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Sample records for biscuit clypeaster subdepressus

  1. Embryonic, larval, and juvenile development of the sea biscuit Clypeaster subdepressus (Echinodermata: Clypeasteroida.

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    Bruno C Vellutini

    Full Text Available Sea biscuits and sand dollars diverged from other irregular echinoids approximately 55 million years ago and rapidly dispersed to oceans worldwide. A series of morphological changes were associated with the occupation of sand beds such as flattening of the body, shortening of primary spines, multiplication of podia, and retention of the lantern of Aristotle into adulthood. To investigate the developmental basis of such morphological changes we documented the ontogeny of Clypeaster subdepressus. We obtained gametes from adult specimens by KCl injection and raised the embryos at 26 degrees C. Ciliated blastulae hatched 7.5 h after sperm entry. During gastrulation the archenteron elongated continuously while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larvae began to feed in 3 d and were 20 d old at metamorphosis; starved larvae died 17 d after fertilization. Postlarval juveniles had neither mouth nor anus nor plates on the aboral side, except for the remnants of larval spicules, but their bilateral symmetry became evident after the resorption of larval tissues. Ossicles of the lantern were present and organized in 5 groups. Each group had 1 tooth, 2 demipyramids, and 2 epiphyses with a rotula in between. Early appendages consisted of 15 spines, 15 podia (2 types, and 5 sphaeridia. Podial types were distributed in accordance to Lovén's rule and the first podium of each ambulacrum was not encircled by the skeleton. Seven days after metamorphosis juveniles began to feed by rasping sand grains with the lantern. Juveniles survived in laboratory cultures for 9 months and died with wide, a single open sphaeridium per ambulacrum, aboral anus, and no differentiated food grooves or petaloids. Tracking the morphogenesis of early juveniles is a necessary step to elucidate the developmental mechanisms of echinoid growth and important groundwork to clarify homologies between irregular urchins.

  2. Proximate and mineral composition of industrialized biscuits

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    Maria Eliza Assis dos Passos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the proximate and mineral composition of 21 types of biscuits. All biscuits showed high fat contents, significantly different (P < 0.05 from those described on the labels, except for three brands. Insoluble fiber fractions were predominant in the analyzed samples. Among the 21 biscuits analyzed, 16 showed food label values 20% higher than those allowed by law, according to RDC 360, for fat, protein, total fiber, calcium, and sodium levels. This difference reached 273% for the sodium content. The calcium content was included only on the label of three samples analyzed, and the values described were significantly lower than those obtained analytically. Considering that biscuits are consumed by people of all age groups and of different socioeconomic levels, the results can contribute to the plans for health policies, such as surveillance of nutritional labeling, ensuring the reliability of the information provided by the food industry and enabling the identification of the relationship between dietary factors and the occurrence of non-transmissible chronic diseases.

  3. Biscuit meal composition in pig feeding

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    Anderson Corassa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compile results of the nutritional composition of the biscuit meal from 14 papers from studies published in journals and reports during 2000 and 2011 to characterize the gross, digestible and metabolizable energy (DE and ME, kcal / kg for pigs, dry mater (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, mineral matter (MM, crude fiber (CF, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (Pt, sodium (Na, total lysine (LIS, methionine plus cystine total (MC, threonine (THR, tryptophan (TRI and non-nitrogen extraction (ENN of this product. The mean values were biscuit meal 3681 kcal / kg; 8.93%, 9.07%, 11.61%, 2.71%, 2.64%, 0.12%, 0.21%; 0, 34%, 0.23%, 0.30%, 0.26%, 0.16% and 69.66%, for ME; U, CP, EE, MM, FB; Ca, Pt, Na; LIS; MC , TRE, TRI and NFE, respectively.

  4. Biscuit meal composition in pig feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Corassa

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compile results of the nutritional composition of the biscuit meal from 14 papers from studies published in journals and reports during 2000 and 2011 to characterize the gross, digestible and metabolizable energy (DE and ME, kcal / kg) for pigs, dry mater (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), mineral matter (MM), crude fiber (CF), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Pt), sodium (Na), total lysine (LIS), methionine plus cystine total (MC), threonine (THR), tryptophan ...

  5. In vivo effects of Maillard reaction products derived from biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrignani, Mariela; Rinaldi, Gustavo Juan; Lupano, Cecilia Elena

    2016-04-01

    The antioxidant activity, antihypertensive effect and prebiotic activity of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) derived from biscuits were investigated in Wistar rats. Animals were fed the following diets for 6 weeks: control (AIN-93 diet); Asc-diet (AIN-93 diet with ascorbic acid in the drinking water); HT-B diet (containing high amount of MRP derived from biscuits) and LT-B diet (containing negligible amounts of biscuit MRP). Serum antioxidant activity (FRAP, ABTS), as well as lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were determined at the end of the experiment. Results showed that dietary MRP reduced the food efficiency, increased the antioxidant activity of serum, increased the ratio between lactic and total aerobic bacteria, increased water-holding capacity of faeces and reduced blood pressure, but did not reduce mineral absorption. Therefore, the biscuit MRP functional claims could be demonstrated by an in vivo study. PMID:26593484

  6. Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Gluten-Free Biscuits

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    Simona Maria Man

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aglutenics biscuits are intended to those persons who are suffering due to gluten intolerance, also named celiac disease. The fabrication technologies of the aglutenics products can be developed in on two ways: by separating the gluten from the grain or by replacing the grain flour with other types of gluten less flour, in case of bakery and pastry products. In this experiment, the gluten-free biscuits were obtained from the following flours mixture: maize flour (MF, rice flour (RF and soybeans flour (SF. Other raw materials were used, such as: palmtree oil, honey, maize starch, eggs, sugar powdered, vanilla essence and sodium bicarbonate. Four experimental variants (gluten-free biscuits were obtained by varying the proportion of flours ; these variants were coded as follows T1, T2 T3 and T4. The optimization of the aglutenics biscuits manufacture recipe was realized through sensory analyze, using the hedonic test (9 point scale. Samples of biscuits was subjected to the following physico-chemical analysis: moisture content, alkalinity, total carbohydrate content, total fat and protein content. Also the physical properties (length, width, thickness, weight and spread ratio were determined in order to asses the blending influence on the biscuits quality. The blend with flour levels 30:30:40 (MF:RF:SF led to the highest acceptability.

  7. Biochemical Studies for Producing Biscuits from Irradiated Tomato Processed Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to produce biscuits as therapeutic diets. Raw materials of tomato processed waste (TPW) were used as a source of some amino acids and elements, (phosphorus, potassium and magnesium), besides amino acids (Phenyl alanine was found to be the first limiting amino acids while lysine was the second limiting one). It was present about 30.66% fiber and 28.1% protein. The total tomato processed wastes remain un-utilized and they not only add to the disposal problem but also aggravate environmental pollution. Tomato processed wastes were irradiated at two doses (1.5 and 2.5 kGy) for preservation. Biscuits were made with supplementation of 5, 10 and 15% (TPW). All samples of biscuits were examined for chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation. Biological assay was carried out on rats fed biscuits containing 15% irradiated and non-irradiated (TPW). The weight gain, serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined, besides the internal organs. The results obtained showed that 15% (TPW) biscuit had the highest content of lysine, isoleucine and fiber (6.36 and 24.80, respectively) and also scored a good grade. Weight gain, cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced comparable to control and there was significant changes were recorded irradiation treatment on the rats internal organs

  8. Macronutrients Content and Energy Value of Fiber Rich Biscuits

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    Lovorka Vujić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and cereal based products are an important source of energy, fibers and a range of macro- and micronutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, minerals etc. Most of the evidences for health benefits of cereal foods are related to the fiber rich wholegrain foods and its role in reducing risk of degenerative chronic diseases, so-called Western diseases (constipation, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, diverticulosis, obesity, and colon cancer. To evaluate fiber-rich cereal products as a functional food, nine types of biscuits based on whole grain wheat flour with enlarged share of dietary fibers were experimentally prepared. The goal of this study was to present the contents of main macronutrients, such as total proteins, carbohydrates and total fat in mentioned biscuits and to estimate contributions of each individual component to biscuit’s energy value in relation to new reference values. Our results show that regarding Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI given by the Food and Nutrition Board, USA (FNB 2005, examined biscuits can be considered as a good source of macronutrients and dietary fibers in nutrition. Consumption of those biscuits ensure relatively balanced intake of energy originated from main macronutrients. Being high in total dietary fibers (16.50 up to 46.77 g/1000 kcal that is considerably higher than recommended by Adequate Intake (AI for total dietary fibers based on 14 g/1000 kcal of required energy (DRI 2005, investigated biscuits can significantly contribute to the intake of those health enhancing components.

  9. Effects of chemical and enzymatic modification on dough rheology and biscuit characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene; Kaack, Karl; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker;

    2005-01-01

    The effect of addition of sodium meta-bisulfite and a commercial protease on dough rheological properties and biscuit characteristics was studied on 7 biscuit wheat cultivars. Sodium meta-bisulfite (SMS) (360 mg/kg flour) or protease (300 mg/kg flour) was added to semisweet biscuit dough. Rheolog...

  10. Understanding the Effect of Sugar and Sugar Replacement in Short Dough Biscuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, L.; Vallons, K.J.R.; Jurgens, A.; Sanz, T.

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose is the main sugar used in short dough biscuit formula, and it plays an important role in the biscuit manufacturing as well as in the biscuits final quality. However, for health reasons, high levels of sucrose are undesirable, making sucrose replacement an important issue to study. The presen

  11. Rheological properties of biscuit dough from different cultivars, and relationship to baking characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.; Kaack, K.; Bergsøe, M.N.;

    2004-01-01

    Rheological properties of semi-sweet biscuit doughs from eight wheat cultivars were studied, and related to the dimensional changes of biscuits after cutting and baking. The tested cultivars were selected in order to represent a wide diversity in biscuit baking performance, and were grown with low...... differences in structural properties with genetic control. Multivariate regression of flour physiochemical, dough theological, and biscuit baking characteristics showed that a decrease in biscuit length was correlated under several theological parameters, including phase angle delta, Farinograph and creep...

  12. Rheological properties of biscuit dough from different cultivars, and relationship to baking characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene; Kaack, Karl; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker;

    2004-01-01

    Rheological properties of semi-sweet biscuit doughs from eight wheat cultivars were studied, and related to the dimensional changes of biscuits after cutting and baking. The tested cultivars were selected in order to represent a wide diversity in biscuit baking performance, and were grown with low...... structural properties with genetic control. Multivariate regression of flour physiochemical, dough rheological, and biscuit baking characteristics showed that a decrease in biscuit length was correlated under several rheological parameters, including phase angle δ, Farinograph and creep recovery parameters...

  13. Development, characterization and evaluation of high energy biscuits for combating malnourishment among children in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was conducted to prepare supplemented biscuits which could be used as nutritive snacks for malnourished children. Biscuits were prepared by supplementing chickpea and oat in patent flour (fine flour) with different ratio (5%, 10%, 15% and 20 %). Biscuits with no supplementation were kept as control treatment. Chemical and sensory evaluation of supplemented biscuits was carried out. An increase in nutritive values have been observed with an increase in supplementation level. Proximate analysis shows that T/sub 7/ and T/sub 8/ get the highest values for protein, zinc and iron. Results of all treatments were in acceptable range regarding sensory evaluation. These results indicate that biscuits can be successfully supplemented with chickpea and oat. According to sensory evaluation, biscuits containing 20% chickpea and 15% oat were found to be the best among all treatments and could be a potential composition for preparing high energy biscuits for malnourished areas of Pakistan. (author)

  14. Bioavailability of Heme Iron in Biscuit Filling Using Piglets as an Animal Model for Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián Guillermo Quintero-Gutiérrez, Guillermina González-Rosendo, Jonathan Sánchez-Muñoz, Javier Polo-Pozo, José Juan Rodríguez-Jerez

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the bioavailability of heme iron added to biscuit filling. It comprised two stages: first, the development of the heme iron enriched biscuit filling; second, the evaluation of the bioavailability of the mineral in fattening piglets. Two groups were selected randomly and fed: a) Low iron feed and biscuits with heme iron supplemented filling; b) Normal feed (with ferrous sulphate). Weight and blood parameters were measured every fifteen days. Averages ...

  15. Standardization and Evaluation of Physical, Textural and Organoleptic Properties of Chicken Biscuits

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Bukya; K.V.Sunooj; A. SURENDRA BABU

    2013-01-01

    Biscuits are convenient and inexpensive food products that are becoming very popular in India. The present study was conducted to standardize and evaluate the physical, textural and organoleptic properties of chicken biscuits by using defatted chicken, maida flour, spices, butter and baking agents. Control was prepared without adding chicken. Chicken biscuits were prepared by adding 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of defatted chicken into flour with other ingredients. The physical, textural and org...

  16. Use of Coffee Silverskin and Stevia to Improve the Formulation of Biscuits

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Serna Esther; Martinez-Saez Nuria; Mesias Marta; Morales Francisco J.; Castillo M. Dolores del

    2014-01-01

    Decreasing the amount of sugar added to biscuits is a good strategy to obtain a healthy product. However, a reduction in the quantity of sugar may affect its nutritional value and quality. The feasibility of the combined use of stevia and coffee silverskin for achieving healthier, nutritious and good quality biscuits has been investigated. Ten wheat four biscuit formulations were designed. Sucrose, maltitol and stevia were used as sweeteners and coffee silverskin was used as a natural colouri...

  17. Design and Development of a Domestic Biscuit Cabinet Tray Dryer

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    Abiola Olufemi Ajayeoba

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A locally made biscuit cabinet dryer to be operated in homes was designed and developed to prepare biscuits in Nigeria homes. A thorough study of the imported dryer for home use was done. Design drawings and calculations were established and the machine was fabricated with well selected materials and components all sourced locally. The 714mm x 574mm x 984mm box shaped cabinet was constructed using mild steel and fiber glass was used as insulator to control heat loss by conduction The performance of the fabricated cabinet tray dryer was finally evaluated against an imported cabinet tray dryer in using a t-test analysis at 95% confidence level, and the result showed that there is no significant difference between the locally fabricated and the imported dryers.

  18. The impact of sugar and fat reduction on perception and liking of biscuits

    OpenAIRE

    Biguzzi, Coralie; Schlich, Pascal; Lange, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the fat and/or sugar content in biscuits can be a way to improve their nutritional composition. Seventy-nine consumers of biscuits were recruited to study the impact of these reductions on liking and perception. Four categories of products were selected from a wide range of biscuits available at the French market. Three to six variants of each type of biscuit were produced based on reduced content of sugar, fat or both. Consumers tested the samples under laboratory conditions (6 sess...

  19. Energy use in the biscuit-baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.

    1980-05-01

    A survey was carried out to ascertain the level of energy use in the New Zealand biscuit baking industry. All firms in the New Zealand food processing industry that produce biscuits were sent a questionnaire requesting information on energy consumption and production. Replies were received from five factories and the information from these was supplemented by detailed factory surveys in two other factories. Measures to reduce energy consumption are proposed. Replacement of existing steam boilers with boilers better suited to provide the requirements for process steam would lead to significant reductions in baseload boiler fuel use. Small savings both in boiler fuel consumption and oven fuel consumption can be made by improvements to insulation. Further savings in oven fuel consumption are unlikely except by replacement of the existing ovens with more energy-conscious designs. The design of the biscuit coolers used in the industry can be improved to reduce the electricity consumed by the refrigeration equipment for these coolers. Process flow charts are presented. An analysis of energy consumption was made. (MCW)

  20. Use of Coffee Silverskin and Stevia to Improve the Formulation of Biscuits

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    Garcia-Serna Esther

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing the amount of sugar added to biscuits is a good strategy to obtain a healthy product. However, a reduction in the quantity of sugar may affect its nutritional value and quality. The feasibility of the combined use of stevia and coffee silverskin for achieving healthier, nutritious and good quality biscuits has been investigated. Ten wheat four biscuit formulations were designed. Sucrose, maltitol and stevia were used as sweeteners and coffee silverskin was used as a natural colouring and as a source of dietary fbre. The quality of the biscuits was evaluated by measuring their moisture, thickness, breaking force and colour. Acrylamide (ACR and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF contents were also determined in the interest of food safety. The quality and safety of the innovative biscuits was obtained by an analysis of the sugars, proteins, free amino acids, chlorogenic acid, overall antioxidant capacity and acrylamide after in vitro digestion. Only the stevia biscuits and those added with coffee silverskin extract and the solid residue recovered from the extraction process, were selected for that study. A comparison of the stevia formulated biscuits, with the stevia formula added with silverskin, showed that the added biscuits had a good nutritional quality and improved texture and colour.

  1. Rheological properties of biscuit dough from different cultivars, and relationship to baking characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.; Kaack, K.; Bergsøe, M.N.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    Rheological properties of semi-sweet biscuit doughs from eight wheat cultivars were studied, and related to the dimensional changes of biscuits after cutting and baking. The tested cultivars were selected in order to represent a wide diversity in biscuit baking performance, and were grown with low...... differences in structural properties with genetic control. Multivariate regression of flour physiochemical, dough theological, and biscuit baking characteristics showed that a decrease in biscuit length was correlated under several theological parameters, including phase angle delta, Farinograph and creep...... recovery parameters. Sedimentation value was the only physiochernical flour characteristic with considerable influence on the model. Validation of the partial least squares-model including all samples from the 3 years gave only a weak correlation (r = 0.58), whereas when each single year was evaluated...

  2. Stability of vitamin E content of γ-irradiated biscuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology of food irradiation is seen by the industry as a means of ensuring food safety, since it exposes foods to ionizing radiation that kills insects, moulds and bacteria. The need to eliminate bacterial pathogens from read-to-eat food products must always be balanced with the maintenance of product quality. In addition to determining the effective ionizing radiation doses required for pathogen elimination the effects of irradiation on product chemistry, nutritional value and quality must also been determined. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is one of the most potent natural lipophilic antioxidants commonly present in the human diet. As it is considered a free radical scavenger there is a growing concern that irradiation might reduce the vitamin E content of food products prepared with ingredients rich in any of the dietary source of the vitamin. This work describes the effects of ionizing radiation on the vitamin E content of some biscuits commercially found in the market. Three lots of biscuits were used. Irradiation was performed in a 60Co Gammacell 220 source, dose rate of about 3.5 kGy/h at doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy. For vitamin E determination samples were saponified with ethanolic potassium hydroxide in the presence of pyrogallol, and the tocopherols were extracted with petroleum ether. The absorbance was measured at 520 nm. From the obtained results it is possible to conclude that there was a notorious stability of the vitamin content of the biscuits submitted to gamma-irradiation at the assayed doses. (author)

  3. Stability of vitamin E content of {gamma}-irradiated biscuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br; magtaipina@ig.com.br; Lamardo, Leda C.A. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Quimica Biologica]. E-mail: llamardo@ial.sp.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The technology of food irradiation is seen by the industry as a means of ensuring food safety, since it exposes foods to ionizing radiation that kills insects, moulds and bacteria. The need to eliminate bacterial pathogens from read-to-eat food products must always be balanced with the maintenance of product quality. In addition to determining the effective ionizing radiation doses required for pathogen elimination the effects of irradiation on product chemistry, nutritional value and quality must also been determined. Vitamin E ({alpha}-tocopherol) is one of the most potent natural lipophilic antioxidants commonly present in the human diet. As it is considered a free radical scavenger there is a growing concern that irradiation might reduce the vitamin E content of food products prepared with ingredients rich in any of the dietary source of the vitamin. This work describes the effects of ionizing radiation on the vitamin E content of some biscuits commercially found in the market. Three lots of biscuits were used. Irradiation was performed in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 source, dose rate of about 3.5 kGy/h at doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy. For vitamin E determination samples were saponified with ethanolic potassium hydroxide in the presence of pyrogallol, and the tocopherols were extracted with petroleum ether. The absorbance was measured at 520 nm. From the obtained results it is possible to conclude that there was a notorious stability of the vitamin content of the biscuits submitted to gamma-irradiation at the assayed doses. (author)

  4. Determination of storage conditions for new biscuits using their sorption isotherms

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    G. Diukareva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction For the formation of biscuits quality natural carrier of iodine and sweetener from stevia leaves were used. Desorption of moisture is the dominant process, which will determine the guaranteed shelf life of biscuits. The conditions for the developed biscuits storage was determined by investigating of sorption isotherms and kinetics of reaching the equilibrium moisture content. Materials and Methods. The objects of study arenewly developed biscuits: "Health" (rich in iodine and with the replacement of 50 % sugar by stevioside, "Light" (with the replacement of 75% of sugar by stevioside and enriched with wheat bran, "Fortified" (containselamine, which is a natural source of iodine. Control – the biscuit prepared according to traditional recipes. Tenzometric method was used to study the sorption equilibrium moisture content. Differential function of pore radius distribution was determined using sorption isotherms and then have been subjected to approximation. Results. New biscuits samples are in the area of polymolecular and monomolecular sorption in the range of the relative air humidity (RAH from 10 to 75 ... 80%. The control sample has less distinct plot of monomolecular sorption (10 to 20% and short- moisture range wich is corresponding with polymolecularsorption (from 20 to 65 ... 70%. There is a moisture absorbtion ofmicrocapillary and swelling of samples when RAHincreases to 75 ... 80% for all the samples. The ratio of average pore radius tothe most likely of the test samples are differentthat wasshown by the investigation of differential function of pore distribution. So this ratio for biscuit "Health" is 5.73, for biscuit "Light" − 2.98,forbiscuit "Fortified"− 4.91 and for the control − 3.88. Conclusions. There’s the sense to store developed biscuits in a cardboard packaging with polymeric covering, if RAH is not more than 75%, and vapor-proof if RAH is above that.

  5. Sensory and textural evaluation of gluten-free biscuits containing buckwheat flour

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    Tuğba Öksüz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Five different formulations containing buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum flour were used in this study to produce biscuit samples which were then analyzed for proximate composition, textural and sensory properties. The different formulations based on incorporation of egg white, carob syrup, and purified starches into the dough formulation yielded final products with different nutritional, sensory, and textural properties. Use of carob syrup to replace table sugar resulted in biscuits with higher outer appearance scores and significantly harder texture. Purified starch substitution on the other hand resulted in high fracturability values. They also had lower protein and higher energy contents. Egg white substitution was aimed at increasing cohesion in the biscuit dough, however, the dough texture of the plain formulation was also acceptable and very subtle differences in biscuit quality were observed with this alteration in the basic formula.

  6. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Peters, Ruud J B; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200°C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructose, (3) with fructose only and (4) with glucose only. Experimental data showed that HMF concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose and fructose, whereas acrylamide concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose, also having the highest asparagine concentration. Proposed mechanistic models suggested that HMF is formed via caramelisation and that acrylamide formation follows the specific amino acid route, i.e., reducing sugars react with asparagine to form the Schiff base before decarboxylation, to generate acrylamide without the Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Study results contribute to understanding chemical reaction pathways in real food products. PMID:26304386

  7. Formulation of Value Added Biscuits Using Defatted Coconut Flour

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    P.L. Sridevi Sivakami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An ideal food for prevention and control of under nutrition should be of high nutritive value, acceptable, readily available at economical price, familiar to the community and have good tolerance both in illness and good health. A food based approach appears to be the most practical solution in addressing the root causes of the deficiencies in providing immediate relief. The present study was taken as an effort in that direction, to formulate value added biscuits using deoiled coconut meal, rice flakes and defatted soya flour as the major nutrients for supplementation. Defatted coconut flour (Cocous nucifera was used as the major ingredient for the formulation of the supplement, because deoiled coconut meal has high energy density, high in food grade protein source. Coconut meal flour is now also being marketed as functional foods it has high dietary fiber content that aids in lowering cholesterol and provides other health benefits to the human body. Totally ten variations were formulated using different ingredients like deoiled coconut meal flour, rice flakes flour, defatted soya flour, ragi flour, samai flour, garden cress seed and whole wheat flour. The proportions of the ingredients were chosen such that iron and protein were high. With its easily digestible, it is also rich in lysine and low in sulphur amino acids were the other ingredients used for the supplement. Refined wheat flour, powdered sugar and fat were used along with other ingredients for preparing the supplement. Biscuit prepared from deoiled coconut meal flour were found to be rich in all the nutrients and it can be used for the production of processed protein foods suitable for supplementing the diets of children, expectant and nursing mother.

  8. A Marketing Strategy for the Development of Want Want Rice Crackers in China Biscuits Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜卉

    2015-01-01

    The Want Want Group, as the biggest rice crackers manufacturer in the world, entered the mainland China's biscuit market and established its first factory in Hunan 1994. Rice Crackers are widely welcomed by Chinese consumers; however, in this decade it remained a stable company share with a very little decline in China's biscuit market. In order to maintain sustainable development, it is worthy to consider the competitive environment and distinguish the opportunities and challenges, analysis strengths and weaknesses.

  9. Integral Wheat Flour Based Biscuits as Sources of Phosphorus in Everyday Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Vitali; Irena Vedrina Dragojević; Katarina Marić; Marija Bujan

    2007-01-01

    Eight experimental integral wheat fl our based biscuits were prepared and investigated for total and bioavailable phosphorus content. Results were compared to the values obtained for classic white wheat fl our based biscuits in order to asses the impact of implantation of bran, different integral raw materials and fibers on the total phosphorus content and its availability. Since a study was conducted in the view of current trends of the excessive intake of this element in most of the develop...

  10. The effect of modified potato flour substitution on the organoleptics characteristics of toddler biscuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakrawati, Dewi; Rahmawati, Puji

    2016-04-01

    Toddler biscuit is complementary food given to infants to help meet their nutritional needs. This research was undertaken to develop toddler biscuit with subtitution of physically modified potato flour. There were two puposes of the research, first to know the characteristics of physically modification on potato flour; secondly to know biscuit characteristics with modified potato flour substitution. There were two factor analysis in the development of biscuit; first factor was pre heating mehods and substitution rate. The research was conducted with experimental method using split plot design. The functional properties on modified potato flour as swelling capacity, water absorption capacity, solubility and viscocity were analyzed. Organoleptic analysis using quality hedonic test showed no interaction between potato starch modification and concentration of modified potato flour. Quality hedonic test showed all toddler biscuit socred in the range of “slightly like” to “like moderately”. Modifying potato starch by boiling and steaming with flour concentration of 30% producing toddler biscuit with organoleptic characteristics acceptable according to the panelists.

  11. Chemical and biological studies on producing high quality biscuits with irradiated tomato wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation has been carried out to produce high quality biscuits for treatment of some special diseases. In this study, the total tomato processing wastes were used as new source of protein in which the most predominate elements were found to be phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Phenyl alanine was found to be the first limiting amino acid, while lysine was the second limiting amino acid. It was found to contain about 30.66% fiber and 28.1% protein. The total tomato processing wastes remain unutilized and they not only add to the disposal problem, but also aggravate environmental pollution. Tomato wastes were irradiated in two doses (1.5 and 2.5 KGy) for preservation. Biscuits were made with supplementation of 5, 10 and 15% tomato wastes. All samples of biscuits were examined for chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation. Biological assay was carried out on rats fed biscuits containing 15% irradiated and non-irradiated tomato wastes. The weight gain, serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined. Internal organs were also followed. The results obtained showed that 15% tomato wastes biscuit had the highest content of lysine, isoleucine and fiber (6.36, 2.72 and 24.80, respectively) and also scored a good grade. Weight gain, cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced comparable to control and there was no effect of irradiation on the rats internal organs

  12. Estimation of thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuit at different baking stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cevoli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity of a food material is an essential physical property in mathematical modelling and computer simulation of thermal processing. Effective thermal conductivity of non-homogeneous materials, such as food matrices, can be determined experimentally or mathematically. The aim of the following research was to compare the thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuits, at different baking stages (60-160 min, measured by a line heat source thermal conductivity probe and estimated through the use of thermo-physical models. The measures were carried out on whole biscuits and on powdered biscuits compressed into cylindrical cases. Thermal conductivity of the compacted material, at different baking times (and, consequently at different moisture content, was then used to feed parallel, series, Krischer and Maxwell-Eucken models. The results showed that the application of the hot wire method for the determination of thermal conductivity is not fully feasible if applied directly to whole materials due to mechanical changes applied to the structure and the high presence of fats. The method works best if applied to the biscuit component phases separately. The best model is the Krischer one for its adaptability. In this case the value of biscuit thermal conductivity, for high baking time, varies from 0.15 to 0.19 Wm–1 K–1, while the minimum, for low baking time, varies from 0.11 to 0.12 Wm–1 K–1. These values are close to that reported in literature for similar products.

  13. Integral Wheat Flour Based Biscuits as Sources of Phosphorus in Everyday Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Vitali

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight experimental integral wheat fl our based biscuits were prepared and investigated for total and bioavailable phosphorus content. Results were compared to the values obtained for classic white wheat fl our based biscuits in order to asses the impact of implantation of bran, different integral raw materials and fibers on the total phosphorus content and its availability. Since a study was conducted in the view of current trends of the excessive intake of this element in most of the developed countries, we expressed results obtained for total phosphorus content as percentages of allocated RDA values. Total phosphorus was determined by an offi cial AOAC method (AOAC 2001 and its bioavailability by an in vitro enzymatic method (Schwedt et al. 1998. Total phosphorus content of investigated samples ranged from 1.093 g kg-1 (biscuit based on type 500 wheat fl our to 2.987 g kg-1 (biscuit enriched with integral wheat fl our and amaranth. Phosphorus availability was the highest in biscuit based on type 500 wheat fl our, as expected (86.1 %, and the lowest in the sample enriched with amaranth fl our (53.0 %, due to a very high phytic acid content. Considering revealed values of total phosphorus content and its bioavailability, we concluded that the richest source of this important macroelement was the sample enriched with soy flour providing 1.671 g kg-1 of available phosphorus.

  14. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: NaCl and temperature-time profile effects and kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Capuano, E.; Nguyen, H.T.; Mogol, B.A.; Kocadagli, T.; Goncuoglu Tas, N.; Hamzalioglu, A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Gokmen, V.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of recipe and temperature–time on the formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during biscuit baking. Baking experiments were performed with biscuits of two different recipes, with and without NaCl, at 180 °C, 190 °C and 200 °C. Acry

  15. Quality of gingernut type biscuits as affected by varying fat content and partial replacement of honey with molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipčev, Bojana; Šimurina, Olivera; Bodroža-Solarov, Marija

    2014-11-01

    Gingernut type biscuits were prepared with varying fat content (10, 20, and 30 % w/w flour basis) and with sugar beet molasses replacing 0, 25, and 50 % w/w of the honey in the formulation. To evaluate the effects of these modifications, dough properties, and the physical, and sensory properties, and chemical composition of the biscuits were determined. Dough properties were significantly affected by the fat content; higher fat gave softer dough with reduced adhesiveness, cohesiveness and springiness. Biscuit height and diameter were also significantly affected only by the fat content. The tested biscuit variants showed no difference with respect to hardness and fracturability. During storage, hardness, fracturability and brittleness of the biscuits significantly increased but significant differences within the biscuits variants were observed after two months of storage in terms of fracturability which was least impaired in the biscuits with 30 % fat. Higher fat content also contributed to better flavour keeping during storage. Substitution of honey with molasses resulted in products with darker colour, less yellow and more red tone. Molasses also contributed to better nutritive value of biscuits by increasing significantly the content of proteins, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. PMID:26396308

  16. A comparative study between natural and synthetic antioxidants: Evaluation of their performance after incorporation into biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleja, Cristina; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-02-01

    Currently, the food industry is focused in replacing the use of synthetic by natural antioxidants. The present study focused on the use of fennel and chamomile extracts, rich in phenolic compounds, as natural antioxidants in biscuits and compared their performance with a synthetic antioxidant widely used, the butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA). The complete nutritional profile, free sugars, fatty acids and antioxidant activity were determined immediately after baking and also after 15, 30, 45 and 60days of storage. The results showed that the incorporation of natural and synthetic additives did not cause significant changes in colour or in nutritional value of biscuits when compared with control samples. Both natural and synthetic additives conferred similar antioxidant activity to the biscuits. Therefore, natural additives are a more convenient solution for consumers who prefer foods "free" from synthetic additives. Additionally, natural additives were obtained by aqueous extraction, an environment friendly and safe process. PMID:27596429

  17. Bioavailability of Heme Iron in Biscuit Filling Using Piglets as an Animal Model for Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Guillermo Quintero-Gutiérrez, Guillermina González-Rosendo, Jonathan Sánchez-Muñoz, Javier Polo-Pozo, José Juan Rodríguez-Jerez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the bioavailability of heme iron added to biscuit filling. It comprised two stages: first, the development of the heme iron enriched biscuit filling; second, the evaluation of the bioavailability of the mineral in fattening piglets. Two groups were selected randomly and fed: a Low iron feed and biscuits with heme iron supplemented filling; b Normal feed (with ferrous sulphate. Weight and blood parameters were measured every fifteen days. Averages were compared after duplicate analyses. The filling had a creamy appearance, chocolate taste and smell, appropriate spreadability, heme iron content of 2.6 mg per gram and a shelf-life of a month. The heme iron supplemented pigs registered a greater (P<0.05 weight gain (27.8% more than the control group. Mortality in the heme iron group was 10%, compared to 50% in the control group. The amount of iron measured in the different compartment was greater in the heme group (3315 mg than in the control group (2792 mg. However, the amount of iron consumed in the latter was greater. We show that an acceptable product with high heme iron content can be formulated, suitable for use as biscuit filling. The heme iron supplement produced better weight increase and lesser mortality in fattening pigs. The bioavailability of heme iron was 23% greater (P<0.05 compared to ferrous sulphate.

  18. Stability of gluten free sweet biscuit elaborated with rice bran, broken rice and okara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Oliveira TAVARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A challenge to the food sector has been the development of new products incorporating co-products from the food processing industry with minimal impact on their pre-determined structures and adding nutritional quality. In order to add value and develop alternatives for the use of co-products generated during the agroindustrial processing, this work aimed to study the stability of gluten-free sweet biscuits developed with soybean okara, rice bran and broken rice. The formulations were elaborated with increasing percentages of these ingredients and compared with the standard (commercial sweet biscuit for ten months. The analyses were: weight, diameters (internal and external, thickness, specific volume, instrumental parameters of color, texture, scanning electron microscopy, water activity, proximal composition and isoflavones. The experimental sweet biscuits had characteristics of color, weight, volume and diameters (internal and external very similar to the commercial, whereas texture, lipids and energy value decreased, and aw, moisture and protein increased during storage. The sweet biscuits showed the same stability when compared to the standard, and the

  19. Assessment of Important Sensory Attributes of Millet Based Snacks and Biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Matthew B; Duizer, Lisa M; Seetharaman, Koushik; Dan Ramdath, D

    2016-05-01

    There is an increasing push by consumers for new food products that can provide health benefits. To develop these products, sometimes it is necessary to look to alternative crops, 1 of which is millet. For millet to be successfully adopted by consumers, it is necessary to identify and develop product types that are acceptable to North Americans. Biscuits and extruded snacks were produced using varying amounts of refined proso millet flour (0%, 25%, 75%, and 100%). Sensory analysis was conducted on 8 products (4 types of biscuits and 4 types of extruded snack) in 2 separate tests (1 for biscuits and 1 for snacks). Preferred Attribute Elicitation (PAE), a relatively new sensory method, was used to determine attributes affecting liking of the products. Results indicated that as the amount of millet in the biscuits and extruded snacks increased, the liking of the flavor, texture and overall liking decreased. Millet contributed to a bitter taste and bitter aftertaste, and resulted in gritty and dry food products. Further work is required to refine the products tested as well as to identify further products that can be added to the diet in order to take advantage of the health benefits that millet provides. PMID:27027669

  20. Exploitation of Common Bean Flours with Low Antinutrient Content for Making Nutritionally Enhanced Biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparvoli, Francesca; Laureati, Monica; Pilu, Roberto; Pagliarini, Ella; Toschi, Ivan; Giuberti, Gianluca; Fortunati, Paola; Daminati, Maria G; Cominelli, Eleonora; Bollini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of legumes is associated with a number of physiological and health benefits. Legume proteins complement very well those of cereals and are often used to produce gluten-free products. However, legume seeds often contain antinutritional compounds, such as phytate, galactooligosaccharides, phenolic compounds, lectins, enzyme inhibitors, whose presence could affect their nutritional value. Screening natural and induced biodiversity for useful traits, followed by breeding, is a way to remove undesirable components. We used the common bean cv. Lady Joy and the lpa1 mutant line, having different seed composition for absence/presence of lectins,α-amylase inhibitor, (α-AI) and phytic acid, to verify the advantage of their use to make biscuits with improved nutritional properties. We showed that use of unprocessed flour from normal beans (Taylor's Horticulture and Billò) must be avoided, since lectin activity is still present after baking, and demonstrated the advantage of using the cv. Lady Joy, lacking active lectins and having active α-AI. To assess the contribution of bean flour to biscuit quality traits, different formulations of composite flours (B12, B14, B22, B24, B29) were used in combinations with wheat (B14), maize (gluten-free B22 and B29), or with both (B12 and B24). These biscuits were nutritionally better than the control, having a better amino acid score, higher fiber amount, lower predicted glycemic index (pGI) and starch content. Replacement of cv. Lady Joy bean flour with that of lpa1, having a 90% reduction of phytic acid and devoid of α-AI, contributed to about a 50% reduction of phytic acid content. We also showed that baking did not fully inactivate α-AI, further contributing to lowering the pGI of the biscuits. Finally, data from a blind taste test using consumers indicated that the B14 biscuit was accepted by consumers and comparable in terms of liking to the control biscuit, although the acceptability of these products decreased

  1. Influence of the incorporation of fibers in biscuit dough on proton mobility characterized by time domain NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serial, M R; Blanco Canalis, M S; Carpinella, M; Valentinuzzi, M C; León, A E; Ribotta, P D; Acosta, R H

    2016-02-01

    The effect of fiber addition on the distribution and mobility of protons in biscuits is studied by using low resolution time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR). The proportion of flour is reduced in order to incorporate inulin and oat fiber. NMR temperature dependent experiments are carried out in order to gain insight on the processes occurring in biscuit baking. Proton populations were identified measuring spin-spin relaxation times (T2). The major change in the relaxation profiles upon incorporation of fibers corresponds to mobile water molecules, which appear to be related to dough spreading behavior and biscuit quality. Biscuit samples baked in a commercial oven were studied by two dimensional spin-lattice/spin-spin (T1-T2) relaxation maps. The T1/T2 ratio is used as an indicator of the population mobility, where changes in the mobility of water in contact with flour components as starch, proteins and pentosans are observed. PMID:26304434

  2. Comparative Study on Supplementation of Potato Flour Biscuits on the Nutritional and Cognitive Profile of the Selected Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Pradeepa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Nutrition of the early childhood is of paramount importance because the foundation for life time strength and intellectual vitality is laid during this period. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of weaning biscuits supplementation of the nutritional parameters and cognitive performance of the selected children. Methods: Three Balwadies situated in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 40 school children in Grade II malnutrition, 15 from Balwadi I, 14 from Balwadi II and 11 from Balwadi III comprised the study sample. All the 40 were selected for the experimental study. Home diet without any supplementation was followed by Group I (n=10, control group, potato flour biscuit was supplemented to Group II (n=10, Maize biscuits were given to Group III (n=10 and Green gram biscuits were given to Group IV (n=10 for the period of 3 months. Parameters like anthropometric measurements, hemoglobin content and clinical picture were analyzed before and after supplementation, cognitive performance of the supplemented children was assessed at the end of the study period. Findings: There was significant difference in height, weight, blood hemoglobin and clinical picture after three months on their home diet in group I. In groups II, III and IV significant increase in all the above parameters was noticed. More increase was found in group II children supplemented with potato flour biscuits for a period of 3 months. About cognitive performance better results were obtained in Group II followed by group IV (supplemented with green gram biscuits and group III (supplemented with maize biscuits. Least was obtained by control group children who were in their home diet. Conclusion:All these observations evidence that if such weaning biscuits made with potato flour, maize and green gram can form a daily ingredient in their diets, it will bring out better all round development of the children.

  3. A Robust Machine Vision Algorithm Development for Quality Parameters Extraction of Circular Biscuits and Cookies Digital Images

    OpenAIRE

    Satyam Srivastava; Sachin Boyat; Shashikant Sadistap

    2014-01-01

    Biscuits and cookies are one of the major parts of Indian bakery products. The bake level of biscuits and cookies is of significant value to various bakery products as it determines the taste, texture, number of chocolate chips, uniformity in distribution of chocolate chips, and various features related to appearance of products. Six threshold methods (isodata, Otsu, minimum error, moment preserving, Fuzzy, manual method, and k-mean clustering) have been implemented for chocolate chips extrac...

  4. Effect of incorporation of decorticated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) protein isolate on functional, baking and sensory characteristics of Wheat (Triticum aesitivum) biscuit

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, H. A.; Mustafa, A. I.; Ahmed, A R

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the objectives of using the decorticated pigeon pea protein isolate in the development of protein rich-biscuit, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea protein isolate on the sensory evaluation and quality of biscuit produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea protein Isolate (DPPI) was incorporated in wheat (Triticum aesitivum) flour (WF, extraction rate 72%), for making fortified biscuit. Ratios of DP...

  5. Relationship between volatile profile and sensory development of an oat-based biscuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognat, Claudine; Shepherd, Tom; Verrall, Susan R; Stewart, Derek

    2014-10-01

    The shelf-life of plain oatcakes and oatcakes containing a natural antioxidant (rosemary extract) was studied for 28 weeks. The biscuits were evaluated using several chemical analyses to determine oxidation (headspace analysis, free fatty acids profile, peroxide value and anisidine value), in addition to sensory testing. A selection of volatiles, including hexanal, were found to be positively correlated to three sensory parameters (aroma, flavour and aftertaste). These volatiles, responsible for the perception of off-flavour in oat biscuits, were predominantly secondary lipid breakdown products, primarily from the unsaturated fatty acids C18:1 and C18:2. The peroxide value was also found to be a useful tool to assess oxidation in oatcakes. The impact of the antioxidant was insufficient at the concentration tested to be used as a solution to prevent the development of off-flavour; however the antioxidant did appear to slow down the rancidity process. PMID:24799211

  6. Estimation of thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuit at different baking stages

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Cevoli; Angelo Fabbri; Simone Virginio Marai; Enrico Ferrari; Adriano Guarnieri

    2014-01-01

    Thermal conductivity of a food material is an essential physical property in mathematical modelling and computer simulation of thermal processing. Effective thermal conductivity of non-homogeneous materials, such as food matrices, can be determined experimentally or mathematically. The aim of the following research was to compare the thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuits, at different baking stages (60-160 min), measured by a line heat source thermal conductivity probe and estimated t...

  7. Occurrence of Acrylamide in breakfast cereals and biscuits available in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    CAPEI, R.; PETTINI, L.; LO NOSTRO, A.; Pesavento, G

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction. Acrylamide, produced during thermal processing of carbohydrate-rich foods, is classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine acrylamide levels in biscuits and breakfast cereals considering the widespread use of these products for all ages. Method. Acrylamide determination was carried out in 56 samples by HPLC-UV technique. Results and discussion. The results showed a co...

  8. Enhancement of Oil Spreadability of Biscuit Surface by Nonthermal Barrier Discharge Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, N.; Sullivan, Carl; Pankaj, Shashi; Alvarez-Jubete, Laura; Cama, Raquel; Jacoby, Franklyn; Cullen, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The application of non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma for altering the hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity of polymer surfaces is well known. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of DBD plasma in enhancing the surface hydrophobicity of freshly baked biscuits, evident from the increased spread area of vegetable oil. The electrical and optical characteristics of the DBD plasma source have also been described. The spread area of individual oil drops has been measured using ...

  9. Stability of gluten free sweet biscuit elaborated with rice bran, broken rice and okara

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Oliveira TAVARES; Edson Pablo da SILVA; Vera Sônia Nunes da SILVA; Manoel Soares SOARES JÚNIOR; Elza Iouko IDA; Clarissa DAMIANI

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A challenge to the food sector has been the development of new products incorporating co-products from the food processing industry with minimal impact on their pre-determined structures and adding nutritional quality. In order to add value and develop alternatives for the use of co-products generated during the agroindustrial processing, this work aimed to study the stability of gluten-free sweet biscuits developed with soybean okara, rice bran and broken rice. The formulations were...

  10. Irradiation treatment of amaranth grain for shelf-life prolongation of amaranth-based biscuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbiological control (total bacterial count, coliform bacteria, aerobic sporeforming bacteria, yeasts and moulds) of amaranth-based biscuits produced from the amaranth grain irradiated by various ionizing radiation doses (1.5, 3 and 5 kGy, radiation source 60Co) and stored for the period of 12 months at the laboratory temperature (20-25 deg C) were studied. The number of microorganisms in biscuits varied in dependence on the level of the starting raw-material treatment (non-irradiated grain - 10E6 CFU/g; irradiated by 1.5 and 3 kGy - 10E3 CFU/g; irradiated by 5 kGy - in the absence of the microflora). The rate of aerobic sporulants (Bacillus subtilis, B. brevis) surviving the shelf-life process, particularly in the samples untreated by radiation and in those treated by lower ionizing radiation doses (1.5 and 3 kGy), constituted 30 to 100 % of the total count of microorganisms. The ionizing radiation dose providing the biscuits maximum hygienic quality maintained up to the end of the one-year storage was 5 kGy

  11. The suitability of teff flour in bread, layer cakes, cookies and biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jennifer; Abaye, A O; Barbeau, William; Thomason, Wade

    2013-11-01

    A niche market in alternative foods has emerged in response to interest in a health conscientious diet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the baking characteristics of teff to determine whether teff could produce satisfactory baked products. Cakes, cookies, biscuits and bread were made in triplicate from composites of wheat flour with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 100% teff flour. Objective tests on size, shape, color and texture were used to evaluate the quality of the baked products. Increases in percent teff resulted in decreases in bread and cake volume (p > 0.05). The fracture strength of the cookies were not significantly different (p > 0.05) but spread was significantly greater for cookies made with 40% and 100% teff flour (p ≤ 0.05). There was also significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in biscuit height and color among teff treatments. Overall, this study showed that teff flour is best suited for use in cookies and biscuits. PMID:23730794

  12. Hydroxytyrosol in functional hydroxytyrosol-enriched biscuits is highly bioavailable and decreases oxidised low density lipoprotein levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Raquel; Martínez-López, Sara; Baeza Arévalo, Gema; Amigo-Benavent, Miryam; Sarriá, Beatriz; Bravo-Clemente, Laura

    2016-08-15

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT) and its derivatives in olive oil protect low-density lipoproteins (LDL) against oxidation. Biscuits could be a convenient alternative to broaden consumers' choice of HT-rich foods, although the biscuit matrix could affect HT bioavailability. We performed a crossover, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate HT bioavailability in HT-enriched biscuits (HT-B) versus non-enriched biscuits (C-B), and the effects on oxidative postprandial status. On two separate days, 13 subjects consumed 30 g of C-B or HT-B (5.25mg HT) after overnight-fasting. Blood and urine were collected at different intervals and analysed by LC-MS-QToF. After HT-B consumption, plasma metabolites peaked between 0.5 and 1h and were extensively excreted in urine. HT-sulphate and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)-sulphate were the main metabolites, followed by DOPAC and homovanillic acid (HVA). HT-glucuronide, DOPAC-glucuronide, HVA-glucuronide and HVA-sulphate were also detected. Postprandial oxidised-LDL concentrations decreased with HT-B. HT is a promising functional ingredient and, in biscuits, it is highly bioavailable and lowers postprandial oxidised-LDL levels. PMID:27006237

  13. Bioaccessibility of Ca, Mg, Mn and Cu from whole grain tea-biscuits: Impact of proteins, phytic acid and polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, D; Vedrina Dragojević, I; Šebečić, B

    2008-09-01

    Levels of some essential minerals (Ca, Mg, Cu and Mn) were determined in ten different types of experimentally prepared hard biscuits. In relation to the wheat flour-based reference sample, other investigated samples were enriched with different ratios of integral raw materials of different origin or various dietary fibers in view of improving their functionality and nutritive quality. The goal of the research was to evaluate enriched biscuits as additional sources of calcium, magnesium, copper and manganese in nutrition and to investigate if the modifications of wheat flour based biscuit composition significantly change the amounts of total and bioaccessible minerals in the final product. Since our results indicated significant changes of mineral bioaccessibility among the samples, obtained results were correlated to the content of proteins, phytic acid and polyphenols for the sake of assessing their impact as limiting factors of mineral bioaccessibility in these types of foods. PMID:26050166

  14. A Robust Machine Vision Algorithm Development for Quality Parameters Extraction of Circular Biscuits and Cookies Digital Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyam Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biscuits and cookies are one of the major parts of Indian bakery products. The bake level of biscuits and cookies is of significant value to various bakery products as it determines the taste, texture, number of chocolate chips, uniformity in distribution of chocolate chips, and various features related to appearance of products. Six threshold methods (isodata, Otsu, minimum error, moment preserving, Fuzzy, manual method, and k-mean clustering have been implemented for chocolate chips extraction from captured cookie image. Various other image processing operations such as entropy calculation, area calculation, parameter calculation, baked dough color, solidity, and fraction of top surface area have been implemented for commercial KrackJack biscuits and cookies. Proposed algorithm is able to detect and investigate about various defects such as crack and various spots. A simple and low cost machine vision system with improved version of robust algorithm for quality detection and identification is envisaged. Developed system and robust algorithm have a great application in various biscuit and cookies baking companies. Proposed system is composed of a monochromatic light source, and USB based 10.0 megapixel camera interfaced with ARM-9 processor for image acquisition. MATLAB version 5.2 has been used for development of robust algorithms and testing for various captured frames. Developed methods and procedures were tested on commercial biscuits resulting in the specificity and sensitivity of more than 94% and 82%, respectively. Since developed software package has been tested on commercial biscuits, it can be programmed to inspect other manufactured bakery products.

  15. Biscuits. Liderazgo en la gestión de una crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Custodia Cabanas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las misiones fundamentales del directivo es gestionar las relaciones de la empresa con su entorno económico, político y social. El cierre de la planta de Galletas Fontaneda en 2002 por parte de su propietaria, United Biscuits, ilustra las enormes dificultades que entraña este papel institucional del directivo. Este caso práctico, escrito como documento para generar discusión y debate, presenta la sucesión de acontecimientos y de decisiones que tomaron los distintos actores implicados, resaltando los aspectos de liderazgo, relaciones públicas y de gobierno de la empresa.

  16. The change of fatty acids composition of Polish biscuits during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczoń, Piotr; Lipińska, Edyta; Czerniawska-Piątkowska, Ewa; Mikuła, Małgorzata; Bartyzel, Bartłomiej J

    2016-07-01

    Commercially available Polish biscuits were stored for 10months under different storage conditions i.e. in temperatures of 5°C and 20°C. The chemical quality alteration caused by chemical reactions occurring within biscuits were studied in terms of change of composition of fat extracted from studied samples in one-month intervals. Correlation of data from standard methods e.g. gas chromatography or classic titration with FT-IR spectroscopy, was followed by calculation of four statistical models that accurately predicted peroxide value, oxidative stability, polar fraction content and unsaturated trans fatty acid content in any samples. On the basis of data obtained, scheme of chemical reactions involved in oxidation process was suggested. A critical time of storage was proposed as an indicator of the period of the highest rate of chemical changes. Among factors considered to influence oxidative stability, the following had the greatest impact: initial water content, initial fat content, and time of storage. PMID:26920303

  17. Implementing a low-starch biscuit-free diet in zoo gorillas: the impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Less, E H; Lukas, K E; Bergl, R; Ball, R; Kuhar, C W; Lavin, S R; Raghanti, M A; Wensvoort, J; Willis, M A; Dennis, P M

    2014-01-01

    In the wild, western lowland gorillas consume a diet high in fiber and low in caloric density. In contrast, many gorillas in zoos consume a diet that is high-calorie and low in fiber. Some items commonly used in captive gorilla diets contain high levels of starch and sugars, which are minimal in the natural diet of gorillas. There is a growing concern that captive gorillas may qualify as obese. Furthermore, the leading cause of death for adult male gorillas in zoos is heart disease. In humans, a diet that is high in simple carbohydrates is associated with both obesity and the incidence of heart disease. In response to these issues, we implemented a biscuit-free diet (free of biscuits and low in fruit) and measured serum biomarkers of obesity and insulin resistance pre- and post-diet change at three institutions: North Carolina Zoological Garden, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, and Columbus Zoo and Aquarium. We also added a resistant starch supplement to gorilla diets at two of the above institutions. We anticipated that these diet changes would positively affect biomarkers of obesity and insulin resistance. Both diet manipulations led to a reduction in insulin. Resistant starch also decreased overall serum cholesterol levels. Future research will examine these health changes in a greater number of individuals to determine if the results remain consistent with these preliminary findings. PMID:24420273

  18. Effect of incorporation of decorticated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan protein isolate on functional, baking and sensory characteristics of Wheat (Triticum aesitivum biscuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Hassan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the objectives of using the decorticated pigeon pea protein isolate in the development of protein rich-biscuit, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea protein isolate on the sensory evaluation and quality of biscuit produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea protein Isolate (DPPI was incorporated in wheat (Triticum aesitivum flour (WF, extraction rate 72%, for making fortified biscuit. Ratios of DPPI in wheat flour were adjusted to protein levels of 15, 20 and 25%, respectively. Rheological and functional properties as well as proximate composition, nutritive value and sensory characteristics for the biscuit produced were assessed. The gluten quantity (dry and wet and falling number of wheat flour were significantly (p#0.05 decreased with the incorporation of DPPI from 10.25 to 7.6%; from 31.2 to 22.5% and from 657 to 443 sec., for 0,15, 20 and 25% protein levels, respectively.Water Retention Capacity (WRC, Bulk Density (BD and Fat Absorption Capacity (FAC were obtained. Addition of DPPI resulted in an increase in water absorption which was found to be ranged from 66.7 to 71.0%; dough development time from 4.5 to 7.3 min and dough stability 1.7 to 5.8 min. Biscuit supplemented with DPPI showed significant increase (p≤0.05 in ash, protein with high level of incorporation and significant decrease (p≤0.05 in carbohydrates and caloric values when biscuit wheat was supplemented with high level of DPPI. Incorporation of DPPI showed no significant differences (p≤0.05 on biscuit spread ratios compared to wheat biscuit (control. Biscuit with 15% protein level was found to be superior in all its sensory characteristics compared to the other blends.

  19. Impact of buckwheat flour granulation and supplementation level on the quality of composite wheat/buckwheat ginger-nut-type biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Filipčev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of gradual wheat flour substitution with buckwheat flour in ginger-nut biscuit formulation were investigated regarding dough characteristics, physical and textural characteristics of finalproduct assessed after baking and 30 days of storage. Buckwheat flour was added at 30, 40, 50% levels and two granulations (fine and coarse. Addition of buckwheat flour significantly increaseddough hardness and decreased adhesiveness. Spread significantly increased in biscuits with 40% and 50% of coarse buckwheat flour. Biscuits containing coarse flour were harder and more fracturable than the control, whereas those with fine flour tended to be softer and less fracturable.Textural properties were significantly correlated to protein stability to heat and retrogradation tendency of starch in biscuit dough as well as moisture content.

  20. FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERS EVALUATION OF BISCUITS SUBLIMATED WITH PURE PHYCOCYANIN ISOLATED FROM SPIRULINA AND SPIRULINA BIOMASS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Baky, Hanaa H; El Baroty, Gamal S; Ibrahem, Eman A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the effect of incorporation of biomass and phycocyanin extracts of Spirulina platensis growing in define media at large scales (300 liters, limited in nitrogen and high salinity) to traditional butter biscuits in order to increase general mental health as functional products, FPs). The FP were manufactured at a pilot scale formulated by adding algal biomass (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9%) and S. platensis phycocyanin (at 0.3%) to wheat flour and stored for one month at room temperature, protected from light and air. The approximate and nutrition composition of S. platensis biomass showed high quantity (% dry weight, dw.) of phycocyanin (13.51%, natural food colorant), tocopherols (0.43%), carotenoids (2.65%), vitamins C (1.25%), -6, -3 fatty acids, essential elements (Fe, Zn, Cr, Se, and others) and antioxidant compounds includes: total phenolic (1.73%), flavonoids (0.87%) and glutathione (0.245 mM). FPs showed a high oxidative stability during storage (30 days) periods (as assessed by antiradical scavenging activity of DPPH and TBA test), compared with that in untreated food products (control). Data of sensory evaluation revealed that FPs containing S. platensis biomass or algae extracts were significantly acceptable as control for main sensory characteristics (colour, odour/ aroma, flavor, texture, the global appreciation and overall acceptability). S. platensis FPs presented an accentuated green tonality, which increase with the quantity of added biomass. Thus, it could be concluded that functional biscuits had good sensory and nutritional profiles and can be developed as new niche food market. PMID:26262722

  1. Implementing a low-starch biscuit-free diet in zoo gorillas: the impact on behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Less, E H; Bergl, R; Ball, R; Dennis, P M; Kuhar, C W; Lavin, S R; Raghanti, M A; Wensvoort, J; Willis, M A; Lukas, K E

    2014-01-01

    In the wild, western lowland gorillas travel long distances while foraging and consume a diet high in fiber and low in caloric density. In contrast, gorillas in zoos typically consume a diet that is low in fiber and calorically dense. Some items commonly used in captive gorilla diets contain high levels of starch and sugars, which are present at low levels in the natural diet of gorillas. Diet items high in simple carbohydrates are associated with obesity and heart disease in humans. Typical captive gorilla diets may also encourage undesirable behaviors. In response to these issues, we tested the behavioral impact of a diet that was biscuit-free, had low caloric density, and which was higher in volume at five institutions. We hypothesized that this diet change would reduce abnormal behaviors such as regurgitation and reingestion (R/R), decrease time spent inactive, and increase time spent feeding. The biscuit-free diet significantly reduced (and in the case of one zoo eliminated) R/R and may have reduced hair-plucking behavior. However, an increase in coprophagy was observed in many individuals following the diet change. The experimental diet caused a general increase in time the gorillas spent feeding, but this increase did not occur across all institutions and varied by individual. Interestingly, the overall time gorillas spent inactive actually increased with this diet change. Future research will examine these behavioral changes in a greater number of individuals to determine if the results remain consistent with these preliminary findings. Additionally, future research will examine the physiological impact of this diet change. PMID:24391046

  2. Microbiological, nutritional and sensory evaluation of long-time stored amaranth biscuits produced from irradiated-treated amaranth grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents some results achieved by the evaluation of microbiological (total bacterial count, coliform bacteria, aerobic sporeforming bacteria, yeasts and moulds( nutritional (lysine) and sensory (shape, surface, colour consistency, taste, odour, the profiling of tastiness) quality and of the aw values of amaranth-based biscuits produced from the amaranth grain irradiated by various ionizing radiation doses (1.5, 3 and 5 kGy, source 60Co) and stored for the period of 12 months at the laboratory temperature (20–25°C). The irradiation dose providing the biscuits maximum hygienic, nutritional and sensory quality maintained up to the end of the one-year storage was 5 kGy

  3. 七种糕点对赤拟谷盗(鞘翅目:拟步甲科)感染的抗性%Resistance of Seven Biscuit Types to Infestation by Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olusola O. ODEYEMI; Bernice M. OYEDARE; Michael O. ASHAMO

    2005-01-01

    Seven biscuit types namely, Okin, Digestive, Cabin, Peanut, Cream crackers, Hobnobs and Glucose and wheat flour were screened for their resistance to Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) at ambient temperature of 28±2 ℃ and 78±2% relative humidity in the laboratory. 50 g of each biscuit sample were infested with four female and two male adult beetles and left for 15 days then remove for a resistant experiment and 70 days for a mortality experiment. Each treatment and the control without beetles were replicated three times. Results showed that there was significant difference (P0.05) in the weight loss of biscuit types. The highest adult mortality of beetles (100%) was obtained from Peanut biscuits at 28 days after infestation while there was only 5.5% adult mortality in wheat flour at 70 days after infestation. The susceptibility index was 0 for all the biscuit types since there was no adult emergence indicating that they were resistant to T. castaneum infestation. Resistance in the biscuit types could be due to chemical additives (e.g. sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate) used in the production of biscuits, which may have inhibitory effect on the development of T. castaneum and also the low moisture content of the biscuits. Packages that can easily be perforated or damaged to allow absorption of moisture from the environment should not be used in packing biscuits.

  4. Elaboration of biscuits with oatmeal and fat palm with added L-leucine and calcium for sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Elita Bertolin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of oatmeal and palm fat in the elaboration of biscuits with added L-leucine and calcium in order to develop a product for sarcopenia in the elderly. The biscuits, or cookies, were elaborated applying a central composite rotational design with surface response methodology, and the significant linear, quadratic and interaction terms were used in the second order mathematical model. Physical, physicochemical and sensory analyses were performed by a trained panel. Based on the best results obtained, three cookie formulations were selected for sensory evaluation by the target group and physicochemical determinations. The formulations with the highest sensory scores for appearance and texture and medium scores for color and expansion index were selected. The addition of calcium and leucine increased significantly the concentration of these components in the biscuits elaborated resulting in a cookie with more than 30% of DRI (Dietary Reference Intake for calcium and leucine. The formulations selected showed high acceptance by the target group; therefore, they can be included in the diet of elderly with sarcopenia as a functional food.

  5. Development, Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Biscuits Supplemented with Pumpkin Seeds to Combat Childhood Malnutrition in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out in Food Science and Product Development Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan in 2014. Nutritive pumpkin seed flour fortified biscuits were prepared with four different substituted levels of pumpkin seed flour in wheat flour (T/sub 2/ = 5%, T/sub 3/ = 10%, T/sub 4/ = 15% and T/sub 5/ = 20%), were compared with control (T/sub 1/). Chemical attributes of biscuits showed that T/sub 5/ has maximum level of pumpkin flour (20%) with maximum protein (12.30%), fat (28.29%), ash (4.13%), iron (2.28%) and zinc (3.11%). Sensory results also revealed increasing trend in all sensory parameters. Results showed acceptability at all levels but treatment T/sub 4/ with 15 % pumpkin seed flour scored highest (8.0) for maximum overall acceptability. It was concluded that pumpkin seed flour can be supplemented successfully to partially replace wheat flour to prepare highly nutritious biscuits without affecting its overall acceptability. (author)

  6. Effect of chitosan on the formation of acrylamide and hydroxymethylfurfural in model, biscuit and crust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-08-10

    Chitosan has been popular as a natural food preservative due to its antibacterial and antifungal activities. It may be used in thermally processed foods such as bread to delay staling and improve the microbial stability during the shelf-life. However, the thermal process could lead to the formation of harmful compounds in bakery products through chemical reactions, in which chitosan could take part. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect of chitosan on the formation of acrylamide and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in different model systems. Addition of acid to the asparagine-glucose model system decreased the initial rate of acrylamide formation to approx. 4-times. The chitosan included model system contained higher acrylamide than the asparagine-glucose-acid model but still lower than the asparagine-glucose model system. The HMF content was decreased in the presence of acid due to acid-catalyzed degradation. Additionally, HMF is a potent carbonyl source and utilized in the Maillard reaction. In biscuit samples, addition of acid or chitosan solution to the dough did not significantly affect the acrylamide formation (p > 0.05), however addition of acid increased the formed HMF. In crust samples, acrylamide formation was decreased by acid, while chitosan showed no additional decrease. No interaction was found between HMF and chitosan. The results suggest that the effect of chitosan should be carefully evaluated apart from the effect of acid, in which chitosan was solubilized. PMID:27406058

  7. Use of biogas biscuit meal EKPO-EB for agricultural biogas plant for substitution of energy crops utilization with organic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Chamrádová Kateřina; Rusín Jiří

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment of two-stage mesophilic, low-dry mass, anaerobic digestion was carried out, focused on verifying the benefi t of processing the biscuit meal EKPO-EB instead of triticale silage Agostino (GPS) and corn silage LG3266 in a regular batch for the agricultural biogas station in Pustějov. While anaerobic digestion of ensilages is largely diffi cult due to the content of lignocellulose, biscuit meal provides a high yield of biogas or methane, respectively, thanks t...

  8. Using parasitoid wasps in Integrated Pest Management in museums against biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum and webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Querner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum and webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella cause much damage to museum objects. Some objects and materials are very attractive to these two pest species and objects are often re-infested after treatment. For some years parasitoid wasps have been used in biological pest control to treat and reduce infestations of stored product pests in food processing facilities. Their application in museums is still new and in a research stage. Results from five different museums in Germany and Austria and their application are presented. Lariophagus distinguendus wasps were released against Stegobium paniceum in the municipal library Augsburger Stadtarchiv (Germany, the Ethnological Museum in Berlin (Germany and the Picture Gallery in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna (Austria. Trichogramma evanescens were released against Tineola bisselliella in the Technisches Museum in Vienna (Austria and in the Deutsches Museum Verkehrszentrum in Munich (Germany. Results show that for active biscuit beetle infestations good results can be expected using the Lariophagus distinguendus in museums. Active clothes moth infestations are harder to treat but with a very regular and long-term exposure to the wasps, the clothes moth population can be reduced over the years. We see the application of parasitoid wasps as part of an Integrated Pest Management concept that should be used besides regular insect monitoring and other preventive measures. Difficulties, limitations and research needs in the application of parasitoid wasps in museums are discussed.

  9. 核桃燕麦酥性饼干的研制%Development of Walnut Oatmeal Biscuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 宋丽军; 谭梅; 伏慧慧; 侯旭杰

    2014-01-01

    以核桃、燕麦、面粉、白砂糖和玉米油等为原料制作核桃燕麦酥性饼干,在单因素试验的基础上,通过正交试验和感官评价对配方进行优化。结果表明:核桃燕麦酥性饼干的最佳配方为低筋粉100%、核桃仁55%、燕麦粉26%、玉米油38%、白砂糖30%、奶粉6%、食盐0.8%,小苏打0.8%和鸡蛋50%。再以面火170℃、底火150℃烘烤15min。在此条件下,产品色、香、质地和口感较佳,营养价值高。%Walnut oatmeal biscuit was produced with walnuts, oats, flour, sugar and corn oil as rawmaterials. Optimum formulation of walnut oatmeal biscuit was obtained with orthogonal experiment based on single-factor experiment and sensory score. Results showed that the best formula: 100%of low-gluten flour, 55%of walnut, 26%of oat flour, 38%of corn oil, 30%of white sugar, 6%of milk powder, 0.8%of salt, 0.8%of baking soda and 50%of eggs. Then baking for 15 minutes at surface temperature 170℃ and primer temperature 150℃. Under this condition, product had better color, flavor, texture, taste and high nutritional value.

  10. The use of Fagopyrum tataricum gaertn. whole flour to confer preventive contents of rutin to some traditional tuscany biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing interest for new foods that may be regarded as functional aliments, of particular interest appears the utilization of the grain of Fagopyrum tataricum. The high content of rutin available in the grain and whole flour of this species, in fact, offers the opportunity to introduce in the food recipes effective amounts of this bioactive compound. Rutin is credited with a growing multiplicity of health beneficial properties that can be reasonablysecured through the preventive nutrition approach. In this respect, the daily dose of rutin suggested by most dietary supplement preparations is around 50 mg/day. The use of F. tataricum whole flour, where the rutin content usually ranges between 1000 up to 2000 mg/100 g dry weight, allows to reach such an amount with a low percentage introduction of this ingredient in the original recipe. Higher contents of rutin are found in the herb of cultivated species of buckwheat (F. tataricum and F. esculentum. However, the handling of this material may not be as simple as that of the grain made into whole flour. Preliminary results would indicate that an intake of 50 mg of rutin with a single meal (breakfast in this case can be feasible by adding tartary buckwheat whole flour to some traditional Tuscany biscuits without impairing texture, taste and acceptability.In spite of the presence of rutin degrading enzymes, known to be present in tartary buckwheat grain, it would appear that just a negligible degradation of rutin to quercetin occurs during the phase of dough preparation and backing process so that most of the rutin present in the whole flour can be recovered in the biscuits.

  11. 澳洲坚果饼干加工技术研究%Processing technology of Macadamia nut biscuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭刚军; 胡小静; 邹建云; 黄克昌

    2012-01-01

    以面粉与澳洲坚果粕粉为主要原料,添加奶粉、白砂糖、坚果油等辅料,通过面团揉制、擀压、模具成型、烘烤等工艺,加工出了营养丰富、色泽淡黄、香味浓郁、口感酥脆的澳洲坚果饼干。通过单因素与正交实验确定产品的最佳配方为澳洲坚果粉50%、油脂8%、白砂糖45%、奶粉10%、小苏打0.4%、食盐0.4%、碳酸氢铵1%、鸡蛋10%、水适量,最佳焙烤温度为上火180℃、下火为150℃。%Macadamia nut biscuits were made after the processing of kneading dough, rolling, molding, roasting by flour, Macadamia nut power, milk power, sugar, Macadamia nut oil and so on as material, which was rich in nutrition and had primrose yellow, the better crispness and full aroma. The best formula of Macadamia nut biscuits was obtained according to the results from single factor and orthogonal experiment: Macadamia nut powder 50%, oil-fat 8%, sugar 45%, milk power 10%, saleratus 0.4%, salt 0.4%, ammonium bicarbonate 1%, egg 10% and appropriate water, the best soaking condition was the surface temperature 180 ℃ and the bottom temperature 150 ℃.

  12. Influence of water biscuit processing and kernel puffing on the phenolic acid content and the antioxidant activity of einkorn and bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Alyssa; Yilmaz, Volkan A; Brandolini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The whole meal flour of wheat is rich in phenolic acids, which provide a relevant antioxidant activity to food products. Aim of this research was to assess the influence of processing on phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity of whole meal flour water biscuits and puffed kernels of einkorn and bread wheat. To this end, the evolution of syringaldehyde, ferulic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, and caffeic acids was studied during manufacturing. Overall, from flour to water biscuit, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased slightly in einkorn, while the insoluble bound phenolic acids decreased in all the accessions as a consequence of losses during the mixing step. In the puffed kernels, instead, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased markedly, while the bound phenolics did not show any clear change, evidencing their high thermal stability. The antioxidant activity, measured by FRAP and ABTS, increased during processing and was highest under the most drastic puffing conditions. PMID:26787973

  13. Deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins in bread, cake and biscuits produced from UK-grown wheat under commercial and pilot scale conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Scudamore, Keith; Hazel, Clare M; Patel, Sue; Scriven, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Bread, cakes and biscuits were manufactured from flour containing deoxynivalenol (DON) and low concentrations of zearalenone (ZON) and nivalenol (NIV). The results show that these mycotoxins remain mostly unaffected during manufacture. Although the results indicate that the mycotoxins are largely stable and survive processing, when concentrations were determined on an `as is? basis as stipulated in legislation, levels in finished products were usually lower than in the sta...

  14. Use of biogas biscuit meal EKPO-EB for agricultural biogas plant for substitution of energy crops utilization with organic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamrádová Kateřina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment of two-stage mesophilic, low-dry mass, anaerobic digestion was carried out, focused on verifying the benefit of processing the biscuit meal EKPO-EB instead of triticale silage Agostino (GPS and corn silage LG3266 in a regular batch for the agricultural biogas station in Pustějov. While anaerobic digestion of ensilages is largely difficult due to the content of lignocellulose, biscuit meal provides a high yield of biogas or methane, respectively, thanks to its high content of simple saccharides and lipids. When the original GPS (or the replacement EKPO-EB, respectively represented 0.81% of weight of the daily input mixture dose for the first stage, the rise in volumetric methane production was 20% which is significant. The biscuit meal EKPO-EB decomposes almost completely in the first stage. Later, when the EKPO-EB represented 1.63% of weight of the daily input mixture dose for the first stage, the rise in volumetric methane production was 54% in the first stage and 16% in the second stage.

  15. Application of Neotame in biscuits%纽甜在饼干中应用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林楠; 晏日安; 孔令会

    2011-01-01

    The application of Neotame in biscuits was studied. In the case of the same productive process,the all sugar products,partial substitution of sucrose products and all Neotame products was compared by sensory method. Then the sample was analyzed with texture analyzer in order to search the best ratio of Neotame alternative to sugar. The result showed that it could achieve better sensory effects when the proportion of Neotame alternative to sugar was 20%.%探讨了新型甜味剂纽甜在饼干中的应用。在制作工艺相同的情况下,采用不同的感官实验方法分别对全蔗糖产品、纽甜部分替代蔗糖产品、全纽甜产品进行了感官对比实验,并应用质构仪对产品进行质构分析,寻求纽甜与蔗糖使用的最佳配比。结果发现,纽甜替代蔗糖的比例为20%时可取得较好的感官效果.

  16. Cutoffs, Norms, and Patterns of Comorbid Difficulties in Children with Developmental Disabilities on the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT-Part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Mahan, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral symptoms of comorbid psychopathology of 651 children 17-37 months of age who were at risk for developmental disabilities were studied using the BISCUIT-Part 2. In Study 1, norms and cutoff scores were established for this new scale on this sample. In Study 2, frequency of response on the 52 items measured was reported. Problems in…

  17. Aceitabilidade de biscoitos e bolos à base de arroz com café extrusados Acceptability of biscuits and rice and extruded coffee-based cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Ferreira da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a granulometria de farinha do trigo e de farinhas pré-cozidas por extrusão obtidas da mistura de arroz com pó de café (15 e 20%, bem como a aceitabilidade de biscoitos e bolos elaborados a partir da adição de 20 e 30% da farinha pré-cozida na mistura da massa (trigo. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as farinhas extrusadas apresentaram maior granulometria que a farinha de trigo; à medida que se aumentou o percentual de farinha pré-cozida na mistura com o trigo, também aumentou a granulometria. Não houve diferença significativa entre as amostras tratadas com 15 e 20% de farinha pré-cozida quanto à preferência sensorial de aroma, textura, sabor e impressão global avaliados em bolos. Entretanto, os biscoitos elaborados com a farinha pré-cozida com 15% de pó de café na mistura com arroz apresentaram maior preferência para aroma e textura ao serem comparados com aqueles com 20%; a farinha pré-cozida de pó de café com arroz pode ser utilizada como ingrediente na mistura de bolos, biscoitos e outros produtos alimentícios em até 30%.The objective of this study was to evaluate the granulometry of wheat flour and flour precooked by extrusion obtained from the mixture of rice and coffee (15 and 20%, as well as the acceptability of biscuits and cakes prepared with 20 and 30% of precooked flour in the mixture of the dough (wheat. The results obtained show that the extruded flours presented thicker granulometry than the wheat flour. Granulometry increased with the increase of the content of precooked flour in the mixture with wheat. There were no significant differences among the samples treated with 15 and 20% of precooked flour as to the sensorial preference of aroma, texture, flavor, and global impression. However, the biscuits made with precooked flour with 15% of coffee in the mixture with rice presented greater preference of aroma and texture if compared with those with 20%. It can be said

  18. 抹茶酥性饼干加工技术的研究%Study on processing techniques of matcha short biscuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程华平; 万娅琼; 李翠红; 董军

    2011-01-01

    The formula and baking techniques of matcha short biscuit were obtained by orthogonal experiment,and namely wheat flour 1000g,white sugar 330g,cream 20g,shortening 150g,egg 170g,milk powder 46g,baking soda 0. 7g,edible ammonium bicarbonate 3g,citric acid 0. 04g,table salt 3g,matcha 1. 5%,water as required,temperature(upper/ bottom)185℃/190℃,baking time 6. 0min after mixing and roll forming,respectively. The products appeared a little bright green,weak and crisp taste,as well as delicate fragrance of tea. The results showed that the tea green colourity apparatus was suitable for matcha short biscuit.%通过正交实验筛选获得了抹茶酥性饼干配方和焙烤工艺,即面粉1000g、白砂糖330g、奶油20g、起酥油150g、鸡蛋170g、奶粉46g、小苏打0.7g、碳酸氢铵3g、柠檬酸0.04g、食盐3g、抹茶1.5%、水适量,经调粉、辊轧、成型后在温度(面火/底火)185℃/190℃条件下,烘烤6.0min;产品上表面呈较明亮的绿色,略带光泽,口感酥脆,有着茶的清香。SS-F3ALCHC茶叶色度测试仪适合于抹茶饼干色泽的测试、评判。

  19. Plackett-Burman联用正交设计优化马铃薯饼干工艺%Optimization of Process Technology of Potato Biscuit by Plackett-Burman Combined with Orthogonal Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷进松; 王磊鑫; 陈海玲

    2015-01-01

    以糕点粉和马铃薯粉为原料,研究马铃薯饼干的加工工艺.考察了马铃薯粉、起酥油、水、碳酸氢铵、白砂糖、小苏打、食盐、奶香精的添加量对马铃薯饼干品质的影响,优化了马铃薯饼干的配方,确定了马铃薯饼干的加工工艺参数:马铃薯粉添加量33%、起酥油添加量16%、水添加量14%、碳酸氢铵添加量0.35%、食盐添加量0.7%、奶香精添加量0.14%,产品具有良好的感官性状,是一种营养丰富、开发前景广阔的产品.%Study on the processing technology of potato flour biscuit with the cake flour and potato powder as raw material. Ef-fects of potato powder,from butter,water,ammonium hydrogen carbonate,white granulated sugar,baking soda,salt,milk fla-vor by adding quantity on the quality of potato biscuits were investigated and optimized potato biscuit formula to determine the potato biscuit processing parameters:potato powder adding amount was 33%,shortening add 16%of the amount,addition amount of water14%,ammonium hydrogen carbonate added 0.35%,salt added 0.4%of the amount,the milk flavor added 0.14%of the amount.This product has good sensory characteristics,is a kind of nutrition,the development prospects of the product.

  20. Biscoitos de polvilho azedo enriquecidos com fibras solúveis e insolúveis Fermented cassava starch biscuits enriched with soluble and insoluble fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Martins Montenegro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a utilização de farelo de trigo e polidextrose como fontes de fibra no enriquecimento de biscoitos de polvilho. Utilizou-se a Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta para verificar a influência da adição destes ingredientes nos parâmetros de qualidade dos biscoitos. As respostas avaliadas do planejamento experimental fatorial completo 2² foram o volume específico, a dureza instrumental, a umidade e a cor - parâmetros L, a* e b*. Para as respostas: volume específico e dureza instrumental, todos os fatores foram significativos, a 95% de confiança, com R² = 0,9307 e 0,8091, respectivamente. Pela análise das superfícies geradas, pode-se observar que o farelo de trigo e a polidextrose reduziram o volume específico e o farelo teve maior efeito no aumento da dureza. A substituição de polvilho azedo por farelo de trigo e polidextrose nas proporções de 1,5 e 5%, respectivamente, gerou uma amostra rica em fibras, com 6,23% de fibra alimentar (calculado teoricamente, sem prejuízo considerável para as características de expansão e dureza, e com boa aceitação sensorial.This work evaluated the use of wheat bran and polidextrose as fiber sources to enrich fermented cassava starch biscuits. The Response Surface Methodology was used to verify the influence of the addition of these fiber sources on the quality parameters of the biscuits. The responses of the 2² central composite rotational experimental design that were evaluated were specific volume, hardness, and moisture and color - parameters L, a*, and b*. For the specific volume and hardness responses, all factors were significant: 95% confidence level, with R² of 0.9307 and 0.8091, respectively. Analyzing the surfaces obtained it could be observed that the wheat bran and polidextrose reduced the specific volume and the wheat bran had a greater effect in increasing hardness. The substitution of fermented cassava starch by wheat bran and polidextrose in

  1. The development of processing technology for black tea-salty sweet-biscuits%红茶咸香饼干加工工艺的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢朝敏; 温立香; 王淋靓; 任二芳; 罗小杰; 艾静汶; 叶雪英

    2015-01-01

    研究红茶咸香饼干加工工艺。分别通过单因素实验确定了红茶的制备工艺和红茶的冲泡工艺,红茶制备采用鲜叶→萎凋(室温)→机械揉捻→轻发酵(35℃×3h,湿度90%)→烘干的制备工艺方案;红茶的冲泡采用洗茶→纯水仪过滤水冲泡(95℃×5min)→茶叶与茶汤分离→出茶的冲泡方案。利用正交实验确定了红茶咸香饼干的最佳配方为:低筋面粉180g、盐2g、泡打粉1.5g、黄油45g、红茶汤45g、全蛋液30g。%We researched the processing technology of black tea-salty sweet-biscuits.The preparation and brewing process of black tea were determined by single factor experiment and the preparation process program was that, fresh leaves→withering (room temperature)→mechanical rolling→light fermentation (35℃×3h,humidity 90%)→drying.The brewing process was that washing tea→brewed by filtered water of pure water meter(95℃×5min)→separating the tea and tea soup.And then,the best formula of black tea-salty sweet-biscuits was confirmed by an orthogonal experiment, the best technical skill was that low-gluten flour 180g, salt 2g, baking powder 1.5g, butter 45g,black tea soup 45g, whole egg 30g.

  2. Analysis and dietary exposure assessment of the benzoic acid and sodium benzoate of biscuits%饼干中苯甲酸及其钠盐含量分析及其膳食暴露评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱加虹; 王小骊; 袁玉伟; 张玉; 胡桂仙; 董秀金

    2012-01-01

    对市场中210个饼干样品进行苯甲酸及其钠盐含量用HPLC方法进行测定,并对检测数据采用膳食暴露评估方法,评估城市居民的膳食风险。结果显示,婴儿(6-12个月)膳食暴露量为12.25-31.62μg/kgbw·d,其97.5/99百分位值的膳食暴露量为73.99-195.62μg/kgbw·d,建议婴儿(6-12个月)少量食用或食用不含苯甲酸的婴儿饼干。对于1-3岁的幼儿其膳食暴露量为10.25-13.25μg/kgbw·d,在97.5/99百分位值的膳食暴露量为105.24-139.10μg/kgbw·d,食用此类食品的风险是可以接受的。对于3岁以上人群食用此类食品的风险比1-3岁幼儿更小,风险程度更低。另外,饼干中威化和酥性类饼干中苯甲酸的残留水平相对于其他类饼干含量略高,而发酵和韧性类的饼干中苯甲酸的含量相稍低:同时显示江苏产的产品质量相对较好。%The content of benzoic acid and its sodium of 210 biscuits samples in the market was determined by HPLC method, and according the test data, using dietary exposure assessment methods to assess dietary risk urban residents. The results showed that infants (6-12 months) dietary exposure round 12.25-31.62 μg/kg bw· d, the 97.5/99 percentile dietary exposure round 73.99-195.62 μg/kg bw·d, recommends that infants (6 to 12 months) eating a small amount of such biscuits or eating edible acid-free baby biscuits. For children aged 1 to 3, its dietary exposure is round 10.25-13.25 μg/kg bw'd, the 97.5/99 percentile dietary exposure round 105.24-139.10 μg/kg bw·d, consumption of such food risk is acceptable. For people over 3 years old the risk of eating these foods is smaller than children aged 1 to 3, lower level of risk. In addition, wafer biscuit and crisp crackers in the level of benzoic acid residue content relative to other types of biscuits is slightly higher, and fermented and tenacity in the biscuit category with lower

  3. Efeito do enriquecimento de biscoitos tipo água e sal, com extrato de levedura (Saccharomyces sp. Effect of enrichment of water and salt biscuits with yeast (Saccharomyces sp. extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Carelli Costa Santucci

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram a caracterização química de um autolisado (AT de levedura (Saccharomyces sp. , subproduto da fermentação alcoólica e de seus derivados, fração solúvel (Ex e insolúvel (FI. O autolisado integral (AT e o extrato (Ex, depois de desidratados por atomização (spray dryer foram utilizados como enriquecedores do gosto e do aroma de biscoitos salgados do tipo água e sal. A adição ao biscoito de 5% de Ex elevou o escore de aminoácidos essenciais (EAE de 38% para 60% e o índice de utilização líquida da proteína (NPR de 1,0 para 2,0 (100%. Houve ainda uma melhora significativa na aceitabilidade e na preferência dos biscoitos enriquecidos, pelos consumidores.The objective of this investigation was to establish the composition of the yeast (Saccharomyces sp. obtained as a byproduct of the alcoholic fermentation industry, in the form of an autolysate (AT and their derivatives, extract (Ex and insoluble fraction (FI. The total autolysate (AT and the extract (Ex, after dehydration in spray dryer, were utilized as flavour enhancers in salted biscuits. Addition to the biscuits of 5% Ex improved the essential amino acid score (EAE from 38 to 60%, and the net protein utilization index (NPR from 1.0 to 2.0 (100%. There was also a significant improvement in the acceptability and preference of the enriched biscuits by the consumers.

  4. FORMULASI BISKUIT PADAT SIAP-SANTAP UNTUK MAKANAN DARURAT (READY-TO-EAT-BISCUIT BARS FORMULATION FOR DISASTER-RELATED EMERGENCY SITUATION

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    Almasyhuri Almasyhuri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In situation when the disaster occurres, people can be panic and can not manage appropriate food for the whole family. Therefore, it is required food supply from the authority to fulfill the nutrition need during emergency. For infants, there were milk and food products available in the market that can be given in such situation. However, for children and adults, there are no emergency food available in the market. Some post-disaster surveys indicates that food aid distributed during emergency situation only provides energy source rather than a complete nutrition. Furthermore, these foods still require processing before consumption. The aim of the study is to develop formulated ready-to-eat foods for children and adults that have a dense calories and protein that can be given in disaster-related emergency situation. The foods are produced in solid form, and has good acceptance by both panelist in laboratory and people in the field. In the early stages of research, six formulas in solid form are developed, three have savory taste and three are sweet. One formula that the most preferred by the panelist in the laboratory are chosen. The best formula is then given to field panelists in area of disaster to know their preference. Formula made from soy and sesame with sweet taste has the highest value compared with other types of formulas, and significantly different by Duncan's test from all formulas. In flavor and aroma attributes, this formula is not significantly different from others, however in crispiness; this formula has the best acceptance. The biscuits has energy 2.100 kcal per portion that 11.5 percent of the energy is from protein, 44.4 percent is from fat and the remaining 44 percent is from carbohydrates. Keywords: food formulation, ready-to-eat-biscuit, emergency food, disaster   Abstrak Dalam kejadian bencana alam masyarakat dapat menjadi panik dan tidak dapat menyediakan makanan keluarga, sehingga memerlukan bantuan makanan

  5. Study on the Formulation and Process Optimization of the Lilac Warm Stomach Health Biscuits%丁香花暖胃保健饼干的配方及工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓峰; 刘敏; 李维宏; 王愈

    2015-01-01

    The best formulation and process optimization of the lilac warm stomach health biscuits were studied by orthogonal test on the single factor experiment,with lilacs, milk powder, dried tangerine or orange peel, jujube mill, brown sugar, hawthorn and cake flour as main raw materials, and texture analyzer combines sensory evaluation as methods. The results showed that the lilac warm stomach health biscuits with optimum sensory quality were obtained by cake flour 100 g, brown sugar 38 g, butter 19 g, malt sugar 4.67 g, milk powder 5.93 g, NaHCO3 2.53 g, NH4HCO3 0.47 g, total fiber 20 g and water 27 g, baked at 190℃-180℃for 7 min. The biscuits manufactured by optimum formulation had moderate sweetness, good taste, uniform surface color, flat surface. The influence factors of biscuits quality are the addition of brown sugar, addition of water, total fiber and addition of butter in sequence.%以丁香花、奶粉、陈皮、大枣、红糖、山楂及低筋粉等为主要原料,采用感官评价结合质构仪的方法,在单因素试验的基础上进行正交试验研究添加丁香花制作系列保健饼干的最佳配方及工艺优化。结果表明:在低筋粉100 g,红糖38 g,酥油19 g,饴糖4.67 g,奶粉5.93 g,碳酸氢钠2.53 g,碳酸氢铵0.47 g,纤维总量20 g,加水量27 g,上火温度190℃,下火温度180℃,烘烤7 min后得到成品感官品质最佳,口感良好,甜味适中,颜色均匀,表面平整。影响此饼干品质的主次因素从大到小依次是:红糖用量、加水量、纤维总量、酥油用量。

  6. Evaluation of the quality of a molded sweet biscuit enriched with okara flour Avaliação da qualidade do biscoito moldado doce enriquecido com farinha de okara

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Kitagawa Grizotto; Cristiane Rodrigues Gomes Rufi; Eunice Akemi Yamada; Eduardo Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to test the addition of soymilk residue, also known as okara, to a molded sweet biscuit (MSB). The okara was provided by two soymilk producing companies whose production systems are based on hot disintegration of decorticated (company B) or non-decorticated (company A) soybeans and separation of the soymilk. Okaras A and B were dehydrated in a flash dryer and then ground to a flour (< 200 mesh). The okara flours showed high protein (35 g.100 g-1 dwb), lipid ...

  7. Avaliação de farinhas de trigos cultivados no Rio Grande do Sul na produção de biscoitos Evaluation of wheat flour cultivated in the Rio Grande do Sul to production of biscuits

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    Luiz Carlos Gutkoski

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Na indústria de biscoitos é fundamental a definição de parâmetros para selecionar o uso do trigo em estudo. Existe uma série de testes químicos, físicos, enzimáticos e funcionais que podem caracterizar a qualidade tecnológica da farinha. Com o presente trabalho objetivou-se estudar diferentes cultivares de trigo cultivados no estado do Rio Grande do Sul para a produção de biscoitos tipo semi-duros através de análises físicas, químicas, reológicas e funcionais. Grãos de trigo de amostras dos cultivares BR 23, BRS 120, BRS 49, BRS 177, BRS 119, BRS 176, PF 940097 e Embrapa 40 foram condicionados para 15% de umidade, moídos em moinho piloto Chopin e analisados. As determinações realizadas foram peso de mil grãos, dureza do grão, peso do hectolitro, moagem experimental, composição química, número de queda e alveografia. Os biscoitos foram elaborados de acordo com método da AACC e avaliado volume específico, diâmetro, espessura, fator de expansão e cor. A metodologia utilizada no laboratório para a elaboração de biscoitos tipo semi-duros é adequada para a avaliação de uso final de farinhas de trigo. Com base nas propriedades funcionais, as farinhas de trigo dos cultivares BR 23, BRS 120 e BRS 176 foram as mais recomendadas para a produção de biscoitos.In the biscuit industry the definition of parameters to select the use of the wheat in study is basic. A series of chemical, physical, enzymatic and functional tests exists which can characterize the technological quality of the flour. The purpose of this research was to study cultivates of wheat cultivated in the state of the Rio Grande do Sul in the production of biscuits through physical, chemical, rheological and functional analysis. Samples of wheat cultivates BR 23, BRS 120, BRS 49, BRS 177, BRS 119, BRS 176, 940097 PF and Embrapa 40 were conditioned for 15% of moisture content and milling in mill pilot Chopin. With the milling samples it was determined the

  8. Efeito do teor de água, amilose, amilopectina e grau de gelatinização no crescimento do biscoito de amido de mandioca obtido por fermentação natural Effect of the water, amylose, amylopectin contents and the degree of gelatinization on the sour cassava (Manihot sculenta, K. starch biscuit growth

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    Claudio Ernani MENDES DA SILVA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available O amido de mandioca, assim como o amido de araruta, modificado por fermentação natural, quando formulado com água, sal e gordura vegetal hidrogenada para produzir o biscoito de "polvilho azedo", tem a propriedade de se expandir durante a cocção, como se nessa formulação existisse um agente aerante. O produto final obtido, tem uma estrutura alveolar, crocante e de baixa densidade. Pouco se conhece a respeito do mecanismo que envolve essa expansão e sobre os fatores que interferem na mesma. No presente trabalho, investigamos a influência do teor de água, o efeito da pré-gelatinização do amido fermentado e a adição de amilose e de amilopectina no crescimento do biscoito. O tempo de formação do biscoito, demonstrou ser altamente dependente do teor de água presente na sua formulação. A gelatinização total do amido modificado por fermentação, parece destruir completamente suas propriedades de expansão, pois não foi observado crescimento do biscoito com uma formulação padrão contendo apenas amido totalmente gelatinizado. Biscoitos formulados com amilose ou amilopectina em substituição ao amido fermentado, apresentaram baixo grau de expansão quando comparados ao padrão.The sour cassava starch (and also ararut starch is unique in the ability to produce a biscuit (made of water, shortening and salt that oven springs during baking as if it has in its formulation a leavening agent. The final product has an alveolar structure, it is crocant and low density. The fators that control its growth are unknown. In this paper were investigated the effects of the water, pregelatinized sour cassava starch, amylose and amylopectin contents on the biscuit growth. It has been showed that the time of formation of the biscuit structure depends on the water formulation content. The complete gelatinization of this starch seems to destroy its unique property to grow with heat as if it had a leavening agent in its formulation. Biscuits made of

  9. Caracterização e análise sensorial de biscoitos de polvilho elaborados com diferentes níveis de farelo de mandioca Characterization and sensory analysis of cassava starch biscuits made with different levels of cassava bagasse

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    Janaína Pereira de Macedo Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características químicas, cor, volume específico e aceitabilidade, de biscoitos elaborados com diferentes níveis de farelo de mandioca desidratado. Realizou-se previamente a desidratação do farelo de mandioca e, em seguida, elaboraram-se formulações de biscoitos com concentrações de farelo de mandioca de 0% (BP, 2% (BF2, 4% (BF4, 6% (BF6 e 8% (BF8, em substituição à fécula de mandioca. Os dados foram analisados por meio da análise de variância, teste de Tukey, em nível de 5% de significância. O teor de fibra alimentar e os atributos de cor (L*, a* e b* dos biscoitos aumentaram significativamente com a adição do farelo de mandioca desidratado, o teor de fibra alimentar total variou de 5,47g 100g-1 a 11,40g 100g-1, o de proteínas variou de 6,66g 100g-1 a 7,26g 100g-1. Em 100g de biscoito de polvilho com 8% de farelo de mandioca, encontram-se atendidas 20%, 32%, 26%, 38%, 79%, 16% e 20% da ingestão dietética de referência para o cálcio, cobre, fósforo, magnésio, manganês, potássio e zinco, respectivamente. O volume específico dos biscoitos diminuiu com o aumento de farelo de mandioca. Os biscoitos apresentaram boa aceitabilidade para aparência, sabor e textura. Conclui-se que biscoitos de polvilho elaborados com farelo de mandioca desidratado constituem um produto com bom potencial nutricional e de boa aceitabilidade.This study evaluated the chemically composition, color, specific volume and acceptability of biscuits made with cassava bagasse dehydrated. Held prior to the dehydration of cassava bagasse, then prepared themselves for producing biscuits with concentrations of cassava bagasse from 0% (BP, 2% (BF2, 4% (BF4 6% (BF6 and 8% (BF8, instead of cassava starch. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, Tukey at 5% level of significance. The dietary fiber content and attributes of color (L*, a* b* the biscuits increased with the addition of cassava bagasse dehydrated, the

  10. Análise descritiva por ordenação: aplicação na caracterização sensorial de biscoitos laminados salgados Ranking descriptive analysis: application in the sensory characterization of cracker biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Carnelocce

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A Análise Descritiva por Ordenação (ADO foi aplicada na caracterização de biscoitos cream cracker e água e sal comerciais, empregando julgadores pré-selecionados, mas sem experiência prévia em análise sensorial. O método compreendeu as etapas de levantamento e conceituação dos atributos, treinamento qualitativo e análise final, utilizando o procedimento de ordenação. Para verificação da eficiência na discriminação das amostras, o procedimento de ordenação foi comparado ao uso de escala não estruturada. Dados de caracterização instrumental de textura e cor foram comparados aos obtidos na descrição sensorial dos biscoitos. Análise Procrustes Generalizada foi utilizada na avaliação dos dados de ordenação ou escala, e os resultados da ordenação foram também avaliados por Teste de Friedman. A eficiência da equipe e a configuração das amostras foram similares no procedimento de ordenação e com o uso de escala. Após um treinamento qualitativo e uma avaliação inicial das amostras por um procedimento de ordenação, os julgadores não apresentaram divergência de comportamento, mesmo empregando um procedimento mais difícil (uso de escala. Cor e aroma de assado e sabor tostado, aroma de manteiga e sabor amanteigado, crocância (manual e na boca e uniformidade da cor foram os atributos mais importantes na discriminação. A ADO permitiu a caracterização e a discriminação de modo concordante com a composição indicada no rótulo dos produtos e os resultados instrumentais de textura e cor.Ranking Descriptive Analysis (RDA was applied to the characterization of commercial cream cracker and water and salt biscuits, using pre-selected assessors with no previous experience in sensory analysis. The method had the following steps: development of attributes, glossary and references, qualitative training and final analysis using the ranking procedure. To check the efficiency in discriminating the samples, the ranking

  11. 大熊猫膨化饼干饲料应用研究%Utilization of an Extruded High Fiber Biscuit Diet in Feeding Captive Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤纯香; Edwards,markS

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary study on reformation of diet and dietary husbandryfor two captive giant pandas (one adult male and one 5.5 year-old female) has been done at Zoological Society of San Diego during September 1996 to August 1997, which is based on a twelve-year long-term project of cooperative reproduction research for the giant panda with China. The panda pairs are fed with an extruded biscuit-shaped diet, which contains relatively high level of protein and fiber without milk and sugar matters, instead of their native diet of steamed grain bread plus milk, sugar, eggs and so on. The dietary is browsed animals by the way of more (than two) meals but a small amount and partially distributing the food in different parts of the animal' s active area. Animals are also offered plenty of fresh bamboo daily, and water is freely available. Food consumption, body weight and fecal output of the animals are measured, and detail data on animal' s development, health, behavior and reproductive feature are collected, too. The results have showed that both animals are quickly able to adapt them to the changes of husbandry factors, such as the environmental condition, food type and feeding schedule, and the maximum adaptive period might be six months. Well evidences have proved that both giant pandas are going normal, not only on their growth, development and nutrition, but also on the health, activities and routine be havior. A good quality and quantity of semen sample (3.36 ml, 90 % of motility, SOP = 3) was collected from the male. Defecation of mucous stool of animals are greatly reduced in the interval, quantity and abdominal uncomfortment. Daily activities under feeding the biscuit increased double times more than it did before.%对膨化饼干饲料饲喂大熊猫进行了研究,对日粮组合及饲喂方法作了重大改革.结果表明:使动物提高了日活动量,降低了排粘液次数及数量近一半,动物生长发育、营养状况、行为学及繁殖学

  12. Study on the content of slowly digestible starch in different formula biscuits%不同配方饼干中慢消化淀粉含量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈磊; 黄强; 赵瞳

    2012-01-01

    为了考查不同配方饼干中慢消化淀粉含量的差异,研究了淀粉脂质复合物、高链玉米淀粉、小麦淀粉、低筋面粉和高筋面粉在烘烤前后淀粉消化性的变化;考查了饼干加工中水油配比对淀粉消化性的影响;将淀粉脂质复合物、高链淀粉和小麦淀粉添加到高筋面粉中制成饼干,考查了添加原料对饼干中淀粉消化性的影响。结果表明,淀粉脂质复合物在烘烤后慢消化淀粉和抗消化淀粉含量变化很小,分别为38.75%和17.27%,其他几种原料在烘烤后慢消化淀粉和抗性淀粉含量降低显著;当用水量为45%,用油量为20%时,制成的饼干中慢消化淀粉达到最高为12.78%;以淀粉脂质复合物为添加原料制备的饼干慢消化淀粉含量最高.达到23.56%。%The digestiblity of starch-lipid complex, high -amylose maize starch,wheat starch,low-gluten and high-gluten flour was investigated before and after baking. The effect of water/oil ratios on the dJgestiblity of biscuits with different formula was examined. With starch-lipid complex,high-amylose maize starch and wheat starch added to the high-gluten starch,the influence of the different raw material on the digestiblity was studied. Results showed that the slowly digestible starch(SDS) and resistant starch(RS) content in starch-lipid complex dropped little after baking,which was 38.75% and 17.27% ,respectively, While the content of SDS and RS of other starches decreased obviously after baking. The SDS content reached the maximum 12.78% when the water and oil content was 45% and 20% ,respectively. The SDS content in the biscuits contained starch-lipid complex was hiqhest,which reached 23.56%.

  13. Elaboração de biscoitos de chocolate com substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja Chocolate biscuits preparation with partial substitution of wheat flour by fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alves Oliveira Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os consumidores estão cada vez mais exigentes e preocupados com a saúde e, por consequência, exigindo produtos naturais que deverão ser seguros e promover qualidade de vida. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de desenvolver biscoitos com farinhas mistas de polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja, utilizando um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: concentração de polvilho azedo, açúcar e farinha de albedo de laranja, e variáveis respostas: as características sensoriais: aparência, aroma, textura e sabor, além da impressão global, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Os biscoitos foram avaliados também quanto às características físico-químicas. As médias obtidas para as características sensoriais estiveram na faixa que vai de cinco (não gostei nem desgostei até sete (gostei moderadamente, não apresentando diferença significativa (P≤0,05 para todas as características sensoriais avaliadas. Dessa maneira, foi possível escolher a formulação ideal obtida de acordo com os parâmetros nutricionais, por não existir diferença sensorial significativa, que foi 35% de polvilho azedo, 100% de açúcar e 7,5% de farinha de albedo de laranja. No teste sensorial comparativo com os biscoitos comercial, padrão e otimizado, as características sensoriais aparência, sabor e textura apresentaram diferença significativa (P≤0,05. As características físico-químicas apresentaram resultados correspondentes aos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, e o teor de fibra bruta do biscoito otimizado foi de 3,08%, assim, pode ser classificado como biscoito "fonte de fibras".The consumers are increasingly demanding and worried about health and, consequently, requiring natural products that should be safe and that promote life quality. The present research had the objective to develop biscuits with mixed flour of fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour, using a 2³ factorial

  14. Evaluation of the quality of a molded sweet biscuit enriched with okara flour Avaliação da qualidade do biscoito moldado doce enriquecido com farinha de okara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to test the addition of soymilk residue, also known as okara, to a molded sweet biscuit (MSB. The okara was provided by two soymilk producing companies whose production systems are based on hot disintegration of decorticated (company B or non-decorticated (company A soybeans and separation of the soymilk. Okaras A and B were dehydrated in a flash dryer and then ground to a flour (O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a adição do resíduo do leite de soja, também conhecido como okara, ao biscoito moldado doce (BMD. O okara foi fornecido por duas empresas produtoras de leite de soja, cujos sistemas de produção baseiam-se na desintegração a quente da soja com casca (empresa A ou sem casca (empresa B e separação do leite de soja. Os okaras A e B foram desidratados em secador flash dryer e moídos na forma de farinha (< 200 mesh. As farinhas de okara apresentaram altos teores de proteínas (35 g.100 g-1 b.s., lipídios (17 g.100 g-1 b.s. e fibras (17 a 21 g.100 g-1 b.s.. A farinha A apresentou resultados de capacidade de retenção de água, solubilidade da proteína (SP, capacidade de emulsificação (CE, estabilidade de emulsão (EE e teor de isoflavonas, significativamente maiores (p < 0,05 que os determinados na farinha B. As formulações do BMD, substituindo 30% (p/p do peso da farinha de trigo, foram testadas. Os resultados das análises físicas, fraturabilidade e atividade de água do BMD com farinhas A e B não diferiram significativamente (p < 0,05 em relação ao padrão. A cor, o sabor e a qualidade global do MSB com 30% de farinha B não diferiram significativamente (p < 0,05 em comparação ao padrão, demonstrando potencial para a aplicação em produtos de confeitaria.

  15. Food guide: Constituents, additives, residues. Vol. 1. Fruit, vegetables, cereals, bread, biscuits, cakes and pastries, honey, sweets. 2. rev. ed.; Lebensmittelfuehrer: Inhalte, Zusaetze, Rueckstaende. Bd. 1. Obst, Gemuese, Getreide, Brot, Gebaeck, Knabberartikel, Honig, Suesswaren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, G.; Josst, G.; Schenker, D.; Sturm, W.; Vreden, N.

    2001-07-01

    It is not easy for the consumer to select the right food. Supermarket displays, packaging or an attractive appearance may induce him to buy without reflecting. Food labels often present more problems than they propose to solve. Knowledge about food constituents is the best way to select food. Once the consumer knows what is inside food, and which of these substances are classified substances, it is easier for him to select the best food for his purposes and needs. The book therefore classifies fruit, vegetables, peas and beans potatoes and mushrooms, cereals, cakes and biscuits, sugar, chocolate, sweets, icecream, honey, marmalades, jellies and new foods according to their constituents. This includes nutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, roughage), additives (listed and unlisted), pollutants (natural, environmental and synthetic pollutants). The nature and function of the ingredients are explained in an introductory chapter. Agricultural and chemical production processes are discussed, and the range of products available on the market is listed alphabetically by groups of products or trade classes. Each chapter also contains information and practical household hints. [German] Aus der Fuelle des Lebensmittelangebots das Richtige auszuwaehlen, ist nicht leicht. Die Plazierung in den Regalen der Supermaerkte, die Verpackung oder das aeussere Erscheinungsbild verleiten den Verbraucher oft zu einem unueberlegten Einkauf. Auch die Kennzeichnung von Lebensmitteln gibt haeufig mehr Probleme auf, als dass sie Klarheit schafft. Am verlaesslichsten ist eine Beurteilung von Lebensmitteln anhand ihrer Inhaltsstoffe. Kennt sie der Verbraucher und weiss er, welche davon (nicht) kennzeichnungspflichtig sind, kann er sich leichter orientieren und besser nach seinen Beduerfnissen auswaehlen. In diesem Band werden deshalb Obst, Gemuese und Huelsenfruechte, Kartoffeln und Pilze, Getreide, Backwaren und Knabbererzeugnisse, Zucker, Schokolade, Zuckerwaren

  16. Application of Quadratic Rotation and Fuzzy Evaluation in Development of Pumpkin Seeds Hull Biscuit%二次旋转和模糊评价在南瓜子壳饼干研制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珍林; 杜先锋; 刘天成; 陈秋玲

    2012-01-01

    Taking pumpkin seeds hull rich in dietary fiber as the auxiliary materials, based on single - factor tests the response second rotation was adopted with five levels and four factors that are Pumpkin seeds hull, white sugar, water and Vegetable oil. Fuzzy math was applied in biscuits sensory evaluation. The result of the fuzzy evaluation was used as the data for the Second rotation methodology. DPS was used to optimize the Second rotation. The result of the experiments demonstrates that F value is 8.919,P<0. 001 which is more than F in the same level. The Lack of F in 1.464 is less than F in 0. 05 level, R2 of the model is 0. 8560, which indicates the result of the model is fit well and the relation of the independent variables and the rotation values is remarkable. This concludes that the model could be used in experimental theory forecast . The optimized processing conditions are amount of Pumpkin seeds hull 4. 13% , white sugar 23. 64% , water 12. 89% ,and Vegetable oil 30.45% .%以富含膳食纤维的南瓜子壳粉为辅料,在单因素试验的基础上,通过添加南瓜子壳粉对饼干生产配方进行4因素(南瓜子壳粉、植物油、水、白砂糖)5水平的二次旋转试验设计,并应用模糊数学对产品进行感官评定,以模糊感官评定结果作为二次旋转试验值,通过DPS软件进行二次旋转优化.试验结果表明:该试验模型的F值为8.919,P<0.001,大于在0.01水平上的F值,而失拟项的F值为1.464,小于0.05水平的F值,该试验模型的R2 =0.8560,说明该试验模型拟和结果好,自变量与旋转值之间线性关系显著,可以用于该试验的理论预测.经优化后的饼干制作最佳工艺参数:南瓜子壳粉添加量4.13%,白砂糖添加量23.64%,水添加量12.89%,植物油添加量30.45%.

  17. Biscoitos tipo "cookie" e "snack" enriquecidos, respectivamente com caseína obtida por coagulação enzimática e caseinato de sódio Sweet and salted biscuits (snacks enriched, respectively, with enzyme coagulated casein and sodium caseinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C.H. Krüger

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi a formulação e a caracterização química, nutricional e sensorial de dois tipos de biscoito, tipo "cookie" e "snack", utilizando para o enriquecimento protéico a caseína obtida por coagulação enzimática para o "cookie" e caseinato de sódio para o "snack". O biscoito tipo "cookie" apresentou teores mais elevados de umidade, proteína e fibra total que o do tipo "snack", que foi mais rico em gordura e sal. Com relação aos minerais essenciais, o biscoito tipo "cookie" apresentou-se mais rico em minerais que o "snack", exceto pelo fósforo e pelo sódio com teores mais elevados no "snack". O perfil de aminoácidos essenciais foi mais adequado no tipo "cookie" que no "snack". Conseqüentemente, os índices de valor protéico, exceto a digestibilidade verdadeira, foram superiores para os biscoitos do tipo "cookie". A aceitabilidade dos dois tipos de biscoito foi testada em atletas dos dois sexos com relação aos atributos: aceitação global, cor da superfície, odor, sabor, crocância e dureza. A aceitação dos produtos foi de 98% para os "snacks" e 81% para os "cookies". Os "cookies" tiveram o mesmo nível de aceitação pelos homens e pelas mulheres, já os "snacks" foram mais bem aceitos pelos homens (52,7% dos homens gostaram muito, contra apenas 37,8% das mulheres. A análise microbiológica dos dois tipos de biscoito mostrou perfil microbiológico aceitável, com base na Portaria 451 da Secretaria de Vigilância Sanitária.The objective of the present work was the formulation and characterization, chemical, nutritional and sensorial, of two types of biscuits, cookie and snack, using rennet casein and sodium caseinate for cookies and snacks enrichment, respectively. The cookie type biscuit presented higher contents of moisture, protein, and total fiber than the snack type which was richer in fat and salt. As to essential minerals the cookies were richer than the snacks, except for sodium and

  18. PEMANFAATAN TEPUNG KOMPOSIT UBI JALAR PUTIH (Ipomea batatas L. KECAMBAH KEDELAI (Glycine max Merr DAN KECAMBAH KACANG HIJAU (Virginia radiata L SEBAGAI SUBSTITUEN PARSIAL TERIGU DALAM PRODUK PANGAN ALTERNATIF BISKUIT KAYA ENERGI PROTEIN [Utilization of Composite Flour from White Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L, Germinated Soybeans (Glycine max Merr., and Germinated Mung Beans (Virginia radiata L as Wheat Flour Partial Substituent of Alternative Food, High Energy-Protein Biscuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry H Sunandar2

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available An emergency food based biscuit product was formulated by utilizing composite flour from white sweet potatoes, germinated soybeans, and germinated mung beans. This product was designed to meet high protein and energy wich contain protein as minimum as 12% and 50% carbohydrate. Sweet potatoes, germinated soybeans, and germinated mung beans flour were obtained by using drum dryer. The flour characteristics determination showed that there were positive corelation between bulk density and wettability, and had negative corelation with stack angle. The bulk density number of sweet potatoes, germinated soybeans, and germinated mung beans flour were 0.56, 0.38, 0.45 g/m; compact density 0.63, 0.54, and 0.56 g/ml; whiteness degree 49.77, 29.82 and 34.41%; stack angle 30.56, 41.77 and 31.16 degree; wettability 1.104, 345, 20 second; and dispersibility 1.98, 1.06 and 0.70%. Wheat flour could be substituted by sweet potatoes flour as much as 80%. The range utilization of germinated soybeans and germinated mung beans flour were 12-28 % which combined with 25-44% sweet potatoes flour. The nutritional composition of high energy and protein biscuit were within average range of protein 12.34%, fat 24.56%, carbohydrate 60.65 %, and also total dietary fiber 15.01%. The result of organoleptic test showed that high energy and protein biscuit was accepted by consument, so that its very potential to ben as alternative food.

  19. 不同剂量维生素A强化饼干对3~6岁儿童维生素A营养状况的干预效果%Interventional effects of biscuits fortified with different doses of vitamin A on the vitamin A status in children of 3-6 years old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵梅; 赵勇; 李廷玉; 王蓉; 瞿平; 练雪梅; 毛春婷; 戴英; 刘友学

    2006-01-01

    血清视黄醇、血清前白蛋白、血清维生素A、血红蛋白、身高和体质量比较:补充3个月后,自身对照除30%推荐摄入量组的前白蛋白和血红蛋白外,各组儿童其余各项指标均明显增加(t=2.52~37.44,P<0.05~0.01).2万国际单位组血清维生素A的升高幅度明显大于其他组(F=4.62,P<0.01),30%推荐摄入量组血红蛋白、前白蛋白和身高的增长幅度明显小于其他组(F=5.0~7.78,P<0.01).30%推荐摄入量组补充9个月后,血红蛋白和前白蛋白的升高明显大于其余组(F=11.62,10.21,P<0.01),血清视黄醇的升高仍低于2万国际单位组(F=4.21,P<0.01).结论:补充3种不同剂量的维生素A强化饼干和20万国际单位维生素A胶丸,均可明显改善维生素A的营养状况和血红蛋白水平.其中30%推荐摄入量和100%推荐摄入量风险小、且每日补充能稳定维持体内维生素A水平,可能是更适于儿童的长期补充剂量,而30%推荐摄入最优于100%推荐摄入量.%BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency disorders (VADD) is a healthy problem of children in the world, especially in the west of China and remote areas, and the nutritional intervention is needed.OBJECTIVE: To compare the improved effects of biscuits fortified with three different doses of vitamin A on the vitamin A status in children aged 3-6 years and explore ap ideal dose of vitamin A supplement for preventing VADD.DESIGN: Randomized controlled observation.SETTING: Health Surveillance Institute, Chongqing Municipal Health Bureau; Staff Room of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, College of Public Health, Chongqing University of Medical Sciences; Center for Children Nutrition, Children's Hospital, Chongqing University of Medical Sciences.PARTICIPANTS: The investigation was done between March and December 2002. 753 children aged 3-6 years from 8 kindergartens in Banan district of Chongqing city were enrolled with the agreement of their guardians. They were divided randomly into

  20. DESIGN OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM FOR A BISCUIT PACKING MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Shashank Saxena; Gaur, M.K.; Deepak Sinha; C. S. Malvi; Sonam Mishra

    2013-01-01

    The energy on earth depends on the sun. Solar energy is derived from the sun's nuclear fusion reactions within the continuous energy Earth's orbit. Humans rely on solar energy to survive, including all other forms of renewable energy (except for geothermal resources). The technical feasibility and economical viability of using solar energy depends on the amount of available sunlight (solar radiation). This is sometimes referred to as the available solar resource. This energy (i.e. solar energ...

  1. Macronutrients Content and Energy Value of Fiber Rich Biscuits

    OpenAIRE

    Lovorka Vujić; Blaženka Šebečić; Koraljka Gali; Marija Babić; Dubravka Vitali

    2007-01-01

    Cereals and cereal based products are an important source of energy, fibers and a range of macro- and micronutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, minerals etc. Most of the evidences for health benefits of cereal foods are related to the fiber rich wholegrain foods and its role in reducing risk of degenerative chronic diseases, so-called Western diseases (constipation, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, diverticulosis, obesity, and colon cancer). To evaluate fiber-rich cereal products as a...

  2. Biscuits, Sausage, Gravy, Milk, and Orange Juice: School Breakfast Environment in 4 Rural Appalachian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Andrea; Haughton, Betsy; Jahns, Lisa; Fitzhugh, Eugene; Jones, Sonya J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the school breakfast environment in rural Appalachian schools to inform school environment intervention and policy change. Methods: A total of 4 rural schools with fourth- and fifth-grade students in East Tennessee were assessed. A cross-sectional descriptive examination of the school food…

  3. The microaerophilic microbiota of de-novo paediatric inflammatory bowel disease: the BISCUIT study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hansen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children presenting for the first time with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD offer a unique opportunity to study aetiological agents before the confounders of treatment. Microaerophilic bacteria can exploit the ecological niche of the intestinal epithelium; Helicobacter and Campylobacter are previously implicated in IBD pathogenesis. We set out to study these and other microaerophilic bacteria in de-novo paediatric IBD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 100 children undergoing colonoscopy were recruited including 44 treatment naïve de-novo IBD patients and 42 with normal colons. Colonic biopsies were subjected to microaerophilic culture with Gram-negative isolates then identified by sequencing. Biopsies were also PCR screened for the specific microaerophilic bacterial groups: Helicobacteraceae, Campylobacteraceae and Sutterella wadsworthensis. RESULTS: 129 Gram-negative microaerophilic bacterial isolates were identified from 10 genera. The most frequently cultured was S. wadsworthensis (32 distinct isolates. Unusual Campylobacter were isolated from 8 subjects (including 3 C. concisus, 1 C. curvus, 1 C. lari, 1 C. rectus, 3 C. showae. No Helicobacter were cultured. When comparing IBD vs. normal colon control by PCR the prevalence figures were not significantly different (Helicobacter 11% vs. 12%, p = 1.00; Campylobacter 75% vs. 76%, p = 1.00; S. wadsworthensis 82% vs. 71%, p = 0.312. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers a comprehensive overview of the microaerophilic microbiota of the paediatric colon including at IBD onset. Campylobacter appear to be surprisingly common, are not more strongly associated with IBD and can be isolated from around 8% of paediatric colonic biopsies. S. wadsworthensis appears to be a common commensal. Helicobacter species are relatively rare in the paediatric colon. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is publically registered on the United Kingdom Clinical Research Network Portfolio (9633.

  4. EFFECT OF BAKING ON THE PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND THE HYGIENICAL QUALITY OF BISCUITS / EFFET DE LA CUISSON SUR LES CARACTERISTIQUES PHYSICO-CHIMIQUES ET LA QUALITE SANITAIRE DES BISCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED MAMOUMI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The food safety is necessary of development of agro-food industries. We opted for the introduction of a concept to ensure a sanitary control of products-wares, including the pastry. We chose for our project three parameters as: water activity (aw, pH and moisture. Also, we defined the target values for these parameters to ensure the safety of our pastry. Otherwise, we incorporated the factor temperature to ensure complete control of safety knowing that cooking is a major industry in the pastry. We defined the temperature of microbial destruction to reduce the microbial load of the pastry after baking. This study was approved by microbiological analysis carried out on the cake having undergone the following parameters (aw, pH, moisture, temperature of microbial destruction.

  5. KAJIAN FORMULASI BISKUIT JAGUNG DALAM RANGKA SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG TERIGU [Study on Corn Biscuit Formulation to Subtitute of wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gracia C.L1*

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the formulation of substitute by corn flour. The flour used roasted corn flour and unroasted corn flour. Results showed that biscuit’s made of 80 gr corn flour and 20 gr wheat flour were accepted by panelist’s and the best formulation was 80 gr corn flour, 20 gr wheat flour, 50 gr margarine, 50 gr sugar and 10 gr yellow egg both of two corn flour. Roasting treatment of corn flour significantly affected fat content, carbohydrate content and digestibility of protein of the biskuit.

  6. KAJIAN FORMULASI BISKUIT JAGUNG DALAM RANGKA SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG TERIGU [Study on Corn Biscuit Formulation to Subtitute of wheat Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia Gracia C.L1)*; Sugiyono*; Bambang Haryanto2)

    2009-01-01

    The research was conducted to study the formulation of substitute by corn flour. The flour used roasted corn flour and unroasted corn flour. Results showed that biscuit’s made of 80 gr corn flour and 20 gr wheat flour were accepted by panelist’s and the best formulation was 80 gr corn flour, 20 gr wheat flour, 50 gr margarine, 50 gr sugar and 10 gr yellow egg both of two corn flour. Roasting treatment of corn flour significantly affected fat content, carbohydrate content and digestibility of ...

  7. Biscuits, Bicycles and B.Sc.'s: The Impact of Market Forces on the Management of Publicly-Funded Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Roger

    1987-01-01

    Australian public universities have responded to market forces in faculty appointment, deregulation of faculty outside earnings, exploitation of intellectual property, creation of entrepreneurial structures, promotion criteria, research vs. teaching priorities, measurement of teaching efficiency, course offerings, meeting the overseas market, and…

  8. 基于模糊PID在饼干生产线温度控制的研究%Biscuit Production Line Temperature Control Research Based on Fuzzy PID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In view of the temperature control process in the very great time hysteresis and the very strong environment disturbance,can not satisfy the request well with the general PID control method, the compatible fuzzy regular strategy adjusts PID to be possible very good solution this question. Uses the MATLAB simulation research, composes one based on the fuzzy-PID control temperature control system, the application result indicated that this control has the good sound of something astir state property energy, compatibility strong and so on characteristics.%  针对温度控制过程中很大的时滞性和很强的环境性干扰,用一般的PID控制方法不能很好地满足要求,兼容模糊规则策略调节PID可以很好的解决这个问题。采用MATLAB仿真研究,组成一个基于模糊-PID控制的温度调节系统,应用结果表明,该控制具有良好的动静态性能,适应性强等特点。

  9. Biscoitos de polvilho azedo enriquecidos com fibras solúveis e insolúveis Fermented cassava starch biscuits enriched with soluble and insoluble fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio Martins Montenegro; Cristiane Rodrigues Gomes-Ruffi; Cláudia Aparecida Vicente; Fernanda Paula Collares-Queiroz; Caroline Joy Steel

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho avaliou a utilização de farelo de trigo e polidextrose como fontes de fibra no enriquecimento de biscoitos de polvilho. Utilizou-se a Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta para verificar a influência da adição destes ingredientes nos parâmetros de qualidade dos biscoitos. As respostas avaliadas do planejamento experimental fatorial completo 2² foram o volume específico, a dureza instrumental, a umidade e a cor - parâmetros L, a* e b*. Para as respostas: volume específico e...

  10. Modelos em programação matemática para o processamento do biscoito tipo cracker Mathematics programming models for biscuit cracker processing

    OpenAIRE

    Micheline Pessoa de Melo; Dorasilvia Pontes Lima; Plácido Rogério Pinheiro

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi construir modelos em Programação Matemática visando otimizar o processo de fabricação do biscoito cracker, aplicando-se Programação Linear e Não Linear. Através do conhecimento das etapas de produção do biscoito cracker, construiu-se um modelo em Programação Linear que minimiza as perdas de produção e o custo envolvido em seu processo de produção. Desenvolveu-se um modelo em Programação Não Linear para controlar os fatores tempo e pH na fermentação da esponja do ...

  11. Eating for Health

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of biscuits, I’ll see that weight climbing up. Narrator: Besides cutting back on the biscuits, Richard ... the small changes can go together to add up to have real health impact. Narrator: Making wise ...

  12. Subtitusi Tepung Pisang Awak (Musa Paradisiaca Var Awak) dan Ikan Lele Dumbo (Clarias Garipinus) Dalam Pembuatan Biskuit Serta Uji Daya Terimanya

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Rini Puspa

    2015-01-01

    Banana ‘awak’ ripe flour (Musa paradisiaca var. Awak) and dumbo catfish (Clarias Garapinus) can be processed into biscuit. Biscuit is one of additional food that can full fill the needs of toddler nutrient. Biscuits had sweet taste and interesting shape. This research purpose to determine the acceptability test and nutritional content of biscuits substitution banana ‘awak’ flour and dumbo catfish. The type of research was an experiment conducted by completely randomized design using two fa...

  13. 糕点过氧化值测定方法的注意事项%Key points for attention in testing peroxide value of pastry,cake and biscuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余伟梅

    2004-01-01

    糕点的过氧化值是其重要的卫生指标,每年都有大量的样品需要检测,本文介绍了糕点的过氧化值的测定过程中,在样品处理、滴定过程和试液要求等等方面应该注意的事项,从而保证了检验结果的准确性.

  14. Galletas enriquecidas con proteínas de pescado para la alimentación de niños en el Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Bostock, T.; Montaño, R; Mora, Y

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a simple method of producing a protein-enriched sweet biscuit, shown to be popular with young children, by adding cooked minced shark flesh and soya flour to a slightly modified biscuit formulation. The biscuit can be manufactured on standard production equipment at a cost which renders it ideal for use in institutional feeding programmes, the product´s extended shelf life being an additional advantage, especially in remote rural areas. Acceptability tests were carried ou...

  15. Pengaruh Penambahan Tepung Bit Merah dan Hasil Parutan Bit Merah dalam Pembuatan Biskuit Terhadap Kandungan Gizi dan Cita Rasanya

    OpenAIRE

    Br Ginting, Winda Melisa

    2015-01-01

    Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L) is significantly suitable to consider in supporting the food diversification. To support food diversification need to be introduced products beetroot to get a new food alternatives. Beetroot is potential as a source of nutrients, as well of its macro and micro nutrients contents. One of processed that can be made from beetroot that is biscuit that can be kind of biscuit on the market. This study was the experiment of making biscuit with the addition beetroot flour a...

  16. Guar gum--its acceptability to diabetic patients when incorporated into baked food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredger, J; Ransley, J

    1978-12-01

    Guar gum was incorporated into 10 g carbohydrate portions of cheese biscuits and 20 g carbohydrate portions of pizza and egg and bacon flan. Their acceptability to diabetic patients was assessed by means of a taste panel. The results were favourable. Other diabetic patients were asked to judge three cheese biscuits of varying guar gum content. The biscuit with the lowest content was most favoured. PMID:731029

  17. Pengaruh Penambahan Tepung Wortel Terhadap Daya Terima Dan Kadar Vitamin A Pada Biskuit

    OpenAIRE

    Febrina, Yusi

    2012-01-01

    Based on nutritional content, carrot flour were potential to be a source of nutrients such as β-carotene, fiber, fat, carbohydrates, proteins needed by the body. Therefore, carrot flour can be added for the biscuits, so that cookies can be nutritious. This study was the experiment of making biscuit addition of carrot fluor 5%, 15%, and 25%. This research aims to find out acceptability of biscuits determined with organoleptic test including flavor, aroma, color, and texture as measured by ...

  18. EVALUASI MODEL-MODEL PENDUGAAN UMUR SIMPAN PANGAN DARI DIFUSI HUKUM FICK UNIDIREKSIONAL EVALUATION OF SHELF-LIFE EQUATION MODELS DERIVED FROM UNIDIRECTIONAL FICK’S LAW

    OpenAIRE

    M. Arpah; Rizal Syarief2)

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the variation of shelf-life values, obtained in quantifying shelf-life of biscuits among models of accelerated storage studies (ASS) from unidirectional Fick’S law. Shelf-life of biscuits is defined as the length of time of a packaged biscuits can be stored before the onset quality change appears.Four models: Heiss-Eichner (1971), Labuza (1983), Rudolph (1986) and Half Value Period or HVP model (Syarief, 1986) were evaluated. These models shared a common ...

  19. Pemanfaatan Bekatul Sebagai Substitusi Tepung Terigu Pada Pembuatan Biskuit Crackers Dan Penetapan Kadar Protein Serta Lemak

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriko, Syefrio

    2011-01-01

    Wheat flour is the base ingridient for production of bran crackers biscuit. Bran and wheat flour have a closely same of protein and fat contents. This aims of the study are to utilize bran as a substitute for wheat flour in the manufacture of crackers biscuit. The bran samples were obtained from the rice milling where is located in desa tanah merah, binjai. Bran crackers biscuit was made by various addition of bran 0, 10, 20 and 30 respectively. The most preference value of the crackers biscu...

  20. Caracterização e análise sensorial de biscoitos de polvilho elaborados com diferentes níveis de farelo de mandioca Characterization and sensory analysis of cassava starch biscuits made with different levels of cassava bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Janaína Pereira de Macedo Rodrigues; Márcio Caliari; Eduardo Ramirez Asquieri

    2011-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características químicas, cor, volume específico e aceitabilidade, de biscoitos elaborados com diferentes níveis de farelo de mandioca desidratado. Realizou-se previamente a desidratação do farelo de mandioca e, em seguida, elaboraram-se formulações de biscoitos com concentrações de farelo de mandioca de 0% (BP), 2% (BF2), 4% (BF4), 6% (BF6) e 8% (BF8), em substituição à fécula de mandioca. Os dados foram analisados por meio da análise de variância, t...

  1. Elaboração de biscoitos de chocolate com substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja Chocolate biscuits preparation with partial substitution of wheat flour by fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Alves Oliveira Santos; Izabel Veras Cristina e SILVA; João Paulo Almeida dos Santos; Danielle Gomes Santana; Meirielly Lima Almeida; Paulo Sergio Marcellini

    2011-01-01

    Os consumidores estão cada vez mais exigentes e preocupados com a saúde e, por consequência, exigindo produtos naturais que deverão ser seguros e promover qualidade de vida. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de desenvolver biscoitos com farinhas mistas de polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja, utilizando um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: concentração de polvilho azedo, açúcar e farinha de albedo de laranja, e variáveis respostas: as características sensoriais...

  2. Eating for Health

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biscuits, and then I can eat them several times a day. I also weigh myself every morning, ... started to gain weight a little at a time, and my cardiologist said, “I think you’ll ...

  3. Problems Digesting Dairy Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mixes for cakes, cookies, pancakes, and biscuits instant potatoes, soups, and breakfast drinks lunch meats (other than Kosher) frozen dinners salad dressings margarines candies and other snacks Dietary supplements with lactase enzyme are available to help people digest foods that ...

  4. Lactose Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contain even small amounts of lactose, such as bread and other baked goods waffles, pancakes, biscuits, cookies, ... lactose intolerance based on medical, family, and diet history, including a review of symptoms; a physical exam; ...

  5. What I Need to Know about Lactose Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contain small amounts of lactose. These foods include bread and other baked goods waffles, pancakes, biscuits, and ... lactose intolerance with a medical, family, and diet history; a physical exam; and medical tests. Most people ...

  6. Influencia de la harina de chufa y el maltitol en la caracterización fisicoquímica y sensorial de galletas

    OpenAIRE

    RAGA SORIANO, ANA

    2015-01-01

    [EN] This work is focused on the analysis of the physicochemical characteristics and sensory acceptance of cookies prepared by replacing wheat flour (25, 50, 75 and 100%) and sugar (100%) by, respectively, tigernut flour and maltitol in order to obtain nutritionally enriched biscuits (especially in dietary fiber) with acceptable organoleptic properties. Plain wheat flour formula was included in the study as control. The biscuit processing was standardized. Assessed attributes were: water cont...

  7. Characterization of Cohesive Cake Formation and Stickiness of Starches at Various Water Levels in the Presence of Palm oil and Palm Oil Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Hasmadi Mamat; Mansoor Abd. Hamid; Hill, Sandra E.

    2012-01-01

    A key feature of the biscuit manufacture is the combination of the raw ingredients. Different oils are likely to change the quality of dough. The factors important in agglomeration of starch materials are poorly understood and therefore work was carried out to try and establish the behaviour of oil and water on the material properties of starches. An understanding of particle-particle behaviour in the presence of oils and water is relevant to a food production process such as biscuit making, ...

  8. In-house–validated liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for survey of acrylamide in various processed foods from Korean market

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sanghee; Yoo, Miyoung; Koo, Minseon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Meehye; Park, Sung-Kug; Shin, Dongbin

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a chemical found in starchy foods that have been cooked at high temperatures. The objective of this study is to monitor the levels of AA in a total of 274 samples of potato chips, chips (except potato chips), biscuits, French fries, breakfast cereals, chocolate products, tea, seasoned laver, and nut products sampled in Korean market. These processed foods include (1) potato chips, (2) chips (except potato chips), (3) biscuits, (4) French fries, (5) breakfast cereals, (6) ch...

  9. Evaluation of a high nutritional quality snack based on oat flakes and inulin: effects on postprandial glucose, insulin and ghrelin responses of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamataki, Nikoleta S; Nikolidaki, Eirini K; Yanni, Amalia E; Stoupaki, Maria; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsigkas, Alexandros-Pantelis; Perrea, Despoina; Tentolouris, Nikolaos; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2016-07-13

    The consumption of high nutritional value snacks may favorably affect the diet quality. Biscuits manufactured with oat flakes and maltitol were assessed for glycemic, insulinemic and ghrelin responses. Enrichment with inulin, a fructooligosachararide (FOS) which acts as soluble fiber, was performed in an attempt to further increase the dietary fiber content and examine potential additional postprandial benefits. Eleven healthy subjects participated in the study and consumed either 80 g oat biscuits (OB) or 81 g oat biscuits with 4% inulin (OBIN) or a solution containing 50 g of glucose (reference food), each yielding 50 g of available carbohydrates. Venous blood samples were collected before consumption and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min postprandially. The developed products were also evaluated for physicochemical properties, including porosity, density, texture, color, sensory attributes and microstructure (by scanning electron microscopy). Both biscuits demonstrated a low glycemic index (GI), which was found to be 32.82 ± 8.07 for OB and 45.68 ± 9.64 for OBIN. Compared to OB, OBIN demonstrated higher insulin response at 45 and 60 min and higher ghrelin suppression at 60 and 120 min postprandially (P sensory attributes. Biscuits formulated with oat flakes and maltitol with or without 4% inulin can be classified as low GI foods. Inulin addition significantly lowered the ghrelin response to OBIN, suggesting an advantage of OBIN in the modulation of satiety; however, no further benefits regarding glucose and insulin responses were observed. PMID:27381507

  10. Use of spent coffee grounds as food ingredient in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Saez, Nuria; García, Alba Tamargo; Pérez, Inés Domínguez; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J; Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Del Castillo, Maria Dolores

    2017-02-01

    The present research aimed to evaluate the use of spent coffee grounds (SCG) from instant coffee as a food ingredient and its application in bakery products. Data on physicochemical characterization, thermal stability and food safety of SCG were acquired. Evaluation of feasibility as dietary fibre was also determined. Results showed SCG are natural source of antioxidant insoluble fibre, essential amino acids, low glycaemic sugars, resistant to thermal food processing and digestion process, and totally safe. In the present work, SCG were incorporated in biscuit formulations for the first time. Low-calorie sweeteners and oligofructose were also included in the food formulations. Nutritional quality, chemical (acrylamide, hydroxymethylfurfural and advanced glycation end products) and microbiological safety and sensory tests of the biscuits were carried out. Innovative biscuits were obtained according to consumers' preferences with high nutritional and sensorial quality and potential to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. PMID:27596399

  11. Characterization of induced mutants of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L) for confectionary and quality traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesame induced mutants were isolated from gamma irradiation of a local variety DS-1. The promising mutants for high yield and bold seed were utilized for assessing lignan profiles mainly sesamin, sesamolin and gamma tocopherol.mutant-1022 exhibited 146 per cent improvement over the parent, Since, the sesame possess numerous health benefits, the value added confectionary products were prepared. The studies revealed that, the biscuits prepared by using 100 per cent sesame flour exhibited very good spreading quality and baking strength. Organoleptic score indicated that 80% of the evaluators accepted biscuits prepared from pure sesame flour. (author)

  12. Substitutability and Independence: Matching Analyses of Brands and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.; Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive examination of panel data for 1,847 consumers and 2,209 brands of "biscuits" (a total of 76,682 records) in which matching analysis is employed to define brand substitutability and potential product clusters within the overall category. The results indicate that, while brands performed as expected as perfect…

  13. Healthy Pets and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food and treats might include dry dog or cat food, dog biscuits, pig ears, beef hooves, and rodents ... after your pet, and before eating or preparing foods. Make sure to remove your ... contain dog or cat feces to prevent the spread of roundworms and ...

  14. Identifying dietary patterns and associated health-related lifestyle factors in the adult Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia;

    2014-01-01

    , potatoes and gravy, and cake and biscuits; a 'health-conscious' pattern correlated with coarse bread, fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy, nuts, water and tea; and a 'fast food' pattern correlated with pizza, hamburger/spring rolls, crisps, rice and pasta, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and sweets...

  15. After the Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    When floodwater swept through the McVities biscuit factory in Carlisle in January 2005 few were confident that it would reopen. The factory, in the Caldewgate area of the city, was one of the first casualties of the flood, as water, nine feet deep in places, coursed trough the food preparation areas, destroying equipment and covering everything in…

  16. Consumer Brand Choice: Individual and Group Analyses of Demand Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C.

    2006-01-01

    Following the behavior-analytic tradition of analyzing individual behavior, the present research investigated demand elasticity of individual consumers purchasing supermarket products, and compared individual and group analyses of elasticity. Panel data from 80 UK consumers purchasing 9 product categories (i.e., baked beans, biscuits, breakfast…

  17. Farewell Year 12: Chemistry at Nagle College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Maro; Azar, Stefanie; Vieiro, Bianca; van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2012-01-01

    With one week to go, Year 12 chemistry made their final practical an event to be remembered. We decided to take that infamous Periodic Table to the next level, transforming it into an edible table! Armed with 114 biscuits, multiple tubs filled with coloured icing, plastic knives, and gloves and "Professional" piping bags, we converted the science…

  18. Defining Characteristics for Young Children Meeting Cutoff on the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Alison M.; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max

    2012-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) is crucial so that early intervention services, which have been found to best alleviate symptoms of ASD in children, can be implemented. Currently, the "Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers" ("M-CHAT") and the "Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits-Part 1" ("BISCUIT-Part 1")…

  19. Testing the interaction between analytical modules: an example with Roundup Ready® soybean line GTS 40-3-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellocchi Gianni

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The modular approach to analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs relies on the independence of the modules combined (i.e. DNA extraction and GM quantification. The validity of this assumption has to be proved on the basis of specific performance criteria. Results An experiment was conducted using, as a reference, the validated quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR module for detection of glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready® GM soybean (RRS. Different DNA extraction modules (CTAB, Wizard and Dellaporta, were used to extract DNA from different food/feed matrices (feed, biscuit and certified reference material [CRM 1%] containing the target of the real-time PCR module used for validation. Purity and structural integrity (absence of inhibition were used as basic criteria that a DNA extraction module must satisfy in order to provide suitable template DNA for quantitative real-time (RT PCR-based GMO analysis. When performance criteria were applied (removal of non-compliant DNA extracts, the independence of GMO quantification from the extraction method and matrix was statistically proved, except in the case of Wizard applied to biscuit. A fuzzy logic-based procedure also confirmed the relatively poor performance of the Wizard/biscuit combination. Conclusions For RRS, this study recognises that modularity can be generally accepted, with the limitation of avoiding combining highly processed material (i.e. biscuit with a magnetic-beads system (i.e. Wizard.

  20. The HEALTHGRAIN definition of ‘whole grain’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.W. van der; Poutanen, K.; Seal, C.J.; Richardson, D.P.

    2014-01-01

    Most cereal products, like white bread, pasta, and biscuits, are based on flour after removal of bran and germ, the two parts of grain kernels containing most of the dietary fibre and other bioactive components. In the past decade, consumers have been rediscovering whole grain-based products and the

  1. Sensory memory and food texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Köster, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    Memory for texture plays an important role in food expectations. After fasting overnight, subjects (41 women, 35 men, age 19-60 years) received a breakfast including breakfast drink, biscuits and yoghurt. Subsequently, they rated their hunger feelings every hour, and returned for a taste experiment

  2. Maternal Teaching Talk within Families of Mexican Descent: Influences of Task and Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Ann R.

    2002-01-01

    The interactions of 20 middle-class and 20 working-class Mexican American mothers and their 4-year-old children were observed during a school-type construction task (block building) and a home-type construction task (baking biscuits). Both task and socioeconomic status had significant effects on mothers' and children's conversations and behaviors.…

  3. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Querner

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma sacc...

  4. Women's club - Christmas Sale - Solidarité Femmes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's club

    2010-01-01

    Thursday, 25 November from 9am to 3pm Main Building 60, Ground floor All proceeds from the sale will be given to the charity Solidarité Femmes Numerous items for sale: Christmas wreaths, Cakes and Biscuits, Coffee, Preserves, Paintings, Books, Embroidery, Patchwork, Painting on porcelain... Tombola! Win a patchwork quilt, handmade by CWC members. All are welcome!

  5. Outbreak of mass sociogenic illness in a school feeding program in northwest Bangladesh, 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2010, an acute illness outbreak was reported in school students eating high-energy biscuits supplied by the school feeding programme in northwest Bangladesh. We investigated this outbreak to describe the illness in terms of person, place and time, develop the timeline of events, and determine the cause and community perceptions regarding the outbreak. METHODS: We defined case-patients as students from affected schools reporting any two symptoms including abdominal pain, heartburn, bitter taste, and headache after eating biscuits on the day of illness. We conducted in-depth interviews and group discussions with students, teachers, parents and community members to explore symptoms, exposures, and community perceptions. We conducted a questionnaire survey among case-patients to determine the symptoms and ascertain food items eaten 12 hours before illness onset, and microbiological and environmental investigations. RESULTS: Among 142 students seeking hospital care, 44 students from four schools qualified as case-patients. Of these, we surveyed 30 who had a mean age of 9 years; 70% (21/30 were females. Predominant symptoms included abdominal pain (93%, heartburn (90%, and bitter taste (57%. All students recovered within a few hours. No pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, Shigella or Salmonella spp. were isolated from collected stool samples. We found no rancid biscuits in schools and storage sites. The female index case perceived the unusually darker packet label as a "devil's deed" that made the biscuits poisonous. Many students, parents and community members reported concerns about rumors of students dying from biscuit poisoning. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid onset, followed by rapid recovery of symptoms; female preponderance; inconsistent physical, microbiological and environmental findings suggested mass sociogenic illness rather than a foodborne or toxic cause. Rumours of student deaths heightening community anxiety apparently propagated this

  6. Diversity and taphonomic gradients from shoreface to deep water: Case studies based on sea urchin assemblages from the Miocene of Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebelsick, James; Mancosu, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Echinoid faunas from Miocene sediments from Sardinia allow diversity to be correlated to variations in depositional environments as well as taphonomic pathways. Taxonomic richness and preservation potentials vary among both carbonate and siliciclastic dominated shelf environments. Studies include detailed investigation of stratigraphy, sedimentology, palaeontology and taphonomy in both the field and in the laboratory. Environmental Interpretations are based on composition and diversity of taxa, functional morphological interpretation of life habits as well as taphonomic signatures. These investigations have revealed: 1) various mass accumulations of clypeasteroid echinoids ranging from autochthonous assemblages to multiple in situ reworked accumulations in shore face environments, 2) the distribution of morphotypes of the common genus Clypeaster, 3) echinoid assemblages dominated by both irregular and regular echinoids in siliciclastic and carbonate shelf environments, 4) spatangoid assemblages in heavily bioturbated coarse sands, and 5) monotypic shell beds of well-preserved regular echinoids and spatangoid from deeper siliciclastic environments. Variations in the diversity of echinoid taxa are correlated to biotic and abiotic ecological factors in specific depositional environments. Preservation potentials vary highly as determined by ambient environmental conditions and skeletal architectures. A synthesis of faunal diversities and preservation potentials along shelf gradient ranging from shoreface to deep water is presented.

  7. Preparation of the Preform of Pure Carbon Reaction Bonded Silicon Carbide by In-situ Consolidation Molding Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei-juan; WU Qi-de; JI Xiao-li; ZHANG Lian-meng

    2004-01-01

    A new kind of in-situ ceramic consolidation molding process was investigated on the basis of the characteristics of starch swelling in water and gelatinizing when heated. The SiC ceramic suspension containing about 50vol% solids loading and about 3wt% starch can be cast and molded into various complex-shape SiC ceramic parts in a water-thermostat. The dry shrinkage of the green body was less than 1.0% when the solid volume fraction of SiC suspension was up to 52.5%. The density and pore size were homogeneously distributed inside the biscuits. Soaked with melt silicon in a vacuum arc furnace, the biscuits were turn into SiC ceramic materials with homogeneous structure and high performances.

  8. Development of new functional foodstuffs and novel procedures for identification of relevant bioactive components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Due to the rapidly growing number of conscious customers, more and more people search products with positive physiological effects. In response to these demands our group focuses on development of specifically tailored, health caring functional foodstuffs with justified biological effect. New, efficient technologies are also elaborated in order to ensure the maximum biological effect of the produced foods. The physiological effects of the products are confirmed by both laboratory experiments and human clinical tests. The object of our research was to develop new functional biscuits with enhanced antioxidant-activity as well as well defined prebiotic effect. Improved methods were elaborated for the precise assessment of the antioxidant and prebiotic activity of the newly biscuits prepared with lysine and diverse types of saccharides. By the reaction of carbohydrates and proteins Maillard-reaction occurs, while compounds with high antioxidant-activity are produced. Versatile saccharides were treated with lysine at diverse temperatures for various times. Functional biscuits were prepared with lysine and four different kinds of saccharides: saccharose, fructose, glucose and isosweet. The entire reaction mechanism and all the possible 4 pathways were revealed by identification of the transformation products by GC-MS and HPLC-MS techniques. Two methods were adapted for assessment of the antioxidant activity: FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma), and DPPH (diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl) procedures. Improvement and adaptation of these methods were accomplished in order to the reach optimal applicability to distinctive real food matrices. To achieve the highest antioxidant effectivity, compositions of the reagents as well as the ratio of the reaction solutions and the samples were optimised. Markedly enhanced antioxidant effect of the developed new functional biscuits containing lysine have been confirmed by the improved methods, so they

  9. Acceptance and willingness to pay for health-enhancing bakery products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruschi, Viola; Teuber, Ramona; Dolgopolova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    that is naturally rich in anthocyanins (ACNs). ACNs are assumed to possess anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-diabetic and ocular health enhancing properties. Participants are 207 students aged 18-30 years from Moscow and Irkutsk. Our results indicate a low level of knowledge about ACNs among participants....... Nevertheless, our results also show that in the presence of information about the health-enhancing characteristics most participants value these products over base products. Our findings also reinforce the idea that the base product matters. Purple wheat bread rolls were better accepted than purple wheat...... biscuits. However, our results also highlight that the information strategy matters. Participants in our study exhibited a higher willingness to pay for purple wheat biscuits under an old variety information scenario in comparison to an anthocyanin information scenario. Moreover, while our results indicate...

  10. Tracing artificial trans fat in popular foods in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To minimise the intake of industrial artificial trans fat (I-TF), nearly all European countries rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TF content in food. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of this strategy on I-TF content in prepackaged biscuits....../cakes/wafers in 2012-2013 in 20 European countries. DESIGN: The I-TF content was assessed in a market basket investigation. Three large supermarkets were visited in each capital, and in some countries, three additional ethnic shops were included. RESULTS: A total of 598 samples of biscuits/cakes/wafers with...... examined in six Western European countries sold 83 products. The mean (SD) was 23 (12)% of the fat as I-TF, all imported from countries in Balkan. In Sweden, this type of food imported from Balkan was also available in large supermarkets. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that subgroups of the population...

  11. Geological explorations of clay deposit near Pragersko and clay quality tests

    OpenAIRE

    Duška Rokavec

    2002-01-01

    A series of illite clays located near Pragersko, at the southern boundary of the Maribor – Ptuj depression, was investigated. The results of mining geological investigations showed the extension and characteristics of clay occurrences in the area. Primary characteristics of single types of raw clay from the deposit (mineral composition, grain size distribution, plasticity, etc.), and the quality of biscuit were determined with laboratory tests.In a 4-9 m thick bed of clay we identified four d...

  12. Salt Toxicity (Sodium Intake): A Serious Threat to Infants and Children of Pakistan.

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Waseem; Muhammad Nafees; Ghulam Murtaza; Ashif Sajjad; Zahid Mehmood; Abdul Rauf Siddiqi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Excess sodium intake can lead to hypertension, the primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the sodium and potassium contents of foodstuff used by infants and children of Pakistan. Methods We analyzed the sodium and potassium contents of infant milk formula (6 months), baby food (cereals), biscuits, fruit juices, potato chips (crisps), cheese puffs, roasted cereals (salty), ice cream cones (kulfi) all of which are the process...

  13. Kabartma Tozları ve Unlu Mamullerde Kullanımları

    OpenAIRE

    Dizlek, Halef; Gül, Hülya

    2009-01-01

    Baking powders are used commonly in the production of bakery products. They are used especially in soft wheat products such as cakes and biscuits in order to obtain characteristic internal structure. They usually include an alkali component (sodium bicarbonate), one or more of acidic salts and filling material (corn starch). As a result of the reaction between alkali and acid in the presence of water, CO2 is produced. CO2 provides the leavening and at the same time increases the digestibility...

  14. Stability and bioaccessibility of anthocyanins in bakery products enriched with anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Sibel; Simsek, Sebnem; Eker, Alper Tolga; Pineda-Vadillo, Carlos; Dupont, Didier; Perez, Beatriz; Viadel, Blanca; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Rodriguez, Alberto Guadarrama; Kertész, Zsófia; Hegyi, Adrienn; Bordoni, Alessandra; El, Sedef Nehir

    2016-08-10

    Anthocyanins, water soluble polyphenols, have been associated with several beneficial health effects. The aim of this study was to determine how the baking process and food matrix affect anthocyanin stability and bioaccessibility in bakery products in order to develop functional foods. Three well known regularly consumed bakery products (buns, breadsticks and biscuits) were enriched with anthocyanin (AC) isolated from grape skin alone or in combination with docosahexaenoic acid (AC + DHA) to reveal knowledge on AC as active ingredients in real food systems rather than pure compounds. Anthocyanin amounts added to the formulations of buns, breadsticks and biscuits were 34 mg per 100 g, 40 mg per 100 g and 37 mg per 100 g, respectively. The effect of processing, storage and the food matrix on AC stability and bioaccessibility was investigated. In addition, the sensory properties of bakery products were evaluated. Breadsticks enriched with AC and AC + DHA received the lowest scores in the pre-screening sensory test. Therefore breadsticks were excluded from further analysis. AC retentions, which were monitored by determination of malvidin 3-O-glucoside, in the bun and biscuit after baking were 95.9% (13.6 mg per 100 g) and 98.6% (15.2 mg per 100 g), respectively. Biscuits and buns enriched only with AC showed significantly higher anthocyanin bioaccessibilities (57.26% and 57.30%, respectively) than the same ones enriched with AC + DHA. AC stability in enriched products stored for 21 days was significantly lower than in products stored for 7 days (p < 0.05). However, this loss can be accepted as negligible since more than 70% of AC was retained in all the products. PMID:27415853

  15. MOVABLE OVEN FOR BREAD BAKING INTENDED FOR FOOD PREPARATION IN SERBIAN ARMY PEACE CORPS

    OpenAIRE

    TESANOVIC BRANKO M.; JOVIC SASA B.

    2014-01-01

    An oven for baking bread in field conditions is assigned to units that are by their nature relatively stationary and whose size does not require a movable bakery. It is intended for baking bread in our units located in international missions with supply difficulties, since our units have a habit of consuming bread instead of biscuits. The oven is of a prefabricated type, adapted for use in all types of terrains, simple design which makes it possible to be, dismantled and easily transported.

  16. Microbiological and Chemical Quality of Water in Food Industries with Low Content of Water at End Products

    OpenAIRE

    Sh Nazmara; A Ostadrahimi; H Taghipour; M Mosaferi

    2009-01-01

    "n "nBackground and Objectives: In the production of some high-consumed food products like cake, biscuit, chocolate and spaghetti water is used in the preparing of primary material and in the kneading processes. At the present study microbiological and chemical quality of consumed water in food industries of East Azerbaijan Province were studied."nMaterials and Methods: Eleven factories with different products were selected. Water samples were collected and analyzed regarding the microbiologi...

  17. Food formulation comprising spent coffee grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, M. Dolores del; Martínez Sáez, Nuria; Ullate, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a novel food formulation comprising a combination of spent coffee grounds as a source of antioxidant insoluble dietary fibre and a source of proteins, together with other additional ingredients, used to make healthy solid food for bakeries, pastry shops, and confectioner's, including bread, pastries, biscuits, breakfast cereals and appetisers, for the general population and for people with special nutritional requirements.

  18. Presence of Amorphous Carbon Nanoparticles in Food Caramels

    OpenAIRE

    Md Palashuddin Sk; Amit Jaiswal; Anumita Paul; Siddhartha Sankar Ghosh; Arun Chattopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    We report the finding of the presence of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) in different carbohydrate based food caramels, viz. bread, jaggery, sugar caramel, corn flakes and biscuits, where the preparation involves heating of the starting material. The CNPs were amorphous in nature; the particles were spherical having sizes in the range of 4–30 nm, depending upon the source of extraction. The results also indicated that particles formed at higher temperature were smaller than those formed at lower ...

  19. Serum Level of the Adipokine “Vaspin” in Relation to Metabolic Parameters: Short – Term Effect of Specific Dietary Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Maha I.A. Moaty; Salwa M. El Shebini; Nihad H. Ahmed; Hussein, Ahmed M. S.; Magda S. Mohamed; Salwa T. Tapozada; Laila M. Hanna

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between the circulating vaspin concentration and both of glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients, and also to evaluate the metabolic impact of two different dietary therapies on such conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Fifty eight obese female volunteers suffering from MetS, followed a specially designed dietary therapy consists of a low caloric balanced diet, accompanied by either 30% doum biscuits (group A), or...

  20. Mathematical modeling and determination of thermodynamic properties of jabuticaba peel during the drying process

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian F. Costa; Paulo C. Corrêa; Jaime D. B. Vanegas; Fernanda M. Baptestini; Renata C. Campos; Lara S. Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Jabuticaba is a fruit native of Brazil and, besides containing many nutritional qualities, it also has a good field for use in products such as flour for cakes and biscuits, juice, liqueur, jelly and others. This study aimed to model the drying kinetics and determine the thermodynamic properties of jabuticaba peel at different drying air temperatures. Ripe fruits of jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba) were collected and pulped manually. Drying was carried out in a forced-air circulatio...

  1. Nutritional advantages of oats and opportunities for its processing as value added foods - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Rasane, Prasad; Jha, Alok; Sabikhi, Latha; Kumar, Arvind; Unnikrishnan, V. S.

    2013-01-01

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) have received considerable attention for their high content of dietary fibres, phytochemicals and nutritional value. It is believed that consumption of oats possesses various health benefits such as hypocholesterolaemic and anticancerous properties. Oats have also recently been considered suitable in the diet of celiac patients. Owing to their high nutritional value, oat-based food products like breads, biscuits, cookies, probiotic drinks, breakfast cereals, flakes and ...

  2. Food and fuel microalgae applications: insights from portuguese experience [Resumo

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Ana Paula; Nobre, Beatriz P.; de Oliveira, A C; Passarinho, Paula C.; Marques, Paula Alexandra; Marques, Isabel Paula Ramos; Ribeiro, Belina; Raymundo, Anabela; Sousa, Isabel; de Gouveia, L.

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have a wide range of application fields, from food to fuels, to pharmaceuticals & fine chemicals, aquaculture and environmental bioremediation, among others. Spirulina and Chlorella have been used as food sources since ancient times, due to their high and balanced nutritional value. Our research group in Lisbon has developed a range of food products (emulsions, gelled desserts, biscuits and pastas) enriched with freshwater and marine microalgae (Spirulina, Chlorella, Haematococcus,...

  3. Consumer Brand Choice: Individual and Group Analyses of Demand Elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Foxall, Gordon R.; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2006-01-01

    Following the behavior-analytic tradition of analyzing individual behavior, the present research investigated demand elasticity of individual consumers purchasing supermarket products, and compared individual and group analyses of elasticity. Panel data from 80 UK consumers purchasing 9 product categories (i.e., baked beans, biscuits, breakfast cereals, butter, cheese, fruit juice, instant coffee, margarine and tea) during a 16-week period were used. Elasticity coefficients were calculated fo...

  4. Changes in physical properties of extruded sour cassava starch and quinoa flour blend snacks

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia Giolo Taverna; Magali Leonel; Martha Maria Mischan

    2012-01-01

    Given the broad acceptance of sour cassava starch biscuits in Brazil and the nutritional quality of quinoa flour, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, moisture, and amount of quinoa flour on the physical properties of puffed snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Effects of moisture and amount of quinoa flour on the expansion index and specific volume of snacks...

  5. Changes in physical properties of extruded sour cassava starch and quinoa flour blend snacks Mudanças nas propriedades físicas de snacks extrusados de misturas de polvilho azedo e farinha de quinoa

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia Giolo Taverna; Magali Leonel; Martha Maria Mischan

    2012-01-01

    Given the broad acceptance of sour cassava starch biscuits in Brazil and the nutritional quality of quinoa flour, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, moisture, and amount of quinoa flour on the physical properties of puffed snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Effects of moisture and amount of quinoa flour on the expansion index and specific volume of snacks...

  6. Development of New Ecological Ceramic Tiles by Recycling of Waste Glass and Ceramic Materials; Incorporacion de residuos derivados de la fabricacion ceramica y del vidrio reciclado en el proceso ceramico integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, C.; Ramon Trilles, V.; Gomez, F.; Allepuz, S.; Fraga, D.; Carda, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    The following research work shows the results of the introduction of waste generated by the ceramic industry, such as the calcined clay from fired porcelain of stoneware and raw biscuit, sludge and cleaning water, as well as waste from other sectors like the recycling glass. In this way, it can be obtained a stoneware porcelain slab, engobe-glaze and satin glaze that contains high percentage of recyclable raw materials. (Author)

  7. Diachronic Investigations of False Friends

    OpenAIRE

    Broz, Vlatko

    2008-01-01

    A number of internationalisms originating from Latin have different meanings in English from their cognates in other European languages. This paper presents the results of an investigation of words such as actually, eventually, etiquette, fabric, billion, chef, preservative, sensible, sympathetic, biscuit in Oxford English Dictionary. All these words have retained more or less the same meaning in German, Spanish and Croatian (each taken in this research as a representative of t...

  8. Manufacture and applicatio of a fat-substitute emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Taberner, Teresa; Salvador, Ana; Fiszman, Susana; Laguna Cruañes, Laura

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The present invention relates to a trans-fatty-acid-free edible emulsion comprising a vegetable oil, a cellulose ether with thermogelling capacity, and water, which can completely replace the fat content of a food product such as, for example, a biscuit, and also to the method for the production of the emulsion. A further subject matter of the present invention is a dough for producing a food comprising said emulsion. Furthermore, the present invention likewise relates to the use not onl...

  9. Uji Beban Kerja Terhadap Kinerja Alat Pengering Kelapa Parut (Desiccated Coconut)

    OpenAIRE

    Tampubolon, Maria Evatri

    2015-01-01

    Coconut plant is a plant of life, because all its parts can be utilized to meet human needs. One of the utilization is grated coconut that can be used in making bread, biscuits, sweets, taking its milk and coconut flour. This study was aimed to examine the effect of workload on the performance of grated coconut dryer. This research was conducted in May until June 2015 in the Laboratory of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of North Sumatra, Medan, by literature study...

  10. Comparison of essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation

    OpenAIRE

    Sourmaghi, Mohammad Hossein Salehi; Kiaee, Gita; Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Jamalifar, Hossein; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2014-01-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), is an annual herb in the Apiaceae family which disperses in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions. The Coriander essential oil has been used in food products, perfumes, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries for its flavor and odor. In Iran, fruits of Coriander used in pickle, curry powders, sausages, cakes, pastries, biscuits and buns. The aim of this study was to investigate microwave radiation effects on quality, quantity and antimicrobial activity of...

  11. Glazed Sludge Tile

    OpenAIRE

    Dayalan J; Beulah. M

    2014-01-01

    In this article, glaze with different colorants was applied to tile specimens manufactured by incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and Clay. Improvements using different amounts of colorants, and glaze components and concentrations on tile bodies were investigated. Three different proportions of clay (by weight ratio) were replaced by ISSA. Tiles of size 10cm *10cm*1 cm were made and left in an electric furnace to make biscuit tiles at 800°C. Afterwards, four colorants, Fe2O3 ...

  12. Spatio-temporal analysis of post-harvest moulds genera distribution on stored durum wheat cultivated in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Belkacem-Hanfi, N.; Semmar, N; Perraud Gaime, Isabelle; Guesmi, A.; Cherni, M.; I. Cherif; Boudabous, A.; Roussos, Sevastianos

    2013-01-01

    Wheat represents a principal ingredient in traditional Tunisian diet including couscous, bread, pasta and biscuits. Northen Tunisia is an important growing area of wheat which after harvest is stored in silos and on farm. The cereal grains can become contaminated by post-harvest moulds during storage in silos under unfavorable conditions leading to a decrease in quality, packing and marketing of wheat. In this study, a mycological survey was undertaken to determine the biodiversity of post-ha...

  13. Radiation monitoring of imported food to Saudi Arabia after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports the results of radiation monitoring of food imports through ports of Jeddah, Yanbu and Jizan and Jeddah airport during June 1986 to February 1987. Monitoring procedure followed is detailed. Only meat and milk powder samples showed increased radioactivity above background upto September. Mainly cesium 137 and 134 were observed. From September, biscuits, mushrooms and fertilizer also showed radioactive contamination. Nuts, fruits, grain products, macaroni, amber and some indoor plants also showed contamination from October

  14. Effectiveness of antioxidants in preventing oxidation of palm oil enriched with heme iron: A model for iron fortification in baked products

    OpenAIRE

    Alemán Ezcaray, Mercedes; Nuchi, C. D.; Bou Novensà, Ricard; Tres Oliver, Alba; Polo Pozo, Francisco Javier; Guardiola Ibarz, Francesc; Codony Salcedo, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Bakery products such as biscuits, cookies, and pastries represent a good medium for iron fortification in food products, since they are consumed by a large proportion of the population at risk of developing iron deficiency anemia, mainly children. The drawback, however, is that iron fortification can promote oxidation. To assess the extent of this, palm oil added with heme iron and different antioxidants was used as a model for evaluating the oxidative stability of some bakery products, such ...

  15. PENGARUH PENGERINGAN DENGAN FAR INFRARED DRYER, OVEN VAKUM DAN FREEZE DRYER TERHADAP WARNA, KADAR TOTAL KAROTEN, BETA KAROTEN DAN VITAMIN C PADA DAUM BAYAM (Amaranthus Tricolor L.) [Effect of Drying with Far Infrared Dryer, Oven Vacuum, and Freeze Dryer on the Color, Total Carotene, Beta-Carotene, and Vitamin C of Spinach Leaves (Amaranthus Tricolor L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ridwan Thahir2); Asep Sopian; Tien R. Muchtadi 2)

    2005-01-01

    Spinach is a well known vegetable as a source of nutrition especially for is carotene. Soinach leaves need to be dried for application in product development of food like biscuit, extruded products and analysis. One the drying method that became popular is drying using infrared wave. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of blanching and drying (far infrared dryer, oven vacuum, and freeze dryer) on the color, total carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamin C of spinach leaves. Blanchi...

  16. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Braccini, Stephanie N.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a vid...

  17. A therapeutic maneuver for oropharyngeal dysphagia in patients with parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Nilton Felix

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigates resources to provide better conditions for oropharyngeal swallowing for improvement in the quality of life of Parkinson's disease patients. METHOD: Three men and one woman with an average age of 70.25 years had been afflicted with Parkinson's disease for an average of 9.25 years. The patients were submitted to a rehabilitation program for oropharyngeal dysphagia after a clinical evaluation of swallowing. The rehabilitation program consisted of daily sessions for two consecutive weeks during which a biofeedback resource adapted especially for this study was used. The patients were then reevaluated for swallowing ability at follow-up. RESULTS: The patients presenting difficulties with swallowing water displayed no such problems after rehabilitation. Only one patient exhibited slow oral transit of food and other discrete oropharyngeal food remnants when swallowing a biscuit. The sample variance was used to analyze the pressure measurements, demonstrating a numerical similarity of the results obtained with the swallowing of saliva or of biscuits (VAR = 4.41. A statistical difference was observed between the swallowing of saliva and biscuits, showing a significant pressure increase at the end of the rehabilitation program (p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: The effortful swallow maneuver reinforced by using biofeedback appears to be a therapeutic resource in the rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia in Parkinson's disease patients.

  18. A Wireless Portable High Temperature Data Monitor for Tunnel Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayón, Ricardo Mayo; González Suárez, Víctor M.; Martín, Felipe Mateos; Lopera Ronda, Juan M.; Álvarez Antón, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Tunnel ovens are widely used in the food industry to produce biscuits and pastries. In order to obtain a high quality product, it is very important to control the heat transferred to each piece of dough during baking. This paper proposes an innovative, non-distorting, low cost wireless temperature measurement system, called “eBiscuit”, which, due to its size, format and location in the metal rack conveyor belt in the oven, is able to measure the temperature a real biscuit experience while baking. The temperature conditions inside the oven are over 200 °C for several minutes, which could damage the “eBiscuit” electronics. This paper compares several thermal insulating materials that can be used in order to avoid exceeding the maximum operational conditions (80 °C) in the interior of the “eBiscuit. The data registered is then transmitted to a base station where information can be processed to obtain an oven model. The experimental results with real tunnel ovens confirm its good performance, which allows detecting production anomalies early on. PMID:25120161

  19. A Wireless Portable High Temperature Data Monitor for Tunnel Ovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mayo Bayón

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel ovens are widely used in the food industry to produce biscuits and pastries. In order to obtain a high quality product, it is very important to control the heat transferred to each piece of dough during baking. This paper proposes an innovative, non-distorting, low cost wireless temperature measurement system, called “eBiscuit”, which, due to its size, format and location in the metal rack conveyor belt in the oven, is able to measure the temperature a real biscuit experience while baking. The temperature conditions inside the oven are over 200 °C for several minutes, which could damage the “eBiscuit” electronics. This paper compares several thermal insulating materials that can be used in order to avoid exceeding the maximum operational conditions (80 °C in the interior of the “eBiscuit. The data registered is then transmitted to a base station where information can be processed to obtain an oven model. The experimental results with real tunnel ovens confirm its good performance, which allows detecting production anomalies early on.

  20. EVALUASI MODEL-MODEL PENDUGAAN UMUR SIMPAN PANGAN DARI DIFUSI HUKUM FICK UNIDIREKSIONAL EVALUATION OF SHELF-LIFE EQUATION MODELS DERIVED FROM UNIDIRECTIONAL FICK’S LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arpah

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the variation of shelf-life values, obtained in quantifying shelf-life of biscuits among models of accelerated storage studies (ASS from unidirectional Fick’S law. Shelf-life of biscuits is defined as the length of time of a packaged biscuits can be stored before the onset quality change appears.Four models: Heiss-Eichner (1971, Labuza (1983, Rudolph (1986 and Half Value Period or HVP model (Syarief, 1986 were evaluated. These models shared a common basic principle that they were all derived and developed from unidirectional Fick’s law. Therefore, each parameter of individual model can be compared to the athers. A semi empirical approach using reaction kinetics through Arrhenius plot was used as a real shelf-life values.Quantification resulted in two categories of shelf-life values, First those which higher than expected value and second, were lower than expected. Parameter evaluation of components of Heiss-Eichner and Labuza models clearly shown less in number than components of Rudolph and HVP models. This led to a conclusion that the more sophisticated models gave higher shelf-life values as compared to the Arhenius model.

  1. Cyclone trends constrain monsoon variability during late Oligocene sea level highstands (Kachchh Basin, NW India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, M.; Piller, W. E.; Harzhauser, M.; Kroh, A.

    2013-09-01

    Climate change has an unknown impact on tropical cyclones and the Asian monsoon. Herein we present a sequence of fossil shell beds from the shallow-marine Maniyara Fort Formation (Kachcch Basin) as a recorder of tropical cyclone activity along the NW Indian coast during the late Oligocene warming period (~ 27-24 Ma). Proxy data providing information about the atmospheric circulation dynamics over the Indian subcontinent at this time are important since it corresponds to a major climate reorganization in Asia that ends up with the establishment of the modern Asian monsoon system at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. The vast shell concentrations are comprised of a mixture of parautochthonous and allochthonous assemblages indicating storm-generated sediment transport from deeper to shallow water during third-order sea level highstands. Three distinct skeletal assemblages were distinguished, each recording a relative storm wave base. (1) A shallow storm wave base is shown by nearshore molluscs, reef corals and Clypeaster echinoids; (2) an intermediate storm wave base depth is indicated by lepidocyclinid foraminifers, Eupatagus echinoids and corallinacean algae; and (3) a deep storm wave base is represented by an Amussiopecten bivalve-Schizaster echinoid assemblage. These wave base depth estimates were used for the reconstruction of long-term tropical storm intensity during the late Oligocene. The development and intensification of cyclones over the recent Arabian Sea is primarily limited by the atmospheric monsoon circulation and strength of the associated vertical wind shear. Therefore, since the topographic boundary conditions for the Indian monsoon already existed in the late Oligocene, the reconstructed long-term cyclone trends were interpreted to reflect monsoon variability during the initiation of the Asian monsoon system. Our results imply an active monsoon over the Eastern Tethys at ~ 26 Ma followed by a period of monsoon weakening during the peak of the late

  2. Cyclone trends constrain monsoon variability during Late Oligocene sea level highstands (Kachchh Basin, NW India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reuter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Important concerns about the consequences of climate change for India are the potential impact on tropical cyclones and the monsoon. Herein we present a sequence of fossil shell beds from the shallow-marine Maniyara Fort Formation (Kachcch Basin as an indicator of tropical cyclone activity along the NW Indian coast during the Late Oligocene warming period (~27–24 Ma. Direct proxies providing information about the atmospheric circulation dynamics over the Indian subcontinent at this time are important since it corresponds to a major climate reorganization in Asia that ends up with the establishment of the modern Asian monsoon system in the Early Miocene. The vast shell concentrations comprise a mixture of parautochthonous and allochthonous assemblages indicating storm-generated sediment transport from deep to shallow water during third-order sea level highstands. Three distinct skeletal assemblages were distinguished each recording a relative storm wave base depth. (1 A shallow storm wave base is shown by nearshore mollusks, corals and Clypeaster echinoids; (2 an intermediate storm wave base depth is indicated by lepidocyclind foraminifers, Eupatagus echinoids and corallinaceans; and (3 a deep storm wave base is represented by an Amussiopecten–Schizaster echinoid assemblage. Vertical changes in these skeletal associations give evidence of gradually increasing tropical cyclone intensity in line with third-order sea level rise. The intensity of cyclones over the Arabian Sea is primarily linked to the strength of the Indian monsoon. Therefore and since the topographic boundary conditions for the Indian monsoon already existed in the Late Oligocene, the longer-term cyclone trends were interpreted to reflect monsoon variability during the initiation of the Asian monsoon system. Our results imply an active monsoon over the Eastern Tethys at ~26 Ma followed by a period of monsoon weakening during the peak of the Late Oligocene

  3. Evidence for long-term uplift on the Canary Islands from emergent Mio Pliocene littoral deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meco, Joaquín; Scaillet, Stéphane; Guillou, Hervé; Lomoschitz, Alejandro; Carlos Carracedo, Juan; Ballester, Javier; Betancort, Juan-Francisco; Cilleros, Antonio

    2007-06-01

    Several islands in the Canarian archipelago show marine deposits with identical fossil faunas, which are generally assigned to different glacioeustatic marine episodes: mainly Pleistocene episodes in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, and Mio-Pliocene ones in Gran Canaria. Three fossil species ( Saccostrea chili, Nerita emiliana and Strombus coronatus) characterize all the marine deposits from southern Lanzarote, to the west and south of Fuerteventura and northeast of Gran Canaria. Three other species ( Ancilla glandiformis, Rothpletzia rudista and Siderastraea miocenica) confirm the chronostratigraphic attribution of these deposits. Other more occasional fossils (as Chlamys latissima, Isognomon soldanii and Clypeaster aegyptiacus) fit an upper Miocene and lower Pliocene age. This agrees with new K/Ar ages obtained from pillow lavas emplaced into the marine deposits (ca. 4.1 Ma in Gran Canaria, ca. 4.8 Ma in Fuerteventura) and from underlying (ca. 9.3 Ma in Gran Canaria) or overlying (ca. 9.8 Ma in Lanzarote) lava flows. The marine deposits are eroded but large continuous segments are preserved sloping gently towards the coast. Variations in the highest and the lowest elevations of the deposits apsl (above present sea level) indicate post-depositional uplift movements. Glacioeustatic causes are unlikely to be responsible for these variations on the basis of the coastal location of the deposits and their equatorial fauna characteristic of Mio-Pliocene corals. Differential uplift of the deposits across the archipelago is argued to result from the progressive seaward tilting of the islands along the insular volcanic trail marking the westward migration of hot spot head since 20 Ma. Successive westward accretion of younger volcanic edifices resulted in increasing lithostatic load of the crust with progressive (diachronous) tilting of the older edifices and their palaeo-shorelines marked by past coastal deposits.

  4. Cyclone trends constrain monsoon variability during late Oligocene sea level highstands (Kachchh Basin, NW India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reuter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has an unknown impact on tropical cyclones and the Asian monsoon. Herein we present a sequence of fossil shell beds from the shallow-marine Maniyara Fort Formation (Kachcch Basin as a recorder of tropical cyclone activity along the NW Indian coast during the late Oligocene warming period (~ 27–24 Ma. Proxy data providing information about the atmospheric circulation dynamics over the Indian subcontinent at this time are important since it corresponds to a major climate reorganization in Asia that ends up with the establishment of the modern Asian monsoon system at the Oligocene–Miocene boundary. The vast shell concentrations are comprised of a mixture of parautochthonous and allochthonous assemblages indicating storm-generated sediment transport from deeper to shallow water during third-order sea level highstands. Three distinct skeletal assemblages were distinguished, each recording a relative storm wave base. (1 A shallow storm wave base is shown by nearshore molluscs, reef corals and Clypeaster echinoids; (2 an intermediate storm wave base depth is indicated by lepidocyclinid foraminifers, Eupatagus echinoids and corallinacean algae; and (3 a deep storm wave base is represented by an Amussiopecten bivalve-Schizaster echinoid assemblage. These wave base depth estimates were used for the reconstruction of long-term tropical storm intensity during the late Oligocene. The development and intensification of cyclones over the recent Arabian Sea is primarily limited by the atmospheric monsoon circulation and strength of the associated vertical wind shear. Therefore, since the topographic boundary conditions for the Indian monsoon already existed in the late Oligocene, the reconstructed long-term cyclone trends were interpreted to reflect monsoon variability during the initiation of the Asian monsoon system. Our results imply an active monsoon over the Eastern Tethys at ~ 26 Ma followed by a period of monsoon weakening during the

  5. Utilização da farinha de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp na elaboração de produtos de panificação Utilization of cowpea flour in the development of bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves Frota

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo enriquecer produtos de panificação do tipo biscoito e rocambole com farinha de feijão-caupi (FFC, avaliar sua aceitabilidade e composição química, incluindo o conteúdo dos minerais (ferro, zinco, magnésio, potássio e fósforo e das vitaminas (tiamina e piridoxina. Foram desenvolvidas três formulações de biscoito contendo 10, 20 e 30% FFC e duas formulações de rocambole contendo 10 e 20% FFC. Observou-se um aumento no teor protéico do biscoito 30% FFC e do rocambole 20% FFC e na quantidade de cinzas dos biscoitos 20 e 30% FFC e rocambole 20% FFC, quando comparados às formulações padrão. O teor dos minerais analisados e de piridoxina aumentou à medida que FFC foi adicionada, enquanto a concentração de tiamina aumentou somente no rocambole 20% FFC. O biscoito com 10% FFC apresentou maior aceitação (84,4%, dentre os biscoitos formulados com FFC, além disso, os rocamboles com 10 e 20% FFC tiveram boa aceitação (86,7 e 77,8%, respectivamente. Todas as formulações contendo FFC tiveram notas superiores a 6, mostrando que os produtos foram aceitos sensorialmente. Desta forma, a adição de FFC visando melhorar o valor nutritivo de formulações à base de cereais é viável.This work had as objective to enrich bakery products (biscuit and rocambole or Brazilian roll with cowpea flour (CF to analyze their acceptability and chemical composition including mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus and vitamins (thiamine and pyridoxine. Three formulations of biscuits containing 10, 20, and 30% CF and two formulations of Brazilian rolls with 10 and 20% CF were developed. It was observed an increase in the protein contents of the 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, as well as in the ash value of 20 and 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, when compared to a standard formulation. The concentration of minerals and pyridoxine analyzed increased with the addition of

  6. Catch The Fashion of Ingredients%国际食品市场的流行趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeterLehamann

    2003-01-01

    The most important thing in flavor is to keep and improve the fragrant quality in the final products. Another is to bring a special character through ingredients. This may be a new scent, a new material, a new color, and a new package, even a new marketing mode. Cool feelings, chocolate chips, nut lets can always improve characters. Whatever, taste is the direct drive to foods. So, catching the fashion of ingredients is really important to manufacturers. Mr. Peter Lehman from Owada international flavors and fragrances (Guangzhou) limited will introduce the different fashion in soft drink, biscuits, cookies and ice creams.

  7. Tracing artificial trans fat in popular foods in Europe: a market basket investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    Objective To minimise the intake of industrial artificial trans fat (I-TF), nearly all European countries rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TF content in food. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of this strategy on I-TF content in prepackaged biscuits/cakes/wafers in 2012–2013 in 20 European countries. Design The I-TF content was assessed in a market basket investigation. Three large supermarkets were visited in each capital, and in some countries, thre...

  8. An Automation System Design for Dough Kneaders and Dosing Machines with Microprocessor Based and 5 Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Apaydın, Hasbi; Kitiş, Şükrü

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an automation system is designed for bakeries, biscuit factories, flour and bakery products used dough kneading and dosing machines. This microprocessor-based design, made of 5-flowing flour and water dispensing operation. For this, the area is very easy to become available and can be programmed PIC16F877A microcontroller used. This automation system isn’t used in most of the plants and mixing ratios. Therefore the operator’s ability and speed very important for mixing ratios a...

  9. Karakterisasi Tepung Kasava Yang Dimodifikasi Dengan Bakteri Selulolitik Sebagai Bahan Baku Produk Mie Dan Biskuit

    OpenAIRE

    Sembiring, Simon Petrus

    2011-01-01

    The research was conducted to dertermine the characterization of modified starch cassava with cellulolytic bacteria as the raw materials of noodles and biscuits products. The study was conducted using single-factor randomized block design that is the number of cellulolytic bacteria (J) with 5 degree (J1:0 ml, J2:10 ml, J3:20 ml, J4:30 ml, J5:40 ml) and for the ratio of wheat with flour cassava flour(100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40). Product was parameters for the flour were the chemical pro...

  10. The history of visual magic in computers how beautiful images are made in CAD, 3D, VR and AR

    CERN Document Server

    Peddie, Jon

    2013-01-01

    If you have ever looked at a fantastic adventure or science fiction movie, or an amazingly complex and rich computer game, or a TV commercial where cars or gas pumps or biscuits behaved liked people and wondered, ""How do they do that?"",  then you've experienced the magic of 3D worlds generated by a computer.3D in computers began as a way to represent automotive designs and illustrate the construction of molecules. 3D graphics use evolved to visualizations of simulated data and artistic representations of imaginary worlds. In order to overcome the processing limitations of the computer, graph

  11. Uji Jumlah Batang Pengaduk pada Alat Pengering Kelapa Parut (Desisccated Coconut)

    OpenAIRE

    Parsaulian, Friani

    2015-01-01

    Coconut plant is a plant of life, because all its parts can be utilized to meet human needs. One of the utilization is grated coconut that can to be used in making bread, biscuits, sweets, its milk and coconut flour. This study was aimed to examine the effect of the number of rod in manufacturing of grated coconut (desiccated coconut) on the performance of the grated coconut dryer. This research was conducted in March and April 2015 in the Laboratory of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Ag...

  12. Quality of products containing defatted groundnut cake flour

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit, Chitra; Rajyalakshmi, Peram

    2010-01-01

    Defatted groundnut cake obtained from commercial oil processing units and that prepared in laboratory oil expeller (LOE) were analyzed for quality parameters. Defatted groundnut cake flour (DGCF) was incorporated at 15–100% levels in laddoo, chutney powder, fryums (deep fried crisp and crunchy item), biscuits, noodles and extruded snacks. The products were studied for sensory, physico-chemical and shelf-life quality. DGCF was creamish white with bulk density of 0.55 ± 0.03 g/ml, water absorpt...

  13. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.;

    2011-01-01

    perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic...... products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipated. We interviewed farmers in Zambia and Malawi about their cultivars, processing procedures and...

  14. The determination of uranium in food samples by Compton suppression epithermal neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsimalis, R; Landsberger, S; Ahmed, Y A

    2009-12-01

    Eight foods common to the Nigerian diet were analyzed for trace amounts of uranium using epithermal neutron activation analysis. Food sample sizes of roughly one-half gram, irradiated for 10 min, with a 15 min decay time and counting time for 10 min yielded detection limits between 0.02 and 0.04 Bq/kg. Dried milk, chicken pasta, spaghetti and biscuits had less than detectable amounts of uranium, while sorghum, wheat and brown beans contained 0.73, 0.23 and 0.16 Bq/kg, respectively. PMID:19541492

  15. Evaluation and development of direct burning natural gas industrial equipment in the food sector; Avaliacao e desenvolvimento de equipamentos industriais de queima direta de gas natural no setor de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwob, Marcelo; Morales, Maria Elizabeth; Henriques, Mauricio; Guimaraes, Marcio; Tapia, Roberto; Rodrigues, Joaquim; Faccion, Alexandre [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study, focused in the food sector, is evaluate and develop technologies used in equipment of direct burning natural gas, as ovens and driers of common use in the toasting coffee, noodles and biscuits industries. We have developed an archetype of oven for baking, seeking to incorporate new technological concepts but showing operational conditions of great attractiveness for the users of this kind of equipment. Above all, aiming the optimization of the technologies to improve the energy efficiency, to reduce costs and to increase the operational security. Thus, a survey of the thermal equipment in the mentioned industrial sector was made, followed of an evaluation of the technical possibilities of its incorporation in that sector, adaptations and the modifications of engineering projects, identifying the possibilities of productivity increase, improvement of quality and greater competitiveness, as well as the reduction of atmospheric emissions. So, It has been proposed solutions as the decentralized use of the thermal energy, recovery of heat of exhaustion gases, optimization of the thermal insulation, reduction of thermal inertia and the automatization of the control of the combustion in ovens and/or driers of the mentioned sectors. The main results of this study are: the possibility of reduction of, 32 to 37% in the consumption of thermal energy in the ovens of biscuit production, of 12 to 15% in the toasting of coffee and 20 to 30% in the processes of noodles production. Saving of around 25% would be expected in the small bearing ovens for baking. (author)

  16. Acrylamide levels in selected Colombian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, Deborah; Gil, Elizabeth; Frega, Natale G; Álvarez, Lina; Dueñas, Pilar; Garzón, Angélica; Lucci, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) levels in conventional (n = 112) and traditional (n = 43) Colombian foods were analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) detection. Samples included: infant powdered formula, coffee and chocolate powders, corn snacks, bakery products and tuber-, meat- and vegetable-based foods. There was a wide variability in AA levels among different foods and within different brands of the same food, especially for coffee powder, breakfast cereals biscuits and French fries samples. Among the conventional foods tested, the highest mean AA value was found in bakery products, such as biscuit (1104 µg kg(-1)) and wafer (1449 µg kg(-1)), followed by potato chips (916 µg kg(-1)). On the other hand, among the traditional foods, higher AA amounts were detected in fried platano (2813 µg kg(-1)) and yuca (3755 µg kg(-1)) compared to other products. Interestingly, the arepa, a traditional Colombian bakery product made with corn flour, showed a lower AA content (bread (102-594 µg kg(-1)), which is a made with wheat flour. PMID:25494681

  17. Breakfast and snacks: associations with cognitive failures, minor injuries, accidents and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Katherine; Smith, Andrew P

    2011-05-01

    One strategy for examining effects of nutrients on cognitive function is to initially investigate foods that contain many different nutrients. If effects are demonstrated with these foods then further studies can address the role of specific nutrients. Breakfast foods (e.g., cereals, dairy products and fruit) provide many important nutrients and consumption of breakfast has been shown to be associated with beneficial effects on cognitive function. Isolating effects of specific constituents of breakfast has proved more difficult and it is still unclear what impact breakfast has on real-life performance. The present study provided initial information on associations between breakfast consumption and cognitive failures and accidents. A second aim was to examine associations between consumption of snacks which are often perceived as being unhealthy (chocolate, crisps and biscuits). A sample of over 800 nurses took part in the study. The results showed that frequency of breakfast consumption (varied breakfasts: 62% cereal) was associated with lower stress, fewer cognitive failures, injuries and accidents at work. In contrast, snacking on crisps, chocolate and biscuits was associated with higher stress, more cognitive failures and more injuries outside of work. Further research requires intervention studies to provide a clearer profile of causality and underlying mechanisms. PMID:22254109

  18. Stability of steviol glycosides in several food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooken, Etienne; Amery, Ruis; Struyf, Tom; Duquenne, Barbara; Geuns, Jan; Meesschaert, Boudewijn

    2012-10-24

    As steviol glycosides are now allowed as a food additive in the European market, it is important to assess the stability of these steviol glycosides after they have been added to different food matrices. We analyzed and tested the stability of steviol glycosides in semiskimmed milk, soy drink, fermented milk drink, ice cream, full-fat and skimmed set yogurt, dry biscuits, and jam. The fat was removed by centrifugation from the dairy and soy drink samples. Proteins were precipitated by the addition of acetonitrile and also removed by centrifugation. Samples of jam were extracted with water. Dry biscuits were extracted with ethanol. The resulting samples were concentrated with solid-phase extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 stationary phase and a gradient of acetonitrile/aqueous 25 mM phosphoric acid. The accuracy was checked using a standard addition on some samples. For assessing the stability of the steviol glycosides, samples were stored in conditions relevant to each food matrix and analyzed periodically. The results indicate that steviol glycosides can be analyzed with good precision and accuracy in these food categories. The recovery was between 96 and 103%. The method was also validated by standard addition, which showed excellent agreement with the external calibration curve. No sign of decomposition of steviol glycosides was found in any of the samples. PMID:23020306

  19. Daily Multi-Micronutrient Supplementation during Tuberculosis Treatment Increases Weight and Grip Strength among HIV-Uninfected but Not HIV-Infected Patients in Mwanza, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praygod, George Amani; Range, Nyagosya; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel;

    2011-01-01

    Undernutrition is common among tuberculosis (TB) patients. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation during TB treatment on weight, body composition, and handgrip strength. A total of 865 patients with smear-positive (PTB+) or -negative (PTB-) pul...... biscuit is beneficial among HIV- PTB patients and may be recommended to TB programs. More research is needed to develop an effective supplement for HIV+ PTB patients.......Undernutrition is common among tuberculosis (TB) patients. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation during TB treatment on weight, body composition, and handgrip strength. A total of 865 patients with smear-positive (PTB+) or -negative (PTB......-) pulmonary TB were randomly allocated to receive a daily biscuit with or without multi-micronutrients for 60 d during the intensive phase of TB treatment. Weight, arm fat area, arm muscle area, and handgrip strength were assessed at baseline and after 2 and 5 mo. At 2 mo, the multi...

  20. Breakfast and Snacks: Associations with Cognitive Failures, Minor Injuries, Accidents and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Chaplin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One strategy for examining effects of nutrients on cognitive function is to initially investigate foods that contain many different nutrients. If effects are demonstrated with these foods then further studies can address the role of specific nutrients. Breakfast foods (e.g., cereals, dairy products and fruit provide many important nutrients and consumption of breakfast has been shown to be associated with beneficial effects on cognitive function. Isolating effects of specific constituents of breakfast has proved more difficult and it is still unclear what impact breakfast has on real-life performance. The present study provided initial information on associations between breakfast consumption and cognitive failures and accidents. A second aim was to examine associations between consumption of snacks which are often perceived as being unhealthy (chocolate, crisps and biscuits. A sample of over 800 nurses took part in the study. The results showed that frequency of breakfast consumption (varied breakfasts: 62% cereal was associated with lower stress, fewer cognitive failures, injuries and accidents at work. In contrast, snacking on crisps, chocolate and biscuits was associated with higher stress, more cognitive failures and more injuries outside of work. Further research requires intervention studies to provide a clearer profile of causality and underlying mechanisms.

  1. Effect of eating cheese on Ca and P concentrations of whole mouth saliva and plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, G N; Hargreaves, J A

    1989-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the release of calcium and phosphate from cheese during mastication. Unstimulated saliva was collected for baseline analysis in the initial study followed by saliva collection after chewing different cheeses with and without biscuits. In the second study, volunteers who had abstained from tooth cleaning for 24 h had plaque samples taken from two quadrants, they then chewed cheese in their own personal eating manner, and a second sample of plaque was taken within 5 min. The results showed that the calcium ion concentration of the oral fluids rose from a mean of 30 micrograms/ml to between 200 and 540 micrograms/ml, depending on the type of cheese, but the phosphate concentration fell below baseline. The release of both ions tended to be less when the cheese was eaten with a biscuit. In the second study a highly significant rise in plaque calcium concentration was shown after eating cheese, but no consistent change in phosphate level was found. Acidic soft drinks, following eating, tended to reduce the plaque calcium levels, but no consistent change was found if tea or coffee was taken following the cheese consumption. It is suggested, from these findings, that cheese eaten alone at the very end of a meal raises plaque calcium and might be effective in reducing dental caries. PMID:2736577

  2. Production and characterization of glazed tiles containing incinerated sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D F; Chang, W C; Yuan, C; Luo, H L

    2008-01-01

    In this article, glaze with different colorants was applied to tile specimens manufactured by incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and clay. Improvements using different amounts of colorants, and glaze components and concentrations on tile bodies were investigated. Four different proportions of clay (by weight ratio) were replaced by ISSA. Tiles of size 12 cm x 6 cm x 1 cm were made and left in an electric furnace to make biscuit tiles at 800 degrees C. Afterwards, four colorants, Fe2O3 (red), V2O5 (yellow), CoCO3 (blue), and MnO2 (purple), and four different glaze concentrations were applied on biscuit tile specimens. These specimens were later sintered into glazed tiles at 1050 degrees C. The study shows that replacement of clay by sludge ash had adverse effects on properties of tiles. Water absorption increased and bending strength reduced with increased amounts of ash. However, both water absorption and bending strength improved for glazed ash tiles. Abrasion of grazed tiles reduced noticeably from 0.001 to 0.002 g. This implies glaze can enhance abrasion resistance of tiles. Effects like lightfastness and acid-alkali resistance improved as different glazes were applied on tiles. In general, red glazed tiles showed the most stable performance, followed by blue, yellow, and purple. PMID:17433656

  3. Glazed Sludge Tile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayalan J

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, glaze with different colorants was applied to tile specimens manufactured by incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA and Clay. Improvements using different amounts of colorants, and glaze components and concentrations on tile bodies were investigated. Three different proportions of clay (by weight ratio were replaced by ISSA. Tiles of size 10cm *10cm*1 cm were made and left in an electric furnace to make biscuit tiles at 800°C. Afterwards, four colorants, Fe2O3 (red, V2O5 (yellow, and CoCO3 (blue and three different glaze concentrations were applied on biscuit tile specimens. These specimens were later sintered into glazed tiles at 1050°C. The study shows that replacement of clay by sludge ash had adverse effects on properties of tiles. Water absorption increased and bending strength reduced with increased amounts of sludge ash. However, both water absorption and bending strength improved for glazed ash tiles. Abrasion of grazed tiles reduced noticeably from 0.001 to 0.002 g. This implies glaze can enhance abrasion resistance of tiles.

  4. 高纤笋衣饼干工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙立利; 刘宗塘; 徐红波; 刘治涛

    2013-01-01

    利用笋衣纤维素含量高的品质特性,研究高纤笋衣饼干的加工工艺,结果表明1 kg笋衣、100 g面粉、2 g糖、0.5 g盐、0.8 g油脂,微波功率400 W,加热17 min,生产出的笋衣高纤维饼干色泽黄亮、口感酥脆、笋香味浓。%With bamboo shoot of high cellulose characteristic, the processing of high fiber bamboo shoot biscuit is studied. The result indicates that under the conditions of 1 kg bamboo shoot, 100 g flour, 2 g sugar, 0.5 g salt, 0.8 g fat, microwave power 400 W and heating for 17 min, the high fiber bamboo shoot biscuit with bright color, crisp taste and full of bamboo flavor is obtained.

  5. Microwave assisted saponification (MAS) followed by on-line liquid chromatography (LC)-gas chromatography (GC) for high-throughput and high-sensitivity determination of mineral oil in different cereal-based foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2016-04-01

    A high throughput, high-sensitivity procedure, involving simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction (MAS) and unsaponifiable extraction, followed by on-line liquid chromatography (LC)-gas chromatography (GC), has been optimised for rapid and efficient extraction and analytical determination of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cereal-based products of different composition. MAS has the advantage of eliminating fat before LC-GC analysis, allowing an increase in the amount of sample extract injected, and hence in sensitivity. The proposed method gave practically quantitative recoveries and good repeatability. Among the different cereal-based products analysed (dry semolina and egg pasta, bread, biscuits, and cakes), egg pasta packed in direct contact with recycled paperboard had on average the highest total MOSH level (15.9 mg kg(-1)), followed by cakes (10.4 mg kg(-1)) and bread (7.5 mg kg(-1)). About 50% of the pasta and bread samples and 20% of the biscuits and cake samples had detectable MOAH amounts. The highest concentrations were found in an egg pasta in direct contact with recycled paperboard (3.6 mg kg(-1)) and in a milk bread (3.6 mg kg(-1)). PMID:26593464

  6. Carbon emissions from decomposition of fire-killed trees following a large wildfire in Oregon, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John L.; Fontaine, Joseph B.; Donato, Daniel C.

    2016-03-01

    A key uncertainty concerning the effect of wildfire on carbon dynamics is the rate at which fire-killed biomass (e.g., dead trees) decays and emits carbon to the atmosphere. We used a ground-based approach to compute decomposition of forest biomass killed, but not combusted, in the Biscuit Fire of 2002, an exceptionally large wildfire that burned over 200,000 ha of mixed conifer forest in southwestern Oregon, USA. A combination of federal inventory data and supplementary ground measurements afforded the estimation of fire-caused mortality and subsequent 10 year decomposition for several functionally distinct carbon pools at 180 independent locations in the burn area. Decomposition was highest for fire-killed leaves and fine roots and lowest for large-diameter wood. Decomposition rates varied somewhat among tree species and were only 35% lower for trees still standing than for trees fallen at the time of the fire. We estimate a total of 4.7 Tg C was killed but not combusted in the Biscuit Fire, 85% of which remains 10 years after. Biogenic carbon emissions from fire-killed necromass were estimated to be 1.0, 0.6, and 0.4 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at 1, 10, and 50 years after the fire, respectively; compared to the one-time pyrogenic emission of nearly 17 Mg C ha-1.

  7. Replacement of cocoa butter with cocoa butter - like fat from modified palm oil in coating chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a confectionery product, mainly containing cocoa mass or liquor, cocoa butter (CB and sugar. Nowadays vegetable fats and modified oil are used instead of CB in chocolate products to lower the cost and to obtain the varieties of products with different characteristics and textures. Cocoa butter-like fat from modified palm oil (CBFMPO at different levels of CB replacement (60,80 and 100% were used to develop a formulation of coating chocolate. When physical and sensory properties were evaluated, the viscosity and coating ability on biscuit sticks were remarkedly decreased with increasing CBFMPO content. Hedonic mean scores of mouthfeel and coating ability of the chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO were greater than those of chocolate containing 60 and 80% CBFMPO (p<0.05. During storage of biscuit sticks dipped in the chocolate coating (chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO at room temperature (27-29oC and low temperature (20-22oC for 30 days, blooming (as shown by whiteness index occurred to a greater extent at higher temperature. At both storage temperatures, the intensity scores of glossiness and hedonic mean scores of overall liking of samples decreased but intensity scores of off-odor increased during the first 6 of days storage (p<0.05.

  8. Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macey A. Mahawan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel. Based on the findings of the study the percentages of crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, total carbohydrates, ash and moisture were 7.75, 4.91, 0.71, 74.65, 2.83 and 14.05 respectively. On the other hand the falling number was 495 seconds while gluten was below the detection limit of the method used. Moreover, the sensory evaluation in terms of color, texture and aroma in 0% proportion of Avocado seed flour was moderate like and slight like for 25% and 50% proportions of Avocado seed flour. On the otherhand, the taste of the biscuits prepared with 0% Avocado seed flour was moderate like, in 25% proportion of Avocado seed flour were slight like and in 50% proportion was neither liked nor disliked. The overall acceptability results for 0% proportion of Avocado seed flour was moderate like and slight like for 25% and 50% proportions of Avocado seed flour. Furthermore, the computed p values for the comparison of the level of acceptability in terms of color, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability of biscuits using 0%, 25%, and 50% avocado seed flour were lower than 0.05. Thus the null hypothesis is rejected.

  9. Control of final moisture content of food products baked in continuous tunnel ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Ian

    2006-02-01

    There are well-known difficulties in making measurements of the moisture content of baked goods (such as bread, buns, biscuits, crackers and cake) during baking or at the oven exit; in this paper several sensing methods are discussed, but none of them are able to provide direct measurement with sufficient precision. An alternative is to use indirect inferential methods. Some of these methods involve dynamic modelling, with incorporation of thermal properties and using techniques familiar in computational fluid dynamics (CFD); a method of this class that has been used for the modelling of heat and mass transfer in one direction during baking is summarized, which may be extended to model transport of moisture within the product and also within the surrounding atmosphere. The concept of injecting heat during the baking process proportional to the calculated heat load on the oven has been implemented in a control scheme based on heat balance zone by zone through a continuous baking oven, taking advantage of the high latent heat of evaporation of water. Tests on biscuit production ovens are reported, with results that support a claim that the scheme gives more reproducible water distribution in the final product than conventional closed loop control of zone ambient temperatures, thus enabling water content to be held more closely within tolerance.

  10. Food matrix and isoflavones bioavailability in early post menopausal women: An European clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Chanteranne

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Brigitte Chanteranne1,2, Francesco Branca3, A Kaardinal4, K Wahala5, Véronique Braesco6, Philippe Ladroite7, Fred Brouns8, Véronique Coxam1,21INRA, Centre Clermont-Ferrand – Theix, UMR1019, Unité Nutrition Humaine, St Genès Champanelle, France; 2Univ Clermont 1, UFR Médecine, UMR1019, Unité Nutrition Humaine, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 3INRAN, Human Nutrition Unit, Ardeatina, Rome, Italy; 4TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist, The Netherlands; 5Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 6Danone Vitapole, Le Plessis Robinson, France; 7Nutrition Santé, Ravel, France; 8Eridania Beghin Say, Vilvoorde Research and Development Centre, Vilvoorde, BelgiumAbstract: The estrogenic effects of soy isoflavones (IF on symptoms of menopause are of particular interest. The aim of the present study was to improve compliance of IF in two IF-enriched foods providing the same IF circulating levels in postmenopausal women. Forty-two healthy postmenopausal women (mean age: 53.28 years were recruited for a randomized, crossover, multicenter trial conducted in the Netherlands, Italy and France. Over 18 days, volunteers were assigned to two groups and supplemented with two different IF-enriched foods (100 mg IF aglycones/two servings. The first group had to eat two biscuits daily for three days. After a wash-out period (11 d, they received cereal bars for three days. The second group started with the cereal bars and finished with biscuits. After IF intake, plasma and urinary levels of genistein, daidzein, O desmethyl angolensin and equol significantly increased and returned to baseline level after the washout period. There was no difference between biscuits and cereals bars intake, as shown by group values at each end of experimental period (day 4 or day 18. Both matrixes are comparable in terms of IF-circulating levels and could be used independently.Keywords: soy isoflavones, bioavailability, food processing, postmenopausal women

  11. UTILIZATION OF POPPY SEEDS (PAPAVER-SOMNIFERUM AND SESAME SEEDS (SESAMUM-INDICUM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF NUTRIA-ENRICHED SNACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poppy seeds and sesame seeds are good source of carbohydrate, calcium, and energy. Poppy seeds and sesame seeds is rich in vitamin C, Vitamins B1, B2, E, Fiber and calcium. It reduces the risk of cataract, heart disease and cancer.  Poppy seeds are especially rich in Oleic and Linoleic acids. Oleic acids monosaturated fatty acids help lower LDL or “bad cholesterol” and increases HDL or “good cholesterol” levels in the blood. Sesame seeds contain a high quality protein,  rich in soluble fiber. The combination of the oil and the fiber makes sesame seeds ideal laxative. The present research was conducted with the objective to develop nutrient dense products from a combination of poppy seeds and sesame seeds to assess their sensory properties and to determine the nutritive value of the prepared products. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out using nine point hedonic scales. Nutritive value was calculated by using food composition tables given by ICMR. On the basic of findings, it was observed that in case of Idli, Biscuits and Chutney the treatment T2 (20% incorporation of poppy seeds and sesame seeds found best in all sensory parameters colour, texture, taste and overall acceptability. For halwa and Dhokla the treatment T1 (15% incorporation of poppy seeds and sesame seeds found best in all sensory parameters. Halwa was rich in energy and calcium content (447.4kcal/100kcal and 477.5mg/100g respectively. Idli was highest in energy (340kcal/100kcal, calcium, 637.2mg/100g.Dhokla was rich in energy and calcium content (333.6kcal/100kcal, 580.1g/100g and Chutney was rich in energy and calcium content (433.6kcal/100kcal and 611.3mg/100g respectively. Biscuit was rich in energy and calcium content (456.3kcal/100kcal and 616.8/100g.The cost of the products ranged between Rs 18.5 for Halwa, Rs 20.68 for Idli, Rs. 19.49 for Dhokla, Rs. 22.04 for Chutney, Rs. 20.84 for Biscuit per 100g of dry ingredients. 

  12. 哈尔滨市包装食品营养标签标识状况调查%Survey on status of food nutrition labeling in Harbin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏薇; 赵艳; 吴坤

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of packaged food nutrition labeling in Harbin to provide basis for nutri-tion labeling education. Methods A survey was carded out for three kinds of common packaged foods made in China in-eluding biscuits, dairy products and beverages and two types of imported packaged foods including biscuits and beverages. The items involved were basic status and nutrition facts on the label. Results Among 240 domestic-made packaged foods, all the obligatoty items were on the label and nutrition labeling rate was 61.25%. Among 58 imported packaged foods,all the obligatory items were in accordance with the national rules and nutrition labeling rate was 63. 8%. There existed differ-ence in labeling nutrient types and nutrition labeling rate between domestic-made and imported biscuits(P <0. 01). Conclu-sion Nutrition labeling is still not normative. The surveillance and management for nutrition labeling should be fortified. Key wards: food nutrition; label; packaged food; cross-sectional study%目的 了解黑龙江省哈尔滨市大型超市销售的预包装食品营养标签标识情况,为识别营养标签的宣传教育提供依据.方法 自行设计调查表对常见的国产饼干、乳制品、饮料类包装食品和进口原装饼干、饮料类包装食品进行基本状况调查和营养标识状况调查.结果 240种国内生产的包装食品上食品标签强制标示内容均予以标识,营养标签总体标识率为61.25%;58种国外进口原装食品的食品标签对我国规定的强制标示内容均予以标识,营养标签标识率为63.8%.国内外饼干类食品营养标签在营养素种类标识方面存在差异,营养标识率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 目前国内食品标签的标识尚不规范,需加强对营养标签的监督和管理.

  13. The associations between emotional eating and consumption of energy-dense snack foods are modified by sex and depressive symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Andreeva, Valentina A; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, emotional eating (EmE) has incited substantial research interest as an important psychologic determinant of food intake and overweight. However, little is known about factors that might modulate its relations with dietary habits. The objective of this study was to examine the association between EmE and consumption of energy-dense snack food and assess the 2-way interaction of EmE with sex and depressive symptoms. A total of 7378 men and 22,862 women from the NutriNet-Santé cohort (France, 2009-2013) who completed ≥6 self-reported 24-h food records were included in this cross-sectional analysis. EmE was evaluated via the revised 21-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The associations between EmE and energy-dense food consumption were assessed by multivariable logistic and linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Higher EmE was associated with higher consumption of energy-dense snacks and, in particular, with consumption of sweet-and-fatty foods across most categories studied. However, these associations were stronger in women with depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.43, 2.20; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.45, 2.26) compared with those without depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.36, 1.69; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.61). In contrast, the significant positive associations observed in men without depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.52; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.48) were not found in men with depressive symptoms. In conclusion, in women, EmE was positively associated with consumption of energy-dense snack food, particularly in those with depressive symptoms. For men, the relation between EmE and energy-dense snack foods was

  14. A systematic revision of Operclipygus Marseul (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Exosternini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Caterino

    2013-02-01

    ., O. hamistrius (Schmidt, 1893 comb. n., O. impressicollis sp. n., O. intersectus sp. n., O. montanus sp. n., O. nubosus sp. n., O. pichinchensis sp. n., O. propinquus sp. n., O. quinquestriatus sp. n., O. rubidus (Hinton, 1935 comb. n., O. rufescens sp. n., O. troglodytes sp. n.], O. plicicollis group [O. cephalicus sp. n., O. longidens sp. n., O. plicicollis (Schmidt, 1893], O. fossipygus group [O. disconnectus sp. n., O. fossipygus (Wenzel, 1944, O. foveipygus (Bickhardt, 1918, O. fungicolus (Wenzel & Dybas, 1941, O. gibbulus (Schmidt, 1889 comb. n., O. olivensis sp. n., O. simplicipygus sp. n., O. subdepressus (Schmidt, 1889, O. therondi (Wenzel, 1976], O. impunctipennis group [O. chamelensis sp. n., O. foveiventris sp. n., O. granulipectus sp. n., O. impunctipennis (Hinton, 1935 comb. n., O. latifoveatus sp. n., O. lissipygus sp. n., O. maesi sp. n., O. mangiferus sp. n., O. marginipennis sp. n., O. nicodemus sp. n., O. nitidus sp. n., O. pacificus sp. n., O. pauperculus sp. n., O. punctissipygus sp. n., O. subviridis sp. n., O. tripartitus sp. n., O. vorax sp. n.], O. marginellus group [O. ashei sp. n., O. baylessae sp. n., O. dentatus sp. n., O. formicatus sp. n., O. hintoni sp. n., O. marginellus (J.E. LeConte, 1860 comb. n., O. orchidophilus sp. n., O. selvorum sp. n., O. striatellus (Fall, 1917 comb. n.], incertae sedis: O. teapensis (Marseul, 1853 comb. n., O. punctulatus sp. n., O. lama Mazur, 1988, O. florifaunensis sp. n., O. bosquesecus sp. n., O. arnaudi Dégallier, 1982, O. subsphaericus sp. n., O. latipygus sp. n., O. elongatus sp. n., O. rupicolus sp. n., O. punctipleurus sp. n., O. falini sp. n., O. peregrinus sp. n., O. brooksi sp. n., O. profundipygus sp. n., O. punctatissimus sp. n., O. cavisternus sp. n., O. siluriformis sp. n., O. parallelus sp. n., O. abbreviatus sp. n., O. pygidialis (Lewis, 1908, O. faltistrius sp. n., O. limonensis sp. n., O. wenzeli sp. n., O. iheringi (Bickhardt, 1917, O. angustisternus (Wenzel, 1944, O. shorti sp. n. We

  15. A systematic revision of Operclipygus Marseul (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Exosternini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, Michael S; Tishechkin, Alexey K

    2013-01-01

    ., Operclipygus subdepressus (Schmidt, 1889), Operclipygus therondi (Wenzel, 1976)], Operclipygus impunctipennis group [Operclipygus chamelensis sp. n., Operclipygus foveiventris sp. n., Operclipygus granulipectus sp. n., Operclipygus impunctipennis (Hinton, 1935) comb. n., Operclipygus latifoveatus sp. n., Operclipygus lissipygus sp. n., Operclipygus maesi sp. n., Operclipygus mangiferus sp. n., Operclipygus marginipennis sp. n., Operclipygus nicodemus sp. n., Operclipygus nitidus sp. n., Operclipygus pacificus sp. n., Operclipygus pauperculus sp. n., Operclipygus punctissipygus sp. n., Operclipygus subviridis sp. n., Operclipygus tripartitus sp. n., Operclipygus vorax sp. n.], Operclipygus marginellus group [Operclipygus ashei sp. n., Operclipygus baylessae sp. n., Operclipygus dentatus sp. n., Operclipygus formicatus sp. n., Operclipygus hintoni sp. n., Operclipygus marginellus (J.E. LeConte, 1860) comb. n., Operclipygus orchidophilus sp. n., Operclipygus selvorum sp. n., Operclipygus striatellus (Fall, 1917) comb. n.], incertae sedis: O. teapensis (Marseul, 1853) comb. n., Operclipygus punctulatus sp. n., Operclipygus lama Mazur, 1988, Operclipygus florifaunensis sp. n., Operclipygus bosquesecus sp. n., Operclipygus arnaudi Dégallier, 1982, Operclipygus subsphaericus sp. n., Operclipygus latipygus sp. n., Operclipygus elongatus sp. n., Operclipygus rupicolus sp. n., Operclipygus punctipleurus sp. n., Operclipygus falini sp. n., Operclipygus peregrinus sp. n., Operclipygus brooksi sp. n., Operclipygus profundipygus sp. n., Operclipygus punctatissimus sp. n., Operclipygus cavisternus sp. n., Operclipygus siluriformis sp. n., Operclipygus parallelus sp. n., Operclipygus abbreviatus sp. n., Operclipygus pygidialis (Lewis, 1908), Operclipygus faltistrius sp. n., Operclipygus limonensis sp. n., Operclipygus wenzeli sp. n., Operclipygus iheringi (Bickhardt, 1917), Operclipygus angustisternus (Wenzel, 1944), Operclipygus shorti sp. n. We establish the following synonymies

  16. Analysis on microbial contamination testing results of market foods in a county%某县市售食品微生物污染检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄军林; 黄育英; 罗炬; 吕志海

    2012-01-01

    10.3969/j.issn.1672-9455.2012.20.020%  [Abstract] Objective To investigate the microbial contamination status of market foods in Luchuan county and to provide the scientific basis for the prevention of foodborne diseases .Methods The detected samples were col-lected ,analyzed and evaluated according to the national standard test .Results 128 samples in 2011 were detected . The qualified rate was 47.66%.The qualified rate of cooked meat products ,instant non-fermented soy products ,fresh fruit and vegetable juices ,rice and lunch ,cakes and biscuits ,egg products ,infant formula powder and infant cereal-based complementary food ,frozen cooked rice and flour products were 6.25%,12.50%,12.50%,12.50%,50.00%,93.75%,93.75% and 100.00%,respectively .Conclusion The microbial contamination of market foods in Luchuan county is serious ,which needs to adopt the effective measure for strengthening the supervision and management .

  17. Organic products: consumption habits and perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacinia-Crina Petrescu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to determine consumption habits and perceptions onecological food products. The main results are: 85% of the respondents perceive the dominantcharacteristic organic food “healthy”; more than half of the respondents (60% states to have no orlittle trust in sellers claims about a product being eco in the absence of organic label; half of therespondents declare they spent less than 50 lei (0-11.11 Euro on organic food and 40% of therespondents declare they spent between 51-200 lei (11.12-44.44. Euro on organic food; almost 20%of the sample bought organic cereals, fruits, vegetables and dairy and almost 10% bought biscuits,meat, oil during the last year; 80% of the respondents are willing to pay for 1 liter of organic milk upto 44% more compared to supermarket price and 80% more compared to small farmers’ price.

  18. Extrusion and Extruded Products: Changes in Quality Attributes as Affected by Extrusion Process Parameters: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M S; Kaur, Jasmeen; Khaira, Harjot; Gupta, Kalika

    2016-01-01

    Extrusion of foods is an emerging technology for the food industries to process and market a large number of products of varying size, shape, texture, and taste. Extrusion cooking technology has led to production of wide variety of products like pasta, breakfast cereals, bread crumbs, biscuits, crackers, croutons, baby foods, snack foods, confectionery items, chewing gum, texturized vegetable protein (TVP), modified starch, pet foods, dried soups, dry beverage mixes etc. The functional properties of extruded foods plays an important role for their acceptability which include water absorption, water solubility, oil absorption indexes, expansion index, bulk density and viscosity of the dough. The aim of this review is to give the detailed outlines about the potential of extrusion technology in development of different types of products and the role of extrusion-operating conditions and their effect on product development resulting in quality changes i.e physical, chemical, and nutritional, experienced during the extrusion process. PMID:25574813

  19. [Utilization of gossypol-free cottonseed and its by-products as human food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, A; Delpeuch, F; Favier, J C

    1977-01-01

    Trials have principally turned on a glandless cottonseed flour, with 56 p. 100 of proteins. It is possible to blend it with millet or sorghum flour, and so to prepare the main meals of the local cooking. Trial of acceptability and long-dated consumption have shown that this flour is rather well appreciated especially in sauces. The growth of young children has been better thanks to the consumption of a cottonseed flour pap during six months. Trials to manufacture biscuits and noodles have been attempted. Kernels of cottonseed with 32 p. 100 of proteins and 33 p. 100 of lipids have been consumed with success. Four tons of kernels have been sold at the same price as sorghum in the area where the glandless cotton plant is under cultivation. PMID:579293

  20. Presence of Amorphous Carbon Nanoparticles in Food Caramels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palashuddin, Sk; Jaiswal, Amit; Paul, Anumita; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2012-04-01

    We report the finding of the presence of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) in different carbohydrate based food caramels, viz. bread, jaggery, sugar caramel, corn flakes and biscuits, where the preparation involves heating of the starting material. The CNPs were amorphous in nature; the particles were spherical having sizes in the range of 4-30 nm, depending upon the source of extraction. The results also indicated that particles formed at higher temperature were smaller than those formed at lower temperature. Excitation tuneable photoluminescence was observed for all the samples with quantum yield (QY) 1.2, 0.55 and 0.63%, for CNPs from bread, jaggery and sugar caramels respectively. The present discovery suggests potential usefulness of CNPs for various biological applications, as the sources of extraction are regular food items, some of which have been consumed by humans for centuries, and thus they can be considered as safe.

  1. Ten years of Integrated Pest Management (IPM at the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Wien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Querner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien is one of the largest fine arts collections worldwide, comprising the Kunsthistorisches Museum, the Austrian Theater Museum, the Museum of Ethnology, all placed in Vienna, and Schloß Ambras in Tirol. We present results from up to 10 years of insect pest monitoring in different collections and the implementation of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM concept. The Kunsthistorisches Museum was the first museum in Vienna to introduce such a concept. We also present specific insect pest problems such as a biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum infestation of paintings lined with starch paste backings (linings or the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella infestation at the Museum of Carriages, both repeatedly occurring problems in the museum. With the help of the insect pest monitoring programs, these and other problems were found and the infested objects treated, usually with anoxia (nitrogen.

  2. A trans world journey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Bysted, Anette;

    2006-01-01

    A high intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), and a daily intake as low as possible is required to minimize health risks. To achieve this at the individual level in Denmark, legislation limited IP-TFA in foods ...... a maximum of 2% of fat content from 2004. We assessed the potential exposure of consumers to IP-TFA by analysing popular foods in Denmark, and in 25 other countries. Fifty-five servings of French fries and chicken nuggets, 87 packages of microwave popcorn, and 393 samples of biscuits....../cakes/wafers with "partially hydrogenated vegetable fat" listed high on the food label were bought between November 2004, and February 2006. The content of IP-TFA was analysed by standardized methodology. We defined a "high trans menu" as a large size serving of French fries and nuggets, 100 g of microwave popcorn...

  3. Forecasts of agricultural exchanges with a view to a contamination model - the case of wheat in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the main data, two types of models were experimented allowing to 'project' exchange tables in a near future: 'empirical' models derived from a systematic study of the various coefficients able to specify the structure of an exchange matrix; 'explanatory' models based on the utilization of a linear model and the construction of a 'generalized cost' of exchange with the help of physical and economical parameters. The contamination model is then presented; it gives and forecasts individual and collective doses likely to be received by the inhabitants of each region from the ingestion of bread, biscuits... The doses are dependent on the results or assumptions at the level of the initial contaminations, the technical transformations of the product and the inter-regional exchanges of the initial product and its derivatives

  4. Les medias en tant que mécanisme de gouvernance partenarial - Media as a corporate governance mechanism:a stakeholder view

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Moris; Adrien Bonache

    2010-01-01

    (VF)Les médias jouent un rôle important dans les crises, en particulier, celles touchant à la création et à la répartition de la valeur. L’objectif de cet article est de proposer un cadre conceptuel expliquant le rôle des médias en tant que mécanisme de gouvernance partenarial. Leur rôle est analysé à travers une étude de cas basée sur le conflit opposant le groupe Danone à certaines de ses parties prenantes, lors de la restructuration de sa branche biscuit, en 2001. Nous montrons que la pres...

  5. LES MEDIAS EN TANT QUE MECANISME DE GOUVERNANCE PARTENARIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Moris, Karen; Bonache, Adrien,

    2010-01-01

    Les médias jouent un rôle important dans les crises, en particulier, celles touchant à la création et à la répartition de la valeur. L'objectif de cet article est de proposer un cadre conceptuel expliquant le rôle des médias en tant que mécanisme de gouvernance partenarial. Leur rôle est analysé à travers une étude de cas basée sur le conflit opposant le groupe Danone à certaines de ses parties prenantes, lors de la restructuration de sa branche biscuit, en 2001. Nous montrons que la presse e...

  6. Evidence supporting the conceptual framework of cancer chemoprevention in canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Adrian, Julie Ann Luiz; Wright, Brian; Park, Eun-Jung; van Breemen, Richard B; Morris, Kenneth R; Pezzuto, John M

    2016-01-01

    As with human beings, dogs suffer from the consequences of cancer. We investigated the potential of a formulation comprised of resveratrol, ellagic acid, genistein, curcumin and quercetin to modulate biomarkers indicative of disease prevention. Dog biscuits were evaluated for palatability and ability to deliver the chemopreventive agents. The extent of endogenous DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes from dogs given the dietary supplement or placebo showed no change. However, H2O2-inducible DNA damage was significantly decreased after consumption of the supplement. The expression of 11 of 84 genes related to oxidative stress was altered. Hematological parameters remained in the reference range. The concept of chemoprevention for the explicit benefit of the canine is compelling since dogs are an important part of our culture. Our results establish a proof-of-principle and provide a framework for improving the health and well-being of "man's best friend". PMID:27216246

  7. Fabrication of Palladium Nanoparticles on Porous Aromatic Frameworks as a Sensing Platform to Detect Vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilian, A T Ezhil; Puthiaraj, Pillaiyar; Kwak, Cheol Hwan; Hwang, Seung-Kyu; Huh, Yun Suk; Ahn, Wha-Seung; Han, Young-Kyu

    2016-05-25

    Here, we report the fabrication of palladium nanoparticles on porous aromatic frameworks (Pd/PAF-6) using a facile chemical approach, which was characterized by various spectro- and electrochemical techniques. The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) response of Pd/PAF-6 toward the vanillin (VA) sensor shows a linear relationship over concentrations (10-820 pM) and a low detection limit (2 pM). Pd/PAF-6 also exhibited good anti-interference performance toward 2-fold excess of ascorbic acid, nitrophenol, glutathione, glucose, uric acid, dopamine, ascorbic acid, 4-nitrophenol, glutathione, glucose, uric acid, dopamine, and 100-fold excess of Na(+), Mg(2+), and K(+) during the detection of VA. The developed electrochemical sensor based on Pd/PAF-6 had good reproducibility, as well as high selectivity and stability. The established sensor revealed that Pd/PAF-6 could be used to detect VA in biscuit and ice cream samples with satisfactory results. PMID:27149292

  8. Low Temperature Preparation and Cold Manufacturing Techniques for Femoral Head of Al2O3 Ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The hip joint femoral head prosthesis was prepared using the Al2O3 material, which was synthesized by high purity alumina micro-powder and Mg- Zr- Y composite additives, the cold manufacturing techniques of lathe turning, grade polishing and the matching size correction of the sintered femoral head were studied. The results showed, after being pressed under 200 MPa cold isostatic pressure and being pre-sintered at 1 150 ℃, the biscuit' s strength can meet the demands of lathe turning; After being grade polished by SiC micro-powder and diamond abrading agent and being size corrected by special instruments, the femoral head prosthesis of Al2O3 ceramic has good surface degree of finish and articulates tightly with femoral handle.

  9. Nutritional value and baking application of spelt wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatica Kohajdova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals represent the most important group of crops in the structure of plant production from the economic, agronomic and consumer point of view. Spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L. is an ancient bread cereal related to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. that has been cultivated for hundreds of years, and that is now being rediscovered in Europe and North America. Spelt is generating increasing interest due to its agronomic, nutritional and medical characteristics. Despite of these spelt bread benefits, spelt is wheat that contains gluten proteins and is capable of provoking wheat allergy and gluten enteropathy. This review describes nutritional composition (proteins, aminoacids, starch, sugars, fiber, lipids, fatty acids, sterol, vitamins, ash and mineral compounds of spelt wheat and potential using of this cereal for baking application (flour, bread, breakfast cereals, pasta, crackers, nutrition bars, biscuits and some regional specialities.

  10. Development of dummy molecularly imprinted based on functionalized silica nanoparticles for determination of acrylamide in processed food by matrix solid phase dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Maryam; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Ostovan, Abbas

    2016-11-01

    A novel technique was applied for the synthesis of dummy molecularly imprinted silica nanoparticles (DMISNPs). DMISNPs were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope. The material was used as dispersant for the analysis of biscuit and bread samples using matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD). Of advantages of such approach may be counted as the simplicity of synthesis procedure, low consumption of organic solvent, mild working temperature during the synthesis, high binding capacity and affinity. The effect of various parameters such as sample-to-dispersant ratio and eluents volume on extraction recovery was investigated and optimized by central composite design under response surface methodology. It was proven that the proposed dispersant leads to high affinity toward acrylamide even in complicated matrices. Quantification of the acrylamide was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). PMID:27211623

  11. Utjecaj tipova peći na svojstva keksa pripravljenih od rashlađenog i zamrznutog tijesta

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan, Ismail Sait

    2006-01-01

    Ispitana su svojstva prhkih kolačića sa šećerom, sa šokoladnim listićima i keksa s lješnjacima, pripravljenih od rashlađenog i zamrznutog tijesta. Tijesto je bilo pohranjeno 6 tjedana pri 4 °C, te 6 mjeseci zamrznuto na –18 °C. Određene su fizikalne osobine uzoraka keksa, kao što su površina, gubitak pri pečenju, boja površine i gustoća. Vrijeme skladištenja i temperatura nisu utjecali na boju tijesta kao ni na svojstva kolačića. Keksi pečeni I.S. DOGAN: Biscuit Characteristics from Refrigera...

  12. Utilisation des huiles et matières grasses végétales dans les aliments céréaliers : un défi continu pour LU France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riou Elisabeth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the predominant technological role in the success of a cereal product is generally attributed to cereals, studies demonstrate that the fat content also plays an essential role in biscuits. The desired functionalities guide product developers in their choice from the different types of fat available. LU France (a company of the Kraft Foods Group has restricted the number of these fats over the last twenty years, in response to consumer and public health concerns. In parallel, a nutritional improvement strategy has been initiated. The total fat, saturated fatty acid and sugar contents have already been reduced significantly. Products containing more than 1 g/100 g of trans fatty acids have been reformulated. However, reducing the saturated fatty acid content is still a matter of interest, in line with the Kraft Foods Group’s commitment to implementing actions to contribute to the WHO global strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health.

  13. Contributions of foods to sodium in the Australian food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, H; Smith, A M; Maples, J; Wills, R B

    1984-06-01

    The sodium contributions of various foods in the Australian supply have been calculated by applying recent local food composition data to food availability data and to typical notional Australian diets. Sodium available for consumption from the food supply was 3.00 g per capita per day. Of foods which are salted during processing, the three heaviest contributors of sodium were bread (23 per cent of total available sodium), processed meat and fish (14 per cent), and margarine (8 per cent). Other important contributors were breakfast cereals, biscuits, cheese, butter, potato crisps, dried soups and cakes (including pastries, pies and puddings). Foods identified by health authorities as 'highly salted' and thus prime targets for reduced consumption, provided 33 per cent of total available sodium, less than the 50 per cent contributed by other foods salted during processing. Take-away foods per se did not contribute more sodium than processed foods generally. PMID:6480405

  14. 咸阳市居民丙烯酰胺膳食暴露水平调查%Survey on the Level of Dietary Exposure to Acrylamide in Residents of Xianyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟娟娟; 宁鸿珍; 李茂静; 齐宝宁; 陈振飞; 刘英莉; 毛立超

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过对咸阳市居民进行问卷调查,估计咸阳市居民丙烯酰胺膳食暴露水平.方法 根据预调查结果,选定28种咸阳市居民经常食用的油炸、烘烤食品作为被调查食品,用国标方法测定被调查食品中丙烯酰胺的含量,并依据检测结果计算咸阳市居民丙烯酰胺的膳食暴露水平.结果 咸阳市居民丙烯酰胺的平均摄入量为26.68μg/d,平均暴露水平为0.46μg/kg bw·d.不同性别及不同地区间差异无统计学意义;不同年龄差异有统计学意义;各年龄组人群丙烯酰胺暴露贡献较高的食品分别为<10和10~岁组为薯片、饼干、烤馍片和烤饼;20~、30~和40~岁组为薯片、饼干、烤饼和炸饼;50~和≥60岁组为饼干和烤饼.结论 被调查居民每天通过食品摄入一定量的丙烯酰胺,其主要食物来源是薯片、饼干、烤饼、炸饼和烤馍片.%Objective To assess the level of dietary exposure to acrylamide among the residents of Xianyang City through questionnaire survey. Methods According to the results of the pretest, 28 types of fried and baked foods were selected to serve as the surveyed samples. The exposure assessment was performed by combining the levels of acrylamide determined with the national standard method and individual food consumption data. Results The mean intake of acrylamide in the residents of Xianyang City was 26.68 μg/d, the average level of acrylamide exposure was 0.46μg/kg bw·d. No statistically significant difference was found in the level of acrylamide exposure in different gendere and regions, but there were statistically significant differences among the age groups. The foods that contributed most to acrylamide exposure were potato chips, biscuits, baked steamed bread slices and scones in the age groups of < 10 and 10~ years, potato chips, biscuits, scones and fried cakes in the age groups of 20~, 30~ and 40~ years, and biscuits and scones in the age groups of 50

  15. Protein and starch digestibilities and mineral availability of products developed from potato, soy and corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, P; Sehgal, S

    1998-01-01

    A technique for development of potato flour was standardized. Five products viz. cake, biscuit, weaning food, panjiri and ladoo were prepared incorporating potato flour, defatted soy flour and corn flour. Baking and roasting were the major processing techniques employed for the development of these products. Protein, ash and fat contents of potato flour were almost similar to those of raw potatoes. Significant differences in protein, ash and fat contents of all the products were observed. Protein and starch digestibility of potato flour was significantly higher than that of raw potatoes. Protein digestibility increased by 12 to 17 percent on baking or roasting of products. Processed products had significantly higher starch digestibility and mineral availability compared to raw products. Thus, it can be concluded that roasting and baking are effective means of improving starch and protein digestibility and mineral availability of products. PMID:9839814

  16. Preference and intake frequency of high sodium foods and dishes and their correlations with anthropometric measurements among Malaysian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong; Say, Yee-How

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic

  17. Artificial trans fat in popular foods in 2012 and in 2014: a market basket investigation in six European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    Objective To minimise the intake of industrially produced trans fat (I-TF) and thereby decrease the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), nearly all European countries rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TF content in food. The objective of this study was to monitor the change in presence of I-TF in biscuits/cakes/wafers in six countries in South-eastern Europe from 2012 to 2014, including two members of the European Union (Slovenia and Croatia). Design Three large supermarkets were visited in each of the six capitals in 2012. Pre-packaged biscuits/cakes/wafers were bought if the products contained more than 15 g of total fat per 100 g of product and if partially hydrogenated oil or a similar term was disclosed at the beginning of the ingredients list. These same supermarkets were revisited in 2014 and the same collection procedure was followed. All foods were subsequently analysed for total fat and trans fat in the same laboratory. Results The number of packages bought in the six countries taken together was 266 in 2012 and 643 in 2014. Some were identical, and therefore only 226 were analysed in 2012 and 434 in 2014. Packages with less than 2% of fat from I-TF went up from 69 to 235, while products with more than 2% (illegal in Denmark) doubled from an average of 33 to an average of 68 products for the six countries, with considerable variation across countries. The per cent of I-TF in total fat decreased slightly, from a mean (SD) of 22 (13) in 2012 to 18 (9) in 2014. Conclusions The findings suggest that voluntary reduction of I-TF in foods with high amounts is an ineffective strategy in several European countries. Alternative strategies both within and outside the European Union are necessary to protect all subgroups of the populations against an increased risk of CHD. PMID:26975938

  18. Evaluation of the content and the potential bioavailability of minerals from gluten-free products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Suliburska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gluten-free products usually contain low amounts of protein and minerals. However, the information about their nutritional quality is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the content and release of minerals from selected gluten-free products. Material and methods. The content and release of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu from selected gluten-free products was determined. The samples were subjected to enzymatic digestion under in vitro conditions. The content of minerals in samples before and after enzymatic digestion was determined by the fl ame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results. The content of minerals varied considerably among the types of foods. The amount of calcium in gluten-free products ranged (mg/100 g d.w. from 3 in corn porridge to 45 in peas puff, magnesium: from 13 in peas puff to 33 in corn porridge, iron: from 1.1 in bread to 2.6 in pasta, zinc: from 0.8 in biscuits to 6.3 peas puff and copper: from 0.07 in bread to 0.4 in pasta. Among analysed products the signifi cant higher release of calcium (~68% and zinc (~62% was found in corn porridge. The highest potential bioavailability for magnesium (~54% in peas puff, for iron (~58% in biscuits and for copper (~63% in bread was observed. The relative low bioavailability of minerals was found in pasta (from 7% for Ca to 27% for Fe. Conclusions. The content and amount of released minerals from gluten-free products are relatively low. The release of minerals from gluten-free products depends on the element and composition of the analysed product.

  19. Characterization of Cohesive Cake Formation and Stickiness of Starches at Various Water Levels in the Presence of Palm oil and Palm Oil Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmadi Mamat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of the biscuit manufacture is the combination of the raw ingredients. Different oils are likely to change the quality of dough. The factors important in agglomeration of starch materials are poorly understood and therefore work was carried out to try and establish the behaviour of oil and water on the material properties of starches. An understanding of particle-particle behaviour in the presence of oils and water is relevant to a food production process such as biscuit making, that requires preparation and mixing of these ingredients at ambient conditions. The way these powders pack and flow could have a significant impact on the final quality of the product. Powder flow analyser was used to measure the caking and cohesion properties for different type of starches. Besides the powder type as a variable, three levels of water and four types of oils at 5 % (d.b concentration were also tested. The presence of water with the powder plays an important role for the way the cereals powders pack and flow. Although tapped bulk densities did not vary much the water had a great impact on the powder caking strength and cohesion index. For samples without oil, the results showed that these parameters were increased significantly as the water level increased for all starches. Plasticization by addition of water to the food powder is believed to be the major factor contributing to the results obtained. Addition of oil to starches increased the caking and cohesion indices where liquid oils showed the greatest impact compared to solid oils.

  20. Differential vascular dysfunction in response to diets of differing macronutrient composition: a phenomenonological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy Roslyn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular dysfunction can develop from consumption of an energy-rich diet, even prior to the onset of obesity. However, the roles played by different dietary components remain uncertain. While attempting to develop models of obesity in a separate study, we observed that two high-energy diets of differing macronutrient compositions affected vascular function differently in overweight rats. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 6/group were fed diets providing varying percentages of energy from fat and carbohydrate (CHO. For 10 weeks, they were fed either chow, as control diet (10% of energy from fat; 63% from CHO, chow supplemented with chocolate biscuit (30% fat; 56% CHO or a high-fat diet (45% fat; 35% CHO. Blood concentrations of biochemical markers of obesity were measured, and epididymal fat pads weighed as a measure of adiposity. Mesenteric arteries were dissected and their contractile and relaxant properties analysed myographically. Data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results Weight gain and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin and leptin were similar in all groups. However, biscuit-fed animals showed increased food intake (+27%; p p p p p Conclusion Vascular dysfunction resulting from consumption of a high-fat or combined relatively high-fat/high-CHO diet occurs through different physiological processes, which may be attributable to their differing macronutrient compositions. Combining potentially atherogenic macronutrients induces more extensive vascular impairment than that of high-fat alone, and may be attributable to the more marked dyslipidaemia observed with such a diet. Thus, these findings help clarify the role of dietary components in vascular impairment, which has implications for clinical approaches to preventing cardiovascular disease.

  1. Role of inulin and its degradates in prebiotic effect of newly developed functional foodstuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Inulin-type fructans can be found in more than 36.000 plant species and they are among the most abundantly occurring carbohydrates in nature. Inulin is a linear chain of fructose monomers having a terminal glucose moiety with an average degree of polymerisation (DP) of 10. Major goal of our study was to develop a new, inulin-containing functional food (biscuit) with pronounced prebiotic impact. Application of novel analytical and microbiological methods aimed at revealing of both heat degradation pathway and the exact prebiotic impact of inulin. Dependency of microbiological activity on the time-interval of thermal treatment was examined in cases of E. coli, Bifidobacterium and Enterococcus. 12 min of treatment at 190 deg C was the most efficient in order to acquire the most pronounced prebiotic effect. 90% of the original amount of inulin has been decomposed leading to a new product (biscuit) with multiplicated bacterium activating effect. Comparison of distinctive extraction and sample preparation protocols has been performed. Throughout our studies inulin was acquired from Chicorium intybus L. (chicory), Dahlia species (dahlia), Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke), and the samples were treated at 8 different temperatures for 9 distinctive time periods. Thermal treatments were carried out from 150 deg C up to 230 deg C. Mapping of the thermal degradation of the inulin was accomplished by means of HPLC-ELS-MS technique. Oligo-, and polymers deriving from inulin's heat degradation were isolated ranging from DP3 up to DP31. Various fructan oligomer degradates were identified directly with the exact number of fructose units, thus the entire decomposition pathway was revealed. Thermal degradation of inulin results in the formation of degradates activating the Bifidobacterium species 5 times more than the non-treated inulin. Major output of our study is that a new functional foodstuff with enhanced prebiotic effect is

  2. Compton suppression method and epithermal NAA in the determination of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Y.A., E-mail: yaahmed1@gmail.co [Reactor Engineering Section, Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78758 (United States); Landsberger, S.; O' Kelly, D.J.; Braisted, J. [Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78758 (United States); Gabdo, H. [Physics Department, Federal College of Education, Yola (Nigeria); Ewa, I.O.B.; Umar, I.M.; Funtua, I.I. [Reactor Engineering Section, Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria)

    2010-10-15

    We used in this study Compton suppression method and epithermal neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages. The work was performed at the University of Texas TRIGA Reactor by short, medium, and long irradiation protocols, using thermal flux of 1.4x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and epithermal flux of 1.4x10{sup 11} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Application of Compton suppression method has reduced interferences from Compton scattered photons thereby allowing easy evaluation of Na, Cl, Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Co, Cr, Rb, Fe, and Se. The epithermal NAA method has enabled determination of Cd, As, Ba, Sr, Br, I, and V with little turn-around time. Quality Control and Quality Assurance of the method was tested by analyzing four Standard Reference Materials (non-fat powdered milk, apple leaves, citrus leaves, and peach leaves) obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology. Our results show that sorghum, millet, and maize have high values of Zn, Mn, Fe, low values of Cd, As, and Se. Powdered milks, rice, beans, and soybeans were found to have moderate amounts of all the elements. Tobacco recorded high content of Cd, Mn, and As, whereas tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and okro seed have more As values than others. However, biscuits, macaroni, spaghetti, and noodles show lower concentrations of all the elements. The distribution of these nutrients and heavy metals in these food and beverages shows the need to fortify biscuits and pastas with micro and macro-nutrients and reduce the use of tobacco, tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and Okro seed to avoid intake of heavy elements.

  3. Compton suppression method and epithermal NAA in the determination of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used in this study Compton suppression method and epithermal neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages. The work was performed at the University of Texas TRIGA Reactor by short, medium, and long irradiation protocols, using thermal flux of 1.4x1012 n cm-2 s-1 and epithermal flux of 1.4x1011 n cm-2 s-1. Application of Compton suppression method has reduced interferences from Compton scattered photons thereby allowing easy evaluation of Na, Cl, Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Co, Cr, Rb, Fe, and Se. The epithermal NAA method has enabled determination of Cd, As, Ba, Sr, Br, I, and V with little turn-around time. Quality Control and Quality Assurance of the method was tested by analyzing four Standard Reference Materials (non-fat powdered milk, apple leaves, citrus leaves, and peach leaves) obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology. Our results show that sorghum, millet, and maize have high values of Zn, Mn, Fe, low values of Cd, As, and Se. Powdered milks, rice, beans, and soybeans were found to have moderate amounts of all the elements. Tobacco recorded high content of Cd, Mn, and As, whereas tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and okro seed have more As values than others. However, biscuits, macaroni, spaghetti, and noodles show lower concentrations of all the elements. The distribution of these nutrients and heavy metals in these food and beverages shows the need to fortify biscuits and pastas with micro and macro-nutrients and reduce the use of tobacco, tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and Okro seed to avoid intake of heavy elements.

  4. Snow Cover Contributes to Post-fire Vegetation Regeneration in Mediterranean Climate Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauvelt, K. J.; Nolin, A. W.; Lintz, H. E.; Sproles, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Predictions for the 21st century western United States climate include amplified fire regimes, earlier spring snowmelt and reduced snowpack. In the Pacific Northwest, burned area is projected to increase by as much as 300% by the end of this century. Continued declines in snowpack are also anticipated, especially at lower elevations. Previous research has established a link between declining snowpacks and wildfire. But what is the role of snow in the regeneration of vegetation after a fire? This investigation examines the relationship between post-fire vegetation and snowcover. We analyze the complex relationships between remotely sensed winter snow frequency and subsequent spring and summer vegetation biomass before and after large wildfires using a form of nonparametric multiplicative regression. We use snow cover and vegetation biomass data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). At each fire site, multiple physiographic predictor variables, (snow frequency, elevation, slope, aspect, vegetation type, and burn severity), are incorporated for the vegetation biomass response variable. For the Biscuit Fire (Klamath Mountains Ecoregion in SW Oregon), we see a negative correlation between winter snow frequency and subsequent spring EVI before the 2002 Biscuit Fire and a shift to a positive correlation after the fire during regeneration, while fires in other western ecoregions do not exhibit this shift. We also examine fire sites in the California Sierra Nevada and the Oregon Cascade Mountains. Snow cover frequency appears to be a valid predictor of post-fire biomass in climate regions where the summer dry period is relatively long. This research evaluates the relative importance of snowpack and other physiographic variables in post-fire vegetation regeneration across a latitudinal gradient of fire sites.

  5. Formulation and characterization of functional foods based on fruit and vegetable residue flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mariana S L; Santos, Mônica C P; Moro, Thaísa M A; Basto, Gabriela J; Andrade, Roberta M S; Gonçalves, Édira C B A

    2015-02-01

    Fruits and vegetables are extensively processed and the residues are often discarded. However, due to their rich composition, they could be used to minimize food waste. This study aimed to develop food products based on the solid residue generated from the manufacture of an isotonic beverage. This beverage was produced based on integral exploitation of several fruits and vegetables: orange, passion fruit, watermelon, lettuce, courgette, carrot, spinach, mint, taro, cucumber and rocket. The remaining residue was processed into flour and its functional properties were evaluated. The fruit and vegetable residue (FVR) flour was incorporated with different levels (20 to 35 %) into biscuits and cereal bars. The proximate composition, microbiological stability until 90 days and consumer acceptance were analyzed. The FVR flour presented a higher water holding capacity than oil holding capacity, respectively 7.43 and 1.91 g g(-1) of flour, probably associated with its high levels of carbohydrates (53 %) and fibres (21.5 %). Biscuits enriched with 35 % of FVR flour presented significantly higher fibre, ranging from 57 % to 118 % and mineral contents, from 25 % to 37 % than when only 20 % was added. Cereal bars presented about 75 % of fibres and variable mineral contents between 14 % and 37 %. The incorporation of FVR did not change the fat content. The microbiological examinations are within acceptable limits according to international regulation. The incorporation of FVR flour did not impair consumer acceptance, the sensory attributes averaged around 6. The chemical, microbiological and sensorial results of the designed products attested for an alternative towards applying and reducing agro-industrial wastes. PMID:25694690

  6. New Approach on Sunflower Seeds Processing: Kernel with Several Technological Applications, Husks Package, Different Fat Content Tahini and Halva Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Mureşan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is the basic oil-crop in Central and Eastern Europe. As sunflower seeds are mainly used for oil production, the most of the kernels available on the market show high oil content (>55%. Consequently, when sunflower kernel paste (tahini is used in different food products, oil exudation occurs.The aim of current work was to use entirely the sunflower seeds by partially defatting and obtaining different fat content sunflower pastes with multiple food applications, while using the husks for developing an ecological package. Sunflower kernels were industrially roasted in a continuous roasting drum.  Raw and roasted kernels were pressed at pilot plant scale by using a laboratory expeller. Partially defatted sunflower paste was obtained from the press cakes by employing a ball mill. Different fat content tahini samples were obtained by adding the required amount of oil to the partially defatted paste. Tahini samples fat content ranged from 45 to 60%. Tahini and halva were chosen as a study model. Decreasing tahini oil content increased its colloidal stability during storage, a similar trend being noticed when halva samples were stored. Moreover, halva texture analysis and sensory characteristics were assessed for selecting the optimum tahini oil content and thermal treatment. Various sunflower kernel food applications were proposed by obtaining the related prototypes at pilot plant scale: roasted sunflower kernel biscuits, sunflower spreadable cream filled biscuits, hummus, sunflower paste coated in chocolate, sunflower kernel chikki and bars, as well as an innovative ecological package based on the resulting sunflower husks and a starch adhesive. 

  7. Salt Toxicity (Sodium Intake: A Serious Threat to Infants and Children of Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Waseem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Excess sodium intake can lead to hypertension, the primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the sodium and potassium contents of foodstuff used by infants and children of Pakistan.We analyzed the sodium and potassium contents of infant milk formula (6 months, baby food (cereals, biscuits, fruit juices, potato chips (crisps, cheese puffs, roasted cereals (salty, ice cream cones (kulfi all of which are the processed food extensively used by the children. The amount of sodium and potassium contents in drinking water of few cities of Pakistan were also considered to assess the additional sodium/potassium in the preparation of milk using infant milk formula.Na to K ratio (Na:K was determined 0.3-1.23, 0.3-1.16, 0.33-0.82, 0.54-2.68, 0.51-0.85, 2.86 and 1.02 for infant milk formula (6 months, baby food (cereals, biscuits, fruit juices, potato chips (crisps, cheese puffs, roasted cereals, ice cream cones (kulfi, respectively.The higher sodium content is present than most of the quoted values; whereas lower potassium is present than the recommended values. The higher Na:K ratio indicates the severity of the situation where it is commonly stated that "higher an individual's salt intake, the higher an individual's blood pressure". Present study indicates that nearly all Pakistani children consume substantially more salt than they need which will affect health status in later life.

  8. Trans fatty acids in the Portuguese food market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Nádia; Cruz, Rebeca; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Casal, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence exist on the harmful health effects of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA). In order to have accurate data on TFA intake and implement adequate measures to reduce their intake, each country should have updated estimates of TFA content in the diet. The objective of the present study was to provide data on the TFA content in food commercialized in the Portuguese market. The results on the TFA content of 268 samples acquired between October and December 2013 are reported. Samples were categorized as margarines and shortenings (n = 16), spreadable chocolate fats (n = 6), fried potatoes and chips (n = 25), industrial bakery (n = 4), breakfast cereals (n = 3), pastry products (n = 120), seasonings (n = 5), instant soups (n = 5), instant desserts (n = 6), chocolate snacks (n = 4), microwave popcorn (n = 4), cookies, biscuits and wafers (n = 53), and fast-food (n = 13), with butter (n = 4) included for comparison purposes. TFA were quantified by gas chromatography. Total TFA content in the fat ranged from 0.06% to 30.2% (average 1.9%), with the highest average values in the “biscuits, wafers and cookies” group (3.4% TFA), followed by the pastry group (2.0%). Fifty samples (19%) had TFA superior to 2% in the fat. These findings highlight there is still much need for improvement in terms of the TFA content in Portuguese foods, particularly in traditional pastry. PMID:27274619

  9. Babies, soft drinks and snacks: a concern in low- and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L; Piwoz, Ellen G; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-10-01

    Undernutrition in infants and young children is a global health priority while overweight is an emerging issue. Small-scale studies in low- and middle-income countries have demonstrated consumption of sugary and savoury snack foods and soft drinks by young children. We assessed the proportion of children 6-23 months of age consuming sugary snack foods in 18 countries in Asia and Africa using data from selected Demographic and Health Surveys and household expenditures on soft drinks and biscuits using data from four Living Standards Measurement Studies (LSMS). Consumption of sugary snack foods increased with the child's age and household wealth, and was generally higher in urban vs. rural areas. In one-third of countries, >20% of infants 6-8 months consumed sugary snacks. Up to 75% of Asian children and 46% of African children consumed these foods in the second year of life. The proportion of children consuming sugary snack foods was generally higher than the proportion consuming fortified infant cereals, eggs or fruit. Household per capita daily expenditures on soft drinks ranged from $0.03 to $0.11 in three countries for which LSMS data were available, and from $0.01 to $0.04 on biscuits in two LSMS. Future surveys should include quantitative data on the purchase and consumption of snack foods by infants and young children, using consistent definitions and methods for identifying and categorising snack foods across surveys. Researchers should assess associations between snack food consumption and stunting and overweight, and characterise household, maternal and child characteristics associated with snack food consumption. PMID:24847768

  10. Episodic response project: Wet deposition at watersheds in three regions of the eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period from August 1988 to June 1990, wet-only sampling of precipitation was carried out at three Episodic Response Project sites and at one supplemental site. The three watershed sites are Moss Lake, Biscuit Brook, and Linn Run. The supplemental site was the MAP3S site at Pennsylvania State University that characterizes the central group of northern Appalachian streams. The site operators adhered by varying degrees to the sample collection protocol based on the daily sampling protocol of the MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network. Sulfate and nitrate ion together accounted for more than 80% of total anions (in μEq/L) in the precipitation at all sites. Wet deposition of sulfate at Moss Lake, Biscuit Brook, Penn State, and Linn Run averaged 223, 230, 253, and 402 mg/m2/month, respectively, whereas nitrate wet deposition averaged 197, 195, 160, and 233 mg/m2/month, respectively. Sulfate deposition was a factor of 2 to 4 higher in summer than in winter. The seasonal pattern for nitrate deposition was weak; the seasonal contrast was less than a factor of 2.5 at all sites. The association between the wet deposition and precipitation chemistry at the MAP3S monitoring site and the average for the study watersheds was dependent on the distance between the site and watershed and the intervening terrain. Precipitation chemistry at the monitoring site is representative of that at the ERP study watersheds in the Adirondack and Catskill regions and in the south-western group of watersheds in the Appalachian region. High spatial variability in precipitation amounts makes this assumption weaker for wet deposition. Chemical input to watersheds from dry deposition has not been determined at any site but could range from a factor of 0.3 to 1.0 of the wet deposition. 7 refs., 38 figs., 12 tabs

  11. Episodic response project: Wet deposition at watersheds in three regions of the eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchet, W.R.

    1991-11-01

    During the period from August 1988 to June 1990, wet-only sampling of precipitation was carried out at three Episodic Response Project sites and at one supplemental site. The three watershed sites are Moss Lake, Biscuit Brook, and Linn Run. The supplemental site was the MAP3S site at Pennsylvania State University that characterizes the central group of northern Appalachian streams. The site operators adhered by varying degrees to the sample collection protocol based on the daily sampling protocol of the MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network. Sulfate and nitrate ion together accounted for more than 80% of total anions (in {mu}Eq/L) in the precipitation at all sites. Wet deposition of sulfate at Moss Lake, Biscuit Brook, Penn State, and Linn Run averaged 223, 230, 253, and 402 mg/m{sup 2}/month, respectively, whereas nitrate wet deposition averaged 197, 195, 160, and 233 mg/m{sup 2}/month, respectively. Sulfate deposition was a factor of 2 to 4 higher in summer than in winter. The seasonal pattern for nitrate deposition was weak; the seasonal contrast was less than a factor of 2.5 at all sites. The association between the wet deposition and precipitation chemistry at the MAP3S monitoring site and the average for the study watersheds was dependent on the distance between the site and watershed and the intervening terrain. Precipitation chemistry at the monitoring site is representative of that at the ERP study watersheds in the Adirondack and Catskill regions and in the south-western group of watersheds in the Appalachian region. High spatial variability in precipitation amounts makes this assumption weaker for wet deposition. Chemical input to watersheds from dry deposition has not been determined at any site but could range from a factor of 0.3 to 1.0 of the wet deposition. 7 refs., 38 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Compton suppression method and epithermal NAA in the determination of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Y A; Landsberger, S; O'Kelly, D J; Braisted, J; Gabdo, H; Ewa, I O B; Umar, I M; Funtua, I I

    2010-10-01

    We used in this study Compton suppression method and epithermal neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages. The work was performed at the University of Texas TRIGA Reactor by short, medium, and long irradiation protocols, using thermal flux of 1.4x10(12)n cm(-2)s(-1) and epithermal flux of 1.4x10(11)n cm(-2)s(-1). Application of Compton suppression method has reduced interferences from Compton scattered photons thereby allowing easy evaluation of Na, Cl, Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Co, Cr, Rb, Fe, and Se. The epithermal NAA method has enabled determination of Cd, As, Ba, Sr, Br, I, and V with little turn-around time. Quality Control and Quality Assurance of the method was tested by analyzing four Standard Reference Materials (non-fat powdered milk, apple leaves, citrus leaves, and peach leaves) obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology. Our results show that sorghum, millet, and maize have high values of Zn, Mn, Fe, low values of Cd, As, and Se. Powdered milks, rice, beans, and soybeans were found to have moderate amounts of all the elements. Tobacco recorded high content of Cd, Mn, and As, whereas tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and okro seed have more As values than others. However, biscuits, macaroni, spaghetti, and noodles show lower concentrations of all the elements. The distribution of these nutrients and heavy metals in these food and beverages shows the need to fortify biscuits and pastas with micro and macro-nutrients and reduce the use of tobacco, tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and Okro seed to avoid intake of heavy elements. PMID:20472451

  13. The diets of British schoolchildren. Sub-committee on Nutritional Surveillance. Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    1. Statistical analysis and interpretation 1.1 This Report deals with the dietary habits of British schoolchildren and the contribution made by school meals in 1983. Since then many Local Education Authorities have introduced active policies to encourage healthy eating, accompanied in the last 4 years by health promotion campaigns, in the light of the publication of the COMA Report on Diet and Cardiovascular Disease in 1984, and other reports on diet and health. 1.2 Data are presented on the food and nutrient intakes of a representative sample of British schoolchildren measured by a 7-day record. Most food and some nutrient intakes were not normally distributed and median values are given in the tables of results. Interpretation and commentary are restricted to findings which achieved statistical significance (p less than 0.05) by parametric analyses. No non-parametric statistical analyses were attempted but data are given in detail in the tables and for those wishing to examine them further, the computer database of the survey is also available through the National Data Archive. Full documentation of the database may be obtained from the Social Survey Division of the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, (OPCS) London. 2. Foods consumed 2.1 The main sources of dietary energy in the diets of British schoolchildren were bread, chips, milk, biscuits, meat products, cake and puddings. Almost all children in the survey recorded consumption of chips, crisps, cakes and biscuits. Boys recorded more chips consumed than girls along with more milk, breakfast cereals and baked beans; girls recorded more fruit consumed and more girls drank fruit juice than boys. Yogurt, fizzy drinks and sweets were more popular among younger children. Older children recorded consumption of more tea and coffee (para 9.2). 2.2 Scottish primary school children appeared to have a distinctive dietary pattern. They recorded higher median consumption of beef, soups, milk, cheese, sausages

  14. Perfil nutricional de alimentos com alegação de zero gordura trans Nutritional profile of foods with zero trans fatty acids claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Moron Gagliardi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a composição de ácidos graxos de alguns alimentos industrializados disponíveis no mercado brasileiro nos quais houve redução da quantidade de ácidos graxos trans. Verificar também se estes alimentos atendem às quantidades recomendadas de consumo de gordura saturada, após redução de gordura trans. MÉTODOS: Alimentos industrializados (margarina cremosa A e B, margarina com fitosterol, biscoito doce recheado, biscoito salgado sem recheio, batata frita e lanche com hambúrguer de fast food multinacional com alegação de 0% de gordura trans foram adquiridos em pontos comerciais e analisados em cromatógrafo gasoso. RESULTADOS: Apesar da redução nas quantidades de ácidos graxos trans, os alimentos analisados contêm grandes quantidades de gorduras saturadas principalmente o ácido palmítico. Além disso, alguns dos alimentos estudados apresentam uma razão n-3/n-6 fora do recomendado para a prevenção da aterosclerose. CONCLUSÃO: O consumo irrestrito desses alimentos tem forte potencial deletério para a saúde. O rótulo de ausência de ácidos graxos trans deve ser visto com cuidado e não significa uma liberação para o consumo irrestrito desses alimentos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the composition of fatty acids in some foods available in the Brazilian market in which there was a claimed reduction in the amount of trans fatty acids. Also evaluate whether these foods meet recommended amounts for saturated fat consumption, after reduction of trans fat amounts. METHODS: Industrialized food (creamy margarine A and B, plant sterol margarine, stuffed sweet biscuit, salty biscuit without stuffing, French fried potatoes and a burger lunch from a multinational chain of "fast food" all with the allegation of 0% trans fat content were purchased in commercial points and analyzed by gas chromatography. RESULTS: Despite the reduction in trans fatty acid amounts, analyzed foods contained large concentrations of saturated fats

  15. Do dietary trajectories between infancy and toddlerhood influence IQ in childhood and adolescence? Results from a prospective birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa G Smithers

    Full Text Available We examined whether trajectories of dietary patterns from 6 to 24 months of age are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ in childhood and adolescence.Participants were children enrolled in a prospective UK birth cohort (n = 7,652 who had IQ measured at age 8 and/or 15 years. Dietary patterns were previously extracted from questionnaires when children were aged 6, 15 and 24 months using principal component analysis. Dietary trajectories were generated by combining scores on similar dietary patterns across each age, using multilevel mixed models. Associations between dietary trajectories and IQ were examined in generalized linear models with adjustment for potential confounders.Four dietary pattern trajectories were constructed from 6 to 24 months of age and were named according to foods that made the strongest contribution to trajectory scores; Healthy (characterised by breastfeeding at 6 months, raw fruit and vegetables, cheese and herbs at 15 and 24 months; Discretionary (biscuits, chocolate, crisps at all ages, Traditional (meat, cooked vegetables and puddings at all ages and, Ready-to-eat (use of ready-prepared baby foods at 6 and 15 months, biscuits, bread and breakfast cereals at 24 months. In fully-adjusted models, a 1 SD change in the Healthy trajectory was weakly associated with higher IQ at age 8 (1.07 (95%CI 0.17, 1.97 but not 15 years (0.49 (-0.28, 1.26. Associations between the Discretionary and Traditional trajectories with IQ at 8 and 15 years were as follows; Discretionary; 8 years -0.35(-1.03, 0.33, 15 years -0.73(-1.33, -0.14 Traditional; 8 years -0.19(-0.71, 0.3315 years -0.41(-0.77, -0.04. The Ready-to-eat trajectory had no association with IQ at either age (8 years 0.32(-4.31, 4.95, 15 years 1.11(-3.10, 5.33.The Discretionary and Traditional dietary pattern trajectories from 6 to 24 months of age, over the period when food patterns begin to emerge, are weakly associated with IQ in adolescence.

  16. A need for determination of arsenic species at low levels in cereal-based food and infant cereals. Validation of a method by IC-ICPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Mirandes, Toni; Calderón, Josep; Centrich, Francesc; Rubio, Roser; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2014-03-15

    The present study arose from the need to determine inorganic arsenic (iAs) at low levels in cereal-based food. Validated methods with a low limit of detection (LOD) are required to analyse these kinds of food. An analytical method for the determination of iAs, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in cereal-based food and infant cereals is reported. The method was optimised and validated to achieve low LODs. Ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICPMS) was used for arsenic speciation. The main quality parameters were established. To expand the applicability of the method, different cereal products were analysed: bread, biscuits, breakfast cereals, wheat flour, corn snacks, pasta and infant cereals. The total and inorganic arsenic content of 29 cereal-based food samples ranged between 3.7-35.6 and 3.1-26.0 μg As kg(-1), respectively. The present method could be considered a valuable tool for assessing inorganic arsenic contents in cereal-based foods. PMID:24206733

  17. Effects of La3+on yield and quality traits of wheat with different gluten types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧红梅; 张自立; 姚大年

    2014-01-01

    To test the roles of La3+on yield and quality of wheat for different end uses, experiments were conducted using split-plot design for different La3+treatments as main plot and different gluten types of wheat as subplot, by foliar spraying La3+at jointing stage and filling stage. The results showed that spraying 0.5-1.5 mmol/L La3+increased the yield and 1000-kernel weight of wheat of different gluten types. The protein content of strong-gluten wheat Wanmai 33 increased after spraying 0.5-1.5 mmol/L La3+, which made it achieve the good quality standard of strong-gluten wheat, whereas its LOX and PPO activity reduced, the carotenoid content increased. These La3+treatments prolonged the storage period of grain, improved flour nutritional value and the food processing qual-ity. Spraying 0.5-1.5 mmol/L La3+also increased flour peak viscosity of medium-gluten wheat Yangmai 158, as improving its starch properties. Spraying La3+ significantly decreased flour water absorption rate of weak gluten type variety Wanmai 48 to meet the weak-gluten flour standard. The total pentosan content reduced at 1-1.5 mmol/L La3+, which would be good for making biscuit. Re-sults suggested that spraying appropriate concentration of La3+increased wheat yield and benefited wheat quality for different end uses.

  18. Flax - Evaluation of composite flour and using in cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hrušková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two types of yellow and brown linseed, differing in granulation, were tested in form of wheat flour composites (additions 2.5% and 5.0% by using the Farinograph, the Extensigraph and the Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA apparatuses. Additions of brown and yellow flax fibre significantly affected Falling Number and Zeleny test values. Curves of farinograph were differed according to flax fibre type - finer flax (better terminology granulation meant somewhat stronger negative changes in dough stability and dough softening degree. Results of extensigraph test demonstrated changes in dough elasticity and extensibility due to lowering of gluten protein content. Appearance of the RVA profiles was verifiably different, reflecting diverse wheat and flax polysaccharides, added dietary fibre type and its granulation. Due to that, bread volume and shape was lowered up to one-half in case of golden flax composites. Similar tendencies with smaller negative influence caused the brown linseed. Fibre from flax is used for technical (textile use, but linseed dietary fibre addition affected quality of laboratory prepared cut-off biscuits and dried pasta differently, showing a dependence on the fibre type, granulation as well as addition level. Sensory profiles of all mentioned product types were acceptable.

  19. White adipose tissue re-growth after partial lipectomy in high fat diet induced obese wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Allain Amador; Habitante, Carlos Alexandre; Oyama, Lila Missae; Estadella, Débora; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia Maria

    2011-01-01

    The effects of partial removal of epididymal (EPI) and retroperitoneal (RET) adipose tissues (partial lipectomy) on the triacylglycerol deposition of high fat diet induced obese rats were analyzed, aiming to challenge the hypothesized body fat regulatory system. Male 28-day-old wistar rats received a diet enriched with peanuts, milk chocolate and sweet biscuits during the experimental period. At the 90th day of life, rats were submitted to either lipectomy (L) or sham surgery. After 7 or 30 days, RET, EPI, liver, brown adipose tissue (BAT), blood and carcass were obtained and analyzed. Seven days following surgery, liver lipogenesis rate and EPI relative weight were increased in L. After 30 days, L, RET and EPI presented increased lipogenesis, lipolysis and percentage of small area adipocytes. L rats also presented increased liver malic enzyme activity, BAT lipogenesis, and triacylglycerol and corticosterone serum levels. The partial removal of visceral fat pads affected the metabolism of high fat diet obese rats, which leads to excised tissue re-growth and possibly compensatory growth of non-excised depots at a later time. PMID:21140253

  20. Radiocarbon dating of silica sinter deposits in shallow drill cores from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Hurwitz, Shaul; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the timing of hydrothermal activity at the Upper Geyser Basin (UGB) in Yellowstone National Park, we obtained seven new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon 14C ages of carbonaceous material trapped within siliceous sinter. Five samples came from depths of 15-152 cm within the Y-1 well, and two samples were from well Y-7 (depths of 24 cm and 122 cm). These two wells, at Black Sand and Biscuit Basins, respectively, were drilled in 1967 as part of a scientific drilling program by the U.S. Geological Survey (White et al., 1975). Even with samples as small as 15 g, we obtained sufficient carbonaceous material (a mixture of thermophilic mats, pollen, and charcoal) for the 14C analyses. Apparent time of deposition ranged from 3775 ± 25 and 2910 ± 30 14C years BP at the top of the cores to about 8000 years BP at the bottom. The dates are consistent with variable rates of sinter formation at individual sites within the UGB over the Holocene. On a basin-wide scale, though, these and other existing 14C dates hint that hydrothermal activity at the UGB may have been continuous throughout the Holocene.

  1. Characterization of Brazilian wheat cultivars for specific technological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional and technological properties of wheat depend on its chemical composition, which together with structural and microscopic characteristics, define flour quality. The aim of the present study was to characterize four Brazilian wheat cultivars (BRS Louro, BRS Timbauva, BRS Guamirim and BRS Pardela and their respective flours in order to indicate specific technological applications. Kernels were analyzed for test weight, thousand kernel weight, hardness, moisture, and water activity. Flours were analyzed for water activity, color, centesimal composition, total dietary fiber, amylose content and identification of high molecular weight glutenins. The rheological properties of the flours were estimated by farinography, extensography, falling number, rapid visco amylography, and glutomatic and glutork equipment. Baking tests and scanning electron microscopy were also performed. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and principal component analysis. BRS Timbauva and BRS Guamirim presented results that did not allow for specific technological application. On the other hand, BRS Louro presented suitable characteristics for the elaboration of products with low dough strength such as cakes, pies and biscuits, while BRS Pardela seemed suitable for bread and pasta products.

  2. Radiometric Dating of tephras from Pre-caldera and Caldera-forming stages, Towada volcano, Northeast Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towada volcano is an active volcano located in the northern part of the Northeast Japan arc. We carried out fission-track (FT) and AMS radiocarbon (14C) dating of tephras from Towada and Hakkoda volcanoes to establish a detailed eruptive history during the Pre-caldera and Caldera-forming stages of Towada volcano. The obtained FT ages were 0.23 ± 0.05 Ma for Shirobeta tephra (WP), 0.19 ± 0.05 Ma for T-6 tephra, 0.08 ± 0.03 Ma for Zarame 1 tephra (ZP1), and 0.09 ± 0.03 Ma for Okuse Pyroclastic Flow Deposits. Although these FT ages are consistent with stratigraphy, they have large error ranges of several tens of thousands of years. Therefore, further examinations including application of other chronological dating methods are necessary to obtain more precise estimates of the eruptive age of these tephras. The obtained 14C age was 17,730 ± 70 BP for Biscuit 2 tephra (BP2). Based on stratigraphical consistency, this 14C age is appropriate for the eruptive age of BP2. (author)

  3. Mathematical modeling and determination of thermodynamic properties of jabuticaba peel during the drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian F. Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Jabuticaba is a fruit native of Brazil and, besides containing many nutritional qualities, it also has a good field for use in products such as flour for cakes and biscuits, juice, liqueur, jelly and others. This study aimed to model the drying kinetics and determine the thermodynamic properties of jabuticaba peel at different drying air temperatures. Ripe fruits of jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba were collected and pulped manually. Drying was carried out in a forced-air circulation oven with a flow of 5.6 m s-1 at temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. Six mathematical models commonly used to represent the drying process of agricultural products were fitted to the experimental data. The Arrhenius model was used to represent the drying constant as a function of temperature. The Midilli model showed the best fit to the experimental data of drying. The drying constant increased with the increment in drying temperature and promoted an activation energy of 37.29 kJ mol-1. Enthalpy and Gibbs free energy decreased with the increase in drying temperature, while entropy decreased and was negative.

  4. Tempeh flour as a substitute for soybean flour in coconut cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare roasted and lyophilized tempeh flour with soybean cultivar BRS 267 to apply them in the formulation of coconut biscuits. The cookies produced with whole soy flour and mixed flour of soybean and tempeh were evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid profile, and isoflavone aglycones in order to verify the effects of inoculation with the fungus Rhizopus oligosporus and those of the drying processes of roasting and lyophilization on the chemical characteristics of the final product. Sensory acceptance and purchase intention of the formulated products were also evaluated. The results indicate the maintenance of linolenic acid, which is important in the prevention of coronary diseases, and an increase in the aglycones levels when the tempeh flour was used. Lipids and proteins showed differences, and the sensory analyses demonstrated similarity between the cookies with satisfactory scores for aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability for both samples. when compared to the control. Purchase intent was also positive for the lyophilized and toasted tempeh flours, thus enabling the use of the roasting process as a simple drying method, for processing tempeh and obtaining a flour rich in proteins and aglycones that can be used as a partial substitute for soy flour in cookies and other bakery products.

  5. Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract as antibacterial Salmonella typhimurium to increase productivity of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnani, Y; Dan, T M Wardiny; Taryati

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to apply effect of Morinda citrifolia L. citrifolia L. leaf extract as antibacterial of Salmonella typhimurium on mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ), egg production and Hen day, hatchability of layer quail. This research was conducted at Laboratory of microbiology and laboratory of poultry nutrition, faculty of animal science, bogor agricultural university and slamet quail farms cilangkap, sukabumi, west java, Indonesia on March-July 2012. Two hundred and forty heads of quail were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (sixty heads of quail/treatment). Experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The treatments consist of level of biscuit Morinda citrifolia L. Citrifolia L. leaf extract i.e R1 = 0%, R2 = 5%, R3 = 10%, R4 = 15%. The results indicated the treatments had significant effect (p Morinda citrifolia L. leaf were R1 (4.00%), R2 (1.00%), R3 (1.33%), R4 (0.67%). The average mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) was given 15% extract Morinda citrifolia L. leaf (R4) was lowest than control treatment (R1). The results of the analysis indicated that Morinda citrifolia L. leaf of quail drink had not significant effect (p > 0.05) on egg production, hen day and hatchability. It was concluded that the Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract 15% can reduce mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) and can increase its egg production, hen day and hatchability. PMID:25911847

  6. Assessment of trans-fatty acids intake via bakery food among above three-year-old population in Beijing and Guangzhou city%北京及广州3岁以上居民焙烤食品中反式脂肪酸摄入量评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建文; 刘爱东; 张磊; 刘兆平; 李宁

    2014-01-01

    calculate individual TFA intake per day(g·d -1 ,% of total energy)in different populations(grouped by ages).RESULTS Average TFA content was ranging fro m 0.01 to 0.83 g /100 g sa mple in various kinds of bakery food.TFA con-tents were equal to or lower than 0.3 g /100 g in 77.1 % of biscuits,71 .8% of bread,67.0% of pas-tries.Wafer biscuit,sandwich biscuit,puff,cake,and croissants had higher TFA contents than others, and the level was 0.65 -0.83 g /100 g sa mple.TFA content in sandwich biscuit and pie decreased sig-nificantly after 2007.Average TFA intake via bakery food was 0.049 g·d -1 in Beijing and Guangzhou city,energy contribution was 0.027% which was far below the WHO reco mmended level (1 %). Population that are 3 to 6 years old had highest TFA intake and the TFA energy contribution was 0.041 %.CONCLUSION Most of bakery products in China contained low levels of TFA;consequently, health risk caused by TFA intake in Beijing and Guangzhou was unlikely to be a concerned.However, so me type of bakery foods had higher TFA contents which could be of greater concerned for risk management.

  7. Bi-radiant oven: a low-energy oven system. Volume I. Development and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWitt, D.P.; Peart, M.V.

    1980-04-01

    The Bi-Radiant Oven system has three important features which provide improved performance. First, the cavity walls are highly reflective rather than absorptive thereby allowing these surfaces to operate at cooler temperatures. Second, the heating elements, similar in construction to those in a conventional oven, but operating at much lower temperatures, provide a prescribed, balanced radiant flux to the top and bottom surfaces of the food product. And third, the baking and roasting utensil has a highly absorptive finish. Instrumentation and methods of measurements have been developed for obtaining the important oven and food parameters during baking: wall, oven air, food and element temperatures; food mass loss rate; irradiance distribution; and convection heat flux. Observations on an experimental oven are presented and discussed. Thermal models relating the irradiance distribution to oven parameters have been compared with measurements using a new heat flux gage developed for the project. Using the DOE recommended test procedures, oven efficiencies of 20 to 23% have been measured. The heating requirements have been determined for seven food types: biscuits, meat loaf, baked foods, apple crisp, cornbread, macaroni and cheese casserole, and cheese souffle. Comparison of energy use with a conventional electric oven shows that energy savings greater than 50% can be realized. Detailed energy balances have been performed on two foods - beef roasts and yellow cake. Consideration of consumer acceptability of this new oven concept have been addressed.

  8. Determination of tangential and normal components of oral forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevam Barbosa de Las Casas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral forces applied to human teeth during biting and mastication are normally described in the literature only in terms of their axial components. The purpose of this study was to fully determine the spatial characteristics of the oral resultant force - its normal and tangential components - for a given individual. A load cell was especially manufactured to measure oral force and was temporarily implanted as a prosthetic device in the dental arch of a volunteer, replacing his missing upper first molar. The mastication and occlusion tests were carried out in such a way the cell should withstand the loads applied to the molar, and its state of strain was recorded by strain gauges attached to it. Based on the results of these tests and using balance equations, normal and tangential components of the resultant oral force were determined. For direct occlusion, without interposition any obstacle between cusps, a peak normal force of 135 N was recorded simultaneously to a tangential force of 44 N. For mastication of biscuits, a peak normal force of 133 N and a tangential force of 39 N were obtained.

  9. Occurrence of furan in commercial processed foods in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisseto, A P; Vicente, E; Furlani, R P Z; Ueno, M S; Pereira, A L D; Toledo, M C F

    2012-01-01

    Selected commercial processed foods available in the Brazilian market (306 samples) were analysed for furan content using a validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method preceded by headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME-GC/MS). Canned and jarred foods, including vegetable, meat, fruit and sweet products, showed levels up to 32.8 µg kg⁻¹, with the highest concentrations observed in vegetables and meats. For coffee, furan content ranged from 253.0 to 5021.4 µg kg⁻¹ in the roasted ground coffee and from not detected to 156.6 µg kg⁻¹ in the beverage. For sauces, levels up to 138.1 µg kg⁻¹ were found. In cereal-based products, the highest concentrations (up to 191.3 µg kg⁻¹) were observed in breakfast cereal (corn flakes), cracker (cream crackers) and biscuit (wafer). In general, these results are comparable with those reported in other countries and will be useful for a preliminary estimate of the furan dietary intake in Brazil. PMID:22909188

  10. [Quality of cookies formulated with extruded rice bran in substitution to wheat flour and cassava starch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Diracy Betânia C L; Soares Soares, Júnior Manoel; Bassinello, Priscila Zaczuk; Santos Siqueira, Beatriz; Koakuzu, Selma Nakamoto

    2009-06-01

    Rice bran is a byproduct resulted from the rice milling process. It corresponds to 8% of the total rice grain. It is an abundant and low-cost product which has high concentration of insoluble fiber, vitamins and minerals, and it is mainly applied for animal feeding and soil fertilizing. The aim of this work was to evaluate the color, the proximate composition and acceptability of the cookies formulated with extruded rice bran (ERB). Completely randomized design was applied using one control and four treatments (12.5%, 25%, 37.5% and 50% of EBR in place of wheat flour and cassava starch). All analyses were performed according to standard methods. The gradual addition of EBR to biscuits influenced its darkening and yellow/red color tendency. Cookies with 50% of ERB had higher contents of protein (7.56 g 100 g(-1)), dietary fiber (5.17 g 100 g(-1)) and ash (3.31 g 100 g(-1)) and lower proportion of carbohydrate (60.78 g 100 g(-1)) than the control. Forty grams of that formulation supplies more than 10% of daily recommended intakes of magnesium, phosphorus and copper. The cookies were well accepted and did not show significant difference (P = 0,05) regarding the appearance, texture and flavor when compared to control. Cookies formulated with 50% of ERB present better nutritional quality than those elaborated without rice bran and have good sensory acceptance. PMID:19719018

  11. Effect of Triticum turgidum subsp. turanicum wheat on irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blinded randomised dietary intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, Francesco; Whittaker, Anne; Gori, Anna Maria; Cesari, Francesca; Surrenti, Elisabetta; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco; Benedettelli, Stefano; Casini, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a replacement diet with organic, semi-whole-grain products derived from Triticum turgidum subsp. turanicum (ancient) wheat on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and inflammatory/biochemical parameters. A double-blinded randomised cross-over trial was performed using twenty participants (thirteen females and seven males, aged 18-59 years) classified as having moderate IBS. Participants received products (bread, pasta, biscuits and crackers) made either from ancient or modern wheat for 6 weeks in a random order. Symptoms due to IBS were evaluated using two questionnaires, which were compiled both at baseline and on a weekly basis during the intervention period. Blood analyses were carried out at the beginning and end of each respective intervention period. During the intervention period with ancient wheat products, patients experienced a significant decrease in the severity of IBS symptoms, such as abdominal pain (Pwheat products. Similarly, patients reported significant amelioration in the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms only after the ancient wheat intervention period, as measured by the intensity of pain (P= 0·001), the frequency of pain (Pwheat products, but not after the control period. In conclusion, significant improvements in both IBS symptoms and the inflammatory profile were reported after the ingestion of ancient wheat products. PMID:24521561

  12. Efecto de la concentración de silicato de sodio y ácido fosfórico en la reducción de la temperatura de cocción de las baldosas cerámicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Monroy-Sepúlveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Determining the reduction in the firing temperatura ceramic tiles according to the concentration of sodium silicate and phosphoric acid present in the formulation of mixtures of clay paste. Methods: the research was conducted using a sample of clay Guayabo geological formation of the Metropolitan Area of Cucuta. For the preparation of the samples were added to the clay three concentrations of phosphoric acid at 0.5%, 1,0% and 1,5% by weight , together with three concentrations of hydrated sodium silicate 1,0%, 2,0% and 3,0 % by weight respetivamente. The mixtures were ground dry processing and manual kneading and shaping was performed using a laboratory extruder biscuit. The produced samples were dried in a drying oven at 110 °C and sintered in an oven five maximum temperatures (650 °C, 680 °C, 700 °C, 750 °C and 880 °C. Subsequently laboratory tests were performed to determine the water absorption and cooked contraction in flexural strength of the test pieces. Results: the results allowed to state that the addition of these two additives accelerated the vitrification of the clay used, reducing the cycles and sintering temperature of the ceramic molded parts, making infer that it is an alternative in reducing the consumption of thermal energy used in the cooking process of the manufacturers of ceramic tiles. Conclusion: which influence the reduction of the environmental impact caused by emissions of CO2 and particulate matter.

  13. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits. PMID:26345002

  14. Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K

    2016-07-26

    Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed. PMID:25748244

  15. Oats in the Diet of Children with Celiac Disease: Preliminary Results of a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Italian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gatti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A gluten-free diet (GFD is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD. Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet “A”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “B”, or B-A treatment (6 months of diet “B”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “A”. A and B diets included gluten-free (GF products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score and intestinal permeability tests (IPT, were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  16. Effects of processing on physical properties of extruded snacks with blends of sour cassava starch and flaxseed flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila De Barros Mesquita

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity to supplement common cassava biscuits with a product of higher nutritional value meets consumer expectations. In this work it was studied the effects of process parameters and flaxseed addition on physical properties of expanded snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single screw extruder in a factorial central composite rotatable design with four factors: flaxseed flour percentage (0-20%, moisture (12-20%, extrusion temperature (90-130 °C and screw speed (190-270. The effect of extrusion variables was investigated in terms of expansion index, specific volume, water absorption index, water solubility index, color parameters (L*, a* ,b* and hardness. The data analysis showed that variable parameters of the extrusion process and flaxseed flour affected physical properties of puffed snacks. Among the experimental conditions used in the present study, expanded snack products with good physical properties can be obtained under the conditions of 10% flaxseed flour, 230 rpm screw speed, temperature of 90 °C and moisture of 12%.

  17. Detection of melamine in milk powders using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging combined with regression coefficient of partial least square regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Giyoung; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Moon S; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Fu, Xiaping; Baek, Insuck; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-05-01

    Illegal use of nitrogen-rich melamine (C3H6N6) to boost perceived protein content of food products such as milk, infant formula, frozen yogurt, pet food, biscuits, and coffee drinks has caused serious food safety problems. Conventional methods to detect melamine in foods, such as Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), are sensitive but they are time-consuming, expensive, and labor-intensive. In this research, near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique combined with regression coefficient of partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was used to detect melamine particles in milk powders easily and quickly. NIR hyperspectral reflectance imaging data in the spectral range of 990-1700nm were acquired from melamine-milk powder mixture samples prepared at various concentrations ranging from 0.02% to 1%. PLSR models were developed to correlate the spectral data (independent variables) with melamine concentration (dependent variables) in melamine-milk powder mixture samples. PLSR models applying various pretreatment methods were used to reconstruct the two-dimensional PLS images. PLS images were converted to the binary images to detect the suspected melamine pixels in milk powder. As the melamine concentration was increased, the numbers of suspected melamine pixels of binary images were also increased. These results suggested that NIR hyperspectral imaging technique and the PLSR model can be regarded as an effective tool to detect melamine particles in milk powders. PMID:26946026

  18. Dynamics of Risk Determinants Regarding Diarrhea Affected Slum Children in Urban Dhaka: A Dysfunctional Health Care System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choyon Kumar Saha M.S.S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to focus on the socio-cultural risk determinants of health behavior which is closely associated with the severity of persistent diarrheal illness among fewer than five children. It is a dominant cause of childhood mortality and frequent faltering of infant growth of underprivileged slum children in Bangladesh. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 109 mother-child pairs of 0-59 month old children at Agargaon slum of Mirpurzone in metropolitan Dhaka from July to August 2008. An explanatory model of Health Care System (HCS was applied toexplorethe nature of health care practices during diarrheal episodes which incorporates conventional folktraditions (Fakir, Kabiraj, Hujur, popular (lay and non-professional such as family, community etc. and professionalized traditions (modern scientific medicine among slum women and justify the functionality of three components of HCS in relation to the risk factors associated with diarrheal treatment of respondents’ children. The findings of this study indicate that various socio-cultural factors such as unhygienic conditions (garbage, offensive smell, unclean utensils, ineffective hand washing, flies and mosquitoes etc., eating stale and stationary food (biscuits, cake and bread from vendors or roadsides, limited breast feeding practices, unsafe drinking water and gender discrimination in providing treatment are frequently noticed in slum areas which drive under five children to high risk of persistent diarrhea.

  19. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querner, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them. PMID:26463205

  20. Public outreach: les spectacles du Globe

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Shows at the Globe of Science and Innovation in connection with the exhibition «A des années-lumière» Wednesday 8 November 2006, 2.30 p.m. (in French): 'Cooking with the stars' Professor BEUZ and his assistant Mr POZZONI, a clown double-act, will introduce children to the cosmos, the formation of the universe and the creation of stars and the solar system. On the menu: eggs, biscuits, a 'comet' sausage, giant onions, noodles, 'primordial' soup, instant pudding, fruit and vegetables. A spicy and scholarly recipe that will satisfy little gourmets and budding astronomers alike. This event is a version of the comedy 'How to make the Universe' specially adapted for children. For young children (7 years and upwards) Free admittance, by reservation only: + 41(0)22 767 76 76 Thursday 9 and Friday 10 November 2006, 8.00 p.m. (in French): 'How to make the Universe' At the end of a meal, Professor BEUZ and his assistant Mr POZZONI tell us the story of how the universe was formed, from the Big Bang to the arriv...

  1. The use of tartary buckwheat whole flour for bakery products: recent experience in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays consumers are paying increasing attention to the health subtle bearings of the food they consume. The term nutraceutical has been adopted to point to those food preparations which areacknowledged to possess health beneficial properties. Most of these properties rely on the presence of bioactive compounds in the various food ingredients. Among bioactive food components an importantgroup is represented by the flavonoids, of which rutin is credited to exert a multiplicity of health beneficial effects. Tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum, whose whole flour contains high amounts of rutin (up to 2000 mg/100 g dry weight, offers the opportunity to obtain a new range of functional foods capable of providing the consumers effective amounts of such bioactive compound through the daily averageconsumption of traditional wheat based staples like bread and biscuits. A preliminary attempt was made to verify the possibility to secure, through the preventive nutrition approach, the multiplicity of health beneficial properties rutin is expected to exert, thanks to the introduction of a few percent of tartary buckwheat whole flour in the original recipe of some traditional backed foods typical of Tuscany, a Region of Central Italy.

  2. [Determination of aluminum in wheat flour food by microwave digestion-high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ting; Zhao, Li-jiao; Zhong, Ru-gang

    2011-12-01

    The contents of aluminum (Al) in four kinds of wheat flour food (noodle, dumpling wrapper, twisted cruller and soda biscuit) were determined by high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GFAAS) combined with microwave digestion. The samples were completely digested by the mixture of HNO3 and H2O2 in closed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vessels. The conditions for microwave digestion, pyrolysis temperature and atomization temperature were optimized. The optimum experimental conditions were determined as follows. The microwave digestion was performed with HNO3/H2O2 7:1 (volume ratio), microwave power 1000 W and 190 degrees C for 40 minutes. The optimum pyrolysis temperature was 1350 degrees C and the optimum atomization temperature was 2400 degrees C. Magnesium nitrate solution with the concentration of 1 g x L(-1) was used as the matrix modifier. The correlation coefficient for the standard curve was 0.9999, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was from 1.7% to 2.4%, and the recovery for the samples was from 98.16% to 102.67%. The assay method for the determination of Al in wheat flour food established in this study has referential importance for the constituent of the correlated food standards. PMID:22295801

  3. Effect of Phonotactic Constraints on Second Language Speech Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Tamami

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we examined whether phonotactic constraints of the first language affect speech processing by Japanese learners of English and whether their proficiency of the second language influences it. Native English speakers and second language speakers with a high level of language proficiency and those with a low level took part in a monitoring task. They were given two kinds of sound stimuli as target syllables (i.e., consonant-vowel and consonant-vowel-consonant) and were asked to detect them in lists of words that have stress on the first or second syllable (e.g., biscuit and beside). The results showed that both stress and phonotactics facilitated segmentation strategies by the three groups. The Japanese groups did not rely on either phonotactics or morae to segment the target syllables. They rather used stress to detect the target syllables in the English words, which is a different segmentation strategy from their first language. This study showed that phonotactic constraints did not interfere with second language processing by native Japanese speakers and provided evidence that second language speakers use the segmentation strategy that is used by native speakers of the target language. PMID:27551360

  4. A CASE OF TENSION PNEUMOPERITONEUM DUE TO COLONIC BAROTRAUMA WITH COMPRESSED AIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashidhara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 23 year old male working in a biscuit factory was brought to emergency department by the coworkers at 4PM with pain abdomen and distension and bleeding per rectum. On further questioning the patient confessed that his co-workers had held him firmly and directed the stream of air from a compressed-air pipeline towards his anal region in the morning. On examination, he was alerting conscious and oriented and tachypneic. The respiratory rate was 30/min, SPO2- 80%, Pulse was 120/min and B.P. 120/80 mm Hg. On palpation, Abdomen was grossly distended (Fig. 1, tense with generalized tenderness and rigidity of abdominal wall. The percussion note was tympanitic and liver dullness obliterated. No free fluid was detected. Bowel sounds were absent. Examination of the perineum did not show any external injury. Rectal examination showed faeces mixed with fresh blood but did not reveal any laceration or perforation in the anal canal or rectum. Straight X-ray abdomen in erect position showed extensive pneumoperitoneum

  5. Analysis and forecast of agricultural products exchanges between various regions with a view to evaluating food chain contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine and forecast the effects of the contamination of agricultural products on a population distributed into regions, resulting for instance from nuclear plant releases. The concentration of radionuclides in food depends on the initial contamination of the considered product, the technical transformations undergone by the produce and exchanges between regions. Soft wheat products were taken as an example on account of the quality and amount of available data. Contamination from 129I was especially considered. Knowing the concentration level in the initial produce, a model was developed that gives the level in the product at its various stages of transformation, exchanges between regions being taken into account. To forecast concentration levels up to five years, past exchanges should be 'projected' into the future; to that purpose various methods ('R.A.S.' gravitational, linear programming model) were used and critized. The determination of the radionuclide concentration in finished products (bread, rusk, biscuits, ...) then makes it possible to calculate collective and individual doses to the inhabitants of each region, taking account of dietary habits and demographic distribution. All the calculations were carried out by means of conversational programs allowing to assess doses delivered under several assumptions on the initial produce contamination

  6. LEADING TRENDS IN THE EUROPEAN FUNCTIONAL FOOD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kozonova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods market is changing rapidly. Now the market has the highest growth. In the European Union food producers try to fit virtually every product under the "functional" definition. In this article we will review major trends in the EU functional foods market and try to analyze them. It is well known that foods fortified with nutritional and disease-preventing qualities are invigorating the world food industry. Health-conscious consumers are driving the demand for products that aim to promote better health, increase longevity and prevent the onset of chronic diseases. With a fast-emerging middle class, more disposable income, and a greater number of working/more educated women in emerging markets, the worldwide potential for functional foods/beverages is unprecedented. Milk formula, energy drinks, probiotic yogurt, juice drinks, sports drinks, cereal, and biscuits were among the top-performing functional global health and wellness food categories in 2014. There is a breakout of the year's top trends driving the market for functional foods and beverages. A review of recent deal drivers, the fastest-growing products and innovation trends can help businesses identify the most promising entry points to this market.

  7. Determination of free and reversibly-bound sulfite in selected foods by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen Wai Cheung; Chan, Benny T P; Chan, Andy C M

    2008-01-01

    A rapid and accurate method for measuring low part-per-million levels of free and reversibly-bound sulfites in selected foods by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorometric detection was developed. Sulfites were extracted with sodium tetrachloromercurate solution and determined by HPLC-fluorescence spectrometry. During the HPLC analysis, the sample extract was reacted with sodium hydroxide to liberate the reversibly-bound sulfite and subsequently separated from other interferences by a size exclusion column. The effluent was then reacted with o-phthalaldehydelammonium chloride reagent to form a fluorescing 1-sulfonatoisoindole derivative and analyzed by a fluorescence detector. The method has been applied to a variety of foods and food products, with no significant interference encountered in matrixes such as soy products, cabbage, broccoli, brassica, ginger, fungus, mushroom, mandarin peel, potato chips, and biscuits. It was shown to have a broad linear range of 0.01 to 0.4 mg/L as SO2. The spike recoveries of sodium sulfite, sodium metabisulfite, and formaldehyde-sodium bisulfite adduct at the 5 to 10 mg/kg level in the tested food matrix were within 80-120%, and the limit of detection was 5 mg/kg. Laboratory of Government Chemist Reference Material LGC7111 (potato powder) was used to assess the accuracy of the method. The expanded measurement uncertainty of the method at 95% confidence level was estimated to be 17%. PMID:18376591

  8. Assessment of the effect of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) on the status of fat-soluble vitamins and select water-soluble nutrients following dietary administration to humans for 8 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael H; Bechtel, David H

    2014-12-01

    This double-blind, randomized, controlled study assessed the effect of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) on fat-soluble vitamins and select nutrients in human subjects. For 8 weeks, 139 healthy volunteers consumed a core diet providing adequate caloric and nutrient intakes. The diet included items (spread, muffins, cookies, and biscuits) providing EPG (10, 25, and 40 g/day) vs. margarine alone (control). EPG did not significantly affect circulating retinol, α-tocopherol, or 25-OH D2, but circulating β-carotene and phylloquinone were lower in the EPG groups, and PIVKA-II levels were higher; 25-OH D3 increased but to a lesser extent than the control. The effect might be related to EPG acting as a lipid "sink" during gastrointestinal transit. No effects were seen in secondary endpoint measures (physical exam, clinical pathology, serum folate, RBC folate, vitamin B12, zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, osteocalcin, RBP, intact PTH, PT, PTT, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides). Gastrointestinal adverse events (gas with discharge; diarrhea; oily spotting; oily evacuation; oily stool; liquid stool; soft stool) were reported more frequently by subjects receiving 25 or 40 g/day of EPG. In general, the incidence and duration of these symptoms correlated directly with EPG dietary concentration. The results suggest 10 g/day of EPG was reasonably well tolerated. PMID:25497998

  9. Effect of Addition of Ginkgo Biloba on Cookie Quality%银杏叶添加量对酥性饼干品质的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美霞; 何路萍

    2015-01-01

    The effection of addition of Ginkgo biloba on sensory quality , physical indexes , TPA indexes and chromatic aberration of cookies was studied in this article.The results showed that cookies had better sensory quality in low dosage. of Ginkgo biloba, but when the adding amount exceeded 8 g/100 g, the sensory quality of biscuit decreased. Meanwhile, addition of Ginkgo biloba had positive influence on elastic,brittle, and color of cookies but had negative influence on cohesion,ductility and specific volume.%银杏叶在低添加量时对酥性饼干的感官品质具有改善作用,但当添加量超过8 g/100 g后,酥性饼干的感官品质有所降低;同时,银杏叶的添加对酥性饼干的弹性、脆性和色泽有促进作用,而对黏聚性、延展性和比容等指标有降低作用。

  10. Relationships between the Food Expectancy Questionnaire (FEQ) and the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Marie; Bunting, Jane; Hammersley, Richard

    2005-10-01

    The outcome expectancies of 250 respondents were examined using the Food Expectancy Questionnaire (FEQ), comparing expectancies about four different foods: fruit, vegetables, chocolate and sweets and plain biscuits. These expectancies were related to diet as assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. As with alcohol expectancies [Jones, B. T., Corbin, W. & Fromme, K. (2001). A review of expectancy theory and alcohol consumption. Addiction, 96, 57-72], on which this research was modelled, positive and negative outcomes were the main factors for all foods, accounting jointly for between 33 and 40% of expectancy variance in factor analysis and predicting as much as 16% of the variance in relevant food intake measures by linear regression. Expected positive and negative outcomes of eating were predominantly immediate psychological after-effects, rather than including orosensory experiences, or longer-term effects on health or well-being. Other expectancies varied from food to food. FEQ expectancies for different foods have similar factor structure and were related to self-reported diet, the FEQ therefore shows promise as a means of modelling cognitions about eating. PMID:15949872

  11. La presse en tant que mécanisme de gouvernance partenariale : Danone et l’affaire LU The press as a stakeholder oriented corporate governance mechanism : Danone and the LU affair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Moris

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Les médias jouent un rôle important dans les crises, en particulier, celles touchant à la création et à la répartition de la valeur de l’entreprise. L’objectif de cet article est d’analyser le rôle de la presse en tant que mécanisme de gouvernance partenariale. Ce rôle est étudié au moyen d’une étude de cas basée sur le groupe Danone de 1996 à 2008. Cette étude de cas est centrée sur le conflit opposant le groupe Danone à certaines de ses parties prenantes, lors de la restructuration de sa branche biscuits en 2001. Nous montrons que la presse est un mécanisme de gouvernance d’entreprise partenariale.The media play a significant role in the context of economic crises, in particular those touching on the creation and capture of corporate value. The aim of this article is to analyze the role of the press as a potentially stakeholder oriented corporate governance mechanism. A case study of the Danone Group from 1996 to 2008 is used as the empirical support of this research. We focus more specifically on the conflict that opposed Danone and its stakeholders during its reorganization in 2001. We find that the press does actually function as a stakeholder oriented corporate governance mechanism.

  12. A colorimetric detection of acrylamide in potato chips based on nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinqin; Fu, Yingchun; Xu, Xiahong; Qiao, Zhaohui; Wang, Ronghui; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanbin

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide (AA), a neurotoxin and a potential carcinogen, has been found in various thermally processed foods such as potato chips, biscuits, and coffee. Simple, cost-effective, and sensitive methods for the rapid detection of AA are needed to ensure food safety. Herein, a novel colorimetric method was proposed for the visual detection of AA based on a nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition reaction. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were aggregated by glutathione (GSH) because of a ligand-replacement, accompanied by a color change from red to purple. In the presence of AA, after the thiol-ene Michael addition reaction between GSH and AA with the catalysis of a nucleophile, the sulfhydryl group of GSH was consumed by AA, which hindered the subsequent ligand-replacement and the aggregation of AuNPs. Therefore, the concentration of AA could be determined by the visible color change caused by dispersion/aggregation of AuNPs. This new method showed high sensitivity with a linear range from 0.1 μmol L(-1) to 80 μmol L(-1) and a detection limit of 28.6 nmol L(-1), and especially revealed better selectivity than the fluorescence sensing method reported previously. Moreover, this new method was used to detect AA in potato chips with a satisfactory result in comparison with the standard methods based on chromatography, which indicated that the colorimetric method can be expanded for the rapid detection of AA in thermally processed foods. PMID:26699696

  13. Detection of acrylamide in potato chips using a fluorescent sensing method based on acrylamide polymerization-induced distance increase between quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinqin; Xu, Xiahong; Li, Zhanming; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jianping; Fu, Yingchun; Li, Yanbin

    2014-04-15

    Acrylamide is a neurotoxin and potential carcinogen, but is found in various thermally processed foods such as potato chips, biscuits, and coffee. Simple and sensitive methods for on-line detection of acrylamide are needed to ensure food safety. In this paper, a novel fluorescent sensing method based on acrylamide polymerization-induced distance increase between quantum dots (QDs) was proposed for detecting acrylamide in potato chips. The functional QDs were prepared by their binding with N-acryloxysuccinimide (NAS), which was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FR-IR) spectra. The carbon-carbon double bonds of NAS modified QDs polymerized with assistance of photo initiator under UV irradiation, leading to QDs getting closer along with fluorescence intensity decreasing. Acrylamide in the sample participated in the polymerization and induced an increase of fluorescence intensity. This method possessed a linear range from 3.5×10(-5) to 3.5 g L(-1) (r(2)=0.94) and a limit of detection of 3.5×10(-5) g L(-1). Although the sensitivity and specificity cannot be compared with standard LC-MS/MS analysis, this new method requires much less time and cost, which is promising for on-line rapid detection of acrylamide in food processing. PMID:24252761

  14. Determination of acesulfam-K in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodolliet, J; Bruelhart, M

    1993-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method was evaluated for the determination of the intense sweetener acesulfam-K in tabletop sweetener, candy, soft drink, fruit juice, fruit nectar, yogurt, cream, custard, chocolate, and biscuit commercial preparations. Samples are extracted or simply diluted with water and filtered. Complex matrixes need a clarification step with Carrez solutions. An aliquot of the extract is analyzed on a reversed-phase mu Bondapak C18 column using 0.0125M KH2PO4 (pH 3.5)-acetonitrile (90 + 10) as mobile phase. Detection is performed by UV absorbance at 220 nm. Recoveries ranged from 95.2 to 106.8%. With one exception, all analyzed values were within +/- 15% of the declared levels. The repeatabilities and the repeatability coefficients of variation were, respectively, 0.37 mg/100 g and 0.98% for products containing less than 40 mg/100 g acesulfam-K and 2.43 mg/100 g and 1.29% for other products. The same procedure also allowed detection of many food additives or natural constituents, such as other intense sweeteners, organic acids, and alkaloids, in a single run without interfering with acesulfam-K. The method is simple, rapid, precise, and sensitive; therefore, it is suitable for routine analyses. PMID:8471852

  15. Determination of heavy metals in imported food for Libyan marketing by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, it becomes difficult to differentiate between essential and toxic elements, since all elements are toxic if their concentration is exceeded the permissible level recommended by the world health organization (WHO). In some instances the recommended and toxicity levels are close, therefore; it is necessary to differentiate between these essential and toxic levels even in very low concentrations. Several thousands of imported food samples (5877), including: canned soft drinks and juices, biscuits, baking powder, canned tomato past, canned hot spice, canned infant milk, canned concentrated milk, chocolates, canned tuna, and canned oil, were collected randomly from different markets around the country. The samples were analyzed for heavy metals: Cu, Zn, Fe, Sn, As, Pb, and Hg, by atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS), using flame atomization for Cu, Zn, and Fe, hydride generation (HG) for Sn and As, cold vapor for Hg and electrothermal atomization for Pb determination. The obtained AAS results were compared with the Libyan and international food specifications. Most of the samples analyzed were within the specification range and only a little have higher heavy metals level. (Authors)

  16. Radioprotective effects of miso (fermented soy bean paste) against radiation in B6C3F1 mice. Increased small intestinal crypt survival, crypt lengths and prolongation of average time to death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective effect of miso, a fermentation product from soy bean, was investigated with reference to the survival time, crypt survival and jejunum crypt length in male B6C3F1 mice. Miso at three different fermentation stages (early-, medium- and long-term fermented miso) was mixed in MF diet into biscuits at 10% and was administered from 1 week before irradiation. Animal survival in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly prolonged as compared with the short-term fermented miso and MF cases after 8 Gy of 60Co-γ-ray irradiation at a dose rate of 2 Gy min-1. Delay in mortality was evident in all three miso groups, with significantly increased survival. At doses of 10 and 12 Gy X-irradiation at a dose rate of 4 Gy min-1, the treatment with long-term fermented miso significantly increased crypt survival. Also the protective influence against irradiation in terms of crypt lengths in the long-term fermented miso group was significantly greater than in the short-term or medium-term fermented miso and MF diet groups. Thus, prolonged fermentation appears to be very important for protection against radiation effects. (author)

  17. Bias and error in the determination of common macronutrients in foods: interlaboratory trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, P C; Katan, M B

    1988-05-01

    Chemical analyses of nutrient values in foods form the basis of much of the science and practice of nutrition and dietetics, but little is known about the accuracy and precision of common macronutrient analyses. Therefore, an interlaboratory study was set up. One batch each of egg powder, full-fat milk powder, whole rye flour, whole wheat flour, biscuits, and French beans (snap beans, "haricots verts") was thoroughly homogenized. Samples were sent to 19 leading food analysis laboratories in Europe and the U.S., and each performed analyses of macronutrients by its own routine methods. Most were government or semi-government laboratories and major contributors to national nutrient data banks. The results for dry matter content and ash agreed well between laboratories. For protein, the coefficient of variation between laboratories (CV between) ranged from 2.8% to 6.4%. The reproducibility within laboratories was sometimes quite poor. The CV between for total fat ranged from 5.4% to 54%. For "available" carbohydrates, the CV between ranged from 9% to 27%. The CV between for total dietary fiber ranged from 23% to 84%. Only part of the variability could be explained by the use of methods of different principle. It is concluded that leading laboratories produce widely different values for macronutrients in common foods. Quality control programs and reference materials of certified nutrient concentration are urgently needed. PMID:2835409

  18. High-oleic peanuts increase diet-induced thermogenesis in overweight and obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Duarte Moreira Alves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidences suggest that nuts consumption can improve energy metabolism. Purpose: This study aimed to compare the effects of acute ingestion of high-oleic and conventional peanuts on appetite, food intake, and energy metabolism in overweight and obese men. Methods: Seventy one subjects (29.8 ± 2.4 kg/m² were assigned to the groups: control (CT, n = 24; conventional peanuts (CVP, n = 23; high-oleic peanuts (HOP, n = 24. Subjects consumed 56 g of peanuts (CVP and HOP or control biscuits (CT after overnight fasting. Thereafter, energy metabolism was evaluated over 200 minutes, during which diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT and substrate oxidation were analyzed. Appetite sensation was recorded for 3 hours. Statistical analyses were performed using the SAS software considering 5% as the significance level. Results: Postprandial energy expenditure and DIT were significantly higher in HOP than in CVP. Substrate oxidation did not differ between groups. Only HOP presented score below 100 indicating incomplete compensation. CT and CVP showed a complete caloric compensation (scores > 100. Regarding appetite sensation, CVP group felt less "full" than HOP and CT. After 3 hours, satiety score of CVP returned to baseline, whereas HOP and CT remained significantly higher. Hunger scores returned to baseline in CVP and CT and they were maintained significantly lowered in HOP. Conclusion: High-oleic peanuts contributed to higher DIT, higher sensation of fullness and incomplete compensation for energy intake compared to conventional peanuts and may be useful to dietary intervention to reduce body weight.

  19. Application potential for some sugar substitutes in some low energy and diabetic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, A A

    1997-06-01

    Preparation of acceptable low energy fiber enriched and diabetic jams, cakes and biscuits using different formulas of sucrose substitutes with the partial replacement of wheat flour with bran as a source of dietary fibre, was studied. Special care was paid to evaluate the nutritional plus keeping qualities and the potential effect of the most acceptable formulae from each food stuffs group on the blood glucose level in lean and obese diabetes mellitus patients. It was technologically possible to prepare acceptable, high nutritional diabetic and low energy apricot, guava and strawberry jams and jellies by combinations of sweeteners using xylitol (i.e. xylitol-sorbitol-aspartame and xylitol-fructose). The attainment of a suitable texture may be more difficult in xylitol and sorbitol jams, therefore 0.2 g CaCl2. 2H2O was added. Storage of these jams at 4 degrees C improved their keeping quality significantly (p aspartame in combination with fructose, sorbitol and xylitol. Consumption of such low energic and diabetic food items reduces significantly (p glucose level in lean and obese diabetics. Addition of wheat bran in bakery products not only reduced both energy value of these foods and blood glucose, but it also improved peripheral insulin activity by its system modification. PMID:9232852

  20. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural content in foodstuffs determined by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidó, Erika; Núñez, Oscar; Santos, F Javier; Galceran, M Teresa

    2011-06-15

    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) has been applied for the determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in several foodstuffs. A 75mM phosphate buffer solution at pH 8.0 containing 100mM sodium dodecylsulphate was used as background electrolyte (BGE), and the separation was performed by applying +25kV in a 50μm I.D. uncoated fused-silica capillary. Good linearity over the range 2.5-250mgkg(-1) (r(2)⩾0.999) and run-to-run and day-to-day precisions at low and medium concentration levels were obtained. Sample limit of detection (0.7mgkg(-1)) and limit of quantification (2.5mgkg(-1)) were established by preparing the standards in blank matrix. The procedure was validated by comparing the results with those obtained with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Levels of HMF in 45 different foodstuffs such as breakfast cereals, toasts, honey, orange juice, apple juice, jam, coffee, chocolate and biscuits were determined. PMID:25213975

  1. Development of Mobile-Accessible Nutritional System to Improve Healthy Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Battaglia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the authors was to develop a Web-based mobile system providing useful nutritional advice to consumers. This system encourages healthier food habits for sufferers of hypertension or diabetes. In the modern day society, the issues of globalisation, consumers’ choice and other recently introduced phenomena such as the Internet and the mobile phone are becoming more prominent. Making a decision to buy a product, in the present, can be rather a challenge for many consumers. This can mean that consumers eat foods such as breads, breakfast cereals and biscuit products that they know little about. In this paper, the authors developed software aimed at helping hypertensive and diabetic patients to improve their overall wellbeing. The health of the sufferers of these ailments can usually be improved by healthy diets. After the development of the system, a usability experiment involving interviews with the participants was conducted. Based on the analysis of the feedback a number of relevant findings arose, such as some participants suggested that the system was useful for monitoring their diets. However, few participants were prepared to change their shopping behaviours due to some issues like lack of consumer products in the nutritional database, which need to be addressed in the future work on the system.

  2. /sup 99m/Tc-labeled solid-phase meal: a quantitative clinical measurement of human gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solid-phase meal labeled with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid provides an improved clinical test for the quantitative evaluation of human gastric emptying. We studied 12 healthy male controls and five male patients with known gastric stasis secondary to a vagotomy and drainage procedure. All subjects were fasted for 8 hours before the study, and each consumed an unbuttered biscuit and a poached egg white containing 1 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid. For 2 hours, 60-second counts were measured every 10 minutes by a Pho Gamma III scintillation camera. The t1/2 for control subjects was 60 minutes, at which time patients with gastric stasis had retained 98% of the test meal. At 120 minutes, control subjects and patients with gastric stasis had 4.7% and 89%, respectively, of the meal remaining in the stomach. The solid-phase test meal labeled with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid is easy to perform and can be used clinically to quantitatively measure gastric emptying in humans. This test can discriminate between control subjects and patients with known gastric stasis

  3. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querner, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them. PMID:26463205

  4. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Querner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species, the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum, the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne, different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp., moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella, Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina and booklice (Psocoptera can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them.

  5. Changes in physical properties of extruded sour cassava starch and quinoa flour blend snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Giolo Taverna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the broad acceptance of sour cassava starch biscuits in Brazil and the nutritional quality of quinoa flour, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, moisture, and amount of quinoa flour on the physical properties of puffed snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Effects of moisture and amount of quinoa flour on the expansion index and specific volume of snacks were observed. There was a pronounced increase in water solubility index of blends with the extrusion process with significant effects of all process parameters on the WSI. Higher water absorption index (WAI was observed under high temperature, low moisture, and lower quinoa flour amount. Temperature and amount of quinoa flour influenced the color of the snacks. A positive quadratic effect of quinoa flour on hardness of products was observed. Blends of sour cassava starch and quinoa flour have good potential for use as raw material in production of extruded snacks with good physical properties.

  6. thermo-stable alpha-amylase(S) from irradiated microbial origin utilizing agricultural and environmental wastes under solid state fermentation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    an investigation concerning the production of thermo-stable α-amylases by thermophilic bacterial and fungal isolates has been undertaken. nine thermophilic bacteria and five teen fungi were isolated from different localities viz. phyllosphere of water hyacinth, different desert plants leaves, fermented dough, oven dust, garbage , and soil. their amylolytic activities were tested by dinitrosalicylic acid color reagent (Dns) method when grown on some environmental pollutants (garbage and water hyacinth) as well as industrial wastes (Bagasse, biscuit, corn flex and dough residues ) as the sole carbon source at 65o C for bacterial and at 50o C for fungal isolates . isolates No. B1,B2,B5,B6,B7,B8,B9, and F4,F6,F8,F12,F13 and F15, exhibited the highest α -amylase production when grown on water hyacinth, while B4,F3,F11 and F13, on dough ; (B3,F9 and F10 ) on bagasse and ( F1,F2,F5,F7,F11 and F14) on garbage. Out of the nine identified bacterial isolated, only two isolates viz; actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, B1 and strepto bacillus moniliformis, B7, exhibited the ability to produce high percentages of α amylases at 55o C (while still able to produce the enzyme within 45-70o C)

  7. Oats in the diet of children with celiac disease: preliminary results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Simona; Caporelli, Nicole; Galeazzi, Tiziana; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Barbato, Maria; Roggero, Paola; Malamisura, Basilio; Iacono, Giuseppe; Budelli, Andrea; Gesuita, Rosaria; Catassi, Carlo; Lionetti, Elena

    2013-11-01

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD). Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet "A", 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet "B"), or B-A treatment (6 months of diet "B", 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet "A"). A and B diets included gluten-free (GF) products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts) with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score) and intestinal permeability tests (IPT), were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:24264227

  8. Characterization and drying of caja bagasse (Spondias mombin L. in a tray dryer using a factorial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Souto da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The caja (Spondias mombin L. is used in the manufacture of ice-cream, jams, pulps, beverages being also consumed in natura. One of the most important procedures in food conservation is drying, considering that most fresh fruits contain approximately 80% of water. Food drying is used to obtain two basic aspects: (1 the economic factor; in the shipping and handling of the product; (2 at the manipulation; once dried and grinded, the material is rehydrated, at desirable levels, to formulate a new product as in ice cream, jams, yoghurts and drinks and may also be added to pasta, biscuits and other industrialized products. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of caja bagasse drying in a fixed-bed tray dryer, using central composite factorial planning. The following factors were evaluated: temperature (55, 65 and 75 ºC, dryer inlet air velocity (3.2, 4.6 and 6.0 m.s-1 and cake thickness (0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 cm where the response of the considered variable was caja bagasse moisture content (b.s. and the results showed that the main effects and their interactions were significant at a 95% confidence level being the best condition obtained at temperature of 75 ºC, velocity of 6.0 m.s-1 and cake thickness of 0.8 cm.

  9. Intakes of total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in Irish children, teenagers and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Triona; Wallace, Alison J; McCarthy, Sinead N; Gibney, Michael J

    2009-02-01

    Recommendations limiting the intake of total fat, SFA, MUFA and PUFA have been established in several countries with the aim of reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as CVD. Studies have shown that intakes of total fat and SFA are above desired recommended intake levels across a wide range of age and sex groups. In addition, intakes of PUFA and MUFA are often reported to be less than the desired recommended intake levels. The aims of the present paper are to provide the first data on estimates of current intakes and main food sources of SFA, MUFA and PUFA in Irish children (aged 5-12 years), teenagers (aged 13-17 years) and adults (aged 18-64 years) and to analyse compliance with current dietary recommendations. Data for this analysis were based on the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (n 1379, 18-64 years), the National Children's Food Survey (n 594, 5-12 years) and the National Teen Food Survey (n 441, 13-17 years). Results showed that SFA intakes in Irish children, teenagers and adults are high, with only 6 % of children, 11 % of teenagers and 21 % of adults in compliance with the recommended daily intake. The main food groups that contributed to SFA intakes were whole milk; fresh meat; meat products; biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries; and sugars, confectionery and preserves. PMID:19026091

  10. Dietary intake and food sources of added sugar in the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Linggang; Rangan, Anna; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-03-14

    Previous studies in Australian children/adolescents and adults examining added sugar (AS) intake were based on now out-of-date national surveys. We aimed to examine the AS and free sugar (FS) intakes and the main food sources of AS among Australians, using plausible dietary data collected by a multiple-pass, 24-h recall, from the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey respondents (n 8202). AS and FS intakes were estimated using a previously published method, and as defined by the WHO, respectively. Food groups contributing to the AS intake were described and compared by age group and sex by one-way ANOVA. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups. Usual intake of FS (as percentage energy (%EFS)) was computed using a published method and compared with the WHO cut-off of cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (15·7 (sd 24·4)%). More than half of the study population exceeded the WHO's cut-off for FS, especially children and adolescents. Overall, 80-90% of the daily AS intake came from high-sugar energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. To conclude, the majority of Australian adults and children exceed the WHO recommendation for FS intake. Efforts to reduce AS intake should focus on energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. PMID:26794833

  11. 气相色谱法测定氢化油脂加工食品中反式脂肪酸含量%Determination of the trans-fatty acids in hydrogenated fat processed foods by gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宏; 徐慧; 贾涛; 郭芳芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立气相色谱法测定氢化油脂加工食品中反式脂肪酸含量的分析方法。方法采用 HP-88毛细管石英柱(30 m×0.25 mm×0.20μm)分离定性和定量43种饱和脂肪酸、不饱和脂肪酸,并应用于市售饼干、糕点、冰淇淋、奶茶、巧克力、咖啡等加工食品中的反式脂肪酸含量测定。结果顺、反式脂肪酸在30 m长的毛细管石英柱分离情况良好,各反式脂肪酸在3~100µg/mL浓度范围内TFA线性良好(R≥0.9990),重现性好(RSD<6%),回收率85.3%~91.8%,检测限为0.01 g/100 g;其分离速度较100 m长的毛细管石英柱提高了1倍;奶油蛋糕、炼奶起士、饼干类含有的反式脂肪酸含量较高,且以反式棕榈油酸(t-C16:1)、反式油酸(t-C18:1)为主。结论该方法快速、准确、分离良好,可作为检测氢化油脂加工食品中反式脂肪酸含量的推广方法。%Objective To develop a method for the determination of trans-fatty acids in processed food by hydrogenated oil using gas chromatography(GC). Methods 43 kinds of fatty acids were separated qualitatively and quantitatively by HP-88 qualified column(30 m×0.25 mm×0.20μm), and the method was used to detect trans-fatty acid concentration of biscuits, cakes, ice cream, milk tea, coffee and other processed foods. Results The trans-and cis-fatty acids were separated. It had a good linearity at concentrations of 3~100 µg/mL, the RSD was within 6.0%, the recovery was 85.3%~91.8%, and the limit of detection was 0.01 g/100 g. The separation rate was doubled than that of 100 m long quartz capillary column. The results showed thatt-C16:1 and t-C18:1 trans-fatty acids were detected mainly in cream cakes, biscuits, and refined milk cheese classes. Conclusion The method is rapid, simple, and sensitive, and has been successfully applied in determination of trans-fatty acids in processed food by hydrogenated oil.

  12. Probiotics and novel digestion models for functional food ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. A number of factors compromise the health of modern people: stressful lifestyle, unbalanced nourishment, excessive consumption of refined foods with a big measure, admission of different chemical agents into the human body. These factors harm directly or indirectly the intestinal activity, that forms a considerable part of the immune system, including the production of essential substances that have beneficial effects on the human body. The role of the so-called prebiotics (e.g. inulin, various oligosaccharides, raffinose, resistant starch etc.) is to prevent and reduce the damage of useful microbes, which are termed as probiotics. These substances selectively facilitate the propagation of probiotic bacteria (e.g. Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus acidophilus), therefore increase the rate of the synthesis of vitamin B and of beneficial short chain fatty acids, improve the absorption of minerals, decrease the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, glucose, ammonia and uric acid and improve the functioning of the immune system. The majority of the examination results about prebiotics are based on clinical dietary and animal experiments. In contrast to this we simulated the process of digestion and the effect of prebiotics on probiotic and non-probiotic bacteria selected by us in an artificial digestion model, the Atlas Potassium reactor system. The instrument enabled the control of pH, temperature, dosage of digestion enzymes and juices (saliva, gastric juice, bile and duodenal juice) and anaerobity in the course of the experiment. In our experiments we investigated different bakery products and biscuits containing various prebiotic ingredients, e.g. inulin and other fructo oligosaccharides. In the digestion model the different bakery products and biscuits got through the simulated oral cavity (pH=6.8), stomach (pH=2-3) and intestine (pH=6.5-7) and might be modified in the

  13. Survey and analysis on microbiaI contamination of 231 instant foods%231份即食食品中微生物污染状况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫东; 刘晓娟; 郑秀清; 赵丽萍; 李伟昊

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解邯郸市即食食品中微生物污染状况,提高我市食源性疾病检测、预警和控制能力,为食物中毒监测提供科学依据,以保障我市居民饮食安全.方法 依据GB4789 - 2010和《2011年河北省食源性疾病监测技术指南》对我市的熟肉制品、即食非发酵豆制品、中式凉拌菜、鲜榨果汁、夹心饼干和盒饭6类即食食品进行微生物学检测.检测项目:卫生学指标(菌落总数、大肠菌群)和6种致病菌(沙门氏菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、O157:H7/NM、单核细胞增生李斯特氏菌、志贺氏菌、腊样芽孢杆菌).结果 231份样品中合格72份,合格率为31.17%,其中夹心饼干类合格率最高为93.33%;其他类别的样品的合格率均较低,即食非发酵豆制品的合格率低至13.33%.结论 我市即食食品卫生状况极差,部分食品还检出食源性致病菌,存在细菌性食物中毒的隐患,有关部门应加大监管力度,以保障居民的食品安全.%Objective To understand the microbial contamination of instant food in Handan City, improve the detection, warning and control abilities of foodborne diseases in our city, and provide scientific basis for food poisoning mornitoring so as to safeguard food safety of residents. Method Conduct microbial detection for the 6 kinds of instant food, namely, cooked meat products, instant non - fermented bean products, Chinese cold dishes, freshly squeezed juice, sandwich biscuits, and box lunch, in accordance with GB4789 -2010 and Monitoring Technical Guideline on Foodborne Diseases in Hebei Province in 2011. The detection items included hygienics indexes (total number of bacterial colony and coliform colony) and 6 kinds of pathogens ( salmonella, staphyloccus aureus, 0157; H7/NM, listeria monocytogens, shigella and bacilus cereus) . Results Among the 231 samples, 72 were qualified, and the qualified rate was 31. 17%. The sandwich biscuits had the highest qualified rate (93. 33% ); and

  14. Application of fats in some food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vallerio Rios

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major

  15. I Hear You Eat and Speak: Automatic Recognition of Eating Condition and Food Type, Use-Cases, and Impact on ASR Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantke, Simone; Weninger, Felix; Kurle, Richard; Ringeval, Fabien; Batliner, Anton; Mousa, Amr El-Desoky; Schuller, Björn

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new recognition task in the area of computational paralinguistics: automatic recognition of eating conditions in speech, i. e., whether people are eating while speaking, and what they are eating. To this end, we introduce the audio-visual iHEARu-EAT database featuring 1.6 k utterances of 30 subjects (mean age: 26.1 years, standard deviation: 2.66 years, gender balanced, German speakers), six types of food (Apple, Nectarine, Banana, Haribo Smurfs, Biscuit, and Crisps), and read as well as spontaneous speech, which is made publicly available for research purposes. We start with demonstrating that for automatic speech recognition (ASR), it pays off to know whether speakers are eating or not. We also propose automatic classification both by brute-forcing of low-level acoustic features as well as higher-level features related to intelligibility, obtained from an Automatic Speech Recogniser. Prediction of the eating condition was performed with a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier employed in a leave-one-speaker-out evaluation framework. Results show that the binary prediction of eating condition (i. e., eating or not eating) can be easily solved independently of the speaking condition; the obtained average recalls are all above 90%. Low-level acoustic features provide the best performance on spontaneous speech, which reaches up to 62.3% average recall for multi-way classification of the eating condition, i. e., discriminating the six types of food, as well as not eating. The early fusion of features related to intelligibility with the brute-forced acoustic feature set improves the performance on read speech, reaching a 66.4% average recall for the multi-way classification task. Analysing features and classifier errors leads to a suitable ordinal scale for eating conditions, on which automatic regression can be performed with up to 56.2% determination coefficient. PMID:27176486

  16. Implantação do HACCP na indústria de alimentos Implementation of the HACCP in the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veruschka Franca de Figueiredo

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O conceito da Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle (APPCC é uma abordagem sistemática para garantir a segurança do alimento. O método é baseado em vários princípios diferentes de detecção direta ou indireta de contaminação. O objetivo é controlar a segurança do alimento analisando os perigos em potencial, planejando o sistema para evitar problemas, envolvendo os operadores em tomada de decisão e registro das ocorrências. O conceito da HACCP (APPCC deveria ser aplicado em conjunto com as Boas Práticas de Fabricação. Este artigo discute a importância da HACCP (APPCC na Indústria de Biscoito e que tipo de contaminação é o ponto fraco neste produto. A experiência indicou que existem diversos problemas iniciais na implementação da HACCP, contudo benefícios tangíveis podem ser alcançados a partir da redução das reclamações do consumidor.The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP concept is a systematic approach to ensuring food safety. The method is based on several different principles of direct or indirect detection of contamination. The objective is to control food safety by analyzing the potential hazards, designing the system to prevent problems, involving the operators in decision making and documenting events. HACCP concepts should be applied together with Good Manufacturing Practices. This paper discusses the importance of HACCP in Biscuit Industry and what kind of contamination is a weak point in this product. The results indicated that there are several initial problems in implementing HACCP, however tangible benefits can be achieved through reduced customer complaints.

  17. Is there an association between food portion size and BMI among British adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Cade, Janet E

    2014-09-14

    The prevalence of obesity has increased simultaneously with the increase in the consumption of large food portion sizes (FPS). Studies investigating this association among adolescents are limited; fewer have addressed energy-dense foods as a potential risk factor. In the present study, the association between the portion size of the most energy-dense foods and BMI was investigated. A representative sample of 636 British adolescents (11-18 years) was used from the 2008-2011 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey. FPS were estimated for the most energy-dense foods (those containing above 10·5 kJ/g (2·5 kcal/g)). Regression models with BMI as the outcome variable were adjusted for age, sex and misreporting energy intake (EI). A positive association was observed between total EI and BMI. For each 418 kJ (100 kcal) increase in EI, BMI increased by 0·19 kg/m2 (95 % CI 0·10, 0·28; Pbreakfast cereals, cream and high-energy soft drinks (carbonated)) were found to be positively associated with a higher BMI among all adolescents after adjusting for misreporting. When eliminating the effect of under-reporting, larger portion sizes of a number of high-energy-dense foods (biscuits, cheese, cream and cakes) were found to be positively associated with BMI among normal reporters. The portion sizes of only high-fibre breakfast cereals and high-energy soft drinks (carbonated) were found to be positively associated with BMI among under-reporters. These findings emphasise the importance of considering under-reporting when analysing adolescents' dietary intake data. Also, there is a need to address adolescents' awareness of portion sizes of energy-dense foods to improve their food choice and future health outcomes. PMID:24998364

  18. Ajustamentos nas agroindústrias de biscoitos e massas alimentícias no Brasil, 1995 a 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Ferreira Júnior

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os ajustamentos ocorridos nos segmentos de biscoitos e massas alimentícias no Brasil, no período de 1995 a 2001, utilizando-se o modelo Estrutura-Conduta-Desempenho, da teoria da Organização Industrial. Os resultados mostram que o novo ambiente competitivo, deflagrado pela desregulamentação setorial e pela abertura comercial, permitiu a intensificação da concorrência e restringiu o poder de mercado das maiores empresas. Os dois segmentos foram obrigados a seguir o processo de adequação às exigências do consumidor, como a melhoria da qualidade, o aumento da variedade e a redução nos preços dos produtos. Todo esse processo foi liderado pelas maiores empresas, que realizaram investimentos em tecnologia e em capacidade produtiva e aumentaram, gradualmente, suas participações no mercado. O resultado desses ajustamentos traduziu-se, portanto, em melhor desempenho econômico e em maior benefício para a sociedade.The present work aimed to evaluate the adjustments occurred in the food sector of biscuit and pastry in Brazil, from 1995 to 2001, using the Structure-Conduct-Performance model of the Industrial Organization theory. The results demonstrated that the new competitive environment, started by the non-regulation in the sector and by the commercial openness, allowed tougher competition and restrained the market power of the major industries. Both segments had to adjust themselves to the demands of the consumer in the market by improving the quality of their products, furnishing a wider variety and reducing their costs. The whole process was led by the major industries, which invested in technology and productive capacity and, continually, increased their participation in the market. Therefore, as a result of these adjustments, there has been an improvement in the economic performance and a greater benefit for society.

  19. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load among Australian children and adolescents: results from the 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Molly; Barclay, Alan W; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of Australian children and adolescents, as well as the major food groups contributing to GL, in the recent 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey. Plausible food intake data from 1876 children and adolescents (51 % boys), collected using a multiple-pass 24-h recall, were analysed. The GI of foods was assigned based on a step-wise published method using values from common GI databases. Descriptive statistics were calculated for dietary GI, GL and contribution to GL by food groups, stratified by age group and sex. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups for BMI, dietary GI and GL, and intakes of energy, nutrients and food groups. Pearson's χ 2 test was used to test for differences between age groups for categorical subject characteristic variables. Mean dietary GI and GL of participants were 55·5 (sd 5·3) and 137·4 (sd 50·8), respectively. The main contributors to dietary GL were starchy foods: breads, cereal-based dishes, breakfast cereals, flours, grains and potatoes accounted for 41 % of total GL. Sweetened beverages, fruit and vegetable juices/drinks, cake-type desserts and sweet biscuits contributed 15 %. No significant difference (at P<0·001) was observed between sexes. In conclusion, Australian children and adolescents appear to consume diets with a lower GI than European children. Exchanging high-GI foods for low-GI alternatives within core and non-core foods may improve diet quality of Australian children and adolescents. PMID:27171604

  20. Development of complementary feeding recommendations for 12-23-month-old children from low and middle socio-economic status in West Java, Indonesia: contribution of fortified foods towards meeting the nutrient requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmida, Umi; Santika, Otte

    2016-07-01

    Inadequate nutrient intake as part of a complementary feeding diet is attributable to poor feeding practices and poor access to nutritious foods. Household socio-economic situation (SES) has an influence on food expenditure and access to locally available, nutrient-dense foods and fortified foods. This study aimed to develop and compare complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) for 12-23-month-old children in different SES and evaluate the contribution of fortified foods in meeting nutrient requirements. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in low and medium SES households (n 114/group) in urban Bandung district, West Java province, Indonesia. Food pattern, portion size and affordability were assessed, and CFR were developed for the low SES (LSES) and middle SES (MSES) using a linear programming (LP) approach; two models - with and without fortified foods - were run using LP, and the contribution of fortified foods in the final CFR was identified. Milk products, fortified biscuits and manufactured infant cereals were the most locally available and consumed fortified foods in the market. With the inclusion of fortified foods, problem nutrients were thiamin in LSES and folate and thiamin in MSES groups. Without fortified foods, more problem nutrients were identified in LSES, that is, Ca, Fe, Zn, niacin and thiamin. As MSES consumed more fortified foods, removing fortified foods was not possible, because most of the micronutrient-dense foods were removed from their food basket. There were comparable nutrient adequacy and problem nutrients between LSES and MSES when fortified foods were included. Exclusion of fortified foods in LSES was associated with more problem nutrients in the complementary feeding diet. PMID:27341618

  1. Behavior study weevil ultradian sitophilus oryzae (coleoptera: curculionidae) treated with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to determine the sublethal dose of beetle Sitophilus oryzae primary pest grain products through the application of ionizing radiation as disinfestation. process. This beetle is a small insect, reddish brown, 3 mm in length that is characterized by the prolongation of his face. It causes severe damages in the material infesting either larval or adult state. They get their power supply of various materials, which include: grains of wheat, corn, rice, noodles and biscuits, among others. The insect under study, is bred in a natural substrate that infests (noodles) preventing the arrival of direct light and environmental conditions while maintaining the temperature ranging between 19 and 23oO C with 41% relative humidity average. The adults are irradiated in darkness in the irradiation plant located at the Ezeiza Atomic Center (PISI), whose source is approximately 750 kCi 60Co activity. Mature specimens are irradiated at 2 kGy, with a dose rate of between 260.00 and 286.33 Gy / min and at temperatures ranging between 15.4 and 18.1oC until the moment. The material is observed 3 times daily stages comprising ultradian (morning, afternoon and evening) observed number of live / dead etolology, taxismo, physiology and restoration post irradiation, these data are compared with untreated. material. Were irradiated until 255 individuals, verifying the LD50 for the second day post irradiation. It is found that immediately after the application of the method, adults lose the ability to move, being initially temporarily until it becomes final. Insects move only certain parts of the body (legs and antennae, mainly). In some specimens are observed in the mouth secretions transparent and light yellow in the anal region (under study), response evidenced in adult insects control of this species (author)

  2. Exploring why junk foods are 'essential' foods and how culturally tailored recommendations improved feeding in Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavle, Justine A; Mehanna, Sohair; Saleh, Gulsen; Fouad, Mervat A; Ramzy, Magda; Hamed, Doaa; Hassan, Mohamed; Khan, Ghada; Galloway, Rae

    2015-07-01

    In Egypt, the double burden of malnutrition and rising overweight and obesity in adults mirrors the transition to westernized diets and a growing reliance on energy-dense, low-nutrient foods. This study utilized the trials of improved practices (TIPs) methodology to gain an understanding of the cultural beliefs and perceptions related to feeding practices of infants and young children 0-23 months of age and used this information to work in tandem with 150 mothers to implement feasible solutions to feeding problems in Lower and Upper Egypt. The study triangulated in-depth interviews (IDIs) with mothers participating in TIPs, with IDIs with 40 health providers, 40 fathers and 40 grandmothers to gain an understanding of the influence and importance of the role of other caretakers and health providers in supporting these feeding practices. Study findings reveal high consumption of junk foods among toddlers, increasing in age and peaking at 12-23 months of age. Sponge cakes and sugary biscuits are not perceived as harmful and considered 'ideal' common complementary foods. Junk foods and beverages often compensate for trivial amounts of food given. Mothers are cautious about introducing nutritious foods to young children because of fears of illness and inability to digest food. Although challenges in feeding nutritious foods exist, mothers were able to substitute junk foods with locally available and affordable foods. Future programming should build upon cultural considerations learned in TIPs to address sustainable, meaningful changes in infant and young child feeding to reduce junk foods and increase dietary quality, quantity and frequency. PMID:25536155

  3. I Hear You Eat and Speak: Automatic Recognition of Eating Condition and Food Type, Use-Cases, and Impact on ASR Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantke, Simone; Weninger, Felix; Kurle, Richard; Ringeval, Fabien; Batliner, Anton; Mousa, Amr El-Desoky; Schuller, Björn

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new recognition task in the area of computational paralinguistics: automatic recognition of eating conditions in speech, i. e., whether people are eating while speaking, and what they are eating. To this end, we introduce the audio-visual iHEARu-EAT database featuring 1.6 k utterances of 30 subjects (mean age: 26.1 years, standard deviation: 2.66 years, gender balanced, German speakers), six types of food (Apple, Nectarine, Banana, Haribo Smurfs, Biscuit, and Crisps), and read as well as spontaneous speech, which is made publicly available for research purposes. We start with demonstrating that for automatic speech recognition (ASR), it pays off to know whether speakers are eating or not. We also propose automatic classification both by brute-forcing of low-level acoustic features as well as higher-level features related to intelligibility, obtained from an Automatic Speech Recogniser. Prediction of the eating condition was performed with a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier employed in a leave-one-speaker-out evaluation framework. Results show that the binary prediction of eating condition (i. e., eating or not eating) can be easily solved independently of the speaking condition; the obtained average recalls are all above 90%. Low-level acoustic features provide the best performance on spontaneous speech, which reaches up to 62.3% average recall for multi-way classification of the eating condition, i. e., discriminating the six types of food, as well as not eating. The early fusion of features related to intelligibility with the brute-forced acoustic feature set improves the performance on read speech, reaching a 66.4% average recall for the multi-way classification task. Analysing features and classifier errors leads to a suitable ordinal scale for eating conditions, on which automatic regression can be performed with up to 56.2% determination coefficient. PMID:27176486

  4. Easy to open? Exploring the 'openability' of hospital food and beverage packaging by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alison F; Walton, Karen L; Tapsell, Linda C

    2016-03-01

    Food is increasingly a packaged commodity, both in the community and in institutionalised settings such as hospitals, where many older people are malnourished. Previous research with patients aged over 65 years in NSW public hospitals identified difficulties opening milk, water, juices, cereal and tetra packs. The aim of this paper was to assess the ability of well older people living in the community to open food and beverage items routinely used in NSW hospitals in order to gain further insights into the older person/pack interaction and the role of hand and finger strength in pack opening. A sample of 40 older people in good health aged over 65 years from 3 community settings participated in the study. The attempts at pack opening were observed, the time taken to open the pack was measured and the correlation between grip and pinch strengths with opening times was determined. Tetra packs, water bottles, cereal, fruit cups, desserts, biscuits and cheese portions appeared to be the most difficult food products to open. Ten percent of the sample could not open the water bottles and 39% could not open cheese portions. The results were consistent with the previous research involving hospitalised older adults, adding emphasis to the conclusion that food and beverage packaging can be a potential barrier to adequate nutrition when particular types of packaged products are used in hospitals or the community. The ageing population is rapidly becoming a larger and more important group to consider in the provision of goods and services. Designers, manufacturers and providers of food and beverage products need to consider the needs and abilities of these older consumers to ensure good 'openability' and promote adequate nutritional intakes. PMID:26686584

  5. Individual and family environment correlates differ for consumption of core and non-core foods in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Wardle, Jane

    2011-03-01

    Children's diets contain too few fruits and vegetables and too many foods high in saturated fat. Food intake is affected by multiple individual and family factors, which may differ for core foods (that are important to a healthy diet) and non-core foods (that are eaten more for pleasure than health). Data came from a sample of twins aged 11 years (n 342) and their parents from the Twins Early Development Study. Foods were categorised into two types: core (e.g. cereals, vegetables and dairy) and non-core (e.g. fats, crisps and biscuits). Parents' and children's intake was assessed by an FFQ. Mothers' and children's preference ratings and home availability were assessed for each food type. Parental feeding practices were assessed with the child feeding questionnaire and child television (TV) watching was maternally reported. Physical activity was measured using accelerometers. Correlates of the child's consumption of each food type were examined using a complex samples general linear model adjusted for potential confounders. Children's non-core food intake was associated with more TV watching, higher availability and greater maternal intake of non-core foods. Children's core food intake was associated with higher preferences for core foods and greater maternal intake of core foods. These results suggest that maternal intake influences both food types, while preferences affect intake of core foods but not of non-core foods, and availability and TV exposure were only important for non-core food intake. Cross-sectional studies cannot determine causality, but the present results suggest that different approaches may be needed to change the balance of core and non-core foods in children's diets. PMID:21110911

  6. Microbiological and Chemical Quality of Water in Food Industries with Low Content of Water at End Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Nazmara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground and Objectives: In the production of some high-consumed food products like cake, biscuit, chocolate and spaghetti water is used in the preparing of primary material and in the kneading processes. At the present study microbiological and chemical quality of consumed water in food industries of East Azerbaijan Province were studied."nMaterials and Methods: Eleven factories with different products were selected. Water samples were collected and analyzed regarding the microbiological contamination and chemical parameters, and heavy metals. In addition, condition of water quality in selected industry was surveyed during the summer."nResults: According to the results, monitoring of water quality in the studied industries is not suitable. The chemical characteristics of consumed water in those industries had major differences. Ni, Cr, Zn, Fe and Mn were present in all analyzed water but in lower concentration than national Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL. Pb was measured in higher concentration than MCL in spaghetti factory no. 2 and close to MCL in wiener and frankfurter and sugar industries. Cd was close to MCL in spaghetti factory no. 2 and wiener and frankfurter industries."nConclusion: It was concluded that for the safety and health of food products the food industries should use the public water supply system as water source at least in food processing units or in the units of preparing of primary materials. Also for the preventing of chemical pollution of food products it is necessary, pay more attention to the subject of water quality control according to the special water standard of food industries, and using less volume of water in some food industry isn.t acceptable reason for neglecting of water quality monitoring and assessing. In addition it is required to analyze heavy metals in the final products of those industries.

  7. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-04-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity. PMID:23610606

  8. Determination of melamine in milk-based products and other food and beverage products by ion-pair liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, Maria; Sancho, Juan V. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, E-12071, Castellon (Spain); Hernandez, Felix, E-mail: felix.hernandez@qfa.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, E-12071, Castellon (Spain)

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes a fast method for the sensitive and selective determination of melamine in a wide range of food matrices, including several milk-based products. The method involves an extraction with aqueous 1% trichloroacetic acid before the injection of the 10-fold diluted extract into the liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) system, using labelled melamine as the internal standard. As melamine is present in aqueous media in the cationic form, the chromatographic separation in reversed-phase LC requires the use of anionic ion-pair reagents, such as tridecafluoroheptanoic acid (THFA). This allows a satisfactory chromatographic retention and peak shape in all the types of food samples investigated. The method has been validated in six food matrices (biscuit, dry pasta and four milk-based products) by means of recovery experiments in samples spiked at 1 and 5 mg kg{sup -1}. Average recoveries (n = 5) ranged from 77% to 100%, with excellent precision (RSDs lower than 5%) and limits of detection between 0.01 and 0.1 mg kg{sup -1}. In addition, accuracy and robustness of the method was proven in different soya-based matrices by means of quality control (QC) sample analysis. QC recoveries, at 1 and 2.5 mg kg{sup -1}, were satisfactory, ranging from 79% to 110%. The method developed in this work has been applied to the determination of melamine in different types of food samples. All detections were confirmed by acquiring two MS/MS transitions (127 > 85 for quantification; 127 > 68 for confirmation) and comparing their ion intensity ratio with that of reference standards. Accuracy of the method was also assessed by applying it to a milk-based product and a baking mix material as part of an EU proficiency test, in which highly satisfactory results were obtained.

  9. Cytogenetic Studies on Sativa Rebounded Produced by Tissue Culture and Affected by GAMMA Rays and Drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a plant which produces a variety of high-potency, low-calorie sweetener in its leaf tissue (Jarma et al ., 2006). The leaves of this plant contain sweet diterpene glucosides; rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, stevioside and dulcoside. Stevioside is about 110 to 270 times sweeter than sucrose, while rebaudioside A is 150 to 320 times sweeter than sucrose (Yao et al., 1999). The leaves also produce biologically active substances, e.g. flavonoids, coumarins, cinnamic acids and essential oil (Dzyuba, 1998). (Lobov and Yurtaeva, 2002) showed that diterpenoid glycosides from leaves of S. rebaudiana were the most promising non-sugar sweeteners of plant origin for food and pharmaceutical industries to overcome the problem of human diseases related to disorders of carbon metabolism. The sweetener from leaves has a good taste and is suitable for use in food products as chocolates, marmalades, biscuits, ice-cream, sweets, juices, beverages and candy. The dried leaves could be mixed within the tea packages to reduce the consumption of sugar. The stevioside does not induce tooth decay could safely by used by diabetic patients and could be used in the low caloric diets to reduce human body weight without side effects for these reasons many countries are now using this plant to produce a larger portion of their sugar consumption (El-Zifzafi, 2003). Stevia, Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a small herbaceous plant (2 n = 22). It is a member of compositae family (Yao et al., 1999). Estimates of total number of species in this genus ranges from 150 to 300 . Stevia rebaudiana is one of the species of the genus stevia, which includes S.eupatoria, S.purpurea and S .serrata (Lisitsin and kovalev, 2000).

  10. Viabilidade do processamento de biscoitos com farinha de pinhão / Viability of cookie-processing with Paraná pine nut flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Rigo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO pinhão é a semente do pinho ou pinheiro-do-paraná (Araucaria angustifolia de grande ocorrência no estado do Paraná. A farinha obtida é uma fonte de proteína, carboidratos e fibras e sua aplicação na indústria de alimentos poderia contribuir para melhorar o valor nutricional de vários produtos. Biscoito é o produto obtido pelo amassamento e cozimento de massa preparada com farinhas, amidos, fermentada ou não e outras substâncias alimentícias. Neste trabalho, foi estudada a elaboração de biscoito com farinha de pinhão. Foram preparadas três formulações, variando-se a adição da farinha de pinhão na formulação básica de biscoito. As amostras de biscoito com formulações de 0, 5, 10 e 20% foram submetidas a teste de aceitação. As três formulações foram bem aceitas, apresentando uma consistência semelhante ao padrão.AbstractThe seed from the evergreen species Paraná Pine (Araucaria angustifolia, which is found in Paraná State, is called “pinhão”. The “pinhão” flour is a source of protein, carbohydrates and fiber, so that its use in food industries may improve the nutritional value of several products. Cookies are made of a pastry prepared with flour, starch, with or without fermentation, and other ingredients. This research studied the production of biscuits with 5, 10 and 20% of “pinhão” flour. These three formulations were well accepted by subjects who participated in a tasting test and their texture was similar to standard cookies.

  11. Food group contribution of essential elements of the Sao Paulo State market basket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish a Market Basket of Sao Paulo state seventy-one foods, with a mean consumption of more than 2 g day-1 per person, were grouped into 30 food categories. The food groups were: cereals, leguminous, leafy vegetables, fruity vegetables, tuberous vegetables, tropical fruits, other fruits, flours, pastas, breads, biscuits, prime grade beef, standard grade beef, pork meats, other meats, poultry, milk/cream, other dairy products, sugars, sweets, salts, sauces, oils, fats, alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages, coffee, ready-made dishes, saltwater and freshwater fishes. Information about individual food consumption was obtained from a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' conducted by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics from July 2002 to June 2003. Sampling and kitchen preparation of foods were carried out in restaurants of the University of Sao Paulo. Each food item was individually prepared table-ready. Foods of the same group were mixed, homogenized, pulverized and analyzed for the determination of Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Average daily intake of each element was calculated by multiplying the element concentration in the food by the corresponding weight of the ready-to-consume food group. The contribution of each food group to the total daily intake of elements by the ready-to-consume food groups of the Market Basket was evaluated. The food groups representing the highest contributions were salts: 79% Na; breads: 37% Fe and 46% Cr; cereals: 19% Zn and milk/cream: 58% Ca and 24% K. (author)

  12. Reproducibility of 3D kinematics and surface electromyography measurements of mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remijn, Lianne; Groen, Brenda E; Speyer, Renée; van Limbeek, Jacques; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the measurement reproducibility for a procedure evaluating the mastication process and to estimate the smallest detectable differences of 3D kinematic and surface electromyography (sEMG) variables. Kinematics of mandible movements and sEMG activity of the masticatory muscles were obtained over two sessions with four conditions: two food textures (biscuit and bread) of two sizes (small and large). Twelve healthy adults (mean age 29.1 years) completed the study. The second to the fifth chewing cycle of 5 bites were used for analyses. The reproducibility per outcome variable was calculated with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and a Bland-Altman analysis was applied to determine the standard error of measurement relative error of measurement and smallest detectable differences of all variables. ICCs ranged from 0.71 to 0.98 for all outcome variables. The outcome variables consisted of four bite and fourteen chewing cycle variables. The relative standard error of measurement of the bite variables was up to 17.3% for 'time-to-swallow', 'time-to-transport' and 'number of chewing cycles', but ranged from 31.5% to 57.0% for 'change of chewing side'. The relative standard error of measurement ranged from 4.1% to 24.7% for chewing cycle variables and was smaller for kinematic variables than sEMG variables. In general, measurements obtained with 3D kinematics and sEMG are reproducible techniques to assess the mastication process. The duration of the chewing cycle and frequency of chewing were the best reproducible measurements. Change of chewing side could not be reproduced. The published measurement error and smallest detectable differences will aid the interpretation of the results of future clinical studies using the same study variables. PMID:26617403

  13. Optimization and validation of a methodology for the qualitative determination of polar pesticides in a carbonated soft drink and some cookies for EFS-CG/DEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical analysis of polar pesticides has been qualitatively interest in forensic scientific research by toxicological qualities to the attainment of crimes against human life, pets and plants; associating people and objects in the scene and the possible ways in which the events occurred. The Unidad de Toxicos y Varios of the Seccion de Quimica Analitica of the Departamento de Ciencias Forenses has analyzed polar pesticides and other families to concentration levels, is compared to the environmental analysis and quality control of food. The compounds are used in Costa Rica in recent years as acute chemical weapon to commit crimes against human and animal life. The toxic and lethal amounts of polar pesticides in mammals orally have been milligram level. The Seccion de Quimica Analitica has developed a qualitative methodology to analyze polar pesticides as minor components. The need for reliable analytical quality results has made it necessary to approach a review of the methodology of routine. The review has been solved by selecting two matrices characteristics in such cases: a solid food commercially known as maria biscuits and a carbonated cola. Analytes have been selected based on: greater toxicity, broad spectrum of analytes polarity, the octanol-water partition constant, the water solubility among others. The extraction of analytes in matrices has been selected by solid-phase extraction. The instrumental technique used is gas chromatography with mass selective detector. A method of acquisition optimized in its injection is used. The analysis of instrumental signals were obtained in scanning mode all ions formed, known as Scan and by monitoring mode of ions selected ions (MIS), analysis of the data is acquired in Scan mode because concentration levels of work. The methodology for the qualitative determination of pesticide meets the criteria established for the chemical identification of analytes carbofuran, phorate, terbufos, methyl parathion, chlorpyrifos and

  14. Effect of Nutritional Habits on Dental Caries in Permanent Den¬tition among Schoolchildren Aged 10-12 Years: A Zero-In-flated Generalized Poisson Regression Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin ALMASI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the associations between nutrition and dental caries in permanent dentition among schoolchildren.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 698 schoolchildren aged 10 to 12 yr from a random sample of primary schools in Kermanshah, western Iran, in 2014. The study was based on the data obtained from the questionnaire containing information on nutritional habits and the outcome of decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT index. The association between predictors and dental caries was modeled using the Zero Inflated Generalized Poisson (ZIGP regression model.Results: Fourteen percent of the children were caries free. The model was shown that in female children, the odds of being in a caries susceptible sub-group was 1.23(95% CI: 1.08-1.51 times more likely than boys (P=0.041. Additionally, mean caries count in children who consumed the fizzy soft beverages and sweet biscuits more than once daily was 1.41(95% CI: 1.19-1.63 and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.18-1.37 times more than children that were in category of less than 3 times a week or never, respectively.Conclusions: Girls were at a higher risk of caries than boys were. Since our study showed that nutritional status may have significant effect on caries in permanent teeth, we recommend that health promotion activities in school should be emphasized on healthful eating practices; especially limiting beverages containing sugar to only occasionally between meals. Keywords: Nutritional habits, Dental caries, Zero Inflated Generalized Poisson regression model, Schoolchildren

  15. A POW'S STORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Aquadro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the interest of authenticity, editing has been kept to a bare minimum. This narrative thusappears in virtually its original form, as written in secret, under difficult conditions. Terminologyis often in the vernacular. Details of regiments, titles and place names may also have beenchanged in the interim. Editor.I was serving with the 4th Brigade, Signallers Company, in No. 1 Platoon attached to the U.M.R., Infantry of the 2nd SA Division, Garrison of Tobruk since March, 1942, until the 18th June, 1942, when Rommel made his last main assault on Tobruk, and the same day we were besieged, besieged for three days. On the 21st of June, our C.O. General Klopper of Tobruk surrendered to the Germans unconditionally. That Sunday morning of the 21st of June, we were ordered to destroy all the equipment we had, which we did thoroughly. At about 9 p.m. German Panzer Units rushed upon us, where we were holding a line on the central perimeter, and from there I was taken prisoner. I had a small valice packed with a change of clothing and shaving outfit, the remainder of my possessions I burnt. We were all lined up in three's about one thousand of us with not many German guards with automatic guns, and in the blistering heat we were marched from the perimeter to the aerodrome a distance of six miles. On this aerodome about 25 000 prisoners were massed including officers, everybody mixed. The same day each prisoner was issued with 1 WB. of water, 1 tin of our bully and two biscuits for the day. It is terribly hot and we have no shelter at all. We slept there in the open that night. 

  16. Change from mixed diet to lactovegetarian diet: influence on IgA levels in blood and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, G; Widerström, L

    1994-12-01

    IgA concentrations in human plasma, and whole and parotid saliva were measured before and 3 months after a shift to a lactovegetarian diet in 20 volunteers (four men and 16 women mean age 44 yr, range 27-61). The major dietary trends observed were an increased intake of berries and other fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, and a decreased intake of fish, eggs, and meat; biscuits and buns; sweets; alcoholic beverages; coffee; and tea. The consumption of meat, fish, and eggs decreased to zero, showing that the participants had adopted a lacto-vegetarian diet. There was a decrease in fat, protein, sucrose, and alcohol intake and an increase in total carbohydrate and fiber intake. There was no significant change in energy, retinol equivalent, or zinc intake. Despite this change in diet, no significant changes were observed between the mixed diet period and the vegetarian diet period in IgA in plasma, 253 +/- 52 and 264 +/- 55; whole saliva, 2.5 +/- 0.4 and 2.4 +/- 0.4; or parotid saliva, 0.88 +/- 0.22 and 0.90 +/- 0.20 (mg/100 ml, mean values, 95% confidence interval). Moreover, the diet change did not alter the secretion rate in whole and parotid saliva, the secretion rate of IgA in whole and parotid saliva, or the protein content of whole saliva. However, the protein content of parotid saliva increased significantly. Thus, this major diet change was apparently not drastic enough or sustained long enough to cause a change in IgA levels. PMID:7871358

  17. Long-term effects of a change from a mixed diet to a lacto-vegetarian diet on human urinary and faecal mutagenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, G; Holmén, A; Persson, L; Högstedt, B; Wassén, C; Ottova, L; Gustafsson, J A

    1998-03-01

    This is an investigation of the long-term effects of a shift from a mixed diet to a lacto-vegetarian diet and of a return to a mixed diet on the mutagenic activity in urine and faeces. The participants were 20 normal weight, non-smoking subjects. Dietary surveys and urinary and faecal samples were collected before and 3, 6 and 12 months after the dietary shift as well as 3 years after termination of the lacto-vegetarian diet period. The faecal samples were assayed for direct acting mutagens with the fluctuation test for weak mutagens and the urinary samples were assayed with the same assay but with a metabolic activation system, the so-called S9 fraction. The dietary data showed an increase in consumption of fruits, vegetables and dairy products and a decrease in meat, fish, eggs, sweets and biscuits during the vegetarian diet period. These changes led to an increase in total carbohydrates, fibre, vitamin C and calcium and a decrease in fat and protein intake. Mutagenic activity in both urine and faeces decreased after shift to the vegetarian diet and mutagenic activity in faeces increased when the volunteers returned to a mixed diet (P = 0.025 and 0.035 respectively when comparing the diets). These data indicate that dietary factors may effect mutagenic activity in urine and faeces. However, it is still not clear whether a decrease in animal products, a change in other nutritional factors or a decrease in frying are the main contributors to this change. PMID:9568590

  18. The HEALTHGRAIN definition of 'whole grain'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jan Willem; Poutanen, Kaisa; Seal, Chris J; Richardson, David P

    2014-01-01

    Most cereal products, like white bread, pasta, and biscuits, are based on flour after removal of bran and germ, the two parts of grain kernels containing most of the dietary fibre and other bioactive components. In the past decade, consumers have been rediscovering whole grain-based products and the number of wholegrain products has increased rapidly. In most countries in Europe and worldwide, however, no legally endorsed definition of wholegrain flour and products exists. Current definitions are often incomplete, lacking descriptions of the included grains and the permitted flour manufacturing processes. The consortium of the HEALTHGRAIN EU project (FP6-514008, 2005-2010) identified the need for developing a definition of whole grain with the following scope: 1) more comprehensive than current definitions in most EU countries; 2) one definition for Europe - when possible equal to definitions outside Europe; 3) reflecting current industrial practices for production of flours and consumer products; 4) useful in the context of nutritional guidelines and for labelling purposes. The definition was developed in a range of discussion meetings and consultations and was launched in 2010 at the end of the HEALTHGRAIN project. The grains included are specified: a wide range of cereal grains from the Poaceae family, and the pseudo-cereals amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, and wild rice. The definition also describes manufacturing processes allowed for producing wholegrain flours. This paper compares the HEALTHGRAIN definition with previous definitions, provides more comprehensive explanations than in the definition itself regarding the inclusion of specific grains, and sets out the permitted flour manufacturing processes. PMID:24505218

  19. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meha Mayuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow′s milk or buffalo′s milk are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs. Materials and Methods: The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year of age through both qualitative and quantitative methods. Feeding recommendations by HCPs were assessed through a quantitative method. Results: The children are commonly initiated on bovine milk post 3 months of age. The milk is not covered while boiling in 70% cases and boiled at suboptimal temperature (moderate: 62% or low: 31%. Half of the families store milk outside refrigerators openly in the kitchen or rooms. The milk is modified in the majority of cases (81% before being fed. Modification of the milk was often done with sugar (85%, followed by water (49%, biscuits, fennel seeds, cardamom or infant cereals before feeding the baby. Addition of water was more prevalent among mothers of infants between 3 and 6 months. HCPs do not advise consumption of bovine milk by infants unless there is no other option available. Conclusion: A clear gap exists between recommended and actual practices for infant feeding in India. There is a huge opportunity to educate mothers on importance of breast feeding and benefits of implementing appropriate processing, storage, and consumption practices of bovine milk.

  20. Sweetening yoghurt with glucose, but not with saccharin, promotes weight gain and increased fat pad mass in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakes, Robert A; Kendig, Michael D; Martire, Sarah I; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-10-01

    The claim that non-nutritive sweeteners accelerate body weight gain by disrupting sweet-calorie associations was tested in two experiments using rats. The experiments were modelled on a key study from a series of experiments reporting greater body weight gain in rats fed yoghurt sweetened with saccharin than with glucose (Swithers & Davidson, 2008). Both of the current experiments likewise compared groups fed saccharin- or glucose-sweetened yoghurt in addition to chow and water, while Experiment 1 included a third group (Control) given unsweetened yoghurt. In Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2, rats were initially exposed to both saccharin- and glucose-sweetened yoghurts to assess their relative palatability. We also tested whether the provision of an energy-dense sweet biscuit would augment any effects of saccharin on food intake and weight gain, as seemingly predicted by Swithers and Davidson (2008). In Experiment 1 there were no differences in body weight gain or fat pad mass between the Saccharin and Control group, whereas the Glucose group was the heaviest by the final 5 weeks and at cull had the largest fat pads. Greater acceptance of saccharin predicted more weight gain over the whole experiment. Consistent with past reports, fasting blood glucose and insulin measures did not differ between the Saccharin and Control groups, but suggested some impairment of insulin sensitivity in the Glucose group. Experiment 2 found similar effects of glucose on fat mass, but not on body weight gain. In summary, adding saccharin had no detectable effects on body-weight regulation, whereas the effects of glucose on fat pad mass were consistent with previous studies reporting more harmful effects of sugars compared to non-nutritive sweeteners. PMID:27189382

  1. Effects of cognitive-behavioral treatment for weight loss in family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Raffaella; Moscatiello, Simona; Tarrini, Giulietta; Di Domizio, Silvia; Soverini, Valentina; Romano, Andreina; Mazzotti, Arianna; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Marchesini, Giulio

    2011-11-01

    The possibility that lifestyle changes may be shared by the family members of subjects with obesity attending cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for weight loss has been scarcely evaluated. The purpose of this study was to measure the changes in body weight, lifestyle habits, and stage of change toward physical activity in the family members of 149 subjects with overweight/obesity enrolled into a weekly group CBT for weight management in the years 2007-2008. 230 adult (aged >18 years) family members (129 spouses, 72 children (43 female, 29 male), 29 with a different family relationship) completed a self-administered questionnaire at baseline and soon after the end of the completion of their relatives' program (approximately 6 months later). The questionnaire consisted of qualitative information regarding food choices, estimation of energy and food intake, self-report of height and weight, and motivation toward physical activity. At baseline, self-reported body mass index was normal in 115 cases, in the range 25 to 29.9 in 80 and ≥30 in 35. Following CBT of their relatives, the family members significantly reduced their average daily energy intake (-232 kcal/day; Pbreakfast biscuits (-23 kcal, P=0.005), chocolate (-7 kcal, P=0.024), and nonalcoholic beverages (fruit juices and carbonated drinks; -10 kcal; P=0.013), whereas fruit consumption was increased (+10 kcal; P=0.023). There was also a shift in the stage of change toward exercising. Body mass index changes of family members and CBT subjects were significantly correlated, mainly within spouses. In conclusion, CBT for weight loss positively influences the lifestyle habits of family members of participants, reducing energy intake and promoting a more favorable attitude toward physical activity. PMID:22027054

  2. The use of multiple imputation method for the validation of 24-h food recalls by part-time observation of dietary intake in school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupek, Emil; de Assis, Maria Alice A

    2016-09-01

    External validation of food recall over 24 h in schoolchildren is often restricted to eating events in schools and is based on direct observation as the reference method. The aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intake out of school, and consequently the bias in such research design based on only part-time validated food recall, using multiple imputation (MI) conditioned on the information on child age, sex, BMI, family income, parental education and the school attended. The previous-day, web-based questionnaire WebCAAFE, structured as six meals/snacks and thirty-two foods/beverage, was answered by a sample of 7-11-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren (n 602) from five public schools. Food/beverage intake recalled by children was compared with the records provided by trained observers during school meals. Sensitivity analysis was performed with artificial data emulating those recalled by children on WebCAAFE in order to evaluate the impact of both differential and non-differential bias. Estimated bias was within ±30 % interval for 84·4 % of the thirty-two foods/beverages evaluated in WebCAAFE, and half of the latter reached statistical significance (P<0·05). Rarely (<3 %) consumed dietary items were often under-reported (fish/seafood, vegetable soup, cheese bread, French fries), whereas some of those most frequently reported (meat, bread/biscuits, fruits) showed large overestimation. Compared with the analysis restricted to fully validated data, MI reduced differential bias in sensitivity analysis but the bias still remained large in most cases. MI provided a suitable statistical framework for part-time validation design of dietary intake over six daily eating events. PMID:27452779

  3. Effect of Nutritional Habits on Dental Caries in Permanent Dentition among Schoolchildren Aged 10–12 Years: A Zero-Inflated Generalized Poisson Regression Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALMASI, Afshin; RAHIMIFOROUSHANI, Abbas; ESHRAGHIAN, Mohammad Reza; MOHAMMAD, Kazem; PASDAR, Yahya; TARRAHI, Mohammad Javad; MOGHIMBEIGI, Abbas; AHMADI JOUYBARI, Touraj

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the associations between nutrition and dental caries in permanent dentition among schoolchildren. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 698 schoolchildren aged 10 to 12 yr from a random sample of primary schools in Kermanshah, western Iran, in 2014. The study was based on the data obtained from the questionnaire containing information on nutritional habits and the outcome of decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT) index. The association between predictors and dental caries was modeled using the Zero Inflated Generalized Poisson (ZIGP) regression model. Results: Fourteen percent of the children were caries free. The model was shown that in female children, the odds of being in a caries susceptible sub-group was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.08–1.51) times more likely than boys (P=0.041). Additionally, mean caries count in children who consumed the fizzy soft beverages and sweet biscuits more than once daily was 1.41 (95% CI: 1.19–1.63) and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.18–1.37) times more than children that were in category of less than 3 times a week or never, respectively. Conclusions: Girls were at a higher risk of caries than boys were. Since our study showed that nutritional status may have significant effect on caries in permanent teeth, we recommend that health promotion activities in school should be emphasized on healthful eating practices; especially limiting beverages containing sugar to only occasionally between meals. PMID:27141498

  4. Gênese e Morfologia de Estruturas Sedimentares Induzidas por Atividade Microbiana (MISS em Sedimentos da Lagoa Vermelha (Região dos Lagos – Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena da Fonseca Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available dimentos. O desconhecimento dos critérios que permitem a identificação dessas estruturas no registro geológico dificulta seu amplo reconhecimento, sendo por vezes confundidas com estruturas físicas de deposição e erosão. Historicamente, a Lagoa Vermelha é reconhecida por estudos biológicos, mineralógicos, geoquímicos e isotópicos, relacionados a estromatólitos e esteiras microbianas. Contudo, as estruturas sedimentares induzidas por atividade microbiana nunca foram objeto de estudo. Dessa forma, o presente estudo objetiva a análise e caracterização das MISS que ocorrem nos sedimentos da Lagoa Vermelha, reconhecendo os principais fatores biossedimentológicos envolvidos em sua gênese. Foi possível a distinção de onze estruturas resultantes dos processos de crescimento microbial (estrutura de nivelamento laminada, bioestabilização (gretas de dessecamento; mat curls; mat chips, metabolismo da esteira (biolaminito; estromatólito; estromatólito biscuit; nódulo trombolítico, binding, baffling e trapping e estruturas resultantes de mais de uma atividade microbial interagindo com a dinâmica sedimentar (wrinkles; estrutura de descolamento; petees. Análises petrográficas permitiram o reconhecimento dessas estruturas em microescala e de outras feições organossedimentares associadas à atividade microbial. Os resultados gerados permitem a melhor compreensão da interação entre processos microbiais e fatores ambientais atuantes na formação de estruturas sedimentares induzidas por micro-organismos, bem como, auxiliam seu reconhecimento no registro geológico em sucessões continentais e marinhas.

  5. The HEALTHGRAIN definition of ‘whole grain’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Willem van der Kamp

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most cereal products, like white bread, pasta, and biscuits, are based on flour after removal of bran and germ, the two parts of grain kernels containing most of the dietary fibre and other bioactive components. In the past decade, consumers have been rediscovering whole grain-based products and the number of wholegrain products has increased rapidly. In most countries in Europe and worldwide, however, no legally endorsed definition of wholegrain flour and products exists. Current definitions are often incomplete, lacking descriptions of the included grains and the permitted flour manufacturing processes. The consortium of the HEALTHGRAIN EU project (FP6-514008, 2005–2010 identified the need for developing a definition of whole grain with the following scope: 1 more comprehensive than current definitions in most EU countries; 2 one definition for Europe – when possible equal to definitions outside Europe; 3 reflecting current industrial practices for production of flours and consumer products; 4 useful in the context of nutritional guidelines and for labelling purposes. The definition was developed in a range of discussion meetings and consultations and was launched in 2010 at the end of the HEALTHGRAIN project. The grains included are specified: a wide range of cereal grains from the Poaceae family, and the pseudo-cereals amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, and wild rice. The definition also describes manufacturing processes allowed for producing wholegrain flours. This paper compares the HEALTHGRAIN definition with previous definitions, provides more comprehensive explanations than in the definition itself regarding the inclusion of specific grains, and sets out the permitted flour manufacturing processes.

  6. Lupinus mutabilis: Composition, Uses, Toxicology, and Debittering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Larenas, F E; Linnemann, A R; Nout, M J R; Koziol, M; van Boekel, M A J S

    2016-07-01

    Lupinus mutabilis has protein (32.0-52.6 g/100 g dry weight) and lipid (13.0-24.6 g/100 g dry weight) contents similar to soya bean (Glycine max). The Ω3, Ω6, and Ω9 contents are 1.9-3.0, 26.5-39.6, and 41.2-56.2 g/100 g lipid, respectively. Lupins can be used to fortify the protein content of pasta, bread, biscuits, salads, hamburgers, sausages, and can substitute milk and soya bean. Specific lupin protein concentrates or isolates display protein solubility (>90%), water-absorption capacity (4.5 g/g dry weight), oil-absorption capacity (3.98 g/g), emulsifying capacity (2000 mL of oil/g), emulsifying stability (100%, 60 hours), foaming capacity (2083%), foaming stability (78.8%, 36 hours), and least gelation concentration (6%), which are of industrial interest. Lupins contain bitter alkaloids. Preliminary studies on their toxicity suggest as lethal acute dose for infants and children 10 mg/kg bw and for adults 25 mg/kg bw. However, alkaloids can also have medical use for their hypocholesterolemic, antiarrhythmic, and immunosuppressive activity. Bitter lupins can be detoxified by biological, chemical, or aqueous processes. The shortest debittering process requires one hour. This review presents the nutritional composition of lupins, their uses (as food, medicine, and functional protein isolates), toxicology, and debittering process scenarios. It critically evaluates the data, infers conclusions, and makes suggestions for future research. PMID:26054557

  7. Genetic variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO in association with food preferences in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Brunkwall

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Earlier studies have indicated that the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO is not only associated with BMI and weight but also with appetite and dietary intake. Objectives: We investigated if the FTO rs9939609 associates with food preferences in healthy adults with no cancer, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes. Additionally, we challenged the question if the associations are modified by obesity status (BMI ≤25 or >25 kg/m2. Design: The analyses are made with 22,799 individuals from the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort Study, who were born between 1923 and 1945. To investigate food preference, 27 food groups conducted from a modified diet history method including a 7-day registration of cooked meals and cold beverages were used in the analyses. Bonferroni correction was used to correct for multiple testing, resulting in a cut-off value for significance level of p<0.002. Results: We observed that the obesity susceptible A-allele carriers reported a higher consumption of biscuits and pastry but lower consumption of soft drinks (P for trend <0.0001 for both as compared to TT genotype carriers. In contrast to our hypothesis, the results did not significantly differ depending on obesity status except for consumption of juice, where only the overweight individuals with A-allele had a higher consumption as compared to TT carriers (P for interaction=0.04. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the FTO A-allele may associate with certain food preference and in particular with certain energy-dense foods.

  8. Magnetic particles functionalized with PAMAM-dendrimers and antibodies: a new system for an ELISA method able to detect Ara h3/4 peanut allergen in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speroni, Francesca; Elviri, Lisa; Careri, Maria; Mangia, Alessandro

    2010-08-01

    An innovative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format based on antibody-coated magnetic micro-particles (MPs) for the sensitive detection of Ara h3/4 allergen in food is described. The immunosupport is suspended in the incubation solutions and the MPs with the captured allergen can be easily harvested on a magnet, separated from the solutions, and washed using an easy-to-use, fast and selective approach that allows its detection and quantification. Two differently coated MPs, ProteinA-Pn-b and MP-NH(2)-PAMAM G 1.5-Pn-b immunosupports, were tested. The functionalization of the MPs with PAMAM-sodium carboxylate dendrimers elicits a major stability on the immunoglobulin activity resulting in a threefold enhancement of the analytical sensitivity for the assay with respect to a ProteinA immobilization. Validation was carried out on two different matrices: corn flakes and biscuits. In the case of MP-NH(2)-PAMAM G 1.5 -Pn-b immunosupport, limit of detection was found to be 0.2 mg peanuts/kg matrix in both matrices; the linear response range was demonstrated from 2.5 to 15 mg peanuts/kg matrix by performing statistical tests (homoscedasticity and Mandel fitting tests). Good accuracy and recovery (>80 +/- 2%) were obtained. Different food samples were tested and the results were compared with those obtained with a commercially available ELISA kit. The results obtained in this work demonstrated the applicability of the immunomagnetic ELISA methods on real samples and the possibility to perform the assay with significantly reduced reagent and sample consumption. PMID:20607526

  9. Food group contribution of essential elements of the Sao Paulo State market basket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pagliaro@usp.b, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Fabio F. da, E-mail: ffsusp@uol.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica. Empresa Junior de Informatica, Matematica e Estatistica

    2009-07-01

    To establish a Market Basket of Sao Paulo state seventy-one foods, with a mean consumption of more than 2 g day{sup -1} per person, were grouped into 30 food categories. The food groups were: cereals, leguminous, leafy vegetables, fruity vegetables, tuberous vegetables, tropical fruits, other fruits, flours, pastas, breads, biscuits, prime grade beef, standard grade beef, pork meats, other meats, poultry, milk/cream, other dairy products, sugars, sweets, salts, sauces, oils, fats, alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages, coffee, ready-made dishes, saltwater and freshwater fishes. Information about individual food consumption was obtained from a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' conducted by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics from July 2002 to June 2003. Sampling and kitchen preparation of foods were carried out in restaurants of the University of Sao Paulo. Each food item was individually prepared table-ready. Foods of the same group were mixed, homogenized, pulverized and analyzed for the determination of Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Average daily intake of each element was calculated by multiplying the element concentration in the food by the corresponding weight of the ready-to-consume food group. The contribution of each food group to the total daily intake of elements by the ready-to-consume food groups of the Market Basket was evaluated. The food groups representing the highest contributions were salts: 79% Na; breads: 37% Fe and 46% Cr; cereals: 19% Zn and milk/cream: 58% Ca and 24% K. (author)

  10. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abboud Al-Saleh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical, and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%–95.0%, 1000-kernel weight (35.2–46.9 g and the test weight (82.2–88.0 kg/hL. All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours. A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **, as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *. Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **, extensibility (r = 0.8 **, and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = −0.69 **. Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **. Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  11. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a nutrition education intervention performed by primary school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminia Agozzino

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Long-term interventions based on the active involvement of students, carried out by properly prepared staff using didactic support material (brochures, games etc. including the participation/involvement of mothers or associates in community interventions; seem to be the most effective ones. This study evaluates the effectiveness of nutrition education interventions carried out by teachers with active didactic methodologies.

    Methods: The research was carried out by administering a frequency of food intake questionnaire, before and after the intervention. To compare the answers given before and after the educational intervention the Wilcoxon-test was applied to dependent data discriminating the group with “sufficient implementation” of the project versus “insufficient implementation”.

    Results: Our data demonstrates that a substantial percentage of children do not report an adequate nutritional intake, making education interventions not only opportune but necessary. In both groups there was an increase in the number of subjects having breakfast, particularly in terms of bread and biscuits intake. In the group with “sufficient implementation” there was an increase in the intake of all kinds of food with respect to the previous day’s intake and a decrease in the intake of meat, fish and legumes consumed during the previous week; in the group with “insufficient implementation” only fish intake increased significantly while vegetable intake decreased in a non-significant way. So this educational intervention appears to have been particularly effective in modifying breakfast habits and reducing snack.

  12. Sustainability of the effects of medicinal iron and iron rich food supplementation on haemoglobin, intelligence quotient and growth of school aged girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia in school aged girls is an important but neglected issue. Since iron supplementation programmes have had little reported success in reducing anaemia, interest is turning to food based approaches that have higher potential for achieving far reaching benefits. The purpose of the study was to observe sustainability of the effect of iron and food supplementation on haemoglobin (Hb, intelligence quotient (IQ and growth of the subjects. At baseline, estimation of haemoglobin (Hb, red cell indices, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, serum transferrin saturation and serum ferritin was done. IQ, weight and height were measured using standard procedures. Anaemic subjectswere divided into three groups, viz., (i twice weekly supplementation of iron folic acid syrup (53 mg iron/week; (ii daily supplementation of 4 niger seed and defatted soyaflour biscuits plus 2 lemons (45 mg iron/week and (iii control. Non anaemic group(NAC was not intervened. Endline data was collected after 120 days. Follow up for Hb, IQ, weight and height was done 4 months after cessation of supplementation. The prevalence of anaemia was 77% in the study population; 46% subjects had mild anaemia and 32% had moderate anaemia. Iron status was lower in anaemic subjects (p<0.001.Iron supplementation was more effective in raising Hb and building iron stores than iron rich food supplementation. Iron supplementation improved IQ but did not bring about catch up of anaemics to non anaemics. Iron rich food supplementation was better than medicinal iron in promoting growth in anaemic girls. The impact of iron rich food supplementation on Hb, IQ and growth sustained for 4 months while that of medicinal iron did not. Effects of food supplementation are sustainable for 4 months, therefore, this strategy holds more potential to control anaemia, in school aged girls.

  13. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Huini Lim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all. Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life.

  14. The HEALTHGRAIN definition of ‘whole grain’

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jan Willem; Poutanen, Kaisa; Seal, Chris J.; Richardson, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Most cereal products, like white bread, pasta, and biscuits, are based on flour after removal of bran and germ, the two parts of grain kernels containing most of the dietary fibre and other bioactive components. In the past decade, consumers have been rediscovering whole grain-based products and the number of wholegrain products has increased rapidly. In most countries in Europe and worldwide, however, no legally endorsed definition of wholegrain flour and products exists. Current definitions are often incomplete, lacking descriptions of the included grains and the permitted flour manufacturing processes. The consortium of the HEALTHGRAIN EU project (FP6-514008, 2005–2010) identified the need for developing a definition of whole grain with the following scope: 1) more comprehensive than current definitions in most EU countries; 2) one definition for Europe – when possible equal to definitions outside Europe; 3) reflecting current industrial practices for production of flours and consumer products; 4) useful in the context of nutritional guidelines and for labelling purposes. The definition was developed in a range of discussion meetings and consultations and was launched in 2010 at the end of the HEALTHGRAIN project. The grains included are specified: a wide range of cereal grains from the Poaceae family, and the pseudo-cereals amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, and wild rice. The definition also describes manufacturing processes allowed for producing wholegrain flours. This paper compares the HEALTHGRAIN definition with previous definitions, provides more comprehensive explanations than in the definition itself regarding the inclusion of specific grains, and sets out the permitted flour manufacturing processes. PMID:24505218

  15. Determination of melamine in milk-based products and other food and beverage products by ion-pair liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a fast method for the sensitive and selective determination of melamine in a wide range of food matrices, including several milk-based products. The method involves an extraction with aqueous 1% trichloroacetic acid before the injection of the 10-fold diluted extract into the liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) system, using labelled melamine as the internal standard. As melamine is present in aqueous media in the cationic form, the chromatographic separation in reversed-phase LC requires the use of anionic ion-pair reagents, such as tridecafluoroheptanoic acid (THFA). This allows a satisfactory chromatographic retention and peak shape in all the types of food samples investigated. The method has been validated in six food matrices (biscuit, dry pasta and four milk-based products) by means of recovery experiments in samples spiked at 1 and 5 mg kg-1. Average recoveries (n = 5) ranged from 77% to 100%, with excellent precision (RSDs lower than 5%) and limits of detection between 0.01 and 0.1 mg kg-1. In addition, accuracy and robustness of the method was proven in different soya-based matrices by means of quality control (QC) sample analysis. QC recoveries, at 1 and 2.5 mg kg-1, were satisfactory, ranging from 79% to 110%. The method developed in this work has been applied to the determination of melamine in different types of food samples. All detections were confirmed by acquiring two MS/MS transitions (127 > 85 for quantification; 127 > 68 for confirmation) and comparing their ion intensity ratio with that of reference standards. Accuracy of the method was also assessed by applying it to a milk-based product and a baking mix material as part of an EU proficiency test, in which highly satisfactory results were obtained.

  16. Trends in food and nutritional intakes of French adults from 1999 to 2007: results from the INCA surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel

    2010-04-01

    Two independent cross-sectional dietary surveys (the Individual and National Food Consumption Surveys, INCA), performed in 1998-99 (INCA1) and in 2006-07 (INCA2) on nationally representative samples of French people, were used to analyse trends in the dietary habits and nutritional intake of French adults. Food consumption was recorded through 7-d dietary records, and nutritional intakes were assessed using the French food composition database. After exclusion of under-reporters, analyses were performed on 3267 adults, aged 18-79 years: 1345 from INCA1 and 1922 from INCA2. The trends highlighted over the 8-year period showed a decrease in consumption of dairy products, meat, bread, potatoes, pastries/croissant-like pastries/cakes/biscuits and sugar/confectionery. In contrast, the consumption of fruits and vegetables, rice, ice cream and chocolate increased. Other food groups, like fish and snacking foods, remained stable. Food choices were mostly age specific. These age differences remained consistent over the years and underlined two opposite dietary trends: a 'traditional' one mainly followed by the elderly, and a 'snacking and convenience' one mainly adopted by young adults. The overall trends in food consumption did not influence the mean energy intake, but did slightly modify the contribution of each macronutrient to energy intake. These repeated surveys highlighted the fact that trends in French food habits have moved towards an average European diet at the crossroads between Mediterranean and Northern diets, and that food consumption changes impacted, to a lesser extent, nutritional intake. PMID:20028601

  17. Technical constraints in the development of reduced-fat bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, T

    2001-11-01

    The present study was funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, its aim being to identify the technical barriers to the development of reduced-fat alternatives for bakery products. Using National Food Survey (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, 1998) statistics on dietary consumption within the home, biscuits, cakes and pastries were identified as contributing significant amounts of fat to the population's dietary intake. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with contacts in the technical community of the baking industry, who were usually working in technical and new-product development functions. A discussion guide was developed to cover the main lines of enquiry. The companies selected were ingredient suppliers (eight), manufacturers (twelve) and retailers (four) and so represented each step of the food supply chain. In brief, results showed that current labelling rules were too stringent, and constrained development of reduced-fat bakery products. Products with lower fat levels are harder to make due to altered handling and processing properties. Their quality is usually poorer than standard products, particularly for flavour, texture and mouthfeel. The perception of freshness is reduced and product shelf-life may consequently be shorter. For the product developer, there are relatively few ingredients that can be used in place of fat, and knowledge of how they work is limited, which inhibits product development. There is no identifiable source of technical knowledge in this field. Consumers perceive reduced-fat bakery products to be of lower quality and are generally unwilling to pay higher prices than for standard products. PMID:12069402

  18. Comparison of essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourmaghi, Mohammad Hossein Salehi; Kiaee, Gita; Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Jamalifar, Hossein; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2015-04-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), is an annual herb in the Apiaceae family which disperses in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions. The Coriander essential oil has been used in food products, perfumes, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries for its flavor and odor. In Iran, fruits of Coriander used in pickle, curry powders, sausages, cakes, pastries, biscuits and buns. The aim of this study was to investigate microwave radiation effects on quality, quantity and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Coriander fruits. The essential oils were obtained from the Coriander fruits by hydrodistillation (HD) and Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) then, the oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans by microdilution method. The results indicated that the HD and MAHD essential oils (EO) were dominated by monoterpenoids such as linalool, geranyl acetate and γ-terpinene. The major compound in both EO was linalool which its amount in HD and MAHD was 63 % and 66 %, respectively. The total amount of monoterpenes hydrocarbons in HD EO differ significantly with the amount in MAHD EO (12.56 % compare to 1.82 %). HD EO showed greater activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans than MAHD EO. Moreover, their activities against Ecoli and P. aeruginosa were the same with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) 0.781 and 6.25 μL mL(-1), respectively. By using MAHD method, it was superior in terms of saving energy and extraction time, although the oil yield and total composition decrease by using this method. PMID:25829632

  19. LIPGENE food-exchange model for alteration of dietary fat quantity and quality in free-living participants from eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Danielle I; Tierney, Audrey C; McCarthy, Sinead; Upritchard, Jane; Vermunt, Susan; Gulseth, Hanne L; Drevon, Christian A; Blaak, Ellen E; Saris, Wim H M; Karlström, Brita; Helal, Olfa; Defoort, Catherine; Gallego, Raquel; López-Miranda, José; Siedlecka, Dominika; Malczewska-Malec, Małgorzata; Roche, Helen M; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2009-03-01

    Controlled human intervention trials are required to confirm the hypothesis that dietary fat quality may influence insulin action. The aim was to develop a food-exchange model, suitable for use in free-living volunteers, to investigate the effects of four experimental diets distinct in fat quantity and quality: high SFA (HSFA); high MUFA (HMUFA) and two low-fat (LF) diets, one supplemented with 1.24 g EPA and DHA/d (LFn-3). A theoretical food-exchange model was developed. The average quantity of exchangeable fat was calculated as the sum of fat provided by added fats (spreads and oils), milk, cheese, biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries using data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of UK adults. Most of the exchangeable fat was replaced by specifically designed study foods. Also critical to the model was the use of carbohydrate exchanges to ensure the diets were isoenergetic. Volunteers from eight centres across Europe completed the dietary intervention. Results indicated that compositional targets were largely achieved with significant differences in fat quantity between the high-fat diets (39.9 (sem 0.6) and 38.9 (sem 0.51) percentage energy (%E) from fat for the HSFA and HMUFA diets respectively) and the low-fat diets (29.6 (sem 0.6) and 29.1 (sem 0.5) %E from fat for the LF and LFn-3 diets respectively) and fat quality (17.5 (sem 0.3) and 10.4 (sem 0.2) %E from SFA and 12.7 (sem 0.3) and 18.7 (sem 0.4) %E MUFA for the HSFA and HMUFA diets respectively). In conclusion, a robust, flexible food-exchange model was developed and implemented successfully in the LIPGENE dietary intervention trial. PMID:18680629

  20. The importance of taste on dietary choice, behaviour and intake in a group of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourouniotis, S; Keast, R S J; Riddell, L J; Lacy, K; Thorpe, M G; Cicerale, S

    2016-08-01

    The 'taste of food' plays an important role in food choice. Furthermore, foods high in fat, sugar and salt are highly palatable and associated with increased food consumption. Research exploring taste importance on dietary choice, behaviour and intake is limited, particularly in young adults. Therefore, in this study a total of 1306 Australian university students completed questionnaires assessing dietary behaviors (such as how important taste was on food choice) and frequency of food consumption over the prior month. Diet quality was also assessed using a dietary guideline index. Participants had a mean age of 20 ± 5 years, Body Mass Index (BMI) of 22 ± 3 kg/m(2), 79% were female and 84% Australian. Taste was rated as being a very or extremely important factor for food choice by 82% of participants. Participants who rated taste as highly important, had a poorer diet quality (p = 0.001) and were more likely to consume less fruit (p = 0.03) and vegetables (p = 0.05). Furthermore, they were significantly more likely to consume foods high in fat, sugar and salt, including chocolate and confectionary, cakes and puddings, sweet pastries, biscuits, meat pies, pizza, hot chips, potato chips, takeaway meals, soft drink, cordial and fruit juice (p = 0.001-0.02). They were also more likely to consider avoiding adding salt to cooking (p = 0.02) and adding sugar to tea or coffee (p = 0.01) as less important for health. These findings suggest that the importance individuals place on taste plays an important role in influencing food choice, dietary behaviors and intake. PMID:26972352

  1. Nutritional Aspects of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undine E. Lang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics, which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  2. A review of acrylamide: an industry perspective on research, analysis, formation, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeymans, Dominique; Wood, John; Ashby, Peter; Blank, Imre; Studer, Alfred; Stadler, Richard H; Gondé, Pierre; Van Eijck, Paul; Lalljie, Sam; Lingnert, Hans; Lindblom, Marianne; Matissek, Reinhard; Müller, Detflef; Tallmadge, Dan; O'Brien, John; Thompson, Sara; Silvani, David; Whitmore, Tricia

    2004-01-01

    Acrylamide is a synthetic monomer with a wide scope of industrial applications, mainly as a precursor in the production of several polymers, such as polyacrylamide. The main uses of polyacrylamides are in water and wastewater treatment processes, pulp and paper processing, and mining and mineral processing. The announcement by the Swedish National Food Administration in April 2002 of the presence of acrylamide predominantly in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods sparked intensive investigations into acrylamide, encompassing the occurrence, chemistry, agricultural practices, and toxicology, in order to establish if there is a potential risk to human health from the presence of this contaminant in the human diet. The link of acrylamide in foods to the Maillard reaction and, in particular, to the amino acid asparagine has been a major step forward in elucidating the first feasible chemical route of formation during the preparation and processing of food. Other probably minor pathways have also been proposed, including acrolein and acrylic acid. This review addresses the analytical and mechanistic aspects of the acrylamide issue and summarizes the progress made to date by the European food industries in these key areas. Essentially, it presents experimental results generated under laboratory model conditions, as well as under actual food processing conditions covering different food categories, such as potatoes, biscuits, cereals, and coffee. Since acrylamide formation is closely linked to food composition, factors such as the presence of sugars and availability of free amino acids are also considered. Many new findings that contribute towards a better understanding of the formation and presence of acrylamide in foods are presented. Many national authorities across the world are assessing the dietary exposure of consumers to acrylamide, and scientific projects have commenced to gather new information about the toxicology of acrylamide. These are expected to provide

  3. 邻菲啰啉-Fe^3+分光光度法测定食品中的亚硫酸盐%A Spectrometric Method for Sulfite Determination Using the System of Complex of Phenanthroline and Fe~(3+)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖文生; 刘中勇; 赵群; 谢思瑶; 伍冠红

    2012-01-01

    Phenanthroline can interact with Fe3+ and Fe2+ to form metal complexes of different colors.Phenanthroline-Fe3+ was changed to phenanthroline-Fe2+ due to the redox reaction between sulfite and Fe3+ with dramatic spectrum changes.Based on this,a spectrometric method for the determination of sulfite was developed.In pH5.00 NaAc-HAc buffer,the addition of sulfite to the phenanthroline-Fe3+ system results in significant absorption increase at 510 nm which is proportional to the concentration of sulfite over the range of 1.08 ×10-6-1.60 ×10-5mol/L with a limit of detection of 1.08×10-7mol/L.The proposed method was applied to determine sulfite in biscuits,the recovery being 92.2%-101.8%.%邻菲啰啉可与Fe3+和Fe2+结合形成不同颜色的金属配合物。利用亚硫酸对Fe3+离子的还原作用,使邻菲啰啉-Fe3+配合物转化为邻菲啰啉-Fe2+,产生显著的光谱变化,据此建立测定亚硫酸盐的光谱分析法。研究结果显示,在pH5.00的乙酸钠-乙酸缓冲溶液中,亚硫酸盐的加入使体系在510 nm处的吸光度显著增强,在一定浓度范围内510nm处吸光度的增加值与亚硫酸盐浓度呈良好线性关系,其线性范围为1.08×10-6-1.60×10-5mol/L,检测限为1.08×10-7mol/L。本方法用于测定饼干中的亚硫酸盐,回收率为92.2%-101.8%。

  4. ANALISIS JENIS, JUMLAH, DAN MUTU GIZI KONSUMSI SARAPAN ANAK INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachruddin Perdana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to analyze type, amount, and nutritional quality of breakfast among Indonesian children aged 3—12 years old. Data used for this study was secondary data of Basic Health Survey 2010 (Riskesdas 2010. Data was collected from June until August 2010 by applying a cross sectional design. This study covered 33 provinces of Indonesia, with total 40,437 children consisted of 20,659 boys and 19,778 girls. The results of this study showed that ten major type of foods consumed during breakfast were rice, swamp cabbage, egg, fish, tempe, instant noodles, tofu, bread, chicken and biscuits; and five major type of beverages consumed during breakfast were drinking water, tea, milk, coffee, and syrup. The food consumed on average of more than 5 g a day during breakfast were rice, swamp cabbage, egg, fish, tempe, instant noodles; and the beverages consumed on average of more than 15 mL a day were water, tea, and milk. Only 10.6% of children breakfast met energy intake>30% RDA.Keywords: breakfast, breakfast amount, breakfast type, children, nutritional quality of breakfastABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis jenis, jumlah, dan mutu gizi konsumsi sarapan anak Indonesia usia 3—12 tahun. Data yang digunakan untuk penelitian ini adalah data sekunder (data konsumsi pangan yang diperoleh dari hasil penelitian Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2010 (Riskesdas 2010 yang dilaksanakan oleh Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Kementrian Kesehatan Indonesia. Pengumpulan data dilakukan pada bulan Juni sampai Agustus 2010 dengan menggunakan desain cross sectional. Penelitian ini mencakup 33 provinsi di Indonesia, dengan 40 437 total subjek; yang terdiri dari 20 659 laki-laki dan 19 778 perempuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sepuluh jenis makanan yang paling banyak dikonsumsi selama sarapan adalah nasi, kangkung, telur ayam, ikan, tempe, mi instan, tahu, roti, daging ayam, dan biskuit; lima jenis minuman yang

  5. Cheese whey. Waste or raw material useful for foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals specialities?; Il siero di latte. Rifiuto o materia prima per prodotti alimentari, cosmetici e farmaceutici?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzichini, M. [ENEA, Divisione Biotecnologie e Agricoltura, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Montani, R.; Russo, C. [Inteam Srl, Genoa (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In Italy the waste whey (7 million tons/year), coming from cheese farms (2,500) is mainly employed as pigs fodder, or discharged in illegal manner into rivers or soils. It is well known that whey represents a serious environmental problem in relation with its high pollution charge (COD=70,000 O{sub 2} ppm). On the other hand, the whey's organic components as proteins, lactose, vitamins and salts, show an high commercial interest because they are used as food additives in souses, pasta, biscuits, chocolate, beverage, baby foods, etc., in cosmetics, as creams and shampoos, and also in pharmaceutical field, especially as food integrators for body builders. The application of membrane technology, as ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) permitted the recovery of the whey solute (proteins, lactose, mineral salts) and solvent as purified water. In this paper an industrial treatment process of 60 m{sup 3}/day, and the procedure for upgrading the biochemical properties of whey proteins, and consequently its commercial values, are discussed. It is also reported an economic process evaluation, obtained on the base of product recovery and process costs. [Italian] In Italia si producono circa 7 milioni di ton/anno di siero grezzo dagli oltre 2.500 caseifici sparsi sul territorio nazionale. Mentre al Nord il siero grezzo e' impiegato per l'alimentazione dei suini, al Centro-Sud viene smaltito illegalmente nei fiumi e sul terreno. Il siero di latte costituisce un problema importante del settore lattiero caseario poiche' ha una carica inquinante molto alta (COD 70.000 ppm di O{sub 2}). Il siero puo' rappresentare una fonte di sostanze nobili come proteine ad alto valore biologico, lattosio, vitamine sali minerali che trovano largo impiego nell'industria alimentare (salse, pasta, biscotti, cioccolato, bevande, baby foods, ecc., nell'industria cosmetica come creme idratanti o detergenti e nell

  6. Food Consumption Patterns: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimah, A K; Safiah, M; Jamal, K; Haslinda, Siti; Zuhaida, H; Rohida, S; Fatimah, S; Norazlin, Siti; Poh, B K; Kandiah, M; Zalilah, M S; Wan Manan, W M; Fatimah, S; Azmi, M Y

    2008-03-01

    This study reports the food consumption patterns of adults aged 18 to 59 years in the Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) carried out between October 2002 and December 2003. A total of 6,742 subjects comprising 3,274 men and 3,468 women representing the northern, central , southern and east coast of Peninsular Malaysia as well as Sabah and Sarawak were interviewed. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) which consisted of 126 food items was used to evaluate the food consumption pattern (habitual food intake) of the respondents during the previous one- year period. The results demonstrate that nasi putih (cooked rice) was consumed by 97% of the population twice daily (average 2½ plates per day). Other food items consumed daily were marine fish, (one medium fish per day), green leafy vegetables (one cup per day) and sweetened condensed milk (three teaspoons per day. The mean frequencies for daily intake of rice, leafy vegetables, marine fish, local kuih, anchovy (ikan bilis) and biscuits were significantly higher among the rural compared to the urban adults. In contrast, more urban dwellers consumed chicken and eggs more frequently than their rural counterparts. More men than women consumed chicken and eggs more frequently. Malaysian adults showed a satisfactory habit of drinking plain water, with 99% drinking at least six glasses of plain water daily. Other beverages such as tea (47%), coffee (28%), chocolate-based drinks (23%) and cordial syrup (11%) were also consumed on daily basis, however, in a smaller proportion of the population. There were differences in the prevalence of daily consumption of foods when comparing urban and rural population, and also between men and women. The prevalence of daily consumption of marine fish among rural and urban adults was 51% and 34% respectively. For sweetened condensed milk, men and women consumed 43% and 28% respectively; however, more women drank full cream milk than men. Between the age groups, 21

  7. [Comparative evaluation of antioxidant activity and content of prooxidant factors in different classes of foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, I M; Basov, A A; Bykov, M I; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2014-01-01

    By using the biophysical methods (chemiluminescence, amperometry) in laboratory in vitro experiments it was demonstrated that the study of antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of different food groups allows to perform a preliminary assessment of their pro-oxidant-antioxidant capacity. It have been shown that some food prevails ability to exert pro-oxidant effects (in vitro) due to the short-term induction of free radical oxidation. Thus, among the fresh juices the increase of the maximum of flash chemiluminescence has been detected in avocado (1080, 89%) and pearjuices (136,33%), whereas the lowest ability to enhance the intensity of free radical processes has been marked for pomegranate (1,63%), orange (9, 68%) and apples juices (12, 84%). Among milk products it has been marked for sour milk (9, 06%) and yogurt (15, 11-16,02%), that allows the use of the past to correct pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance diet for people with potential danger gain peroxide processes, such as special physiological states, sport endurance, mental and emotional overload. The ability to increase the intensity of free radical oxidation have been also identified for snacks, especially buns, biscuits, bread sticks, showing the risk of formation of oxidative stress in the body during their prolonged use, particularly under the above described conditions. In some cases, foods (processed cheese and cheese curds) showed dominance factors sustained oxidative effect (in 2,1-20,7%), that indicates the possibility of an imbalance in the pro-oxidant-antioxidant system after its prolonged use in the diet, even in small quantities, especially in individuals with a reduced level of antioxidant potential of the nonspecific defense system. Investigation of antioxidant activity of foods revealed significant predominance of reducing equivalents in all freshly squeezed and some packaged fruit juices, as well as dairy products, indicating their possibility to increase the capacity of reducing components of

  8. Trans fatty acids (tFA: sources and intake levels, biological effects and content in commercial Spanish food Ácidos grasos trans (AGt: fuentes y niveles de ingesta, efectos biológicos y contenido en los alimentos comerciales españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-M. Fernández-San Juan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of dietary habits in children and adolescents performed in Spain show that a high percentage of the daily energy intake corresponds to fat (42.0-43.0%. These findings show an excessive contribution of saturated fatty acids and also a considerable supply of trans fatty acids. These compounds are formed generally during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that converts vegetable oils into semisolid fats. Also, in some cases naturally occurring trans fatty acids in smaller amounts in meat and dairy products from ruminants (cows, sheep, these trans fatty acids are produced by the action of bacteria in the ruminant stomach by reactions of biohydrogenation. On the other hand, metabolic studies have clearly shown that trans fatty acids increase LDL cholesterol and reduce HDL cholesterol. Our results show that major sources of trans fatty acids in commercial Spanish foods are fast-food (hamburger, French fries, snacks, bakery products (cakes, donuts, biscuits, margarines and dehydrated soups.Estudios recientes sobre los hábitos alimentarios de niños y adolescentes llevados a cabo en nuestro país revelan que un alto porcentaje de las calorías que se ingieren en estos colectivos corresponden a las grasas (42,0-43,0%. Estos estudios muestran que existe una excesiva ingesta de ácidos grasos saturados y un preocupante incremento de la ingesta de ácidos grasos trans. Estos compuestos se forman generalmente en el proceso de hidrogenación catalítica parcial de los aceites vegetales comestibles, proceso que los convierte en grasas semisólidas, aunque en algunos casos también están presentes en pequeñas cantidades en carnes, leche y productos lácteos procedentes de animales rumiantes (vacas y ovejas ya que se originan de forma natural en reacciones de biohidrogenación producidas por la florabacteriana en el estómago de estos animales. Por otro lado, estudios metabólicos han demostrado que los ácidos grasos trans

  9. SiC基复相陶瓷凝胶注模成型工艺研究进展%Research Progress on Gelcasting of SiC-Based Multiphase Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚萍; 王榕林; 张军伟

    2015-01-01

    Domestic and foreign scholars successfully prepared SiC multiphase ceramics, which had high strength, good thermal shock resistance, high thermal conductivity and excellent chemical corrosion, by adding different kinds of oxides, nitrides or oxynitrides to the SiC material. SiC multiphase ceramics effectively solved the hard sintering of pure SiC ceramics. Gelcasting which can near-net-shape produce large-size complex ceramic pieces is a novel technology for the preparation of ceramics. It is one of the most commonly used methods for the preparation of SiC multiphase ceramics in recent years. This paper reviewed the gelcasting process for SiC-based multiphase ceramics from several aspects such as the slurry preparation, the slurry solidiifcation and the biscuit drying, analyzed the existing problems and predicted its future developments.%国内外学者通过向SiC材料中添加不同种类的氧化物、氮化物或氧氮化物等制备出了强度高、抗热震性好、热导率高、耐化学腐蚀性优良的SiC基复相陶瓷,同时也有效地解决了纯SiC陶瓷难以烧结致密的问题。凝胶注模成型是新型陶瓷制备技术,能近净尺寸制备大尺寸、复杂形状的陶瓷坯体,是近些年来制备SiC基复相陶瓷最常用的成型方法之一。本文从SiC基复相陶瓷的浆料制备、浆料固化及素坯干燥等方面综述了SiC基复相陶瓷凝胶注模成型工艺,分析了其目前存在的一些问题及未来的发展方向。

  10. Experiential learning for education on Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, Antonella; D'Addezio, Giuliana; Todaro, Riccardo; Scipilliti, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    The Laboratorio Divulgazione Scientifica e Attività Museali of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV's Laboratory for Outreach and Museum Activities) in Rome, organizes every year intense educational and outreach activities to convey scientific knowledge and to promote research on Earth Science, focusing on volcanic and seismic hazard. Focusing on kids, we designed and implemented the "greedy laboratory for children curious on science (Laboratorio goloso per bambini curiosi di scienza)", to intrigue children from primary schools and to attract their interest by addressing in a fun and unusual way topics regarding the Earth, seismicity and seismic risk. We performed the "greedy laboratory" using experiential teaching, an innovative method envisaging the use and handling commonly used substances. In particular, in the "greedy laboratory" we proposed the use of everyday life's elements, such as food, to engage, entertain and convey in a simple and interesting communication approach notions concerning Earth processes. We proposed the initiative to public during the "European Researchers Night" in Rome, on September 26, 2014. Children attending the "greedy laboratory", guided by researchers and technicians, had the opportunity to become familiar with scientific concepts, such as the composition of the Earth, the Plate tectonics, the earthquake generation, the propagation of seismic waves and their shaking effects on the anthropogenic environment. During the hand-on laboratory, each child used not harmful substances such as honey, chocolate, flour, barley, boiled eggs and biscuits. At the end, we administered a questionnaire rating the proposed activities, first evaluating the level of general satisfaction of the laboratory and then the various activities in which it was divided. This survey supplied our team with feedbacks, revealing some precious hints on appreciation and margins of improvement. We provided a semi-quantitative assessment with a

  11. An organic khorasan wheat-based replacement diet improves risk profile of patients with acute coronary syndrome: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Anne; Sofi, Francesco; Luisi, Maria Luisa Eliana; Rafanelli, Elena; Fiorillo, Claudia; Becatti, Matteo; Abbate, Rosanna; Casini, Alessandro; Gensini, Gian Franco; Benedettelli, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    Khorasan wheat is an ancient grain with previously reported health benefits in clinically healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to examine whether a replacement diet, thereby substituting all other cereal grains, with products made with organic khorasan wheat could provide additive protective effects in reducing lipid, oxidative and inflammatory risk factors, in patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) in comparison to a similar replacement diet using products made from organic modern wheat. A randomized double-blinded crossover trial with two intervention phases was conducted on 22 ACS patients (9 F; 13 M). The patients were assigned to consume products (bread, pasta, biscuits and crackers) made either from organic semi-whole khorasan wheat or organic semi-whole control wheat for eight weeks in a random order. On average, patients ingested 62.0 g dry weight (DW) day-1 khorasan or control semolina; and 140.5 g DW day-1 khorasan or control flour, respectively. An eight-week washout period was implemented between the respective interventions. Blood analyses were performed both at the beginning and end of each intervention phase; thereby permitting a comparison of both the khorasan and control intervention phases, respectively, on circulatory risk factors for the same patient. Consumption of products made with khorasan wheat resulted in a significant amelioration in total cholesterol (-6.8%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (-8.1%) glucose (-8%) and insulin (-24.6%) from baseline levels, independently of age, sex, traditional risk factors, medication and diet quality. Moreover, there was a significant reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipoperoxidation of circulating monocytes and lymphocytes, as well as in the levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha. No significant differences from baseline in the same patients were observed after the conventional control wheat intervention phase. The present results suggest that a replacement diet with

  12. An Organic Khorasan Wheat-Based Replacement Diet Improves Risk Profile of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Whittaker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Khorasan wheat is an ancient grain with previously reported health benefits in clinically healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to examine whether a replacement diet, thereby substituting all other cereal grains, with products made with organic khorasan wheat could provide additive protective effects in reducing lipid, oxidative and inflammatory risk factors, in patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS in comparison to a similar replacement diet using products made from organic modern wheat. A randomized double-blinded crossover trial with two intervention phases was conducted on 22 ACS patients (9 F; 13 M. The patients were assigned to consume products (bread, pasta, biscuits and crackers made either from organic semi-whole khorasan wheat or organic semi-whole control wheat for eight weeks in a random order. On average, patients ingested 62.0 g dry weight (DW day−1 khorasan or control semolina; and 140.5 g DW day−1 khorasan or control flour, respectively. An eight-week washout period was implemented between the respective interventions. Blood analyses were performed both at the beginning and end of each intervention phase; thereby permitting a comparison of both the khorasan and control intervention phases, respectively, on circulatory risk factors for the same patient. Consumption of products made with khorasan wheat resulted in a significant amelioration in total cholesterol (−6.8%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (−8.1% glucose (−8% and insulin (−24.6% from baseline levels, independently of age, sex, traditional risk factors, medication and diet quality. Moreover, there was a significant reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS, lipoperoxidation of circulating monocytes and lymphocytes, as well as in the levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha. No significant differences from baseline in the same patients were observed after the conventional control wheat intervention phase. The present results suggest that a

  13. Update on acrylamide levels in food from monitoring years 2007 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Recommendations on the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food by the European Commission (EC were extended in 2010 (EC, 2010. The new Recommendation includes a revised categorisation of food products for monitoring purposes. This report describes the results of European acrylamide monitoring during the period from 2007 to 2010 using the revised product categorisation with 10 main food categories and an additional 26 sub-categories. Twenty-five European countries submitted a total of 13 162 acrylamide results for the four-year period including 2 200 results for the year 2010. During the monitoring period, time trends in acrylamide levels for the food categories were estimated. In 2010, middle bound mean acrylamide values ranged from 31 μg/kg for ‘other processed cereal based foods for infants and young children’ to 1 350 μg/kg for ‘coffee substitutes’. The highest 95th percentile value of 8 044 μg/kg was reported for ‘instant coffee’. The trend analysis showed only few changes in acrylamide levels from 2007 to 2010. At main food category level, a ‘common European trend’ was a decrease in acrylamide levels for ‘processed cereal based foods for infants and young children’ and an increase for ‘coffee and coffee substitutes’. As a ‘common European trend’ at sub-category level, acrylamide levels of ‘biscuits and rusks for infants and young children’ and ‘non-potato savoury snacks’ showed a decrease and an increase was seen for ‘crisp bread’. A marginal decrease was observed for the sub-category ‘other processed cereal based foods for infants and young children’ and a marginal increase was observed for ‘French fries from fresh potatoes’ as well as for ‘instant coffee’. Although only applicable from 2011, acrylamide levels were compared with indicative values recommended by the EC. Indicative values were exceeded in the case of 3-20 % of samples in different food categories based on

  14. Iron deficiency in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, A F

    1982-06-01

    prevented iron-deficiency anaemia in pregnancy. Field-trials on nutritional iron deficiency include an acidified milk formula plus ferrous sulphate for infants; biscuits with added bovine hemoglobin for children in Chile; sugar plus sodium ferric EDTA in Guatemala; salt with ferric orthophosphate and sodium acid sulphate in India; and Salt with ferrous sulphate plus sodium hexametaphosphate. PMID:7042157

  15. 无需衍生化样品处理快速测定食品中黄曲霉毒素B1%Rapid determination of aflatoxin B1 in foods without derivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳; 黎琳琳; 刘绪斌; 沙力; 李艳美; 储晓刚; 粟有志; 雷红琴

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立无需衍生化法-超高效液相色谱直接测定食品中的黄曲霉毒素 B1的快速检测方法。方法样品经甲醇-水(7:3, v:v)提取,免疫亲和柱净化, C18色谱柱分离后,采用大体积流通池荧光检测器检测。结果黄曲霉毒素B1在0.10~5.00 ng/mL范围内与峰面积呈良好线性关系, R2>0.999,在饼干、粉丝、点心、沙琪玛、蛋糕、辣椒酱6种基质中,黄曲霉毒素B1在0.50~2.00μg/kg范围内加标,平均回收率在71.7%~111.2%之间,相对标准偏差(RSDs)为3.8%~11.5%,检出限(LOD)为0.05μg/kg。结论本方法灵敏、快速、无衍生、结果准确,能够满足食品中黄曲霉毒素B1残留的检测需求。%Objective To establish a rapid determination of aflatoxin B1 in food by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) without derivation method. Methods Samples were extracted with methanol water (7:3, v:v), cleaned up by immuno-affinity column, separated by C18 column, and determined by fluorescence detector with large volume flow cell. Results High correlation coefficient (r2>0.999) was obtained in the linear range of 0.10~5.00 ng/mL. The average recovery rates were 71.7%~111.2% at the spiked level of 0.50~2.00 μg/kg and relative standard deviation(RSD) was 3.8%~11.5% in biscuit, vermicelli, refreshment, sacima, cakes, and chili sauce. The limit of quantitation (LOD) was 0.05μg/kg. Conclusion This method is sensitive, rapid, non-derived, and accurate, and it can meet the requirements for determination of aflatoxin B1 in foods.

  16. Changes in physical properties of extruded sour cassava starch and quinoa flour blend snacks Mudanças nas propriedades físicas de snacks extrusados de misturas de polvilho azedo e farinha de quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Giolo Taverna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the broad acceptance of sour cassava starch biscuits in Brazil and the nutritional quality of quinoa flour, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, moisture, and amount of quinoa flour on the physical properties of puffed snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Effects of moisture and amount of quinoa flour on the expansion index and specific volume of snacks were observed. There was a pronounced increase in water solubility index of blends with the extrusion process with significant effects of all process parameters on the WSI. Higher water absorption index (WAI was observed under high temperature, low moisture, and lower quinoa flour amount. Temperature and amount of quinoa flour influenced the color of the snacks. A positive quadratic effect of quinoa flour on hardness of products was observed. Blends of sour cassava starch and quinoa flour have good potential for use as raw material in production of extruded snacks with good physical properties.Dada a ampla aceitação do biscoito de polvilho azedo no Brasil e a qualidade nutricional da farinha de quinoa, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da temperatura de extrusão, rotação da rosca, umidade e porcentagem de farinha de quinoa sobre as propriedades físicas de snacks expandidos. O processo foi realizado em extrusor monorrosca, seguindo o delineamento central composto rotacional para quatro fatores. Foi observado o efeito da umidade e da porcentagem de farinha de quinoa sobre o índice de expansão e volume específico. Houve um aumento pronunciado na solubilidade das misturas com o processo de extrusão, com efeitos significativos de todos os parâmetros de processo no ISA. Maior índice de absorção de água (IAA foi observado em alta temperatura, baixa umidade e menor porcentagem de farinha de quinoa. Temperatura e porcentagem de farinha de

  17. GlutenTox® Pro Test for the Detection of Gluten in Select Foods and Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Síglez, Miguel A; Nocea, Bárbara; del Mar Pérez, María; Ma García, Eva; León, Laura; Galera, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The GlutenTox® Pro Test is an immunochromatographic test for the detection of gluten in foods and on surfaces with varying compositions and levels of processing, from raw foods/ingredients to final product testing. The Method Developer evaluation for the validation of the GlutenTox Pro Test Kit (Biomedal Diagnostics, Sevilla, Spain) for the detection of gluten in foods and on surfaces was conducted at Biomedal, S. L., Camas, Sevilla, Spain. The GlutenTox Pro test method was evaluated by testing the following: cross-reactivity, interference, specificity and sensitivity, robustness, stability, lot-to-lot variation, food matrix, and environmental surface. To evaluate the performance of the GlutenToxPro test for the detection of gluten, 10 matrixes were selected: rice flour, bread/biscuit, rolled oat, pâté, and yogurt (and a second bread matrix for incurred sampled testing) for the food matrix study and food-grade painted wood, plastic, rubber, sealed ceramic, and stainless steel for the environmental surface matrix study. For the food matrix study, 30 replicates were evaluated at six spiked levels of gluten (0, 3, 8, 15, 25, and 45 ppm) against four detection thresholds (5, 10, 20, and 40 ppm) for each food matrix. Additionally, 10 replicates were evaluated at a concentration of 10,000 ppm using all four detection thresholds only for rice flour matrix. Three replicates of each concentration level of gluten were analyzed using paired samples by the AOAC OMA 2012.01 reference method for each food matrix. For the environmental surface study, 30 replicates were evaluated at a low spike level of gluten (16 ng/16 cm2), five replicates at a high spike level of gluten (400 ng/16 cm2), and five replicates at an unspiked control level (0 ng/16 cm2) for each surface matrix. Upon completion of testing, the probability of detection values and confidence intervals were calculated and plotted versus the concentration level as determined by the reference method when applicable. An

  18. Simultaneous determination of natural sweeteners in pastries by high performance liquid chromatographic%高效液相色谱法同时检测糕点中几种天然甜味剂的探索研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健; 林真; 陈驰; 钱疆; 张玉燕; 陈章捷; 杨方

    2012-01-01

    The High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPIC) method was used to determine the Stevioside, Re-baudioside A, Glycyrrhizic Acid and Glycyrrhetinic Acid in Moon cake, biscuit, and bread. The column was Agillent ZOBAX Eclips XDB C18(250 ×4. 6mm,5μm). Hie results from three levels of six parallel recovery experiments were analyzed by external method, and it showed that the peak area and the standard solution in the range of 5.0 ~ 100μg/mL had a good linear relationship,with a correlation coefficient of more than 0.999. The extraction recoveries were between 80.0%-105% and the RSD was less than 7. 5%.This method is accurate,simple,rapid and cost less.%主要探讨应用高效液相色谱法同时检测月饼、饼干、面包等糕点食品中的甜菊糖苷、甜菊双糖苷、甘草酸、甘草次酸.以Agillent ZOBAX Eclips XDB C18(250 ×4.6mm,5μm)色谱柱为分析柱,确立了糕点中的天然甜味剂甜菊糖苷、甜菊双糖苷、甘草酸、甘草次酸的高效液相色谱检测法.通过三水平六平行的添加回收实验,对方法的回收率和精密度作了分析探讨,结果用外标法定量分析,在所确定的实验条件下,峰面积和标准溶液浓度在5.0 - 100μg/mL范围内呈良好线性关系,线性系数大于0.999,回收率为80.0%~105%,RSD均小于7.5%.本方法方法准确、简捷、耗材低廉,可以应用于糕点中甜菊糖苷、甜菊双糖苷、甘草酸、甘草次酸的同时测定.

  19. Monitoring of Food-borne Pathogens in Ya'an in 2011%2011年雅安市食源性病原菌监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓉; 熊建明; 杨振宇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the major pathogens in food - borne illness caused by food contamination in Ya'an ctiy and to improve capabilities of detection, early warning and control of food - borne illness in Ya'an. Methods According to Workbook of Monitoring Food - borne Pathogens in 2011 (Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention) , 9 kinds of food were detected. Results A total of 180 samples included in 9 kinds (20 samples for each kind) were detected. Coliforms were found in following 8 kinds of food: cooked meat, frozen cooked rice products, ready - to - eat fermented soy products, infant formula powder and infant corn -based complementary food, cakes and biscuits, cold dishes, fresh fruit and vegetable juices, rice noodles, Liangpi, noodles and boxed meal. The detection rates were respectively 25% , 20% , 60% , 10% , 30% , 50% , 40% and 20%. The detection rates of mold in frozen of cooked rice products, pastries and cookies were 100% ; staphyhcoccus aureus in fresh fruit and vegetable juices, 5% ; monocytogenes listeria monocytogenes in frozen cooked rice products, 5%. Salmonella, Escherichia coli 0157, Shigella, Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus bacteria were not found in all the samples. Conclusion The sanitary situations of bulks or self - made direct - eat food, such as ready - to - eat fermented soy products, cold dishes, fresh fruit and vegetable juices, frozen cooked rice products, cakes and biscuits are not optimistic.The supervision and regulation of such kinds of food should be strengthened to secure food consumption.%目的 了解雅安市食品污染中引起食源性疾病的重要致病菌,提高雅安地区食源性疾病检测、预警和控制能力.方法 按照中国疾病预防控制中心营养与食品安全所《2011年食源性致病菌监测工作手册》,检测9大类食品.结果 抽检9大类食品各20件,共计180件.熟肉制品、速冻熟制米面制品、即食非发酵性

  20. Development and Shelf-life Evaluation of Waxy Wheat Flour Bread%糯小麦面包的研制及货架期预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 张焕新

    2015-01-01

    Waxy wheat flour have some specific physicochemical properties compared with those of normal wheat starch, it was used to extend the shelf-life of bread in this paper. With the organoleptic score as the index, single-factor and orthogonal experiments were carried out to design the optimum formula of resistant starch bread as follows:waxy wheat flour, 12.0%;yeast, 1.6%;sugar, 7.0%;cream, 4.0%, the proportion of waxy wheat flour and yeast have significant influence to the sensory quality of bread. The organoleptic , physicochemical, and health indices of the bread produced using the optimum formula were measured. The results showed that the resistant starch biscuits had the advantages of uniform color (golden yellow), intact appearance, pure flavor, soft and delicate taste, no sticking to teeth, and no grainy taste. All the physicochemical and health indices met national standards. The shelf-life of bread was measured by the method of accelerated shelf-life testing, and it was approximately13 d, and the results indicated the waxy wheat flour prolong the shelf-life of bread significantly compared with the white bread (<7 d).%糯小麦粉具有独特的理化特性,将其添加到面包中可以制作出货架期较长的面包。以面包的感官品质为评价指标,考察糯小麦粉、酵母、白砂糖、奶油添加量对糯小麦面包品质的影响,通过单因素和正交试验设计优化糯小麦面包的最佳配方,结果表明:糯小麦粉对面包感官品质影响最大,其次是酵母、奶油和白砂糖。糯小麦面包的最佳配比为:糯小麦粉12.0%、酵母1.6%、白砂糖7.0%、奶油4.0%。由此配比制得的糯小麦面包表面金黄、色泽均匀、形态饱满、口感纯正、松软可口,各项指标均符合国家标准。通过ASLT法预测糯小麦面包的货架期得出:储藏温度20℃和湿度60%的条件下,糯小麦面包的货架期大约为13 d,比市售白面包的货架期(<7 d)有显著提高。

  1. EDITORIAL: Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation Systems for the Food and Beverage Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong

    2006-02-01

    Advanced sensors and instrumentation systems are becoming increasingly important in the classification, characterization, authentication, quality control and safety management of food products and beverages. To bring together industrialists and academic researchers to discuss the latest developments and trends in this particular area, the ISAT (Instrument Science and Technology) Group of the Institute of Physics organized a highly focused one-day technical meeting, which was held at the Rutherford Conference Centre at the Institute of Physics in London on 15 December 2004. The event was co-sponsored by the Measurement, Sensors, Instrumentation and NDT Professional Network of the Institution of Electrical Engineers and the Measurement Science and Technology Panel of the Institute of Measurement and Control. The special feature in this issue (on pages 229 287) brings together a collection of some of the papers that were presented at the event. Also included in the special feature are two relevant papers that were submitted through the usual route. Technical topics covered, though wide ranging as reflected in part by the diversity of the papers, demonstrate recent developments and possible approaches that may offer solutions to a broad range of sensing and measurement problems in the food and beverage industries. The first paper, reported by Sheridan et al, is concerned with the quality monitoring of chicken, sausages and pastry products during their cooking processes using an optical fibre-based sensing system. Carter et al describe how digital imaging and image processing techniques have been applied to achieve the classification and authentication of rice grains. The challenges in the measurement and control of final moisture content in baked food products such as bread and biscuits are addressed and discussed by McFarlane. Juodeikiene et al report their progress in the development of acoustic echolocation-based techniques for the evaluation of porosity and

  2. 长江中下游麦区小麦品质改良设想%Concept on Wheat Quality Improvement in Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高德荣; 张晓; 张伯桥; 朱冬梅; 吕国锋

    2013-01-01

    fractions and gluten strength to breed high quality moderate gluten wheat.(3) Use the deficiency of Waxy protein subunits to breed weak-gluten wheat with good starch characteristics,which is acceptable for noodle making when its protein and gluten content is higher for biscuits due to over fertilizered or bad weather,but not sufficient for noodle making,and the insufficient can be compensated by its good starch characteristic.

  3. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275±31mg Ca; 20.7±1.9μg Cr; 5.7±0.4mg Fe; 861±46mg K; 9.44±0.48μg Se; 1928±278mg Na; 4.25±0.24mg Zn; 1.53±0.43μg As and 1.31±0.16μg Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market Basket of this study represented

  4. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc); Estudo de dieta total no Estado de Sao Paulo: estimativa de ingestao dietetica de elementos toxicos (arsenio e cadmio) e essenciais (calcio, cromo, ferro, selenio, sodio, potassio e zinco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane Pagliaro

    2009-07-01

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275{+-}31mg Ca; 20.7{+-}1.9{mu}g Cr; 5.7{+-}0.4mg Fe; 861{+-}46mg K; 9.44{+-}0.48{mu}g Se; 1928{+-}278mg Na; 4.25{+-}0.24mg Zn; 1.53{+-}0.43{mu}g As and 1.31{+-}0.16{mu}g Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market

  5. About Microbial Contamination in Ready-to-eat Cold food Situation Inves-tigation and Analysis%关于即食凉拌食品中微生物污染情况的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷少华

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查分析即食凉拌食品中微生物的污染情况,旨在提高本市对食源性疾病的防控能力,保障居民的饮食安全。方法依据《食源性疾病监测技术指南》中对食源性疾病的相关检测标准,收集本市部分饭店、超市中的230份即食凉拌食品样品,并对微生物污染情况进行检测,包括大肠菌群、金黄色葡萄球菌、酵母菌、沙门菌、志贺菌、溶血性链球菌等。结果所有检测样品中合格样品有70份,总合格率为30.43%;其中合格率最高的样品为夹心饼干类,合格率为86.67%,其他样品的合格率较低,其中最低的为非发酵豆制品类,为15.56%;与冬春季相比,夏秋季检测样品的合格率较低,为20.33%,比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);定型包装样品的合格率明显高于简易包装的样品合格率(P<0.05)。结论该市即食凉拌食品的卫生状况较差,某些食品存在食源性致病菌,所以说有关部门应加大食品安全监测力度,保障食品安全。%Objective To investigate the analysis of microorganisms in ready-to-eat cold food pollution situation, aimed at improving the region of foodborne disease prevention and control capabilities, to ensure the safety of residents' diet. Meth-ods On the basis of the food-borne disease surveillance technology guide of foodborne disease in the related testing stan-dard, collect the region part 230 ready-to-eat cold food samples in a supermarket, hotel and to test the microbial contami-nation condition, including coliforms, staphylococcus aureus, yeast, salmonella, shigella, hemolytic streptococcus, etc. Re-sults All samples in 70 qualified samples, the percent of pass is 30.43%; One of the highest qualified rate of samples for the sandwich biscuit, percent of pass is 86.67%, other sample qualified rate is low, the lowest for the fermentation of soy products, 15.56%; Compared with the winter, summer fall

  6. 2012年十堰市流通环节食品卫生质量监测结果%Monitoring results of food hygiene quality in circulation link of Shiyan City in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王滨; 高景枝

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To understand food hygiene quality status,and provide a scientific basis for strengthening the food quality and safety,preventing and controlling the foodborne illness in Shiyan City.[Methods] The spot cooked meat products,cakes and biscuits were randomly selected from bazaars,supermarkets and street delis in ShiyanCity.The results were analyzed.[Results] A total of 205 samples were collected,69 (33.66%) were qualified,116(56.59%) were qualified for total bacterial count,98 (47.80%) were qualified for coliform bacteria.The qualified rate of nitrite in cooked meat and meat products was 99.28%,and it was 100% in acid number and peroxide value of cakes.No pathogen was detected in food.There was significant difference between different management premises such as street delis and bazaars (x2 =10.05,P < 0.05).[Conclnsion] The microbial contamination of cooked meat and meat products is more serious,especially the health products in the country trade market.There is a risk of food poisoning hazards in cooked meat and meat products which should attract more attention from the health supervision departments.%目的 了解十堰市流通环节食品质量状况,为加强该市流通环节食品质量安全监管、预防和控制食源性疾病的发生提供科学依据.方法 于2012年,以十堰城区集贸市场、超市、临街熟食店为重点区域,现场制售的熟肉类及制品、糕点饼干为重点监测对象,按不定向随机的原则进行卫生质量抽查,并对结果进行分析.结果 抽检样品205份,合格69份,总合格率为33.66%;菌落总数合格116份,合格率56.59%;大肠菌群合格98份,合格率47.80%;熟肉类及制品的亚硝酸盐合格率99.28%;糕点类酸价、过氧化值合格率100%;均未检出致病菌.在临街店和集贸市场等不同经营场所中抽检的食品合格率差异有统计学意义(x2=10.05,P<0.05).结论 现场制售熟肉类及制品被微生物污染程度

  7. Monitoring of Food - borne Pathogens in Yongzhou City in 2011%2011年永州市食源性致病菌监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蓉; 唐旭辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of food - bome pathogens contamination in market - sold foods in Yongzhou, Hunan Province. Methods The food -bome pathogens, including Salmonella spp. , Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Shigella spp., Escherichia coli O157 :H7 and Enterobacter sakaza-kii were detected according to the Handbook of National Surveillance Network on Food - borne Diseases in 2011. Results Totally 20 strains of pathogens were identified in the 198 samples collected from cooked meat products, egg products, quick frozen cooked rice products, ready - to - use non- fermented soybean products, cakes or biscuit, cold and dressed vegetable, fresh fruits or vegetables juice, rice noodles (fast foods, rice noodles and cold noodles) and infant foods, with a total detection rate of 10.10%. Among 9 kinds of foods samples detected, the pathogen detection rate of quick frozen cooked rice products was the highest (27.27%). The pathogen detection rates in cooked meat products, rice noodles, cakes, cold and dressed vegetable, fresh fruits or vegetables juice and infant foods were 18.18%, 18.18%, 9.09%, 9.09%, 4.55% and4.55%, respectively. Conclusions The market - sold foods in Yongzhou Gty, especially the quick frozen cooked rice products, cooked meat products and rice noodles, are contaminated to by pathogens some extend. The food supervision and law enforcement departments should pay more attention to monitoring these food products so as to decrease and prevent the food - borne diseases effectively.%目的 了解湖南省永州市食品中食源性致病菌污染状况.方法 依据国家食源性疾病监测网2011年度工作手册,进行沙门菌、单增李斯特菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、蜡样芽孢杆菌、志贺菌、大肠埃希菌O157、阪崎肠杆菌的检测.结果 检测熟肉制品、蛋制品、速冻熟制米面制品、即食非发酵性豆制品、糕点及饼干、凉拌菜、鲜榨果蔬

  8. Avaliação do consumo e análise da rotulagem nutricional de alimentos com alto teor de ácidos graxos trans Consumption and analysis of nutricional label of foods with high content of trans fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ribeiro Dias

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, diversos estudos vêm sendo realizados visando avaliar os efeitos dos ácidos graxos trans sobre o organismo e identificar seu mecanismo de ação. Entretanto, somente a cerca de um ano, este item foi incluído na rotulagem nutricional obrigatória brasileira, permitindo ao consumidor controlar o consumo de ácidos graxos trans. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a adequação de alguns alimentos com alto teor de ácidos graxos trans (biscoitos, sorvetes, chocolates e fast-food frente à legislação pertinente e, ainda, o consumo diário por adultos e crianças observando a recomendação da OMS. A avaliação da rotulagem nutricional demonstrou que a maioria das amostras analisadas ainda não se adequou à nova legislação. Com base na análise dos questionários de consumo, identificou-se que 39,7% dos adultos e 41,4% das crianças consomem, diariamente, pelo menos um alimento com alto teor de ácidos graxos trans. Observou-se ainda, através do consumo estimado, que a ingestão parcial ou total destes produtos ultrapassa a recomendação diária para adultos (2 g e crianças (1 ano-0,8 g e 10 anos-1,9 g. Assim, uma atuação efetiva dos órgãos de fiscalização e a promoção de ações educativas visando à menor utilização desses produtos na alimentação deveriam ser estimuladas.Several studies have been carried over the last decades aiming at evaluating the effects of trans fatty acids on the organism and identifying their mechanism. However, only around one year ago it was included by law in the mandatory Brazilian nutritional food labeling. It now enables the consumer to control the consumption of trans fatty acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the compliance of foods with high content of trans fatty acids (biscuits, ice cream, chocolate, and fast-food with the legislation and the daily consumption recommendation by the OMS. The evaluation of Nutrition labeling indicated that some

  9. 福安市城乡学龄前儿童膳食与营养状况调查%Survey on dietary and nutritional status of children in urban and rural areas in Fu'an City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂芳; 徐英; 刘长节

    2011-01-01

    difference in underweight rate is not significant between these two groups ( P > 0.05 ). It comes to the conclusion that the nutrients in meals of children are somewhat unbalanced. Simple breakfast including a little mount of milk, biscuit or bread tends to result in the lack of vitamins, iron, zinc, calcium, protein and other important elements,even some children are sent to nursery without breakfast, thus it causes the shortage of three catgories of nutrients. Conclusion In view of this condition, we are obliged to carry out health education for nutritional knowledge for dietary taking and put it into "good pregnancy and good rearing" education for women at marriageable age, and set approach for monitoring the growth of children as well as their nutritional intake. and enhancing the health guidance for meals of children.

  10. Prepackaged polymer - modified mortar proves effective construction material - field and laboratory observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hi-Bond - prepackaged polymer - modified mortar described in this paper is a revolutionary, multifunctional, high-tech, high performance, sustainable, durability improving group of construction materials with a high cost - benefit ratio. Hi-Bond has been developed by Dadabhoy Construction Technologies (Pvt) Ltd., (DCTL), Karachi, after extensive studies and research both locally and abroad. It can be used in floorings and pavings, integral waterproofing, adhesive applications, protective and decorative coatings, repairs, renovation, rehabilitation, anti corrosive linings, deck coverings, durability and efficiency improvement of canal linings and other hydraulic structures. Hi-Bond has been applied in various projects of national importance with great success for their repairs, renovation and rehabilitation and has also been tested and evaluated at various laboratories with highly encouraging results. Some examples include: (i) earthquake damaged bridge at Lora Nallah on Brewery Road, Quetta, (ii) fire damaged building of the daily Business Recorder House, Karachi, (iii) 200 - year old main dome of the tomb of Hazrat Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Bhitshah, Hyderabad, (iv) RCC shell roofs of Mehtab Biscuit and Wafers Factory, Sahiwal, (v) repair of newly built concrete floor on structural slab in a factory building at Karachi, (vi) Mohatta Palace, Clifton, Karachi, (vii) swimming pool at Okara Cantt, and (viii) numerous leaking basements, underground and overhead water reservoirs at and around Karachi including those of new vegetable market on super highway. Building Research Station, Government of the Punjab, Lahore also recommended the use of Hi-Bond in the applications mentioned above after testing and evaluation. The product was found easy in application and offered numerous technical and economical advantages, over conventional products, in variety of applications. It is important to note that shortly after the repairs and renovation of the building of the daily

  11. Studies on the trans-fatty acids and the stability of the fats present in Indian bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariff, R.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fat is one of the most important ingredients in baked products which is highly susceptible to heat and moisture. Therefore, this study has been conducted to assess the thermoxidative changes occurring in the fat as well as the extent to which trans-fatty acids are present. Fats were extracted from products like rusk, white bread, sweet bun, dilkhush, pizza, plain cake, vegetable roll, gluco-biscuits and wafers. These fats and control shortening samples were taken for study. The totox value was found to be high (4.0-30.9 whereas the free fatty acid, peroxide and anisidine values were, 0.31-0.90%, 1.2-11.0 and 11.6-8.9 respectively. Since the products are baked at 180 to 200 °C polar components were determined to be between 3.3 to 5.3% showing a moderate hydrolysis and oxidative changes. Iodine value (51.0 to 73.3 and the Butyro-refractometer reading (42.2 to 55.8 showed moderate unsaturation and all the samples melted below 37 °C. Trans-fatty acid ranged from 35.5 to 46.2% as has also been confirmed by FT-IR. The products selected were considered safe but nutritionally inferior to products prepared with liquid shortenings.La grasa es uno de los ingredientes más importantes de los productos horneados altamente susceptible al calor y la humedad. Se han realizado estudios para evaluar los cambios termoxidativos ocurridos en las grasas y también la presencia de ácidos grasos trans. Las grasas se extrajeron de productos como galletas, pan blanco, pan dulce, Dilkhush, pizza, pastel, rollo vegetal, gluco-galletas y barquillos. Se utilizaron en este estudio las grasas extraidas de los mencionados productos, así como muestras control de shortening. Los valor encontrados de índice Totox fueron altos (4,0-30,9 en tanto que los porcentajes de ácidos grasos libres (%, índice de peróxido y anisidina fueron, 0,31-0,90, 1,2-11,0 y 11,6- 8,9, respectivamente. Puesto que los productos se hornean entre 180-200 °C se determinaron los componentes polares

  12. 慢消化淀粉对面团粉质特性的影响%Effects of slow digestible starch on the farinograph properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽平; 黄强; 赵瞳

    2012-01-01

    The effects of slow digestible starch on the farinograph properties were studied. Wheat starch, high amylose starch (Hylon V) and slow digestible starch were added to high-gluten wheat flour, and the farinograph properties and tensile properties of the mixed flour were investigated. The results showed that: The mixed flour including wheat starch and Hylon V had a decrease in stable time, formation time and farinograph evaluation values,but increase in the degree of weakening;wheat starch had great effect on the farinograph properties, the stable time, formation time and evaluation value reduced by 6. 8 min, 0. 7 min and 22 scores, respectively;and the weakening degree increased by 55 BU. However, for the mixed flour adding slow digestible starch, the stable time, formation time and the evaluation value were increased 3. 2 min,0. 7 min and 38 scores, respectively; the weakening degree reduced to zero, and the dough had good tensile strength and toughness properties. The results showed that the mixed flour contained 25% slow digestible starch was suitable to making special dietary such as soft biscuits.%为研究慢消化淀粉对面团粉质的影响,将小麦淀粉、高链玉米淀粉( Hylon V)和慢消化淀粉按不同比例添加到高筋小麦粉中,分析混合粉的粉质特性和拉伸特性.结果表明,添加小麦淀粉和高链玉米淀粉的混合粉的稳定时间、形成时间和粉质评价值都有不同程度的下降,弱化值升高,其中添加小麦淀粉对小麦粉的粉质特性影响最大,稳定时间减少了6.8 min,形成时间减少了0.7 min,评价值降低了22分,弱化值最多可升高55 BU;添加慢消化淀粉的混合粉稳定时间增加了3.2 min,形成时间增加了0.7 min,评价值增加了38分,弱化值降到0,且面团的抗拉强度大,韧性好.粉质特性研究表明,添加25%慢消化淀粉的混合粉比低筋粉更适合用来做酥性饼干等特膳食品.

  13. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL EVALUATION OF BARU (Dipteryx alata Vog. COMPONENTS FOR SHELF LIFE STUDY AVALIAÇÃO QUÍMICA E FÍSICA DE COMPONENTES DO BARU (Dipteryx alata Vog. PARA ESTUDO DA VIDA DE PRATELEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Caliari

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Agroecology, a science that studies productive relations between man and nature, and whose goal is ecological, economic, social, cultural, political, and ethical sustainability, has been increasingly used as a tool for social and cultural transformation. Within that perspective, the Brazilian Cerrado provides fruits such as baru, which is highly genetically variable, but also widely used as a source of income by the regional population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical and physical characteristics of baru pulp, along a 181-day storage period. For that purpose, weight and size analyses, centesimal analysis, monitoring of changes, and sensorial analysis of dry biscuits, in which 25% of the wheat flour was replaced by baru pulp, were carried out. Physical characteristics such as weight, length, and width did not present significant differences, during the storage period. The level of total sugars and reducers increased during the storage period, unlike the tannin level, which decreased. Baru pulp may be considered an important source of sugars and dietary fiber. In addition, the biscuits obtained satisfactory scores for both taste and appearance, on the acceptability test, and their nutritional quality increased.

    KEY-WORDS: Baru; pulp; physical and chemical analyses; kinetics; sensorial analysis

  14. Characterizing the formation of secondary organic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunden, Melissa; Black, Douglas; Brown, Nancy

    2004-02-01

    concentrations of important gas phase nitrogen compounds. Experiments have been ongoing at the Blodgett field site since the fall of 2000, and have included portions of the summer and fall of 2001, 2002, and 2003. Analysis of both the gas and particle phase data from the year 2000 show that the particle loading at the site correlates with both biogenic precursors emitted in the forest and anthropogenic precursors advected to the site from Sacramento and the Central Valley of California. Thus the particles at the site are affected by biogenic processing of anthropogenic emissions. Size distribution measurements show that the aerosol at the site has a geometric median diameter of approximately 100 nm. On many days, in the early afternoon, growth of nuclei mode particles (<20 nm) is also observed. These growth events tend to occur on days with lower average temperatures, but are observed throughout the summer. Analysis of the size resolved data for these growth events, combined with typical measured terpene emissions, show that the particle mass measured in these nuclei mode particles could come from oxidation products of biogenic emissions, and can serve as a significant route for SOA partitioning into the particle phase. During periods of each year, the effect of emissions for forest fires can be detected at the Blodgett field location. During the summer of 2002 emissions from the Biscuit fire, a large fire located in Southwest Oregon, was detected in the aerosol data. The results show that increases in particle scattering can be directly related to increased black carbon concentration and an appearance of a larger mode in the aerosol size distribution. These results show that emissions from fires can have significant impact on visibility over large distances. The results also reinforce the view that forest fires can be a significant source of black carbon in the atmosphere, which has important climate and visibility. Continuing work with the 2002 data set, particularly the

  15. 北京市海淀区8~16岁儿童少年食用十类垃圾食品现况调查及影响因素分析%Study on factors related to top 10 junk food consumption at 8 to 16 years of age,in Haidian District of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱淑萍; 丁越江; 鲁向锋; 王宏伟; 杨暮; 汪建秀; 晁晓东; 赵振

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the current situation of ten types of junk food consumption (assessed by World Health Organization) among children and adolescent as well as the contributing factors in Haidian District, Beijing so as to provide evidence for developing preventive and control measures and interventions. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the consumption of ten types of junk food practices in 1019 children and adolescent aged 8-16 years in Beijing Haidian District. Results One month prior to the study, 97.50% of the children and adolescent had eaten at least one type of junk food and 15.88 % of them had eaten all types of them. Rates on having eaten deep fried food, pickled food,processed meat products, biscuits, coke or alike drinks, convenience/fast food, canned food, dried or preserved fruit, cold and sweet food, barbecue food etc. appeared to be 70.43%, 60.14%, 79.72%,64.24 % ,69.63 %, 78.72 %, 42.16 %, 51.95 %, 68.13 %, 60.14 % respectively. The rate on eaten more than once a day of these ten types were 26.95%, 36.88%, 34.84%, 32.97%, 27.40%, 28.18%,37.91% ,26.15 % ,37.39%, 22.10% respectively. The rates for "do not like" and "dislike" these ten types junk food were 10.96% ,27.42% ,7.08% ,12.11% ,6.56% ,6.59%, 17.80%, 13.59% ,3.42%,5.19% respectively. Most of the children and adolescent ate junk food mainly during breakfast at home.Most of the surveyed children and adolescent did not have correct idea on nutrition of junk food. They received the information of junk food mainly from sources as advertisement on TV (67.95%), mother (9.02%), newspaper or magazines ( 6.71% ). Many factors, such as individual factors ( including physiological and psychological situations), social factors, family factors and the characteristics of food contributed to the eating junk food practiees of children and adolescent. Conclusion Eating junk food is a popular event among children and adolescent in Beijing Haidian District. Education strategies on

  16. Composição de lancheiras de alunos de escolas particulares de São Paulo Composición de las fiambreras de alumnos de escuelas privadas de São Paulo, Brasil Contents of students lunchboxes in private schools of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tenorio Matuk

    2011-06-01

    ños estudiados, 82% trajeron cereales, 67% jugos artificiales y otras bebidas, 65% leche y alimentos lácteos, 51% bizcocho, galletas y barras de cereales rellenas y/o con cobertura y 35% embutidos en por lo menos un día de recolección. La frecuencia de frutas y jugos naturales fue de 33% y de verduras y legumbres fue de 4%. Niñas llevaron para la escuela con más frecuencia frutas y hortalizas (pOBJETIVE: To evaluate the composition of lunchboxes of children attending second to fifth grades of private schools in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in five units of a private school, located in different regions of the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil. Every lunchbox was checked for three non-consecutive days in the year 2008. All children from second to fifth grades of these units (n=501 were studied and categorized according to the presence or absence of each food group in the lunchboxes on at least one of the three days of observation. RESULTS: Among the children studied, 82% brought cereals, 67% artificial juices and other beverages, 65% milk and dairy foods, 51% cake, biscuits and cereal bars with filling and/or icing and 35% sausages in at least one day. The frequency of students who brought fruit and natural juices was 33%, and vegetables 4%. Girls more often took fruits and vegetables to school (p<0.05. Older students more often did not carry lunchboxes to the school, compared to younger ones, during the three days of observation (11 and 4% respectively; p<0,05. CONCLUSIONS: The composition of the school lunch-boxes, despite some positive aspects, was inadequate. Lunchboxes presented over-processed foods, usually with a high content of sugar, fat and sodium, and absence of fruits and vegetables.

  17. Hábitos alimenticios y composición corporal de deportistas españoles de élite pertenecientes a disciplinas de combate Food habits and body composition of Spanish elite athletes in combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Úbeda

    2010-06-01

    su deporte.Introduction: There is a scarcity of information about the dietary intake and food selection of combat sport people. Optimizing nutritional status, body weight, and body composition are key factors for their performance. Aim: The assessment of dietary intake, food habits, and body composition in elite combat sport people. Subjects and methods: 22 sportmen were recruited from the Spanish National Teams of Taekwondo, Judo, and Boxing. Food intake (FFQ, food habits and bodycomposition (DXA and Bioimpedance were analyzed. Results and discussion: Weight and body composition of the individuals assessed were similar to that previously described, although almost half of them were moderately over their desired competition weight. A lower than the recommended intake of vegetables (77% of individuals, cereals, bread, rice, potatoes, and pasta (73%, while red meat and derivatives intake exceeded the recommendations. Their main preferences were pasta, meat, and cereals. Legumes, vegetables, and fish were their main dislikes. A statistically significant relationship between food preferences and intakes was only observed for legumes, yogurt, and nuts. The athletes reported that reducing the intake of biscuits and confectionery (68% of individuals, high-fat foods (36%, and/or bread (27% would be a good dietetic strategy for losing weight. None of them reported that voluntary dehydration would be a good strategy for this purpose. Conclusions: food offer to which this sport people have access and their choices are adequate, although the intake of some food groups (vegetables, red meat and derivatives does not follow the recommendations. Their body weight slightly exceeds their competition weight, what it is frequently found in these sports. Nevertheless, their knowledge about nutrition and dietetics applied to exercise are acceptable.

  18. In 2011 Binyang county food security risk monitoring result analysis%2011年宾阳县食品安全风险监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何作凡; 邓赞民; 黄英哲; 林加义; 莫奔强

    2012-01-01

      目的:为了掌握宾阳县主要食品中主要污染物及有害因素的污染水平和趋势,确定危害因素的分布和可能来源,及时发现食品安全隐患,为风险预警提供依据.方法:采用或参考国家标准方法进行检测.结果:2011年共检测食品18类共193份,其中合格150个份,总合格率77.72%;其中油条、馒头、玉米及其制品、花生、液体奶、腌制蔬菜、凉拌菜、幼儿配方粉、蛋类合格率均为100%;饼干合格率91.67%、糕点合格率83.33%、鲜榨果汁合格率83.33%、速冻熟制米面制品合格率83.33%、盒饭合格率66.67.33%、非发酵性豆制品合格率50.00%、熟肉制品合格率44.44%、大米合格率40.00%、蔬菜合格率20.00%.在193份食品样品中,食品化学性污染物和有害因素常规监测的食品81份,合格63份,合格率77.78%;食源性微生物监测的食品112份,合格87份,合格率77.68%.结论:宾阳县主要食品存在污染物或有害物质污染,蔬菜、大米、熟肉制品、非发酵性豆制品合格率较低,通过监测测为宾阳县食品安全预警提供技术依据.%  Objective:In order to grasp in Binyang county main food the main polutant and the adverse factor polution level and the tendency, determined that the harm factor distributed and possible to originate,discovered promptly the food safe hidden danger, provides the basis for the risk early warning. Metods:Uses or the reference national standards method carries on the examination. Results:in 2011 altogether examines food 18 kinds of altogether 193, qualified 150 shares, total qualified rate 77.72%;And the cruler, the steamed bun, the corn and the product ,the peanut,the liquid milk, the souse vegetables, the cold food in sauce , the baby formula powder,the egg class qualified rate are 100%; The biscuit qualified rate 91.67%,cakes an pastries qualified rate 83.33%, press out the fruit juice qualified raet 83.33%, quick

  19. Determination of 28 phthalate esters in baked foods by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry%气相色谱-三重四极杆串联质谱法同时测定焙烤食品中28种邻苯二甲酸酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 薄艳娜; 卢俊文; 林勤保; 黄志强; 陈丽斯

    2016-01-01

    An efficient method using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for the determination of 28 phthalate ester residues in bakery foods was established. The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate,and cleaned up with neutral alumina. The separation was per-formed on a TR-5MS capillary column( 30 m × 0. 25 mm × 0. 25 μm )by programmed temperature vaporization( PTV)with splitless mode. Meanwhile the identification and quantification were per-formed by GC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring(SRM)mode and using the internal stand-ard method. The calibration curves of the 27 phthalate esters showed good linearities in the range of 0. 05-10 mg/L,except diisononyl ortho-phthalate( DINP)which was in the range of 0. 1-20 mg/L,with the correlation coefficients not less 0. 996 2. The limits of detection( LODs)were 0. 1-9. 8 μg/kg and the limits of quantification( LOQs)were 0. 4-32. 6 μg/kg. With the proposed method,the spiked recoveries were evaluated in four types of baked foods( bread,biscuits, cakes,stuffing)at low,medium and high concentrations. The results showed that the average recoveries of the 28 PAEs were in the range of 81. 0%-117%,and the relative standard deviations (RSDs,n=6)were in the range of 1. 3%-13. 6%. The method was successfully applied in the investigation of the PAEs distribution in baked foods. The method is suitable for the determina-tion of the 28 PAEs in baked foods with easy operation,high accuracy and precision.%建立了气相色谱-三重四极杆串联质谱( GC-MS/MS)同时测定焙烤食品中28种邻苯二甲酸酯类( PAEs)物质残留量的方法。样品经乙酸乙酯超声提取,用中性氧化铝净化后进行检测。经程序升温气化进样口( PTV)不分流进样,TR-5MS色谱柱(30 m×0.25 mm×0.25μm)进行色谱分离,在选择反应监测(SRM)模式下进行质谱扫描,采用内标法定量。28种邻苯二甲酸酯的线性范围,除邻苯二甲酸二异壬酯( DINP

  20. Dietary patterns and its influencing factors among freshmen students in college%大学新生膳食模式及其影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素芳; 穆敏; 赵艳; 李湖中; 方炎福; 王海林; 李李; 胡传来

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dietary pattern in college freshmen students and to analyze the influencing factors on their dietary patterns. Methods A questionnaire survey on situation of dietary pattern and influencing factors was conducted among 1319 freshmen students.Results Four major dietary patterns were noticed and they were: Ⅰ , high consumption in hamburger,fried food, nuts, biscuit, chocolate, cola, coffee, sugars, Ⅱ, high consumption in pork, mutton, beef,poultry meat, animal liver, Ⅲ, high consumption in fresh fruits, eggs, fish and shrimps, kelp laver and sea fish, milk and dairy products, beans and bean products, Ⅳ, high consumption in rice and grain,fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, pork. Risk factors on dietary pattern were presented as follows: ( 1 )boys: having the food pattern Ⅰ and Ⅱ showed a strong positive association with the place where they live (OR= 1.67, 95%CI: 0.87-3.19; OR= 1.51,95%CI: 0.79-2.88), eating place (OR=1.63,95%CI: 1.O3-2.59; OR= 1.83, 95%CI: 1.04-3.23), level of mother' s education (OR=2.52,95%CI: 1.07-5.95; OR=3.38, 95%CI: 1.50-7.63), family income (OR=2.24, 95%CI: 1.30-3.88;OR=3.06, 95% CI: 1.77-5.29) and the status of passive smoking (OR= 1.80, 95%CI: 0.70-4.59;OR=1.83, 95%CI: 0.75-4.45). Inverse correlations was found on the level of mother's education (OR=0.56,95%CI: 0.17-1.79). The food pattern Ⅳ showed a strong positive association with place of eating(OR= 1.83,95%CI: 1.04-3.23) but having an inverse correlation with the level of mother's education (OR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.17-1.79). (2)girls when compared with boys, the food pattern Ⅰ showed minor association with the places of living and eating; while the food pattern Ⅱ and Ⅲ had minor association with the status of passive smoking. Conclusion Socio-demographic factors and lifestyle had influenced on the dietary patterns among college freshmen students who should be guided to have a reasonable, balanced diet in the college