende März 2009 erreicht. Bei den Nichtwiederkäuern wird der Anteil Nichtbiofutter auf Anfang Jahr von zehn auf fünf Prozent reduziert. Im Merkblatt steht, was genau ab dem 1. Januar 2010 gilt.

  12. State and parameter estimation in bio processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, M.; Roux, G.; Dahhou, B. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France)]|[Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1994-12-31

    A major difficulty in monitoring and control of bio-processes is the lack of reliable and simple sensors for following the evolution of the main state variables and parameters such as biomass, substrate, product, growth rate, etc... In this article, an adaptive estimation algorithm is proposed to recover the state and parameters in bio-processes. This estimator utilizes the physical process model and the reference model approach. Experimentations concerning estimation of biomass and product concentrations and specific growth rate, during batch, fed-batch and continuous fermentation processes are presented. The results show the performance of this adaptive estimation approach. (authors) 12 refs.

  13. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... of the water column to the bottom waters/deepwater. The expected effects include a slowing down of the sediment release from the bottom and improvement of the possibilities for aerobic bacterial decomposition and over time for the establishment of fauna. The projects test a bio-engineered approach to speeding...

  14. Context Dependent Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    BioAmbients is a derivative of mobile ambients that has shown promise of describing interesting features of the behaviour of biological systems. The technical contribution of this paper is to extend the Flow Logic approach to static analysis with a couple of new techniques in order to give precise...... information about the behaviour of systems written in BioAmbients. Applying the development to a simple model of a cell releasing nutrients from food compunds we illustrate how the proposed analysis does indeed improve on previous efforts....

  15. Bio-Conjugates for Nanoscale Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Klaus

    Bio-conjugates for Nanoscale Applications is the title of this thesis, which covers three different projects in chemical bio-conjugation research, namely synthesis and applications of: Lipidated fluorescent peptides, carbohydrate oxime-azide linkers and N-aryl O-R2 oxyamine derivatives. Lipidated...... fluorescent peptides were designed and synthesized as part of two collaboration projects utilizing peptide conjugates in nanoscale applications to increase understanding of the role peptides and proteins plays in biological systems. Ras proteins are membrane bound molecular switches involved in many signaling...

  16. Research on Miniature Hexapod Bio-robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper described the structure and control of a new kind of miniature hexapod bio-robot, analyzed the moving principle of the robot. The robot is based on the principle of bionics, its structure is simple, design novel, unique. It can move forwards and backwards. The external dimensions of bio-robot is: length 30 mm,width 40 mm, height 20 mm, weight 6.3 g. Some tests about the model robot were made. The experimental results show that the robot has good mobility.

  17. Tackling regional climate change by leaf albedo bio-geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgwell, Andy; Singarayer, Joy S; Hetherington, Alistair M; Valdes, Paul J

    2009-01-27

    The likelihood that continuing greenhouse-gas emissions will lead to an unmanageable degree of climate change has stimulated the search for planetary-scale technological solutions for reducing global warming ("geoengineering"), typically characterized by the necessity for costly new infrastructures and industries. We suggest that the existing global infrastructure associated with arable agriculture can help, given that crop plants exert an important influence over the climatic energy budget because of differences in their albedo (solar reflectivity) compared to soils and to natural vegetation. Specifically, we propose a "bio-geoengineering" approach to mitigate surface warming, in which crop varieties having specific leaf glossiness and/or canopy morphological traits are specifically chosen to maximize solar reflectivity. We quantify this by modifying the canopy albedo of vegetation in prescribed cropland areas in a global-climate model, and thereby estimate the near-term potential for bio-geoengineering to be a summertime cooling of more than 1 degrees C throughout much of central North America and midlatitude Eurasia, equivalent to seasonally offsetting approximately one-fifth of regional warming due to doubling of atmospheric CO(2). Ultimately, genetic modification of plant leaf waxes or canopy structure could achieve greater temperature reductions, although better characterization of existing intraspecies variability is needed first.

  18. TMZ-BioShuttle – a reformulated Temozolomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Waldeck, Manfred Wiessler, Volker Ehemann, Ruediger Pipkorn, Herbert Spring, Juergen Debus, Bernd Didinger, Gabriele Mueller, Joerg Langowski, Klaus Braun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a large number of effective cytotoxic drugs whose side effect profile, efficacy, and long-term use in man are well understood and documented over decades of use in clinical routine e.g. in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM and the hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC. Both cancers are insensitive against most chemotherapeutic interventions; they have low response rates and poor prognoses. Some cytotoxic agents can be significantly improved by using modern technology of drug delivery or formulation. We succeeded to enhance the pharmacologic potency with simultaneous reduction of unwanted adverse reactions of the highly efficient chemotherapeutic temozolomide (TMZ as an example. The TMZ connection to transporter molecules (TMZ-BioShuttle resulted in a much higher pharmacological effect in glioma cell lines while using reduced doses. This permits the conclusion that a suitable chemistry could realize the ligation of pharmacologically active, but sensitive and highly unstable pharmaceutical ingredients without functional deprivation. The re-formulation of TMZ to TMZ-BioShuttle achieved a nearly 10-fold potential of the established pharmaceutic TMZ far beyond the treatment of brain tumors cells and results in an attractive reformulated drug with enhanced therapeutic index.

  19. Bio-char from treated and untreated oil palm fronds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati; Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul

    2013-05-01

    The palm oil industry generates almost 94% of biomass in Malaysia, while other agricultural and forestry by-products contribute the remaining of 6%. Oil palm fronds (OPF) are estimated to be the highest available biomass amounting to 44.84 million tonnes in Malaysia. However, studies on OPF for thermochemical conversion technology which has good potential for energy conversion are still lacking. In this work, pyrolysis of OPF is conducted by using a fixed bed reactor. Samples were carbonized at slow pyrolysis temperature of around 300 to 500°C with heating rate of 10°C min-1. In addition, samples were treated for 20 min with distilled water at ambient temperature to reduce the ash content. Effectiveness of pre-treatment can be determined by observing the percentage of ash content reduction of each sample after undergoing washing pre-treatment. At 300°C, the char yields of the untreated OPF were slightly higher at 50.95% compared to the treated sample at 49.77%. Approximately all bio-char from the treated samples have better high heating value (HHV) of around 18-20 MJ kg-1 compared to the untreated samples. Besides that, all treated OPF char is more carbon rich and considered to be environmental friendly due to its low nitrogen content compared to the untreated OPF char. In this work, microscopic analysis of OPF bio-char were also studied by observing and evaluating their structure surface and morphology.

  20. Bio-Inspired Cyber Security for Smart Grid Deployments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinnon, Archibald D.; Thompson, Seth R.; Doroshchuk, Ruslan A.; Fink, Glenn A.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2013-05-01

    mart grid technologies are transforming the electric power grid into a grid with bi-directional flows of both power and information. Operating millions of new smart meters and smart appliances will significantly impact electric distribution systems resulting in greater efficiency. However, the scale of the grid and the new types of information transmitted will potentially introduce several security risks that cannot be addressed by traditional, centralized security techniques. We propose a new bio-inspired cyber security approach. Social insects, such as ants and bees, have developed complex-adaptive systems that emerge from the collective application of simple, light-weight behaviors. The Digital Ants framework is a bio-inspired framework that uses mobile light-weight agents. Sensors within the framework use digital pheromones to communicate with each other and to alert each other of possible cyber security issues. All communication and coordination is both localized and decentralized thereby allowing the framework to scale across the large numbers of devices that will exist in the smart grid. Furthermore, the sensors are light-weight and therefore suitable for implementation on devices with limited computational resources. This paper will provide a brief overview of the Digital Ants framework and then present results from test bed-based demonstrations that show that Digital Ants can identify a cyber attack scenario against smart meter deployments.

  1. TMZ-BioShuttle – a reformulated Temozolomide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldeck, Waldemar; Wiessler, Manfred; Ehemann, Volker; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Spring, Herbert; Debus, Juergen; Didinger, Bernd; Mueller, Gabriele; Langowski, Joerg; Braun, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    There is a large number of effective cytotoxic drugs whose side effect profile, efficacy, and long-term use in man are well understood and documented over decades of use in clinical routine e.g. in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and the hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Both cancers are insensitive against most chemotherapeutic interventions; they have low response rates and poor prognoses. Some cytotoxic agents can be significantly improved by using modern technology of drug delivery or formulation. We succeeded to enhance the pharmacologic potency with simultaneous reduction of unwanted adverse reactions of the highly efficient chemotherapeutic temozolomide (TMZ) as an example. The TMZ connection to transporter molecules (TMZ-BioShuttle) resulted in a much higher pharmacological effect in glioma cell lines while using reduced doses. This permits the conclusion that a suitable chemistry could realize the ligation of pharmacologically active, but sensitive and highly unstable pharmaceutical ingredients without functional deprivation. The re-formulation of TMZ to TMZ-BioShuttle achieved a nearly 10-fold potential of the established pharmaceutic TMZ far beyond the treatment of brain tumors cells and results in an attractive reformulated drug with enhanced therapeutic index. PMID:18797509

  2. Heterogeneous sensor networks: a bio-inspired overlay architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Klein, Daniel; Isaacs, Jason; Venkateswaran, Sriram; Pham, Tien

    2010-04-01

    Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the Army Research Lab are developing technologies for automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous sensor networks through the Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies (ICB). Unmanned air vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous data-driven collection routes. Bio-inspired techniques for search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data across heterogeneous sensors. A fast and accurate method has been developed for routing UAVs and localizing an event by fusing data from a sparse number of UGSs; it leverages a bio-inspired technique based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. The system was implemented and successfully tested using a high level simulation environment using a flight simulator to emulate a UAV. A field test was also conducted in November 2009 at Camp Roberts, CA using a UAV provided by AeroMech Engineering. The field test results showed that the system can detect and locate the source of an acoustic event with an accuracy of about 3 meters average circular error.

  3. Wearable bio and chemical sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, Shirley; Curto, Vincenzo; Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Florea, Larisa; Diamond, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and biochemical sensors have experienced tremendous growth in the past decade due to advances in material chemistry combined with the emergence of digital communication technologies and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) [1]. The emergence of wearable chemical and biochemical sensors is a relatively new concept that poses unique challenges to the field of wearable sensing. This is because chemical sensors have a more complex mode of operation, compared to physical transducers, in that t...

  4. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hu, Jianli; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.

    2008-09-16

    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  5. Comparative techno-economic analysis of biohydrogen production via bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the economic feasibility of biohydrogen production via two bio-oil processing pathways: bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming. Both pathways employ fast pyrolysis to produce bio-oil from biomass stock. The two pathways are modeled using Aspen Plus® for a 2000 t d−1 facility. Equipment sizing and cost calculations are based on Aspen Economic Evaluation® software. Biohydrogen production capacity at the facility is 147 t d−1 for the bio-oil gasification pathway and 160 t d−1 for the bio-oil reforming pathway. The biomass-to-fuel energy efficiencies are 47% and 84% for the bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming pathways, respectively. Total capital investment (TCI) is 435 million dollars for the bio-oil gasification pathway and is 333 million dollars for the bio-oil reforming pathway. Internal rates of return (IRR) are 8.4% and 18.6% for facilities employing the bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming pathways, respectively. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that biohydrogen price, biohydrogen yield, fixed capital investment (FCI), bio-oil yield, and biomass cost have the greatest impacts on facility IRR. Monte-Carlo analysis shows that bio-oil reforming is more economically attractive than bio-oil gasification for biohydrogen production. -- Highlights: ► Biohydrogen production via bio-oil reforming has higher energy efficiency compared to gasification. ► Hydrogen price, fixed capital cost, and feedstock cost most strongly affect IRR. ► Lower risk investment is biohydrogen production via bio-oil reforming

  6. Small scale combined heat and power (CHP) from bio-crude oil fuelled to a sterling engine (Bio-stir)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyftopoulou, M.; Papamichael, I.; Boukis, I. [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, Pikermi (Greece)

    2002-02-01

    De-coupling of biomass conversion and combined heat and power (CHP) production may be best achieved by a liquid fuel, namely Bio-Crude-Oil (BCO), derived by fast pyrolysis of biomass. BCO can be fuelled in a modified Stirling engine, which is able to provide a high electrical efficiency (approximately 30%) and a favourable overall efficiency (approximately 80% on CHP), which is extremely important for economic viability in small-scale (< 100 kW{sub e}). The external combustion employed in the Stirling engine enables the utilisation of relatively 'dirty' fuels such as BCO. On the aforementioned grounds, a project was drawn, aiming to accomplish the following objectives: Development of feedstock logistics for BCO production via fast pyrolysis technology; Testing of different feedstocks for BCO production and feedstock characterisation, fast pyrolysis reactor extensive operation - process optimisation, as well as BCO characterisation; Evaluation of the scale-up potential of the biomass fast pyrolysis technology; Development of a suitable burner for BCO combustion and adaptation of a Stirling engine to be fuelled with BCO; Techno-economic assessment of the proposed, entire biomass-to-energy route, including Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); Investigation for the industrial exploitation of the technology including scale-up and small-scale CHP deployment. The project has resulted in the following industrial benefits: Assessment for the production and logistics of the selected feedstocks (i.e. pine and miscanthus) for BCO production; Adoption of measures to deal with major technical risks associated with industrial scale-up (in particular char and particulates removal and vapour quenching); Assessment of the scale-up potential of the fast pyrolysis technology (in the range of 5 to 25 MW{sub th}). Demonstration of BCO combustion in a modified Stirling engine; Evaluation of the Stirling engine performance in terms of efficiency and emissions; Assessment of the

  7. Bioenergy Status Document 2012; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In addition to a review and characterisation of the current situation, the report contains an update on government policies on bio-energy and a review of the sources and sustainability of the biomass used in the Netherlands [Dutch] Het statusdocument bio-energie 2012 geeft de huidige status weer van bio-energie in Nederland, inclusief trends en verwachtingen voor de toekomst. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verstrekken in de ontwikkelingen van bio-energie, voor overheden en marktpartijen.

  8. The BioGRID interaction database: 2015 update

    OpenAIRE

    Chatr-aryamontri, Andrew; Breitkreutz, Bobby-Joe; Oughtred, Rose; Boucher, Lorrie; Heinicke, Sven; Chen, Daici; Stark, Chris; Breitkreutz, Ashton; Kolas, Nadine; O'Donnell, Lara; Reguly, Teresa; Nixon, Julie; Ramage, Lindsay; Winter, Andrew; Sellam, Adnane

    2014-01-01

    The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID: http://thebiogrid.org) is an open access database that houses genetic and protein interactions curated from the primary biomedical literature for all major model organism species and humans. As of September 2014, the BioGRID contains 749 912 interactions as drawn from 43 149 publications that represent 30 model organisms. This interaction count represents a 50% increase compared to our previous 2013 BioGRID update. BioGRID d...

  9. Bio based cogeneration plants in Sweden; Biobaserte kraftvarmeverk i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Cogeneration plants using bio fuel need a certificate in the Swedish electricity certificate system. Since the initiation of the system in 2003 the plants have taken advantage of the possibility of switching from fossil, to bio fuel. However, there is a potential for additional bio power production, provided that there is a market for the produced heating. The certificate system may contribute to an acceleration of investments in new capacities, and the facilitation of increased bio power production.

  10. Sugarcane Biorefinery——New Products and New Technologies of Bio-engineering in Sugar Industry%甘蔗的生物炼制——蔗糖业生物工程的新技术和新产品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    保国裕; 蓝艳华

    2011-01-01

    制糖工业面临糖料种植面积增长困难、工农业生产成本增高和环境需求日益严格等趋势。同仁们已意识到光靠传统方法已不能满足人民生活发展的要求。生物技术则是解决资源短缺、环境污染的高效发展模式,成为人类持续发展的主要途径。本文从提高甘蔗资源生产高附加值产品和治理糖厂废液、废气变废为宝,减少污染出发,介绍生物工程的新技术可生产的产品如蔗多酚、活性蛋白肽、β-葡聚糖、右旋糖苷等并介绍酒精蒸馏废液培养固氮菌及低压回收CO2的利用。%Sugar industry is facing growing difficulties in increasing cultivation area, higher costs in agriculture, industrial production, and environmental requirements are increasingly stringent. People have gradually realized that traditional methods alone can't meet the requirements of the development of people's living. Biotechnology is an efficient development model to solve the shortage of resources and environmental pollution. It has become the main way to sustainable development of mankind. In this paper, through improving sugarcane production of high value-added products and waste management, turning waste into gas, reducing pollution, it introduces a new technology to produce bio-engineering products, such as sugarcane polyphenols, active peptides, β-gulcan, dextran, etc., and describes the waste of alcohol distilling slop, and the application of CO2 from fermentation.

  11. Challenges for bio-based products in sustainable value chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardon, L.; Lin, J.W.; De Groote, M.; Ragaert, K.; Kopecka, J.A.; Koster, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns studies related to strategic development of products in which bio-based plastics are or will be applied, referred to as bio-based products. The studies cover (1) current and potential benefits of bio-based products in extended value chains including activities after end-of-life of

  12. Boron brings big benefits to bio-based blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The solution to the problems with bio-based lubrication can be approached by a combination of blending and additive strategies. However, many additives do not show efficacy when used in bio-based lubricants. Additive addition also lowers the bio-based content of the blend, which in turn limits the a...

  13. Design of reactive distillation processes for the production of butyl acrylate:Impact of bio-based raw materials☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander Niesbach⁎; Natalia Fink; Philip Lutze; Andrzej Górak

    2015-01-01

    The chemical industry is nowadays predominantly using fossil raw materials, but the alternative use of bio-based resources is investigated to account for the foreseeable scarcity of fossil feedstocks. A main challenge of using bio-based feedstocks is the complexity of the impurity profile. For an economic production of bio-based chemicals, the use of intensified processes is inevitable and approaches are needed for the various process intensification techniques to identify their applicability to be used for the production of bio-based components. In the presented study, an approach is shown for the reactive distil ation (RD) technology to identify the most critical bio-based impurities and their impact on the reactive distillation process. The investigated case-study is the production of n-butyl acrylate from acrylic acid and n-butanol. Among al initially identified impurities, the key impurities, having the biggest impact on the product purity in the reactive distil ation process, are found. These impurities are then studied in more detail and an operating window depending on the impurity concentration is identified for the reactive distil ation column. Furthermore, an integrated design of upstream and downstream processes is facilitated, as the presented results can be used in the development of the fermentation processes for the produc-tion of the bio-based reactants by decreasing the concentration of the critical impurities.

  14. The Fabrication of Bio-ceramsite for the Removal of Heavy Metals and Its Toxicity to Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yan; SUN Ken; QI Xuebin; GAO Qing

    2015-01-01

    Bio-ceramsite technology is one of the most effective technologies in the pretreatment of drinking water. In this work, bio-ceramsite was fabricated byCitrobacter freundii (C. freundii) immobilization on the ceramsite. Thefi ndings of the current study suggest that the bio-ceramites showed biosorption abilities for Cd(II) and Pb(II) and the removal efficiency for Pb(II) is lower than Cd(II). The adsorption mechanism can be attributed to electrostatic attraction and covalent bond. The morphology of the cells changed after the adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) due to the dissociation of the assembly of peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide. The fluorescence polarization has shown a significant decrease in membrane fluidity and an increase of permeability of cell membrane. The spectral profi le ofC. freundii suggests the alteration of carbonyl, amide and phosphonic groups on the cell membrane.

  15. Bio-optofluidics and Bio-photonics: Programmable Phase Optics activities at DTU Fotonik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Pedersen, Finn;

    We present ongoing research and development activities for constructing a compact next generation BioPhotonics Workstation and a Bio-optofluidic Cell Sorter (cell-BOCS) for all-optical micromanipulation platforms utilizing low numerical aperture beam geometries. Unlike conventional high NA optical...... tweezers, the BioPhotonics workstation is e.g. capable of long range 3D manipulation. This enables a variety of biological studies such as manipulation of intricate microfabricated assemblies or for automated and parallel optofluidic cell sorting. To further reduce its overhead, we propose ways of making...... the BioPhotonics Workstation platform more photon efficient by studying the 3D distribution of the counter propagating beams and utilizing the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method for illuminating the applied spatial light modulators....

  16. The Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael

    . It is therefore important to study efficient beam shaping methods, their use in optical trapping and manipulation, and the design of “microtools” for specific microbiological applications. Such studies are performed in our BioPhotonics Workstation (BWS). Hence the further development of the BWS is also crucial...

  17. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achten, W.M.J.; Aerts, R.; Muys, B. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E Box 2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Verchot, L. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Head Quarters, United Nations Avenue, P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi (Kenya); Franken, Y.J. [FACT Foundation, Horsten 1, 5612 AX Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mathijs, E. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Agricultural and Food Economics, Willem de Croylaan 42 Box 2424, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Singh, V.P. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Regional Office for South Asia, CG Block, 1st Floor, National Agricultural Science Centre, Dev Prakash Shastri Marg, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2008-12-15

    The interest in using Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel is rapidly growing. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider JCL as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, JCL is still a wild plant of which basic agronomic properties are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Gray literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields, further fueling the Jatropha bio-diesel hype. In this paper, we give an overview of the currently available information on the different process steps of the production process of bio-diesel from JCL, being cultivation and production of seeds, extraction of the oil, conversion to and the use of the bio-diesel and the by-products. Based on this collection of data and information the best available practice, the shortcomings and the potential environmental risks and benefits are discussed for each production step. The review concludes with a call for general precaution and for science to be applied. (author)

  18. Bio-antioxidant of Anthraquinone Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI,Jian; LI,Zhao-Long; HONG,Xiao-Yin

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Rubiaceae family is well known for containing anthraquinones. More specifically, lapachol and its analogues are known to possess antitumor, antibiotic, antimalarial and antiulceric activities.[1] Several report indicated that some quinones containing OH in its structure were found to have higher bio-activity than quinines lacking the OH group.

  19. BioProject Number PRJNA230524

    Science.gov (United States)

    This BioProject consists of raw genotyping-by-sequencing data collected in 96-plex format on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system. There were four to six experimental replicates for each of the 46 plants. The development of tens of thousands of mapped SNP markers in wild tomato species was hig...

  20. Immersive Protein Gaming for Bio Edutainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yiyu; Lu, Baifang; Zheng, Jianmin; Li, Lin

    2006-01-01

    Games have long been used as a tool for teaching important subject matter, from concept building to problem solving. Through fun learning, students may further develop their curiosities and interest in their study. This article addresses the issue of learning biomolecular structures by virtual reality gaming. A bio edutainment solution featuring…

  1. Harvesting of microalgae by bio-flocculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salim, S.; Bosma, R.; Vermuë, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The high-energy input for harvesting biomass makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible. A novel harvesting method is presented as a cost and energy efficient alternative: the bio-flocculation by using one flocculating microalga to concentrate the non-flocculati

  2. A Review of BioTutor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhrkopf, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A review of BioTutor which is software to accompany the third edition of Neil Campbell's textbook, "Biology," is provided. The review includes a brief description of the software and a discussion of good and bad features of the software. In the closing words, the reviewer expresses a considerable amount of concern regarding the quality of this…

  3. Taking a view on bio-ontologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Jupp; A. Gibson; J. Malone; H. Parkinson; R. Stevens

    2012-01-01

    We present a technique for separating knowledge representation from application specific views that are currently often conflated within bio-ontologies. Many ontologies contain information for two tasks; one to represent the knowledge of some field of interest and another to support an application t

  4. Bio-gas production from alligator weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, A.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature, sample preparation, reducing agents, light intensity and pH of the media, on bio-gas and methane production from the microbial anaerobic decomposition of alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides. Efforts were also made for the isolation and characterization of the methanogenic bacteria.

  5. Bio-Degradable Plastics Impact On Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.SUBRAMANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of biodegradable polymers and more particularly that of polymers obtained from renewable resources such as the polysaccharides (e.g., starch have long been recognized. However, these biodegradable polymers have been largely used in some applications (e.g., food industry and have not found extensive applications in the packaging industries to replace conventional plastic materials, although they could be an interesting way to overcome the limitation of the petrochemical resources in the future. The fossil fuel and gas could be partially replaced by greener agricultural sources, which should participate in the reduction of CO2 emissions. Bio-based and biodegradable plastics can form the basis for environmentally preferable, sustainable alternative to current materials based exclusively on petroleum feed stocks. These bio-based materials offer value in the sustainability/life-cycle equation by being a part of the biological carbon cycle, especially as it relates to carbon-based polymeric materials such as plastics, water soluble polymers and other carbon based products like lubricants, biodiesel, and detergents. Identification and quantification of bio based content uses radioactive C-14 signature. Biopolymers are generally capable of being utilized by living matter (biodegraded, and so can be disposed in safe and ecologically sound ways through disposal processes (waste management like composting, soil application, and biological wastewater treatment. Single use, short-life, disposable products can be engineered to be bio-based and biodegradable.

  6. Control Flow Analysis for BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Priami, C.;

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a static analysis for investigating properties of biological systems specified in BioAmbients. We exploit the control flow analysis to decode the bindings of variables induced by communications and to build a relation of the ambients that can interact with each other. We...

  7. Two-step fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for bio-oil production using microwave absorbent and HZSM-5 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Zhaoping; Xie, Qinglong; Liu, Shiyu; Ruan, Roger

    2016-07-01

    A novel technology of two-step fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis (fMAP) of corn stover for bio-oil production was investigated in the presence of microwave absorbent (SiC) and HZSM-5 catalyst. Effects of fMAP temperature and catalyst-to-biomass ratio on bio-oil yield and chemical components were examined. The results showed that this technology, employing microwave, microwave absorbent and HZSM-5 catalyst, was effective and promising for biomass fast pyrolysis. The fMAP temperature of 500°C was considered the optimum condition for maximum yield and best quality of bio-oil. Besides, the bio-oil yield decreased linearly and the chemical components in bio-oil were improved sequentially with the increase of catalyst-to-biomass ratio from 1:100 to 1:20. The elemental compositions of bio-char were also determined. Additionally, compared to one-step fMAP process, two-step fMAP could promote the bio-oil quality with a smaller catalyst-to-biomass ratio.

  8. Quantum dots in bio-imaging: Revolution by the small

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visual analysis of biomolecules is an integral avenue of basic and applied biological research. It has been widely carried out by tagging of nucleotides and proteins with traditional fluorophores that are limited in their application by features such as photobleaching, spectral overlaps, and operational difficulties. Quantum dots (QDs) are emerging as a superior alternative and are poised to change the world of bio-imaging and further its applications in basic and applied biology. The interdisciplinary field of nanobiotechnology is experiencing a revolution and QDs as an enabling technology have become a harbinger of this hybrid field. Within a decade, research on QDs has evolved from being a pure science subject to the one with high-end commercial applications

  9. Special Issue on Organic Electronic Bio-Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Torsi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present editorial is to briefly summarize the current scientific and technological accomplishments in the field of organic electronic biosensors as described in the articles published in this Special Issue. By definition, a biosensor is a robust analytical device that combines a biological recognition element (e.g., antibodies, enzymes, cells with a transducer. Organic electronic bio-devices are considered as potentially reliable substitutes of conventional and rather expensive analytical techniques employed for several applications such as medical diagnosis, food safety and environment pollution monitoring. Some insights into the selection and immobilization of recognition elements, signal amplification, fabrication techniques and analytical performance of biosensing devices will be presented.

  10. Protein-nanoparticle interactions the bio-nano interface

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Masoud; Tawil, Nancy; Yahia, L'Hocine; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the fabrication of nanomaterials and exploration of their properties have attracted the attention of various scientific disciplines such as biology, physics, chemistry, and engineering. Although nanoparticulate systems are of significant interest in various scientific and technological areas, there is little known about the safety of these nanoscale objects. It has now been established that the surfaces of nanoparticles are immediately covered by biomolecules (e.g. proteins, ions, and enzymes) upon their entrance into a biological medium. This interaction with the biological medium modulates the surface of the nanoparticles, conferring a “biological identity” to their surfaces (referred to as a “corona”), which determines the subsequent cellular/tissue responses. The new interface between the nanoparticles and the biological medium/proteins, called “bio-nano interface,” has been very rarely studied in detail to date, though the interest in this topic is rapidly growing. In this bo...

  11. The Discussion of Bio-Fuel Development%对未来生物燃料发展技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵强; 陈晓香; 魏玓巧

    2015-01-01

    分析了生物质燃料替代化石类燃料的发展背景,总结了生物质燃料的发展过程、技术原理和国内外的发展状况,提出了绿色燃料的发展远景.%The development background of bio-fuel is studied instead of fossil fuel. The development route,technological theory and current situation of bio-fuel are summaried. The bright future of bio-fuel is expected for green production.

  12. Bio-oil and bio-char production from biomass and their structural analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy demand is increasing day by day because of the rapid developments in the population, industrialization and urbanisation. Since, fossil fuels will be at the verge of getting extinct, researches are mostly focused on the renewable sources, such as biomass, in recent years. This paper provides an environmentally friendly process to convert waste biomass samples to bio-oil and bio-char by pyrolysis. For this purpose, pyrolysis characteristics of pomegranate peels under inert atmosphere were studied by using both TGA to analysis decomposition behaviour and a batch reactor to investigate product yields and properties. The properties of bio-oil and bio-char were investigated by different analytical techniques such as GC-MS, FT-IR, SEM, He pycnometry and elemental analysis. As a consequence, it is possible to obtain bio-oil, which has similar properties like petroleum hydrocarbons, and to obtain bio-char, which can be further used as a solid fuel or a carbonaceous adsorbent material via pyrolysis process. (full text)

  13. The Role of Systems Modeling for Sustainable Development Policy Analysis: the Case of Bio-Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert W. Chan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic systems modeling technique has been developed to assess technologies according to the criterion of sustainability. In a case study, the potential contribution of bio-ethanol toward achieving Canada’s commitment to the Kyoto targets for greenhouse gas reductions is analyzed. The analysis concludes that, although bio-ethanol may help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the technology by itself is insufficient to meet the Kyoto target. Applying the systems modeling approach to analyze sustainability helps highlight those policy issues that warrant more in-depth study. Although the systems model may not provide definitive answers, it raises relevant questions about physical constraints that might be encountered and estimates the extent to which sustainability targets may be met under various scenarios.

  14. Bio-inspired Autonomic Structures: a middleware for Telecommunications Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzalini, Antonio; Minerva, Roberto; Moiso, Corrado

    Today, people are making use of several devices for communications, for accessing multi-media content services, for data/information retrieving, for processing, computing, etc.: examples are laptops, PDAs, mobile phones, digital cameras, mp3 players, smart cards and smart appliances. One of the most attracting service scenarios for future Telecommunications and Internet is the one where people will be able to browse any object in the environment they live: communications, sensing and processing of data and services will be highly pervasive. In this vision, people, machines, artifacts and the surrounding space will create a kind of computational environment and, at the same time, the interfaces to the network resources. A challenging technological issue will be interconnection and management of heterogeneous systems and a huge amount of small devices tied together in networks of networks. Moreover, future network and service infrastructures should be able to provide Users and Application Developers (at different levels, e.g., residential Users but also SMEs, LEs, ASPs/Web2.0 Service roviders, ISPs, Content Providers, etc.) with the most appropriate "environment" according to their context and specific needs. Operators must be ready to manage such level of complication enabling their latforms with technological advanced allowing network and services self-supervision and self-adaptation capabilities. Autonomic software solutions, enhanced with innovative bio-inspired mechanisms and algorithms, are promising areas of long term research to face such challenges. This chapter proposes a bio-inspired autonomic middleware capable of leveraging the assets of the underlying network infrastructure whilst, at the same time, supporting the development of future Telecommunications and Internet Ecosystems.

  15. Emerging Technologies in Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jungmann, Julia H

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) as an analytical tool for bio-molecular and bio-medical research targets, accurate compound localization and identification. In terms of dedicated instrumentation, this translates into the demand for more detail in the image dimension (spatial resolution) and in the spectral dimension (mass resolution and accuracy), preferably combined in one instrument. At the same time, large area biological tissue samples require fast acquisition schemes, instrument automation and a robust data infrastructure. This review discusses the analytical capabilities of an "ideal" MSI instrument for bio-molecular and bio-medical molecular imaging. The analytical attributes of such an ideal system are contrasted with technological and methodological challenges in MSI. In particular, innovative instrumentation for high spatial resolution imaging in combination with high sample throughput is discussed. Detector technology that targets various shortcomings of conventional imaging detector systems is hig...

  16. Land degradation, drought and food security in a less-favoured area in the Ethiopian highlands: a bio-economic model with market imperfections

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Stein; Shiferaw, Bekele

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a bio-economic model of Andit Tid, a severely degraded crop-livestock farming system with high population density and good market access in the highlands of Ethiopia. Land degradation, population growth, stagnant technology, and drought threaten food security in the area. Drought or weather risk appears to have increased in recent years. The bio-economic model is used to analyse the combined effects of land degradation, population growth, market imperfections and increased...

  17. A Power-Efficient Bio-Potential Acquisition Device with DS-MDE Sensors for Long-Term Healthcare Monitoring Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Lin Chang; Chih-Wei Chang; Hong-Yi Huang; Chen-Ming Hsu; Chia-Hsuan Huang; Jin-Chern Chiou; Ching-Hsing Luo

    2010-01-01

    This work describes a power-efficient bio-potential acquisition device for long-term healthcare applications that is implemented using novel microelectromechanical dry electrodes (MDE) and a low power bio-potential processing chip. Using micromachining technology, an attempt is also made to enhance the sensing reliability and stability by fabricating a diamond-shaped MDE (DS-MDE) that has a satisfactory self-stability capability and superior electric conductivity when attached onto skin witho...

  18. MODIFIED CLUSTER SYSTEM APPROACH TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY USING MEMBRANE BIO REACTOR– A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Er. Devendra Dohare; Amber Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of the population, the technological and industrial boom has brought enormous problems and degradation of the environment. Effective collection and treatment of urban wastewater is a critical problem in a developing country like India. This paper presents a review of decentralized approaches to waste water treatment and management using “Membrane bio-reactor”. Make wastewater treatment facilities people centric and an approach towards “waste to resource. Cluster s...

  19. The Development of Bio-Analytical Techniques for the Treatment of Psoriasis and Related Skin Disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Hollywood, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    AbstractThe University of ManchesterKatherine Anne Hollywood: June 2010Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Engineering and Physical SciencesThe Development of Bio-Analytical Techniques for the Treatment of Psoriasis and Related Skin Disorders.In this investigation a number of post-genomic technologies have be applied to study the dermatological disorders of psoriasis and keloid disease. In spite of considerable research focus on these diseases the pathogenesis remains unclear an...

  20. On the ‘bio-way’ to sustainability: Novel fermentation pathways to produce fuels and chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Appels, Lise; Dewil, Raf

    2014-01-01

    The search for novel technologies to generate renewable chemicals and fuels has attracted large attention in recent years, mainly because of the necessity to develop sustainable alternatives for fossil fuel based processes. The conversion of biomass and organic wastes by fermentation processes is of growing importance. Whereas in the past microbial conversions were limited to ‘simple molecules’ like bio-ethanol, methane (via anaerobic digestion) or hydrogen production, the application of micr...

  1. BioGRID REST Service, BiogridPlugin2 and BioGRID WebGraph: new tools for access to interaction data at BioGRID

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, A. G.; Wildenhain, J; Tyers, M

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID) representational state transfer (REST) service allows full URL-based access to curated protein and genetic interaction data at the BioGRID database. Appending URL parameters allows filtering of data by various attributes including gene names and identifiers, PubMed ID and evidence type. We also describe two visualization tools that interface with the REST service, the BiogridPlugin2 for Cytoscape and the BioGRID Web...

  2. Combustion characteristics and kinetics of bio-oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruixia ZHANG; Zhaoping ZHONG; Yaji HUANG

    2009-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of bio-oils derived from rice husk and corn were studied by thermogravimetry analysis. According to the thermo-gravimetry (TG), differential thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) curves of bio-oils in air and nitrogen atmosphere, we analyzed the combustion characteristics of different kinds of bio-oils in different atmospheres and worked out the combustion kinetics parameters of the bio-oil, providing reliable base data for the burning of bio-oil. The thermogravimetry indicated that the combustion process of bio-oil was divided into three stages. At the same time, the combustion process can be described by different order reaction models, and with the method of Coats-Redfern, the activation energy and frequency factor of different kinds of bio-oils were obtained.

  3. Bio fuels. A comparative analysis; Biokraftstoffe. Eine vergleichende Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Norbert; Henke, Jan; Klepper, Gernot

    2009-07-01

    The market for bio fuels is subject to very high dynamics worldwide. Due to the extreme rise of the prices of raw materials as well as due to the retrogressive tax reductions for bio fuels in Germany one hardly invests in bio fuels. Substantial changes are experienced in the markets for fossil raw materials. The prices for agrarian raw material used in this contribution originate from the years 2006 and 2007. The effects of clearly higher oil prices on the bio fuel market are described. The investigation under consideration also deals with criteria of sustainability. The contribution of the individual bio fuels to the reduction of greenhouse gases is analyzed. The costs resulting from this are numerated. This enables a well-established comparison in which less representative bio fuels such as bio methane, BtL fuels and cellulose ethanol also are included.

  4. BioMeeT. Planning of biomass based methanol energy combine - Trollhaettan region. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandberg, Aake; Hjortsberg, Hans; Saevbark, Bengt [Ecotraffic R and D AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekbom, Tomas; Hjerpe, Carl-Johan; Landaelv, Ingvar [Nykomb Synergetics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    The conversion of biomass in an energy combine based on primary gasification yields a gas that can be used as fuels gas, for synthesis of motor fuels (methanol or other) or for electric power production. The study gives examples of alternative product mixes. The conclusions of the study are: (1) Potential of new, not yet utilised biomass is available, and new areas of applications, where oil is presently used, are needed to develop the potential. Motor fuel production (methanol, DME) is a presumption in the BioMeeT-study. (2) Yield figures in the energy combine are comparable to those of now used bio-systems for power and co-generation. (3) Which one of the cases in the BioMeeT-project is the most favourable cannot be decided on a plant-to-plant basis alone but the entire system for supply energy carriers in the region has to be considered, as the all plants within the system may change. This would require further investigations. Moreover, the results will be different in various regions in Sweden and Europe due to the markets for all energy carriers. (4) At today's conditions in the Trollhaettan region it must be stated that there is only room for dedicated bio-methanol/DME production (provided such a market will come) with moderate addition to the district heating system as in the BAL-project. (5) In the longer term the future supply of all energy carriers, including new electric power and new bio-fuels, has to be considered for new plants and at renewals. In such a case an energy combine as in the BioMeeT-project may be a central conversion plant with gas deliveries to satellites such as local co-generation, district heat and industries in a regional system within a 50 - 100 km radius. This should be included in regional planning for the future. (6) Estimated investment costs per kW feedstock input is higher for the energy combine compared to present technologies (mature technologies for power and heat) but have to be judged for all plants taken together in

  5. SYNBIOCHEM-a SynBio foundry for the biosynthesis and sustainable production of fine and speciality chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Pablo; Currin, Andrew; Dunstan, Mark; Fellows, Donal; Jervis, Adrian; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Robinson, Christopher J; Swainston, Neil; Vinaixa, Maria; Williams, Alan; Yan, Cunyu; Barran, Perdita; Breitling, Rainer; Chen, George Guo-Qiang; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Goble, Carole; Goodacre, Royston; Kell, Douglas B; Feuvre, Rosalind Le; Micklefield, Jason; Scrutton, Nigel S; Shapira, Philip; Takano, Eriko; Turner, Nicholas J

    2016-06-15

    The Manchester Synthetic Biology Research Centre (SYNBIOCHEM) is a foundry for the biosynthesis and sustainable production of fine and speciality chemicals. The Centre's integrated technology platforms provide a unique capability to facilitate predictable engineering of microbial bio-factories for chemicals production. An overview of these capabilities is described. PMID:27284023

  6. SYNBIOCHEM–a SynBio foundry for the biosynthesis and sustainable production of fine and speciality chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Pablo; Currin, Andrew; Dunstan, Mark; Fellows, Donal; Jervis, Adrian; Rattray, Nicholas J.W.; Robinson, Christopher J.; Swainston, Neil; Vinaixa, Maria; Williams, Alan; Yan, Cunyu; Barran, Perdita; Breitling, Rainer; Chen, George Guo-Qiang; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Goble, Carole; Goodacre, Royston; Kell, Douglas B.; Feuvre, Rosalind Le; Micklefield, Jason; Scrutton, Nigel S.; Shapira, Philip; Takano, Eriko; Turner, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    The Manchester Synthetic Biology Research Centre (SYNBIOCHEM) is a foundry for the biosynthesis and sustainable production of fine and speciality chemicals. The Centre's integrated technology platforms provide a unique capability to facilitate predictable engineering of microbial bio-factories for chemicals production. An overview of these capabilities is described. PMID:27284023

  7. BioHackathon series in 2011 and 2012: penetration of ontology and linked data in life science domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katayama, T.; Wilkinson, M.D.; Aoki-Kinoshita, K.F.; Prins, J.C.P.

    2014-01-01

    The application of semantic technologies to the integration of biological data and the interoperability of bioinformatics analysis and visualization tools has been the common theme of a series of annual BioHackathons hosted in Japan for the past five years. Here we provide a review of the activities

  8. Agrice 2005. bio-resources to industry. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The year 2005 was marked with a green stone. The increase in oil prices, and therefore of gas as well, is now an ongoing phenomenon. We are seeing an ever more widely shared awareness of the ineluctable depletion of certain forms of fossil energy such as petroleum and natural gas within the span of a human lifetime, and of growing environmental threats. The fight against global warming, the lessening of our dependence on fossil fuels and raw materials are now clearly proclaimed objectives. The use of biomass will be decisive in achieving these goals. Transportation is 98% dependant on oil, and accounts for 27% of all greenhouse gas emissions in France. Agricultural biofuels are the only way to achieve a significant drop in CO2 emissions in the short term. One tonne-oil-equivalent (toe) of biofuel means 2 tonnes of CO2 emission avoided. The biofuels plan adopted in France in 2005 under the European directive is a concrete response to these concerns. This plan calls for a level of 5.75% biofuels incorporated into vehicle fuels in 2008, and 7% in 2010. This decision will support significant development for the industrial production chain set up over ten years ago with technological assistance from AGRICE. In turn it will spur development of bio-products, e.g. chemicals and materials from vegetal feedstocks. In order to optimise the economic, energy and environmental balance sheet, industrial processing of plants will have to forge integrated systems, such as bio-refineries, that will create value from all the products in the production chain. While agriculture can bring some short-term answers to the fuel question, this will only partly address the problem, given the needs at stake. Chemicals and materials will be a major market outlet for vegetal resources. Here there is much room for industrial innovation, attracting partners from a wide range of sectors, as attested by AGRICE's membership. But vegetal feedstocks call for the elaboration of new processes, and going

  9. Chemical and ecotoxicological properties of three bio-oils from pyrolysis of biomasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Tiziana; Samorì, Chiara; Torri, Cristian; Barbera, Giuseppe; Foschini, Anna; Kiwan, Alisar; Galletti, Paola; Tagliavini, Emilio; Pasteris, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    In view of the potential use of pyrolysis-based technologies, it is crucial to understand the environmental hazards of pyrolysis-derived products, in particular bio-oils. Here, three bio-oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of pine wood and intermediate pyrolysis of corn stalk and poultry litter. They were fully characterized by chemical analysis and tested for their biodegradability and their ecotoxicity on the crustacean Daphnia magna and the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata. These tests were chosen as required by the European REACH regulation. These three bio-oils were biodegradable, with 40-60% of biodegradation after 28 days, and had EC50 values above 100mgL(-1) for the crustacean and above 10mgL(-1) for the alga, showing low toxicity to the aquatic life. The toxic unit approach was applied to verify whether the observed toxicity could be predicted from the data available for the substances detected in the bio-oils. The predicted values largely underestimated the experimental values. PMID:27285282

  10. Establishment of pandemic influenza vaccine production capacity at Bio Farma, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhardono, Mahendra; Ugiyadi, Dori; Nurnaeni, Ida; Emelia, Imelda

    2011-07-01

    In Indonesia, avian influenza A(H5N1) virus started to spread in humans in June 2005, with an alarming case-fatality rate of more than 80%. Considering that global influenza vaccine production capacity would barely have covered 10% of the world's pandemic vaccine needs, and that countries with no production facilities or prearranged contracts would be without access to a vaccine, the Government of Indonesia embarked on a programme to increase its readiness for a future influenza pandemic. This included the domestic production of influenza vaccine, which was entrusted to Bio Farma. This health security strategy consists of developing trivalent influenza vaccine production capacity in order to be able to convert immediately to monovalent production of up to 20 million pandemic doses for the Indonesian market upon receipt of the seed strain from the World Health Organization (WHO). For this purpose, a dedicated production facility is being constructed within the Bio Farma premises in Bandung. As an initial stage of influenza vaccine development, imported seasonal influenza bulk has been formulated and filled in the Bio Farma facility. Following three consecutive batches and successful clinical trials, the product was licensed by the Indonesian National Regulatory Authority and distributed commercially for the Hajj programme in 2009. With continued support from its technology transfer partners, Bio Farma is now advancing with the development of upstream processes to produce its own bulk for seasonal and pandemic use.

  11. BioSYNTHESIS: access to a knowledge network of health sciences databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broering, N C; Hylton, J S; Guttmann, R; Eskridge, D

    1991-04-01

    Users of the IAIMS Knowledge Network at the Georgetown University Medical Center have access to multiple in-house and external databases from a single point of entry through BioSYNTHESIS. The IAIMS project has developed a rich environment of biomedical information resources that represent a medical decision support system for campus physicians and students. The BioSYNTHESIS system is an information navigator that provides transparent access to a Knowledge Network of over a dozen databases. These multiple health sciences databases consist of bibliographic, informational, diagnostic, and research systems which reside on diverse computers such as DEC VAXs, SUN 490, AT&T 3B2s, Macintoshes, IBM PC/PS2s and the AT&T ISN and SYTEK network systems. Ethernet and TCP/IP protocols are used in the network architecture. BioSYNTHESIS also provides network links to the other campus libraries and to external institutions. As additional knowledge resources and technological advances have become available. BioSYNTHESIS has evolved from a two phase to a three phase program. Major components of the system including recent achievements and future plans are described.

  12. Primary Nutritional Content of Bio-Flocs Cultured with Different Organic Carbon Sources and Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIE EKASARI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of bio-flocs technology (BFT in aquaculture offers a solution to avoid environmental impact of high nutrient discharges and to reduce the use of artificial feed. In BFT, excess of nutrients in aquaculture systems are converted into microbial biomass, which can be consumed by the cultured animals as a food source. In this experiment, upconcentrated pond water obtained from the drum filter of a freshwater tilapia farm was used for bio-flocs reactors. Two carbon sources, sugar and glycerol, were used as the first variable, and two different levels of salinity, 0 and 30 ppt, were used as the second variable. Bio-flocs with glycerol as a carbon source had higher total n-6 PUFAs (19.1 + 2.1 and 22.3 + 8.6 mg/g DW at 0 and 30 ppt, respectively than that of glucose (4.0 + 0.1 and 12.6 + 2.5 mg/g DW at 0 and 30 ppt. However, there was no effect of carbon source or salinity on crude protein, lipid, and total n-3 PUFAs contents of the bio-flocs.

  13. Catalytic Steam Reforming of Bio-Oil to Hydrogen Rich Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus

    Bio-oil is a liquid produced by pyrolysis of biomass and its main advantage compared with biomass is an up to ten times higher energy density. This entails lower transportation costs associated with the utilization of biomass for production of energy and fuels. Nevertheless, the bio-oil has a low...... heating value and high content of oxygen, which makes it unsuited for direct utilization in engines. One prospective technology for upgrading of bio-oil is steam reforming (SR), which can be used to produce H2 for upgrading of bio-oil through hydrodeoxygenation or synthesis gas for processes like...... with both Ni/Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 and Ni/MgAl2O4. The carbon deposition over Ni/Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 and Ni/MgAl2O4 had a maximum at 500 ‰, which coincided with the maximum in the ethene formation. This, along with estimations of the anity for carbon deposition from the gas composition, showed that ethene is the main...

  14. Agricultural Bio-Fueled Generation of Electricity and Development of Durable and Efficent NOx Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Rodney

    2007-08-08

    The objective of this project was to define the scope and cost of a technology research and development program that will demonstrate the feasibility of using an off-the-shelf, unmodified, large bore diesel powered generator in a grid-connected application, utilizing various blends of BioDiesel as fuel. Furthermore, the objective of project was to develop an emissions control device that uses a catalytic process and BioDiesel (without the presence of Ammonia or Urea)to reduce NOx and other pollutants present in a reciprocating engine exhaust stream with the goal of redefining the highest emission reduction efficiencies possible for a diesel reciprocating generator. Process: Caterpillar Power Generation adapted an off-the-shelf Diesel Generator to run on BioDiesel and various Petroleum Diesel/BioDiesel blends. EmeraChem developed and installed an exhaust gas cleanup system to reduce NOx, SOx, volatile organics, and particulates. The system design and function was optimized for emissions reduction with results in the 90-95% range;

  15. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Damian; Haider, Syed; Durinck, Steffen; Pandini, Luca; Provero, Paolo; Allen, James; Arnaiz, Olivier; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza; Baldock, Richard; Barbiera, Giulia; Bardou, Philippe; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Bonierbale, Merideth; Brookes, Anthony J.; Bucci, Gabriele; Buetti, Iwan; Burge, Sarah; Cabau, Cédric; Carlson, Joseph W.; Chelala, Claude; Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Cittaro, Davide; Collin, Olivier; Cordova, Raul; Cutts, Rosalind J.; Dassi, Erik; Genova, Alex Di; Djari, Anis; Esposito, Anthony; Estrella, Heather; Eyras, Eduardo; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Forbes, Simon; Free, Robert C.; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M.; Goodstein, David; Gray, Kristian; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Haggarty, Bernard; Han, Dong-Jin; Han, Byung Woo; Harris, Todd; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hastings, Robert K.; Hayes, Richard D.; Hoede, Claire; Hu, Shen; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Hutchins, Lucie; Kan, Zhengyan; Kawaji, Hideya; Keliet, Aminah; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kim, Sunghoon; Kinsella, Rhoda; Klopp, Christophe; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Lazarevic, Dejan; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Letellier, Thomas; Li, Chuan-Yun; Lio, Pietro; Liu, Chu-Jun; Luo, Jie; Maass, Alejandro; Mariette, Jerome; Maurel, Thomas; Merella, Stefania; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa; Moreews, Francois; Nabihoudine, Ibounyamine; Ndegwa, Nelson; Noirot, Céline; Perez-Llamas, Cristian; Primig, Michael; Quattrone, Alessandro; Quesneville, Hadi; Rambaldi, Davide; Reecy, James; Riba, Michela; Rosanoff, Steven; Saddiq, Amna Ali; Salas, Elisa; Sallou, Olivier; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Staines, Daniel M.; Steinbach, Delphine; Stone, Kevin; Stupka, Elia; Teague, Jon W.; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z.; Wang, Jun; Ware, Doreen; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Youens-Clark, Ken; Zadissa, Amonida; Zhang, Shi-Jian; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2015-01-01

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by their host organizations. The BioMart data federation technology provides a unified interface to all the available data. The latest version of the portal comes with many new databases that have been created by our ever-growing community. It also comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools. A new addition to our toolbox, the enrichment analysis tool is now accessible through graphical and web service interface. The BioMart community portal averages over one million requests per day. Building on this level of service and the wealth of information that has become available, the BioMart Community Portal has introduced a new, more scalable and cheaper alternative to the large data stores maintained by specialized organizations. PMID:25897122

  16. Characteristics of sustainable bio-solid fuel produced from sewage sludge as a conventional fuel substitute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safely final disposal of sewage sludge which is being increased every year has already become serious problems. As one of the promising technologies to solve this problem, thermal drying method has been attracting wide attention due to energy recovery from sewage sludge. This paper describes several characteristics of sustainable bio-solid fuel, as a conventional fuel substitute, produced from sewage sludge drying and granulation plant having the treatment capacity of 10 ton/ day. This plant has been successfully operated many times and is now designing for scale-up. Average moisture content of twelve kinds of bio-solid fuels produced from the plant normally less than 10 wt% and average shape of them is mainly composed of granular type having a diameter of 2-8 mm for easy handling and transportation to the final market destinations. Average higher heating value, which is one of the important properties to estimate the possibility of available energy, of bio-solid fuels is about 3800 kcal/ kg as dry basis. So they can be utilized to supply energy in the coal power plant and cement kiln etc. as a conventional fuel substitute for a beneficial reuse. Characteristics including proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, contents of heavy metals, wettability etc. of bio-solid fuels have been also analyzed for the environmentally safe re utilization. (author)

  17. Evaluation of Bio-Medical Waste Management Practices in a Government Medical College and Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastav Shalini, Mahajan Harsh, Mathur B P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomedical waste (BMW collection and proper disposal has become a significant concern for both the medical and the general community as improper management poses risks to the health care workers, waste handlers, patients, community in general and largely the environment. Objectives: (i Assessment of current Bio-medical waste management practices including collection, segregation, transportation, storage, treatment and disposal technologies in tertiary health care center. (ii Assessment of health and safety practices for the health care personnel involved in Bio-Medical Waste Management. Materials and Methods: Waste management practices in the Government Hospital was studied during March 2009 – May 2009.The information / data regarding Bio-Medical Waste Management practices and safety was collected by way of semi- structured interview. Results: M.L.B Medical College generates 0.52Kgs waste per bed per day and maximum waste is generated in wards. The institute has got separate color coded bins in wards for collection of waste but segregation practices needs to be more refined. The safety measures taken by health care workers was not satisfactory, it was basically due to un-awareness of health hazards which may occur because of improper waste management practices. Conclusion: Thus it is concluded that there should be strict implementation of a waste management policy set up in the institute; training and motivation must be given paramount importance to meet the current needs and standards of bio-medical waste management.

  18. Photobiology of Symbiodinium revisited: bio-physical and bio-optical signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennige, S. J.; Suggett, D. J.; Warner, M. E.; McDougall, K. E.; Smith, D. J.

    2009-03-01

    Light is often the most abundant resource within the nutrient-poor waters surrounding coral reefs. Consequently, zooxanthellae ( Symbiodinium spp.) must continually photoacclimate to optimise productivity and ensure coral success. In situ coral photobiology is becoming dominated by routine assessments using state-of-the-art non-invasive bio-optical or chlorophyll a fluorescence (bio-physical) techniques. Multiple genetic types of Symbiodinium are now known to exist; however, little focus has been given as to how these types differ in terms of characteristics that are observable using these techniques. Therefore, this investigation aimed to revisit and expand upon a pivotal study by Iglesias-Prieto and Trench (1994) by comparing the photoacclimation characteristics of different Symbiodinium types based on their bio-physical (chlorophyll a fluorescence, reaction centre counts) and bio-optical (optical absorption, pigment concentrations) ‘signatures’. Signatures described here are unique to Symbiodinium type and describe phenotypic responses to set conditions, and hence are not suitable to describe taxonomic structure of in hospite Symbiodinium communities. In this study, eight Symbiodinium types from clades and sub-clades (A-B, F) were grown under two PFDs (Photon Flux Density) and examined. The photoacclimation response by Symbiodinium was highly variable between algal types for all bio-physical and for many bio-optical measurements; however, a general preference to modifying reaction centre content over effective antennae-absorption was observed. Certain bio-optically derived patterns, such as light absorption, were independent of algal type and, when considered per photosystem, were matched by reaction centre stoichiometry. Only by better understanding genotypic and phenotypic variability between Symbiodinium types can future studies account for the relative taxonomic and physiological contribution by Symbiodinium to coral acclimation.

  19. R&D投入与公司价值相关性的实证分析—以我国生物制药和电子信息技术行业上市公司为例%Empirical Analysis of the Correlation between R&D Investment and Firm Value Analysis -An Example of Bio-pharmaceutical and Electronic Information Technology Listed Companies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚志文; 陈金龙

    2011-01-01

    Using a firm-level dataset of Chinese bio-pharmaceutical and electronic information technology listed companies from 2007 to 2009 as sample, the paper empirically studies the correlation between R&-D investment and company's R&.D value. This paper first examines the role of R&-D investment on business performance, and then uses an improved model of Fama-French three-factor test R&D investment effects on the market valuation. The results show that, R&-D investment is related to operating profits in the same year. R&.D investment is also associated with the same and next year stock price, but not significant. It is found out that, with the implementation of new accounting standards and the completion of the split share reform, the value of R&D investment of the Bio-pharmaceutical and electronic information technology listed companies in China has not been effectively recognized by the market.%以2007-2009年我国生物制药和电子信息技术行业上市公司为研究样本,实证考察R&D投入与公司价值的相关性.首先检验R&D投入对公司经营业绩的作用,然后运用改进的Fama-French三因子模型,检验R&D投入的市场估值效应.结果显示,R&D投入与公司本年主营业务利润正相关,与同期股价和未来一年的股价变动正相关,但不显著.说明生物制药和电子信息技术企业研发投入的价值,在新会计准则实施和股权分置改革完成后,仍未得到市场的有效认可.

  20. Green technology foresight of products and materials - some reflections and results from an ongoing Danish project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pedersen, Thomas Thoning; Falch, Morten;

    2005-01-01

    The article presents some methodological and theoretical reflections and some preliminary results from a Danish Green Technology Foresight project about environmental friendly products and materials, where the environmental potentials and risks from three technology areas are analysed: nano- bio...

  1. Bio energy and its vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present state of fuel and energy basis in the world as well as in Slovakia urges on the need for radical intervention to the energy sector. This will initiate a change of fuel basis-transition to renewable sources of energy as an alternative to fossil fuels and it will also initiate the need for change of present technological basis in energy sector. The main problem with energy is that we are running short of traditional resources of supply. This sentence is the proof that the world energy situation is very complicated. In fact, it is never too early for a sustainable solution. One of the solutions is to replace traditional energy carriers such as raw oil, natural gas and coal with renewable energy resources and carriers. World-wide, there is an increasing demand for biomass, for production of renewable CO2-neutral fuel and as an inexpensive environmentally friendly raw material source for pulp and industry production. Short-Rotation-Plantations hold much promise in fulfilling these demands. Short-Rotation-Plantations combined with the safe application of waste water and sewage sludge for irrigation and fertilization purposes are a very promising alternative source of income due to the high economic biomass potential, the fast growing wood biomass demand for raw material (pulp) or wood chips, the low cost water treatment and the enormous potential to be used for irrigation and fertilization purposes. Thanks to this procedure, Short-Rotation-Plantations are high efficient biomass production systems with additional contribution as biological filters to a low-cost and environmentally safe biological wastewater and sludge treatment. (Author)

  2. Stomatal Density and Bio-water Saving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bio-water saving is to increase water use efficiency of crops or crop yield per unit of water input. Plant water use efficiency is determined by photosynthesis and transpiration, for both of which stomata are crucial. Stomata are pores on leaf epidermis for both water and carbon dioxide fluxes that are controlled by two major factors: stomatal behavior and density. Stomatal behavior has been the focus of intensive research, while less attention has been paid to stomatal density. Recently, a number of genes controlling stomatal development have been identified. This review summarizes the recent progress on the genes regulating stomatal density, and discusses the role of stomatal density in plant water use efficiency and the possibility to increase plant water use efficiency, hence bio-water saving by genetically manipulating stomatal density.

  3. High performance bio-integrated devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Lee, Jongha; Park, Minjoon

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, personalized electronics for medical applications, particularly, have attracted much attention with the rise of smartphones because the coupling of such devices and smartphones enables the continuous health-monitoring in patients' daily life. Especially, it is expected that the high performance biomedical electronics integrated with the human body can open new opportunities in the ubiquitous healthcare. However, the mechanical and geometrical constraints inherent in all standard forms of high performance rigid wafer-based electronics raise unique integration challenges with biotic entities. Here, we describe materials and design constructs for high performance skin-mountable bio-integrated electronic devices, which incorporate arrays of single crystalline inorganic nanomembranes. The resulting electronic devices include flexible and stretchable electrophysiology electrodes and sensors coupled with active electronic components. These advances in bio-integrated systems create new directions in the personalized health monitoring and/or human-machine interfaces.

  4. Bio energy in Norway; Bioenergi i Noreg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Sidelnikova, Maria

    2011-07-01

    The main conclusion in this report is that it is possible to make available about 14 TWh bio energy in Norway than what is used today to a charge that is located less than ca. 30 oere / kWh. Almost all this potential come from the forest and requires an increase in output up to the net sustained yield. Further 5 TWh may be available in the form of biogas at a cost that is both higher and have greater uncertainty than the fixed bio energy. It is set up a cost curve based on this work, which is quoted here. This reflects only the technical costs, and does not regard wages, commissions, taxes or fees. The value of alternative uses of biomass are not considered. The cost curve must therefore not be mixed with a supply curve. (eb)

  5. Four principles of bio-musicology

    OpenAIRE

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2015-01-01

    As a species-typical trait of Homo sapiens, musicality represents a cognitively complex and biologically grounded capacity worthy of intensive empirical investigation. Four principles are suggested here as prerequisites for a successful future discipline of bio-musicology. These involve adopting: (i) a multicomponent approach which recognizes that musicality is built upon a suite of interconnected capacities, of which none is primary; (ii) a pluralistic Tinbergian perspective that addresses a...

  6. NEW BIO-BASED MATERIAL FOR FOOTWEAR

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, J.; A. Zapatero; Martínez, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    To date, the chemical industry has been using fossil resources to produce Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU). However, recently a bio-based alternative has been developed to produce TPU from renewable sources (plant oils). These environmentally-friendly TPUs can be used by different traditional industries (automotive, furniture, clothing, etc.) and the footwear industry is one of its potential consumers. Thus, the project titled “Thermoplastic polyurethane from renewable sources applied in foot...

  7. Harvesting of microalgae by bio-flocculation

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, S.; Bosma, R.; Vermuë, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The high-energy input for harvesting biomass makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible. A novel harvesting method is presented as a cost and energy efficient alternative: the bio-flocculation by using one flocculating microalga to concentrate the non-flocculating microalga of interest. Three flocculating microalgae, tested for harvesting of microalgae from different habitats, improved the sedimentation rate of the accompanying microalga and increased the...

  8. Utilization of palm oil sludge through pyrolysis for bio-oil and bio-char production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Suchithra; Al-Nadheri, Wail Mohammed Ahmed; Jegarajan, Dinesh; Sahu, J N; Mubarak, N M; Nizamuddin, S

    2015-02-01

    In this study, pyrolysis technique was utilized for converting palm oil sludge to value added materials: bio-oil (liquid fuel) and bio-char (soil amendment). The bio-oil yield obtained was 27.4±1.7 wt.% having a heating value of 22.2±3.7 MJ/kg and a negligible ash content of 0.23±0.01 wt.%. The pH of bio-oil was in alkaline region. The bio-char yielded 49.9±0.3 wt.%, which was further investigated for sorption efficiency by adsorbing metal (Cd(2+) ions) from water. The removal efficiency of Cd(2+) was 89.4±2%, which was almost similar to the removal efficiency of a commercial activated carbon. The adsorption isotherm was well described by Langmuir model. Therefore, pyrolysis is proved as an efficient tool for palm oil sludge management, where the waste was converted into valuable products.

  9. Utilization of palm oil sludge through pyrolysis for bio-oil and bio-char production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Suchithra; Al-Nadheri, Wail Mohammed Ahmed; Jegarajan, Dinesh; Sahu, J N; Mubarak, N M; Nizamuddin, S

    2015-02-01

    In this study, pyrolysis technique was utilized for converting palm oil sludge to value added materials: bio-oil (liquid fuel) and bio-char (soil amendment). The bio-oil yield obtained was 27.4±1.7 wt.% having a heating value of 22.2±3.7 MJ/kg and a negligible ash content of 0.23±0.01 wt.%. The pH of bio-oil was in alkaline region. The bio-char yielded 49.9±0.3 wt.%, which was further investigated for sorption efficiency by adsorbing metal (Cd(2+) ions) from water. The removal efficiency of Cd(2+) was 89.4±2%, which was almost similar to the removal efficiency of a commercial activated carbon. The adsorption isotherm was well described by Langmuir model. Therefore, pyrolysis is proved as an efficient tool for palm oil sludge management, where the waste was converted into valuable products. PMID:25278112

  10. Bio-diesel fuels production: Feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the efforts being made by Italy's national government and private industry to develop diesel engine fuels derived from vegetable oils, in particular, sunflower seed oil. These fuels are being promoted in Italy from the environmental protection stand-point in that they don't contain any sulfur, the main cause of acid rain, and from the agricultural stand-point in that they provide Italian farmers, whose food crop production capacity is limited due to European Communities agreements, with the opportunity to use their set-aside land for the production of energy crops. This paper provides brief notes on the key performance characteristics of bio-diesel fuels, whose application doesn't require any modifications to diesel engines, apart from minor adjustments to the air/fuel mix regulating system, and assesses commercialization prospects. Brief mention is made of the problems being encountered by the Government in the establishing fair bio-fuel production tax rebates which are compatible with the marketing practices of the petroleum industry. One of the strategies being considered is to use the bio-fuels as additives to be mixed with conventional fuel oils so as to derive a fuel which meets the new European air pollution standards

  11. Bio-Oil dari Limbah Padat Sawit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Saputra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bahan bakar minyak merupakan sumber energi terpenting untuk kehidupan manusia. Produksi bahan bakar minyak yang berasal dari bahan bakar fosil semakin hari semakin menurun. Untuk itu diperlukan suatu alternatif sumber energi yang dapat diperbaharui dalam menggantikan bahan bakar fosil, salah satunya adalah mengkonversikan biomas menjadi biooil. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan limbah padat sawit, yaitu batang dan tandan kosong sawit dengan ukuran partikel 2-6 dan 6-10 mesh. Proses yang digunakan untuk mengkonversikan limbah padat sawit pada penelitian ini yaitu slow pyrolysis. Proses ini dilakukan pada reaktor pipa stainless steel dengan diameter 3,81 cm dan panjang 60 cm, pada kisaran temperatur 450-600oC yang dialiri gas nitrogen. Hasil yield tertinggi dicapai pada suhu 500oC dengan diameter partikel 2-6 mesh. Produk bio-oil dilakukan analisa dengan menggunakan GC HP 5890 II. Pada produk bio-oil juga teridentifikasi adanya etanol, benzena, toluena dan xylen. Kata kunci: bio-oil, limbah padat sawit, pyrolysis

  12. Bio-Based Coatings for Paper Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhore Kumar Rastogi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The barrier resistance and wettability of papers are commonly controlled by the application of petroleum-based derivatives such as polyethylene, waxes and/or fluor- derivatives as coating. While surface hydrophobicity is improved by employing these polymers, they have become disfavored due to limitations in fossil-oil resources, poor recyclability, and environmental concerns on generated waste with lack of biodegradation. Alternatively, biopolymers including polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and polyesters can be used to formulate new pathways for fully bio-based paper coatings. However, difficulties in processing of most biopolymers may arise due to hydrophilicity, crystallization behavior, brittleness or melt instabilities that hinder a full exploitation at industrial scale. Therefore, blending with other biopolymers, plasticizers and compatibilizers is advantageous to improve the coating performance. In this paper, an overview of barrier properties and processing of bio-based polymers and their composites as paper coating will be discussed. In particular, recent technical advances in nanotechnological routes for bio-based nano- composite coatings will be summarized, including the use of biopolymer nanoparticles, or nanofillers such as nanoclay and nanocellulose. The combination of biopolymers along with surface modification of nanofillers can be used to create hierarchical structures that enhance hydrophobicity, complete barrier protection and functionalities of coated papers.

  13. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with polylactic acid. Part 1: Influence on bio-oil yield and heating value

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Tom; Yperman, Jan; REGGERS, Guy; Schreurs, Sonja; Carleer, Robert

    2008-01-01

    High amounts of water present in bio-oil are one of the major drawbacks for its utilisation as a fuel. One technology that shows the potential to satisfy the demand for bio-oil with a reduced water content is the flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with polylactic acid, PLA. The influence of PLA on the pyrolysis of willow is investigated with a semi-continuous home-built pyrolysis reactor. Flash co-pyrolysis of willow/PLA blends (10: 1, 3: 1, 1:1 and 1:2) show synergetic interaction. ...

  14. Bio-fuels for the gas turbine: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, K.K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Medi-Caps Institute of Technology and Management, Pigdamber, Rau, Indore (M.P.) (India); Rehman, A.; Sarviya, R.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, MANIT, Bhopal (M.P.) (India)

    2010-12-15

    Due to depletion of fossil fuel, bio-fuels have generated a significant interest as an alternative fuel for the future. The use of bio-fuels to fuel gas turbine seems a viable solution for the problems of decreasing fossil-fuel reserves and environmental concerns. Bio-fuels are alternative fuels, made from renewable sources and having environmental benefit. In recent years, the desire for energy independence, foreseen depletion of nonrenewable fuel resources, fluctuating petroleum fuel costs, the necessity of stimulating agriculture based economy, and the reality of climate change have created an interest in the development of bio-fuels. The application of bio-fuels in automobiles and heating applications is increasing day by day. Therefore the use of these fuels in gas turbines would extend this application to aviation field. The impact of costly petroleum-based aviation fuel on the environment is harmful. So the development of alternative fuels in aviation is important and useful. The use of liquid and gaseous fuels from biomass will help to fulfill the Kyoto targets concerning global warming emissions. In addition, to reduce exhaust emission waste gases and syngas, etc., could be used as a potential gas turbine fuel. The term bio-fuel is referred to alternative fuel which is produced from biomass. Such fuels include bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, bio-methanol, pyrolysis oil, biogas, synthetic gas (dimethyl ether), hydrogen, etc. The bio-ethanol and bio-methanol are petrol additive/substitute. Bio-diesel is an environment friendly alternative liquid fuel for the diesel/aviation fuel. The gas turbine develops steady flame during its combustion; this feature gives a flexibility to use alternative fuels. Therefore so the use of different bio-fuels in gas turbine has been investigated by a good number of researchers. The suitability and modifications in the existing systems are also recommended. (author)

  15. Bio-fuels for the gas turbine: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to depletion of fossil fuel, bio-fuels have generated a significant interest as an alternative fuel for the future. The use of bio-fuels to fuel gas turbine seems a viable solution for the problems of decreasing fossil-fuel reserves and environmental concerns. Bio-fuels are alternative fuels, made from renewable sources and having environmental benefit. In recent years, the desire for energy independence, foreseen depletion of nonrenewable fuel resources, fluctuating petroleum fuel costs, the necessity of stimulating agriculture based economy, and the reality of climate change have created an interest in the development of bio-fuels. The application of bio-fuels in automobiles and heating applications is increasing day by day. Therefore the use of these fuels in gas turbines would extend this application to aviation field. The impact of costly petroleum-based aviation fuel on the environment is harmful. So the development of alternative fuels in aviation is important and useful. The use of liquid and gaseous fuels from biomass will help to fulfill the Kyoto targets concerning global warming emissions. In addition, to reduce exhaust emission waste gases and syngas, etc., could be used as a potential gas turbine fuel. The term bio-fuel is referred to alternative fuel which is produced from biomass. Such fuels include bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, bio-methanol, pyrolysis oil, biogas, synthetic gas (dimethyl ether), hydrogen, etc. The bio-ethanol and bio-methanol are petrol additive/substitute. Bio-diesel is an environment friendly alternative liquid fuel for the diesel/aviation fuel. The gas turbine develops steady flame during its combustion; this feature gives a flexibility to use alternative fuels. Therefore so the use of different bio-fuels in gas turbine has been investigated by a good number of researchers. The suitability and modifications in the existing systems are also recommended. (author)

  16. Bio-Engineering High Performance Microbial Strains for MEOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiangdong Fang; Qinghong Wang; Patrick Shuler

    2007-12-30

    The main objectives of this three-year research project are: (1) to employ the latest advances in genetics and bioengineering, especially Directed Protein Evolution technology, to improve the effectiveness of the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) process. (2) to improve the surfactant activity and the thermal stability of bio-surfactant systems for MEOR; and (3) to develop improved laboratory methods and tools that screen quickly candidate bio-systems for EOR. Biosurfactants have been receiving increasing attention as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) agents because of their unique properties (i.e., mild production conditions, lower toxicity, and higher biodegradability) compared to their synthetic chemical counterparts. Rhamnolipid as a potent natural biosurfactant has a wide range of potential applications, including EOR and bioremediation. During the three-year of the project period, we have successfully cloned the genes involved in the rhamnolipid bio-synthesis. And by using the Transposon containing Rhamnosyltransferase gene rhlAB, we engineered the new mutant strains P. aeruginosa PEER02 and E. coli TnERAB so they can produce rhamnolipid biosurfactans. We were able to produce rhamnolipds in both P. aeroginosa PAO1-RhlA- strain and P. fluorescens ATCC15453 strain, with the increase of 55 to 175 fold in rhamnolipid production comparing with wild type bacteria strain. We have also completed the first round direct evolution studies using Error-prone PCR technique and have constructed the library of RhlAB-containing Transposon to express mutant gene in heterologous hosts. Several methods, such as colorimetric agar plate assay, colorimetric spectrophotometer assay, bioactive assay and oil spreading assay have been established to detect and screen rhamnolipid production. Our engineered P. aeruginosa PEER02 strain can produce rhamnolipids with different carbon sources as substrate. Interfacial tension analysis (IFT) showed that different rhamnolipids from different

  17. ELSAM/ELKRAFT: Draft for the plan of management for bio-energy. ELSAM/ELKRAFT: The electricity companies' programme for gasification of coal and biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Danish power companies have, since the middle of the 80's carried through a technology development effort for the use of bio-fuels in power (and dual-purpose power) plants. This note concerns the current status of the development and a sketch for an action programme for future effort. Straw is the largest unexploited potential. The use of bio-fuels does not produce so much carbon dioxide, but on the other hand biomass supply can fluctuate. Biofuels are also difficult to stoke, and expensive. Close co-operation between agriculture and forestry is necessary and risks are high for the involved sectors. It must be possible to use bio-fuels combined with coal to secure a sturdy and economic energy production, it is necessary to have a stable energy and industrial policy to maintain interest in the long term development effort, the contrasts of interest between natural gas and bio-fuels on the decentralized thermal power market must be clarified and the prices of bio-fuels must be made competitive by making supply and subsidies more effective. The main areas for future development are the bio-fuel resources, logistics and economy, straw in central power plants, gasification of coal and biomass, bio-fuels in decentralized cogeneration plants, biogas plants, conversion of biomass to synthetic fuels etc. A close co-ordination of ELSAM/ELKRAFT's development activities and cooperation between organizations in Denmark and abroad should be aimed at. (AB)

  18. Method to upgrade bio-oils to fuel and bio-crude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Philip H; Pittman, Jr., Charles U; Ingram, Jr., Leonard L; Gajjela, Sanjeev; Zhang, Zhijun; Bhattacharya, Priyanka

    2013-12-10

    This invention relates to a method and device to produce esterified, olefinated/esterified, or thermochemolytic reacted bio-oils as fuels. The olefinated/esterified product may be utilized as a biocrude for input to a refinery, either alone or in combination with petroleum crude oils. The bio-oil esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of alcohol and acid catalyst. The olefination/esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to catalyze olefins added to previously etherified bio-oil; the olefins and alcohol may also be simultaneously combined and catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to produce the olefinated/esterified product.

  19. Molybdenum carbides, active and in situ regenerable catalysts in hydroprocessing of fast pyrolysis bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Soon; Zacher, Alan H.; Wang, Huamin; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Meyer, Harry; Soykal, I. Ilgaz; Schwartz, Viviane

    2016-05-19

    We assessed molybdenum carbides as a potential catalyst for fast pyrolysis bio-oil hydroprocessing. Currently, high catalyst cost, short catalyst lifetime, and lack of effective regeneration methods are hampering the development of this otherwise attractive renewable hydrocarbon technology. A series of metal-doped bulk Mo carbides were synthesized, characterized and evaluated in sequential low-temperature stabilization and high-temperature deoxygenation of a pine-derived bio-oil. During a typical 60-h run, Mo carbides were capable of upgrading raw bio-oil to a level suitable for direct insertion into the current hydrocarbon infrastructure with residual oxygen content and total acid number of upgraded oils below 2 wt% and 0.01 mg KOH g-1, respectively. The performance was shown to be sensitive to the type of metal dopant, Ni-doped Mo carbides outperforming Co-, Cu-, or Ca-doped counterparts; a higher Ni loading led to a superior catalytic performance. No bulk oxidation or other significant structural changes were observed. Besides the structural robustness, another attractive property of Mo carbides was in situ regenerability. The effectiveness of regeneration was demonstrated by successfully carrying out four consecutive 60-h runs with a reductive decoking between two adjacent runs. These results strongly suggest that Mo carbides are promising catalytic materials which could lead to a significant cost reduction in hydroprocessing bio-oils. This paper highlights areas for future research which will be needed to further understand carbide structure-function relationships and help design practical bio-oil upgrading catalysts based on Mo carbides.

  20. The Bio:Fiction film festival: Sensing how a debate about synthetic biology might evolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Markus; Meyer, Angela; Cserer, Amelie

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic biology (SB) is a new techno-scientific field surrounded by an aura of hope, hype and fear. Currently it is difficult to predict which way the public debate - and thus the social shaping of technology - is heading. With limited hard evidence at hand, we resort to a strategy that takes into account speculative design and diegetic prototyping, accessing the Bio:Fiction science film festival, and its 52 short films from international independent filmmakers. Our first hypothesis was that these films could be used as an indicator of a public debate to come. The second hypothesis was that SB would most likely not follow the debate around genetic engineering (framing technology as conflict) as assumed by many observers. Instead, we found good evidence for two alternative comparators, namely nanotechnology (technology as progress) and information technology (technology as gadget) as stronger attractors for an upcoming public debate on SB.

  1. Bio-Intelligence: A Research Program Facilitating the Development of New Paradigms for Tomorrow's Patient Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Sieu; Famili, Fazel; Liu, Ziying; Peña-Castillo, Lourdes

    The advancement of omics technologies in concert with the enabling information technology development has accelerated biological research to a new realm in a blazing speed and sophistication. The limited single gene assay to the high throughput microarray assay and the laborious manual count of base-pairs to the robotic assisted machinery in genome sequencing are two examples to name. Yet even more sophisticated, the recent development in literature mining and artificial intelligence has allowed researchers to construct complex gene networks unraveling many formidable biological puzzles. To harness these emerging technologies to their full potential to medical applications, the Bio-intelligence program at the Institute for Information Technology, National Research Council Canada, aims to develop and exploit artificial intelligence and bioinformatics technologies to facilitate the development of intelligent decision support tools and systems to improve patient care - for early detection, accurate diagnosis/prognosis of disease, and better personalized therapeutic management.

  2. EMBIO - The Danish Energy Agency's model for economic and environmental evaluation of bio-fuels. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodological concept is established for a life-cycle based model which can be used for socio- and private economic and environmental assessment of automotive bio-fuels. The calculation method must be able to calculate socio-economic, energy, environmental, and other consequences by alternative productions and uses of bio-fuels in a way that makes it possible to compare advantages and disadvantages across alternative production technologies. Furthermore it must be possible to perform private cost-benefit calculations from the model. The model must also be able to evaluate specific bio-fuel project, and therefore the method has been developed in close interaction with analyses of two bio-fuel projects. The main emphasis in the development of the model has been put on the relation between CO2 reduction and economics. One main result of the model analyses is therefore the calculated shadow price for the CO2 reduction which expresses the socio-economic costs per ton saved CO2. The socio-economic analyses of the model do not include a monetary account of other environmental impacts than the CO2 emission or other relevant consequences like impacts on employment, balance of payments etc. Thus the socio-economic analyses cannot be the only decision basis for assessing bio-fuel projects. The other environmental aspects are treated only briefly. The model may, however, very easily be extended to a more formalized account of these other aspects. The model may be used for specific experimental projects and for implementation of large full-scale projects. The model development has been limited to use of bio-fuels in the transportation sector. The model may, however, also be used for evaluating bio-fuels in general or other biomass-based energy use in other sectors. (LN) 113 refs

  3. Bio-Chemicals Derived from Waste: Building on the Concept of a Bio-Refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented here has looked into the thermal-conversion of wheat and barley spent grains (SG). Wheat fermentation was carried in the laboratory to get a mashed product while barley grain residues were sourced from a local brewing company. Pyrolysis carried at 460, 520 and 540 Degree C at ambient conditions of pressure in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor resulted in producing bio-oil, charcoal and non-condensable gases. These products were characterized by using the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Differential Thermo-glavemetric Analysis (DTG), Elemental Analyzer (E.A) and a Bomb Calorimeter. The final pyrolysis product analysis revealed that the bio-oil production yields and Higher Heating Value (HHV) largely depended on the pyrolysis temperature and the sample type. In comparison with original raw grain samples, the analysis of thermally treated (pyrolysis) spent grains revealed the presence of high carbon and low oxygen contents. Results gathered in this work have shown that high bio-crude-oil production yields can be obtained at 520 Degree C (53 and 37wt percentage bio-oil from wheat and barley SG). Pyrolysis of wheat and barley SG resulted in giving a Higher Heating Value (HHV) of 21.80 and 21.86 MJ/kg at 540 and 460 Degree C, which is considerably more in comparison to their virgin counterparts. This suggested route thus has a potential for further up-gradation of waste bio-mass for use as an intermediate fuel or as a raw material source for producing other bio-chemicals. (author)

  4. Limits to the potential of bio-fuels and bio-sequestration of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document examines bio-physical limits of bio-fuels and bio-sequestration of carbon by examining available solar radiation and observed efficiencies with which natural ecosystems and agricultural systems convert that energy to biomass. It compares these energy/carbon exchanges with national levels of energy use and carbon emissions for Australia, Brazil, China, Japan, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Singapore, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States. Globally primary energy consumption (related carbon emissions) is currently equivalent to ∼0.06% of the incident solar energy, and 43% of the energy (carbon) captured by photosynthesis. The nations fall into three categories. Those with primary energy consumption that is: 1–10% (Japan, Korea and Singapore); ∼0.1% (China, UK and the US) and; 0.1–0.01% (Australia, Brazil, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and Sweden) of incident solar radiation. The percentage of energy captured in biomass follows this pattern, but generally lower by ∼3 orders of magnitude. The energy content of traded wheat, corn and rice represents conversion efficiencies of solar radiation of 0.08–0.17% and for sugar close to 1%, ignoring energy use in production and conversion of biomass to fuels. The study implies that bio-fuels or bio-sequestration can only be a small part of an inclusive portfolio of actions towards a low carbon future and minimised net emissions of carbon to the atmosphere. - Highlights: • Global energy consumption is ∼0.06% of solar; 43% of net primary production. • 11 nations studied fall into 3 groups: consumption/solar=1–10%; ∼0.1%; 0.1–0.01%. • % of energy captured in biomass is lower by ∼3 orders of magnitude. • Crops and natural ecosystems capture 0.1–0.3% and sugar 1% of solar energy. • Significant bio-energy/carbon sequestration via biomass is unrealistic

  5. Bio-Chemicals Derived from Waste: Building on the Concept of a Bio-Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muddasar Habib

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here has looked into the thermal-conversion of wheat and barley spent grains (SG. Wheat fermentation was carried in the laboratory to get a mashed product while barley grain residues were sourced from a local brewing company. Pyrolysis carried at 460, 520 and 540 oC at ambient conditions of pressure in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor resulted in producing bio-oil, charcoal and non-condensable gases. These products were characterized by using the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS, Differential Thermo-glavemetric Analysis (DTG, Elemental Analyzer (E.A and a Bomb Calorimeter. The final pyrolysis product analysis revealed that the bio-oil production yields and Higher Heating Value (HHV largely depended on the pyrolysis temperature and the sample type. In comparison with original raw grain samples, the analysis of thermally treated (pyrolysis spent grains revealed the presence of high carbon and low oxygen contents. Results gathered in this work have shown that high bio-crude-oil production yields can be obtained at 520 oC (53 and 37wt% bio-oil from wheat and barley SG. Pyrolysis of wheat and barley SG resulted in giving a Higher Heating Value (HHV of 21.80 and 21.86 MJ/kg at 540 and 460oC, which is considerably more in comparison to their virgin counterparts. This suggested route thus has a potential for further up-gradation of waste bio-mass for use as an intermediate fuel or as a raw material source for producing other bio-chemicals.

  6. Bio-replicated forming of the biomimetic drag-reducing surfaces in large area based on shark skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xin; ZHANG DeYuan; LI Xiang; LI YuanYue

    2008-01-01

    On the investigation of biomimetic drag-reducing surface, direct replication of the firm scarfskins on low-resistance creatures to form biomimetic drag-reducing surfaces with relatively vivid morphology relative to the living prototype is a new attempt of the bio-replicated forming technology. Taking shark skin as the bio-replication template, the hot embossing method was applied to the micro-replication of its outward morphology. Furthermore, the skins were jointed together to form the drag-reducing sur-face in large area. The results of the resistance measurements in a water tunnel according to the flat-plate sample pieces have shown that the biomimetic shark-skin coating fabricated by the bio-replicated forming method has significant drag reduction effect, and that the drag reduction effi-ciency reached 8.25% in the test conditions.

  7. Computing Pathways in Bio-Models Derived from Bio-Science Text Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer;

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines a system, OntoScape, serving to accomplish complex inference tasks on knowledge bases and bio-models derived from life-science text corpora. The system applies so-called natural logic, a form of logic which is readable for humans. This logic affords ontological representations...... of complex terms appearing in the text sources. Along with logical propositions, the system applies a semantic graph representation facilitating calculation of bio-pathways. More generally, the system aords means of query answering appealing to general and domain specic inference rules....

  8. ¿Bioética latinoamericana o bioética en Latinoamérica?

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Alberto Álvarez-Díaz

    2012-01-01

    El desarrollo de la Bioética en Latinoamérica ha enfrentado un problema que la Filosofía afrontó hacia mediados del siglo XX: la originalidad de pensamiento. En el trabajo se recuerdan la visión pesimista de Salazar Bondy y la optimista de Zea respecto a la filosofía, como marco antecedente para presentar posturas contemporáneas optimistas y pesimistas en relación con una Bioética latinoamericana . Se destacan paralelismos entre filósofos pesimistas y bioeticistas pesimistas a través de metá...

  9. Bio aerosol Generation at wastewater treatment plants: Identification of main bio aerosols sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typical operations taking place at wastewater treatment plants, especially those involving aeration and mechanical agitation of raw wastewater, represent one of the main sources of bio aerosols that, if inhaled, could pose a biologic hazard to site workers and local residents. Six different wastewater treatment plants from southeast Spain were monitories in order to identify the main bio aerosol sources and to evaluate the airborne microorganisms levels to which workers may be exposed to. Air samples were taken from selected locations by using a single stage impactor. (Author)

  10. BIO-PCI, Charcoal injection in Blast Furnaces: State of the art and economic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliciano-Bruzual, C.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The injection of grinded particles of charcoal through the tuyeres in Blast Furnaces, here coined Bio-PCI, presents as an attractive and plausible alternative to significantly reduce the CO2 emissions generated during hot metal production. In this contribution a summary of the technological fundaments, benefits and limitations of the incorporation of Bio-PCI is presented. Additionally the principal economic challenges of renewables fuel in ironmaking are exposed, with especial interest in the main productions costs of charcoal making. In this sense, a strategic question arises: can the residual biomass drive the emergence of Bio-PCI?, our analysis leads to conclude that the use of residual biomass (e.g. agricultural and forestry residues may significantly reduce the production cost in 120-180 USD/t in comparison to primary woods sources, this naturally increment the economical attractiveness of Bio-PCI substitution.La inyección de carbón vegetal por toberas en Altos Hornos, aqui denominada Bio-PCI, se presenta como una forma atractiva y realista de reducir significativamente las emisiones de CO2 generadas durante la producción de arrabio. En esta contribución se presenta un resumen de los fundamentos tecnológicos, los beneficios y las limitaciones de la incorporación de la tecnología del Bio-PCI. Adicionalmente se exponen los retos económicos que enfrentan los combustibles renovables a los fósiles, con especial interés en los principales costos de producción del carbón vegetal. En este sentido se plantea una pregunta estratégica: ¿puede la biomasa residual impulsar el desarrollo de la Bio-PCI?. Nuestro análisis conlleva a concluir que la utilización de biomasa residual (residuos forestales y agrícolas puede reducir sensiblemente el costo del carbón vegetal entre 120-180 USD/t en comparación con biomasa primaria, incrementando su competitividad frente al carbón mineral.

  11. Leading research on cell proliferation regulation technology; Saibo zoshoku seigyo gijutsu no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For developing intelligent material, animal test alternative model, bio-cell analysis equipment, self-controlling bio-reactor and medical material, development of functional cells was studied by cell proliferation regulation technology. In fiscal 1996, the expression analysis and separation technology of specific gene for cell proliferation, and the intracellular regulation technology were surveyed from the viewpoint of intracellular regulation. The cell proliferation regulation technology by specific regulating material of cells, extracellular matrix, coculture system and embryonic cell was surveyed from the viewpoint of extracellular regulation. In addition, based on these survey results, new cell culture/analysis technology, new bio-material, artificial organ system, energy saving bio-reactor, environment purification microorganism, and animal test alternative model were surveyed as applications to industrial basic technologies from a long-term viewpoint. The approach to cell proliferation regulation requires preparation of a concrete proliferation regulation technology system of cells, and concrete application targets. 268 refs., 43 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Bio diesel- the Clean, Green Fuel for Diesel Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural, renewable resources such as vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled restaurant greases can be chemically transformed into clean burning bio diesel fuels (1). Just like petroleum diesel, bio diesel operates in combustion-ignition engines. Blends of up to 20% bio diesel (mixed with petroleum diesel fuels) can be used in nearly all diesel equipment and are compatible with most storage and distribution equipment. Using bio diesel in a conventional diesel engine substantially reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulphates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. The use of bio diesel has grown dramatically during the last few years. Egypt has a promising experiment in promoting forestation by cultivation of Jatropha plant especially in luxor and many other sites of the country. The first production of the Egyptian Jatropha seeds oil is now under evaluation to produce a cost-competitive bio diesel fuel

  13. MULTIFUNCTIONAL NANO-BIO MATERIALS WITHIN CELLULAR MACHINERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkova, E A; Ulasov, I V; Kim, D-H; Dimitrijevic, N M; Novosad, V; Bader, S D; Lesniak, M S; Rajh, T

    2011-08-01

    Functional nanoscale materials that possess specific physical or chemical properties can leverage energy transduction in vivo. Once these materials integrate with biomolecules they combine physical properties of inorganic material and the biorecognition capabilities of bio-organic moieties. Such nano-bio hybrids can be interfaced with living cells, the elementary functional units of life. These nano-bio systems are capable of bio-manipulation or actuation via altering intracellular biochemical pathways. Thus, nano-bio conjugates are appealing for a wide range of applications from the life sciences and nanomedicine to catalysis and clean energy production. Here we highlight recent progress in our efforts to develop smart nano-bio hybrid materials, and to study their performance within cellular machinery under application of external stimuli, such as light or magnetic fields.

  14. OPTIMIZED DESIGN OF BIO-SENSOR USING CONDUCTING POLYMERS AND NANOCOMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha.A,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This Research work is focused on the design, development and technological evolution of emerging fields of Nanotechnology and Conducting Polymer Electronics, Bio-Tech based Embedded Sensors and Smart Systems employing System-0n- Chip (SOC Core, as applied to Health Monitoring of Human and Complex Systems in Engineering and Medicine. With the Invention of Thin-Film Technology, it is now possible to fabricate Novel Conducting-Polymer based sensors and devices with built-in-flexible electronics resulting in high throughput devices and systems that are flexible, lighter, bio-compatible and economical also. The flexible and EmbeddedElectronics is a key enabler for a number of platform methodologies such as Designed Thin-Films, Smart Electronics and Sensor Devices. The integration of the Bio-Sensor with embedded electronics data conditioning and processing SOC and Wireless –Communication System may provide vast opportunities for Biological – Sensor Applications, especially for physiological monitoring of Leukocyte-Counts in blood sample or analyte for Leukemia Patients in the Society.

  15. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with polylactic acid. Part 1: Influence on bio-oil yield and heating value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Cornelissen; J. Yperman; G. Reggers; S. Schreurs; R. Carleer [Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium). Laboratory of Applied Chemistry

    2008-06-15

    High amounts of water present in bio-oil are one of the major drawbacks for its utilisation as a fuel. One technology that shows the potential to satisfy the demand for bio-oil with a reduced water content is the flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with polylactic acid, PLA. The influence of PLA on the pyrolysis of willow is investigated with a semi-continuous home-built pyrolysis reactor. Flash co-pyrolysis of willow/PLA blends (10:1, 3:1, 1:1 and 1:2) show synergetic interaction. A higher bio-oil yield and a lower water content as a function of the willow/PLA ratios are obtained. Among the tested blends, the 1:2 willow/PLA blend shows the most pronounced synergy: a reduction in the production of pyrolytic water of almost 28%, accompanied by an increase of more than 37% in the production of water-free bio-oil. Additionally, PLA shows to have a positive influence on the energetic value of the bio-oil produced and on the resulting energy recuperation. 23 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. A Low-Power Bio-Potential Acquisition System with Flexible PDMS Dry Electrodes for Portable Ubiquitous Healthcare Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Lin; Chang, Chih-Wei; Lai, Shin-Chi; Chien, Tsung-Fu; Huang, Hong-Yi; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Luo, Ching-Hsing

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a bio-potential acquisition system for portable ubiquitous healthcare applications using flexible polydimethylsiloxane dry electrodes (FPDEs) and a low-power recording circuit. This novel FPDE used Au as the skin contact layer, which was made using a CO2 laser and replica method technology. The FPDE was revised from a commercial bio-potential electrode with a conductive snap using dry electrodes rather than wet electrodes that proposed reliable and robust attachment for the purpose of measurement, and attaching velcro made it wearable on the forearm for bio-potential applications. Furthermore, this study proposes a recording device to store bio-potential signal data and provides portability and low-power consumption for the proposed acquisition system. To acquire differential bio-potentials, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, the proposed recording device includes a low-power front-end acquisition chip fabricated using a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process, a commercial microcontroller (MSP430F149), and a secure digital (SD) card for portable healthcare applications. The proposed system can obtain ECG signals efficiently and are comfortable to the skin. The power consumption of the system is about 85 mW for continuous working over a 3 day period with two AA batteries. It can also be used as a compact Holter ECG system. PMID:23459390

  17. A Low-Power Bio-Potential Acquisition System with Flexible PDMS Dry Electrodes for Portable Ubiquitous Healthcare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chern Chiou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a bio-potential acquisition system for portable ubiquitous healthcare applications using flexible polydimethylsiloxane dry electrodes (FPDEs and a low-power recording circuit. This novel FPDE used Au as the skin contact layer, which was made using a CO2 laser and replica method technology. The FPDE was revised from a commercial bio-potential electrode with a conductive snap using dry electrodes rather than wet electrodes that proposed reliable and robust attachment for the purpose of measurement, and attaching velcro made it wearable on the forearm for bio-potential applications. Furthermore, this study proposes a recording device to store bio-potential signal data and provides portability and low-power consumption for the proposed acquisition system. To acquire differential bio-potentials, such as electrocardiogram (ECG signals, the proposed recording device includes a low-power front-end acquisition chip fabricated using a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS process, a commercial microcontroller (MSP430F149, and a secure digital (SD card for portable healthcare applications. The proposed system can obtain ECG signals efficiently and are comfortable to the skin. The power consumption of the system is about 85 mW for continuous working over a 3 day period with two AA batteries. It can also be used as a compact Holter ECG system.

  18. INVESTIGATIONS ON SEWAGE TREATMENT PROCESS USING COMBINED BIO-OXIDIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Jaromsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations on process of aerobic waste water treatment with combined bio-oxidizers at milk processing enterprises. It has been shown that attached biocenosis, free-floating biocenosis and also bio-module rotation frequency  have exerted a significant influence on the process of an aerobic sewage treatment. It has been established that combined bio-oxidizers can be used for cleaning high concentrated waste water at the enterprises of food industry.

  19. Bio energy. Plants, raw materials, products; Bioenergie. Pflanzen, Rohstoffe, Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenig, Barbara

    2007-07-15

    In the contribution under consideration, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Agency for Renewable Resources e.V. (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany) report on the production and effective utilization of bio energy. The topics of this contribution are: (a) Why bio energy?; (b) Potentials: What is possible?; (c) Heating with biomass; (d) Electricity from Wood and straw; (e) Biogas; (f) Bio fuels; (g) Legal aspects.

  20. The BioGRID interaction database: 2013 update

    OpenAIRE

    Chatr-aryamontri, Andrew; Breitkreutz, Bobby-Joe; Heinicke, Sven; Boucher, Lorrie; Winter, Andrew; Stark, Chris; Nixon, Julie; Ramage, Lindsay; Kolas, Nadine; O’Donnell, Lara; Reguly, Teresa; Breitkreutz, Ashton; Sellam, Adnane; Chen, Daici; Chang, Christie

    2012-01-01

    The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID: http//thebiogrid.org) is an open access archive of genetic and protein interactions that are curated from the primary biomedical literature for all major model organism species. As of September 2012, BioGRID houses more than 500 000 manually annotated interactions from more than 30 model organisms. BioGRID maintains complete curation coverage of the literature for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast...

  1. The BioGRID Interaction Database: 2008 update

    OpenAIRE

    Breitkreutz, Bobby-Joe; Stark, Chris; Reguly, Teresa; Boucher, Lorrie; Breitkreutz, Ashton; Livstone, Michael; Oughtred, Rose; Daniel H Lackner; Bähler, Jürg; Wood, Valerie; Dolinski, Kara; Tyers, Mike

    2007-01-01

    The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID) database (http://www.thebiogrid.org) was developed to house and distribute collections of protein and genetic interactions from major model organism species. BioGRID currently contains over 198 000 interactions from six different species, as derived from both high-throughput studies and conventional focused studies. Through comprehensive curation efforts, BioGRID now includes a virtually complete set of interactions reported...

  2. The BioGRID interaction database: 2008 update

    OpenAIRE

    B. J. Breitkreutz; Stark, C.; Reguly, T.; Boucher, L.; Breitkreutz, A.; Livstone, M.; Oughtred, R.; Lackner, D. H.; Bahler, J.; Wood, V; Dolinski, K; Tyers, M

    2008-01-01

    The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets ( BioGRID) database (http://www.thebiogrid.org) was developed to house and distribute collections of protein and genetic interactions from major model organism species. BioGRID currently contains over 198 000 interactions from six different species, as derived from both high-throughput studies and conventional focused studies. Through comprehensive curation efforts, BioGRID now includes a virtually complete set of interactions reporte...

  3. The BioGRID interaction database:2013 update

    OpenAIRE

    Chatr-aryamontri, Andrew; Breitkreutz, Bobby-Joe; Heinicke, Sven; Boucher, Lorrie; Winter, Andrew; Stark, Chris; Nixon, Julie; Ramage, Lindsay; Kolas, Nadine; O'Donnell, Lara; Reguly, Teresa; Breitkreutz, Ashton; Sellam, Adnane; Chen, Daici; Chang, Christie

    2013-01-01

    The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID: http://thebiogrid.org) is an open access archive of genetic and protein interactions that are curated from the primary biomedical literature for all major model organism species. As of September 2012, BioGRID houses more than 500 000 manually annotated interactions from more than 30 model organisms. BioGRID maintains complete curation coverage of the literature for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeas...

  4. BIO-PROSPECTING, IPR, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ITS TRADE SECRETS

    OpenAIRE

    Lad Meenal Deepak; Kumar Naresh

    2012-01-01

    Bio-prospecting involves searching for collecting, and deriving genetic material from samples of bio-diversity that can be used in commercialized pharmaceutical, agricultural, industrial, or chemical processing end products. Salient features of Bio-prospecting are: Conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, Rights of traditional, indigenous knowledge holders; fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the research, indigenous knowledge, intellectual property, or appli...

  5. BioGrid Australia facilitates collaborative medical and bioinformatics research across hospitals and medical research institutes by linking data from diverse disease and data types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriel, Robert B; Gibbs, Peter; O'Brien, Terence J; Hibbert, Marienne

    2011-05-01

    BioGrid Australia is a federated data linkage and integration infrastructure that uses the Internet to enable patient specific information to be utilized for research in a privacy protected manner, from multiple databases of various data types (e.g. clinical, treatment, genomic, image, histopathology and outcome), from a range of diseases (oncological, neurological, endocrine and respiratory) and across more than 20 health services, universities and medical research institutes. BioGrid has demonstrated an ability to facilitate powerful research into the causation of human disease and the prediction of disease and treatment outcomes. BioGrid has successfully implemented technology and processes that allow researchers to efficiently extract data from multiple sources, without compromising data security and privacy. This article reviews BioGrid's first seven years and how it has overcome 9 of its top 10 challenges. PMID:21309032

  6. The role of bio-fuels in satisfying US transportation fuel demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinci, Berk; Fitch, Jonathan V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Kassebaum, Paul G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Thompson, Robert W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    In spite of the abundant interest in conversion of agricultural products into useful energy carriers, there have been relatively few studies assessing the magnitude of the impact these fuels can make on satisfying US energy demands. There have been fewer studies of unintended consequences stemming from these enterprises, although several research groups have begun questioning the appropriate levels of subsidies provided to individuals and companies to stimulate production of bio-fuels. In this paper, the production capacities for bio-fuels - ethanol and biodiesel - are evaluated for their potential impact on the US energy market. Several ramifications of these technologies are reviewed. This study concludes that ethanol or biodiesel production do not appear scalable to make a significant difference on the US fossil fuel demand for transportation. Aspects of this study point to systemic changes that may be required in lifestyles and attitudes toward energy consumption. Finally, comments regarding US energy policies are included to stimulate discussion. (author)

  7. [Engineering of the xylose metabolic pathway for microbial production of bio-based chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixi; Fu, Jing; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Tao

    2013-08-01

    As the rapid development of economy necessitates a large number of oil, the contradiction between energy supply and demand is further exacerbated by the dwindling reserves of petroleum resource. Therefore, the research of the renewable cellulosic biomass resources is gaining unprecedented momentum. Because xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose in lignocellulose hydrolyzes, high-efficiency bioconversion of xylose becomes one of the vital factors that affect the industrial prospects of lignocellulose application. According to the research progresses in recent years, this review summarized the advances in bioconversion of xylose, which included identification and redesign of the xylose metabolic pathway, engineering the xylose transport pathway and bio-based chemicals production. In order to solve the energy crisis and environmental pollution issues, the development of advanced bio-fuel technology, especially engineering the microbe able to metabolize xylose and produce ethanol by synthetic biology, is environmentally benign and sustainable. PMID:24364352

  8. 8th International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing : Theories and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Linqiang; Fang, Xianwen

    2013-01-01

    International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing: Theories and Applications (BIC-TA) is one of the flagship conferences on Bio-Computing, bringing together the world’s leading scientists from different areas of Natural Computing. Since 2006, the conferences have taken place at Wuhan (2006), Zhengzhou (2007), Adelaide (2008), Beijing (2009), Liverpool & Changsha (2010), Malaysia (2011) and India (2012). Following the successes of previous events, the 8th conference is organized and hosted by Anhui University of Science and Technology in China. This conference aims to provide a high-level international forum that researchers with different backgrounds and who are working in the related areas can use to present their latest results and exchange ideas. Additionally, the growing trend in Emergent Systems has resulted in the inclusion of two other closely related fields in the BIC-TA 2013 event, namely Complex Systems and Computational Neuroscience. These proceedings are intended for researchers in the fiel...

  9. Biophysics and Thermodynamics: The Scientific Building Blocks of Bio-inspired Drug Delivery Nano Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetzos, Costas

    2015-06-01

    Biophysics and thermodynamics are considered as the scientific milestones for investigating the properties of materials. The relationship between the changes of temperature with the biophysical variables of biomaterials is important in the process of the development of drug delivery systems. Biophysics is a challenge sector of physics and should be used complementary with the biochemistry in order to discover new and promising technological platforms (i.e., drug delivery systems) and to disclose the 'silence functionality' of bio-inspired biological and artificial membranes. Thermal analysis and biophysical approaches in pharmaceuticals present reliable and versatile tools for their characterization and for the successful development of pharmaceutical products. The metastable phases of self-assembled nanostructures such as liposomes should be taken into consideration because they represent the thermal events can affect the functionality of advanced drug delivery nano systems. In conclusion, biophysics and thermodynamics are characterized as the building blocks for design and development of bio-inspired drug delivery systems.

  10. Six recommendations for a bio-based economy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (PGG), part of the Energy Transition in The Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to conduct research on the macro-economic impact of large scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including technoeconomic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a topdown study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down and bottom-up modelling work are reported separately. Based on the results of the studies the platform formulated six recommendations

  11. Next-Generation Bio-Products Sowing the Seeds of Success for Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Müller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants have recently been recognized as meta-organisms due to a close symbiotic relationship with their microbiome. Comparable to humans and other eukaryotic hosts, plants also harbor a “second genome” that fulfills important host functions. These advances were driven by both “omics”-technologies guided by next-generation sequencing and microscopic insights. Additionally, these new results influence applied fields such as biocontrol and stress protection in agriculture, and new tools may impact (i the detection of new bio-resources for biocontrol and plant growth promotion, (ii the optimization of fermentation and formulation processes for biologicals, (iii stabilization of the biocontrol effect under field conditions, and (iv risk assessment studies for biotechnological applications. Examples are presented and discussed for the fields mentioned above, and next-generation bio-products were found as a sustainable alternative for agriculture.

  12. Electro-active bio-films: formation, characterization and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some bacteria, which are able to exchange electrons with a conductive material without mediator form on conductive surfaces electro-active bio-films. This bacterial property has been recently discovered (2001). Objectives of this work are to develop electro-active bio-films in various natural environments from indigenous flora, then through complementary electrochemical techniques (chrono-amperometry and cyclic voltammetry), to evaluate electro-activity of isolates coming from so-formed bio-films and to characterize mechanisms of electron transfer between bacteria and materials. First, electro-active bio-films have been developed under chrono-amperometry in garden compost and in water coming from Guyana mangrove. These bio-films were respectively able to use an electrode as electron acceptor (oxidation) or as electron donor (reduction). In compost, results obtained in chrono-amperometry and cyclic voltammetry suggest a two-step electron transfer: slow substrate consumption, then rapid electron transfer between bacteria and the electrode. Thereafter, the ability to reduce oxygen was demonstrated with cyclic voltammetry for facultative aerobic isolates from compost bio-films (Enterobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp.) and for aerobic isolates obtained from marine electro-active bio-films (Roseobacter spp. in majority). Finally, bio-films inducing current increase in chrono-amperometry were developed in bioreactor with synthetic medium from a pure culture of isolates. Hence, for the first time, electro-activity of several anaerobic strains of Geobacter bremensis isolated from compost bio-films was highlighted. (author)

  13. BioC implementations in Go, Perl, Python and Ruby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanli; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Kwon, Dongseop; Marques, Hernani; Rinaldi, Fabio; Wilbur, W John; Comeau, Donald C

    2014-01-01

    As part of a communitywide effort for evaluating text mining and information extraction systems applied to the biomedical domain, BioC is focused on the goal of interoperability, currently a major barrier to wide-scale adoption of text mining tools. BioC is a simple XML format, specified by DTD, for exchanging data for biomedical natural language processing. With initial implementations in C++ and Java, BioC provides libraries of code for reading and writing BioC text documents and annotations. We extend BioC to Perl, Python, Go and Ruby. We used SWIG to extend the C++ implementation for Perl and one Python implementation. A second Python implementation and the Ruby implementation use native data structures and libraries. BioC is also implemented in the Google language Go. BioC modules are functional in all of these languages, which can facilitate text mining tasks. BioC implementations are freely available through the BioC site: http://bioc.sourceforge.net. Database URL: http://bioc.sourceforge.net/ PMID:24961236

  14. BioC implementations in Go, Perl, Python and Ruby

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wanli; Doğan, Rezarta Islamaj; Kwon, Dongseop; Marques, Hernani; Rinaldi, Fabio; Wilbur, W. John; Comeau, Donald C

    2014-01-01

    As part of a communitywide effort for evaluating text mining and information extraction systems applied to the biomedical domain, BioC is focused on the goal of interoperability, currently a major barrier to wide-scale adoption of text mining tools. BioC is a simple XML format, specified by DTD, for exchanging data for biomedical natural language processing. With initial implementations in C++ and Java, BioC provides libraries of code for reading and writing BioC text documents and annotation...

  15. BioC implementations in Go, Perl, Python and Ruby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanli; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Kwon, Dongseop; Marques, Hernani; Rinaldi, Fabio; Wilbur, W John; Comeau, Donald C

    2014-01-01

    As part of a communitywide effort for evaluating text mining and information extraction systems applied to the biomedical domain, BioC is focused on the goal of interoperability, currently a major barrier to wide-scale adoption of text mining tools. BioC is a simple XML format, specified by DTD, for exchanging data for biomedical natural language processing. With initial implementations in C++ and Java, BioC provides libraries of code for reading and writing BioC text documents and annotations. We extend BioC to Perl, Python, Go and Ruby. We used SWIG to extend the C++ implementation for Perl and one Python implementation. A second Python implementation and the Ruby implementation use native data structures and libraries. BioC is also implemented in the Google language Go. BioC modules are functional in all of these languages, which can facilitate text mining tasks. BioC implementations are freely available through the BioC site: http://bioc.sourceforge.net. Database URL: http://bioc.sourceforge.net/

  16. Bio-Inspired Controller on an FPGA Applied to Closed-Loop Diaphragmatic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbrzeski, Adeline; Bornat, Yannick; Hillen, Brian; Siu, Ricardo; Abbas, James; Jung, Ranu; Renaud, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury can disrupt connections between the brain respiratory network and the respiratory muscles which can lead to partial or complete loss of ventilatory control and require ventilatory assistance. Unlike current open-loop technology, a closed-loop diaphragmatic pacing system could overcome the drawbacks of manual titration as well as respond to changing ventilation requirements. We present an original bio-inspired assistive technology for real-time ventilation assistance, implemented in a digital configurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The bio-inspired controller, which is a spiking neural network (SNN) inspired by the medullary respiratory network, is as robust as a classic controller while having a flexible, low-power and low-cost hardware design. The system was simulated in MATLAB with FPGA-specific constraints and tested with a computational model of rat breathing; the model reproduced experimentally collected respiratory data in eupneic animals. The open-loop version of the bio-inspired controller was implemented on the FPGA. Electrical test bench characterizations confirmed the system functionality. Open and closed-loop paradigm simulations were simulated to test the FPGA system real-time behavior using the rat computational model. The closed-loop system monitors breathing and changes in respiratory demands to drive diaphragmatic stimulation. The simulated results inform future acute animal experiments and constitute the first step toward the development of a neuromorphic, adaptive, compact, low-power, implantable device. The bio-inspired hardware design optimizes the FPGA resource and time costs while harnessing the computational power of spike-based neuromorphic hardware. Its real-time feature makes it suitable for in vivo applications. PMID:27378844

  17. Review of the pyrolysis platform for coproducing bio-oil and biochar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, David A.; Brown, Robert C.; Amonette, James E.; Lehmann, Johannes C.

    2009-09-01

    Pyrolysis is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and robust thermochemical technology for transforming biomass into bio-oil, biochar, and syngas. The robust nature of the pyrolysis technology, which allows considerable flexibility in both the type and quality of the biomass feedstock, combined with a distributed network of small pyrolysis plants, would be compatible with existing agriculture and forestry infrastructure. Bio-oil can be used as a fuel in existing industrial boilers. Biochar can be used with existing infrastructure as a replacement for pulverized coal; however, use of biochar as a soil amendment results in significant environmental and agronomic benefits. Soil application of biochar is a means of sequestering large amounts of C and may have other greenhouse gas benefits. Preliminary reports of the impact of soil biochar applications on crop yields indicate that biochar quality is very important. Biochar is an effective adsorbent for both nutrients and organic contaminants, hence the presence of biochar in soils has been shown to improve water quality in column leaching and field lysimeter studies and it is anticipated to do the same for agricultural watersheds. The pyrolysis platform for producing bio-oil and biochar from biomass appears to be a practical, effective, and environmentally sustainable means of producing large quantities of renewable bioenergy while simultaneously reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. At the present time, the pyrolysis platform is economically marginal because markets for bio-oil and biochar are highly competitive. However, if the USA adopts a program for controlling greenhouse gases, the pyrolysis platform would be highly competitive.

  18. BioHackathon series in 2011 and 2012: penetration of ontology and linked data in life science domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Toshiaki; Wilkinson, Mark D; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; Kawashima, Shuichi; Yamamoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Okamoto, Shinobu; Kawano, Shin; Kim, Jin-Dong; Wang, Yue; Wu, Hongyan; Kano, Yoshinobu; Ono, Hiromasa; Bono, Hidemasa; Kocbek, Simon; Aerts, Jan; Akune, Yukie; Antezana, Erick; Arakawa, Kazuharu; Aranda, Bruno; Baran, Joachim; Bolleman, Jerven; Bonnal, Raoul Jp; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Campbell, Matthew P; Chen, Yi-An; Chiba, Hirokazu; Cock, Peter Ja; Cohen, K Bretonnel; Constantin, Alexandru; Duck, Geraint; Dumontier, Michel; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Fujiwara, Toyofumi; Goto, Naohisa; Hoehndorf, Robert; Igarashi, Yoshinobu; Itaya, Hidetoshi; Ito, Maori; Iwasaki, Wataru; Kalaš, Matúš; Katoda, Takeo; Kim, Taehong; Kokubu, Anna; Komiyama, Yusuke; Kotera, Masaaki; Laibe, Camille; Lapp, Hilmar; Lütteke, Thomas; Marshall, M Scott; Mori, Takaaki; Mori, Hiroshi; Morita, Mizuki; Murakami, Katsuhiko; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Nishide, Hiroyo; Nishimura, Yosuke; Nystrom-Persson, Johan; Ogishima, Soichi; Okamura, Yasunobu; Okuda, Shujiro; Oshita, Kazuki; Packer, Nicki H; Prins, Pjotr; Ranzinger, Rene; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Sansone, Susanna; Sawaki, Hiromichi; Shin, Sung-Ho; Splendiani, Andrea; Strozzi, Francesco; Tadaka, Shu; Toukach, Philip; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Umezaki, Masahito; Vos, Rutger; Whetzel, Patricia L; Yamada, Issaku; Yamasaki, Chisato; Yamashita, Riu; York, William S; Zmasek, Christian M; Kawamoto, Shoko; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2014-01-01

    The application of semantic technologies to the integration of biological data and the interoperability of bioinformatics analysis and visualization tools has been the common theme of a series of annual BioHackathons hosted in Japan for the past five years. Here we provide a review of the activities and outcomes from the BioHackathons held in 2011 in Kyoto and 2012 in Toyama. In order to efficiently implement semantic technologies in the life sciences, participants formed various sub-groups and worked on the following topics: Resource Description Framework (RDF) models for specific domains, text mining of the literature, ontology development, essential metadata for biological databases, platforms to enable efficient Semantic Web technology development and interoperability, and the development of applications for Semantic Web data. In this review, we briefly introduce the themes covered by these sub-groups. The observations made, conclusions drawn, and software development projects that emerged from these activities are discussed.

  19. Bio-energy. Innovators talking; Bio-energie. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on bio-energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar bio-energie.

  20. Visualisation of BioPAX Networks using BioLayout Express (3D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Derek W; Angus, Tim; Enright, Anton J; Freeman, Tom C

    2014-01-01

    BioLayout Express (3D) is a network analysis tool designed for the visualisation and analysis of graphs derived from biological data. It has proved to be powerful in the analysis of gene expression data, biological pathways and in a range of other applications. In version 3.2 of the tool we have introduced the ability to import, merge and display pathways and protein interaction networks available in the BioPAX Level 3 standard exchange format. A graphical interface allows users to search for pathways or interaction data stored in the Pathway Commons database. Queries using either gene/protein or pathway names are made via the cPath2 client and users can also define the source and/or species of information that they wish to examine. Data matching a query are listed and individual records may be viewed in isolation or merged using an 'Advanced' query tab. A visualisation scheme has been defined by mapping BioPAX entity types to a range of glyphs. Graphs of these data can be viewed and explored within BioLayout as 2D or 3D graph layouts, where they can be edited and/or exported for visualisation and editing within other tools. PMID:25949802

  1. Complex biological and bio-inspired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The understanding and characterization ofthe fundamental processes of the function of biological systems underpins many of the important challenges facing American society, from the pathology of infectious disease and the efficacy ofvaccines, to the development of materials that mimic biological functionality and deliver exceptional and novel structural and dynamic properties. These problems are fundamentally complex, involving many interacting components and poorly understood bio-chemical kinetics. We use the basic science of statistical physics, kinetic theory, cellular bio-chemistry, soft-matter physics, and information science to develop cell level models and explore the use ofbiomimetic materials. This project seeks to determine how cell level processes, such as response to mechanical stresses, chemical constituents and related gradients, and other cell signaling mechanisms, integrate and combine to create a functioning organism. The research focuses on the basic physical processes that take place at different levels ofthe biological organism: the basic role of molecular and chemical interactions are investigated, the dynamics of the DNA-molecule and its phylogenetic role are examined and the regulatory networks of complex biochemical processes are modeled. These efforts may lead to early warning algorithms ofpathogen outbreaks, new bio-sensors to detect hazards from pathomic viruses to chemical contaminants. Other potential applications include the development of efficient bio-fuel alternative-energy processes and the exploration ofnovel materials for energy usages. Finally, we use the notion of 'coarse-graining,' which is a method for averaging over less important degrees of freedom to develop computational models to predict cell function and systems-level response to disease, chemical stress, or biological pathomic agents. This project supports Energy Security, Threat Reduction, and the missions of the DOE Office of Science through its efforts to

  2. Élevage de poulets bio

    OpenAIRE

    Früh, Barbara; Hirt, Helen; Hossle, Isabel; Maurer, Veronika; Richter, Toralf

    2003-01-01

    L'élevage de poulets peut être une branche de production intéressante à condition que les exigences concernant le bilan des engrais de ferme soient remplies et que suffisamment de terrains plats pour l'nstallation des poulaillers soient disponibles. L'élevage de poulets bio garantit non seulement une garde respectueuse des animaux, mais fournit également une viande dont la qualité est très appréciée des consommateurs.

  3. Bioética: origen y tendencias

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar Triana, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    La bioética ha afrontado el desafío de abrir espacio a la discusión y aplicación de valores, derechos, principios morales, virtudes, concepciones del bien y de la justicia, la religiosidad y los conceptos sobre situaciones humanas como la vida y la muerte, la enfermedad y la salud, dimensiones todas que deben entenderse en la pluralidad de un diálogo ético de reconocimiento del otro como legítimo otro en la convivencia.

  4. BioShuttle-mediated Plasmid Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Klaus; von Brasch, Leonie; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Ehemann, Volker; Jenne, Juergen; Spring, Herbert; Debus, Juergen; Didinger, Bernd; Rittgen, Werner; Waldeck, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    An efficient gene transfer into target tissues and cells is needed for safe and effective treatment of genetic diseases like cancer. In this paper, we describe the development of a transport system and show its ability for transporting plasmids. This non-viral peptide-based BioShuttle-mediated transfer system consists of a nuclear localization address sequence realizing the delivery of the plasmid phNIS-IRES-EGFP coding for two independent reporter genes into nuclei of HeLa cells. The quantif...

  5. Biot Savart Law integrator BioSaw

    CERN Document Server

    Äkäslompolo, Simppa; Kurki-Suonio, Taina

    2015-01-01

    This contribution documents the methods used in the BioSaw code. The code is inteded to be a flexible tool for calculating magnetic fields due to coils in magnetic confinement fusion devices. It assumes the conductors are infinitesimally thin and can be described as either point sequences or circular coils. The code can calculate both the magnetic field as well as the vector potential due to the coils. The fields can be reduced very near the coils to avoid singular behaviour caused by the thin conductor approximation.

  6. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  7. Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, George W.; Upadhye, Aniruddha A.; Ford, David M.; Bhatia, Surita R.; Badger, Phillip C.

    2012-10-19

    This University of Massachusetts, Amherst project, "Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils" started on 1st February 2009 and finished on August 31st 2011. The project consisted following tasks: Task 1.0: Char Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The presence of char particles in the bio-oil causes problems in storage and end-use. Currently there is no well-established technology to remove char particles less than 10 micron in size. This study focused on the application of a liquid-phase microfiltration process to remove char particles from bio-oil down to slightly sub-micron levels. Tubular ceramic membranes of nominal pore sizes 0.5 and 0.8m were employed to carry out the microfiltration, which was conducted in the cross-flow mode at temperatures ranging from 38 to 45 C and at three different trans-membrane pressures varying from 1 to 3 bars. The results demonstrated the removal of the major quantity of char particles with a significant reduction in overall ash content of the bio-oil. The results clearly showed that the cake formation mechanism of fouling is predominant in this process. Task 2.0 Acid Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The feasibility of removing small organic acids from the aqueous fraction of fast pyrolysis bio-oils using nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. Experiments were carried out with a single solute solutions of acetic acid and glucose, binary solute solutions containing both acetic acid and glucose, and a model aqueous fraction of bio-oil (AFBO). Retention factors above 90% for glucose and below 0% for acetic acid were observed at feed pressures near 40 bar for single and binary solutions, so that their separation in the model AFBO was expected to be feasible. However, all of the membranes were irreversibly damaged when experiments were conducted with the model AFBO due to the presence of guaiacol in the feed solution. Experiments

  8. Bio-energy status document 2012; Statusdocument bio-energie 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.L.; Van Grinsven, A.H.; Bergsma, G.C.; Croezen, H.C.

    2013-05-15

    In 2012 bio-energy contributed over 71 PJ to the Dutch energy supply, a rise of almost 2 PJ over 2011. This means that 75% of the renewable energy consumed in the Netherlands is now derived from biomass. The growth is due mainly to the increase in the mandatory biotransport fuel percentage from 4.25% to 4.5%. The use of energy from 'other biomass combustion' (incl. paper sludge, green waste and chicken excrement) recovered to the level of 2010, following a marked drop in 2011 due to plant maintenance, termination of the MEP ('Environmental Quality of Power Generation') subsidy scheme and high biomass prices. At large power stations there was a considerable decrease in co-incineration of biomass because of incidents (a fire at the Nijmegen coal-fired plant) and a maintenance backlog (at the Amer power station). These are some of the results reported in the 'Bio-energy status document 2012', prepared by CE Delft for NL Agency. In addition to a review and characterisation of the current situation, the report contains an update on government policies on bio-energy and a review of the sources and sustainability of the biomass used in the Netherlands [Dutch] De bijdrage van bio-energie aan de Nederlandse energievoorziening bedroeg in 2012 ruim 71 PJ, een stijging van bijna 2 PJ ten opzichte van 2011. Daarmee is 75% van het verbruik van hernieuwbare energie in Nederland afkomstig van bio-energie. De stijging wordt vooral veroorzaakt door de oplopende bijmengplicht van biotransportbrandstoffen van 4,25% naar 4,5%. Verbruik van energie uit 'overige biomassaverbranding' (o.a. papierslib, groenafval en kippenmest) herstelde zicht tot het niveau van 2010, na een forse daling in 2011 door onderhoud aan installaties, afloop van MEP-subsidies en hoge prijzen van biomassa. Het bij- en meestoken van biomassa in grote elektriciteitscentrales daalde juist aanzienlijk door calamiteiten en uitloop van onderhoud (brand kolencentrale bij Nijmegen

  9. Bio/chemoinformatics in India: an outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shipra; Chavan, Sonali; Deobagkar, Dileep N; Deobagkar, Deepti D

    2015-07-01

    With the advent of significant establishment and development of Internet facilities and computational infrastructure, an overview on bio/chemoinformatics is presented along with its multidisciplinary facts, promises and challenges. The Government of India has paved the way for more profound research in biological field with the use of computational facilities and schemes/projects to collaborate with scientists from different disciplines. Simultaneously, the growth of available biomedical data has provided fresh insight into the nature of redundant and compensatory data. Today, bioinformatics research in India is characterized by a powerful grid computing systems, great variety of biological questions addressed and the close collaborations between scientists and clinicians, with a full spectrum of focuses ranging from database building and methods development to biological discoveries. In fact, this outlook provides a resourceful platform highlighting the funding agencies, institutes and industries working in this direction, which would certainly be of great help to students seeking their career in bioinformatics. Thus, in short, this review highlights the current bio/chemoinformatics trend, educations, status, diverse applicability and demands for further development. PMID:25159593

  10. Bermuda Bio Optics Project. Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Norm

    2003-01-01

    The Bermuda BioOptics Project (BBOP) is a collaborative effort between the Institute for Computational Earth System Science (ICESS) at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR). This research program is designed to characterize light availability and utilization in the Sargasso Sea, and to provide an optical link by which biogeochemical observations may be used to evaluate bio-optical models for pigment concentration, primary production, and sinking particle fluxes from satellite-based ocean color sensors. The BBOP time-series was initiated in 1992, and is carried out in conjunction with the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research. The BATS program itself has been observing biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, particle flux and elemental cycles) in the mesotrophic waters of the Sargasso Sea since 1988. Closely affiliated with BBOP and BATS is a separate NASA-funded study of the spatial variability of biogeochemical processes in the Sargasso Sea using high-resolution AVHRR and SeaWiFS data collected at Bermuda (N. Nelson, P.I.). The collaboration between BATS and BBOP measurements has resulted in a unique data set that addresses not only the SIMBIOS goals but also the broader issues of important factors controlling the carbon cycle.

  11. Steam Reforming of Bio-oil Model Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane, Rasmus; Jensen, Anker Degn; Dahl, Søren

    The steam reforming of bio-oil is a sustainable and renewable route to synthesis gas and hydrogen, where one of the main hurdles is carbon formation on the catalyst.......The steam reforming of bio-oil is a sustainable and renewable route to synthesis gas and hydrogen, where one of the main hurdles is carbon formation on the catalyst....

  12. Bio-composites from mycelium reinforced agricultural substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need for biodegradable alternatives to the inert plastics and expanded foams currently used in in manufacturing processes and device components. The material focused on in this report is a bio-composite patented by Ecovative Design, LLC. The bio-composite utilizes the fungus mycelium to i...

  13. BioRuby: Bioinformatics software for the Ruby programming language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goto, N.; Prins, J.C.P.; Nakao, M.; Bonnal, R.; Aerts, J.; Katayama, A.

    2010-01-01

    The BioRuby software toolkit contains a comprehensive set of free development tools and libraries for bioinformatics and molecular biology, written in the Ruby programming language. BioRuby has components for sequence analysis, pathway analysis, protein modelling and phylogenetic analysis; it suppor

  14. Wireless Distribution and Use of Bio-sensor Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten; Kristensen, Margit; Christensen, Erika Frischknecht

    2007-01-01

      During emergency response use of wired bio-sensors create problems for the response workers. It is difficult to transport patients and checking of data requires you to be next to the patient. We will report on work in progress regarding development of a wireless bio-monitor system that supports...

  15. Alveolar ridge augmentation in rats by Bio-Oss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Bang, G; Haanaes, H R

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine if Bio-Oss initiated osteoinduction or osteoconduction when implanted into rats. Sintered and unsintered granules of the anorganic bovine bone Bio-Oss was implanted subperiosteally for alveolar ridge augmentation purposes and heterotopically in the abdominal...

  16. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  17. Hydraulic Systems with Tap Water versus Bio-oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1997-01-01

    Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry.......Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry....

  18. Los principios de la bioética

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Ruiz-Calderón, José Miguel

    1992-01-01

    Abordar el tema de cuáles son los principios que inspiran, o deben inspirar la bioética, obliga a dilucidar algunas cuestiones previas, entre otras si es posible definir una bioética normativa y exigente en una sociedad pluralista. .

  19. BioCapacitor--a novel category of biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanashi, Takuya; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Tsugawa, Wakako; Ferri, Stefano; Nakayama, Daisuke; Tomiyama, Masamitsu; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Sode, Koji

    2009-03-15

    This research reports on the development of an innovative biosensor, known as BioCapacitor, in which biological recognition elements are combined with a capacitor functioning as the transducer. The analytical procedure of the BioCapacitor is based on the following principle: a biocatalyst, acting as a biological recognition element, oxidizes or reduces the analyte to generate electric power, which is then charged into a capacitor via a charge pump circuit (switched capacitor regulator) until the capacitors attains full capacity. Since the charging rate of the capacitor depends on the biocatalytic reaction of the analyte, the analyte concentration can be determined by monitoring the time/frequency required for the charge/discharge cycle of the BioCapacitor via a charge pump circuit. As a representative model, we constructed a BioCapacitor composed of FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FADGDH) as the anodic catalyst, and attempted a glucose measurement. Charge/discharge frequency of the BioCapacitor increased with the increasing glucose concentration, exhibiting good correlation with glucose concentration. We have also constructed a wireless sensing system using the BioCapacitor combined with an infrared light emitting diode (IRLED), an IR phototransistor system. In the presence of glucose, the IRLED signal was observed due to the discharge of the BioCapacitor and detected by an IR phototransistor in a wireless receiver. Therefore, a BioCapacitor employing FADGDH as its anodic catalyst can be operated as a self-powered enzyme sensor. PMID:19013784

  20. Bio-inspired flapping UAV design: a university perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae-Hung; Lee, Jun-Seong; Kim, Dae-Kwan

    2009-03-01

    Bio-inspired design to make artificial flappers fly does not just imitate biological systems as closely as possible, but also transferring the flappers' own functionalities to engineering solutions. This paper summarizes some key technical issues and the states-of-art of bio-inspired design of flapping UAVs with an introduction to authors' recent research results in this field.