WorldWideScience

Sample records for biscuit clypeaster subdepressus

  1. Embryonic, larval, and juvenile development of the sea biscuit Clypeaster subdepressus (Echinodermata: Clypeasteroida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno C Vellutini

    Full Text Available Sea biscuits and sand dollars diverged from other irregular echinoids approximately 55 million years ago and rapidly dispersed to oceans worldwide. A series of morphological changes were associated with the occupation of sand beds such as flattening of the body, shortening of primary spines, multiplication of podia, and retention of the lantern of Aristotle into adulthood. To investigate the developmental basis of such morphological changes we documented the ontogeny of Clypeaster subdepressus. We obtained gametes from adult specimens by KCl injection and raised the embryos at 26 degrees C. Ciliated blastulae hatched 7.5 h after sperm entry. During gastrulation the archenteron elongated continuously while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larvae began to feed in 3 d and were 20 d old at metamorphosis; starved larvae died 17 d after fertilization. Postlarval juveniles had neither mouth nor anus nor plates on the aboral side, except for the remnants of larval spicules, but their bilateral symmetry became evident after the resorption of larval tissues. Ossicles of the lantern were present and organized in 5 groups. Each group had 1 tooth, 2 demipyramids, and 2 epiphyses with a rotula in between. Early appendages consisted of 15 spines, 15 podia (2 types, and 5 sphaeridia. Podial types were distributed in accordance to Lovén's rule and the first podium of each ambulacrum was not encircled by the skeleton. Seven days after metamorphosis juveniles began to feed by rasping sand grains with the lantern. Juveniles survived in laboratory cultures for 9 months and died with wide, a single open sphaeridium per ambulacrum, aboral anus, and no differentiated food grooves or petaloids. Tracking the morphogenesis of early juveniles is a necessary step to elucidate the developmental mechanisms of echinoid growth and important groundwork to clarify homologies between irregular urchins.

  2. QUALITY EVALUATION OF BISCUIT INCORPORATED WITH MANDARIN PEEL POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANITA THAPA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The current research is aimed to utilize mandarin peel in biscuits baking. Chemical composition showed that peel had high contents of ash, crude fiber; whereas low protein and carbohydrate content compared to wheat flour. Mandarin peel powder (MPP was used in production of semi-sweet hard dough biscuits by replacing wheat flour by 3, 6 and 9 % to ensure the quality and acceptability of the biscuit. Baking increased the thickness of biscuit, whereas width and spread ratio of biscuits decreased with increasing levels of MPP. Biscuits were subjected for sensory evaluation. Biscuits formulated with 6 % MPP were comparable to control biscuits. The content of fiber, ash, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenol and antioxidant activity was found to be 0.85 %, 1.32 %, 1.5 mg / 100 g, 69 µg∙g-1, 2150 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE / g and 24.5 % respectively which were significantly higher than that of control biscuit.

  3. Development of a healthy biscuit: an alternative approach to biscuit manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies B

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Obesity (BMI >30 and related health problems, including coronary heart disease (CHD, is without question a public health concern. The purpose of this study was to modify a traditional biscuit by the addition of vitamin B6, vitamin B12, Folic Acid, Vitamin C and Prebiotic fibre, while reducing salt and sugar. Design Development and commercial manufacture of the functional biscuit was carried out in collaboration with a well known and respected biscuit manufacturer of International reputation. The raw materials traditionally referred to as essential in biscuit manufacture, i.e. sugar and fat, were targeted for removal or reduction. In addition, salt was completely removed from the recipe. Participants University students of both sexes (n = 25 agreed to act as subjects for the study. Ethical approval for the study was granted by the University ethics committee. The test was conducted as a single blind crossover design, and the modified and traditional biscuits were presented to the subjects under the same experimental conditions in a random fashion. Results No difference was observed between the original and the modified product for taste and consistency (P > 0.05. The modified biscuit was acceptable to the consumer in terms of eating quality, flavour and colour. Commercial acceptability was therefore established. Conclusion This study has confirmed that traditional high-fat and high-sugar biscuits which are not associated with healthy diets by most consumers can be modified to produce a healthy alternative that can be manufactured under strict commercial conditions.

  4. Proximate and mineral composition of industrialized biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eliza Assis dos Passos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the proximate and mineral composition of 21 types of biscuits. All biscuits showed high fat contents, significantly different (P < 0.05 from those described on the labels, except for three brands. Insoluble fiber fractions were predominant in the analyzed samples. Among the 21 biscuits analyzed, 16 showed food label values 20% higher than those allowed by law, according to RDC 360, for fat, protein, total fiber, calcium, and sodium levels. This difference reached 273% for the sodium content. The calcium content was included only on the label of three samples analyzed, and the values described were significantly lower than those obtained analytically. Considering that biscuits are consumed by people of all age groups and of different socioeconomic levels, the results can contribute to the plans for health policies, such as surveillance of nutritional labeling, ensuring the reliability of the information provided by the food industry and enabling the identification of the relationship between dietary factors and the occurrence of non-transmissible chronic diseases.

  5. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF BISCUITS USING COMPUTER VISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana A. Bade

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As the developments and customer expectations in the high quality foods are increasing day by day, it becomes very essential for the food industries to maintain the quality of the product. Therefore it is necessary to have the quality inspection system for the product before packaging. Automation in the industry gives better inspection speed as compared to the human vision. The automation based on the computer vision is cost effective, flexible and provides one of the best alternatives for more accurate, fast inspection system. Image processing and image analysis are the vital part of the computer vision system. In this paper, we discuss real time quality inspection of the biscuits of premium class using computer vision. It contains the designing of the system, implementing, verifying it and installation of the complete system at the biscuit industry. Overall system contains Image acquisition, Preprocessing, Important feature extraction using segmentation, Color variations and Interpretation and the system hardware.

  6. Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Gluten-Free Biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Maria Man

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aglutenics biscuits are intended to those persons who are suffering due to gluten intolerance, also named celiac disease. The fabrication technologies of the aglutenics products can be developed in on two ways: by separating the gluten from the grain or by replacing the grain flour with other types of gluten less flour, in case of bakery and pastry products. In this experiment, the gluten-free biscuits were obtained from the following flours mixture: maize flour (MF, rice flour (RF and soybeans flour (SF. Other raw materials were used, such as: palmtree oil, honey, maize starch, eggs, sugar powdered, vanilla essence and sodium bicarbonate. Four experimental variants (gluten-free biscuits were obtained by varying the proportion of flours ; these variants were coded as follows T1, T2 T3 and T4. The optimization of the aglutenics biscuits manufacture recipe was realized through sensory analyze, using the hedonic test (9 point scale. Samples of biscuits was subjected to the following physico-chemical analysis: moisture content, alkalinity, total carbohydrate content, total fat and protein content. Also the physical properties (length, width, thickness, weight and spread ratio were determined in order to asses the blending influence on the biscuits quality. The blend with flour levels 30:30:40 (MF:RF:SF led to the highest acceptability.

  7. Macronutrients Content and Energy Value of Fiber Rich Biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovorka Vujić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and cereal based products are an important source of energy, fibers and a range of macro- and micronutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, minerals etc. Most of the evidences for health benefits of cereal foods are related to the fiber rich wholegrain foods and its role in reducing risk of degenerative chronic diseases, so-called Western diseases (constipation, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, diverticulosis, obesity, and colon cancer. To evaluate fiber-rich cereal products as a functional food, nine types of biscuits based on whole grain wheat flour with enlarged share of dietary fibers were experimentally prepared. The goal of this study was to present the contents of main macronutrients, such as total proteins, carbohydrates and total fat in mentioned biscuits and to estimate contributions of each individual component to biscuit’s energy value in relation to new reference values. Our results show that regarding Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI given by the Food and Nutrition Board, USA (FNB 2005, examined biscuits can be considered as a good source of macronutrients and dietary fibers in nutrition. Consumption of those biscuits ensure relatively balanced intake of energy originated from main macronutrients. Being high in total dietary fibers (16.50 up to 46.77 g/1000 kcal that is considerably higher than recommended by Adequate Intake (AI for total dietary fibers based on 14 g/1000 kcal of required energy (DRI 2005, investigated biscuits can significantly contribute to the intake of those health enhancing components.

  8. Rheological properties of biscuit dough from different cultivars, and relationship to baking characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene; Kaack, Karl; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker

    2004-01-01

    Rheological properties of semi-sweet biscuit doughs from eight wheat cultivars were studied, and related to the dimensional changes of biscuits after cutting and baking. The tested cultivars were selected in order to represent a wide diversity in biscuit baking performance, and were grown with lo...

  9. Effects of chemical and enzymatic modification on dough rheology and biscuit characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene; Kaack, Karl; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker

    2005-01-01

    The effect of addition of sodium meta-bisulfite and a commercial protease on dough rheological properties and biscuit characteristics was studied on 7 biscuit wheat cultivars. Sodium meta-bisulfite (SMS) (360 mg/kg flour) or protease (300 mg/kg flour) was added to semisweet biscuit dough. Rheolog...

  10. "The Biscuit Eater": Racial Stereotypes, 1939-1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, Bernice W.

    1978-01-01

    The story "The Biscuit Eater" and the two films made from it can be used as a paradigm of the image of blacks in works made by whites. However, unlike those of 1940, reviewers of the 1972 Disney film were critical of every racially insensitive nuance, representing progress in racial awareness. (Author/GC)

  11. Rheological properties of biscuit dough from different cultivars, and relationship to baking characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.; Kaack, K.; Bergsøe, M.N.;

    2004-01-01

    Rheological properties of semi-sweet biscuit doughs from eight wheat cultivars were studied, and related to the dimensional changes of biscuits after cutting and baking. The tested cultivars were selected in order to represent a wide diversity in biscuit baking performance, and were grown with low...... use of N-fertiliser in three successive years. A standard recipe for semi-sweet biscuit dough was used, and the amount of water added was adjusted to the water absorption capacity. The theological properties of the dough were characterised by creep recovery and oscillation. The fundamental methods...... differences in structural properties with genetic control. Multivariate regression of flour physiochemical, dough theological, and biscuit baking characteristics showed that a decrease in biscuit length was correlated under several theological parameters, including phase angle delta, Farinograph and creep...

  12. Energy use in the biscuit-baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.

    1980-05-01

    A survey was carried out to ascertain the level of energy use in the New Zealand biscuit baking industry. All firms in the New Zealand food processing industry that produce biscuits were sent a questionnaire requesting information on energy consumption and production. Replies were received from five factories and the information from these was supplemented by detailed factory surveys in two other factories. Measures to reduce energy consumption are proposed. Replacement of existing steam boilers with boilers better suited to provide the requirements for process steam would lead to significant reductions in baseload boiler fuel use. Small savings both in boiler fuel consumption and oven fuel consumption can be made by improvements to insulation. Further savings in oven fuel consumption are unlikely except by replacement of the existing ovens with more energy-conscious designs. The design of the biscuit coolers used in the industry can be improved to reduce the electricity consumed by the refrigeration equipment for these coolers. Process flow charts are presented. An analysis of energy consumption was made. (MCW)

  13. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.T.H.; Fels, van der H.J.; Peters, R.J.B.; Boekel, van T.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200 °C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructo

  14. Use of Coffee Silverskin and Stevia to Improve the Formulation of Biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Serna Esther

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing the amount of sugar added to biscuits is a good strategy to obtain a healthy product. However, a reduction in the quantity of sugar may affect its nutritional value and quality. The feasibility of the combined use of stevia and coffee silverskin for achieving healthier, nutritious and good quality biscuits has been investigated. Ten wheat four biscuit formulations were designed. Sucrose, maltitol and stevia were used as sweeteners and coffee silverskin was used as a natural colouring and as a source of dietary fbre. The quality of the biscuits was evaluated by measuring their moisture, thickness, breaking force and colour. Acrylamide (ACR and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF contents were also determined in the interest of food safety. The quality and safety of the innovative biscuits was obtained by an analysis of the sugars, proteins, free amino acids, chlorogenic acid, overall antioxidant capacity and acrylamide after in vitro digestion. Only the stevia biscuits and those added with coffee silverskin extract and the solid residue recovered from the extraction process, were selected for that study. A comparison of the stevia formulated biscuits, with the stevia formula added with silverskin, showed that the added biscuits had a good nutritional quality and improved texture and colour.

  15. Stability of vitamin E content of {gamma}-irradiated biscuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br; magtaipina@ig.com.br; Lamardo, Leda C.A. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Quimica Biologica]. E-mail: llamardo@ial.sp.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The technology of food irradiation is seen by the industry as a means of ensuring food safety, since it exposes foods to ionizing radiation that kills insects, moulds and bacteria. The need to eliminate bacterial pathogens from read-to-eat food products must always be balanced with the maintenance of product quality. In addition to determining the effective ionizing radiation doses required for pathogen elimination the effects of irradiation on product chemistry, nutritional value and quality must also been determined. Vitamin E ({alpha}-tocopherol) is one of the most potent natural lipophilic antioxidants commonly present in the human diet. As it is considered a free radical scavenger there is a growing concern that irradiation might reduce the vitamin E content of food products prepared with ingredients rich in any of the dietary source of the vitamin. This work describes the effects of ionizing radiation on the vitamin E content of some biscuits commercially found in the market. Three lots of biscuits were used. Irradiation was performed in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 source, dose rate of about 3.5 kGy/h at doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy. For vitamin E determination samples were saponified with ethanolic potassium hydroxide in the presence of pyrogallol, and the tocopherols were extracted with petroleum ether. The absorbance was measured at 520 nm. From the obtained results it is possible to conclude that there was a notorious stability of the vitamin content of the biscuits submitted to gamma-irradiation at the assayed doses. (author)

  16. Serum Cholesterol Reduction Efficacy of Biscuits with Added Plant Stanol Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantanee Kriengsinyos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study’s aim was to test the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol- (LDL-c- lowering efficacy of biscuits containing 2 g of plant stanols, which corresponded to 3.4 g of plant stanol esters. The biscuit is a new food format that can be consumed as a snack. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design study, 119 mildly to moderately hypercholesterolemic volunteers were randomized to plant stanol or control groups. Subjects were comparable in age, gender, lipid profiles, and body mass index. They consumed a control biscuit once a day for a two-week period, followed by a four-week intervention period that either had a plant stanol ester biscuit or a control. During the habitual diet, one biscuit per day was consumed at any time that subjects wished. Serum lipid profiles were measured at the first day of run-in, at baseline, and at the study’s end. Compared to the control, the total cholesterol (TC, LDL-c, and the LDL-to-high-density lipoprotein (LDL/HDL ratio had serum reductions of 4.9%, 6.1%, and 4.3%, respectively, and were observed after 4 weeks of biscuit consumption with added plant stanols (P < 0.05. A significantly higher reduction in LDL-c (8.9% and LDL/HDL ratio (11.4% was measured in those taking a plant stanol biscuit with a meal compared to those who consumed a plant stanol biscuit without other food. In conclusion, incorporating plant stanols into a biscuit is an attractive, convenient, and acceptable way to modestly lower elevated cholesterol concentrations. For optimal efficacy, biscuits should be consumed with a meal as part of a healthy diet.

  17. Effect of dried pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel powder (DPPP) on textural, organoleptic and nutritional characteristics of biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prateeti; Indrani, D; Singh, R P

    2014-11-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel is rich source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, hence could be used in the development of functional food formulations. Attempt was made to see the effect of dried pomegranate peel powder (DPPP) and emulsifiers on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of biscuits. Incorporation of DPPP from 0 to 10% increased farinograph water absorption, decreased dough stability, increased amylograph pasting temperature and peak viscosity of wheat flour; increased hardness and decreased cohesiveness of biscuit dough; decreased spread ratio and increased breaking strength of biscuits. Sensory evaluation showed that biscuits incorporated with 7.5% DPPP were acceptable. Among emulsifiers, sodium stearoyl lactylate significantly improved the quality characteristics of 7.5% DPPP incorporated biscuits. Addition of 7.5% DPPP increased the protein, dietary fibre, minerals, anti-oxidant activity and β-carotene contents of biscuits. The studies indicated the possibility of utilizing DPPP to improve the nutritional characteristics of biscuits.

  18. Determination of storage conditions for new biscuits using their sorption isotherms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Diukareva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction For the formation of biscuits quality natural carrier of iodine and sweetener from stevia leaves were used. Desorption of moisture is the dominant process, which will determine the guaranteed shelf life of biscuits. The conditions for the developed biscuits storage was determined by investigating of sorption isotherms and kinetics of reaching the equilibrium moisture content. Materials and Methods. The objects of study arenewly developed biscuits: "Health" (rich in iodine and with the replacement of 50 % sugar by stevioside, "Light" (with the replacement of 75% of sugar by stevioside and enriched with wheat bran, "Fortified" (containselamine, which is a natural source of iodine. Control – the biscuit prepared according to traditional recipes. Tenzometric method was used to study the sorption equilibrium moisture content. Differential function of pore radius distribution was determined using sorption isotherms and then have been subjected to approximation. Results. New biscuits samples are in the area of polymolecular and monomolecular sorption in the range of the relative air humidity (RAH from 10 to 75 ... 80%. The control sample has less distinct plot of monomolecular sorption (10 to 20% and short- moisture range wich is corresponding with polymolecularsorption (from 20 to 65 ... 70%. There is a moisture absorbtion ofmicrocapillary and swelling of samples when RAHincreases to 75 ... 80% for all the samples. The ratio of average pore radius tothe most likely of the test samples are differentthat wasshown by the investigation of differential function of pore distribution. So this ratio for biscuit "Health" is 5.73, for biscuit "Light" − 2.98,forbiscuit "Fortified"− 4.91 and for the control − 3.88. Conclusions. There’s the sense to store developed biscuits in a cardboard packaging with polymeric covering, if RAH is not more than 75%, and vapor-proof if RAH is above that.

  19. Effect of inulin on textural and sensory characteristics of sorghum based high fibre biscuits using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Chandralekha; Singh, Rakhi; Jha, Alok; Mitra, Jayeeta

    2014-10-01

    Five blends of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) flour (25.0-45.0 %) and whole wheat flour were used to make biscuits using inulin (5.0-10.0 %) and guar gum (1.0-2.0 %). An experimental investigation was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effect of fat replacer (inulin) and sorghum flour on the quality of high fibre and low calorie biscuits. For this purpose, the biscuit dough and the biscuit samples were analyzed. The analysis was based on hardness of the dough, hardness of the biscuit, fracturability and overall acceptability (OAA) scores. Results showed that increasing the amount of sorghum flour in biscuit increased the dough hardness and biscuit hardness, whereas, biscuit fracturability decreased and OAA scores increased up to the level at which sorghum flour ranged from 35.0 to 40.0 % after which it decreased. An increase in the amount of inulin was followed by an increase in biscuit hardness, while, fracturability and OAA scores decreased and there was little effect on the dough hardness. Optimum conditions generated from the analysis was 40.8 % sorghum flour, 6.5 % inulin and 1.0 % guar gum. The predicted response in terms of dough hardness, fracturability, biscuit hardness and OAA were 212.4 g, 36.4 mm, 4.8 kg and 7.06, respectively. The desirability of the optimum condition was 0.827.

  20. Fatty acid profile of biscuits and salty snacks consumed by Brazilian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Flávia da Silva Lima; Passos, Maria Eliza Assis; do Carmo, Maria das Graças Tavares; Lopes, Maria Lúcia Mendes; Valente Mesquita, Vera Lúcia

    2015-03-15

    High levels of biscuit and salty snack consumption have an effect on human health. This aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid (FA) composition of 19 different biscuits and 10 types of salty snacks by gas chromatography. Palmitic acid was predominant in 79% of biscuits and represented more than 55% of the total saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in salty snacks. Low concentrations of trans fatty acids were observed in biscuits (0.86% of total FAs), and the highest values were observed in salty snacks (7.94% of total FAs). The results indicate a high daily intake of SFAs and trans fatty acids, which may have an unfavourable effect on health. Changes in dietary habits and appropriate food choices by students are strongly recommended to prevent the risk of chronic disease. Furthermore, knowledge of the FA profile of food can help to establish health programs targeted to this population.

  1. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Peters, Ruud J B; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200°C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructose, (3) with fructose only and (4) with glucose only. Experimental data showed that HMF concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose and fructose, whereas acrylamide concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose, also having the highest asparagine concentration. Proposed mechanistic models suggested that HMF is formed via caramelisation and that acrylamide formation follows the specific amino acid route, i.e., reducing sugars react with asparagine to form the Schiff base before decarboxylation, to generate acrylamide without the Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Study results contribute to understanding chemical reaction pathways in real food products.

  2. Sensory and textural evaluation of gluten-free biscuits containing buckwheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Öksüz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Five different formulations containing buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum flour were used in this study to produce biscuit samples which were then analyzed for proximate composition, textural and sensory properties. The different formulations based on incorporation of egg white, carob syrup, and purified starches into the dough formulation yielded final products with different nutritional, sensory, and textural properties. Use of carob syrup to replace table sugar resulted in biscuits with higher outer appearance scores and significantly harder texture. Purified starch substitution on the other hand resulted in high fracturability values. They also had lower protein and higher energy contents. Egg white substitution was aimed at increasing cohesion in the biscuit dough, however, the dough texture of the plain formulation was also acceptable and very subtle differences in biscuit quality were observed with this alteration in the basic formula.

  3. Raw Materials in Fibre Enriched Biscuits Production as Source of Total Phenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Šebečić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to scientifically well documented health beneficial effects of dietary fibres and recommendations for an every day intake on an average of 30 g by food (DRI 2005, the confectionery industry has been increasingly engaged in the production of fibre enriched biscuits with the aim to offer such a product as a valuable constituent of proper nutrition and dietetic functional food intended for risky populations. Thereby, commercially available pure fibres or fibre-rich raw materials have been used for the enrichment of biscuits, prevalently pure fibres. To evaluate such products as functional food it is of interest to know how the choice of raw material for biscuit fibre enrichment influences the content of other health protecting compounds which commonly accompany fibres in plant material. With the aim of evaluating fibre rich biscuits as a source of total phenols depending on the origin of fibres, total phenols were determined spectrophotometrically by a modified Folin-Ciocalteau method (Gao et al. 2002 in ten experimentally baked biscuits based on wheat flour type 500 and type 1700 with or without different dietary fibres or fibre rich raw materials added instead of definite amount of white fl our. Results show that shares of total phenols and fibres in biscuits based on the wheat fl our depend on the type of the fl our. Biscuits with pure wheat and oats fibres added were the lowest in phenol content regardless on the highest amount of fibres (0.96 g kg-1 and 1.09 g kg-1, respectively; inulin and amaranth do not changeessentially phenol content; apple fibres, soya fl our, and carob fl our enhance phenol content thereby carob fl our being the most effective giving biscuits 5.53 g total phenols kg-1.

  4. Raw Materials in Fibre Enriched Biscuits Production as Source of Total Phenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Šebečić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to scientifically well documented health beneficial effects of dietary fibres and recommendations for an every day intake on an average of 30 g by food (DRI 2005, the confectionery industry has been increasingly engaged in the production of fibre enriched biscuits with the aim to offer such a product as a valuable constituent of proper nutrition and dietetic functional food intended for risky populations. Thereby, commercially available pure fibres or fibre-rich raw materials have been used for the enrichment of biscuits, prevalently pure fibres. To evaluate such products as functional food it is of interest to know how the choice of raw material for biscuit fibre enrichment influences the content of other health protecting compounds which commonly accompany fibres in plant material. With the aim of evaluating fibre rich biscuits as a source of total phenols depending on the origin of fibres, total phenols were determined spectrophotometrically by a modified Folin-Ciocalteau method (Gao et al. 2002 in ten experimentally baked biscuits based on wheat flour type 500 and type 1700 with or without different dietary fibres or fibre rich raw materials added instead of definite amount of white fl our. Results show that shares of total phenols and fibres in biscuits based on the wheat fl our depend on the type of the fl our. Biscuits with pure wheat and oats fibres added were the lowest in phenol content regardless on the highest amount of fibres (0.96 g kg-1 and 1.09 g kg-1, respectively; inulin and amaranth do not change essentially phenol content; apple fibres, soya fl our, and carob fl our enhance phenol content thereby carob fl our being the most effective giving biscuits 5.53 g total phenols kg-1.

  5. A Marketing Strategy for the Development of Want Want Rice Crackers in China Biscuits Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜卉

    2015-01-01

    The Want Want Group, as the biggest rice crackers manufacturer in the world, entered the mainland China's biscuit market and established its first factory in Hunan 1994. Rice Crackers are widely welcomed by Chinese consumers; however, in this decade it remained a stable company share with a very little decline in China's biscuit market. In order to maintain sustainable development, it is worthy to consider the competitive environment and distinguish the opportunities and challenges, analysis strengths and weaknesses.

  6. Effect of incorporation of plantain and chickpea flours on the quality characteristics of biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ritika B; Yadav, Baljeet S; Dhull, Nisha

    2012-04-01

    Blends of plantain and chickpea flours each with concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% along with of refined wheat flour were used for development of biscuits. The flours were evaluated for their chemical and functional properties. Plantain flour had highest crude fiber (3.6%) and carbohydrate content (80.8%), whereas chickpea flour had highest protein content (19.3%) and fat content (4.4%). Plantain flour showed highest water absorption (167.7%) whereas lowest oil absorption capacity (144.6). The chickpea flour showed highest foaming capacity and stability. The thickness and diameter of biscuits did not differ significantly (p chickpea flours each up to a concentration of 30%. The fracture strength of biscuits increased significantly (p chickpea flours and was highest at 40% concentration (21.1 N). The protein and crude fiber content of biscuits increased significantly (p chickpea flour and plantain flours in the blends. The sensory properties of biscuits prepared by replacing refined wheat flour up to 20% each with plantain and chickpea flour were more or less similar to those of control biscuits.

  7. Enrichment of biscuits and juice with oat β-glucan enhances postprandial satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentikäinen, Saara; Karhunen, Leila; Flander, Laura; Katina, Kati; Meynier, Alexandra; Aymard, Pierre; Vinoy, Sophie; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2014-04-01

    Effects of fibre and β-glucan on satiety have been reported in many studies, but no consensus has been reached. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of breakfasts varying in the dose of oat bran (4g or 8g β-glucan). The approach was to study whether the food matrix (solid or liquid) into which the oat bran is incorporated influences postprandial satiety in otherwise similar meal settings. Thirty healthy females were offered four different breakfasts: biscuits+juice (0g β-glucan), enriched biscuits+juice (4g β-glucan), biscuits+enriched juice (4g β-glucan) and enriched biscuits+enriched juice (8g β-glucan) in a random order on separate test days. The sensations associated with hunger and satiety were evaluated using visual analogue scales (VAS) before and after ingesting the test breakfasts and every 30min until 210min. Oat bran addition in breakfasts increased postprandial satiety especially when both juice and biscuits were enriched (8g of β-glucan). Addition of oat bran to juice enhanced satiety and related feelings more effectively than the addition into biscuits.

  8. The effect of modified potato flour substitution on the organoleptics characteristics of toddler biscuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakrawati, Dewi; Rahmawati, Puji

    2016-04-01

    Toddler biscuit is complementary food given to infants to help meet their nutritional needs. This research was undertaken to develop toddler biscuit with subtitution of physically modified potato flour. There were two puposes of the research, first to know the characteristics of physically modification on potato flour; secondly to know biscuit characteristics with modified potato flour substitution. There were two factor analysis in the development of biscuit; first factor was pre heating mehods and substitution rate. The research was conducted with experimental method using split plot design. The functional properties on modified potato flour as swelling capacity, water absorption capacity, solubility and viscocity were analyzed. Organoleptic analysis using quality hedonic test showed no interaction between potato starch modification and concentration of modified potato flour. Quality hedonic test showed all toddler biscuit socred in the range of “slightly like” to “like moderately”. Modifying potato starch by boiling and steaming with flour concentration of 30% producing toddler biscuit with organoleptic characteristics acceptable according to the panelists.

  9. Studies on saturated and trans fatty acids composition of few commercial brands of biscuits sold in Indian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrutha Kala, A L

    2014-11-01

    Saturated fat and trans fat consumption is linked to cardiovascular disease. Considering the health implications of saturated and trans fats investigation was undertaken with the objective to study the fat compositions in biscuits sold in Indian market. These commercial biscuits were analysed for saturated and trans fatty acids using capillary GC. The results of analysis of 46 biscuit samples showed that the total fat content ranged from 9.5 to 25.0 g/100 g of biscuits. The fatty acid profile showed that, saturated fat content in biscuits ranged from 5.1 to 18.7 g/100 g. The overall range of total trans fat content was found to be 0.1 to 3.2 g/100 g biscuit and cis monounsaturated fatty acid content varied from 0.9 to 8.6 g/100 g of biscuits. The low-level trans fatty acid was mainly by dienes and trienes where as high-level trans was from monoenes of C18. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in biscuits ranged from 0.2 to 3.5 g/100 g. Biscuits of same brand on repeat analysis over a period of one year showed little variation in fat, saturated and trans fat content.

  10. Wheat flour confectionery products as a source of inorganic nutrients: iron and manganese contents in hard biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebecić, Blazenka; Dragojević, I Vedrina; Horvatić, M

    2002-06-01

    To evaluate some wheat flour based hard biscuits produced in Croatia with regard to their Fe and Mn contents and thereby their functionality, Fe and Mn are determined by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) in seven biscuits: classic white wheat flour biscuits and in dietetic biscuits enriched with whole wheat grain flour or whole wheat grain grits, soya flour and milk. Presented data show that Fe contents in seven analyzed biscuits range from 9.32 up to 24.80 mg/kg while Mn contents range from 3.76-16.37 mg/kg depending on type and share of cereal milling products and mineral content of other raw materials used. Thus, enriched biscuits produced from wheat flour type 850 and whole wheat grain flour, having the highest concentrations of Fe and Mn, were about 150% and 250%, respectively, richer in those elements in comparison with classic white flour biscuits of Petit Beurre type. Data show that wheat flour based hard biscuits, particularly enriched biscuits, can be considered as a good additional source of Fe and Mn in diets.

  11. Estimation of thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuit at different baking stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cevoli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity of a food material is an essential physical property in mathematical modelling and computer simulation of thermal processing. Effective thermal conductivity of non-homogeneous materials, such as food matrices, can be determined experimentally or mathematically. The aim of the following research was to compare the thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuits, at different baking stages (60-160 min, measured by a line heat source thermal conductivity probe and estimated through the use of thermo-physical models. The measures were carried out on whole biscuits and on powdered biscuits compressed into cylindrical cases. Thermal conductivity of the compacted material, at different baking times (and, consequently at different moisture content, was then used to feed parallel, series, Krischer and Maxwell-Eucken models. The results showed that the application of the hot wire method for the determination of thermal conductivity is not fully feasible if applied directly to whole materials due to mechanical changes applied to the structure and the high presence of fats. The method works best if applied to the biscuit component phases separately. The best model is the Krischer one for its adaptability. In this case the value of biscuit thermal conductivity, for high baking time, varies from 0.15 to 0.19 Wm–1 K–1, while the minimum, for low baking time, varies from 0.11 to 0.12 Wm–1 K–1. These values are close to that reported in literature for similar products.

  12. Integral Wheat Flour Based Biscuits as Sources of Phosphorus in Everyday Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Vitali

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight experimental integral wheat fl our based biscuits were prepared and investigated for total and bioavailable phosphorus content. Results were compared to the values obtained for classic white wheat fl our based biscuits in order to asses the impact of implantation of bran, different integral raw materials and fibers on the total phosphorus content and its availability. Since a study was conducted in the view of current trends of the excessive intake of this element in most of the developed countries, we expressed results obtained for total phosphorus content as percentages of allocated RDA values. Total phosphorus was determined by an offi cial AOAC method (AOAC 2001 and its bioavailability by an in vitro enzymatic method (Schwedt et al. 1998. Total phosphorus content of investigated samples ranged from 1.093 g kg-1 (biscuit based on type 500 wheat fl our to 2.987 g kg-1 (biscuit enriched with integral wheat fl our and amaranth. Phosphorus availability was the highest in biscuit based on type 500 wheat fl our, as expected (86.1 %, and the lowest in the sample enriched with amaranth fl our (53.0 %, due to a very high phytic acid content. Considering revealed values of total phosphorus content and its bioavailability, we concluded that the richest source of this important macroelement was the sample enriched with soy flour providing 1.671 g kg-1 of available phosphorus.

  13. Production of Biogas through Anaerobic Cofermentation of Cattle Slurry with Biscuit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamrádová K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the model of anaerobic co-fermentation of cattle slurry with biscuit waste. It was confirmed that the waste from the food industry is a valuable biogas substrate. The highest specific production of methane (0.49 mN3·kgVS-1 was achieved in the co-fermentation of 20 wt% biscuit waste with cattle slurry. The feed mixture contained 22 wt% of total solids. The biscuit waste has the specific production of biogas 0.66 mN 3·kg-1 and the specific production of methane 0.38 mN 3·kg-1.

  14. Studies on effect of oat and cheese incorporation on sensory and textural quality of short-dough type biscuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, K S; Rao, K Jayaraj

    2016-03-01

    In view of their growing importance in human nutrition, incorporation of oats and cheese during the manufacture of short-dough type biscuits was studied. Rolled oats were incorporated at 25, 35 and 45 % of refined wheat flour in short-dough type biscuit formulation. Cheddar and processed cheese were used for flavouring purpose at three levels each, viz. 30, 40 and 50 % on flour basis. The dough exhibited less firmness on oats incorporation as indicated by lower firmness value (21.73 N) as against 25.05 N for control dough measured by Texture Analyser. Addition of cheese to the 25 % oat incorporated dough further reduced its firmness and altered its viscoelastic characteristics. Baking conditions for the oats and cheese incorporated biscuits were optimized as 165 °C for 25-27 min. Sensory evaluation results revealed that the biscuit made from 25 % oat incorporated dough scored highest in most of the sensory attributes including overall acceptability. Cheddar cheese and processed cheese levels were optimized at 30 and 40 % in oats-incorporated dough based on the sensory analysis of biscuits prepared from the dough samples. The moisture and β- glucan contents were 3.93 % and 0.62 %; 4.32 % and 0.60 % for cheddar cheese and processed cheese added biscuits, respectively. The spread ratios were higher in cheese incorporated biscuits than in oat incorporated biscuits. It was concluded that good quality cheese flavoured biscuits can be prepared by incorporating rolled oats in biscuit formulation along with cheddar or processed cheese.

  15. Assessment of Important Sensory Attributes of Millet Based Snacks and Biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Matthew B; Duizer, Lisa M; Seetharaman, Koushik; Dan Ramdath, D

    2016-05-01

    There is an increasing push by consumers for new food products that can provide health benefits. To develop these products, sometimes it is necessary to look to alternative crops, 1 of which is millet. For millet to be successfully adopted by consumers, it is necessary to identify and develop product types that are acceptable to North Americans. Biscuits and extruded snacks were produced using varying amounts of refined proso millet flour (0%, 25%, 75%, and 100%). Sensory analysis was conducted on 8 products (4 types of biscuits and 4 types of extruded snack) in 2 separate tests (1 for biscuits and 1 for snacks). Preferred Attribute Elicitation (PAE), a relatively new sensory method, was used to determine attributes affecting liking of the products. Results indicated that as the amount of millet in the biscuits and extruded snacks increased, the liking of the flavor, texture and overall liking decreased. Millet contributed to a bitter taste and bitter aftertaste, and resulted in gritty and dry food products. Further work is required to refine the products tested as well as to identify further products that can be added to the diet in order to take advantage of the health benefits that millet provides.

  16. Stability of gluten free sweet biscuit elaborated with rice bran, broken rice and okara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Oliveira TAVARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A challenge to the food sector has been the development of new products incorporating co-products from the food processing industry with minimal impact on their pre-determined structures and adding nutritional quality. In order to add value and develop alternatives for the use of co-products generated during the agroindustrial processing, this work aimed to study the stability of gluten-free sweet biscuits developed with soybean okara, rice bran and broken rice. The formulations were elaborated with increasing percentages of these ingredients and compared with the standard (commercial sweet biscuit for ten months. The analyses were: weight, diameters (internal and external, thickness, specific volume, instrumental parameters of color, texture, scanning electron microscopy, water activity, proximal composition and isoflavones. The experimental sweet biscuits had characteristics of color, weight, volume and diameters (internal and external very similar to the commercial, whereas texture, lipids and energy value decreased, and aw, moisture and protein increased during storage. The sweet biscuits showed the same stability when compared to the standard, and the

  17. Exploitation of Common Bean Flours with Low Antinutrient Content for Making Nutritionally Enhanced Biscuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparvoli, Francesca; Laureati, Monica; Pilu, Roberto; Pagliarini, Ella; Toschi, Ivan; Giuberti, Gianluca; Fortunati, Paola; Daminati, Maria G.; Cominelli, Eleonora; Bollini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of legumes is associated with a number of physiological and health benefits. Legume proteins complement very well those of cereals and are often used to produce gluten-free products. However, legume seeds often contain antinutritional compounds, such as phytate, galactooligosaccharides, phenolic compounds, lectins, enzyme inhibitors, whose presence could affect their nutritional value. Screening natural and induced biodiversity for useful traits, followed by breeding, is a way to remove undesirable components. We used the common bean cv. Lady Joy and the lpa1 mutant line, having different seed composition for absence/presence of lectins,α-amylase inhibitor, (α-AI) and phytic acid, to verify the advantage of their use to make biscuits with improved nutritional properties. We showed that use of unprocessed flour from normal beans (Taylor's Horticulture and Billò) must be avoided, since lectin activity is still present after baking, and demonstrated the advantage of using the cv. Lady Joy, lacking active lectins and having active α-AI. To assess the contribution of bean flour to biscuit quality traits, different formulations of composite flours (B12, B14, B22, B24, B29) were used in combinations with wheat (B14), maize (gluten-free B22 and B29), or with both (B12 and B24). These biscuits were nutritionally better than the control, having a better amino acid score, higher fiber amount, lower predicted glycemic index (pGI) and starch content. Replacement of cv. Lady Joy bean flour with that of lpa1, having a 90% reduction of phytic acid and devoid of α-AI, contributed to about a 50% reduction of phytic acid content. We also showed that baking did not fully inactivate α-AI, further contributing to lowering the pGI of the biscuits. Finally, data from a blind taste test using consumers indicated that the B14 biscuit was accepted by consumers and comparable in terms of liking to the control biscuit, although the acceptability of these products decreased

  18. Effect of fat types on the structural and textural properties of dough and semi-sweet biscuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Hasmadi; Hill, Sandra E

    2014-09-01

    Fat is an important ingredient in baking products and it plays many roles in providing desirable textural properties of baking products, particularly biscuit. In this study, the effect of fat types on dough rheological properties and quality of semi-sweet biscuit (rich tea type) were investigated using various techniques. Texture profile and extensibility analysis were used to study the dough rheology, while three-point bend test and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyse the textural characteristics of final product. TPA results showed that the type of fat significantly influenced dough textural properties. Biscuit produced with higher solid fat oil showed higher breaking force but this was not significantly different when evaluated by sensory panel. Scanning electron microscopy showed that biscuit produced with palm mid-fraction had an open internal microstructure and heterogeneous air cells as compared to other samples.

  19. Wheat flour confectionery products as a source of inorganic nutrients: zinc and copper contents in hard biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebecić, Blazenka; Vedrina-Dragojević, Irena

    2004-04-01

    Cereal-based confectionery products being consumed through whole human life are considered mainly to be a source of carbohydrates, that is energy, although cereals are a rich source of minerals as well. To evaluate some hard biscuits produced in Croatia as a source of different trace elements in nutrition, in this study Zn and Cu contents were determined in classic wheat flour biscuits and in dietetic biscuits enriched with whole wheat grain flour or whole wheat grain grits, soya flour and skimmed milk. Zn was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS); Cu was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results show that the Zn content in different kinds of biscuits ranges from 5.89 up to 17.64 mg/kg and the Cu content ranges from 1.15 up to 2.79 mg/kg depending on the type of wheat milling products and mineral content of other ingredients used. Enriched dietetic biscuits produced from wheat flour type 850 and whole wheat grain flour and/or soya flour and skimmed milk were almost 200% and 150% higher in Zn and Cu, respectively, in comparison to classic white wheat flour biscuits and can be considered as good sources of Zn and Cu in nutrition.

  20. Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

    2014-09-01

    The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p < 0.05) increased with increase in taro level. Conversely the dough elasticity index (range 59.8-0 %), extensibility (78-22 mm) and strength (range 281-139 × 10(-4) joules) significantly (p < 0.05) diminished with increase in wheat substitution. Up to 10 % substitution with RIN taro flour and 15 % with egg-like taro flour, the composite taro-wheat dough exhibited elasticity indices acceptable for the production of baking products, whereas at all levels of taro substitution, the composite biscuits samples were either acceptable as or better (5-10 % substitution with RIN flour) than 100 % wheat biscuit.

  1. 大豆营养棒的研制%Preparation of Soybean Nutrition Biscuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟志伟; 张宏康

    2012-01-01

    大豆含有大量的不饱和脂肪酸,多种微量元素、维生素及优质蛋白质。本研究是以大豆和面粉为主要原料,然后加以黄油、白砂糖、盐、泡打粉等,经搓型、烘烤得到的新型健康食品,极具特色,富含营养。经过研究得出的最优配方为大豆粉20%、低筋面粉60%、高筋面粉20%、黄油35%、白砂糖35%、盐适量、泡打粉1.2%、葡萄酸内酯2.4%。%A new kind of soybean nutrition biscuit was developed in this paper.Through the single-factor experiment,the adding amounts of each ingredients were discussed.Meanwhile,the best recipes of this kind of biscuit was made sure through the orthogonal experiments.The experiments indicated that the best recipes of the soybean nutrition biscuit as follows: low gluten flour 60%,high gluten flour 20%,soybean powder 20%,cream 35%,white sugar 35%,baking soda 1.2%,delta-Gluconolactone 2.4%.

  2. Development of Chinese Toon Tough Biscuits%香椿韧性饼干的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李殿鑫; 戴远威; 姜文联

    2012-01-01

    [目的]将香椿和休闲食品结合研制出香椿韧性饼干,满足人们对新型香椿营养食品的要求.[方法]制定韧性饼干的感观品质评定标准及评定方法,通过正交试验确定普通韧性饼干最佳配方,在此配方基础上,添加香椿粉进行单因素分析确定香椿粉添加量,然后再通过正交试验优化配方,最终得出香椿韧性饼干的最佳配方.[结果]试验得出普通韧性饼干最佳配方为:面粉100 g(湿面筋含量为26%)、油16 g、糖20 g、水28 g;香椿韧性饼干最佳配方为:面粉100 g(湿面筋含量为26%)、油16 g、糖20 g、水28 g、香椿粉1.4 g;同时配方中还含有:碳酸氢钠0.8g、碳酸氢氨1.6g、单甘酯0.2g、焦亚硫酸钠0.1g、泡打粉0.6g.[结论]试验制得的香椿韧性饼干同时具有香椿的丰富营养和韧性饼干的外表美观、入口松脆、有耐嚼力等特点,丰富了我国的休闲食品市场.%[Objective] To develop Chinese toon tough biscuits and satisfy people's demand on new type toon nutrition food. [Method] The sensory evaluation standard and method of tough biscuits was made to determine common tough biscuits formula by orthogonal test. On the basis of this, the optimum formula of toon tough biscuits was obtained through single factor test to determine toon dosage and orthogonal test to optimize formula. [ Result ] The common tough biscuits optimum formula was: flour 100 g ( wet gluten 26% ) , oil 16 g, sugar 20 g, water 28 g; the optimum formula of toon tough biscuits was: flour 100 g (wet gluten 26% ) , oil 16 g, sugar 20 g, water 28 g, toon powder 1.4 g, baking soda 0. 8 g, ammonium hydrogen carbonate 1. 6 g,monoglyceride 0.2 g, sodium metabisulfite 0. 1 g, baking powder0. 6 g. [Conclusion] The obtained Chinese toon tough biscuits not only have abundant nutrition, but also have characteristics of beauty, crisp and chewy, which will enrich leisure food market in China.

  3. Modulation of lipid peroxidation, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities in brain tissues of diabetic rats by fibre - Enriched biscuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ochuko L Erukainure; Folasade O Adeboyejo; Gloria N Elemo; Osaretin AT Ebuehi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of feeding fibre - enriched biscuit on the antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities in brain tissues of diabetic rats. Method: Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan. Treatment lasted for 14 d, after which the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Brain tissues were used for the assessment of GSH, catalase, SOD and lipid peroxidation as well as lipid profiles. Result: Induction of diabetes led to a significant decrease in GSH level, elevated SOD and catalase activities. These were significantly modified by the biscuits. There was an elevated level of malondialdehyde in the brain tissues of the untreated diabetic rats; this was significantly reduced by the biscuits. There was a significant decrease in HDL and a significant increase in LDL levels, total cholesterol and triglycerides in the untreated (diabetic) rats. Feeding with fibre - enriched biscuits led to decrease in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL - cholesterol and caused a significant increase in the levels of HDL. Conclusions: These results suggest a therapeutic and protective effect of the fibre -enriched biscuits against diabetic - induced brain toxicity in rats.

  4. The Successful Prevention of Silicosis among China Biscuit Workers in the North Staffordshire Potteries*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiklejohn, A.

    1963-01-01

    The pottery industry in North Staffordshire was established towards the close of the seventeenth century. At first the wares which were made from local clays were rather crude but manufacturers unremittingly sought to improve the quality of their productions by the addition of other ingredients to the clays. In 1720 calcined powdered flint was introduced into the clay body. Six years later Benson described the serious effects of the dust on the lungs of millmen engaged in dry flint crushing. Later the disease became very prevalent not only among millmen but among workmen, males and females, in a wide range of pottery occupations and processes. Popularly the disease was known as potters' asthma or potters' rot, which was later identified scientifically as silicosis. Among the workmen most seriously affected were men engaged in china biscuit bedding and placing and women in the china biscuit warehouse. The risk arose from bedding the ware in flint for the first or so-called biscuit firing. In the course of firing some flint adhered to the surface of pieces and this had to be scoured or brushed off to ensure a clean surface for glazing. The manufacturers experimented to discover a suitable substitute for bedding flint. In due course it was proved that calcined alumina fulfilled all the practical requirements. This success immediately raised the question as to whether or not alumina was free from any risk to the health of workmen. The problem was investigated by a survey of furnacemen who had been seriously exposed for many years to the inhalation of alumina in the manufacture of aluminium. The research team concluded that alumina was safe. Thereafter manufacturers progressively substituted alumina for flint. At first this action was voluntary but it was made statutory in 1947. Vigilant supervision of alumina workers in potteries and aluminium works was maintained between 1936 and 1962; the original findings as to the safety of alumina were confirmed. During this

  5. Biscuit melanoidins of different molecular masses protect human HepG2 cells against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, María Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Rufián-Henares, José Angel; Morales, Francisco José; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2009-08-26

    Soluble melanoidins from biscuits were enzymatically solubilized and isolated by sequential ultrafiltration and separated by molecular mass in three different fractions, below 3 kDa, between 3 and 10 kDa, and over 10 kDa; the latter was subsequently digested by simulating gastric plus pancreatic digestive conditions. The four fractions were investigated for their protective effect against an oxidative challenge in HepG2 cells. Pretreatment of cells for 20 h with 0.5-10 microg/mL of any of the four fractions prevented the increased cell damage evoked by the challenge but, except for the intermediate size fraction, did not suppress the increased reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant defenses were rapidly restored after the challenge, and the increase of the oxidative stress biomarker malondialdehyde was prevented by the pretreatment with all but the undigested high molecular mass fraction. The results show that treatment of HepG2 cells with concentrations of biscuit melanoidins within the expected physiological range confers on the cells a significant protection against an oxidative challenge.

  6. Assessment of Annual Effective Dose for Natural Radioactivity of Gamma Emitters in Biscuit Samples in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abojassim, Ali Abid; Al-Alasadi, Lubna A; Shitake, Ahmed R; Al-Tememie, Faeq A; Husain, Afnan A

    2015-09-01

    Biscuits are an important type of food, widely consumed by babies in Iraq and other countries. This work uses gamma spectroscopy to measure the natural radioactivity due to long-lived gamma emitters in children's biscuits; it also estimates radiation hazard indices, that is, the radium equivalent activity, the representative of gamma level index, the internal hazard index, and the annual effective dose in children. Ten samples were collected from the Iraqi market from different countries of origin. The average specific activities for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K were 9.390, 3.1213, and 214.969 Bq/kg, respectively, but the average of the radium equivalent activity and the internal hazard index were 33.101 Bq/kg and 0.107, respectively. The total average annual effective dose from consumption by adults, children, and infants is estimated to be 0.655, 1.009, and 0.875 mSv, respectively. The values found for specific activity, radiation hazard indices, and annual effective dose in all samples in this study were lower than worldwide median values for all groups; therefore, these values are found to be safe.

  7. Implementing a low-starch biscuit-free diet in zoo gorillas: the impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Less, E H; Lukas, K E; Bergl, R; Ball, R; Kuhar, C W; Lavin, S R; Raghanti, M A; Wensvoort, J; Willis, M A; Dennis, P M

    2014-01-01

    In the wild, western lowland gorillas consume a diet high in fiber and low in caloric density. In contrast, many gorillas in zoos consume a diet that is high-calorie and low in fiber. Some items commonly used in captive gorilla diets contain high levels of starch and sugars, which are minimal in the natural diet of gorillas. There is a growing concern that captive gorillas may qualify as obese. Furthermore, the leading cause of death for adult male gorillas in zoos is heart disease. In humans, a diet that is high in simple carbohydrates is associated with both obesity and the incidence of heart disease. In response to these issues, we implemented a biscuit-free diet (free of biscuits and low in fruit) and measured serum biomarkers of obesity and insulin resistance pre- and post-diet change at three institutions: North Carolina Zoological Garden, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, and Columbus Zoo and Aquarium. We also added a resistant starch supplement to gorilla diets at two of the above institutions. We anticipated that these diet changes would positively affect biomarkers of obesity and insulin resistance. Both diet manipulations led to a reduction in insulin. Resistant starch also decreased overall serum cholesterol levels. Future research will examine these health changes in a greater number of individuals to determine if the results remain consistent with these preliminary findings.

  8. Impact of flavour solvent (propylene glycol or triacetin) on vanillin, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, 2,4-decadienal, 2,4-heptadienal, structural parameters and sensory perception of shortcake biscuits over accelerated shelf life testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ni; Hort, Joanne; Linforth, Robert; Brown, Keith; Walsh, Stuart; Fisk, Ian D

    2013-11-15

    The influence of choice of flavour solvent, propylene glycol (PG) or triacetin (TA), was investigated during accelerated shelf life (ASL) testing of shortcake biscuits. Specifically, the differential effect on the stability of added vanillin, the natural baked marker compound 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF), specific markers of oxidative rancidity (2,4-decadienal, 2,4-heptadienal), and the structural parameters of hardness and fracturability. Significantly more HMF was formed during baking of biscuits prepared with TA; these biscuits were also more stable to oxidative degradation and loss of vanillin during ageing than biscuits prepared with PG. Fresh TA biscuits were significantly more brittle than fresh PG biscuits. There was no impact of solvent choice on hardness. Sensory evaluation of hardness, vanilla flavour and oily off-note was tested during ASL testing. There was no significant impact of storage on sensory ratings for either the PG or TA biscuits.

  9. Effect of incorporation of decorticated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan protein isolate on functional, baking and sensory characteristics of Wheat (Triticum aesitivum biscuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Hassan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the objectives of using the decorticated pigeon pea protein isolate in the development of protein rich-biscuit, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea protein isolate on the sensory evaluation and quality of biscuit produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea protein Isolate (DPPI was incorporated in wheat (Triticum aesitivum flour (WF, extraction rate 72%, for making fortified biscuit. Ratios of DPPI in wheat flour were adjusted to protein levels of 15, 20 and 25%, respectively. Rheological and functional properties as well as proximate composition, nutritive value and sensory characteristics for the biscuit produced were assessed. The gluten quantity (dry and wet and falling number of wheat flour were significantly (p#0.05 decreased with the incorporation of DPPI from 10.25 to 7.6%; from 31.2 to 22.5% and from 657 to 443 sec., for 0,15, 20 and 25% protein levels, respectively.Water Retention Capacity (WRC, Bulk Density (BD and Fat Absorption Capacity (FAC were obtained. Addition of DPPI resulted in an increase in water absorption which was found to be ranged from 66.7 to 71.0%; dough development time from 4.5 to 7.3 min and dough stability 1.7 to 5.8 min. Biscuit supplemented with DPPI showed significant increase (p≤0.05 in ash, protein with high level of incorporation and significant decrease (p≤0.05 in carbohydrates and caloric values when biscuit wheat was supplemented with high level of DPPI. Incorporation of DPPI showed no significant differences (p≤0.05 on biscuit spread ratios compared to wheat biscuit (control. Biscuit with 15% protein level was found to be superior in all its sensory characteristics compared to the other blends.

  10. Microbiological, nutritional and sensory aspects of stored amaranth biscuits and amaranth crackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozová, B; Buchtová, V; Dodok, L; Zemanovic, J

    1997-06-01

    The object of this work was to present some results from the evaluation of microbiological (total bacterial count, coliform bacteria, aerobic sporogenic bacteria, yeasts and moulds), nutritional (lysine) and sensory (shape, surface, colour, consistency, odour, taste, the profiling of tastiness) quality and of the a(w) values of amaranth biscuits and crackers during the four-month storage (January-April, 1996 every 30th day) in laboratory conditions (20 +/- 2 degrees C and RH = 62 +/- 1%). From the aspect of consumers the chosen parameters of quality permitted the storage stability of the indicated non-traditional products to be estimated and on the basis of the favourable evaluation recommended for the rational nutrition.

  11. Biogas from solid waste originated during biscuit and chocolate production: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranade, D.R.; Yeole, T.Y.; Meher, K.K.; Gadre, R.V.; Godbole, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    The solid waste originated during the biscuit and chocolate production was subjected to anaerobic digestion in a 180-litre capacity biogas plant of floating dome design. Three different hydraulic retention times (HRT), viz. 20, 30 and 40 days, were studied with 10% total solids in the influent slurry. The data collected showed that the waste is amenable to anaerobic digestion. The biogas produced was more at 40 days HRT, viz. 466 litres kg/sup -1/ waste added per day with 57% methane and 65% degradation in volatile solids. The anaerobic digestion at lower HRT, viz. 20 and 30 days, resulted in high VFA concentration and low pH of the fermenting slurry. (author).

  12. FREE CHOICE PROFILING, ACCEPTANCE AND PURCHASE INTENTION IN THE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT BISCUIT FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Angélica Machado dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The increased demand for differentiated and health-oriented food has driven the development of bakery products with specific nutritional and sensory characteristics. The aim of this study was to compare four different biscuits: two commercial (sugar-free and gluten-free and two experimental formulations (standard and source of extra fiber. The cookie with added fiber had passion fruit albedo and pumpkin peel added to its formulation, as well as reduced wheat flour content compared with the standard formulation. These alterations aimed to achieve both nutritional and economic benefits. The Free Choice Profiling methodology was used, and the data were subjected to Generalized Procrustes Analysis. The analysis was performed separately by attribute classes (appearance, aroma, flavor and texture. The percentage of variance explained in the first dimension was 87.6% for texture, and the sum of the first two dimensions was greater than 90% for all four attributes. Both experimental formulations were characterized as having a yellowish color, flattened appearance, passion fruit aroma, natural aroma, passion fruit flavor, passion fruit residual flavor, soft texture and compact texture. Therefore, the addition of byproducts in the standard formulation did not qualitatively change the characteristic attributes. The products were also evaluated on a 9-point hedonic scale, and the data were statistically evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA. When compared by affective analysis, the formulation with added fiber and the commercial biscuits showed no significant difference regarding flavor and intent to purchase. Thus, the cookie developed herein has promising market potential, and it presents additional benefits due to its economic and nutritional appeal.

  13. FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERS EVALUATION OF BISCUITS SUBLIMATED WITH PURE PHYCOCYANIN ISOLATED FROM SPIRULINA AND SPIRULINA BIOMASS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Baky, Hanaa H; El Baroty, Gamal S; Ibrahem, Eman A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the effect of incorporation of biomass and phycocyanin extracts of Spirulina platensis growing in define media at large scales (300 liters, limited in nitrogen and high salinity) to traditional butter biscuits in order to increase general mental health as functional products, FPs). The FP were manufactured at a pilot scale formulated by adding algal biomass (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9%) and S. platensis phycocyanin (at 0.3%) to wheat flour and stored for one month at room temperature, protected from light and air. The approximate and nutrition composition of S. platensis biomass showed high quantity (% dry weight, dw.) of phycocyanin (13.51%, natural food colorant), tocopherols (0.43%), carotenoids (2.65%), vitamins C (1.25%), -6, -3 fatty acids, essential elements (Fe, Zn, Cr, Se, and others) and antioxidant compounds includes: total phenolic (1.73%), flavonoids (0.87%) and glutathione (0.245 mM). FPs showed a high oxidative stability during storage (30 days) periods (as assessed by antiradical scavenging activity of DPPH and TBA test), compared with that in untreated food products (control). Data of sensory evaluation revealed that FPs containing S. platensis biomass or algae extracts were significantly acceptable as control for main sensory characteristics (colour, odour/ aroma, flavor, texture, the global appreciation and overall acceptability). S. platensis FPs presented an accentuated green tonality, which increase with the quantity of added biomass. Thus, it could be concluded that functional biscuits had good sensory and nutritional profiles and can be developed as new niche food market.

  14. Impact of buckwheat flour granulation and supplementation level on the quality of composite wheat/buckwheat ginger-nut-type biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Filipčev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of gradual wheat flour substitution with buckwheat flour in ginger-nut biscuit formulation were investigated regarding dough characteristics, physical and textural characteristics of finalproduct assessed after baking and 30 days of storage. Buckwheat flour was added at 30, 40, 50% levels and two granulations (fine and coarse. Addition of buckwheat flour significantly increaseddough hardness and decreased adhesiveness. Spread significantly increased in biscuits with 40% and 50% of coarse buckwheat flour. Biscuits containing coarse flour were harder and more fracturable than the control, whereas those with fine flour tended to be softer and less fracturable.Textural properties were significantly correlated to protein stability to heat and retrogradation tendency of starch in biscuit dough as well as moisture content.

  15. Prediction of acrylamide formation in biscuits based on fingerprint data generated by ambient ionization mass spectrometry employing direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Capuano, Edoardo; Gökmen, Vural; Hajslova, Jana

    2015-04-15

    The objective of this study is the evaluation of the potential of high-throughput direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS) fingerprinting and multivariate regression analysis in prediction of the extent of acrylamide formation in biscuit samples prepared by various recipes and baking conditions. Information-rich mass spectral fingerprints were obtained by analysis of biscuit extracts for preparation of which aqueous methanol was used. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the acquired data revealed an apparent clustering of samples according to the extent of heat-treatment applied during the baking of the biscuits. The regression model for prediction of acrylamide in biscuits was obtained by partial least square regression (PLSR) analysis of the data matrix representing combined positive and negative ionization mode fingerprints. The model provided a least root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) equal to an acrylamide concentration of 5.4 μg kg(-1) and standard error of prediction (SEP) of 14.8 μg kg(-1). The results obtained indicate that this strategy can be used to accurately predict the amounts of acrylamide formed during baking of biscuits. Such rapid estimation of acrylamide concentration can become a useful tool in evaluation of the effectivity of processes aiming at mitigation of this food processing contaminant. However, the robustness this approach with respect to variability in the chemical composition of ingredients used for preparation of biscuits should be tested further.

  16. Elaboration of biscuits with oatmeal and fat palm with added L-leucine and calcium for sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Elita Bertolin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of oatmeal and palm fat in the elaboration of biscuits with added L-leucine and calcium in order to develop a product for sarcopenia in the elderly. The biscuits, or cookies, were elaborated applying a central composite rotational design with surface response methodology, and the significant linear, quadratic and interaction terms were used in the second order mathematical model. Physical, physicochemical and sensory analyses were performed by a trained panel. Based on the best results obtained, three cookie formulations were selected for sensory evaluation by the target group and physicochemical determinations. The formulations with the highest sensory scores for appearance and texture and medium scores for color and expansion index were selected. The addition of calcium and leucine increased significantly the concentration of these components in the biscuits elaborated resulting in a cookie with more than 30% of DRI (Dietary Reference Intake for calcium and leucine. The formulations selected showed high acceptance by the target group; therefore, they can be included in the diet of elderly with sarcopenia as a functional food.

  17. 七种糕点对赤拟谷盗(鞘翅目:拟步甲科)感染的抗性%Resistance of Seven Biscuit Types to Infestation by Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olusola O. ODEYEMI; Bernice M. OYEDARE; Michael O. ASHAMO

    2005-01-01

    Seven biscuit types namely, Okin, Digestive, Cabin, Peanut, Cream crackers, Hobnobs and Glucose and wheat flour were screened for their resistance to Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) at ambient temperature of 28±2 ℃ and 78±2% relative humidity in the laboratory. 50 g of each biscuit sample were infested with four female and two male adult beetles and left for 15 days then remove for a resistant experiment and 70 days for a mortality experiment. Each treatment and the control without beetles were replicated three times. Results showed that there was significant difference (P0.05) in the weight loss of biscuit types. The highest adult mortality of beetles (100%) was obtained from Peanut biscuits at 28 days after infestation while there was only 5.5% adult mortality in wheat flour at 70 days after infestation. The susceptibility index was 0 for all the biscuit types since there was no adult emergence indicating that they were resistant to T. castaneum infestation. Resistance in the biscuit types could be due to chemical additives (e.g. sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate) used in the production of biscuits, which may have inhibitory effect on the development of T. castaneum and also the low moisture content of the biscuits. Packages that can easily be perforated or damaged to allow absorption of moisture from the environment should not be used in packing biscuits.

  18. 利用血糖生成指数研发饼干产品%Use of glycemic index(GI)in new biscuits products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊; 孙耀军; 周昇昇

    2012-01-01

    本文介绍了国内外饼干研发和生产现状,并对以血糖生成指数作为一项指标开发饼干产品进行了必要性分析。同时讨论了利用血糖生成指数开发饼干产品的核心技术,如饼干原料和生产工艺的选择。食物血糖生成指数的应用为饼干研发指出一条新的道路。%This paper introduced the currently research and development of biscuits,and the necessity of developing biscuits using the glycemic index as an indicator.The core technology was discussed about development of biscuits using the glycemic index as an indicator,such as the ingredients and production process of biscuits.In short,the application of glycemic index was a new path for development of biscuits.

  19. Caso Práctico: galletas Fontaneda y United Biscuits. Liderazgo en la gestión de una crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Custodia Cabanas; Guillén, Mauro F.

    2005-01-01

    Una de las misiones fundamentales del directivo es gestionar las relaciones de la empresa con su entorno económico, político y social. El cierre de la planta de Galletas Fontaneda en 2002 por parte de su propietaria, United Biscuits, ilustra las enormes dificultades que entraña este papel institucional del directivo. Este caso práctico, escrito como documento para generar discusión y debate, presenta la sucesión de acontecimientos y de decisiones que tomaron los distintos actores ...

  20. Application of an Accurate and Validated Method for Identification and Quantification of Acrylamide in Bread, Biscuits and Other Bakery Products Using GC-MS/MS System

    OpenAIRE

    Negoiță,Mioara; Culețu,Alina

    2016-01-01

    A gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated for the separation, detection, identification and quantification of acrylamide in bread, biscuits and similar products. The method showed good precision with values lower than 6%. A good sensitivity was achieved for bread with 2.41 and 7.23 µg kg-1 limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ), respectively, while for biscuits, LOD and LOQ were 4.63 and 13.89 µg kg-1, respectively. Accuracy obtained th...

  1. 紫薯造型饼干的研制%Development of Purple Sweet Potato Biscuits of Different Shapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋燕飞; 李燮昕; 柴琦; 杨悠; 刘天杰

    2016-01-01

    Purple sweet potato is rich in anthocyanin and selenium,and its nutritional value and health function are attracting increasing attention.This paper establishes the optimal formulation for purple sweet potato bis-cuits by means of orthogonal test and sensory evaluation:25g purple sweet potato flour,210g cake flour,80g ic-ing sugar,110g salt-free butter,70g egg yolk,40g milk powder,and 5.5 PH value.Biscuits of this recipe are popular for its color and texture.%紫薯富含丰富的花青素和硒元素,其营养价值和保健作用日益引起人们的高度关注。文章以紫薯饼干为基础,通过正交试验、感官鉴评确定最优配方和生产工艺为:紫薯粉25g、低筋面粉210g、糖粉80g、无盐黄油110g、蛋黄70g、奶粉40g,pH值为5.5。按照最优配方所研制的紫薯造型饼干具有良好的色泽和口感,更受大众喜爱。

  2. Using parasitoid wasps in Integrated Pest Management in museums against biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum and webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Querner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum and webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella cause much damage to museum objects. Some objects and materials are very attractive to these two pest species and objects are often re-infested after treatment. For some years parasitoid wasps have been used in biological pest control to treat and reduce infestations of stored product pests in food processing facilities. Their application in museums is still new and in a research stage. Results from five different museums in Germany and Austria and their application are presented. Lariophagus distinguendus wasps were released against Stegobium paniceum in the municipal library Augsburger Stadtarchiv (Germany, the Ethnological Museum in Berlin (Germany and the Picture Gallery in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna (Austria. Trichogramma evanescens were released against Tineola bisselliella in the Technisches Museum in Vienna (Austria and in the Deutsches Museum Verkehrszentrum in Munich (Germany. Results show that for active biscuit beetle infestations good results can be expected using the Lariophagus distinguendus in museums. Active clothes moth infestations are harder to treat but with a very regular and long-term exposure to the wasps, the clothes moth population can be reduced over the years. We see the application of parasitoid wasps as part of an Integrated Pest Management concept that should be used besides regular insect monitoring and other preventive measures. Difficulties, limitations and research needs in the application of parasitoid wasps in museums are discussed.

  3. Absence of adverse effects of sodium metabisulphite in manufactured biscuits: results of subacute (28-days) and subchronic (85-days) feeding studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, D; Jonker, D; Narbonne, J F; O'Brien, J; Antignac, E

    2001-02-01

    Sulphites are extensively used in the food and drinks industry. Their toxicity has been previously evaluated by addition to the diet or drinking water of laboratory animals. Because interactions between sulphites and food constituents occur, the present work was conducted to determine the subacute and subchronic toxicity of sulphite-bound compounds in a finished product: manufactured biscuits. The studies were performed on Sprague Dawley, rats for 28 and 85 days of dietary exposure. Diets were prepared from sulphited or untreated (controls) biscuits with the addition of sugar, protein, vitamins and minerals according to the nutritional requirements of the animals. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were administered diets containing sulphited biscuits at levels of 0, 10, 35 and 75%, corresponding to 10-15, 35-45, 150-170 and 310-340 mg SO2/kg diet. In both studies, no death or clinical abnormalities were reported. Growth rate, food consumption and food conversion efficiency were not affected by treatment. No dose-related changes were observed for haematology, clinical chemistry, ocular examination, renal-function, urinalysis, organ weights or gross and microscopic examinations. The liver concentrations of vitamins A, B1, C and E were not significantly changed except for an increase in vitamin E in high-dose males after 28 days' exposure. Based on these data, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of sulphites in baked biscuits was judged to be 310 mg SO2/kg diet or 25 mg/kg body weight/day.

  4. 澳洲坚果饼干加工技术研究%Processing technology of Macadamia nut biscuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭刚军; 胡小静; 邹建云; 黄克昌

    2012-01-01

    以面粉与澳洲坚果粕粉为主要原料,添加奶粉、白砂糖、坚果油等辅料,通过面团揉制、擀压、模具成型、烘烤等工艺,加工出了营养丰富、色泽淡黄、香味浓郁、口感酥脆的澳洲坚果饼干。通过单因素与正交实验确定产品的最佳配方为澳洲坚果粉50%、油脂8%、白砂糖45%、奶粉10%、小苏打0.4%、食盐0.4%、碳酸氢铵1%、鸡蛋10%、水适量,最佳焙烤温度为上火180℃、下火为150℃。%Macadamia nut biscuits were made after the processing of kneading dough, rolling, molding, roasting by flour, Macadamia nut power, milk power, sugar, Macadamia nut oil and so on as material, which was rich in nutrition and had primrose yellow, the better crispness and full aroma. The best formula of Macadamia nut biscuits was obtained according to the results from single factor and orthogonal experiment: Macadamia nut powder 50%, oil-fat 8%, sugar 45%, milk power 10%, saleratus 0.4%, salt 0.4%, ammonium bicarbonate 1%, egg 10% and appropriate water, the best soaking condition was the surface temperature 180 ℃ and the bottom temperature 150 ℃.

  5. 核桃燕麦酥性饼干的研制%Development of Walnut Oatmeal Biscuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 宋丽军; 谭梅; 伏慧慧; 侯旭杰

    2014-01-01

    以核桃、燕麦、面粉、白砂糖和玉米油等为原料制作核桃燕麦酥性饼干,在单因素试验的基础上,通过正交试验和感官评价对配方进行优化。结果表明:核桃燕麦酥性饼干的最佳配方为低筋粉100%、核桃仁55%、燕麦粉26%、玉米油38%、白砂糖30%、奶粉6%、食盐0.8%,小苏打0.8%和鸡蛋50%。再以面火170℃、底火150℃烘烤15min。在此条件下,产品色、香、质地和口感较佳,营养价值高。%Walnut oatmeal biscuit was produced with walnuts, oats, flour, sugar and corn oil as rawmaterials. Optimum formulation of walnut oatmeal biscuit was obtained with orthogonal experiment based on single-factor experiment and sensory score. Results showed that the best formula: 100%of low-gluten flour, 55%of walnut, 26%of oat flour, 38%of corn oil, 30%of white sugar, 6%of milk powder, 0.8%of salt, 0.8%of baking soda and 50%of eggs. Then baking for 15 minutes at surface temperature 170℃ and primer temperature 150℃. Under this condition, product had better color, flavor, texture, taste and high nutritional value.

  6. The use of Fagopyrum tataricum gaertn. whole flour to confer preventive contents of rutin to some traditional tuscany biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing interest for new foods that may be regarded as functional aliments, of particular interest appears the utilization of the grain of Fagopyrum tataricum. The high content of rutin available in the grain and whole flour of this species, in fact, offers the opportunity to introduce in the food recipes effective amounts of this bioactive compound. Rutin is credited with a growing multiplicity of health beneficial properties that can be reasonablysecured through the preventive nutrition approach. In this respect, the daily dose of rutin suggested by most dietary supplement preparations is around 50 mg/day. The use of F. tataricum whole flour, where the rutin content usually ranges between 1000 up to 2000 mg/100 g dry weight, allows to reach such an amount with a low percentage introduction of this ingredient in the original recipe. Higher contents of rutin are found in the herb of cultivated species of buckwheat (F. tataricum and F. esculentum. However, the handling of this material may not be as simple as that of the grain made into whole flour. Preliminary results would indicate that an intake of 50 mg of rutin with a single meal (breakfast in this case can be feasible by adding tartary buckwheat whole flour to some traditional Tuscany biscuits without impairing texture, taste and acceptability.In spite of the presence of rutin degrading enzymes, known to be present in tartary buckwheat grain, it would appear that just a negligible degradation of rutin to quercetin occurs during the phase of dough preparation and backing process so that most of the rutin present in the whole flour can be recovered in the biscuits.

  7. New record of Clypeasterophilus stebbingi (Rathbun, 1918 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Pinnotheridae from the east coast of Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel E. Hendrickx

    Full Text Available The pinnotherid crab Clypeasterophilus stebbingi (Rathbun, 1918, previously known from Florida, USA, Colombia and Brazil, is reported for the first time from Central America, on the east coast of Nicaragua. A single female specimen was collected on the sand dollar Clypeaster subdepressus (Gray, 1825, at 4 m depth, among turtle grass on sandy bottom. The specimen fits well with the description provided by M.J. Rathbun and observations made on photographs of the male holotype. Comparison of the material described from Florida (including the type material, Colombia and Brazil to the Nicaragua specimen, however, indicates that C. stebbingi shows some variation in the shape of the third maxilliped.

  8. Use of biogas biscuit meal EKPO-EB for agricultural biogas plant for substitution of energy crops utilization with organic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamrádová Kateřina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment of two-stage mesophilic, low-dry mass, anaerobic digestion was carried out, focused on verifying the benefit of processing the biscuit meal EKPO-EB instead of triticale silage Agostino (GPS and corn silage LG3266 in a regular batch for the agricultural biogas station in Pustějov. While anaerobic digestion of ensilages is largely difficult due to the content of lignocellulose, biscuit meal provides a high yield of biogas or methane, respectively, thanks to its high content of simple saccharides and lipids. When the original GPS (or the replacement EKPO-EB, respectively represented 0.81% of weight of the daily input mixture dose for the first stage, the rise in volumetric methane production was 20% which is significant. The biscuit meal EKPO-EB decomposes almost completely in the first stage. Later, when the EKPO-EB represented 1.63% of weight of the daily input mixture dose for the first stage, the rise in volumetric methane production was 54% in the first stage and 16% in the second stage.

  9. 小麦胚芽燕麦营养韧性饼干的研制%Development of Wheat Germ Oat Semi Hard Biscuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博坤; 孙丽雪; 周爽; 宋杰媛; 贺雁鸣; 刘迎朝; 王磊; 于殿宇

    2015-01-01

    Different proportions of wheat germ flour and oat flour were added to flour, changes in dough and in texture of products with different proportions of raw materials were investigated. And processing conditions of biscuits were optimized by sin-gle factor experiment and orthogonal test Texture test results showed that ratio of mixed powder 70∶15∶15, hardness of dough and biscuits were in optimum hardness; response surface results showed that the best formula was mixed powder of wheat germ flour and oat flour 25g, xylitol 25g and corn oil 20g, hardness value of biscuit was 2 528.18g, significantly lower than ordinary bis-cuits. Biscuits tasted good and nutrient with wheat flavor, lysine content was 2.12g/100g.%利用不同比例的小麦胚芽粉及燕麦粉加入到小麦粉中,研究其对面团质构及饼干品质的影响。并通过单因素试验及正交试验分析对饼干的加工条件进行优化。质构测试结果表明:小麦粉∶小麦胚芽粉∶燕麦粉的添加比例为70∶15∶15时,面团及饼干的硬度最适中;正交试验结果表明:饼干的最佳研制配方为小麦胚芽粉及燕麦粉添加量为25g、木糖醇25g和玉米油20g时,此时饼干的硬度值为2528.18g,明显低于市售饼干且达到标准,并且饼干的口感适中,具有独特的麦香味和发酵香味,营养丰富,赖氨酸含量高达2.12g/100g。

  10. Application of Neotame in biscuits%纽甜在饼干中应用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林楠; 晏日安; 孔令会

    2011-01-01

    The application of Neotame in biscuits was studied. In the case of the same productive process,the all sugar products,partial substitution of sucrose products and all Neotame products was compared by sensory method. Then the sample was analyzed with texture analyzer in order to search the best ratio of Neotame alternative to sugar. The result showed that it could achieve better sensory effects when the proportion of Neotame alternative to sugar was 20%.%探讨了新型甜味剂纽甜在饼干中的应用。在制作工艺相同的情况下,采用不同的感官实验方法分别对全蔗糖产品、纽甜部分替代蔗糖产品、全纽甜产品进行了感官对比实验,并应用质构仪对产品进行质构分析,寻求纽甜与蔗糖使用的最佳配比。结果发现,纽甜替代蔗糖的比例为20%时可取得较好的感官效果.

  11. 马齿苋饼干的制作及营养成分测定%Research and Nutritional Analysis on the Biscuit of Purslane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张百胜; 王艳萍; 曹发昊

    2014-01-01

    以马齿苋为原料,研究制作马齿苋韧性饼干,为蔬菜饼干的进一步开发与研究提供科学依据。通过单因素试验和正交试验,确定出马齿苋韧性饼干的最佳工艺参数,结果表明,马齿苋韧性饼干的最佳工艺参数为:糕点粉100 g,白砂糖25 g,植物油20 g,马齿苋粉1.5 g,水30 mL。饼干呈淡绿色且色泽均匀、外形完整不易变形、结构细密、口感松脆。对成品主要营养成分进行了测定,其含量分别为:蛋白质:8.07%;脂肪:13.43%;黄酮:7.28×10-3%。%This text study on making hard biscuits using purslane as material. To provide a scientific basis for the further development and research of vegetable biscuit. Through single factor test and orthogonal test obtained the optimize formulation:flour 100 g,white granulated sugar 25 g,plant oil 20 g,purslane powder 1.5 g,water 30 mL. This vegetable biscuit has its unique color and flavor,and its structure is densest. In addition,three kinds of main nutrition materials were measured. Protein 8.07%,Fat 13.43%,Flavonoids 7.28×10-3%.

  12. Energy compensation in the real world: good compensation for small portions of chocolate and biscuits over short time periods in complicit consumers using commercially available foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Katherine M; McKeown, Pascal P; Woodside, Jayne V

    2015-02-01

    While investigations using covert food manipulations tend to suggest that individuals are poor at adjusting for previous energy intake, in the real world adults rarely consume foods of which they are ill-informed. This study investigated the impact in fully complicit consumers of consuming commercially available dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits and fruit bars on subsequent appetite. Using a repeated measures design, participants received four small portions (4 × 10-11 g) of either dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits, fruit bars or no food throughout five separate study days (counterbalanced in order), and test meal intake, hunger, liking and acceptability were measured. Participants consumed significantly less at lunch following dark chocolate, milk chocolate and sweet biscuits compared to no food (smallest t(19) = 2.47, p = 0.02), demonstrating very good energy compensation (269-334%). No effects were found for fruit bars (t(19) = 1.76, p = 0.09), in evening meal intakes (F(4,72) = 0.62, p = 0.65) or in total intake (lunch + evening meal + food portions) (F(4,72) = 0.40, p = 0.69). No differences between conditions were found in measures of hunger (largest F(4,76) = 1.26, p = 0.29), but fruit bars were significantly less familiar than all other foods (smallest t(19) = 3.14, p = 0.01). These findings demonstrate good compensation over the short term for small portions of familiar foods in complicit consumers. Findings are most plausibly explained as a result of participant awareness and cognitions, although the nature of these cognitions cannot be discerned from this study. These findings however, also suggest that covert manipulations may have limited transfer to real world scenarios.

  13. Multi-micronutrient-fortified biscuits decreased prevalence of anemia and improved micronutrient status and effectiveness of deworming in rural Vietnamese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Tran Thuy; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Wasantwisut, Emorn; Furr, Harold; Wieringa, Frank T

    2009-05-01

    Concurrent micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent among Vietnamese school children. A school-based program providing food fortified with multiple micronutrients could be a cost-effective and sustainable strategy to improve health and cognitive function of school children. However, the efficacy of such an intervention may be compromised by the high prevalence of parasitic infestation. To evaluate the efficacy of school-based intervention using multi-micronutrient-fortified biscuits with or without deworming on anemia and micronutrient status in Vietnamese schoolchildren, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 510 primary schoolchildren, aged 6-8 y, in rural Vietnam. Albendazole (Alb) (400 mg) or placebo was given at baseline. Nonfortified or multi-micronutrient-fortified biscuits including iron (6 mg), zinc (5.6 mg), iodine (35 microg), and vitamin A (300 microg retinol equivalents) were given 5 d/wk for 4 mo. Multi-micronutrient fortification significantly improved the concentrations of hemoglobin (+1.87 g/L; 95% CI: 0.78, 2.96), plasma ferritin (+7.5 microg/L; 95% CI: 2.8, 12.6), body iron (+0.56 mg/kg body weight; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.84), plasma zinc (+0.61 micromol/L; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.95), plasma retinol (+0.041 micromol/L; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.08), and urinary iodine (+22.49 micromol/L; 95% CI: 7.68, 37.31). Fortification reduced the risk of anemia and deficiencies of zinc and iodine by >40%. Parasitic infestation did not affect fortification efficacy, whereas fortification significantly enhanced deworming efficacy, with the lowest reinfection rates in children receiving both micronutrients and Alb. Multi-micronutrient fortification of biscuits is an effective strategy to improve the micronutrient status of Vietnamese schoolchildren and enhances effectiveness of deworming.

  14. Study on the health biscuit made of oat flour potato and tricholoma%莜面马铃薯口蘑保健饼干研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁培峰; 王云峰; 李育峰; 尹玉茜

    2016-01-01

    Withoat flour as the main raw material,and added digestible potatoes and tricholoma rich in trace element,the new biscuit madeofoat flour,potato and trichdoma was studied. Through single factor andorthogonal test,theoptimum recipeof the biscuit was 50 g flour,potatoes 20 g,tricholoma 3.5 g and vegetableoil 7.5 g. Theobtained products had better sensory quality.%以莜面为主要原料,并加入易消化吸收的马铃薯和富含微量元素的口蘑,开发新型莜面土豆口蘑保健饼干。通过单因素和正交试验确定的最佳配方为50 g莜面、土豆添加量20 g、口蘑添加量3.5 g、植物油添加量7.5 g,此时所获得的产品感官品质最佳。

  15. 葛根膳食纤维饼干的研制%Development of Biscuit Made by Kudzu Vine Root Dietary Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐凌锋

    2012-01-01

    Kudzu vine Root dietary fiber was used to made functional biscuits. Results showed that the best recipes were: flour 100 g, Kudzu Vine Root dietary fiber 30%, oil 10%, bulking agent 1% [ratio of sodium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate 1:0.5 (m/m)] and sugar 30%. The biscuits were crispy and had attractive colors and unique flavors.%本文以葛根膳食纤维为辅料,研究制备具有保健作用的葛根膳食纤维饼干.试验结果表明,该饼干的最佳配方为:面粉100g,葛根膳食纤维粉30%,植物油10%,疏松剂1%[碳酸氢钠与碳酸氢铵1∶0.5(m/m)],白砂糖30%.制得的饼干色泽诱人,口感酥脆,风味独特.

  16. 浅析酥性饼干与曲奇饼干的区别%The difference between short biscuits and cookies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文惠; 王晓玲; 王凤成; 王晓阳; 齐兵建

    2012-01-01

    为明确区分中国酥性饼干和美国曲奇饼干,本文就我国国家粮食局制定的《酥性饼干用小麦粉》标准(LS/T3206--1993)中规定的酥性饼干和美国谷物化学家协会制定的《曲奇粉的烘焙品质》标准(AACC10—50D和AACC10—52)中规定的曲奇饼干,分别从定义、实验室制作方法、原料的要求及两种饼干在品质特性上的差异进行了具体阐述。%In order to distinguish the short biscuits and cookies respectively produced by standard methods LS/T 3206--1993, AACC 10--50D and AACC 10--52, this paper made specific analysis from their definition, laboratory-making methods, quality of wheat flour and quality characteristics of two kinds of biscuits.

  17. 饼干中反式脂肪酸的研究%The Study of Trans Fatty Acids in Biscuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伶燕

    2012-01-01

    反式脂肪酸是一种具有反式构型的不饱和脂肪酸,流行病学调查研究表明,反式脂肪酸能诱发心血管疾病。对糖尿病人及胎儿生长发育也会产生不利影响,因此粮农组织和世界卫生组织提出食品中反式脂肪酸的含量应低于4%。饼千自作为面包替代品而被制作出来的那刻起,高温烘焙,使用大量的油脂,使其不可避免的成为反式脂肪酸含量较高的食物之一。近年来,由于对反式脂肪酸的日益重视,不合或含少量反式脂肪酸的饼干已经出现。%Trans fatty acid (TFA) is a kind of unsaturated-fatty acid with transconfiguration. The epidemiological survey data suggested that the intake of TFA increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases, and also did harm to diabetes patient as well as the growth and development of fetus. Partially due to these concerns, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) urged the food industry to reduce the content of trans fats in their products to less than 4%. Since biscuits were produced as a substitute for bread, the high-temperature baking, using a lot of oil, make it high trans fatty acid (TFA) content of foods. In recent years, with the increasing emphasis on trans fatty acids (TFA), and the improvement of technical means, cookies without or with small amounts of trans fatty acids have emerged.

  18. 抹茶酥性饼干加工技术的研究%Study on processing techniques of matcha short biscuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程华平; 万娅琼; 李翠红; 董军

    2011-01-01

    The formula and baking techniques of matcha short biscuit were obtained by orthogonal experiment,and namely wheat flour 1000g,white sugar 330g,cream 20g,shortening 150g,egg 170g,milk powder 46g,baking soda 0. 7g,edible ammonium bicarbonate 3g,citric acid 0. 04g,table salt 3g,matcha 1. 5%,water as required,temperature(upper/ bottom)185℃/190℃,baking time 6. 0min after mixing and roll forming,respectively. The products appeared a little bright green,weak and crisp taste,as well as delicate fragrance of tea. The results showed that the tea green colourity apparatus was suitable for matcha short biscuit.%通过正交实验筛选获得了抹茶酥性饼干配方和焙烤工艺,即面粉1000g、白砂糖330g、奶油20g、起酥油150g、鸡蛋170g、奶粉46g、小苏打0.7g、碳酸氢铵3g、柠檬酸0.04g、食盐3g、抹茶1.5%、水适量,经调粉、辊轧、成型后在温度(面火/底火)185℃/190℃条件下,烘烤6.0min;产品上表面呈较明亮的绿色,略带光泽,口感酥脆,有着茶的清香。SS-F3ALCHC茶叶色度测试仪适合于抹茶饼干色泽的测试、评判。

  19. 高蛋白高膳食纤维豆渣饼干的研制%Development of Soybean Dregs Biscuit with High Protein and Dietary Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨君; 聂燕华; 林丹琼

    2013-01-01

    The soybean dregs were rich in protein, dietary fiber and other nutrients. Therefore, addition of the bean dregs into flour would improve both the biscuit nutrition and flavor. In this paper, the formula material was tested by single factor and orthogonal experiments comprehensive the analysis of sensory and nutritional components. The optimum formula was flour 80 g, soybean dregs power 20 g, oil 25 g, granulated sugar 15 g, baking soda 1.0 g, ammonium hydrogen carbonate 0.6 g, 6-gluconic acid lactone 1.2 g, salt 0.4 g and appropriate amount of water. The achieved soybean dregs biscuit with high protein and dietary fiber had golden color and crisp, delicate taste. The products also showed moderate sweet taste and stronger soybean flavor.%豆渣含有丰富的蛋白质和膳食纤维等营养素,将豆渣粉添加到面粉中,做成饼干,可以改善饼干的营养及风味.本文通过单因素实验、正交实验,结合感官评定及营养成分检测得出高蛋白高膳食纤维饼干的最佳配方为:面粉80 g,豆渣粉20 g,油脂25 g,砂糖15g,小苏打1.0g,碳酸氢铵0.6g,δ-葡萄糖酸内酯1.2g,食盐0.4g,水适量.以此配方按特定工艺制作的高膳食纤维高蛋白饼干色泽金黄,口感松脆、细腻,甜味适中且较普通饼干更具豆香味.

  20. Multi-micronutrient-fortified biscuits decreased the prevalence of anaemia and improved iron status, whereas weekly iron supplementation only improved iron status in Vietnamese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Nguyen Trung; Sandalinas, Fanny; de Sesmaisons, Agnès; Laillou, Arnaud; Tam, Nguyen Phuong; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Bruyeron, Olivier; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Berger, Jacques

    2012-10-28

    In Vietnam, nutrition interventions do not target school children despite a high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies. The present randomised, placebo-controlled study evaluated the impact of providing school children (n 403) with daily multiple micronutrient-fortified biscuits (FB) or a weekly Fe supplement (SUP) on anaemia and Fe deficiency. Micronutrient status was assessed by concentrations of Hb, and plasma ferritin (PF), transferrin receptor (TfR), Zn and retinol. After 6 months of intervention, children receiving FB or SUP had a significantly better Fe status when compared with the control children (C), indicated by higher PF (FB: geometric mean 36·9 (95% CI 28·0, 55·4) μg/l; SUP: geometric mean 46·0 (95% CI 33·0, 71·7) μg/l; C: geometric mean 34·4 (95% CI 15·2, 51·2) μg/l; P children receiving FB (mean 5·6 (sd 2·2) mg/kg body weight) and SUP (mean 6·1 (sd 2·5) mg/kg body weight) compared with the C group (mean 4·2 (sd 3·3) mg/kg body weight, P Children receiving FB had better weight-for-height Z-scores after the intervention than children receiving the SUP (P = 0·009). Vitamin A deficiency at baseline modified the intervention effect, with higher Hb concentrations in vitamin A-deficient children receiving FB but not in those receiving the SUP. This indicates that vitamin A deficiency is implicated in the high prevalence of anaemia in Vietnamese school children, and that interventions should take other deficiencies besides Fe into account to improve Hb concentrations. Provision of biscuits fortified with multiple micronutrients is effective in reducing anaemia prevalence in school children.

  1. 大豆膳食纤维早餐饼干配方的模糊数学感官评价研究%Study on Evaluation of Sensory Fuzzy Mathematics of Soybean Dietary Fiber Biscuit for Breakfast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志民; 邹文中; 张小芳; 邹艾一; 梁孟; 张晓辉; 李达明

    2014-01-01

    Objective]Soybean dietary fiber biscuit was developed for breakfast.[Methods]Soy-bean dietary fiber biscuit was prepared by using soybean dietary fiber,flour,and other materi-als.The factors (addition of sugar powder,soybean dietary fiber,starch and papain)that affect-ed sensory of the biscuit were studied,and the optimal formula of soybean dietary fiber biscuit was obtained through orthogonal test and fuzzy mathematic sensory evaluation.[Results]The effects of different additions were ranked as follows:sugar powder>soybean dietary fiber>pa-pain>starch.And optimal formula of soybean dietary fiber breakfast biscuit was as follows:sugar powder 28kg,soybean dietary fiber 5kg,starch 1.2kg,and papain 0.048kg.[Conclusion]The study can provide the basis for functional biscuit production and research.%【目的】开发大豆膳食纤维早餐饼干。【方法】将大豆膳食纤维添加到面粉和其他辅料中,制成大豆膳食纤维早餐饼干,并研究砂糖粉添加量、大豆膳食纤维添加量、淀粉添加量和木瓜蛋白酶添加量对该饼干感官指标的影响,采用正交实验法和模糊数学综合评价法对大豆膳食纤维早餐饼干的配方进行优化。【结果】各因素的影响顺序从大到小为砂糖粉添加量>大豆膳食纤维添加量>木瓜蛋白酶添加量>淀粉添加量。大豆膳食纤维早餐饼干的最佳配方为砂糖粉28kg,大豆膳食纤维5kg,淀粉1.2kg,木瓜蛋白酶0.048kg。【结论】为功能性饼干的生产和研发提供依据。

  2. Plackett-Burman联用正交设计优化马铃薯饼干工艺%Optimization of Process Technology of Potato Biscuit by Plackett-Burman Combined with Orthogonal Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷进松; 王磊鑫; 陈海玲

    2015-01-01

    以糕点粉和马铃薯粉为原料,研究马铃薯饼干的加工工艺.考察了马铃薯粉、起酥油、水、碳酸氢铵、白砂糖、小苏打、食盐、奶香精的添加量对马铃薯饼干品质的影响,优化了马铃薯饼干的配方,确定了马铃薯饼干的加工工艺参数:马铃薯粉添加量33%、起酥油添加量16%、水添加量14%、碳酸氢铵添加量0.35%、食盐添加量0.7%、奶香精添加量0.14%,产品具有良好的感官性状,是一种营养丰富、开发前景广阔的产品.%Study on the processing technology of potato flour biscuit with the cake flour and potato powder as raw material. Ef-fects of potato powder,from butter,water,ammonium hydrogen carbonate,white granulated sugar,baking soda,salt,milk fla-vor by adding quantity on the quality of potato biscuits were investigated and optimized potato biscuit formula to determine the potato biscuit processing parameters:potato powder adding amount was 33%,shortening add 16%of the amount,addition amount of water14%,ammonium hydrogen carbonate added 0.35%,salt added 0.4%of the amount,the milk flavor added 0.14%of the amount.This product has good sensory characteristics,is a kind of nutrition,the development prospects of the product.

  3. Biscoitos de polvilho azedo enriquecidos com fibras solúveis e insolúveis Fermented cassava starch biscuits enriched with soluble and insoluble fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Martins Montenegro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a utilização de farelo de trigo e polidextrose como fontes de fibra no enriquecimento de biscoitos de polvilho. Utilizou-se a Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta para verificar a influência da adição destes ingredientes nos parâmetros de qualidade dos biscoitos. As respostas avaliadas do planejamento experimental fatorial completo 2² foram o volume específico, a dureza instrumental, a umidade e a cor - parâmetros L, a* e b*. Para as respostas: volume específico e dureza instrumental, todos os fatores foram significativos, a 95% de confiança, com R² = 0,9307 e 0,8091, respectivamente. Pela análise das superfícies geradas, pode-se observar que o farelo de trigo e a polidextrose reduziram o volume específico e o farelo teve maior efeito no aumento da dureza. A substituição de polvilho azedo por farelo de trigo e polidextrose nas proporções de 1,5 e 5%, respectivamente, gerou uma amostra rica em fibras, com 6,23% de fibra alimentar (calculado teoricamente, sem prejuízo considerável para as características de expansão e dureza, e com boa aceitação sensorial.This work evaluated the use of wheat bran and polidextrose as fiber sources to enrich fermented cassava starch biscuits. The Response Surface Methodology was used to verify the influence of the addition of these fiber sources on the quality parameters of the biscuits. The responses of the 2² central composite rotational experimental design that were evaluated were specific volume, hardness, and moisture and color - parameters L, a*, and b*. For the specific volume and hardness responses, all factors were significant: 95% confidence level, with R² of 0.9307 and 0.8091, respectively. Analyzing the surfaces obtained it could be observed that the wheat bran and polidextrose reduced the specific volume and the wheat bran had a greater effect in increasing hardness. The substitution of fermented cassava starch by wheat bran and polidextrose in

  4. The development of processing technology for black tea-salty sweet-biscuits%红茶咸香饼干加工工艺的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢朝敏; 温立香; 王淋靓; 任二芳; 罗小杰; 艾静汶; 叶雪英

    2015-01-01

    研究红茶咸香饼干加工工艺。分别通过单因素实验确定了红茶的制备工艺和红茶的冲泡工艺,红茶制备采用鲜叶→萎凋(室温)→机械揉捻→轻发酵(35℃×3h,湿度90%)→烘干的制备工艺方案;红茶的冲泡采用洗茶→纯水仪过滤水冲泡(95℃×5min)→茶叶与茶汤分离→出茶的冲泡方案。利用正交实验确定了红茶咸香饼干的最佳配方为:低筋面粉180g、盐2g、泡打粉1.5g、黄油45g、红茶汤45g、全蛋液30g。%We researched the processing technology of black tea-salty sweet-biscuits.The preparation and brewing process of black tea were determined by single factor experiment and the preparation process program was that, fresh leaves→withering (room temperature)→mechanical rolling→light fermentation (35℃×3h,humidity 90%)→drying.The brewing process was that washing tea→brewed by filtered water of pure water meter(95℃×5min)→separating the tea and tea soup.And then,the best formula of black tea-salty sweet-biscuits was confirmed by an orthogonal experiment, the best technical skill was that low-gluten flour 180g, salt 2g, baking powder 1.5g, butter 45g,black tea soup 45g, whole egg 30g.

  5. 小米酥性饼干制作工艺的研究%Study on Production Process of Millet Biscuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张麦收; 刘浩

    2011-01-01

    The millet biscuit' s production process which identified the optimum content of the raw materials was studied in this paper. The optimal formula of the product were found as follows: millet farina (30%), wheat flour (100%), butter (80%), white granulated sugar (50%), NaHCO3(l%) and water (13%).The limit of upper fire temperature was 180℃ and the bottom was 260℃ as the baking parameters. It could be reduced as the change of time.%本课题研究了小米酥性饼干的制作工艺,确定了各原辅料的最佳含量.工艺配方为:小米粉30%,小麦面100%,黄油80%,白砂糖50%,小苏打1%,水13%.烘烤参数为:上火180℃,下火260℃,随着时间的变化应适当降低上下火的温度.

  6. Analysis and dietary exposure assessment of the benzoic acid and sodium benzoate of biscuits%饼干中苯甲酸及其钠盐含量分析及其膳食暴露评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱加虹; 王小骊; 袁玉伟; 张玉; 胡桂仙; 董秀金

    2012-01-01

    对市场中210个饼干样品进行苯甲酸及其钠盐含量用HPLC方法进行测定,并对检测数据采用膳食暴露评估方法,评估城市居民的膳食风险。结果显示,婴儿(6-12个月)膳食暴露量为12.25-31.62μg/kgbw·d,其97.5/99百分位值的膳食暴露量为73.99-195.62μg/kgbw·d,建议婴儿(6-12个月)少量食用或食用不含苯甲酸的婴儿饼干。对于1-3岁的幼儿其膳食暴露量为10.25-13.25μg/kgbw·d,在97.5/99百分位值的膳食暴露量为105.24-139.10μg/kgbw·d,食用此类食品的风险是可以接受的。对于3岁以上人群食用此类食品的风险比1-3岁幼儿更小,风险程度更低。另外,饼干中威化和酥性类饼干中苯甲酸的残留水平相对于其他类饼干含量略高,而发酵和韧性类的饼干中苯甲酸的含量相稍低:同时显示江苏产的产品质量相对较好。%The content of benzoic acid and its sodium of 210 biscuits samples in the market was determined by HPLC method, and according the test data, using dietary exposure assessment methods to assess dietary risk urban residents. The results showed that infants (6-12 months) dietary exposure round 12.25-31.62 μg/kg bw· d, the 97.5/99 percentile dietary exposure round 73.99-195.62 μg/kg bw·d, recommends that infants (6 to 12 months) eating a small amount of such biscuits or eating edible acid-free baby biscuits. For children aged 1 to 3, its dietary exposure is round 10.25-13.25 μg/kg bw'd, the 97.5/99 percentile dietary exposure round 105.24-139.10 μg/kg bw·d, consumption of such food risk is acceptable. For people over 3 years old the risk of eating these foods is smaller than children aged 1 to 3, lower level of risk. In addition, wafer biscuit and crisp crackers in the level of benzoic acid residue content relative to other types of biscuits is slightly higher, and fermented and tenacity in the biscuit category with lower

  7. FORMULASI BISKUIT PADAT SIAP-SANTAP UNTUK MAKANAN DARURAT (READY-TO-EAT-BISCUIT BARS FORMULATION FOR DISASTER-RELATED EMERGENCY SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasyhuri Almasyhuri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In situation when the disaster occurres, people can be panic and can not manage appropriate food for the whole family. Therefore, it is required food supply from the authority to fulfill the nutrition need during emergency. For infants, there were milk and food products available in the market that can be given in such situation. However, for children and adults, there are no emergency food available in the market. Some post-disaster surveys indicates that food aid distributed during emergency situation only provides energy source rather than a complete nutrition. Furthermore, these foods still require processing before consumption. The aim of the study is to develop formulated ready-to-eat foods for children and adults that have a dense calories and protein that can be given in disaster-related emergency situation. The foods are produced in solid form, and has good acceptance by both panelist in laboratory and people in the field. In the early stages of research, six formulas in solid form are developed, three have savory taste and three are sweet. One formula that the most preferred by the panelist in the laboratory are chosen. The best formula is then given to field panelists in area of disaster to know their preference. Formula made from soy and sesame with sweet taste has the highest value compared with other types of formulas, and significantly different by Duncan's test from all formulas. In flavor and aroma attributes, this formula is not significantly different from others, however in crispiness; this formula has the best acceptance. The biscuits has energy 2.100 kcal per portion that 11.5 percent of the energy is from protein, 44.4 percent is from fat and the remaining 44 percent is from carbohydrates. Keywords: food formulation, ready-to-eat-biscuit, emergency food, disaster   Abstrak Dalam kejadian bencana alam masyarakat dapat menjadi panik dan tidak dapat menyediakan makanan keluarga, sehingga memerlukan bantuan makanan

  8. Efeito do enriquecimento de biscoitos tipo água e sal, com extrato de levedura (Saccharomyces sp. Effect of enrichment of water and salt biscuits with yeast (Saccharomyces sp. extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Carelli Costa Santucci

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram a caracterização química de um autolisado (AT de levedura (Saccharomyces sp. , subproduto da fermentação alcoólica e de seus derivados, fração solúvel (Ex e insolúvel (FI. O autolisado integral (AT e o extrato (Ex, depois de desidratados por atomização (spray dryer foram utilizados como enriquecedores do gosto e do aroma de biscoitos salgados do tipo água e sal. A adição ao biscoito de 5% de Ex elevou o escore de aminoácidos essenciais (EAE de 38% para 60% e o índice de utilização líquida da proteína (NPR de 1,0 para 2,0 (100%. Houve ainda uma melhora significativa na aceitabilidade e na preferência dos biscoitos enriquecidos, pelos consumidores.The objective of this investigation was to establish the composition of the yeast (Saccharomyces sp. obtained as a byproduct of the alcoholic fermentation industry, in the form of an autolysate (AT and their derivatives, extract (Ex and insoluble fraction (FI. The total autolysate (AT and the extract (Ex, after dehydration in spray dryer, were utilized as flavour enhancers in salted biscuits. Addition to the biscuits of 5% Ex improved the essential amino acid score (EAE from 38 to 60%, and the net protein utilization index (NPR from 1.0 to 2.0 (100%. There was also a significant improvement in the acceptability and preference of the enriched biscuits by the consumers.

  9. Study on the Formulation and Process Optimization of the Lilac Warm Stomach Health Biscuits%丁香花暖胃保健饼干的配方及工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓峰; 刘敏; 李维宏; 王愈

    2015-01-01

    The best formulation and process optimization of the lilac warm stomach health biscuits were studied by orthogonal test on the single factor experiment,with lilacs, milk powder, dried tangerine or orange peel, jujube mill, brown sugar, hawthorn and cake flour as main raw materials, and texture analyzer combines sensory evaluation as methods. The results showed that the lilac warm stomach health biscuits with optimum sensory quality were obtained by cake flour 100 g, brown sugar 38 g, butter 19 g, malt sugar 4.67 g, milk powder 5.93 g, NaHCO3 2.53 g, NH4HCO3 0.47 g, total fiber 20 g and water 27 g, baked at 190℃-180℃for 7 min. The biscuits manufactured by optimum formulation had moderate sweetness, good taste, uniform surface color, flat surface. The influence factors of biscuits quality are the addition of brown sugar, addition of water, total fiber and addition of butter in sequence.%以丁香花、奶粉、陈皮、大枣、红糖、山楂及低筋粉等为主要原料,采用感官评价结合质构仪的方法,在单因素试验的基础上进行正交试验研究添加丁香花制作系列保健饼干的最佳配方及工艺优化。结果表明:在低筋粉100 g,红糖38 g,酥油19 g,饴糖4.67 g,奶粉5.93 g,碳酸氢钠2.53 g,碳酸氢铵0.47 g,纤维总量20 g,加水量27 g,上火温度190℃,下火温度180℃,烘烤7 min后得到成品感官品质最佳,口感良好,甜味适中,颜色均匀,表面平整。影响此饼干品质的主次因素从大到小依次是:红糖用量、加水量、纤维总量、酥油用量。

  10. Avaliação de farinhas de trigos cultivados no Rio Grande do Sul na produção de biscoitos Evaluation of wheat flour cultivated in the Rio Grande do Sul to production of biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Gutkoski

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Na indústria de biscoitos é fundamental a definição de parâmetros para selecionar o uso do trigo em estudo. Existe uma série de testes químicos, físicos, enzimáticos e funcionais que podem caracterizar a qualidade tecnológica da farinha. Com o presente trabalho objetivou-se estudar diferentes cultivares de trigo cultivados no estado do Rio Grande do Sul para a produção de biscoitos tipo semi-duros através de análises físicas, químicas, reológicas e funcionais. Grãos de trigo de amostras dos cultivares BR 23, BRS 120, BRS 49, BRS 177, BRS 119, BRS 176, PF 940097 e Embrapa 40 foram condicionados para 15% de umidade, moídos em moinho piloto Chopin e analisados. As determinações realizadas foram peso de mil grãos, dureza do grão, peso do hectolitro, moagem experimental, composição química, número de queda e alveografia. Os biscoitos foram elaborados de acordo com método da AACC e avaliado volume específico, diâmetro, espessura, fator de expansão e cor. A metodologia utilizada no laboratório para a elaboração de biscoitos tipo semi-duros é adequada para a avaliação de uso final de farinhas de trigo. Com base nas propriedades funcionais, as farinhas de trigo dos cultivares BR 23, BRS 120 e BRS 176 foram as mais recomendadas para a produção de biscoitos.In the biscuit industry the definition of parameters to select the use of the wheat in study is basic. A series of chemical, physical, enzymatic and functional tests exists which can characterize the technological quality of the flour. The purpose of this research was to study cultivates of wheat cultivated in the state of the Rio Grande do Sul in the production of biscuits through physical, chemical, rheological and functional analysis. Samples of wheat cultivates BR 23, BRS 120, BRS 49, BRS 177, BRS 119, BRS 176, 940097 PF and Embrapa 40 were conditioned for 15% of moisture content and milling in mill pilot Chopin. With the milling samples it was determined the

  11. Study on Optimization of Buckwheat Maca Biscuit by Using Response Surface Analysis%响应面分析在荞麦玛咖饼干研制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德静; 李磊

    2013-01-01

      To optimize the processing of buckwheat maca biscuit,based on single-factor tests the response surface methodology was adopted with three levels and four factors that are buckwheat,maca,white sugar and skimmed milk powder.The result of the Sensory evaluation score was used as the data for the response surface methodology.Design expert was used to optimize the response surface.The result of the experiments demonstrates that:buckwheat content 26.40 %,maca content 2.63%,white sugar content 22.12 %,skimmed milk powder 5.49%. Under these conditions, the sensory analysis score of buckwheat maca biscuits was 85.77.%  以新资源食品玛咖粉和荞麦为主要原料,在单因素分析的基础上,通过对玛咖荞麦饼干生产配方进行4因素(荞麦粉、玛咖粉、白砂糖和脱脂奶粉)3水平的响应面试验设计,以饼干的感官评定结果,通过Design expert软件进行响应面优化。试验结果表明:荞麦粉添加量为26.40%,玛咖粉添加量为2.63%,白砂糖添加量为22.12%,脱脂奶粉添加量为5.49%,在此条件下,荞麦玛咖饼干的感官分析评分为85.77。

  12. Caracterização e análise sensorial de biscoitos de polvilho elaborados com diferentes níveis de farelo de mandioca Characterization and sensory analysis of cassava starch biscuits made with different levels of cassava bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Pereira de Macedo Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características químicas, cor, volume específico e aceitabilidade, de biscoitos elaborados com diferentes níveis de farelo de mandioca desidratado. Realizou-se previamente a desidratação do farelo de mandioca e, em seguida, elaboraram-se formulações de biscoitos com concentrações de farelo de mandioca de 0% (BP, 2% (BF2, 4% (BF4, 6% (BF6 e 8% (BF8, em substituição à fécula de mandioca. Os dados foram analisados por meio da análise de variância, teste de Tukey, em nível de 5% de significância. O teor de fibra alimentar e os atributos de cor (L*, a* e b* dos biscoitos aumentaram significativamente com a adição do farelo de mandioca desidratado, o teor de fibra alimentar total variou de 5,47g 100g-1 a 11,40g 100g-1, o de proteínas variou de 6,66g 100g-1 a 7,26g 100g-1. Em 100g de biscoito de polvilho com 8% de farelo de mandioca, encontram-se atendidas 20%, 32%, 26%, 38%, 79%, 16% e 20% da ingestão dietética de referência para o cálcio, cobre, fósforo, magnésio, manganês, potássio e zinco, respectivamente. O volume específico dos biscoitos diminuiu com o aumento de farelo de mandioca. Os biscoitos apresentaram boa aceitabilidade para aparência, sabor e textura. Conclui-se que biscoitos de polvilho elaborados com farelo de mandioca desidratado constituem um produto com bom potencial nutricional e de boa aceitabilidade.This study evaluated the chemically composition, color, specific volume and acceptability of biscuits made with cassava bagasse dehydrated. Held prior to the dehydration of cassava bagasse, then prepared themselves for producing biscuits with concentrations of cassava bagasse from 0% (BP, 2% (BF2, 4% (BF4 6% (BF6 and 8% (BF8, instead of cassava starch. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, Tukey at 5% level of significance. The dietary fiber content and attributes of color (L*, a* b* the biscuits increased with the addition of cassava bagasse dehydrated, the

  13. Análise descritiva por ordenação: aplicação na caracterização sensorial de biscoitos laminados salgados Ranking descriptive analysis: application in the sensory characterization of cracker biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Carnelocce

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A Análise Descritiva por Ordenação (ADO foi aplicada na caracterização de biscoitos cream cracker e água e sal comerciais, empregando julgadores pré-selecionados, mas sem experiência prévia em análise sensorial. O método compreendeu as etapas de levantamento e conceituação dos atributos, treinamento qualitativo e análise final, utilizando o procedimento de ordenação. Para verificação da eficiência na discriminação das amostras, o procedimento de ordenação foi comparado ao uso de escala não estruturada. Dados de caracterização instrumental de textura e cor foram comparados aos obtidos na descrição sensorial dos biscoitos. Análise Procrustes Generalizada foi utilizada na avaliação dos dados de ordenação ou escala, e os resultados da ordenação foram também avaliados por Teste de Friedman. A eficiência da equipe e a configuração das amostras foram similares no procedimento de ordenação e com o uso de escala. Após um treinamento qualitativo e uma avaliação inicial das amostras por um procedimento de ordenação, os julgadores não apresentaram divergência de comportamento, mesmo empregando um procedimento mais difícil (uso de escala. Cor e aroma de assado e sabor tostado, aroma de manteiga e sabor amanteigado, crocância (manual e na boca e uniformidade da cor foram os atributos mais importantes na discriminação. A ADO permitiu a caracterização e a discriminação de modo concordante com a composição indicada no rótulo dos produtos e os resultados instrumentais de textura e cor.Ranking Descriptive Analysis (RDA was applied to the characterization of commercial cream cracker and water and salt biscuits, using pre-selected assessors with no previous experience in sensory analysis. The method had the following steps: development of attributes, glossary and references, qualitative training and final analysis using the ranking procedure. To check the efficiency in discriminating the samples, the ranking

  14. 大熊猫膨化饼干饲料应用研究%Utilization of an Extruded High Fiber Biscuit Diet in Feeding Captive Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤纯香; Edwards,markS

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary study on reformation of diet and dietary husbandryfor two captive giant pandas (one adult male and one 5.5 year-old female) has been done at Zoological Society of San Diego during September 1996 to August 1997, which is based on a twelve-year long-term project of cooperative reproduction research for the giant panda with China. The panda pairs are fed with an extruded biscuit-shaped diet, which contains relatively high level of protein and fiber without milk and sugar matters, instead of their native diet of steamed grain bread plus milk, sugar, eggs and so on. The dietary is browsed animals by the way of more (than two) meals but a small amount and partially distributing the food in different parts of the animal' s active area. Animals are also offered plenty of fresh bamboo daily, and water is freely available. Food consumption, body weight and fecal output of the animals are measured, and detail data on animal' s development, health, behavior and reproductive feature are collected, too. The results have showed that both animals are quickly able to adapt them to the changes of husbandry factors, such as the environmental condition, food type and feeding schedule, and the maximum adaptive period might be six months. Well evidences have proved that both giant pandas are going normal, not only on their growth, development and nutrition, but also on the health, activities and routine be havior. A good quality and quantity of semen sample (3.36 ml, 90 % of motility, SOP = 3) was collected from the male. Defecation of mucous stool of animals are greatly reduced in the interval, quantity and abdominal uncomfortment. Daily activities under feeding the biscuit increased double times more than it did before.%对膨化饼干饲料饲喂大熊猫进行了研究,对日粮组合及饲喂方法作了重大改革.结果表明:使动物提高了日活动量,降低了排粘液次数及数量近一半,动物生长发育、营养状况、行为学及繁殖学

  15. Uncertainty evaluation for determining concentration of sunset yellow in biscuit by HPLC%液相色谱法测定饼干中日落黄含量的测量不确定度评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏大伟; 程江山; 郑玉芝

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model for uncertainty evaluation of sunset yellow color content determination in biscuit by HPLC was established. By adopting layer modeling evaluation,the total determining uncertainty was evaluated. The uncertainty of external calibration curve was calculated by the least square method. And the result was revised by the recovery ratio. The results showed that the relative standard uncertainty was 0.618mg/kg, and the expand relative standard uncertainty was l.24mg/kg.%利用外标法测定日落黄含量的公式,建立了一个利用高效液相色谱法测定饼干中日落黄含量结果不确定度评定的数学模型,通过该模型对测量过程中不确定度的来源进行了逐层的分析和合成,对标准曲线的不确定度评定采用了最小二乘法,并通过t检验结果的判断,对结果用加标回收率进行了修正.通过对各变量的分析,计算各变量的不确定度,最后计算得出合成标准不确定度0.618mg/kg,扩展标准不确定度1.24mg/kg.

  16. Elaboração de biscoitos de chocolate com substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja Chocolate biscuits preparation with partial substitution of wheat flour by fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alves Oliveira Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os consumidores estão cada vez mais exigentes e preocupados com a saúde e, por consequência, exigindo produtos naturais que deverão ser seguros e promover qualidade de vida. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de desenvolver biscoitos com farinhas mistas de polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja, utilizando um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: concentração de polvilho azedo, açúcar e farinha de albedo de laranja, e variáveis respostas: as características sensoriais: aparência, aroma, textura e sabor, além da impressão global, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Os biscoitos foram avaliados também quanto às características físico-químicas. As médias obtidas para as características sensoriais estiveram na faixa que vai de cinco (não gostei nem desgostei até sete (gostei moderadamente, não apresentando diferença significativa (P≤0,05 para todas as características sensoriais avaliadas. Dessa maneira, foi possível escolher a formulação ideal obtida de acordo com os parâmetros nutricionais, por não existir diferença sensorial significativa, que foi 35% de polvilho azedo, 100% de açúcar e 7,5% de farinha de albedo de laranja. No teste sensorial comparativo com os biscoitos comercial, padrão e otimizado, as características sensoriais aparência, sabor e textura apresentaram diferença significativa (P≤0,05. As características físico-químicas apresentaram resultados correspondentes aos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, e o teor de fibra bruta do biscoito otimizado foi de 3,08%, assim, pode ser classificado como biscoito "fonte de fibras".The consumers are increasingly demanding and worried about health and, consequently, requiring natural products that should be safe and that promote life quality. The present research had the objective to develop biscuits with mixed flour of fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour, using a 2³ factorial

  17. Biscoitos tipo "cookie" e "snack" enriquecidos, respectivamente com caseína obtida por coagulação enzimática e caseinato de sódio Sweet and salted biscuits (snacks enriched, respectively, with enzyme coagulated casein and sodium caseinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C.H. Krüger

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi a formulação e a caracterização química, nutricional e sensorial de dois tipos de biscoito, tipo "cookie" e "snack", utilizando para o enriquecimento protéico a caseína obtida por coagulação enzimática para o "cookie" e caseinato de sódio para o "snack". O biscoito tipo "cookie" apresentou teores mais elevados de umidade, proteína e fibra total que o do tipo "snack", que foi mais rico em gordura e sal. Com relação aos minerais essenciais, o biscoito tipo "cookie" apresentou-se mais rico em minerais que o "snack", exceto pelo fósforo e pelo sódio com teores mais elevados no "snack". O perfil de aminoácidos essenciais foi mais adequado no tipo "cookie" que no "snack". Conseqüentemente, os índices de valor protéico, exceto a digestibilidade verdadeira, foram superiores para os biscoitos do tipo "cookie". A aceitabilidade dos dois tipos de biscoito foi testada em atletas dos dois sexos com relação aos atributos: aceitação global, cor da superfície, odor, sabor, crocância e dureza. A aceitação dos produtos foi de 98% para os "snacks" e 81% para os "cookies". Os "cookies" tiveram o mesmo nível de aceitação pelos homens e pelas mulheres, já os "snacks" foram mais bem aceitos pelos homens (52,7% dos homens gostaram muito, contra apenas 37,8% das mulheres. A análise microbiológica dos dois tipos de biscoito mostrou perfil microbiológico aceitável, com base na Portaria 451 da Secretaria de Vigilância Sanitária.The objective of the present work was the formulation and characterization, chemical, nutritional and sensorial, of two types of biscuits, cookie and snack, using rennet casein and sodium caseinate for cookies and snacks enrichment, respectively. The cookie type biscuit presented higher contents of moisture, protein, and total fiber than the snack type which was richer in fat and salt. As to essential minerals the cookies were richer than the snacks, except for sodium and

  18. 不同剂量维生素A强化饼干对3~6岁儿童维生素A营养状况的干预效果%Interventional effects of biscuits fortified with different doses of vitamin A on the vitamin A status in children of 3-6 years old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵梅; 赵勇; 李廷玉; 王蓉; 瞿平; 练雪梅; 毛春婷; 戴英; 刘友学

    2006-01-01

    血清视黄醇、血清前白蛋白、血清维生素A、血红蛋白、身高和体质量比较:补充3个月后,自身对照除30%推荐摄入量组的前白蛋白和血红蛋白外,各组儿童其余各项指标均明显增加(t=2.52~37.44,P<0.05~0.01).2万国际单位组血清维生素A的升高幅度明显大于其他组(F=4.62,P<0.01),30%推荐摄入量组血红蛋白、前白蛋白和身高的增长幅度明显小于其他组(F=5.0~7.78,P<0.01).30%推荐摄入量组补充9个月后,血红蛋白和前白蛋白的升高明显大于其余组(F=11.62,10.21,P<0.01),血清视黄醇的升高仍低于2万国际单位组(F=4.21,P<0.01).结论:补充3种不同剂量的维生素A强化饼干和20万国际单位维生素A胶丸,均可明显改善维生素A的营养状况和血红蛋白水平.其中30%推荐摄入量和100%推荐摄入量风险小、且每日补充能稳定维持体内维生素A水平,可能是更适于儿童的长期补充剂量,而30%推荐摄入最优于100%推荐摄入量.%BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency disorders (VADD) is a healthy problem of children in the world, especially in the west of China and remote areas, and the nutritional intervention is needed.OBJECTIVE: To compare the improved effects of biscuits fortified with three different doses of vitamin A on the vitamin A status in children aged 3-6 years and explore ap ideal dose of vitamin A supplement for preventing VADD.DESIGN: Randomized controlled observation.SETTING: Health Surveillance Institute, Chongqing Municipal Health Bureau; Staff Room of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, College of Public Health, Chongqing University of Medical Sciences; Center for Children Nutrition, Children's Hospital, Chongqing University of Medical Sciences.PARTICIPANTS: The investigation was done between March and December 2002. 753 children aged 3-6 years from 8 kindergartens in Banan district of Chongqing city were enrolled with the agreement of their guardians. They were divided randomly into

  19. Mechanical properties of short doughs and their corresponding biscuits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltsavias, A.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanical properties of short doughs of various composition were determined in small amplitude oscillatory experiments and in uniaxial compression. Regardless of composition, the linear region was very limited; beyond that, pronounced yielding and flow occurred. Conductimetry was also used to e

  20. Biscoitos de polvilho do comércio do estado de São Paulo, Brasil: composição da gordura com destaque para os ácidos graxos trans | Cassava biscuits from the market of São Paulo State, Brazil: fat composition with emphasis on trans fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Separovic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A redução dos níveis de ácidos graxos trans (AGT em produtos de panificação tem sido uma meta do setor produtivo brasileiro. A fim de avaliar a composição da gordura de biscoitos de polvilho, foram analisados produtos comerciais do estado de São Paulo, em 2009 (14 amostras e 2013 (11 amostras. A gordura foi determinada por gravimetria (hidrólise prévia e os ácidos graxos, por cromatografia em fase gasosa. Em ambos os períodos, os níveis médios de gordura total (17 e 18% e AGT (3% foram elevados. Pelo menos um dos componentes variou mais do que 20% do declarado, em 86% (2009 e 55% (2013 das amostras. Das 25 amostras analisadas, 20 continham gordura hidrogenada e altos teores de AGT; três amostras (com óleos de palma/ láuricos apresentaram baixos teores de AGT, porém elevados de ácidos graxos saturados (AGS. Outras duas amostras, contendo óleo vegetal, apresentaram quantidades insignificantes de AGT e consideráveis de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados, benéficos à saúde, porém susceptíveis à oxidação. Os resultados indicam a necessidade de continuidade no monitoramento deste produto e do desenvolvimento de alternativas tecnológicas para adequá-lo às recomendações de redução dos componentes relacionados ao risco de doenças cardiovasculares, especialmente os AGT. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- To reduce levels of trans fatty acids (TFA in bakery products has been a goal of the productive Brazilian sector. In order to assess the fat composition of cassava biscuits, fourteen samples in 2009 and eleven samples in 2013 from the market of São Paulo state were analyzed. Fat was determined by gravimetric method (with previous hydrolysis and fatty acids by gas chromatography. In both periods, the average contents of total fat (17 and 18% and TFA (3% were high. At least one of the components was more than 20% of the declared on the label in 86% (2009 and 55% (2013

  1. Biscuits, Sausage, Gravy, Milk, and Orange Juice: School Breakfast Environment in 4 Rural Appalachian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Andrea; Haughton, Betsy; Jahns, Lisa; Fitzhugh, Eugene; Jones, Sonya J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the school breakfast environment in rural Appalachian schools to inform school environment intervention and policy change. Methods: A total of 4 rural schools with fourth- and fifth-grade students in East Tennessee were assessed. A cross-sectional descriptive examination of the school food…

  2. 北冬虫夏草饼干的研制%Development of Cordyceps Militaris Biscuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴振; 王芳; 药欣荣; 陈晓康; 乔万金; 王晓闻

    2015-01-01

    以北冬虫夏草子实体为原料,通过单因素和正交试验研究北冬虫夏草饼干的最佳配方和加工工艺.结果表明,以100 g面粉为基础,加入过80目筛的虫草粉5 g,以及麦麸5 g,奶粉15 g,蛋清30 g,经上火180℃,下火160℃,焙烤8 min,可得到品质优良、口感酥脆、经济便携的北冬虫夏草饼干.

  3. DEVELOPING UNIVERSAL INSTALLATION WITH AUTOMATIC MONITORING AND CONTROL PROCESS OF MIXING, WHIPPING AND MOLDING BISCUIT DOUGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As products of high nutritional value can be used bakery products from a mixture of rye and wheat flour with the application of a grain of rye. Use whole grains assumes control of its quality according to organoleptic, physico-chemical and hygienic indices. Method of determining the color characteristics of grain scanner-metric method us-ing tablet scanner HP ScanJet 3570C with application of computer processing of images in RGB color mode is proposed. Application of the method to determine the color characteristics showed that rye, prepared in different ways, has different intensity of coloring, and the maximum intensity of the color components is observed at native grain.

  4. The microaerophilic microbiota of de-novo paediatric inflammatory bowel disease: the BISCUIT study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hansen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children presenting for the first time with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD offer a unique opportunity to study aetiological agents before the confounders of treatment. Microaerophilic bacteria can exploit the ecological niche of the intestinal epithelium; Helicobacter and Campylobacter are previously implicated in IBD pathogenesis. We set out to study these and other microaerophilic bacteria in de-novo paediatric IBD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 100 children undergoing colonoscopy were recruited including 44 treatment naïve de-novo IBD patients and 42 with normal colons. Colonic biopsies were subjected to microaerophilic culture with Gram-negative isolates then identified by sequencing. Biopsies were also PCR screened for the specific microaerophilic bacterial groups: Helicobacteraceae, Campylobacteraceae and Sutterella wadsworthensis. RESULTS: 129 Gram-negative microaerophilic bacterial isolates were identified from 10 genera. The most frequently cultured was S. wadsworthensis (32 distinct isolates. Unusual Campylobacter were isolated from 8 subjects (including 3 C. concisus, 1 C. curvus, 1 C. lari, 1 C. rectus, 3 C. showae. No Helicobacter were cultured. When comparing IBD vs. normal colon control by PCR the prevalence figures were not significantly different (Helicobacter 11% vs. 12%, p = 1.00; Campylobacter 75% vs. 76%, p = 1.00; S. wadsworthensis 82% vs. 71%, p = 0.312. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers a comprehensive overview of the microaerophilic microbiota of the paediatric colon including at IBD onset. Campylobacter appear to be surprisingly common, are not more strongly associated with IBD and can be isolated from around 8% of paediatric colonic biopsies. S. wadsworthensis appears to be a common commensal. Helicobacter species are relatively rare in the paediatric colon. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is publically registered on the United Kingdom Clinical Research Network Portfolio (9633.

  5. EFFECT OF BAKING ON THE PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND THE HYGIENICAL QUALITY OF BISCUITS / EFFET DE LA CUISSON SUR LES CARACTERISTIQUES PHYSICO-CHIMIQUES ET LA QUALITE SANITAIRE DES BISCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED MAMOUMI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The food safety is necessary of development of agro-food industries. We opted for the introduction of a concept to ensure a sanitary control of products-wares, including the pastry. We chose for our project three parameters as: water activity (aw, pH and moisture. Also, we defined the target values for these parameters to ensure the safety of our pastry. Otherwise, we incorporated the factor temperature to ensure complete control of safety knowing that cooking is a major industry in the pastry. We defined the temperature of microbial destruction to reduce the microbial load of the pastry after baking. This study was approved by microbiological analysis carried out on the cake having undergone the following parameters (aw, pH, moisture, temperature of microbial destruction.

  6. Making of Biscuits from Black Fungus and Oat%黑木耳燕麦饼干的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李程程

    2014-01-01

    以野生黑木耳与燕麦为主要原料,通过单因素实验和正交试验研制黑木耳燕麦饼干,最终确定了黑木耳燕麦饼干的最佳工艺配方:黄油25%,白糖25%,黑木耳10%,燕麦15%.此条件下制作的饼干口感最佳,风味最优.

  7. Optimization recipe of the cactus ( opuntia dillenii haw ) biscuit%仙人掌饼干的配方优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钟; 高雷

    2007-01-01

    以小麦粉为主要原料,加入仙人掌汁、砂糖、奶油等成分制作出植物类营养饼干.先确定仙人掌汁对饼干的感官评价水平,再用4因素3水平(砂糖20%、24%、28%;奶油10%、15%、20%;水分28%、30%、32%;仙人掌汁6%、5%、4%)正交试验设计和模糊综合评价产品感官质量的方法,对仙人掌饼干的配方进行优化选择.研究结果的最优配方为:砂糖24%、奶油15%、水分32%、仙人掌汁6%,影响仙人掌饼干品质的主次因素从大到小依次为水分、仙人掌汁、奶油、砂糖.

  8. A Factor Analysis of Challenging Behaviors Assessed with the "Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtism Traits" (BISCUIT-Part 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica; Rojahn, Johannes; Hess, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in socialization, communication, and restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. In addition to these core deficits, individuals with ASD also experience co-occurring conditions such as problem behaviors. Problem behaviors are common to this…

  9. 抗性淀粉饼干的研制及血糖指数评价%Development and Glycemic Index Evaluation of Resistant Starch Biscuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焕新; 张伟; 金征宇

    2013-01-01

    以感官评分为指标,通过单因素和正交试验设计优化抗性淀粉饼干的最佳配方为:以低筋粉小麦粉100%为基准,抗性淀粉25.0%、植物油24.0%、蔗糖32.0%、膨松剂1.6%、全蛋液2.0%、食盐1.0%、水10.0%.在此配方条件下,对抗性饼干进行感官、理化和卫生指标测定.结果表明:抗性淀粉饼干色泽均匀、呈金黄色;外形完整,花纹清晰,厚薄基本均匀,无收缩、变形、起泡、裂痕现象;断面结构呈多孔状,细密,无大孔洞;香味纯正,口感松脆细腻、不粘牙、无颗粒感.其各项理化指标和卫生指标均符合饼干国家相应标准;抗性淀粉饼干的水解指数和血糖指数分别为49.19、66.72,与对照组差异显著,属于中等血糖指数食品.

  10. La gestión de la comunicación en situaciones de crisis. El caso de la compañía United Biscuits en la crisis de Fontaneda

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique, A.M. (Ana Mª)

    2008-01-01

    Cualquier empresa es susceptible de sufrir una crisis. Accidentes, catástrofes naturales o conflictos sociales son acontecimientos, entre otros, que pueden producirse en cualquier sector empresarial que se trate. El acontecimiento, capaz de poner en riesgo la estabilidad de una empresa, va adquirir un protagonismo particular si además es recogido por los medios de comunicación, quienes convierten el asunto en noticia, y la canalizan, para hacerla llegar a la sociedad. El presente artículo se ...

  11. Pengaruh Penambahan Tepung Wortel Terhadap Daya Terima Dan Kadar Vitamin A Pada Biskuit

    OpenAIRE

    Febrina, Yusi

    2012-01-01

    Based on nutritional content, carrot flour were potential to be a source of nutrients such as β-carotene, fiber, fat, carbohydrates, proteins needed by the body. Therefore, carrot flour can be added for the biscuits, so that cookies can be nutritious. This study was the experiment of making biscuit addition of carrot fluor 5%, 15%, and 25%. This research aims to find out acceptability of biscuits determined with organoleptic test including flavor, aroma, color, and texture as measured by ...

  12. Fundamental and empirical rheological behaviour of wheat flour doughs and comparison with bread making performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A. M.; vanVliet, T; Vereijken, JM

    1996-01-01

    The rheological characteristics of wheat flour doughs from the cultivars Obelisk and Katepwa and of biscuit flour doughs, and also of biscuit flour doughs containing glutens isolated from cv. Obelisk and cv. Katepwa flour, were compared and discussed in relation to bread making performance. Four dif

  13. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN KUBIS MERAH (Brassica oleraceae var. TERHADAP AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN TINGKAT KESUKAAN KONSUMEN PADA BISKUIT TEPUNG BIJI RAMBUTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Ristiana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rambutan seed flour could be utilized as a food especially as source of carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Red cabbage could be used as natural food color because of their anthocyanin content. The aims of the research were to investigate the effect of red cabbage to the antioxidant activity and consumer preference of rambutan seed flour biscuit. This research was use completed randomized design with 9 combinations and 2 replications. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity was biscuit made by 50 g of rambutan seed flour addition and 20% of red cabbage extract, e.i 19.48 % radical scavenging activity (RSA of DPPH. But biscuit which was most prefere by panel test was only 25 g of rambutan seed flour without any addition of red cabbage extract. Rambutan seed flour and red cabbage addition to the biscuit did affect the antioxidant activity and the consumer preference of the biscuit.

  14. 扇子·女人·人血饼干--解读《湖南的扇子》中的想象与现实%Fan, Women, and Blood Biscuit--An Interpretation of the Imagination and Reality in Konannoōgi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杭萍

    2014-01-01

    《湖南的扇子》是芥川龙之介自杀前一年所发表的一部扑朔迷离的短篇小说。小说的舞台设定在中国的湖南,而据芥川的弟子堀辰雄回忆,动笔前,芥川曾多次阅读法国作家梅里美的《高龙芭》。渡部芳纪将该作品视为是一部激情洋溢的爱情小说;神田由美子则认为,该作品是芥川晚年所倡导的“小说应当脱离故事情节”这一理论的实践之作。芥川创作该小说的意图究竟何在?或许隐藏在“扇子”与“人血饼干”的背后所交织着的想象与现实之中。%Konannoōgi, a mysterious short story set in Hunan, China, written by Akutagawa Ryūnosuke, was published the year before his suicide. According to his student Hori Tatsuo, Akutagawa Ryūnosuke often read the novel Colomba,written by the French author Prosper Mérimée. Watanabe Yoshinori regarded this story as an exciting love novel whereas Kanda Yumiko thought it was a piece of experimental work, since Akutagawa Ryūnosuke in his later years advocated that novels should break away from reality. What was Akutagawa Ryūnosuke’s real intention? Perhaps it lies among the imagination and reality combining the“fan”and the“blood biscuit”.

  15. Bisküvi üretim proseslerinde HACCP gıda güvenliği sisteminin kurulması ve uygulamaları üzerine bir çalışma / A study on the implamentation of HACCP food safety system in the processes of biscuit production

    OpenAIRE

    Sertakan, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Bisküvi üretim proseslerinde Codex Alimentarius modeli ile TS 13001 (Tehlike Analizi ve Kritik Kontrol Noktalarına (HACCP) Göre Gıda Güvenliği Yönetimi - Gıda Üreten Kuruluşlar ve Tedarikçileri İçin Yönetim Sistemine İlişkin Kurallar) standardına göre Tehlike Analizleri ve Kritik Kontrol Noktaları (HACCP) sistemi uygulanmıştır. HACCP Bir gıda ürününün farklı üretim aşamalarında olabilecek tehlikelerin belirlenmesine ve analiz edilmesine, bu tehlikelerin önlenmesi için gerekli faaliyetlerin be...

  16. Facts about trans fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biscuits, sweet rolls, and donuts Breads and crackers Frozen foods, such as frozen dinners, pizza, ice cream, frozen yogurt, milk shakes, and pudding Snack foods Fast food Solid fats, such as shortening and ...

  17. Healthy Pets and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include dry dog or cat food, dog biscuits, pig ears, beef hooves, and rodents used to feed ... cat's litter box, because cats can carry a parasite that causes toxoplasmosis , which is a disease that ...

  18. Daya Terima Biskuit dengan Modifikasi Tepung Biji Nangka, Tepung Kacang Merah dan Tepung Pisang serta Kontribusinya terhadap Kecukupan Energi, Protein dan Zat Besi Remaja

    OpenAIRE

    Chairannisa, Citra

    2015-01-01

    Jackfruit seeds,red beansand banana flour can be processed into various food product which can give contribute nutrient, like energy, protein and iron. One of the product is biscuits. This study was aimed to determine the acceptability which comprised the color, flavor, taste and texture which were tested by hedonic test and the contribution to adequacy of the energy, protein, and iron. This was an experimental study on making biscuits by adding Jackfruit seeds, red beansand banana flour i...

  19. Influencia de la harina de chufa y el maltitol en la caracterización fisicoquímica y sensorial de galletas

    OpenAIRE

    RAGA SORIANO, ANA

    2015-01-01

    [EN] This work is focused on the analysis of the physicochemical characteristics and sensory acceptance of cookies prepared by replacing wheat flour (25, 50, 75 and 100%) and sugar (100%) by, respectively, tigernut flour and maltitol in order to obtain nutritionally enriched biscuits (especially in dietary fiber) with acceptable organoleptic properties. Plain wheat flour formula was included in the study as control. The biscuit processing was standardized. Assessed attributes were: water cont...

  20. Mechanical constraint converts planar waves into helices on tunicate and sea urchin sperm flagella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishijima, Sumio

    2012-01-01

    The change in the flagellar waves of spermatozoa from a tunicate and sea urchins was examined using high-speed video microscopy to clarify the regulation of localized sliding between doublet microtubules in the axoneme. When the tunicate Ciona spermatozoa attached to a coverslip surface by their heads in seawater or they moved in seawater with increased viscosity, the planar waves of the sperm flagella were converted into left-handed helical waves. On the other hand, conversion of the planar waves into helical waves in the sea urchin Hemicentrotus spermatozoa was not seen in seawater with an increased viscosity as well as in ordinary seawater. However, the sea urchin Clypeaster spermatozoa showed the conversion, albeit infrequently, when they thrust their heads into seawater with an increased viscosity. The chirality of the helical waves of the Clypeaster spermatozoa was right-handed. When Ciona spermatozoa swam freely near a glass surface, they moved in relatively large circular paths (yawing motion). There was no difference in the proportion of spermatozoa yawing in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction when viewed from above, which was also different from that of the sea urchin spermatozoa. These observations suggest that the planar waves generally observed on the sperm flagella are mechanically regulated, although their stability must depend on the Ca(2+) concentration in the cell. Furthermore, the chirality of the helical waves may be determined by the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and changed by transmitting the localized active sliding between the doublet microtubules around the axoneme in an alternative direction.

  1. Contribution of melanoidins to the antioxidant capacity of the Spanish diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoriza, Silvia; Rufián-Henares, José A

    2014-12-01

    Most foods included within the western diet are subjected to heat processing. During such treatment, the Maillard reaction takes place, generating brown polymers known as melanoidins. Melanoidins could have health beneficial properties such as chemopreventive, antimicrobial or antioxidant capacity. Here we have established the content of melanoidins in thermally processed foods consumed regularly in the Spanish diet (chocolate, sweet wine, balsamic vinegar, beer, bread, breakfast cereals and biscuits) and their antioxidant capacity by different in vitro methodologies (ABTS, FRAP, DPPH, ORAC, HOSC). The mean intake of melanoidins is 12.2g/person/day within the Spanish diet, bread, pilsner beer and biscuits being the foods that contributed most. The most antioxidant melanoidins were those from coffee, followed by balsamic vinegar and sweet wine. Finally, the average intake of antioxidant capacity coming from melanoidins was 717 μmol Trolox/day, melanoidins from coffee, biscuits, pilsner beer and chocolate being those which possessed more antioxidant capacity.

  2. Use of spent coffee grounds as food ingredient in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Saez, Nuria; García, Alba Tamargo; Pérez, Inés Domínguez; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J; Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Del Castillo, Maria Dolores

    2017-02-01

    The present research aimed to evaluate the use of spent coffee grounds (SCG) from instant coffee as a food ingredient and its application in bakery products. Data on physicochemical characterization, thermal stability and food safety of SCG were acquired. Evaluation of feasibility as dietary fibre was also determined. Results showed SCG are natural source of antioxidant insoluble fibre, essential amino acids, low glycaemic sugars, resistant to thermal food processing and digestion process, and totally safe. In the present work, SCG were incorporated in biscuit formulations for the first time. Low-calorie sweeteners and oligofructose were also included in the food formulations. Nutritional quality, chemical (acrylamide, hydroxymethylfurfural and advanced glycation end products) and microbiological safety and sensory tests of the biscuits were carried out. Innovative biscuits were obtained according to consumers' preferences with high nutritional and sensorial quality and potential to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes.

  3. Field Acceptability and Consumption of CR1M and Potential New Food Items during the Hot Weather Ration Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    bite-sized sweet and savoury biscuits, jerky, protein bars , cereal bars , dried fruits and trail mix. Consideration should be given to introducing...1x10g Canned Pears # 1x140g Almond Nuts 1x50g Cookie Flavour Protein Bar 1x40g Orange Sports Beans 1x28g Cereal Bar Cheddar Shapes 1x35g...Jerky Pieces 87.5 4.8 96 Cheddar Savoury Biscuits 86.5 4.7 93 Cereal Bar 86.0 4.2 84 Honey Roasted Nuts 82.7 4.6 87 Yoghurt Muesli

  4. Study on preparation of popped ricecake by microwave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Jiaxin; Huang Guangrong

    2001-01-01

    The principle of processing popped ricecake, especially by microwave, was expounded. Then the relations between popping time, materials ratio, H20 content of biscuit-base and the crisp degree and popping degree of ricecake were discussed. The microwave popping and oil-fry popping were compared as well.

  5. Study on preparation of popped ricecake by microwave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    diangdiaxinI

    2001-01-01

    Abstract :The principle of processing popped ricecake, especially bymicrowave, was expounded. Then the relations between popping time,materials ratio, H20 content of biscuit-base and the crisp degree and poppingdegree of ricecake were discussed. The microwave popping and oil-fry poppingwere compared as well.

  6. Women's club - Christmas Sale - Solidarité Femmes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's club

    2010-01-01

    Thursday, 25 November from 9am to 3pm Main Building 60, Ground floor All proceeds from the sale will be given to the charity Solidarité Femmes Numerous items for sale: Christmas wreaths, Cakes and Biscuits, Coffee, Preserves, Paintings, Books, Embroidery, Patchwork, Painting on porcelain... Tombola! Win a patchwork quilt, handmade by CWC members. All are welcome!

  7. Comment on "Post-wildfire logging hinders regeneration and increases fire risk".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, B N

    2006-08-04

    Based on limited sampling 2 years after the 2002 Biscuit Fire in Oregon, Donato et al. (Brevia, 20 January 2006, p. 352) concluded that postfire logging reduced seedling regeneration by 71%. Analysis of the study methodology and raw data suggest that this estimate is statistically flawed and misleading and says nothing about the impacts of more prompt postfire harvest.

  8. Substitutability and Independence: Matching Analyses of Brands and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.; Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive examination of panel data for 1,847 consumers and 2,209 brands of "biscuits" (a total of 76,682 records) in which matching analysis is employed to define brand substitutability and potential product clusters within the overall category. The results indicate that, while brands performed as expected as perfect…

  9. Store Wars: Will small shops get stamped out by the giant supermarket chains?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    "Welcome to Carrefour", announce the cheery signs in corporate red and blue, emblazoned over the entrance to the French firm's Nanfang store. Customers are wafted up on an elevator to behold aisle upon aisle of goods that, twentyyears ago, would have been but a dream. Store assistantswalk down the aisles, proffering samples of biscuits. One

  10. Evaluation of a high nutritional quality snack based on oat flakes and inulin: effects on postprandial glucose, insulin and ghrelin responses of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamataki, Nikoleta S; Nikolidaki, Eirini K; Yanni, Amalia E; Stoupaki, Maria; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsigkas, Alexandros-Pantelis; Perrea, Despoina; Tentolouris, Nikolaos; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2016-07-13

    The consumption of high nutritional value snacks may favorably affect the diet quality. Biscuits manufactured with oat flakes and maltitol were assessed for glycemic, insulinemic and ghrelin responses. Enrichment with inulin, a fructooligosachararide (FOS) which acts as soluble fiber, was performed in an attempt to further increase the dietary fiber content and examine potential additional postprandial benefits. Eleven healthy subjects participated in the study and consumed either 80 g oat biscuits (OB) or 81 g oat biscuits with 4% inulin (OBIN) or a solution containing 50 g of glucose (reference food), each yielding 50 g of available carbohydrates. Venous blood samples were collected before consumption and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min postprandially. The developed products were also evaluated for physicochemical properties, including porosity, density, texture, color, sensory attributes and microstructure (by scanning electron microscopy). Both biscuits demonstrated a low glycemic index (GI), which was found to be 32.82 ± 8.07 for OB and 45.68 ± 9.64 for OBIN. Compared to OB, OBIN demonstrated higher insulin response at 45 and 60 min and higher ghrelin suppression at 60 and 120 min postprandially (P inulin can be classified as low GI foods. Inulin addition significantly lowered the ghrelin response to OBIN, suggesting an advantage of OBIN in the modulation of satiety; however, no further benefits regarding glucose and insulin responses were observed.

  11. The HEALTHGRAIN definition of ‘whole grain’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.W. van der; Poutanen, K.; Seal, C.J.; Richardson, D.P.

    2014-01-01

    Most cereal products, like white bread, pasta, and biscuits, are based on flour after removal of bran and germ, the two parts of grain kernels containing most of the dietary fibre and other bioactive components. In the past decade, consumers have been rediscovering whole grain-based products and the

  12. Your Game Plan to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes: Fat and Calorie Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cream, fat added with beef cubes, untrimmed regular sour cream, fat added Beer (1 can = 12 fl oz): low calorie regular, malt, or no alcohol Beets Biscochitos (cookie), 1 1/2" diam Biscuit, from refrigerated dough: buttermilk (Pillsbury®) buttermilk, flaky (Hungry Jack®) Grands! (Pillsbury®) ...

  13. Transformation in Russian and Soviet Military History: Proceedings of the Military History Symposium (12th) Held in Washington, D.C. on 1-3 October 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    of cereals, which the men would either mix with water to make a kind of gruel or dough , or else double bake as biscuit to carry with them in their...after suffering significant losses. The Donbas Operation ended the winter campaign of 1942 and 1943 on a sour note for the Soviets. L ED 0 f U 0 76 g.z

  14. Application of by-products in the development of foodstuffs for particular nutritional uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Matejová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to test potential by-product utilization in the development of foodstuffs for people intolerant for gluten. In this work were used three kinds of pomace – apple, buckwheat and grape (varieties Alibernet and Cabernet. Obtained dried pomace was applied into the baking products in ratio 5%, 10% and 15%. Apple and buckwheat pomace were applied into the breads and grape pomace were used in biscuits. The obtained products were sensory evaluated and texture analysis was used for determination of firmness. In terms of overall quality of tested breads, the evaluators indicated that bread with 5% addition of buckwheat pomace was the sample with the highest quality and from biscuit category products with 5% addition of grape pomace (Alibernet were shown to be the best. Regarding the texture determination the highest firmness showed a control sample in the case of biscuits and with the addition of pomace into the biscuits product firmness decreased. Contrary, in case of breads with the addition of pomace, the firmness increased. The results of texture analysis were statistically evaluated by non-parametric Wilcoxon test, among the samples there was no statistical significant difference found.

  15. Testing the interaction between analytical modules: an example with Roundup Ready® soybean line GTS 40-3-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellocchi Gianni

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The modular approach to analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs relies on the independence of the modules combined (i.e. DNA extraction and GM quantification. The validity of this assumption has to be proved on the basis of specific performance criteria. Results An experiment was conducted using, as a reference, the validated quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR module for detection of glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready® GM soybean (RRS. Different DNA extraction modules (CTAB, Wizard and Dellaporta, were used to extract DNA from different food/feed matrices (feed, biscuit and certified reference material [CRM 1%] containing the target of the real-time PCR module used for validation. Purity and structural integrity (absence of inhibition were used as basic criteria that a DNA extraction module must satisfy in order to provide suitable template DNA for quantitative real-time (RT PCR-based GMO analysis. When performance criteria were applied (removal of non-compliant DNA extracts, the independence of GMO quantification from the extraction method and matrix was statistically proved, except in the case of Wizard applied to biscuit. A fuzzy logic-based procedure also confirmed the relatively poor performance of the Wizard/biscuit combination. Conclusions For RRS, this study recognises that modularity can be generally accepted, with the limitation of avoiding combining highly processed material (i.e. biscuit with a magnetic-beads system (i.e. Wizard.

  16. Applying Multiculturalism to a High School American Literature Course: Changing Lenses and Crossing Borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskin, David; Marshalek, Angela

    1995-01-01

    Describes a nine-week, secondary-school, language arts unit on the American dream with an emphasis on multicultural issues, particularly as they concern those students who are apathetic about or resistant to the multicultural program. Reviews specific lesson approaches to "The Great Gatsby,""Baseball in April,""Justin and the Best Biscuits in the…

  17. Acrylamide exposure among Turkish toddlers from selected cereal-based baby food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Gündüz, Cennet Pelin Boyacı

    2013-10-01

    In this study, acrylamide exposure from selected cereal-based baby food samples was investigated among toddlers aged 1-3 years in Turkey. The study contained three steps. The first step was collecting food consumption data and toddlers' physical properties, such as gender, age and body weight, using a questionnaire given to parents by a trained interviewer between January and March 2012. The second step was determining the acrylamide levels in food samples that were reported on by the parents in the questionnaire, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The last step was combining the determined acrylamide levels in selected food samples with individual food consumption and body weight data using a deterministic approach to estimate the acrylamide exposure levels. The mean acrylamide levels of baby biscuits, breads, baby bread-rusks, crackers, biscuits, breakfast cereals and powdered cereal-based baby foods were 153, 225, 121, 604, 495, 290 and 36 μg/kg, respectively. The minimum, mean and maximum acrylamide exposures were estimated to be 0.06, 1.43 and 6.41 μg/kg BW per day, respectively. The foods that contributed to acrylamide exposure were aligned from high to low as bread, crackers, biscuits, baby biscuits, powdered cereal-based baby foods, baby bread-rusks and breakfast cereals.

  18. Search Games on Hypergraphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelekis, C.

    2014-01-01

    The main motivation behind this thesis is a certain type of win-lose games that are played on hypergraphs and can be translated into the following puzzle. Suppose there are two persons, say Alice and Bob. There are n biscuits, where n is a positive integer, and Alice chooses s of them uniformly at r

  19. Real-Time Telemetric Monitoring in Whole-Body 60Co Gamma-Photon Irradiated Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    anemia , and thrombocytopenia could occur. Moistened biscuits with fruit juice, fluids, and/or colloids would be provided. During days 14–25, the...logical features. In: The Laboratory Nonhuman Pri- mate. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2002. 11 Haigh MV, Paterson E: Effects of a single session of

  20. Sensory memory and food texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Köster, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    Memory for texture plays an important role in food expectations. After fasting overnight, subjects (41 women, 35 men, age 19-60 years) received a breakfast including breakfast drink, biscuits and yoghurt. Subsequently, they rated their hunger feelings every hour, and returned for a taste experiment

  1. Sensory memory and food texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Koster, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    Memory for texture plays an important role in food expectations. After fasting overnight, subjects (41 women, 35 men, age 19¿60 years) received a breakfast including breakfast drink, biscuits and yoghurt. Subsequently, they rated their hunger feelings every hour, and returned for a taste experiment

  2. Outbreak of mass sociogenic illness in a school feeding program in northwest Bangladesh, 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2010, an acute illness outbreak was reported in school students eating high-energy biscuits supplied by the school feeding programme in northwest Bangladesh. We investigated this outbreak to describe the illness in terms of person, place and time, develop the timeline of events, and determine the cause and community perceptions regarding the outbreak. METHODS: We defined case-patients as students from affected schools reporting any two symptoms including abdominal pain, heartburn, bitter taste, and headache after eating biscuits on the day of illness. We conducted in-depth interviews and group discussions with students, teachers, parents and community members to explore symptoms, exposures, and community perceptions. We conducted a questionnaire survey among case-patients to determine the symptoms and ascertain food items eaten 12 hours before illness onset, and microbiological and environmental investigations. RESULTS: Among 142 students seeking hospital care, 44 students from four schools qualified as case-patients. Of these, we surveyed 30 who had a mean age of 9 years; 70% (21/30 were females. Predominant symptoms included abdominal pain (93%, heartburn (90%, and bitter taste (57%. All students recovered within a few hours. No pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, Shigella or Salmonella spp. were isolated from collected stool samples. We found no rancid biscuits in schools and storage sites. The female index case perceived the unusually darker packet label as a "devil's deed" that made the biscuits poisonous. Many students, parents and community members reported concerns about rumors of students dying from biscuit poisoning. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid onset, followed by rapid recovery of symptoms; female preponderance; inconsistent physical, microbiological and environmental findings suggested mass sociogenic illness rather than a foodborne or toxic cause. Rumours of student deaths heightening community anxiety apparently propagated this

  3. Outbreak of Mass Sociogenic Illness in a School Feeding Program in Northwest Bangladesh, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Farhana; Kundu, Subodh Kumar; Islam, Md Saiful; Hasan, S. M. Murshid; Khatun, Asma; Gope, Partha Sarathi; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Alamgir, A. S. M.; Islam, M. Sirajul; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2010, an acute illness outbreak was reported in school students eating high-energy biscuits supplied by the school feeding programme in northwest Bangladesh. We investigated this outbreak to describe the illness in terms of person, place and time, develop the timeline of events, and determine the cause and community perceptions regarding the outbreak. Methods We defined case-patients as students from affected schools reporting any two symptoms including abdominal pain, heartburn, bitter taste, and headache after eating biscuits on the day of illness. We conducted in-depth interviews and group discussions with students, teachers, parents and community members to explore symptoms, exposures, and community perceptions. We conducted a questionnaire survey among case-patients to determine the symptoms and ascertain food items eaten 12 hours before illness onset, and microbiological and environmental investigations. Results Among 142 students seeking hospital care, 44 students from four schools qualified as case-patients. Of these, we surveyed 30 who had a mean age of 9 years; 70% (21/30) were females. Predominant symptoms included abdominal pain (93%), heartburn (90%), and bitter taste (57%). All students recovered within a few hours. No pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, Shigella or Salmonella spp. were isolated from collected stool samples. We found no rancid biscuits in schools and storage sites. The female index case perceived the unusually darker packet label as a “devil’s deed” that made the biscuits poisonous. Many students, parents and community members reported concerns about rumors of students dying from biscuit poisoning. Conclusions Rapid onset, followed by rapid recovery of symptoms; female preponderance; inconsistent physical, microbiological and environmental findings suggested mass sociogenic illness rather than a foodborne or toxic cause. Rumours of student deaths heightening community anxiety apparently propagated this outbreak. Sharing

  4. Comunicació empresarial en situacions de crisi : la crisi de Fontaneda

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique, Ana Ma.

    2007-01-01

    L'any 2002, l'empresa britànica United Biscuits decideix tancar la fábrica de galetes Fontaneda, a Aguilar de Campoo (Palència). Fontaneda, una empresa familiar en els seus orígens, havia estat venuda pels seus propietaris a la multinacional el 1996. Després de més de 100 anys d'activitat de Fontaneda a Aguilar, els veïns s'enfrontaven a la pèrdua dels seus llocs de treball, però també a la pèrdua d'una certa identitat. United Biscuits va haver d'enfrontar aquesta situació problemàtica amb un...

  5. La comunicació empresarial en situacions de crisi. Estudi de cas : la crisi de Fontaneda

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique, Ana Ma.

    2008-01-01

    L’empresa britànica United Biscuits decideix, l’any 2002, tancar la fàbrica de galetes Fontaneda a Aguilar de Campoo (Palència). Després de més de cent anys d’activitat de Fontaneda a Aguilar, els veïns s’enfrontaven a la pèrdua de dos-cents dotze llocs de treball, però també a la pèrdua d’una certa identitat. United Biscuits va haver d’afrontar aquesta situació problemàtica gestionant el conflicte a partir d’unes estratègies de comunicació. En l’estudi de cas es van efectuar nou entrevistes ...

  6. Electro-desalination of glazed tile panels - discussion of possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Célia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2016-01-01

    Glaze is lost from tiles in tile panels due to presence of soluble salts and this means loss of important heritage. The present paper discusses the possibility to apply electro-desalination. An in-situ test has not been performed yet, but encouraging results have been obtained with different parts...... of the system. Single tiles, a variety of porous stones and the mortar on the back of a tile have all been electro-desalinated successfully in laboratory scale. Thus individually, all parts of the wall with tile panel can be electro-desalinated. The interface between mortar and tile can be problematic....... In the few experiments conducted on tiles with attached mortar, the mortar was desalinated to a higher degree than the biscuit and successful desalination of the biscuit through the mortar requires further research. In-situ pilot scale tests were performed on highly salt-contaminated walls without tiles...

  7. Tracing artificial trans fat in popular foods in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To minimise the intake of industrial artificial trans fat (I-TF), nearly all European countries rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TF content in food. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of this strategy on I-TF content in prepackaged biscuits....../cakes/wafers in 2012-2013 in 20 European countries. DESIGN: The I-TF content was assessed in a market basket investigation. Three large supermarkets were visited in each capital, and in some countries, three additional ethnic shops were included. RESULTS: A total of 598 samples of biscuits/cakes/wafers with 'partially...... Eastern European countries had products with very high I-TF content, and the remaining four countries had intermediate levels. Of the five countries that were examined using the same procedure as in 2006, three had unchanged I-TF levels in 2013, and two had lower levels. The 18 small ethnic shops examined...

  8. Developments on the cereal grains Digitaria exilis (acha) and Digitaria iburua (iburu)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Research and development on these indigenous African cereal grains, acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf) and iburu (D. iburua Stapf), is experiencing renewed interest not just in Africa but the rest of the world. It is believed that acha and iburu may have nutraceutical properties, as it is used in some areas for managing diabetes. Value addition and exploitation of fonio (acha and iburu) in the development of health or speciality foods like acha-bread, biscuit, cookies, sour dough, traditional drin...

  9. Studies on application of annatto (Bixa orellena L.) dye formulations in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiya Mala, Kripanand; Prabhakara Rao, Pamidighantam; Prabhavathy, Manda Babu; Satyanarayana, Akula

    2015-02-01

    Annatto is often used to add color to dairy products such as butter, cheese, or puddings. In India usage of annatto is restricted to butter and cheese, however there are no tailor made formulations available to obtain standardized colour shades for the products. Hence a study was initiated to develop the appropriate annatto dye formulations and level of application in few dairy products (butter, cheese, paneer, biscuit cream, icing cream). Dye extracted from annatto seeds was used for the preparation of water soluble potassium carbonate formulation (nor-bixin, 11.24 %), oil soluble formulation (1.35 % bixin) and an oil/water soluble propylene glycol formulation (PG formulation, 1.31 % bixin). Lovibond tintometer colour units of the commercial butter, cheese and biscuit cream samples were measured for standardizing the colour concentration in the experimental products. The present study evaluates the application and stability of these formulations in butter, cheese, paneer, biscuit cream, icing cream. The products were evaluated for stability of colour and bixin during storage period. The oil/water soluble propylene glycol formulation was found to be tailor-made for all the dairy products studied though the standardized levels varied between 3.75 and 5.0 mg/kg for butter, 3.75 mg/kg for cheese, 5.0-400 mg/kg for biscuit cream, 12.25 and 25 mg/kg for paneer, 5.0-500 mg/kg for icing cream. Increasing concentration in the range of 30-500 mg/kg yielded products with light cream to orange shades, useful for decorating cakes. The average recovery of bixin from the products immediately after processing was 90-98 %. Significant changes (P ≤ 0.05) were noticed in the colour units and recovery of bixin in all the products during storage of 6 months.

  10. Evidence supporting the conceptual framework of cancer chemoprevention in canines

    OpenAIRE

    Kondratyuk, Tamara P.; Julie Ann Luiz Adrian; Brian Wright; Eun-Jung Park; van Breemen, Richard B.; Morris, Kenneth R.; Pezzuto, John M.

    2016-01-01

    As with human beings, dogs suffer from the consequences of cancer. We investigated the potential of a formulation comprised of resveratrol, ellagic acid, genistein, curcumin and quercetin to modulate biomarkers indicative of disease prevention. Dog biscuits were evaluated for palatability and ability to deliver the chemopreventive agents. The extent of endogenous DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes from dogs given the dietary supplement or placebo showed no change. However, H2O2-induci...

  11. PENGARUH SUPLEMENTASI ZINC SULFAT DAN BISKUIT TERHADAP KONSENTRASI ZINC RAMBUT BALITA (PROGRAM MP ASI BISKUIT DI KERTOSONO JAWA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Budiastutik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nganjuk was included in 7districts with highest malnutrition in East Java. Prevalence index of weight/age was 4.80%, height/age was 17.40% and weight/height was > 20% (Riskesdas, 2008. In 2009 malnourished under five children was 715. Objective of this research was analyzing the effect of zinc supplement and biscuit MP-ASI for the nutritional status and hair zinc concentration for under five children. Methods: conducted in the working area community health center Kertosono, Nganjuk regency, East Java. Sample of research was children 12-60 months who have Zinc hair concentration < 150 Jig/Kg that was divided into two groups. Total subject was 26 under five children that divided into two groups. One was treatment group who received biscuit MP-ASI and zinc syrup and the other was control group who received biscuit MP-ASI and placebo syrup. Each group was collected by simple random sampling. Results: There were significant differences of body weight in the treatment group and control group before and after research,using paired t-test (p = 0.000. There were significant differences of body height in the treatment group and control group before and after research, using paired t test (p = 0.000. There were significant differences of category hair zinc concentration in the treatment group before and after research with Me Nemar Test (p = 0.031. Conclusion: Supplementation can increase the body weight and body height both of two groups, but nutrition status in the treatment group increased  highly than in the control  group. Hair zinc concentration in the treatment group increased highly than in the control group.   Key words: Malnutrition, zinc sulfate, biscuit Complementary feeding, levels of hair zinc

  12. Compliance of 2012/13 Combat Ration Packs to the Recommended Nutritional Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    chocolate candy, chocolate spread) and processed cheese . Most of the main meals provided more than 10% of the LL for total fat, except 3 items: chicken...eat and processed foods, including biscuits, soups, processed cheese , ration chocolate and chocolate candy (Dietitians Association of Australia, 2014...of the vitamin A in CR1M, PR1M and CR5M. Other sources included processed cheese (90 µg), sweetened condensed milk (57 µg), FD tuna mornay (102 µg

  13. 一次奇妙的就餐经历%A Unique Dining Experience in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajesh Kanoi (Jack)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Iforce myself to leave my computer and walk down for lunch. I have been writing all morning after my little jaunt down at the artificial-turfed playground for my run and exercise. It's been a late start and breakfast,a simple meal consisting of whole-wheat biscuits and a tetra pack of sweet strawberry flavored milk,was delayed,too.To lunch or not to lunch is a question.

  14. Can a virtual supermarket bring realism into the lab? Comparing shopping behavior using virtual and pictorial store representations to behavior in a physical store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herpen, Erica; van den Broek, Eva; van Trijp, Hans C M; Yu, Tian

    2016-12-01

    Immersive virtual reality techniques present new opportunities for research into consumer behavior. The current study examines whether the increased realism of a virtual store compared to pictorial (2D) stimuli elicits consumer behavior that is more in line with behavior in a physical store. We examine the number, variety, and type of products selected, amount of money spent, and responses to price promotions and shelf display, in three product categories (fruit & vegetables, milk, and biscuits). We find that virtual reality elicits behavior that is more similar to behavior in the physical store compared to the picture condition for the number of products selected (Milk: Mstore = 1.19, Mvirtual = 1.53, Mpictures = 2.58) and amount of money spent (Milk: Mstore = 1.27, Mvirtual = 1.53, Mpictures = 2.60 Euro), and for the selection of products from different areas of the shelf, both vertically (purchases from top shelves, milk and biscuits: Pstore = 21.6%, Pvirtual = 33.4%, Ppictures = 50.0%) and horizontally (purchase from left shelf, biscuits: Pstore = 35.5%, Pvirtual = 53.3%, Ppictures = 66.7%). This indicates that virtual reality can improve realism in responses to shelf allocation. Virtual reality was not able to diminish other differences between lab and physical store: participants bought more products and spent more money (for biscuits and fruit & vegetables), bought more national brands, and responded more strongly to price promotions in both virtual reality and pictorial representations than in the physical store. Implications for the use of virtual reality in studies of consumer food choice behavior as well as for future improvement of virtual reality techniques are discussed.

  15. Salt Toxicity (Sodium Intake): A Serious Threat to Infants and Children of Pakistan.

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Waseem; Muhammad Nafees; Ghulam Murtaza; Ashif Sajjad; Zahid Mehmood; Abdul Rauf Siddiqi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Excess sodium intake can lead to hypertension, the primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the sodium and potassium contents of foodstuff used by infants and children of Pakistan. Methods We analyzed the sodium and potassium contents of infant milk formula (6 months), baby food (cereals), biscuits, fruit juices, potato chips (crisps), cheese puffs, roasted cereals (salty), ice cream cones (kulfi) all of which are the process...

  16. Development of New Ecological Ceramic Tiles by Recycling of Waste Glass and Ceramic Materials; Incorporacion de residuos derivados de la fabricacion ceramica y del vidrio reciclado en el proceso ceramico integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, C.; Ramon Trilles, V.; Gomez, F.; Allepuz, S.; Fraga, D.; Carda, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    The following research work shows the results of the introduction of waste generated by the ceramic industry, such as the calcined clay from fired porcelain of stoneware and raw biscuit, sludge and cleaning water, as well as waste from other sectors like the recycling glass. In this way, it can be obtained a stoneware porcelain slab, engobe-glaze and satin glaze that contains high percentage of recyclable raw materials. (Author)

  17. Studies on application of annatto (Bixa orellena L.) dye formulations in dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiya Mala, Kripanand; Prabhakara Rao, Pamidighantam; Prabhavathy, Manda Babu; Satyanarayana, Akula

    2013-01-01

    Annatto is often used to add color to dairy products such as butter, cheese, or puddings. In India usage of annatto is restricted to butter and cheese, however there are no tailor made formulations available to obtain standardized colour shades for the products. Hence a study was initiated to develop the appropriate annatto dye formulations and level of application in few dairy products (butter, cheese, paneer, biscuit cream, icing cream). Dye extracted from annatto seeds was used for the pre...

  18. JENIS DAN DENSITAS BULU BABI (ECHINOIDEA DI KAWASAN PANTAI SANUR DAN SERANGAN DENPASAR- BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Eka Wulandewi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This aimed this study were to identify the species and the density of sea urchin at Sanur andSerangan beach. The research was conducted from Desember 2013 – February 2014. Thesamples were collected from area of Sanur beach, Merta Segara beach, Mertasari beach andSerangan beach, by using transect method within 5 m x 5 m. Speciesmens were identified atLaboratory of Ecology and the Laboratory of Animal Taxonomy at Department of Biology,Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Udayana. There 12 species of sea urchin werefound, that are Clypeaster sp., Astropyga radiata, Diadema palmeri, Diadema savignyi,Diadema setosum, Echinothrix calamaris, Echinometra mathaei, Heterocentrotus sp., Maretiaplanulata, Temnopleurus sp., Toxopneustes sp. and Tripneustes gratilla from 6 different family.The highest density of sea urchin are 0,373 individual/m2 was found which were at Seranganbeach, and the lowest density of sea urchin are 0,144 individual/m2 was found at Mertasaribeach.Keywords: Sea urchin species, density

  19. EVALUASI MODEL-MODEL PENDUGAAN UMUR SIMPAN PANGAN DARI DIFUSI HUKUM FICK UNIDIREKSIONAL EVALUATION OF SHELF-LIFE EQUATION MODELS DERIVED FROM UNIDIRECTIONAL FICK’S LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arpah

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the variation of shelf-life values, obtained in quantifying shelf-life of biscuits among models of accelerated storage studies (ASS from unidirectional Fick’S law. Shelf-life of biscuits is defined as the length of time of a packaged biscuits can be stored before the onset quality change appears.Four models: Heiss-Eichner (1971, Labuza (1983, Rudolph (1986 and Half Value Period or HVP model (Syarief, 1986 were evaluated. These models shared a common basic principle that they were all derived and developed from unidirectional Fick’s law. Therefore, each parameter of individual model can be compared to the athers. A semi empirical approach using reaction kinetics through Arrhenius plot was used as a real shelf-life values.Quantification resulted in two categories of shelf-life values, First those which higher than expected value and second, were lower than expected. Parameter evaluation of components of Heiss-Eichner and Labuza models clearly shown less in number than components of Rudolph and HVP models. This led to a conclusion that the more sophisticated models gave higher shelf-life values as compared to the Arhenius model.

  20. A Wireless Portable High Temperature Data Monitor for Tunnel Ovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mayo Bayón

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel ovens are widely used in the food industry to produce biscuits and pastries. In order to obtain a high quality product, it is very important to control the heat transferred to each piece of dough during baking. This paper proposes an innovative, non-distorting, low cost wireless temperature measurement system, called “eBiscuit”, which, due to its size, format and location in the metal rack conveyor belt in the oven, is able to measure the temperature a real biscuit experience while baking. The temperature conditions inside the oven are over 200 °C for several minutes, which could damage the “eBiscuit” electronics. This paper compares several thermal insulating materials that can be used in order to avoid exceeding the maximum operational conditions (80 °C in the interior of the “eBiscuit. The data registered is then transmitted to a base station where information can be processed to obtain an oven model. The experimental results with real tunnel ovens confirm its good performance, which allows detecting production anomalies early on.

  1. Utilização da farinha de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp na elaboração de produtos de panificação Utilization of cowpea flour in the development of bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves Frota

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo enriquecer produtos de panificação do tipo biscoito e rocambole com farinha de feijão-caupi (FFC, avaliar sua aceitabilidade e composição química, incluindo o conteúdo dos minerais (ferro, zinco, magnésio, potássio e fósforo e das vitaminas (tiamina e piridoxina. Foram desenvolvidas três formulações de biscoito contendo 10, 20 e 30% FFC e duas formulações de rocambole contendo 10 e 20% FFC. Observou-se um aumento no teor protéico do biscoito 30% FFC e do rocambole 20% FFC e na quantidade de cinzas dos biscoitos 20 e 30% FFC e rocambole 20% FFC, quando comparados às formulações padrão. O teor dos minerais analisados e de piridoxina aumentou à medida que FFC foi adicionada, enquanto a concentração de tiamina aumentou somente no rocambole 20% FFC. O biscoito com 10% FFC apresentou maior aceitação (84,4%, dentre os biscoitos formulados com FFC, além disso, os rocamboles com 10 e 20% FFC tiveram boa aceitação (86,7 e 77,8%, respectivamente. Todas as formulações contendo FFC tiveram notas superiores a 6, mostrando que os produtos foram aceitos sensorialmente. Desta forma, a adição de FFC visando melhorar o valor nutritivo de formulações à base de cereais é viável.This work had as objective to enrich bakery products (biscuit and rocambole or Brazilian roll with cowpea flour (CF to analyze their acceptability and chemical composition including mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus and vitamins (thiamine and pyridoxine. Three formulations of biscuits containing 10, 20, and 30% CF and two formulations of Brazilian rolls with 10 and 20% CF were developed. It was observed an increase in the protein contents of the 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, as well as in the ash value of 20 and 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, when compared to a standard formulation. The concentration of minerals and pyridoxine analyzed increased with the addition of

  2. Effects of drying, heating, annealing, and roasting on carbonate skeletal material, with geochemical and diagenetic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Susan J.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bronnimann, Charles E.

    1991-06-01

    Carbonate skeletons subjected to drying, heating, annealing, or roasting at elevated temperatures as part of routine sample preparation for chemical analyses or geochemical experiments differ significantly from skeletal materials as they occur in nature. Heating of skeletal samples can degrade organic material, expel H 2O and OH -, reduce the concentration of some trace elements, and change the mineralogy and texture of the material. Thermal degradation of organics and expulsion of water in inclusions, which can occur at temperatures of 100-105°C, cause fracturing and pitting of skeletal samples; areas of pitting reflect original concentrations of volatile phases within the skeleton. Coralline aragonites are partially or completely altered to calcite at temperatures of 150°C or higher; the degree of alteration varies with temperature and duration of heating, and genus of the coral. High Mg calcites (HMCs) tend to form calcian dolomite and multiple HMCs of lower Mg content on heating, but the rate of alteration is related to the taxonomic group rather than the Mg content; echinoids alter very rapidly (dolomite detectable by X-ray diffraction formed in Clypeaster heated for 6 h at 200°C), while the coralline red alga Neogoniolithon showed no alteration after heating at 400°C for 23 h. Mineralogical alteration of coralline aragonites and echinoid HMCs is positively correlated with water loss. Skeletal carbonates comprise a very diverse and heterogeneous suite of materials, and their diversity and heterogeneity are reflected in their responses to heating. Variations in rate and degree of alteration on heating, in many cases between different subsamples of material produced by the same organism, make it difficult to obtain a consistent product from heat treatment. Many workers have used high temperature experiments to model diagenetic processes, and the results of this study have implications for diagenetic alteration as well as for laboratory analyses and

  3. Cyclone trends constrain monsoon variability during Late Oligocene sea level highstands (Kachchh Basin, NW India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reuter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Important concerns about the consequences of climate change for India are the potential impact on tropical cyclones and the monsoon. Herein we present a sequence of fossil shell beds from the shallow-marine Maniyara Fort Formation (Kachcch Basin as an indicator of tropical cyclone activity along the NW Indian coast during the Late Oligocene warming period (~27–24 Ma. Direct proxies providing information about the atmospheric circulation dynamics over the Indian subcontinent at this time are important since it corresponds to a major climate reorganization in Asia that ends up with the establishment of the modern Asian monsoon system in the Early Miocene. The vast shell concentrations comprise a mixture of parautochthonous and allochthonous assemblages indicating storm-generated sediment transport from deep to shallow water during third-order sea level highstands. Three distinct skeletal assemblages were distinguished each recording a relative storm wave base depth. (1 A shallow storm wave base is shown by nearshore mollusks, corals and Clypeaster echinoids; (2 an intermediate storm wave base depth is indicated by lepidocyclind foraminifers, Eupatagus echinoids and corallinaceans; and (3 a deep storm wave base is represented by an Amussiopecten–Schizaster echinoid assemblage. Vertical changes in these skeletal associations give evidence of gradually increasing tropical cyclone intensity in line with third-order sea level rise. The intensity of cyclones over the Arabian Sea is primarily linked to the strength of the Indian monsoon. Therefore and since the topographic boundary conditions for the Indian monsoon already existed in the Late Oligocene, the longer-term cyclone trends were interpreted to reflect monsoon variability during the initiation of the Asian monsoon system. Our results imply an active monsoon over the Eastern Tethys at ~26 Ma followed by a period of monsoon weakening during the peak of the Late Oligocene

  4. Cyclone trends constrain monsoon variability during late Oligocene sea level highstands (Kachchh Basin, NW India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, M.; Piller, W. E.; Harzhauser, M.; Kroh, A.

    2013-09-01

    Climate change has an unknown impact on tropical cyclones and the Asian monsoon. Herein we present a sequence of fossil shell beds from the shallow-marine Maniyara Fort Formation (Kachcch Basin) as a recorder of tropical cyclone activity along the NW Indian coast during the late Oligocene warming period (~ 27-24 Ma). Proxy data providing information about the atmospheric circulation dynamics over the Indian subcontinent at this time are important since it corresponds to a major climate reorganization in Asia that ends up with the establishment of the modern Asian monsoon system at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. The vast shell concentrations are comprised of a mixture of parautochthonous and allochthonous assemblages indicating storm-generated sediment transport from deeper to shallow water during third-order sea level highstands. Three distinct skeletal assemblages were distinguished, each recording a relative storm wave base. (1) A shallow storm wave base is shown by nearshore molluscs, reef corals and Clypeaster echinoids; (2) an intermediate storm wave base depth is indicated by lepidocyclinid foraminifers, Eupatagus echinoids and corallinacean algae; and (3) a deep storm wave base is represented by an Amussiopecten bivalve-Schizaster echinoid assemblage. These wave base depth estimates were used for the reconstruction of long-term tropical storm intensity during the late Oligocene. The development and intensification of cyclones over the recent Arabian Sea is primarily limited by the atmospheric monsoon circulation and strength of the associated vertical wind shear. Therefore, since the topographic boundary conditions for the Indian monsoon already existed in the late Oligocene, the reconstructed long-term cyclone trends were interpreted to reflect monsoon variability during the initiation of the Asian monsoon system. Our results imply an active monsoon over the Eastern Tethys at ~ 26 Ma followed by a period of monsoon weakening during the peak of the late

  5. Cyclone trends constrain monsoon variability during late Oligocene sea level highstands (Kachchh Basin, NW India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reuter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has an unknown impact on tropical cyclones and the Asian monsoon. Herein we present a sequence of fossil shell beds from the shallow-marine Maniyara Fort Formation (Kachcch Basin as a recorder of tropical cyclone activity along the NW Indian coast during the late Oligocene warming period (~ 27–24 Ma. Proxy data providing information about the atmospheric circulation dynamics over the Indian subcontinent at this time are important since it corresponds to a major climate reorganization in Asia that ends up with the establishment of the modern Asian monsoon system at the Oligocene–Miocene boundary. The vast shell concentrations are comprised of a mixture of parautochthonous and allochthonous assemblages indicating storm-generated sediment transport from deeper to shallow water during third-order sea level highstands. Three distinct skeletal assemblages were distinguished, each recording a relative storm wave base. (1 A shallow storm wave base is shown by nearshore molluscs, reef corals and Clypeaster echinoids; (2 an intermediate storm wave base depth is indicated by lepidocyclinid foraminifers, Eupatagus echinoids and corallinacean algae; and (3 a deep storm wave base is represented by an Amussiopecten bivalve-Schizaster echinoid assemblage. These wave base depth estimates were used for the reconstruction of long-term tropical storm intensity during the late Oligocene. The development and intensification of cyclones over the recent Arabian Sea is primarily limited by the atmospheric monsoon circulation and strength of the associated vertical wind shear. Therefore, since the topographic boundary conditions for the Indian monsoon already existed in the late Oligocene, the reconstructed long-term cyclone trends were interpreted to reflect monsoon variability during the initiation of the Asian monsoon system. Our results imply an active monsoon over the Eastern Tethys at ~ 26 Ma followed by a period of monsoon weakening during the

  6. Associations between food consumption patterns and saliva composition: Specificities of eating difficulties children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzel, Martine; Truntzer, Caroline; Neyraud, Eric; Brignot, Hélène; Ducoroy, Patrick; Lucchi, Géraldine; Canlet, Cécile; Gaillard, Ségolène; Nicod, Florian; Nicklaus, Sophie; Peretti, Noël; Feron, Gilles

    2017-02-06

    Identifying objective markers of diet would be beneficial to research fields such as nutritional epidemiology. As a preliminary study on the validity of using saliva for this purpose, and in order to explore the relationship between saliva and diet, we focused on clearly contrasted groups of children: children with eating difficulties (ED) receiving at least 50% of their energy intake through artificial nutrition vs healthy controls (C). Saliva of ED and C children was analyzed by various methods (targeted biochemical analyses, 2-D electrophoresis coupled to MS, (1)H NMR) and their diet was characterized using food frequency questionnaires, considering 148 food items grouped into 13 categories. Complete datasets were obtained for 16 ED and 16 C subjects (median age 4.7y and 5.0y, respectively) and the statistical link between salivary and dietary characteristics was studied by Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Overall, ED children showed as expected lower consumption frequency scores and higher food selectivity. The two groups of children differed in "diet/saliva" associations. Some distinctive salivary variables were common to both groups of children. For example, carbonic anhydrase 6 and the consumption frequency of biscuits & sweets and drinks were positively associated with the MFA axis 1 in C children, but oppositely associated in ED children. Specifically for ED children, abundant salivary proteins (cystatins, amylase, amylase fragments) and some metabolites (amino acids, galactose, lactate) correlated with axis 1, together with the consumption frequency of sauces & seasonings, bread & cereal products, ready-to-eat meals, fish, biscuits & sweets, drinks and potatoes. Specifically for C children, several proteins (serum albumin, haptoglobin, Igκ, apolipoprotein A-1, α-1 antitrypsin) correlated with axis 1, together with the consumption frequency of biscuits & sweets, milk & dairy products, drinks, fruit, meat and vegetables. This study demonstrates that the

  7. Assessment of trans fatty acids content in popular Western-style products in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, H; Yang, L; Yuan, H; Rao, P; Lo, Y M

    2008-10-01

    To date, the published information on trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food products in China remains scarce and of questionable accuracy. Systematic approaches to educate the consumers and to ensure proper labeling of TFAs are among the many urgent challenges the regulatory agencies in this rapidly growing country have to face. In the present study, 97 most popular, national brand food products on the Chinese market, including 6 cheeses, 10 chocolates, 10 crisps, chips, and fries, 10 ice creams, 15 margarines, 10 pies and cakes, 8 sauces and dressings, 19 wafers and biscuits, and 9 Chinese-style snacks, were assayed to profile their fat content and fatty acid composition, particularly the TFAs. The highest level of TFAs, up to 30.9% of total fatty acids, were found in pies. The average TFAs contents in different product categories, ranging from high to low, were: pie and cake (12.07%), cheese (6.95%), margarine (5.09%), wafer and biscuit (4.35%), ice cream (2.67%), sauce and dressing (2.65%), crisps, chips, and fries (2.15%), chocolate (1.44%), and Chinese-style snacks (0.83%). One hundred percent of cheese contained TFAs, so did pie and cake, followed by crisps, chips, and fries (90%), sauce and dressing (88%), ice cream and margarine (80%), chocolate (60%), wafer and biscuit (53%), then Chinese-style snacks (33%). Profiling of key TFAs constituents could yield information characteristic to the types of partially hydrogenated oils employed, which is a critical step towards product reformulation in order to reduce or eliminate TFAs in the products.

  8. Nutritional evaluation in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escajadillo, A; Bronson, R T; Sehgal, P; Hayes, K C

    1981-04-01

    Four cotton-top tamarins were fed a commercial biscuit diet and three others a commercial canned diet for 12 weeks. Thereafter, all seven were fed a purified diet for 12 weeks. General health, body weight, food intake, fecal output, serum biochemistry, blood count, and colonic histopathology were evaluated at various times during the experiments. The diets did not affect these parameters except the purified diet was associated with relatively reduced fecal output. Diarrhea and chronic colitis occurred independently of the diet in three tamarins in the course of the study.

  9. Porridge and peas: C. Stanton Hicks and Australian army rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingham, Lizzie

    2009-09-01

    In 1942 Australian troops came back from fighting the Japanese in New Guinea exhausted and malnourished. The army rations of bully beef and biscuits were insufficiently rich in vitamins to sustain men in combat in tropical conditions. The nutritionist C. Stanton Hicks was one of a vast army of scientists who worked behind the scenes to maximize the war effort. He made it his mission to improve the army diet. He set up the Australian Army Catering Corps, invented combat ration packs and tried to introduce vitamin-rich foods into the soldiers' diet. Two of his more idiosyncratic innovations were wheat porridge and Tasmanian blue peas.

  10. The history of visual magic in computers how beautiful images are made in CAD, 3D, VR and AR

    CERN Document Server

    Peddie, Jon

    2013-01-01

    If you have ever looked at a fantastic adventure or science fiction movie, or an amazingly complex and rich computer game, or a TV commercial where cars or gas pumps or biscuits behaved liked people and wondered, ""How do they do that?"",  then you've experienced the magic of 3D worlds generated by a computer.3D in computers began as a way to represent automotive designs and illustrate the construction of molecules. 3D graphics use evolved to visualizations of simulated data and artistic representations of imaginary worlds. In order to overcome the processing limitations of the computer, graph

  11. Functionality of lipids and lipid-protein interactions in cereal-derived food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Didier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids and especially cereal lipids play a significant role in the processing and quality of cereals and baked cereal foods (bread, biscuits and beverages (beer. Most of the physico-chemical mechanisms responsible for the lipid functionality has been investigated and recently the specific role of lipid-binding proteins, e.g. lipid transfer proteins and puroindolines, has been highlighted. The state of the researches performed in this field are briefly presented in this review and the data obtained until now show that new perspectives are opened in cereal breeding and processing for improving the quality of cereals and cereal products.

  12. Gas chromatographic determination of propionates as paranitrobenzyl ester in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuki, K; Sakai, K

    1982-07-01

    A procedure was developed to determine propionates used as mold inhibitors and preservatives in bakery products. Propionates were extracted from the sample with water alkalinized by potassium carbonate. Water was evaporated, and the residue was reacted with paranitrobenzyl bromide in dimethyl-formamide-water (90 + 10) at room temperature to convert propionates to paranitrobenzyl ester, which was determined with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. Bakery products, such as bread, sponge cake, cookies, and biscuits, were analyzed by this procedure. Recoveries from samples fortified with propionates ranged from 94 to 101%, with a standard deviation of 3.32. The concentrations determined were 50 to 2500 micrograms/g sample.

  13. Feedbacks between Climate and Fire Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    contribution of  fire associated with  deforestation  to changes  in radiative forcing Emissions from Fires: Global Warming Potential Andreae and Merlet...carbon dioxide -10 0 10 20 30 1 00-year global warming potential Models to Predict Emissions from Fires • Fire-Specific Models – Biscuit Fire...greenhouse gases - CO2 ~ 6-7 Pg CO2 annually released to atmosphere from open burning - N2O - CH4 Global CO2 Emissions Estimates Anthropogenic

  14. The Old Home Place: An Archaeological and Historical Investigation of Five Farm Sites along the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-15

    the porch columns intact. Because of their instability, the two chimneys were pushed over into the interior of the ruin. Other than this, there was no...Clinkscales 12.00 I roaster Mary Boyd 1.00 1 kitchen scales Mary Boyd 1.50 1 griddle pan W.D. Mann 1.80 , waffle iron Mrs. R.C. Parnell .75 Biscuit pan...Library 150 00 Lot Husks 1? 0 00 Slab [?] and contents 140 00 14 hundred bushels corn 1 Set dining tables 60 00 @ 1.60 per bush 875 00 1 Tea Table 15 00

  15. Evaluation of Integrated Training Prototype 94B10, Fort Jackson, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    i i 2 s M I S u I BAKING POWDER BISCUITS Hi DOUGHS ft* I (2) 120* YtELD 100 PUIIHMU (4 P.n») EACH PORTION 2 B.KU.M PAN SIZE It by M...oil dough 100 U0 23 lb 11 PUce oouoh oa lejhüy floured board BBBBl l»o,atly epptoai asaiely 1 ssiRute ot ur.! dough u 1 • i Boll...ox pot out io . uniform j tbickooM oi Vi lock Col «nib 2Vs-iBch Soured bucuit I eottor Ploco brocuito or. pent in ow. 6 by 9

  16. Wealthy in Heart: Oral History of Life Before Fort A.P. Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    baking something in the stove or on the stove, and I’d roll out the dough , and I had a biscuit cutter, and I would put them on the tin, put them in...pieces, and she would boil them, cook them, and then she would make it just like you would make a chicken dumpling. She would have dough that she...father had an orchard of fruit trees, cherry trees, apples, peaches, plums, every kind of cherry you could think of, sweet, sour , and black. He

  17. Catch The Fashion of Ingredients%国际食品市场的流行趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeterLehamann

    2003-01-01

    The most important thing in flavor is to keep and improve the fragrant quality in the final products. Another is to bring a special character through ingredients. This may be a new scent, a new material, a new color, and a new package, even a new marketing mode. Cool feelings, chocolate chips, nut lets can always improve characters. Whatever, taste is the direct drive to foods. So, catching the fashion of ingredients is really important to manufacturers. Mr. Peter Lehman from Owada international flavors and fragrances (Guangzhou) limited will introduce the different fashion in soft drink, biscuits, cookies and ice creams.

  18. Evaluation and development of direct burning natural gas industrial equipment in the food sector; Avaliacao e desenvolvimento de equipamentos industriais de queima direta de gas natural no setor de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwob, Marcelo; Morales, Maria Elizabeth; Henriques, Mauricio; Guimaraes, Marcio; Tapia, Roberto; Rodrigues, Joaquim; Faccion, Alexandre [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study, focused in the food sector, is evaluate and develop technologies used in equipment of direct burning natural gas, as ovens and driers of common use in the toasting coffee, noodles and biscuits industries. We have developed an archetype of oven for baking, seeking to incorporate new technological concepts but showing operational conditions of great attractiveness for the users of this kind of equipment. Above all, aiming the optimization of the technologies to improve the energy efficiency, to reduce costs and to increase the operational security. Thus, a survey of the thermal equipment in the mentioned industrial sector was made, followed of an evaluation of the technical possibilities of its incorporation in that sector, adaptations and the modifications of engineering projects, identifying the possibilities of productivity increase, improvement of quality and greater competitiveness, as well as the reduction of atmospheric emissions. So, It has been proposed solutions as the decentralized use of the thermal energy, recovery of heat of exhaustion gases, optimization of the thermal insulation, reduction of thermal inertia and the automatization of the control of the combustion in ovens and/or driers of the mentioned sectors. The main results of this study are: the possibility of reduction of, 32 to 37% in the consumption of thermal energy in the ovens of biscuit production, of 12 to 15% in the toasting of coffee and 20 to 30% in the processes of noodles production. Saving of around 25% would be expected in the small bearing ovens for baking. (author)

  19. Replacement of cocoa butter with cocoa butter - like fat from modified palm oil in coating chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a confectionery product, mainly containing cocoa mass or liquor, cocoa butter (CB and sugar. Nowadays vegetable fats and modified oil are used instead of CB in chocolate products to lower the cost and to obtain the varieties of products with different characteristics and textures. Cocoa butter-like fat from modified palm oil (CBFMPO at different levels of CB replacement (60,80 and 100% were used to develop a formulation of coating chocolate. When physical and sensory properties were evaluated, the viscosity and coating ability on biscuit sticks were remarkedly decreased with increasing CBFMPO content. Hedonic mean scores of mouthfeel and coating ability of the chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO were greater than those of chocolate containing 60 and 80% CBFMPO (p<0.05. During storage of biscuit sticks dipped in the chocolate coating (chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO at room temperature (27-29oC and low temperature (20-22oC for 30 days, blooming (as shown by whiteness index occurred to a greater extent at higher temperature. At both storage temperatures, the intensity scores of glossiness and hedonic mean scores of overall liking of samples decreased but intensity scores of off-odor increased during the first 6 of days storage (p<0.05.

  20. Energy use in the animal-feeds industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.

    1980-05-01

    Fuel and electricity use in the animal feeds industry is discussed. Data were collected by postal survey and by detailed energy survey from plant records. Energy conservation measures are discussed. Large energy savings are unlikely in lucerne pellet production but significant savings in imported fuel oil could be made by conversion to coal or other indigenous fuels. When heat pump technology has improved it may be economically feasible to use a heat pump to recover heat from the dryer outlet air and use it to preheat the incoming air stream. Electricity savings are unlikely in feed mills but the boiler fuel consumption can by reduced by better situation of boilers and upgrading of steam reticulation systems. Energy consumption in dog biscuit factories can be reduced by similar methods to those suggested in the biscuit baking industry report, in particular conversion to direct gas heating (where available) and waste heat recovery for hot water production offer potential savings. Methods used to manufacture processed animal foods differ between factories and a general list of conservation measures could not be prepared. Useful savings are likely by reduced baseload boiler fuel consumption and waste heat recovery for hot water production.

  1. Examining cross-cultural differences in autism spectrum disorder: A multinational comparison from Greece, Italy, Japan, Poland, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, J L; Matheis, M; Burns, C O; Esposito, G; Venuti, P; Pisula, E; Misiak, A; Kalyva, E; Tsakiris, V; Kamio, Y; Ishitobi, M; Goldin, R L

    2017-02-14

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social and communication impairments as well as restricted, repetitive behavior patterns. Despite the fact that ASD is reported worldwide, very little research exists examining ASD characteristics on a multinational scale. Cross-cultural comparisons are especially important for ASD, since cultural differences may impact the perception of symptoms. Identifying behaviors that are similarly reported as problematic across cultures as well as identifying behaviors in which there is cultural variation could aid in the development and refinement of more universally effective measures. The present study sought to examine similarities and differences in caregiver endorsement of symptom severity through scores on the Baby Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT). The BISCUIT was utilized to examine ASD core symptomology in 250 toddlers diagnosed with ASD from Greece, Italy, Japan, Poland, and the United States. Significant differences in overall ASD symptom severity and endorsement were found between multinational groups. Implications of the results are discussed.

  2. Study of acrylamide level in food from vending machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naceur Haouet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a by-product of the Maillard reaction and is potentially carcinogenic to humans. It is found in a number of foods with higher concentrations in carbohydrate-rich foods and moderate levels of protein-rich foods such as meat, fish and seafood. Acrylamide levels in food distributed in vending machines placed in public areas of the city of Perugia were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples included five different categories, depending on the characteristics of the products: i potato chips; ii salted bakery products; iii biscuits and wafers; iv sweet bakery products; v sandwiches. A high variability in acrylamide level among different foods and within the same category was detected. Potato chips showed the highest amount of acrylamide (1781±637 μg/kg followed by salted bakery products (211±245 μg/kg, biscuits and wafers (184±254 μg/kg, sweet bakery products (100±72 μg/kg and sandwiches (42±10 μg/kg. In the potato chips and sandwiches categories, all of the samples revealed the presence of acrylamide, while different prevalence was registered in the other foods considered. The data of this study highlight the presence of acrylamide in different foods sold in vending machines and this data could be useful to understand the contribution of this type of consumption to human exposure to this compound.

  3. Investigation of the reactions of acrylamide during in vitro multistep enzymatic digestion of thermally processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzalıoğlu, Aytül; Gökmen, Vural

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the fate of acrylamide in thermally processed foods after ingestion. An in vitro multistep enzymatic digestion system simulating gastric, duodenal and colon phases was used to understand the fate of acrylamide in bakery and fried potato products. Acrylamide levels gradually decreased through gastric, duodenal and colon phases during in vitro digestion of biscuits. At the end of digestion, acrylamide reduction was between 49.2% and 73.4% in biscuits. Binary model systems composed of acrylamide and amino acids were used to understand the mechanism of acrylamide reduction. High-resolution mass spectrometry analyses confirmed Michael addition of amino acids to acrylamide during digestion. In contrast to bakery products, acrylamide levels increased significantly during gastric digestion of fried potatoes. The Schiff base formed between reducing sugars and asparagine disappeared rapidly, whereas the acrylamide level increased during the gastric phase. This suggests that intermediates like the Schiff base that accumulate in potatoes during frying are potential precursors of acrylamide under gastric conditions.

  4. Ekuitas Merek dan Keputusan Pembelian: Studi Pada Konsumen Anak Usia Sekolah Dasar di Kota Depok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Meiria

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brand Equity and Purchase Decision: Study at Elementary School Consumer in Depok CityThis study aims to identify: how brand equity’s factors of Biskuat and purchase decision of this biscuit by children consumer at the elementary school age in Depok City, as well as how the influence of brand equity’s factors of Biskuat towards purchase decision of this biscuit by children consumer at the elementary school age in Depok City. The object of this study is brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, brand loyalty and purchase decision. The study was conducted in six sub-district of Depok City, with 100 children as the respondent from several schools and environments in six sub-district of Depok City.Testing hypotheses using path analysis (path analysis which is equipped with testing the validity and reliability. Based on the analysis of the model lines of research, obtained results that brand equity which is brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, and brand loyalty in partially and simultaneously has significantly affect to purchase decision.DOI:  10.15408/ess.v7i1.4783

  5. Deep Eutectic Solvents as Novel and Effective Extraction Media for Quantitative Determination of Ochratoxin A in Wheat and Derived Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Piemontese

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented, environmentally friendly, and faster method for the determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA (a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and largely widespread in nature, in wheat and derived products has, for the first time, been set up and validated using choline chloride (ChCl-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs (e.g., ChCl/glycerol (1:2 and ChCl/ urea (1:2 up to 40% (w/w water as privileged, green, and biodegradable extraction solvents. This also reduces worker exposure to toxic chemicals. Results are comparable to those obtained using conventional, hazardous and volatile organic solvents (VOCs typical of the standard and official methods. OTA recovery from spiked durum wheat samples, in particular, was to up to 89% versus 93% using the traditional acetonitrile-water mixture with a repeatability of the results (RSDr of 7%. Compatibility of the DES mixture with the antibodies of the immunoaffinity column was excellent as it was able to retain up to 96% of the OTA. Recovery and repeatability for durum wheat, bread crumbs, and biscuits proved to be within the specifications required by the current European Commission (EC regulation. Good results in terms of accuracy and precision were achieved with mean recoveries between 70% (durum wheat and 88% (bread crumbs and an RSDr between 2% (biscuits and 7% (bread.

  6. Microwave assisted saponification (MAS) followed by on-line liquid chromatography (LC)-gas chromatography (GC) for high-throughput and high-sensitivity determination of mineral oil in different cereal-based foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2016-04-01

    A high throughput, high-sensitivity procedure, involving simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction (MAS) and unsaponifiable extraction, followed by on-line liquid chromatography (LC)-gas chromatography (GC), has been optimised for rapid and efficient extraction and analytical determination of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cereal-based products of different composition. MAS has the advantage of eliminating fat before LC-GC analysis, allowing an increase in the amount of sample extract injected, and hence in sensitivity. The proposed method gave practically quantitative recoveries and good repeatability. Among the different cereal-based products analysed (dry semolina and egg pasta, bread, biscuits, and cakes), egg pasta packed in direct contact with recycled paperboard had on average the highest total MOSH level (15.9 mg kg(-1)), followed by cakes (10.4 mg kg(-1)) and bread (7.5 mg kg(-1)). About 50% of the pasta and bread samples and 20% of the biscuits and cake samples had detectable MOAH amounts. The highest concentrations were found in an egg pasta in direct contact with recycled paperboard (3.6 mg kg(-1)) and in a milk bread (3.6 mg kg(-1)).

  7. Acrylamide levels in selected Colombian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, Deborah; Gil, Elizabeth; Frega, Natale G; Álvarez, Lina; Dueñas, Pilar; Garzón, Angélica; Lucci, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) levels in conventional (n = 112) and traditional (n = 43) Colombian foods were analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) detection. Samples included: infant powdered formula, coffee and chocolate powders, corn snacks, bakery products and tuber-, meat- and vegetable-based foods. There was a wide variability in AA levels among different foods and within different brands of the same food, especially for coffee powder, breakfast cereals biscuits and French fries samples. Among the conventional foods tested, the highest mean AA value was found in bakery products, such as biscuit (1104 µg kg(-1)) and wafer (1449 µg kg(-1)), followed by potato chips (916 µg kg(-1)). On the other hand, among the traditional foods, higher AA amounts were detected in fried platano (2813 µg kg(-1)) and yuca (3755 µg kg(-1)) compared to other products. Interestingly, the arepa, a traditional Colombian bakery product made with corn flour, showed a lower AA content (< 75 µg kg(-1)) when compared with similar bakery products tested, such as soft bread (102-594 µg kg(-1)), which is a made with wheat flour.

  8. Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macey A. Mahawan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel. Based on the findings of the study the percentages of crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, total carbohydrates, ash and moisture were 7.75, 4.91, 0.71, 74.65, 2.83 and 14.05 respectively. On the other hand the falling number was 495 seconds while gluten was below the detection limit of the method used. Moreover, the sensory evaluation in terms of color, texture and aroma in 0% proportion of Avocado seed flour was moderate like and slight like for 25% and 50% proportions of Avocado seed flour. On the otherhand, the taste of the biscuits prepared with 0% Avocado seed flour was moderate like, in 25% proportion of Avocado seed flour were slight like and in 50% proportion was neither liked nor disliked. The overall acceptability results for 0% proportion of Avocado seed flour was moderate like and slight like for 25% and 50% proportions of Avocado seed flour. Furthermore, the computed p values for the comparison of the level of acceptability in terms of color, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability of biscuits using 0%, 25%, and 50% avocado seed flour were lower than 0.05. Thus the null hypothesis is rejected.

  9. Stability of steviol glycosides in several food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooken, Etienne; Amery, Ruis; Struyf, Tom; Duquenne, Barbara; Geuns, Jan; Meesschaert, Boudewijn

    2012-10-24

    As steviol glycosides are now allowed as a food additive in the European market, it is important to assess the stability of these steviol glycosides after they have been added to different food matrices. We analyzed and tested the stability of steviol glycosides in semiskimmed milk, soy drink, fermented milk drink, ice cream, full-fat and skimmed set yogurt, dry biscuits, and jam. The fat was removed by centrifugation from the dairy and soy drink samples. Proteins were precipitated by the addition of acetonitrile and also removed by centrifugation. Samples of jam were extracted with water. Dry biscuits were extracted with ethanol. The resulting samples were concentrated with solid-phase extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 stationary phase and a gradient of acetonitrile/aqueous 25 mM phosphoric acid. The accuracy was checked using a standard addition on some samples. For assessing the stability of the steviol glycosides, samples were stored in conditions relevant to each food matrix and analyzed periodically. The results indicate that steviol glycosides can be analyzed with good precision and accuracy in these food categories. The recovery was between 96 and 103%. The method was also validated by standard addition, which showed excellent agreement with the external calibration curve. No sign of decomposition of steviol glycosides was found in any of the samples.

  10. Breakfast and Snacks: Associations with Cognitive Failures, Minor Injuries, Accidents and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Chaplin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One strategy for examining effects of nutrients on cognitive function is to initially investigate foods that contain many different nutrients. If effects are demonstrated with these foods then further studies can address the role of specific nutrients. Breakfast foods (e.g., cereals, dairy products and fruit provide many important nutrients and consumption of breakfast has been shown to be associated with beneficial effects on cognitive function. Isolating effects of specific constituents of breakfast has proved more difficult and it is still unclear what impact breakfast has on real-life performance. The present study provided initial information on associations between breakfast consumption and cognitive failures and accidents. A second aim was to examine associations between consumption of snacks which are often perceived as being unhealthy (chocolate, crisps and biscuits. A sample of over 800 nurses took part in the study. The results showed that frequency of breakfast consumption (varied breakfasts: 62% cereal was associated with lower stress, fewer cognitive failures, injuries and accidents at work. In contrast, snacking on crisps, chocolate and biscuits was associated with higher stress, more cognitive failures and more injuries outside of work. Further research requires intervention studies to provide a clearer profile of causality and underlying mechanisms.

  11. The Pentosans Contents and Their Relationships with Quality Traits of Different End-use Wheat Varieties%不同品质类型小麦戊聚糖含量及其与品质的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥红研; 张媛; 王海燕; 武旺; 王苏玲; 张守忠; 高德荣; 王秀娥

    2009-01-01

    为给小麦品质的遗传改良提供依据,选用不同品质类型的7个小麦推广品种和1个密穗小麦,研究了戊聚糖含量及其与品质的关系.结果发现,中强筋小麦品种具有比弱筋小麦品种更高的戊聚糖含量,且不同筋力的推广品种戊聚糖含量表现出较大差异.弱筋小麦的水溶性戊聚糖含量与延展性、饼干直径呈极显著和显著负相关;非水溶性戊聚糖、总戊聚糖与饼干直径亦呈极显著负相关;与吹泡示功仪参数、RVA参数也具有较为丰富的相关性.本研究进一步证实宁麦9号和扬麦13具有良好的饼干品质.密穗小麦具有较低的戊聚糖含量,同时其饼干直径、厚度、直径/厚度均与弱筋小麦品种相近,可能是一个优良的弱筋、低戊聚糖含量的饼干小麦资源.%The objective of this paper is to establish the basis for wheat improvement of quality traits. Seven wheat varieties and an accession of Triticum compactum were used to elucidate the relationship between pentosens contents and their end-use qualities. The pentosans contents were different among these cultivars, with higher pentosans content in high-gluten wheat varieties than that in the low-gluten varieties. In low-gluten varieties, an inverse correlation between the content of water-soluble pentosan and the ductility and the biscuit diameter was observed. The water-insoluble pentosan and the total pentosans content also showed a remarkable inverse correlation with the biscuit diameter besides a higher relevance with Alveograph parameters and the RVA parameters. This research also confirmed that Ningmai 9 and Yangmai 13 had good biscuit-making quality. In addition, the biscuit diameter, thickness, diameter/thickness of T. compactum was similar as those of Ningmai 9 and Yangmai 13, while T. compactum had lower pentosan content and higher protein content. Thus, the T. compactum could be a new resource for high protein content and biscuit making quality.

  12. Mass mortality of Diadema antillarum on the Caribbean coast of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessios, H. A.; Cubit, J. D.; Robertson, D. R.; Shulman, M. J.; Parker, M. R.; Garrity, S. D.; Levings, S. C.

    1984-12-01

    The ecologically important sea urchin Diadema antillarum suffered mass mortalities in 1983, first noted in Panama and then reported from the rest of the Caribbean. We documented the effects of this mortality at two localities on the Atlantic coast of Panama, Punta Galeta and the San Blas Archipelago. At Punta Galeta, affected by the mortality in January 1983, the numbers of D. antillarum changed from an estimated 14,000 per ha in June 1982 to 0.5 per ha in May 1983; by February 1984 they had increased to 38 per ha. In the San Blas, where mass mortality started in April 1983, the number of D. antillarum in permanent quadrats on 8 reefs was reduced by an average of 94.2%. The average reduction in population density measured in transects on nine reefs was 98.9%. Data taken in permanent quadrats on four reefs in 1978, 1979 and 1980 indicate that population fluctuations of D. antillarum are normally much smaller, justifying the labeling of the 1983 event as “mass mortality”. Size structure of the San Blas populations was also affected; mean test diameter of D. antillarum on four reefs was reduced from 48.6 mm to 25.0 mm. Other echinoids ( Echinometra viridis, E. lucunter, Lytechinus variegatus, L. williamsi, Eucidaris tribuloides, Tripneustes ventricosus, Clypeaster rosaceus and Echinoneus cyclostomus) suffered no ill effects at either Galeta or the San Blas; their population densities remained stable or increased. Density determinations of Diadema mexicanum at the island of Taboguilla on the Pacific side of Panama indicate that Diadema mass mortality did not extend to the eastern Pacific. Sea surface temperatures, tidal levels, rainfall and salinity showed no abnormal fluctuations during the time of D. antillarum mass mortality at Galeta, suggesting that mortality was not due to physical stress. The wide geographical spread and species-specificity of the mortality suggest a water-borne pathogen as the most likely causative agent. Recovery of D. antillarum

  13. Study on Processing Technology of Moringa oleiferaSoda Cracker%辣木苏打饼干的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡钰; 史文斌; 苏琳琳; 李守岭; 林兴文

    2016-01-01

    [目的]确定辣木苏打饼干最佳工艺配方。[方法]以辣木粉为主要原料,通过单因素和正交试验研究辣木粉、酵母、食用油、NaH-CO34种物质添加量对辣木苏打饼干品质的影响。[结果]各因素对辣木苏打饼干品质影响大小依次为辣木粉添加量、食用油添加量、NaHCO3添加量、酵母添加量,得出辣木苏打饼干最佳配方为辣木粉添加量350 g/kg,酵母添加量18 g/kg,食用油添加量170 g/kg,NaH-CO3添加量6 g/kg,制作出的辣木苏打饼干口感酥脆,具有辣木的特征香味。[结论]该试验所得工艺配方可为辣木苏打饼干的工业化生产提供理论指导。%Objective] The optimal preparation technique for Moringa oleifera soda biscuit was determined.[Method] With Moringa oleifera powder as main material,based on the single-factor and orthogonal test,effects of the amount of Moringa oleifera powder,yeast,edible oil,NaHCO3 on soda biscuit taste were studied.[Result] The order of factors influencing sensory evaluation was Moringa oleifera powder,edible oil,NaHCO3 , yeast.The optimum conditions were as follows:the amount of Moringa oleifera powder 350 g/kg,yeast 18 g/kg,edible oil 170 g/kg and NaHCO3 6 g/kg.Under the above conditions,the crackers were obtained with crisp taste and unique flavor.[Conclusion] The study can provide theoretical guidance for the industrial processing of Moringa oleifera soda biscuit.

  14. Food matrix and isoflavones bioavailability in early post menopausal women: An European clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Chanteranne

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Brigitte Chanteranne1,2, Francesco Branca3, A Kaardinal4, K Wahala5, Véronique Braesco6, Philippe Ladroite7, Fred Brouns8, Véronique Coxam1,21INRA, Centre Clermont-Ferrand – Theix, UMR1019, Unité Nutrition Humaine, St Genès Champanelle, France; 2Univ Clermont 1, UFR Médecine, UMR1019, Unité Nutrition Humaine, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 3INRAN, Human Nutrition Unit, Ardeatina, Rome, Italy; 4TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist, The Netherlands; 5Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 6Danone Vitapole, Le Plessis Robinson, France; 7Nutrition Santé, Ravel, France; 8Eridania Beghin Say, Vilvoorde Research and Development Centre, Vilvoorde, BelgiumAbstract: The estrogenic effects of soy isoflavones (IF on symptoms of menopause are of particular interest. The aim of the present study was to improve compliance of IF in two IF-enriched foods providing the same IF circulating levels in postmenopausal women. Forty-two healthy postmenopausal women (mean age: 53.28 years were recruited for a randomized, crossover, multicenter trial conducted in the Netherlands, Italy and France. Over 18 days, volunteers were assigned to two groups and supplemented with two different IF-enriched foods (100 mg IF aglycones/two servings. The first group had to eat two biscuits daily for three days. After a wash-out period (11 d, they received cereal bars for three days. The second group started with the cereal bars and finished with biscuits. After IF intake, plasma and urinary levels of genistein, daidzein, O desmethyl angolensin and equol significantly increased and returned to baseline level after the washout period. There was no difference between biscuits and cereals bars intake, as shown by group values at each end of experimental period (day 4 or day 18. Both matrixes are comparable in terms of IF-circulating levels and could be used independently.Keywords: soy isoflavones, bioavailability, food processing, postmenopausal women

  15. 哈尔滨市包装食品营养标签标识状况调查%Survey on status of food nutrition labeling in Harbin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏薇; 赵艳; 吴坤

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of packaged food nutrition labeling in Harbin to provide basis for nutri-tion labeling education. Methods A survey was carded out for three kinds of common packaged foods made in China in-eluding biscuits, dairy products and beverages and two types of imported packaged foods including biscuits and beverages. The items involved were basic status and nutrition facts on the label. Results Among 240 domestic-made packaged foods, all the obligatoty items were on the label and nutrition labeling rate was 61.25%. Among 58 imported packaged foods,all the obligatory items were in accordance with the national rules and nutrition labeling rate was 63. 8%. There existed differ-ence in labeling nutrient types and nutrition labeling rate between domestic-made and imported biscuits(P <0. 01). Conclu-sion Nutrition labeling is still not normative. The surveillance and management for nutrition labeling should be fortified. Key wards: food nutrition; label; packaged food; cross-sectional study%目的 了解黑龙江省哈尔滨市大型超市销售的预包装食品营养标签标识情况,为识别营养标签的宣传教育提供依据.方法 自行设计调查表对常见的国产饼干、乳制品、饮料类包装食品和进口原装饼干、饮料类包装食品进行基本状况调查和营养标识状况调查.结果 240种国内生产的包装食品上食品标签强制标示内容均予以标识,营养标签总体标识率为61.25%;58种国外进口原装食品的食品标签对我国规定的强制标示内容均予以标识,营养标签标识率为63.8%.国内外饼干类食品营养标签在营养素种类标识方面存在差异,营养标识率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 目前国内食品标签的标识尚不规范,需加强对营养标签的监督和管理.

  16. A systematic revision of Operclipygus Marseul (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Exosternini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Caterino

    2013-02-01

    ., O. hamistrius (Schmidt, 1893 comb. n., O. impressicollis sp. n., O. intersectus sp. n., O. montanus sp. n., O. nubosus sp. n., O. pichinchensis sp. n., O. propinquus sp. n., O. quinquestriatus sp. n., O. rubidus (Hinton, 1935 comb. n., O. rufescens sp. n., O. troglodytes sp. n.], O. plicicollis group [O. cephalicus sp. n., O. longidens sp. n., O. plicicollis (Schmidt, 1893], O. fossipygus group [O. disconnectus sp. n., O. fossipygus (Wenzel, 1944, O. foveipygus (Bickhardt, 1918, O. fungicolus (Wenzel & Dybas, 1941, O. gibbulus (Schmidt, 1889 comb. n., O. olivensis sp. n., O. simplicipygus sp. n., O. subdepressus (Schmidt, 1889, O. therondi (Wenzel, 1976], O. impunctipennis group [O. chamelensis sp. n., O. foveiventris sp. n., O. granulipectus sp. n., O. impunctipennis (Hinton, 1935 comb. n., O. latifoveatus sp. n., O. lissipygus sp. n., O. maesi sp. n., O. mangiferus sp. n., O. marginipennis sp. n., O. nicodemus sp. n., O. nitidus sp. n., O. pacificus sp. n., O. pauperculus sp. n., O. punctissipygus sp. n., O. subviridis sp. n., O. tripartitus sp. n., O. vorax sp. n.], O. marginellus group [O. ashei sp. n., O. baylessae sp. n., O. dentatus sp. n., O. formicatus sp. n., O. hintoni sp. n., O. marginellus (J.E. LeConte, 1860 comb. n., O. orchidophilus sp. n., O. selvorum sp. n., O. striatellus (Fall, 1917 comb. n.], incertae sedis: O. teapensis (Marseul, 1853 comb. n., O. punctulatus sp. n., O. lama Mazur, 1988, O. florifaunensis sp. n., O. bosquesecus sp. n., O. arnaudi Dégallier, 1982, O. subsphaericus sp. n., O. latipygus sp. n., O. elongatus sp. n., O. rupicolus sp. n., O. punctipleurus sp. n., O. falini sp. n., O. peregrinus sp. n., O. brooksi sp. n., O. profundipygus sp. n., O. punctatissimus sp. n., O. cavisternus sp. n., O. siluriformis sp. n., O. parallelus sp. n., O. abbreviatus sp. n., O. pygidialis (Lewis, 1908, O. faltistrius sp. n., O. limonensis sp. n., O. wenzeli sp. n., O. iheringi (Bickhardt, 1917, O. angustisternus (Wenzel, 1944, O. shorti sp. n. We

  17. Consolidation treatments applied to ceramic tiles: are they homogeneous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass consolidation treatment of azulejos is necessary when ceramic biscuits show signs of disaggregation. Such treatment is often used as a complementary conservation technique to the reestablishment of weakened glaze-ceramic bonds. In this research, two commonly used consolidants (ethyl silicate and acrylic resin were tested on artisanal ceramic tiles via mass consolidation and the resulting impregnation profiles were evaluated. The results indicated that after consolidation, hard zones frequently formed due to localized consolidant concentration after the polymerization and curing processes. These inhomogeneous hard zones subsequently influenced the results obtained through conventional mechanical strength testing (i.e. flexural and compression, creating a false impression of success. This research demonstrated that by using the Drilling Resistance Measuring System, impregnation characteristics such as penetration depth and distribution of consolidant could be observed that otherwise could not be discerned through the more common testing methods. As such, a more extensive evaluation of consolidation effects was achieved.

  18. Anxiety and Search during Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; Mukherjee, Ashkesh

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the effect of anxiety on information search during food choice and to test a key moderator of the effect of anxiety on search, namely attitude towards nutritional claims. Design/methodology/approach – By means of qualitative study the paper investigates...... the notion that consumers experience anxiety about health outcomes during food choice. Further, by means of structural equation modelling based on two studies with representative samples of Danish consumers, the paper investigates the effects outlined above. Findings – The authors show that anxiety during...... food choice increases information search in four product categories – ready dinner meals, salad dressing, biscuits, and cakes. Further, the results show that the positive effect of anxiety on information search is stronger when consumers have a less favourable attitude towards nutritional claims...

  19. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.

    2011-01-01

    The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels...... of products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipated. We interviewed farmers in Zambia and Malawi about their cultivars, processing procedures...... and perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic...

  20. Saturated and trans fatty acids content in unpackaged traditional bakery products in Santa Fe city, Argentina: nutrition labeling relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Emilse; González, Marcela Aída; Bernal, Claudio Adrián; Williner, María Rosa

    2016-12-20

    Studies have reported the relationship between the excessive intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and trans fatty acids (t-FA) and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Since 2006, the MERCOSUR countries require that the mandatory nutrition labeling should include information not only about the content of SFA but also about the content of t-FA. This does not apply to fractionated products at the point of retail, such as bakery products. This paper aimed to determine the total fat content and the fatty acid profile in unpackaged traditional bakery products (breads, biscuits and pastries) in Santa Fe, Argentina. Except for French bread, the contribution of t-FA and SFA to the total FA consumption from baked products was high. On the other hand, due to the high variability detected in the FA composition of bakery products between bakeries, it would be necessary to implement regulations making nutrition labeling mandatory in these products.

  1. Evidence supporting the conceptual framework of cancer chemoprevention in canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Adrian, Julie Ann Luiz; Wright, Brian; Park, Eun-Jung; van Breemen, Richard B; Morris, Kenneth R; Pezzuto, John M

    2016-05-24

    As with human beings, dogs suffer from the consequences of cancer. We investigated the potential of a formulation comprised of resveratrol, ellagic acid, genistein, curcumin and quercetin to modulate biomarkers indicative of disease prevention. Dog biscuits were evaluated for palatability and ability to deliver the chemopreventive agents. The extent of endogenous DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes from dogs given the dietary supplement or placebo showed no change. However, H2O2-inducible DNA damage was significantly decreased after consumption of the supplement. The expression of 11 of 84 genes related to oxidative stress was altered. Hematological parameters remained in the reference range. The concept of chemoprevention for the explicit benefit of the canine is compelling since dogs are an important part of our culture. Our results establish a proof-of-principle and provide a framework for improving the health and well-being of "man's best friend".

  2. Fabrication of Palladium Nanoparticles on Porous Aromatic Frameworks as a Sensing Platform to Detect Vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilian, A T Ezhil; Puthiaraj, Pillaiyar; Kwak, Cheol Hwan; Hwang, Seung-Kyu; Huh, Yun Suk; Ahn, Wha-Seung; Han, Young-Kyu

    2016-05-25

    Here, we report the fabrication of palladium nanoparticles on porous aromatic frameworks (Pd/PAF-6) using a facile chemical approach, which was characterized by various spectro- and electrochemical techniques. The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) response of Pd/PAF-6 toward the vanillin (VA) sensor shows a linear relationship over concentrations (10-820 pM) and a low detection limit (2 pM). Pd/PAF-6 also exhibited good anti-interference performance toward 2-fold excess of ascorbic acid, nitrophenol, glutathione, glucose, uric acid, dopamine, ascorbic acid, 4-nitrophenol, glutathione, glucose, uric acid, dopamine, and 100-fold excess of Na(+), Mg(2+), and K(+) during the detection of VA. The developed electrochemical sensor based on Pd/PAF-6 had good reproducibility, as well as high selectivity and stability. The established sensor revealed that Pd/PAF-6 could be used to detect VA in biscuit and ice cream samples with satisfactory results.

  3. Low Temperature Preparation and Cold Manufacturing Techniques for Femoral Head of Al2O3 Ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The hip joint femoral head prosthesis was prepared using the Al2O3 material, which was synthesized by high purity alumina micro-powder and Mg- Zr- Y composite additives, the cold manufacturing techniques of lathe turning, grade polishing and the matching size correction of the sintered femoral head were studied. The results showed, after being pressed under 200 MPa cold isostatic pressure and being pre-sintered at 1 150 ℃, the biscuit' s strength can meet the demands of lathe turning; After being grade polished by SiC micro-powder and diamond abrading agent and being size corrected by special instruments, the femoral head prosthesis of Al2O3 ceramic has good surface degree of finish and articulates tightly with femoral handle.

  4. Nutritional advantages of oats and opportunities for its processing as value added foods - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasane, Prasad; Jha, Alok; Sabikhi, Latha; Kumar, Arvind; Unnikrishnan, V S

    2015-02-01

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) have received considerable attention for their high content of dietary fibres, phytochemicals and nutritional value. It is believed that consumption of oats possesses various health benefits such as hypocholesterolaemic and anticancerous properties. Oats have also recently been considered suitable in the diet of celiac patients. Owing to their high nutritional value, oat-based food products like breads, biscuits, cookies, probiotic drinks, breakfast cereals, flakes and infant food are gaining increasing consideration. Research and development on oat and its products may be helpful in combating various diseases known to mankind. This paper provides an overview of the nutritional and health benefits provided by oats as whole grains and its value added products. It is designed to provide an insight on the processing of oats and its effect on their functional properties. The manuscript also reviews various uses of oats and its fractions for clinical and industrial purposes and in development of value added food products.

  5. Ten years of Integrated Pest Management (IPM at the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Wien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Querner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien is one of the largest fine arts collections worldwide, comprising the Kunsthistorisches Museum, the Austrian Theater Museum, the Museum of Ethnology, all placed in Vienna, and Schloß Ambras in Tirol. We present results from up to 10 years of insect pest monitoring in different collections and the implementation of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM concept. The Kunsthistorisches Museum was the first museum in Vienna to introduce such a concept. We also present specific insect pest problems such as a biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum infestation of paintings lined with starch paste backings (linings or the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella infestation at the Museum of Carriages, both repeatedly occurring problems in the museum. With the help of the insect pest monitoring programs, these and other problems were found and the infested objects treated, usually with anoxia (nitrogen.

  6. Electrochemical desalination of historic Portuguese tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble salts cause severe decay of historic Portuguese tiles. Treatment options for removal of the salts to stop the decay are few. The present paper deals with development of a method for electrochemical desalination, where an electric DC field is applied to the tiles. Laboratory experiments were...... and glaze, where salt crystals were clearly identified by SEM-EDX before desalination. The concentrations of chloride and especially nitrate were very high in the tiles (around 280 mmol Cl−/kg and 450 mmol NO3−/kg respectively). Both anions were successfully removed to below 6 mmol/kg during...... was initially very low, but nevertheless, sulfate removal started at the point where chloride and nitrate concentrations were very low in the tiles. Investigating the interface between biscuit and glaze after the treatment showed no signs of crystallized salts, so also in this important point, the desalination...

  7. Food Matrix Effects of Polyphenol Bioaccessibility from Almond Skin during Simulated Human Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Vardakou, Maria; Faulks, Richard; Bisignano, Carlo; Martorana, Maria; Smeriglio, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to quantify the rate and extent of polyphenols released in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) from natural (NS) and blanched (BS) almond skins. A dynamic gastric model of digestion which provides a realistic simulation of the human stomach was used. In order to establish the effect of a food matrix on polyphenols bioaccessibility, NS and BS were either digested in water (WT) or incorporated into home-made biscuits (HB), crisp-bread (CB) and full-fat milk (FM). Phenolic acids were the most bioaccessible class (68.5% release from NS and 64.7% from BS). WT increased the release of flavan-3-ols (p antioxidant status in the digestion medium, indicating that phenolic compounds could bind protein present in the food matrix. The release of bioactives from almond skins could explain the beneficial effects associated with almond consumption. PMID:27649239

  8. Effects of consumption of whole grain foods rich in lignans in healthy postmenopausal women with moderate serum cholesterol: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, A; Carcea, M; Adlercreutz, H; Azzini, E; Polito, A; Olivieri, L; Zaccaria, M; Meneghini, C; Maiani, F; Bausano, G; Martiri, F; Samaletdin, A; Fumagalli, A; Raguzzini, A; Venneria, E; Foddai, M S; Ciarapica, D; Mauro, B; Volpe, F; Maiani, G

    2014-08-01

    This study aims at investigating the effect of an experimental period of intake of whole grain foods rich in lignans as part of an habitual diet on the plasma and urinary excretion of enterolignans, the biomarkers of lipid metabolism and the immunological and antioxidant status in a group of postmenopausal women with moderate serum cholesterol. A randomized double-blind crossover study was completed on 13 subjects in 12-weeks after protocol approval of an ethical committee. The subjects consumed whole grain foods high in lignans (30 g/d of breakfast cereals or biscuits, etc., 80 g/d of whole grain pasta) or refined grain foods for 4 weeks, separated by a 2-weeks wash-out period. A modest hypocholesterolemic effect (p grain diet was observed and the intake of whole grain products rich in lignans was also associated with an increase in urinary enterodiol excretion (p < 0.05).

  9. Organic products: consumption habits and perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacinia-Crina Petrescu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to determine consumption habits and perceptions onecological food products. The main results are: 85% of the respondents perceive the dominantcharacteristic organic food “healthy”; more than half of the respondents (60% states to have no orlittle trust in sellers claims about a product being eco in the absence of organic label; half of therespondents declare they spent less than 50 lei (0-11.11 Euro on organic food and 40% of therespondents declare they spent between 51-200 lei (11.12-44.44. Euro on organic food; almost 20%of the sample bought organic cereals, fruits, vegetables and dairy and almost 10% bought biscuits,meat, oil during the last year; 80% of the respondents are willing to pay for 1 liter of organic milk upto 44% more compared to supermarket price and 80% more compared to small farmers’ price.

  10. The use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the determination of toxic and essential elements in different types of food samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voica, C.; Dehelean, A.; Kovacs, M. H.

    2012-02-01

    Food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements. In this context, levels of essential and toxic elements must be determined routinely in consumed food products. The content of trace elements (As, Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn, Sn, Hg) in different types of food samples (e.g. rice, bread, sugar, cheese, milk, butter, wheat, coffee, chocolate, biscuits pasta, etc.) was determined, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Trace element contents in some foods were higher than maximum permissible levels of toxic metals in human food (Cd in bread, Zn in cheese, Cu in coffee, Hg in carrots and peppers).

  11. Let them eat algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciferri, O.

    1981-09-24

    The blue-green alga, Spirulina appears to be one of the candidates for the solution of the global problems of energy, food and chemical feedstock supplies. The harvesting of algae from Lake Texcoco, Mexico for the making of bread was noted in the 16th century by the Spanish and over 400 years later, dried biscuits made from algae were noted in Chad. Recent investigations have shown that the alga contains a very high proportion of protein - even higher than soya beans and is of high quality. A pilot plant covering 2 hectares for culturing Spirulina in a closed system is under construction in Italy. The polyethylene tubes will function as solar collectors and so extend the production season of the algae in more temperate regions.

  12. THE USE OF PSEUDO-CEREALS FLOURS IN BAKERY / UTILISATION DE FARINES DES PSEUDO-CEREALES DANS LA BOULANGERIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMULUS MARIAN BURLUC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a special attention should be given to the nutritional properties of foods. In the bakery industry there is a tendency to develop innovative range of bakery products by using the therapeutic role of cereals that are not used at their true potential (buckwheat, millet, rice, oats. Among bioactive components present in the pseudocereal flours, flavones group is highlighted, in particular rutine, the most important ramnoglicosid with multiple beneficial effects on health. The aims of this study were the obtention of different bakery products (bread, biscuits from raw materials with high therapeutic potential (fiber, antioxidant capacity, minerals, the optimization of process parameters and recipes, and the characterization of finished products in terms of sensory and physico-chemical properties. The results confirm that the use of unusual raw materials for the Romanian market led to obtaining high quality finished products with special therapeutic features.

  13. Dietary determinants for Hb-acrylamide and Hb-glycidamide adducts in Danish non-smoking women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Malene; Egeberg, Rikke; Dragsted, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    -GA in erythrocytes were analysed by liquid chromatography/MS/MS. Dietary determinants were evaluated by multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age and smoking behaviour among ex-smokers. The median for Hb-AA was 35 pmol/g globin (5th percentile 17, 95th percentile 89) and for Hb-GA 21 pmol/g globin (5th...... percentile 8, 95th percentile 49). Of the dietary factors studied, intakes of coffee and chips were statistically significantly associated with a 4 % per 200 g/d (95 % CI 2, 7; P ... in Hb-AA. Intakes of coffee and biscuits/crackers were statistically significantly associated with a 3 % per 200 g/d (95 % CI 1, 6; P = 0·005) and 12 % per 10 g/d (95 % CI 3, 23; P = 0·01) higher Hb-GA, respectively. This model explained 12 % of the variation in Hb-GA. In conclusion, only a few dietary...

  14. Prebiotics: application in bakery and pasta products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma Ishwarya, S; Prabhasankar, P

    2014-01-01

    The concept of functional foods has markedly moved toward gastrointestinal health. The prebiotic approach aims at achieving favorable milieu in the human gut by stimulating beneficial bacteria. Several food products act as substrates for the application of prebiotic substances and bakery products are one such category. The trend of increasing consumption of bakery products justifies the choice of using them as vehicles for delivering the prebiotic compounds. Apart from the health benefits, the prebiotic compounds also have nutritional and technological effects in the food matrix. In addition to increasing the fiber content, the candidate prebiotics also affect the rheology and final quality of bakery products. The prebiotic compounds are selected accordingly to confer desirable properties in the final product. The health advantages of prebiotics being well established, the technological advantages in bakery products such as bread and biscuits and extruded product such as pasta are discussed elaborately.

  15. Sensitive voltammetric determination of vanillin with an AuPd nanoparticles-graphene composite modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Lei; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2014-05-15

    In this work, graphene oxide was reduced to graphene with an endogenous reducing agent from dimethylformamide, and then AuPd alloy nanoparticles were electrodeposited on the graphene film. The obtained AuPd-graphene hybrid film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and voltammetry. The electrochemical behavior of vanillin was studied using the AuPd-graphene hybrid based electrode. It presented high electrocatalytic activity and vanillin could produce a sensitive oxidation peak at it. Under the optimal conditions, the peak current was linear to the concentration of vanillin in the ranges of 0.1-7 and 10-40 μM. The sensitivities were 1.60 and 0.170 mA mM(-1) cm(-2), respectively; the detection limit was 20 nM. The electrode was successfully applied to the detection of vanillin in vanilla bean, vanilla tea and biscuit samples.

  16. The Effects of Solid Phase Additives on Sintering Properties of Alumina Bioceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-yu; LI Shi-pu; HE Jian-hua; JIANG Xin; LI Jian-hua

    2003-01-01

    In order to reduce the sintering temperature and improve the preparing conditions of alumina bioceramics,the Mg-Zr-Y composite solid phase additives were added into high purity Al2O3 micro-powder by chemical coprecipitation method.The powder was shaped under 200MPa cold isostatic pressure,and then the biscuits were sintered at 1600℃ under normal pressure.The sintered alumina materials were tested and the sintering mechanism was discussed.The results show that physical properties of the material were improved comparatively.The Mg-Zr-Y composite solid additives could promote the sintering of alumina bioceramics and the mechanism is solid phase sintering.

  17. Collaborative trial validation study of two methods, one based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of acrylamide in bakery and potato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzl, Thomas; Karasek, Lubomir; Rosen, Johan; Hellenaes, Karl-Erik; Crews, Colin; Castle, Laurence; Anklam, Elke

    2006-11-03

    A European inter-laboratory study was conducted to validate two analytical procedures for the determination of acrylamide in bakery ware (crispbreads, biscuits) and potato products (chips), within a concentration range from about 20 microg/kg to about 9000 microgg/kg. The methods are based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the derivatised analyte and on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) of native acrylamide. Isotope dilution with isotopically labelled acrylamide was an integral part of both methods. The study was evaluated according to internationally accepted guidelines. The performance of the HPLC-MS/MS method was found to be superior to that of the GC-MS method and to be fit-for-the-purpose.

  18. Novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for sensitive determination of the mustard allergen Sin a 1 in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Ayala, Maria; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Maroto, Aroa S; Maes, Xavier; Muñoz-Garcia, Esther; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Perez-Gordo, Marina; Vivanco, Fernando; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier

    2015-09-15

    Mustard is a condiment added to a variety of foodstuffs and a frequent cause of food allergy. A new strategy for the detection of mustard allergen in food products is presented. The methodology is based on liquid chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry. Mustard allergen Sin a 1 was purified from yellow mustard seeds. Sin a 1 was detected with a total of five peptides showing a linear response (lowest LOD was 5ng). Sin a 1 was detected in mustard sauces and salty biscuit (19±3mg/kg) where mustard content is not specified. Sin a 1, used as an internal standard, allowed quantification of this mustard allergen in foods. A novel LC/MS/MS SRM-based method has been developed to detect and quantify the presence of mustard. This method could help to detect mustard allergen Sin a 1 in processed foods and protect mustard-allergic consumers.

  19. The Use of Alternative Raw Material in Production of Pastry Products as a Progressive Direction in Creating the Products of High Biological Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janа Bachinska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of the use of alternative vegetable raw materials in the manufacture of pastry products with high biological value; it presents the results of evaluation of commodity of the developed products and compares them with the main samples presented in Kharkiv trade network. The feasibility of using a mixture of fiber and pumpkin seeds in the technology of pastry production to extend the range of confectionery products of high biological value and products with reduced calories has been proved. Adding the mixture of fiber and pumpkin seeds to biscuits and cakes positively affected the chemical composition of the ready-made product, saturating it with useful and necessary to human body mineral elements, vitamins, dietary fiber.

  20. Daily multi-micronutrient supplementation during tuberculosis treatment increases weight and grip strength among HIV-uninfected but not HIV-infected patients in Mwanza, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PrayGod, George; Range, Nyagosya; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Undernutrition is common among tuberculosis (TB) patients. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation during TB treatment on weight, body composition, and handgrip strength. A total of 865 patients with smear-positive (PTB+) or -negative (PTB......-) pulmonary TB were randomly allocated to receive a daily biscuit with or without multi-micronutrients for 60 d during the intensive phase of TB treatment. Weight, arm fat area, arm muscle area, and handgrip strength were assessed at baseline and after 2 and 5 mo. At 2 mo, the multi-micronutrient...... supplementation led to a higher handgrip gain (1.22 kg; 95% CI = 0.50, 1.94; P = 0.001) but had no effects on other outcomes. The effects of multi-micronutrient supplementation were modified by HIV infection (P-interaction = 0.002). Among HIV- patients, multi-micronutrient supplementation increased weight gain...

  1. Nutritional value and baking application of spelt wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatica Kohajdova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals represent the most important group of crops in the structure of plant production from the economic, agronomic and consumer point of view. Spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L. is an ancient bread cereal related to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. that has been cultivated for hundreds of years, and that is now being rediscovered in Europe and North America. Spelt is generating increasing interest due to its agronomic, nutritional and medical characteristics. Despite of these spelt bread benefits, spelt is wheat that contains gluten proteins and is capable of provoking wheat allergy and gluten enteropathy. This review describes nutritional composition (proteins, aminoacids, starch, sugars, fiber, lipids, fatty acids, sterol, vitamins, ash and mineral compounds of spelt wheat and potential using of this cereal for baking application (flour, bread, breakfast cereals, pasta, crackers, nutrition bars, biscuits and some regional specialities.

  2. Evaluation of the content and the potential bioavailability of minerals from gluten-free products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Suliburska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gluten-free products usually contain low amounts of protein and minerals. However, the information about their nutritional quality is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the content and release of minerals from selected gluten-free products. Material and methods. The content and release of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu from selected gluten-free products was determined. The samples were subjected to enzymatic digestion under in vitro conditions. The content of minerals in samples before and after enzymatic digestion was determined by the fl ame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results. The content of minerals varied considerably among the types of foods. The amount of calcium in gluten-free products ranged (mg/100 g d.w. from 3 in corn porridge to 45 in peas puff, magnesium: from 13 in peas puff to 33 in corn porridge, iron: from 1.1 in bread to 2.6 in pasta, zinc: from 0.8 in biscuits to 6.3 peas puff and copper: from 0.07 in bread to 0.4 in pasta. Among analysed products the signifi cant higher release of calcium (~68% and zinc (~62% was found in corn porridge. The highest potential bioavailability for magnesium (~54% in peas puff, for iron (~58% in biscuits and for copper (~63% in bread was observed. The relative low bioavailability of minerals was found in pasta (from 7% for Ca to 27% for Fe. Conclusions. The content and amount of released minerals from gluten-free products are relatively low. The release of minerals from gluten-free products depends on the element and composition of the analysed product.

  3. Differential vascular dysfunction in response to diets of differing macronutrient composition: a phenomenonological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy Roslyn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular dysfunction can develop from consumption of an energy-rich diet, even prior to the onset of obesity. However, the roles played by different dietary components remain uncertain. While attempting to develop models of obesity in a separate study, we observed that two high-energy diets of differing macronutrient compositions affected vascular function differently in overweight rats. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 6/group were fed diets providing varying percentages of energy from fat and carbohydrate (CHO. For 10 weeks, they were fed either chow, as control diet (10% of energy from fat; 63% from CHO, chow supplemented with chocolate biscuit (30% fat; 56% CHO or a high-fat diet (45% fat; 35% CHO. Blood concentrations of biochemical markers of obesity were measured, and epididymal fat pads weighed as a measure of adiposity. Mesenteric arteries were dissected and their contractile and relaxant properties analysed myographically. Data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results Weight gain and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin and leptin were similar in all groups. However, biscuit-fed animals showed increased food intake (+27%; p p p p p Conclusion Vascular dysfunction resulting from consumption of a high-fat or combined relatively high-fat/high-CHO diet occurs through different physiological processes, which may be attributable to their differing macronutrient compositions. Combining potentially atherogenic macronutrients induces more extensive vascular impairment than that of high-fat alone, and may be attributable to the more marked dyslipidaemia observed with such a diet. Thus, these findings help clarify the role of dietary components in vascular impairment, which has implications for clinical approaches to preventing cardiovascular disease.

  4. Salt Toxicity (Sodium Intake: A Serious Threat to Infants and Children of Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Waseem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Excess sodium intake can lead to hypertension, the primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the sodium and potassium contents of foodstuff used by infants and children of Pakistan.We analyzed the sodium and potassium contents of infant milk formula (6 months, baby food (cereals, biscuits, fruit juices, potato chips (crisps, cheese puffs, roasted cereals (salty, ice cream cones (kulfi all of which are the processed food extensively used by the children. The amount of sodium and potassium contents in drinking water of few cities of Pakistan were also considered to assess the additional sodium/potassium in the preparation of milk using infant milk formula.Na to K ratio (Na:K was determined 0.3-1.23, 0.3-1.16, 0.33-0.82, 0.54-2.68, 0.51-0.85, 2.86 and 1.02 for infant milk formula (6 months, baby food (cereals, biscuits, fruit juices, potato chips (crisps, cheese puffs, roasted cereals, ice cream cones (kulfi, respectively.The higher sodium content is present than most of the quoted values; whereas lower potassium is present than the recommended values. The higher Na:K ratio indicates the severity of the situation where it is commonly stated that "higher an individual's salt intake, the higher an individual's blood pressure". Present study indicates that nearly all Pakistani children consume substantially more salt than they need which will affect health status in later life.

  5. Study on the effect of collecting ants with different trapping food%不同诱集物采集蚂蚁的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉玲

    2013-01-01

    From May, 2011 to October, 2011, in order to study the trapping effect with different food , we collected Tetramorium caespitum ( L.) in Shangqiu Normal University and near the campus , residential quarter, bush, lawn, basketball court, etc.We collected more than 20 000 Tetramorium caespitum(L.).The trapping foods used in the research were as follows:sweet biscuits , salty biscuits , sesame cake , butter cake , toffee, honey, watermelon and watermelon rinds .The results show that ants are omnivorous , the best food for collecting ants are sweet food .The number of ants trapped by sweet food is the largest , followed by sweet and salty food.The salty food is the most unsuitable for collecting ants .The number of ants trapped by sweet food is the least .%为了探讨不同诱集物对蚂蚁的诱集效果,在2011年5-10月间对商丘师范学院内及其周边小区、树林、草地、篮球场等多处用不同的诱集物诱集铺道蚁,获得铺道蚁两万余只。所用诱集物有甜饼干、咸饼干、烧饼、酱饼、奶糖、蜂蜜、西瓜和西瓜皮。结果表明:蚂蚁食性较杂,对甜食最喜爱,诱集的蚂蚁最多,甜中带咸的次之,诱集的蚂蚁数量一般,而咸味的食品最次,诱集蚂蚁最少。

  6. New Approach on Sunflower Seeds Processing: Kernel with Several Technological Applications, Husks Package, Different Fat Content Tahini and Halva Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Mureşan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is the basic oil-crop in Central and Eastern Europe. As sunflower seeds are mainly used for oil production, the most of the kernels available on the market show high oil content (>55%. Consequently, when sunflower kernel paste (tahini is used in different food products, oil exudation occurs.The aim of current work was to use entirely the sunflower seeds by partially defatting and obtaining different fat content sunflower pastes with multiple food applications, while using the husks for developing an ecological package. Sunflower kernels were industrially roasted in a continuous roasting drum.  Raw and roasted kernels were pressed at pilot plant scale by using a laboratory expeller. Partially defatted sunflower paste was obtained from the press cakes by employing a ball mill. Different fat content tahini samples were obtained by adding the required amount of oil to the partially defatted paste. Tahini samples fat content ranged from 45 to 60%. Tahini and halva were chosen as a study model. Decreasing tahini oil content increased its colloidal stability during storage, a similar trend being noticed when halva samples were stored. Moreover, halva texture analysis and sensory characteristics were assessed for selecting the optimum tahini oil content and thermal treatment. Various sunflower kernel food applications were proposed by obtaining the related prototypes at pilot plant scale: roasted sunflower kernel biscuits, sunflower spreadable cream filled biscuits, hummus, sunflower paste coated in chocolate, sunflower kernel chikki and bars, as well as an innovative ecological package based on the resulting sunflower husks and a starch adhesive. 

  7. Effects of long-term cycling between palatable cafeteria diet and regular chow on intake, eating patterns, and response to saccharin and sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Sarah I; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-02-01

    When exposed to a diet containing foods that are rich in fat and sugar, rats eat to excess and gain weight. We examined the effects of alternating this diet with laboratory chow on intake of each type of diet, the eating elicited by a palatable food (biscuits), and the drinking elicited by sweet solutions that did (sucrose) or did not (saccharin) contain calories. Each week for 13 weeks, cycled rats were provided with the cafeteria diet for three successive days/nights and the chow diet for the remaining four days/nights, whereas other rats received continuous access to either the cafeteria or the chow diets. On each of the 13 weeks, cycled rats ate more across the first 24 hour exposure to the cafeteria diet than rats continuously fed this diet. In contrast, cycled rats ate less across the first 24 hour exposure to the chow diet than rats continuously fed this diet and ate less when presented a novel palatable biscuit than chow-fed rats. The three groups exhibited similar licks per cluster to saccharin, but cafeteria-fed and cycled rats showed fewer clusters than chow-fed rats. In contrast, chow-fed rats and cycled rats exhibited more licks per cluster to sucrose than cafeteria-fed rats, but all three groups had a similar number of clusters. The results were discussed in relation to the effects of diet cycling on eating patterns, body weight, and 'wanting' and 'liking'. These findings with rats may have important implications for yo-yo dieting in people.

  8. Brote de toxiinfección alimentaria por salmonella entérica en un establecimiento de restauración colectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ma. Carbó Malonda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Se describe un brote de toxiinfección alimentaria por Salmonella enteritidis ocurrido en dos salones de banquetes con ocho grupos de comensales afectados. El objeto de la investigación fue determinar el alimento vehículo de transmisión de la enfermedad. Métodos: Se analizaron los procesos de elaboración de los alimentos susceptibles de haber causado el brote. La asociación de los alimentos con la enfermedad se analizó mediante un diseño de casos y controles. Se calcularon las Odds Ratio ajustadas (ORa y sus intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC95% por regresión logística. Resultados: El número de comensales fue 1.771, distribuidos en 13 grupos durante tres días consecutivos. Se encuestó a 629 personas (36%. El número de casos probables fue de 250, 61 confirmados por salmonella enterica. El biscuit glasé (postre con huevo crudo sin tratamiento térmico presentó la Odds Ratio ajustada más alta (ORa = 20,40; IC95%:7,52-55,30 y fue positivo a Salmonella enterica serotipo enteritidis. Conclusiones: Existe evidencia epidemiológica y de laboratorio de que el biscuit glacé fue el alimento contaminado que causó el brote. La investigación destacó como factores contribuyentes la utilización de huevo crudo, la producción en grandes cantidades y con antelación al consumo del alimento.

  9. Preference and intake frequency of high sodium foods and dishes and their correlations with anthropometric measurements among Malaysian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong; Say, Yee-How

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic

  10. Compton suppression method and epithermal NAA in the determination of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Y A; Landsberger, S; O'Kelly, D J; Braisted, J; Gabdo, H; Ewa, I O B; Umar, I M; Funtua, I I

    2010-10-01

    We used in this study Compton suppression method and epithermal neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages. The work was performed at the University of Texas TRIGA Reactor by short, medium, and long irradiation protocols, using thermal flux of 1.4x10(12)n cm(-2)s(-1) and epithermal flux of 1.4x10(11)n cm(-2)s(-1). Application of Compton suppression method has reduced interferences from Compton scattered photons thereby allowing easy evaluation of Na, Cl, Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Co, Cr, Rb, Fe, and Se. The epithermal NAA method has enabled determination of Cd, As, Ba, Sr, Br, I, and V with little turn-around time. Quality Control and Quality Assurance of the method was tested by analyzing four Standard Reference Materials (non-fat powdered milk, apple leaves, citrus leaves, and peach leaves) obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology. Our results show that sorghum, millet, and maize have high values of Zn, Mn, Fe, low values of Cd, As, and Se. Powdered milks, rice, beans, and soybeans were found to have moderate amounts of all the elements. Tobacco recorded high content of Cd, Mn, and As, whereas tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and okro seed have more As values than others. However, biscuits, macaroni, spaghetti, and noodles show lower concentrations of all the elements. The distribution of these nutrients and heavy metals in these food and beverages shows the need to fortify biscuits and pastas with micro and macro-nutrients and reduce the use of tobacco, tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and Okro seed to avoid intake of heavy elements.

  11. Babies, soft drinks and snacks: a concern in low- and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L; Piwoz, Ellen G; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-10-01

    Undernutrition in infants and young children is a global health priority while overweight is an emerging issue. Small-scale studies in low- and middle-income countries have demonstrated consumption of sugary and savoury snack foods and soft drinks by young children. We assessed the proportion of children 6-23 months of age consuming sugary snack foods in 18 countries in Asia and Africa using data from selected Demographic and Health Surveys and household expenditures on soft drinks and biscuits using data from four Living Standards Measurement Studies (LSMS). Consumption of sugary snack foods increased with the child's age and household wealth, and was generally higher in urban vs. rural areas. In one-third of countries, >20% of infants 6-8 months consumed sugary snacks. Up to 75% of Asian children and 46% of African children consumed these foods in the second year of life. The proportion of children consuming sugary snack foods was generally higher than the proportion consuming fortified infant cereals, eggs or fruit. Household per capita daily expenditures on soft drinks ranged from $0.03 to $0.11 in three countries for which LSMS data were available, and from $0.01 to $0.04 on biscuits in two LSMS. Future surveys should include quantitative data on the purchase and consumption of snack foods by infants and young children, using consistent definitions and methods for identifying and categorising snack foods across surveys. Researchers should assess associations between snack food consumption and stunting and overweight, and characterise household, maternal and child characteristics associated with snack food consumption.

  12. Deep seated gravitational slope deformations and large landslides: implications on landslide hazard of urban areas and coastal erosion phenomena of Mount Poro headland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerricchio, A.; Simeone, V.

    2012-04-01

    square kilometers. Its movement towards NW produced a typical coastline, with a strong progradation towards NW and W from Punta della Tonnara to Parghelia and up to Fiumara della Ruffa (WSW of Tropea). The DSGSD involves the granitic bedrock as well as the transgressive Tortonian deposits, made by sands with the presence of Clypeasters, which are topped by arenaceous banks, for a total depth of 150 m. DSGSDs involving granitic rocks were probably due to more deformable lithotypes, like biotite schists, which work as substratum of granitic rocks at a not very deep depth, like in other areas of Calabria. Finally, the slow sliding towards N and NW of the landslide shapes the coast like a bow, thus causing strong erosion phenomena of the coastline. Ietto A & Calcaterra D. (1988). Deformazioni gravitative profonde e tettonica presso Tropea (M.te Poro, Calabria)", Memorie della Societa Geologica Italiana, 41, pp. 911-915, Rome, Italy. Guerricchio A. (2000). La fragilità del territorio dell'Italia centro-meridionale desumibile da immagini da satellite. X Congr. Naz. dei Geologi. International Conference: Il Territorio fragile; I, 443-482, Rome, Italy.

  13. Caracterização de amidos de mandioca nativos e modificados e utilização em produtos panificados Characterization of native and modified cassava starches and their use in baked products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krischina Singer Aplevicz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O amido de mandioca é utilizado como ingrediente principal na fabricação de biscoitos e pão de queijo. O polvilho azedo é um produto artesanal, sem padrão de qualidade estabelecido, com problemas de higiene em seu processamento e de oferta. O trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar amidos de mandioca nativos e modificados e testá-los na elaboração de pão de queijo e biscoito de polvilho. As principais características que diferem o polvilho azedo do amido de mandioca nativo, também denominado polvilho doce são: acidez, grau de expansão, viscosidade, claridade de pasta, sinérese e poder redutor. Foram aplicados nos produtos panificados quatro tipos de amidos, sendo polvilho doce, azedo, amido modificado com peróxido de hidrogênio e amido modificado comercial Expandex® 160003. Obtidos os produtos panificados, foi determinada a composição físico-química e observado que os tipos de amidos influenciaram nas características internas, externas e no sabor. Os produtos panificados foram submetidos à análise sensorial de aceitabilidade, utilizando-se a escala hedônica de nove pontos, com provadores não-treinados. As amostras de pão de queijo contendo amido modificado oxidado com peróxido de hidrogênio foram as que apresentaram o melhor resultado entre as formulações. Para as amostras de biscoito de polvilho, as elaboradas com polvilho azedo e com Expandex® 160003 foram superiores e não diferiram estatisticamente.Cassava starch is used as the main ingredient in the production of biscuits and Brazilian cheese bread. The processing and sale of sour cassava starch - an artisanal product with no established standard of quality - is marked by hygiene problems and its commercial availability is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to characterize native and modified cassava starches and test them in cheese bread and cassava starch biscuit recipes. The main characteristics that differentiate sour starch from native cassava

  14. 响应面法在麦麸膳食纤维饼干研制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑绍达

    2016-01-01

    采用炒制法对麦麸进行脂肪酶钝化处理,通过正交试验确定最佳处理条件。采用Box-Behnken设计试验,以黄油、白砂糖、麦麸、鸡蛋添加量为自变量,以麦麸膳食纤维饼干感官评价得分为因变量,考察各因素交互作用对响应值的影响,通过响应面分析法优化麦麸膳食纤维饼干配方,研制富含膳食纤维的保健功能饼干。结果表明,麦麸脂肪酶钝化处理最佳条件为5 min,320℃,6 kg;麦麸膳食纤维饼干最佳配方为面粉100 g,黄油34.97 g,白砂糖30.12 g,麦麸19.71 g,鸡蛋8.17 g,淀粉8 g,奶粉1 g,碳酸氢钠0.9 g,碳酸氢铵0.5 g,食盐0.5 g,卵磷脂0.2 g;烘焙参数为面火230℃,底火180℃,烘焙6 min。%The development of dietary fiber biscuit is introduced in this experiment by adding wheat bran as the raw material. The wheat bran lipase passivated using stir-fried method. The optimum treatment conditions are determined by orthogonal test. Box-Behnken Design is used in the experiment, adding proportion of butter, sugar, wheat bran, egg as independent variables, and the sensory evaluation score of wheat bran biscuit as the dependent variable. The influence of the interaction of the independent variables on the response value is investigated. The formula of wheat bran biscuit is optimized by response surface methodology. The results show that the optimum conditions of pretreatment of wheat bran by orthogonal experimental method are 5 min, 320℃, 6 kg. The optimum formula are flour 100 g, butter 34.97 g, sugar 30.12 g, wheat bran 19.71 g, egg 8.17 g, starch 8 g, milk powder 1 g, sodium bicarbonate 0.9 g, ammonium hydrogen carbonate 0.5 g, salt 0.5 g, lecithin 0.2 g. Baking conditions are surface fire 230℃, bottom fire 180℃, baking time 6 min.

  15. New approach for separating Bacillus subtilis metalloprotease and alpha-amylase by affinity chromatography and for purifying neutral protease by hydrophobic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, I; Bonnewitz, B; Meunier, A; Beverini, M

    2000-01-14

    Proteases are commonly used in the biscuit and cracker industry as processing aids. They cause moderate hydrolysis of gluten proteins and improve dough rheology to better control product texture and crunchiness. Commercial bacterial proteases are derived from Bacillus fermentation broth. As filtration and ultrafiltration are carried out as the only recovery steps, these preparations contain also alpha-amylase and beta-glucanase as the main side activities. The aim of this study is to purify and characterize the Bacillus subtilis metalloprotease from a commercial preparation, in order to study separately the impact of the protease activity with regards to its functionality on biscuit properties. Purification was achieved by means of affinity chromatography on Cibacron Blue and HIC as a polishing step. Affinity appeared to be the most appropriate matrix for large scale purification while ion exchange chromatography was inefficient in terms of recovery yields. The crude product was first loaded on a Hi Trap Blue column (34 microm, Pharmacia Biotech); elution was carried out with a gradient of NaCl in the presence of 1 mM ZnCl2. This step was only efficient in the presence of Zn cations, because this salt promoted both protease stabilization resulting in high recovery yields and also complexation of amylase units into dimers resulting in amylase retention on the column and a better separation of the 3 activities. Beta-glucanase was mostly non retained on the column and a part was coeluted with the protease. This protease fraction was then loaded on a Resource Phe column (15 microm, Pharmacia Biotech) in a last step of polishing. Elution was carried out with a linear gradient of 100-0% ammonium sulfate 1.3 M; protease was eluted at the beginning of the gradient and well separated from amylase and glucanase trace impurities. The homogeneity of the purified protease was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, which showed that its MW was about 38. pH and temperature optima were also

  16. Detection of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine in Foods by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%HPLC-MS/MS快速测定常见食品中羧甲基赖氨酸含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧琳; 陈晓默; 穆琳; 王静

    2016-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱串联质谱联用技术(HPLC-MS/MS)测定了几种高蛋白食品中羧甲基赖氨酸(CML)的含量,包括:液态牛奶,奶粉,饼干,面包和蛋白类发酵食品———酱油。对样品进行还原、沉淀、水解以及除杂后上样检测,对固相萃取柱及洗脱液进行了优化,采用外标法定量,HPLC-MS/MS的分析时间为25 min。其中酱油和饼干中CML的含量最高达到(385.59±7.73)mg/kg蛋白和(491.75±3.13)mg/kg蛋白,奶粉中CML的含量是最低的(45.66±2.89)mg/kg蛋白。%High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to detect Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) in several foods which contain high protein content, including liquid milk, powdered milk, biscuit, bread and soybean sauce. Samples were analyzed before pre-processing with sodium borohydride reduction, protein isolation, hydrolysis, and removing impurity. The optimization of different solid phase extraction cartridges and eluents in this study, and the analysis time of HPLC-MS/MS was 25 min. The CML level in foods were as follows, soybean sauce and biscuit had the highest content, up to(385.59±7.73)mg/kg pro and(491.75±3.13) mg/kg pro, powdered milk had the least content, up to(45.66±2.89) mg/kg pro.

  17. Perfil nutricional de alimentos com alegação de zero gordura trans Nutritional profile of foods with zero trans fatty acids claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Moron Gagliardi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a composição de ácidos graxos de alguns alimentos industrializados disponíveis no mercado brasileiro nos quais houve redução da quantidade de ácidos graxos trans. Verificar também se estes alimentos atendem às quantidades recomendadas de consumo de gordura saturada, após redução de gordura trans. MÉTODOS: Alimentos industrializados (margarina cremosa A e B, margarina com fitosterol, biscoito doce recheado, biscoito salgado sem recheio, batata frita e lanche com hambúrguer de fast food multinacional com alegação de 0% de gordura trans foram adquiridos em pontos comerciais e analisados em cromatógrafo gasoso. RESULTADOS: Apesar da redução nas quantidades de ácidos graxos trans, os alimentos analisados contêm grandes quantidades de gorduras saturadas principalmente o ácido palmítico. Além disso, alguns dos alimentos estudados apresentam uma razão n-3/n-6 fora do recomendado para a prevenção da aterosclerose. CONCLUSÃO: O consumo irrestrito desses alimentos tem forte potencial deletério para a saúde. O rótulo de ausência de ácidos graxos trans deve ser visto com cuidado e não significa uma liberação para o consumo irrestrito desses alimentos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the composition of fatty acids in some foods available in the Brazilian market in which there was a claimed reduction in the amount of trans fatty acids. Also evaluate whether these foods meet recommended amounts for saturated fat consumption, after reduction of trans fat amounts. METHODS: Industrialized food (creamy margarine A and B, plant sterol margarine, stuffed sweet biscuit, salty biscuit without stuffing, French fried potatoes and a burger lunch from a multinational chain of "fast food" all with the allegation of 0% trans fat content were purchased in commercial points and analyzed by gas chromatography. RESULTS: Despite the reduction in trans fatty acid amounts, analyzed foods contained large concentrations of saturated fats

  18. IMPACT OF MICRONUTRIENT FORTIFIED FOOD SUPPLEMENT ON NUTRITIONAL PROFILE AMONG GINNING WOMEN WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Sridevi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ginning factory discharges large amount of cotton dust, which might decrease haematological indices among the selected subjects. An attempt was made to study the haematological indices of women labourers located in the urban areas of Tirupur and Erode Districts of Tamil Nadu, India. Totally 150 non-pregnant, non-lactating adult women performing varied textile tasks and aged between 20 to 60 years were identified randomly from ginning (n=150 (gin house, gutter and sorting sections industries. Socio demographic, work pattern, nutritional and health status were assessed by administering a questionnaire. Further, to correct micronutrient deficiency, iron and folic acid fortified soy biscuits were formulated. Intervention study was conducted among the selected moderate anaemic ginners (n=20. l00 g of micronutrient fortified soy biscuit containing 13.5 g of protein, 8.4 mg of iron (ferrous fumarate and 120 µg of folic acid was supplemented to experimental group of women as a midmorning and midevening snack for a period of four months. Therapeutic efficacy of food supplement was studied by assessing their anthropometric and haematological conditions at pre and post supplementation period. Anthropometric indices showed an improvement in weight (48.7 ± 4.98 to 51.5 ± 6.25 and BMI (19.02 to 23.04. Haematological indices revealed that the mean haemoglobin of experimental group improved to 11.04 ± 0.56 g/dl from 9.1 ± 0.67. Similarly increase in serum iron from 61.9 ± 3.24 to 65.0 ± 2.95 µg/dl was noticed and showed a significant difference at 1 per cent. Improvement in total protein (6.62 ± 0.49 to 8.11 ± 0.20 g/dl, albumin (3.9 ± 0.36 to 4.73 ± 0.31 g/dl and globulin (2.82 ± 0.24 to 3.8 ± 0.29 g/dl showed significant difference at 1 per cent level. Similarly, an increase in Total WBC count (7326 ± 19.5 to 9725 ± 25.5 cumm, reduction in lymphocyte (942.16 ± 3.6 to 35.2 ± 2.2 per cent seen among the ginning women workers.

  19. Do dietary trajectories between infancy and toddlerhood influence IQ in childhood and adolescence? Results from a prospective birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa G Smithers

    Full Text Available We examined whether trajectories of dietary patterns from 6 to 24 months of age are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ in childhood and adolescence.Participants were children enrolled in a prospective UK birth cohort (n = 7,652 who had IQ measured at age 8 and/or 15 years. Dietary patterns were previously extracted from questionnaires when children were aged 6, 15 and 24 months using principal component analysis. Dietary trajectories were generated by combining scores on similar dietary patterns across each age, using multilevel mixed models. Associations between dietary trajectories and IQ were examined in generalized linear models with adjustment for potential confounders.Four dietary pattern trajectories were constructed from 6 to 24 months of age and were named according to foods that made the strongest contribution to trajectory scores; Healthy (characterised by breastfeeding at 6 months, raw fruit and vegetables, cheese and herbs at 15 and 24 months; Discretionary (biscuits, chocolate, crisps at all ages, Traditional (meat, cooked vegetables and puddings at all ages and, Ready-to-eat (use of ready-prepared baby foods at 6 and 15 months, biscuits, bread and breakfast cereals at 24 months. In fully-adjusted models, a 1 SD change in the Healthy trajectory was weakly associated with higher IQ at age 8 (1.07 (95%CI 0.17, 1.97 but not 15 years (0.49 (-0.28, 1.26. Associations between the Discretionary and Traditional trajectories with IQ at 8 and 15 years were as follows; Discretionary; 8 years -0.35(-1.03, 0.33, 15 years -0.73(-1.33, -0.14 Traditional; 8 years -0.19(-0.71, 0.3315 years -0.41(-0.77, -0.04. The Ready-to-eat trajectory had no association with IQ at either age (8 years 0.32(-4.31, 4.95, 15 years 1.11(-3.10, 5.33.The Discretionary and Traditional dietary pattern trajectories from 6 to 24 months of age, over the period when food patterns begin to emerge, are weakly associated with IQ in adolescence.

  20. Changes in physical properties of extruded sour cassava starch and quinoa flour blend snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Giolo Taverna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the broad acceptance of sour cassava starch biscuits in Brazil and the nutritional quality of quinoa flour, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, moisture, and amount of quinoa flour on the physical properties of puffed snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Effects of moisture and amount of quinoa flour on the expansion index and specific volume of snacks were observed. There was a pronounced increase in water solubility index of blends with the extrusion process with significant effects of all process parameters on the WSI. Higher water absorption index (WAI was observed under high temperature, low moisture, and lower quinoa flour amount. Temperature and amount of quinoa flour influenced the color of the snacks. A positive quadratic effect of quinoa flour on hardness of products was observed. Blends of sour cassava starch and quinoa flour have good potential for use as raw material in production of extruded snacks with good physical properties.

  1. Effects of processing on physical properties of extruded snacks with blends of sour cassava starch and flaxseed flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila De Barros Mesquita

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity to supplement common cassava biscuits with a product of higher nutritional value meets consumer expectations. In this work it was studied the effects of process parameters and flaxseed addition on physical properties of expanded snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single screw extruder in a factorial central composite rotatable design with four factors: flaxseed flour percentage (0-20%, moisture (12-20%, extrusion temperature (90-130 °C and screw speed (190-270. The effect of extrusion variables was investigated in terms of expansion index, specific volume, water absorption index, water solubility index, color parameters (L*, a* ,b* and hardness. The data analysis showed that variable parameters of the extrusion process and flaxseed flour affected physical properties of puffed snacks. Among the experimental conditions used in the present study, expanded snack products with good physical properties can be obtained under the conditions of 10% flaxseed flour, 230 rpm screw speed, temperature of 90 °C and moisture of 12%.

  2. Effects of a healthier snack on snacking habits and glycated Hb (HbA1c): a 6-week intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mary R; Parsons, Andrew; Whalley, Gillian A; Rush, Elaine C

    2016-12-01

    Dietary behaviour modification may change eating habits and reduce the impact of poor nutrition. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of a healthier snack bar on snacking habits and glycated Hb (HbA1c) within a 6-week intervention. In all, twenty-eight participants were randomly allocated to two groups to either consume the bars as the main snack for 6 weeks (n 14) or receipt of the bars was delayed for 6 weeks (n 14) following a stepped-wedge design. All participants had HbA1c concentrations measured at weeks -1, 0, 4, 6, 10 and 12. A short dietary habits questionnaire was self-completed at weeks 0, 6 and 12. Participants consumed the bars they received instead of other snacks, and found that the healthier snack bar was acceptable as part of their daily dietary pattern. Over the 12 weeks, there was a significant reduction in intake of biscuits, cakes and pies (approximately 2 servings/week, Psnack intervention and a trend towards a favourable effect on glucose homoeostasis. Habitual snacking behaviour has the potential to be improved through changes in the food supply, and in the longer term may reduce the impact of poor nutrition on public health.

  3. Recognizing magnetostratigraphy in overprinted and altered marine sediments: Challenges and solutions from IODP Site U1437

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, Robert J.; Kars, Myriam

    2016-08-01

    Core disturbance, drilling overprints, postdepositional acquisition of remanence, authigenic growth of magnetic iron sulfides, and alteration all contribute challenges to recognizing the primary magnetostratigraphy in marine sediments. We address these issues in a sequence of tuffaceous muds and volcaniclastics at International Ocean Discovery Program Site U1437 and produce the longest continuous magnetic polarity stratigraphy in the history of scientific ocean drilling. Remanence measurements were filtered to remove intervals affected by fluidization, plastic sediment disturbance, and core biscuiting. Drilling overprints are concentrated in the disturbed annulus surrounding intact core material. Bioturbation was limited to a vertical extent of at most 15 cm. Changes in sediment color, stiffness, and magnetic hysteresis all suggest that remanence was locked in within a few meters of the sediment-water interface. We did not observe any systematic offset between magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic datums. Authigenic growth of greigite, in response to both initial sulfate reduction in the upper 50 m of the sediment column and to deeper resupply of sulfate, has led to magnetic overprinting. Anomalous polarity artefacts, extending drilling and postdrilling overprints and increased the resistance of these overprints to removal by conventional demagnetization. We recovered the magnetostratigraphic record from many samples with resistant overprints through low-temperature demagnetization through the Verwey transition.

  4. Development of Mobile-Accessible Nutritional System to Improve Healthy Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Battaglia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the authors was to develop a Web-based mobile system providing useful nutritional advice to consumers. This system encourages healthier food habits for sufferers of hypertension or diabetes. In the modern day society, the issues of globalisation, consumers’ choice and other recently introduced phenomena such as the Internet and the mobile phone are becoming more prominent. Making a decision to buy a product, in the present, can be rather a challenge for many consumers. This can mean that consumers eat foods such as breads, breakfast cereals and biscuit products that they know little about. In this paper, the authors developed software aimed at helping hypertensive and diabetic patients to improve their overall wellbeing. The health of the sufferers of these ailments can usually be improved by healthy diets. After the development of the system, a usability experiment involving interviews with the participants was conducted. Based on the analysis of the feedback a number of relevant findings arose, such as some participants suggested that the system was useful for monitoring their diets. However, few participants were prepared to change their shopping behaviours due to some issues like lack of consumer products in the nutritional database, which need to be addressed in the future work on the system.

  5. Characterization and drying of caja bagasse (Spondias mombin L. in a tray dryer using a factorial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Souto da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The caja (Spondias mombin L. is used in the manufacture of ice-cream, jams, pulps, beverages being also consumed in natura. One of the most important procedures in food conservation is drying, considering that most fresh fruits contain approximately 80% of water. Food drying is used to obtain two basic aspects: (1 the economic factor; in the shipping and handling of the product; (2 at the manipulation; once dried and grinded, the material is rehydrated, at desirable levels, to formulate a new product as in ice cream, jams, yoghurts and drinks and may also be added to pasta, biscuits and other industrialized products. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of caja bagasse drying in a fixed-bed tray dryer, using central composite factorial planning. The following factors were evaluated: temperature (55, 65 and 75 ºC, dryer inlet air velocity (3.2, 4.6 and 6.0 m.s-1 and cake thickness (0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 cm where the response of the considered variable was caja bagasse moisture content (b.s. and the results showed that the main effects and their interactions were significant at a 95% confidence level being the best condition obtained at temperature of 75 ºC, velocity of 6.0 m.s-1 and cake thickness of 0.8 cm.

  6. Effect of Phonotactic Constraints on Second Language Speech Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamami Katayama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined whether phonotactic constraints of the first language affect speech processing by Japanese learners of English and whether their proficiency of the second language influences it. Native English speakers and second language speakers with a high level of language proficiency and those with a low level took part in a monitoring task. They were given two kinds of sound stimuli as target syllables (i.e., consonant–vowel and consonant–vowel–consonant and were asked to detect them in lists of words that have stress on the first or second syllable (e.g., biscuit and beside. The results showed that both stress and phonotactics facilitated segmentation strategies by the three groups. The Japanese groups did not rely on either phonotactics or morae to segment the target syllables. They rather used stress to detect the target syllables in the English words, which is a different segmentation strategy from their first language. This study showed that phonotactic constraints did not interfere with second language processing by native Japanese speakers and provided evidence that second language speakers use the segmentation strategy that is used by native speakers of the target language.

  7. Relationships between the Food Expectancy Questionnaire (FEQ) and the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Marie; Bunting, Jane; Hammersley, Richard

    2005-10-01

    The outcome expectancies of 250 respondents were examined using the Food Expectancy Questionnaire (FEQ), comparing expectancies about four different foods: fruit, vegetables, chocolate and sweets and plain biscuits. These expectancies were related to diet as assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. As with alcohol expectancies [Jones, B. T., Corbin, W. & Fromme, K. (2001). A review of expectancy theory and alcohol consumption. Addiction, 96, 57-72], on which this research was modelled, positive and negative outcomes were the main factors for all foods, accounting jointly for between 33 and 40% of expectancy variance in factor analysis and predicting as much as 16% of the variance in relevant food intake measures by linear regression. Expected positive and negative outcomes of eating were predominantly immediate psychological after-effects, rather than including orosensory experiences, or longer-term effects on health or well-being. Other expectancies varied from food to food. FEQ expectancies for different foods have similar factor structure and were related to self-reported diet, the FEQ therefore shows promise as a means of modelling cognitions about eating.

  8. Importance of a canteen lunch on the dietary intake of acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestdagh, Frédéric; Lachat, Carl; Baert, Katleen; Moons, Emmanuelle; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2007-05-01

    A food and drink intake survey was carried out among university students and staff members. Consumption data were collected on days when the participants took hot lunch in a university canteen. The dietary acrylamide exposure was calculated through a probabilistic approach and revealed a median intake of 0.40 microg/kg bw/day [90% confidence interval: 0.36-0.44], which is in accordance with previous exposure calculations. Biscuits (35.4%), French fries (29.9%), bread (23.5%), and chocolate (11.2%) were identified to be the main sources of dietary acrylamide. Foodstuffs consumed in between the three main meals of the day (so called snack type foods) contributed the most to the intake (42.2%). The exposure was lower in an intervention group which received free portions of fruit and vegetables, indicating that a nutritionally balanced diet may contribute to a decreased acrylamide intake. French fries had a significant impact on the acrylamide intake, due to the frequent consumption in the canteen. This demonstrates the important responsibility of caterers and canteen kitchens in the mitigation of acrylamide exposure through reduction of acrylamide in their prepared products, in particular in French fries.

  9. Detection of acrylamide in potato chips using a fluorescent sensing method based on acrylamide polymerization-induced distance increase between quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinqin; Xu, Xiahong; Li, Zhanming; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jianping; Fu, Yingchun; Li, Yanbin

    2014-04-15

    Acrylamide is a neurotoxin and potential carcinogen, but is found in various thermally processed foods such as potato chips, biscuits, and coffee. Simple and sensitive methods for on-line detection of acrylamide are needed to ensure food safety. In this paper, a novel fluorescent sensing method based on acrylamide polymerization-induced distance increase between quantum dots (QDs) was proposed for detecting acrylamide in potato chips. The functional QDs were prepared by their binding with N-acryloxysuccinimide (NAS), which was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FR-IR) spectra. The carbon-carbon double bonds of NAS modified QDs polymerized with assistance of photo initiator under UV irradiation, leading to QDs getting closer along with fluorescence intensity decreasing. Acrylamide in the sample participated in the polymerization and induced an increase of fluorescence intensity. This method possessed a linear range from 3.5×10(-5) to 3.5 g L(-1) (r(2)=0.94) and a limit of detection of 3.5×10(-5) g L(-1). Although the sensitivity and specificity cannot be compared with standard LC-MS/MS analysis, this new method requires much less time and cost, which is promising for on-line rapid detection of acrylamide in food processing.

  10. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits.

  11. Effect of Addition of Ginkgo Biloba on Cookie Quality%银杏叶添加量对酥性饼干品质的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美霞; 何路萍

    2015-01-01

    The effection of addition of Ginkgo biloba on sensory quality , physical indexes , TPA indexes and chromatic aberration of cookies was studied in this article.The results showed that cookies had better sensory quality in low dosage. of Ginkgo biloba, but when the adding amount exceeded 8 g/100 g, the sensory quality of biscuit decreased. Meanwhile, addition of Ginkgo biloba had positive influence on elastic,brittle, and color of cookies but had negative influence on cohesion,ductility and specific volume.%银杏叶在低添加量时对酥性饼干的感官品质具有改善作用,但当添加量超过8 g/100 g后,酥性饼干的感官品质有所降低;同时,银杏叶的添加对酥性饼干的弹性、脆性和色泽有促进作用,而对黏聚性、延展性和比容等指标有降低作用。

  12. Improved sample preparation to determine acrylamide in difficult matrixes such as chocolate powder, cocoa, and coffee by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatour, Thierry; Périsset, Adrienne; Goldmann, Till; Riediker, Sonja; Stadler, Richard H

    2004-07-28

    An improved sample preparation (extraction and cleanup) is presented that enables the quantification of low levels of acrylamide in difficult matrixes, including soluble chocolate powder, cocoa, coffee, and coffee surrogate. Final analysis is done by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using d3-acrylamide as internal standard. Sample pretreatment essentially encompasses (a) protein precipitation with Carrez I and II solutions, (b) extraction of the analyte into ethyl acetate, and (c) solid-phase extraction on a Multimode cartridge. The stability of acrylamide in final extracts and in certain commercial foods and beverages is also reported. This approach provided good performance in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. Full validation was conducted in soluble chocolate powder, achieving a decision limit (CCalpha) and detection capability (CCbeta) of 9.2 and 12.5 microg/kg, respectively. The method was extended to the analysis of acrylamide in various foodstuffs such as mashed potatoes, crisp bread, and butter biscuit and cookies. Furthermore, the accuracy of the method is demonstrated by the results obtained in three inter-laboratory proficiency tests.

  13. Intermittent exercise improves the vasoreactivity of the thoracic aorta in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Luo, Yan; Hu, Shuting; Hou, Ling; Niu, Jianguo; Li, Guanghua

    2016-04-01

    Vasoreactivity is the most basic and direct indicator to reflect the artery vascular functional state in the body. The majority of previous studies have shown that a high-fat diet (HD) is often associated with a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, the type of exercise that improves vasoreactivity, as is induced by a HD, remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of aerobic moderate-intensity intermittent exercise through swimming were investigated on thoracic aorta vascular ring contraction and free radical metabolism using Sprague-Dawley rat models of common diet (CD; 23 g protein, 49 g carbohydrate, 4 g fat, 5 g fiber, 7 g bone meal and 6 g vitamins per 100 g), HD (peanuts, milk chocolate and sweet biscuits, in a weight ratio of 3:2:2:1), CD with intermittent exercise (CIE) and HD with intermittent exercise (HIE). The food utilization rate in the swimming group (CIE) decreased in comparison with the CD group. Lee's index in the CIE group decreased in comparison to that of CD after 8 weeks (Pfunction by enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity and reduced free radical generating.

  14. Long-term post-wildfire monitoring of phenology and recovery using a MODIS time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, S.; Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.

    2012-12-01

    Disturbance severity in forests or grasslands is generally conceptualized as the difference between the state before and immediately after a disturbance event. This approach fails to capture slow-acting disturbances that take years to materialize, secondary disturbance effects such as delayed mortality, or variable rates of recovery. Remotely sensed data can provide a multi-seasonal baseline and long-term post-disturbance record of recovery that also captures associated disturbances, such as post event salvage logging or restoration efforts. Here we track the MODIS satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index or NDVI of several large wildfires that occurred early in the last decade to measure fire and associated disturbance severity with multi-seasonal and multi-year contexts. Large fires analyzed included Oregon's Biscuit Fire, Colorado's Hayman Fire, Arizona's Rodeo-Chediski Fire, and Georgia's Okefenokee Fire among others. Short-term results were generally consistent with prior post-fire estimates of short-term wildfire severity, but long-term fire effects diversified. Both short and long-term severity varied by topography and vegetation types, as measured by changes in seasonal NDVI, not just single-season NDVI. This broadened monitoring technique provides a moderate resolution record of recovery that can inform questions related to cumulative impacts and ecological resilience.

  15. Food nanotechnology: water is the key to lowering the energy density of processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, A A

    2011-01-01

    It is crucial that emergent technologies create foods that help prevent the causal mechanisms of the diet induced disease epidemic. Food nanotechnology could create modem convenience foods that mimic and improve on the nutritional value of the most nutritious cooked wild foods for humans. Structuring a solid processed food similar to a celery stalk using self-assembled, water-filled, edible nanocells or nanotubes would substantially lower its energy density (Food technologists could harness the natural turgor force to produce a firm chocolate bar, biscuit or breakfast cereal with a good bite, without altering the appearance or taste of the product. Water carries flavour with few calories, and taste sensation per mouthful could be improved by processing food on the nanoscale to increase the surface area that is in contact with taste and smell receptors. The bioavailable nutrient content (including cofactors) of processed foods could be increased by existing bioactive nanoencapsulation. This would allow people to continue to consume modern convenience food on a mass scale, while simultaneously and significantly increasing nutrient intake and reducing energy intake per day. Thus, helping to reduce mental ill health, obesity and other postprandial insults.

  16. 红棕液油的干法分提技术及其食品应用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏娜; 戚开运; 白新鹏

    2014-01-01

    棕榈原油(CPO)富含类胡萝卜素和VE等营养物质,但在精炼过程中极易受到破坏。红棕液油(RPOn)是通过干法分提技术最大限度地保留棕榈原油的营养物质。红棕液油作为一类植物油脂,它不仅能够提供膳食营养所需要的能量,还具有良好的生理活性,除用作食用油外还可应用于糕点、饼干、人造黄油和起酥油等。%Crude palm oil (CPO) is the rich source of carotenes and tocols that are destroyed in the conventional processing. Red palm olein (RPOn) is a product derived from crude palm oil, refined by dry fractionation technology so as to retain its nutrients in maximum. As one of vegetable oils, RPOn can provide the energy of dietary nutrition and biological activities. In addition to the application of cooking oil, PROn can be used as desserts, biscuits, manufacturing shortening and margarine.

  17. Taming of a Wild Research Well in Yellowstone National Park during November 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Robert O.; Moore, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    Much of our current understanding of Yellowstone's geothermal areas comes from research drilling by the USGS during 1967 and 1968. Thirteen wells were drilled in thermal areas around the park. Scientists collected waters and rocks, measured temperatures and pressures and performed other tests to characterize the shallow subsurface at Yellowstone. Most wells were plugged and abandoned, but a few were left open for future scientific tests and sampling. One of those wells, the Y8, was located at Biscuit Basin, 2 miles north of Old Faithful. In November 1992, a valve at the ground surface failed, leading to a blowout, an uncontrolled eruption of steam and hot water. The USGS and Yellowstone National Park worked with a drilling contractor to control the flow and plug the well. The lead scientist, Robert Fournier, used video taken by the drilling contractor, Tonto Services, to create this fascinating 28-minute-long film. It is followed by a short news story by CNN, also from November 1992. Fifteen years later, we felt that the video was of sufficient scientific and historical interest that it was worth publishing as a USGS Open-file report, where it can be accessed into the future. Enjoy!

  18. Dietary exposure of children and teenagers to benzoates, sulphites, butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluen (BHT) in Beirut (Lebanon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubra, L; Sarkis, D; Hilan, C; Verger, Ph

    2007-02-01

    The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for a considered chemical is by definition the amount of that substance which can be ingested every day during the life time without appreciable health risk. The theoretical risk of exceeding the ADI for benzoates, sulphites, butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluen (BHT) has often been examined on the basis of worst case scenario. The aim of this paper is to assess the actual intake of the food additives listed above for a group of the Lebanese population (students aged between 9 and 18 years old) likely to be highly exposed to food additives through the consumption of processed foods. Dietary exposure was obtained by combining food consumption data with food additives levels determined by chemical analysis. Food products available in Lebanon and containing added benzoates, sulphites, BHA and BHT were identified. Overall 420 samples of foods and beverages were analysed. The determination of food additives residue levels was carried out according to the official methods adopted in "Lebanese Institute for agronomic research" (IRAL) on food as consumed. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) could be exceeded for sulphites and BHT by a fraction of the population, in particular within children of 9-13 years old. Among all food additive-containing foods, the highest contributors were: soft drinks to benzoates intake, nuts and canned juices to sulphites intake, bread and biscuits to BHA intake and chewing gum to BHT intake.

  19. Efecto de la concentración de silicato de sodio y ácido fosfórico en la reducción de la temperatura de cocción de las baldosas cerámicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Monroy-Sepúlveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Determining the reduction in the firing temperatura ceramic tiles according to the concentration of sodium silicate and phosphoric acid present in the formulation of mixtures of clay paste. Methods: the research was conducted using a sample of clay Guayabo geological formation of the Metropolitan Area of Cucuta. For the preparation of the samples were added to the clay three concentrations of phosphoric acid at 0.5%, 1,0% and 1,5% by weight , together with three concentrations of hydrated sodium silicate 1,0%, 2,0% and 3,0 % by weight respetivamente. The mixtures were ground dry processing and manual kneading and shaping was performed using a laboratory extruder biscuit. The produced samples were dried in a drying oven at 110 °C and sintered in an oven five maximum temperatures (650 °C, 680 °C, 700 °C, 750 °C and 880 °C. Subsequently laboratory tests were performed to determine the water absorption and cooked contraction in flexural strength of the test pieces. Results: the results allowed to state that the addition of these two additives accelerated the vitrification of the clay used, reducing the cycles and sintering temperature of the ceramic molded parts, making infer that it is an alternative in reducing the consumption of thermal energy used in the cooking process of the manufacturers of ceramic tiles. Conclusion: which influence the reduction of the environmental impact caused by emissions of CO2 and particulate matter.

  20. STUDY OF CERAMIC TILE PREPARATION WITH HIGH CONTENT OF CINDER%高掺量煤渣制备陶瓷釉面砖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程小苏; 陈倩

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic glazed tile was prepared by low temperature biscuit fire and high temperature glost fire using cinder from a ceramic factory' coal gasifier as the ceramic raw material. The phase composition and microstructure of ceramic glazed tile were analyzed by testing strength, water absorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of Albite and Black Talc to strength of ceramic body were discussed. When the content of cinder was 50%, the strength of ceramic tile was more than 35Mpa.%以煤气发生炉的煤渣为主要原料,辅以钠长石和黑滑石等其他原料,经低温素烧、高温釉烧的二次烧结工艺在辊道窑烧制成陶瓷釉面砖.测试其强度和吸水率,并采用X射线衍射(XRD)仪和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)分析了煤渣陶瓷釉面砖的物相组成及微观结构,探讨了配方中钠长石和黑滑石含量对陶瓷坯体强度的影响,制备出的陶瓷釉面砖强度大于35Mpa,且煤渣利用量可达50%.

  1. An exploratory analysis of the suitability of diets fed to a flightless insectivore, the North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Murray A; Hendriks, Wouter H; Lentle, Roger G; Thomas, Donald V; Minson, Charlotte J; Pindur, Nicola B

    2010-01-01

    The ingredients and the macro- and micro-nutrient contents of diets that are fed to captive kiwi at seven New Zealand holding facilities were subject to analysis. The nutrient compositions were compared across facilities and with an estimate of the nutrient composition of the diets of wild kiwi based on the intake of various dietary ingredients reported in the literature. A total of 20 ingredients were used, the number and proportion of these ingredients varied greatly between facilities. Six of the diets were based primarily on meat and three comprised a mixture of meat and cat biscuits. Just one included a proprietary insectivore mix. Nutrient content varied greatly between the seven diets, organic matter ranging from 91.8 to 95.6%, crude protein from 41.9 to 62.9%, and crude fat from 9.0 to 28.7% of dry matter content. Large variations were found in the total content and profile of amino acids and of fatty acids of the diets. The nutrient content of all seven diets differed from that of the natural diet of wild kiwi. Hence, the presence of nutrient deficiencies in the current formulations cannot be excluded.

  2. Determination of walnut protein in processed foods by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinobu; Adachi, Reiko; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Doi, Hirotoshi; Shibata, Haruki

    2010-01-01

    Because food allergens from tree nuts, including walnuts, are a frequent cause of adverse food reactions for allergic patients, the labeling of foods containing ingredients derived from tree nuts is required in numerous countries. According to Japanese regulations, the labeling of food products containing walnuts is recommended. To ensure proper labeling, a novel sandwich ELISA kit for the determination of walnut protein in processed foods (Walnut Protein [2S-Albumin] Kit; Morinaga Institute of Biological Science, Inc.; "walnut kit") has been developed. We prepared seven types of incurred samples (model processed foods: biscuits, bread, sponge cake, orange juice, jelly, chicken meatballs, and rice gruel) containing 10 microg walnut soluble protein/g of food for use in interlaboratory evaluations of the walnut kit. The walnut kit displayed sufficient reproducibility relative standard deviations (interlaboratory precision: 5.8-9.9% RSDR) and a high level of recovery (81-119%) for all the incurred samples. All the repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) values for the incurred samples that were examined were less than 6.0%. The results of this interlaboratory evaluation suggested that the walnut kit could be used as a precise and reliable tool for determination of walnut protein in processed foods.

  3. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Querner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species, the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum, the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne, different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp., moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella, Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina and booklice (Psocoptera can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them.

  4. What's on Malaysian television? - A survey on food advertising targeting children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Chinna, Karuthan; Mee, Loi Huei; Mei, Lim Siau; Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The Malaysian government recently introduced a ban on fast food advertisements targeting children on television. This study reports on data covering 6 months of television food advertising targeting children. Six out of seven of the Nation's commercial television networks participated (response rate = 85.7%). Based on reported timings of children's programmes, prime time significantly differed ( p advertisements appearing per month varied greatly between television stations (C = 1104; D = 643; F = 407; B = 327; A = 59; E = 47). Food advertising also increased the most in September (n = 3158), followed by July (n = 2770), August (n = 2431), October (n = 2291), November (n = 2245) and June (n = 2211). Content analysis of advertisements indicated snacks were the highest (34.5%), followed by dairy products (20.3%), sugars and candies (13.4%), biscuits (11.2%), fast food (6.7%), breakfast cereal (6.4%), beverages (4.1%), supplements (0.9%), rice (0.6%), noodles (0.5%), bread (0.3%), miscellaneous and processed foods (0.2%). Paradoxically, we found that the frequency of snack food advertised during children's prime time was 5 times more than fast foods. The sodium content (mean = 620 mg per 100g) of these snack foods was found to be highest.

  5. Public outreach: les spectacles du Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Shows at the Globe of Science and Innovation in connection with the exhibition «A des années-lumière» Wednesday 8 November 2006, 2.30 p.m. (in French): 'Cooking with the stars' Professor BEUZ and his assistant Mr POZZONI, a clown double-act, will introduce children to the cosmos, the formation of the universe and the creation of stars and the solar system. On the menu: eggs, biscuits, a 'comet' sausage, giant onions, noodles, 'primordial' soup, instant pudding, fruit and vegetables. A spicy and scholarly recipe that will satisfy little gourmets and budding astronomers alike. This event is a version of the comedy 'How to make the Universe' specially adapted for children. For young children (7 years and upwards) Free admittance, by reservation only: + 41(0)22 767 76 76 Thursday 9 and Friday 10 November 2006, 8.00 p.m. (in French): 'How to make the Universe' At the end of a meal, Professor BEUZ and his assistant Mr POZZONI tell us the story of how the universe was formed, from the Big Bang to the arriv...

  6. The 'Food Polymer Science' Approach to the Practice of Industrial R&D, Leading to Patent Estates Based on Fundamental Starch Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Louise; Levine, Harry

    2016-09-22

    This paper reviews the application of the 'Food Polymer Science' approach to the practice of industrial R&D, leading to patent estates based on fundamental starch science and technology . The areas of patents and patented technologies reviewed here include: a) soft-from-the-freezer ice creams and freezer-storage-stable frozen bread dough products, based on 'cryostabilization technology' of frozen foods, utilizing commercial starch hydrolysis products (SHPs); b) glassy-matrix encapsulation technology for flavors and other volatiles, based on structure-function relationships for commercial SHPs; c) production of stabilized whole-grain wheat flours for biscuit products, based on the application of 'solvent retention capacity' technology to develop flours with reduced damaged starch; d) production of improved-quality, low-moisture cookies and crackers, based on pentosanase enzyme technology; e) production of 'baked-not-fried', chip-like, starch-based snack products, based on the use of commercial modified-starch ingredients with selected functionality; f) accelerated staling of a starch-based food product from baked bread crumb, based on the kinetics of starch retrogradation, treated as a crystallization process for a partially crystalline glassy polymer system; g) a process for producing an enzyme-resistant starch, for use as a reduced-calorie flour replacer in a wide range of grain-based food products, including cookies, extruded expanded snacks, and breakfast cereals.

  7. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN MAKANAN TAMBAHAN TERHADAP KONSUMSI ENERGI DAN PROTEIN IBU HAMIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Prihananto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of supplementary foods on pregnant mothers’ energy and protein consumtion. This study was conducted in three sub-districts i.e.: Leuwiliang, Leuwisadeng and Ciampea. The 140 pregnant mothers from these sub-districts were selected for this study. Out of 140 pregnant mothers, 70 pregnant mothers were selected to receive supplementary foods for 6 month and 70 pregnant mothers did not receive any experimental food (control. Product selected as intervention consists of vermicelli, milk, and biscuit. The results of the study showed intervention could improve energy protein consumption of pregnant mothers Keywords: pregnant mothers, energy protein

  8. Assessment of trans-fatty acids intake via bakery food among above three-year-old population in Beijing and Guangzhou city%北京及广州3岁以上居民焙烤食品中反式脂肪酸摄入量评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建文; 刘爱东; 张磊; 刘兆平; 李宁

    2014-01-01

    calculate individual TFA intake per day(g·d -1 ,% of total energy)in different populations(grouped by ages).RESULTS Average TFA content was ranging fro m 0.01 to 0.83 g /100 g sa mple in various kinds of bakery food.TFA con-tents were equal to or lower than 0.3 g /100 g in 77.1 % of biscuits,71 .8% of bread,67.0% of pas-tries.Wafer biscuit,sandwich biscuit,puff,cake,and croissants had higher TFA contents than others, and the level was 0.65 -0.83 g /100 g sa mple.TFA content in sandwich biscuit and pie decreased sig-nificantly after 2007.Average TFA intake via bakery food was 0.049 g·d -1 in Beijing and Guangzhou city,energy contribution was 0.027% which was far below the WHO reco mmended level (1 %). Population that are 3 to 6 years old had highest TFA intake and the TFA energy contribution was 0.041 %.CONCLUSION Most of bakery products in China contained low levels of TFA;consequently, health risk caused by TFA intake in Beijing and Guangzhou was unlikely to be a concerned.However, so me type of bakery foods had higher TFA contents which could be of greater concerned for risk management.

  9. Comparison of different methods to quantify fat classes in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Min; Hwang, Young-Ok; Tu, Ock-Ju; Jo, Han-Bin; Kim, Jung-Hun; Chae, Young-Zoo; Rhu, Kyung-Hun; Park, Seung-Kook

    2013-01-15

    The definition of fat differs in different countries; thus whether fat is listed on food labels depends on the country. Some countries list crude fat content in the 'Fat' section on the food label, whereas other countries list total fat. In this study, three methods were used for determining fat classes and content in bakery products: the Folch method, the automated Soxhlet method, and the AOAC 996.06 method. The results using these methods were compared. Fat (crude) extracted by the Folch and Soxhlet methods was gravimetrically determined and assessed by fat class using capillary gas chromatography (GC). In most samples, fat (total) content determined by the AOAC 996.06 method was lower than the fat (crude) content determined by the Folch or automated Soxhlet methods. Furthermore, monounsaturated fat or saturated fat content determined by the AOAC 996.06 method was lowest. Almost no difference was observed between fat (crude) content determined by the Folch method and that determined by the automated Soxhlet method for nearly all samples. In three samples (wheat biscuits, butter cookies-1, and chocolate chip cookies), monounsaturated fat, saturated fat, and trans fat content obtained by the automated Soxhlet method was higher than that obtained by the Folch method. The polyunsaturated fat content obtained by the automated Soxhlet method was not higher than that obtained by the Folch method in any sample.

  10. Methods to determine food inulin and oligofructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosky, L; Hoebregs, H

    1999-07-01

    The fructans, inulin and oligofructose, were known to possess many of the physiologic properties of dietary fiber (DF) but were not listed as DF on the labels of foods that contained them because they did not precipitate in 78% ethanol as prescribed in the AOAC International methods for DF. In the latter part of 1995, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) agreed to consider fructans as DF if an AOAC-accepted analytical method could be successfully developed for fructans. Six blind duplicate pairs of foods, containing from 4 to 40% of inulin or oligofructose, were sent to nine collaborators in five countries for assay. These foods included a low fat spread, cheese spread, chocolate, wine gum, dry ice mix powder and biscuits. In the proposed method, the samples were treated with amyloglucosidase and inulinase, and the sugars released were determined by ion-exchange chromatography. The concentration of the fructan was calculated by the difference in sugars present in the two enzymic treatments and the initial sample. The repeatability standard deviations (RSDr) for the inulin and oligofructose ranged from 2.9 to 5.8% and the reproducibility standard deviations (RSDR) for these fructans ranged from 4.7 to 11.1%. The method was accepted by the AOAC as an official first action.

  11. Determination of ochratoxin A in liquorice products using HPLC-based analytical methods. Part II: harmonised method and method validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raters, Marion; Matissek, Reinhard; van Haren, Winni; Fledderus, Koop

    2010-05-01

    On the basis of the outcome of an European proficiency test series conducted on behalf of the CAOBISCO (Association of the Chocolate, Biscuit and Confectionery Industries of the EU) expert group on ochratoxin A, a new harmonised method was developed for the analysis of ochratoxin A in liquorice extracts. This method works without the use of halogenated solvents because, as the proficiency test showed, an aqueous extraction solution can be used instead of, for example, chloroform, whose use is restricted in the EU. The main objective of this method validation study was to check the performance of this harmonised method. To carry out the method validation study, a set of three different test samples (one liquorice powder and two liquorice pastes) and a liquorice powder sample with an indicated range of ochratoxin A (a so-called sunshine sample) was distributed to 21 laboratories in ten countries throughout Europe and to one laboratory in the USA. The study was evaluated according to internationally recognised guidelines. In terms of its repeatability and reproducibility for determining ochratoxin A in liquorice extracts with a relative standard deviation for repeatability (RSDr) of between 6.68 and 19.95 and a relative standard deviation for reproducibility (RSDR) of between 17.39 and 29.08 the performance of the harmonised method was found to be in the accepted range of the EU directive for the analysis of mycotoxins in several foodstuffs.

  12. Determination of ochratoxin A in liquorice products using HPLC based analytical methods. Part I: proficiency test of methods commonly used by the confectionary industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matissek, Reinhard; Raters, Marion; van Haren, Winni; Fledderus, Koop

    2010-05-01

    A European proficiency test series was accomplished on behalf of the CAOBISCO (Association of the Chocolate, Biscuit and Confectionery Industries of the EU) expert group on ochratoxin A to assess the performance of laboratories in measuring ochratoxin A in samples of various liquorice products. In addition, the impact of the extraction type (mainly with or without the use of halogenated solvents) was to be evaluated. Four different test samples (two liquorice powders and two liquorice pastes) were tested for sufficient homogeneity and distributed to 15 laboratories in 8 countries in Europe. The results were analysed using standard proficiency testing statistical procedures and laboratories were awarded z-scores on the basis of their reported results. The overall evaluation of the results shows a distinct variation between the participating laboratories. Based on a target standard deviation (σ-value) taken from the Horwitz equation, of the 14 laboratories that reported results, satisfactory results (z-score: |Z| ≤ 2.0) were obtained by 60% and 27% of the laboratories, respectively, for the two liquorice powders and by 93% and 53% of the laboratories, respectively, for the two liquorice pastes. Approximately equal numbers of laboratories used extraction types with and without the use of halogenated solvents. ANOVA testing of the results indicates there was no evident trend using different extraction solvents.

  13. Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy A. Darwish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years attending primary health care centers (PHCCs in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%, smoking in front of children (11.3%, overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%, noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3% and children (68%, children watching television (T.V more than 2 hours (50%, adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%, and late solid food introduction (65.3%. Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services.

  14. Buccal and lingual activity during mastication and swallowing in typical adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, M J; Kenny, D J; Macmillan, R E

    2003-01-01

    A non-invasive protocol was developed to assess tongue and cheek movements during mastication and to evaluate the temporal relationship between mastication and the initiation of pharyngeal swallowing. Typical adults (three males and three females) were monitored during chewing. Miniature pressure transducers were bonded unilaterally to the buccal and lingual surfaces of the first mandibular molar and the buccal surface of the first maxillary molar on each subject's preferred chewing side. Surface electromyography of the ipsilateral masseter muscle was recorded as an indicator of jaw-closing activity. Pressure and electromyography (EMG) recordings were time-linked to simultaneous B-mode ultrasound imaging of the oral cavity using a submental, coronal view aligned with the first mandibular molar. The intervals between peak pressure recorded at each pressure transducer and peak jaw-closing activity for each masticatory cycle were not statistically different [analysis of variance (anova), P=0.9856] and displayed large statistical variation. These intervals were not different at the beginning of the trials (hard biscuit) than they were at the completion of mastication when the cookie had been broken down to a paste/puree consistency bolus. The interval between the last chewing stroke and the initiation of swallowing was 0.92 +/- 0.34 s). No significant difference existed among subjects for this time interval (anova, P=0.382).

  15. 谷物食品研究现状及发展趋势%Research progress and development trend of cereal foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯炳洪; 邓璐璐; 王立; 钱海峰; 张晖; 齐希光

    2014-01-01

    作为人类最基本的膳食组成,谷物食品无论在食品市场还是科研领域都占有重要的地位。近年来,市场上出现了越来越多的全谷物食品。以面包、面条、饼干以及谷物棒4种谷物产品为例,综述了近年来谷物食品的研究现状,并分析展望了全谷物食品的市场前景与发展趋势。%Cereals are the most basic compositions of human diet. There are more and more whole cereal foods in the market. This paper summarized the recent research progress of four main cereal foods, including bread, noodle, biscuit, and cereal bar. The market expectation and development trend were also speculated.

  16. Prebiotic effects of inulin and oligofructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolida, S; Tuohy, K; Gibson, G R

    2002-05-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that target certain components within the microbiota of the human large intestine. Efficient prebiotics need to have a specific fermentation therein and thereby have the ability to alter the faecal microflora composition towards a more 'beneficial' community structure. This should occur by the stimulation of benign or potentially health promoting genera but not the harmful groups. Because of their positive attributes bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are the most frequent target organisms. Both inulin and oligofructose have been demonstrated to be effective prebiotics. This has been shown through both in vitro and in vivo assessments in different laboratories. Because of their recognised prebiotic properties, principally the selective stimulation of colonic bifidobacteria, both inulin and oligofructose are increasingly used in new food product developments. Examples include drinks, yoghurts, biscuits and table spreads. Because of the recognised inhibitory effects that bifidobacteria can exert against gut pathogens, one of the most important aspects of prebiotic ingestion is fortification of the gut flora to resist acute infections.

  17. Detection of melamine in milk powders using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging combined with regression coefficient of partial least square regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Giyoung; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Moon S; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Fu, Xiaping; Baek, Insuck; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-05-01

    Illegal use of nitrogen-rich melamine (C3H6N6) to boost perceived protein content of food products such as milk, infant formula, frozen yogurt, pet food, biscuits, and coffee drinks has caused serious food safety problems. Conventional methods to detect melamine in foods, such as Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), are sensitive but they are time-consuming, expensive, and labor-intensive. In this research, near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique combined with regression coefficient of partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was used to detect melamine particles in milk powders easily and quickly. NIR hyperspectral reflectance imaging data in the spectral range of 990-1700nm were acquired from melamine-milk powder mixture samples prepared at various concentrations ranging from 0.02% to 1%. PLSR models were developed to correlate the spectral data (independent variables) with melamine concentration (dependent variables) in melamine-milk powder mixture samples. PLSR models applying various pretreatment methods were used to reconstruct the two-dimensional PLS images. PLS images were converted to the binary images to detect the suspected melamine pixels in milk powder. As the melamine concentration was increased, the numbers of suspected melamine pixels of binary images were also increased. These results suggested that NIR hyperspectral imaging technique and the PLSR model can be regarded as an effective tool to detect melamine particles in milk powders.

  18. Characterization of Brazilian wheat cultivars for specific technological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional and technological properties of wheat depend on its chemical composition, which together with structural and microscopic characteristics, define flour quality. The aim of the present study was to characterize four Brazilian wheat cultivars (BRS Louro, BRS Timbauva, BRS Guamirim and BRS Pardela and their respective flours in order to indicate specific technological applications. Kernels were analyzed for test weight, thousand kernel weight, hardness, moisture, and water activity. Flours were analyzed for water activity, color, centesimal composition, total dietary fiber, amylose content and identification of high molecular weight glutenins. The rheological properties of the flours were estimated by farinography, extensography, falling number, rapid visco amylography, and glutomatic and glutork equipment. Baking tests and scanning electron microscopy were also performed. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and principal component analysis. BRS Timbauva and BRS Guamirim presented results that did not allow for specific technological application. On the other hand, BRS Louro presented suitable characteristics for the elaboration of products with low dough strength such as cakes, pies and biscuits, while BRS Pardela seemed suitable for bread and pasta products.

  19. Developments on the cereal grains Digitaria exilis (acha) and Digitaria iburua (iburu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jideani, I A; Jideani, V A

    2011-06-01

    Research and development on these indigenous African cereal grains, acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf) and iburu (D. iburua Stapf), is experiencing renewed interest not just in Africa but the rest of the world. It is believed that acha and iburu may have nutraceutical properties, as it is used in some areas for managing diabetes. Value addition and exploitation of fonio (acha and iburu) in the development of health or speciality foods like acha-bread, biscuit, cookies, sour dough, traditional drinks, nonfermented steamed and granulated dumpling products are gaining interest. These grains may also contribute in addressing some very relevant challenges in today's food formulation-both from functionality and health perspectives. The constraint of low yield is receiving attention in cereal breeding programmes which may give rise to a new generation of 'healthy' cereal grains in future. Further research on acha and iburu whole grains will hopefully lead to increase understanding of the health effects of grain components and to increase the intake of health-protective grain components. Moreover, with strong consumer demand for these grains due to their potential nutritional and health benefits, and because they help to satisfy the demand for a more varied cereal diet, efforts should be made to tackle the obstacles militating against production, improved quality, competitiveness and value-addition.

  20. LEADING TRENDS IN THE EUROPEAN FUNCTIONAL FOOD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kozonova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods market is changing rapidly. Now the market has the highest growth. In the European Union food producers try to fit virtually every product under the "functional" definition. In this article we will review major trends in the EU functional foods market and try to analyze them. It is well known that foods fortified with nutritional and disease-preventing qualities are invigorating the world food industry. Health-conscious consumers are driving the demand for products that aim to promote better health, increase longevity and prevent the onset of chronic diseases. With a fast-emerging middle class, more disposable income, and a greater number of working/more educated women in emerging markets, the worldwide potential for functional foods/beverages is unprecedented. Milk formula, energy drinks, probiotic yogurt, juice drinks, sports drinks, cereal, and biscuits were among the top-performing functional global health and wellness food categories in 2014. There is a breakout of the year's top trends driving the market for functional foods and beverages. A review of recent deal drivers, the fastest-growing products and innovation trends can help businesses identify the most promising entry points to this market.

  1. Dust exposure and pneumoconiosis in a South African pottery. 1. Study objectives and dust exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, D; Cronje, R; du Toit, R S

    1992-07-01

    Dust exposure and pneumoconiosis were investigated in a South African pottery that manufactured wall tiles and bathroom fittings. This paper describes the objectives of the investigation and presents dust measurement data. x Ray diffraction showed that the clays used by the pottery had a high quartz content (range 58%-23%, mean 38%). Exposure to respirable dust was measured for 43 workers and was highest (6.6 mg/m3) in a bathroom fitting fettler. Quartz concentrations in excess of 0.1 mg/m3 were found in all sections of the manufacturing process from slip production to biscuit firing and sorting. The proportion of quartz in the respirable dust of these sections was 24% to 33%. This is higher than is usually reported in English potteries. Four hundred and six (80%) of the 509 workers employed at the pottery were potentially at risk of occupational lung disease. The finding of large numbers of pottery workers exposed to unacceptable dust concentrations is not surprising as poor dust control was found in all six wall tile and sanitary ware factories surveyed by the National Centre for Occupational Health between 1973 and 1989. Dust related occupational disease can be expected in potters for many years to come.

  2. Determining the Effect of Early Feeding after Cesarean section Compared with Regular Diet on the Gastrointestinal Function of Women Referred to Tajrish Hospital, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Amiri-Siavoshani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Early feeding after cesarean section can have beneficial effects, however, no sufficient study has been conducted in this area. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early feeding on the gastrointestinal complications in women after cesarean section and comparing it with a regular diet.   Methods: The present randomized-clinical-trial study was conducted on 160 women who admitted to Shohada hospital and underwent cesarean section in 2011-2012. The inclusion criteria included women with gestational age more than 37 weeks, singleton pregnancy, having at least 8 hours of fasting, and regional anesthesia (spinal cord, respectively. After registration of demographic characteristics and pregnancy, women were randomly divided into two groups: Early feeding (2 hours after completion of the operation, 250 ml filtered juice, tea and biscuits style regime in the next 2 hours and 2 hours after the usual diet and the usual power (8 hours of operation clear liquid diet the day after the usual diet groups. Presence of gastrointestinal symptoms in 2, 4, 8 and 12 hours after surgery, time to the bowel sounds auscultation, passage of flatus and stool were recorded. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version13.The significance level of p-value was considered 0.05.   Conclusion: Early feeding caused the acceleration of gastrointestinal symptoms, earlier bowel sounds auscultation and earlier utilization of gas. It is recommended to investigate the different diets and examined the level of compliance and satisfaction.  

  3. Effect of Triticum turgidum subsp. turanicum wheat on irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blinded randomised dietary intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, Francesco; Whittaker, Anne; Gori, Anna Maria; Cesari, Francesca; Surrenti, Elisabetta; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco; Benedettelli, Stefano; Casini, Alessandro

    2014-06-14

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a replacement diet with organic, semi-whole-grain products derived from Triticum turgidum subsp. turanicum (ancient) wheat on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and inflammatory/biochemical parameters. A double-blinded randomised cross-over trial was performed using twenty participants (thirteen females and seven males, aged 18-59 years) classified as having moderate IBS. Participants received products (bread, pasta, biscuits and crackers) made either from ancient or modern wheat for 6 weeks in a random order. Symptoms due to IBS were evaluated using two questionnaires, which were compiled both at baseline and on a weekly basis during the intervention period. Blood analyses were carried out at the beginning and end of each respective intervention period. During the intervention period with ancient wheat products, patients experienced a significant decrease in the severity of IBS symptoms, such as abdominal pain (Pancient wheat intervention period, as measured by the intensity of pain (P= 0·001), the frequency of pain (Pancient wheat products, but not after the control period. In conclusion, significant improvements in both IBS symptoms and the inflammatory profile were reported after the ingestion of ancient wheat products.

  4. Effect of Phonotactic Constraints on Second Language Speech Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Tamami

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we examined whether phonotactic constraints of the first language affect speech processing by Japanese learners of English and whether their proficiency of the second language influences it. Native English speakers and second language speakers with a high level of language proficiency and those with a low level took part in a monitoring task. They were given two kinds of sound stimuli as target syllables (i.e., consonant-vowel and consonant-vowel-consonant) and were asked to detect them in lists of words that have stress on the first or second syllable (e.g., biscuit and beside). The results showed that both stress and phonotactics facilitated segmentation strategies by the three groups. The Japanese groups did not rely on either phonotactics or morae to segment the target syllables. They rather used stress to detect the target syllables in the English words, which is a different segmentation strategy from their first language. This study showed that phonotactic constraints did not interfere with second language processing by native Japanese speakers and provided evidence that second language speakers use the segmentation strategy that is used by native speakers of the target language.

  5. Food neophobia and mealtime food consumption in 4–5 year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardle Jane

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has documented a negative association between maternal report of child food neophobia and reported frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, and meat. This study aimed to establish whether neophobia is associated with lower intake of these food types in naturalistic mealtime situations. Methods One hundred and nine parents of 4–5 year olds completed questionnaires which included a six-item version of the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS. The children took part in a series of 3 test lunch meals at weekly intervals at school at which they were presented with: chicken, cheese, bread, cheese crackers, chocolate biscuits, grapes and tomatoes or carrot sticks. Food items served to each child were weighed before and after the meal to assess total intake of items in four categories: Fruit and vegetables, Protein foods, Starchy foods and Snack foods. Pearson Product Moment Correlations and independent t tests were performed to examine associations between scores on the CFNS and consumption during lunches. Results Neophobia was associated with lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, protein foods and total calories, but there was no association with intake of starch or snack foods. Conclusion These results support previous research that has suggested that neophobia impacts differentially on consumption of different food types. Specifically it appears that children who score highly on the CFNS eat less fruit, vegetables and protein foods than their less neophobic peers. Attempts to increase intake of fruit, vegetables and protein might usefully incorporate strategies known to reduce the neophobic response.

  6. Selfish mothers indeed! Resource-dependent conflict over extended parental care in free-ranging dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Manabi; Majumder, Sreejani Sen; Nandi, Anjan K; Bhadra, Anindita

    2015-12-01

    Parent-offspring conflict (POC) theory provides an interesting premise for understanding social dynamics in facultatively social species. In free-ranging dogs, mothers increase conflict over extended parental care with their pups beyond the weaning stage. In this study, we investigated whether resource quality affects POC in the dogs that typically live in a highly competitive environment as scavengers. We built a theoretical model to predict the alternative options available to the mother in the context of food sharing with her pups when protein-rich food (meat) is provided, as compared to carbohydrate-rich food (biscuits). We fit the mothers' response from experimental data to the model and show that the mothers choose a selfish strategy, which can in turn ensure higher lifetime reproductive success, while depriving the current litter access to better resources. These results have interesting implications for understanding the social dynamics of the dogs, and the emergence of facultative sociality in a species that evolved from strongly social ancestors. We speculate that the tendency of increased conflict in resource-rich conditions might have driven the process of domestication in the ancestors of dogs which defected from their groups in favour of richer resources around human settlements.

  7. Effects of La3+on yield and quality traits of wheat with different gluten types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧红梅; 张自立; 姚大年

    2014-01-01

    To test the roles of La3+on yield and quality of wheat for different end uses, experiments were conducted using split-plot design for different La3+treatments as main plot and different gluten types of wheat as subplot, by foliar spraying La3+at jointing stage and filling stage. The results showed that spraying 0.5-1.5 mmol/L La3+increased the yield and 1000-kernel weight of wheat of different gluten types. The protein content of strong-gluten wheat Wanmai 33 increased after spraying 0.5-1.5 mmol/L La3+, which made it achieve the good quality standard of strong-gluten wheat, whereas its LOX and PPO activity reduced, the carotenoid content increased. These La3+treatments prolonged the storage period of grain, improved flour nutritional value and the food processing qual-ity. Spraying 0.5-1.5 mmol/L La3+also increased flour peak viscosity of medium-gluten wheat Yangmai 158, as improving its starch properties. Spraying La3+ significantly decreased flour water absorption rate of weak gluten type variety Wanmai 48 to meet the weak-gluten flour standard. The total pentosan content reduced at 1-1.5 mmol/L La3+, which would be good for making biscuit. Re-sults suggested that spraying appropriate concentration of La3+increased wheat yield and benefited wheat quality for different end uses.

  8. The Untold Story of Pyrocumulonimbus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Michael; Lindsey, Daniel; Servranckx, René; Yue, Glenn; Trickl, Thomas; Sica, Robert; Doucet, Paul; Godin-Beekman, Sophie

    2010-05-01

    Wildfire is becoming the focus of increasing attention with heightened concerns related to climate change, global warming, and safety in the urban-wildland interface. One aspect of wildfire behavior has been totally overlooked until recently—the role of pyrocumulonimbus (pyroCb for short) in both firestorm dynamics and atmospheric impact. PyroCb are fire-started or -augmented thunderstorms that in their most extreme manifestation inject huge abundances of smoke and other biomass burning emissions into the lower stratosphere. The observed hemispheric spread of smoke and other biomass burning emissions could have important climate consequences. Such an extreme injection by thunderstorms was previously judged to be impossible because the extratopical tropopause is considered to be an effective lid on convection. At least two recurring themes have developed as pyroCb research unfolds. First, some "mystery layer" events—puzzling stratospheric aerosol layer observations— and layers reported as volcanic aerosol can now be explained in terms of pyroconvection as the "smoking gun." Secondly, pyroCb events occur with surprising frequency, and they are likely a relevant aspect of several historic wildfires. Here we will show that pyroCbs offer an alternative explanation for previously assumed volcanic aerosols in 1989-1991. In addition, we survey the Canada/USA fire season of 2002 and identify 17 pyroCbs, some of which are associated with newsworthy fires such as Hayman, Rodeo/Chediski, and Biscuit fires. Several of these pyroCbs injected smoke into the lowermost stratosphere.

  9. Oats in the Diet of Children with Celiac Disease: Preliminary Results of a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Italian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gatti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A gluten-free diet (GFD is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD. Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet “A”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “B”, or B-A treatment (6 months of diet “B”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “A”. A and B diets included gluten-free (GF products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score and intestinal permeability tests (IPT, were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  10. Mathematical modeling and determination of thermodynamic properties of jabuticaba peel during the drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian F. Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Jabuticaba is a fruit native of Brazil and, besides containing many nutritional qualities, it also has a good field for use in products such as flour for cakes and biscuits, juice, liqueur, jelly and others. This study aimed to model the drying kinetics and determine the thermodynamic properties of jabuticaba peel at different drying air temperatures. Ripe fruits of jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba were collected and pulped manually. Drying was carried out in a forced-air circulation oven with a flow of 5.6 m s-1 at temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. Six mathematical models commonly used to represent the drying process of agricultural products were fitted to the experimental data. The Arrhenius model was used to represent the drying constant as a function of temperature. The Midilli model showed the best fit to the experimental data of drying. The drying constant increased with the increment in drying temperature and promoted an activation energy of 37.29 kJ mol-1. Enthalpy and Gibbs free energy decreased with the increase in drying temperature, while entropy decreased and was negative.

  11. Estimated exposure to zearalenone, ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 through the consume of bakery products and pasta considering effects of food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Emilli Keller; Araujo, Letícia; Veras, Flávio Fonseca; Welke, Juliane Elisa

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate the processing effect on mycotoxins levels and the exposure to zearalenone (ZEA), ochratoxin (OTA) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) through the consumption of pasta and bakery products. The higher reduction percentage of mycotoxins was observed in cake production (95, 90 and 70% for ZEA, OTA and AFB1, respectively). Bread and biscuit showed similar reduction in mycotoxins levels (89 and 90% for ZEA; 80 and 85% for OTA; 36 and 40% for AFB1, respectively). The lower reduction in the levels of mycotoxins has been observed for pasta (75, 65 and 10% for ZEA, OTA and AFB1, respectively). The consumption of these products could represent 12.6% of the maximum tolerable daily intake of ZEA and 30.5% of the tolerable weekly intake of OTA. The margin of exposure value related to the exposure to AFB1 was 24.6. The exposure to ZEA and OTA through the consumption of bakery products and pasta would not represent risk for consumer health, (although conjugated forms were not determined). However, the exposure to AFB1 represents a risk (even without considering the AFB1-conjugated forms).

  12. Radiocarbon dating of silica sinter deposits in shallow drill cores from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Hurwitz, Shaul; McGeehin, John

    2016-01-01

    To explore the timing of hydrothermal activity at the Upper Geyser Basin (UGB) in Yellowstone National Park, we obtained seven new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon 14C ages of carbonaceous material trapped within siliceous sinter. Five samples came from depths of 15–152 cm within the Y-1 well, and two samples were from well Y-7 (depths of 24 cm and 122 cm). These two wells, at Black Sand and Biscuit Basins, respectively, were drilled in 1967 as part of a scientific drilling program by the U.S. Geological Survey (White et al., 1975). Even with samples as small as 15 g, we obtained sufficient carbonaceous material (a mixture of thermophilic mats, pollen, and charcoal) for the 14C analyses. Apparent time of deposition ranged from 3775 ± 25 and 2910 ± 30 14C years BP at the top of the cores to about 8000 years BP at the bottom. The dates are consistent with variable rates of sinter formation at individual sites within the UGB over the Holocene. On a basin-wide scale, though, these and other existing 14C dates hint that hydrothermal activity at the UGB may have been continuous throughout the Holocene.

  13. A radioimmunoassay for alpha- and beta-gliadins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciclitira, P J; Lennox, E S

    1983-06-01

    1. A rapid, sensitive specific radioimmunoassay for alpha- and beta-gliadin has been developed using an antiserum raised in rabbits to A-gliadin, a component of alpha-gliadin. 2. The antigen used in the assay was alpha-gliadin labelled with 125I; antigen-antibody complexes were collected after adsorption to Staphylococcus aureus in suspension. 3. The sensitivity of the assay, as judged by competitive binding with unlabelled antigen, was 1 ng of alpha- or beta-gliadin, which show complete cross-reaction with this antiserum. 4. Cross-reactivity to other wheat proteins was less than 1% and no cross-reactivity to extracts of rye, barley or oats was observed. 5. This radioimmunoassay for alpha- and beta-gliadin has been used to measure their amount in different varieties of wheat flour, several foods prepared from flour, e.g. bread, biscuits and products prepared as 'gluten free'. The possibility of assaying for alpha-gliadin in prepared foods is of special value since alpha-, beta-, gamma- and omega-gliadin have been shown to exacerbate coeliac disease.

  14. Association of Overweight with Food Portion Size among Adults of São Paulo – Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Aline; Crispim, Sandra Patricia; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies show that portion size affects energy intake, few have demonstrated a link between portion size and weight status, especially in free-living populations. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between food portion sizes and overweight in a representative population of adults of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional population-based study with 1005 adults from São Paulo, Brazil. Dietary data were obtained from two 24-hour recalls. Reported foods were classified into groups and energy contribution, prevalence of consumers and portion sizes were calculated. Individuals were classified according to BMI in with and without overweight. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between food portion sizes and being overweight. Results The most consumed food groups were: beans, breads/rolls, coffee/tea, milk, rice, and sugar. Rice, red meat, breads/rolls, and white meat were the groups with the highest percentage of contribution to total energy intake. Butter/margarine, toasts/biscuits, sugar, and cakes were the groups with the highest energy density. After adjustment for confounding variables, overweight was associated with larger portions of pizza (OR = 1.052; p = 0.048), red meat (OR = 1.025; p = 0.043), rice (OR = 1.033; prelated to the consumption of larger portion sizes of a series of food groups, not a food group alone. Additionally, we highlight the importance of considering underreporting as a confounding factor in these associations. PMID:27706222

  15. Food Matrix Effects of Polyphenol Bioaccessibility from Almond Skin during Simulated Human Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Mandalari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to quantify the rate and extent of polyphenols released in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT from natural (NS and blanched (BS almond skins. A dynamic gastric model of digestion which provides a realistic simulation of the human stomach was used. In order to establish the effect of a food matrix on polyphenols bioaccessibility, NS and BS were either digested in water (WT or incorporated into home-made biscuits (HB, crisp-bread (CB and full-fat milk (FM. Phenolic acids were the most bioaccessible class (68.5% release from NS and 64.7% from BS. WT increased the release of flavan-3-ols (p < 0.05 and flavonols (p < 0.05 from NS after gastric plus duodenal digestion, whereas CB and HB were better vehicles for BS. FM lowered the % recovery of polyphenols, the free total phenols and the antioxidant status in the digestion medium, indicating that phenolic compounds could bind protein present in the food matrix. The release of bioactives from almond skins could explain the beneficial effects associated with almond consumption.

  16. Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K

    2016-07-26

    Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed.

  17. Acrylamide in Caribbean foods - residual levels and their relation to reducing sugar and asparagine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Grace-Anne; Maragh, Paul; Dasgupta, Tara

    2012-07-15

    The acrylamide levels in commercial and homemade Caribbean foods were determined by pre-derivatisation of acrylamide to 2-bromopropenamide and analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric (GC/MS) detection. Over 100 Caribbean food samples were analysed for the presence of acrylamide. These samples include: biscuits, breakfast cereals, banana chips and home-prepared foods: breadfruit; Artocarpus altilis, banana fritters, and dumplings. The limit of detection (LOD) for the GC/MS method was found to be dependent on the type of column used for the GC/MS analysis. The DB-1701 and the DB-VRX columns gave LODs of 20 and 4 μg/kg, respectively. Acrylamide has not been found in raw foods or foods which have been cooked by boiling. Its content in all other foods had concentrations in the range, 65-3,640 μg/kg. The relationship between acrylamide levels and precursor concentration as well as the health implications of our findings are discussed.

  18. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querner, Pascal

    2015-06-16

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them.

  19. Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Large Population of Women Living in Spain: Implications for Preventative Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Ramos-Leví

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to establish a risk appraisal model for GDM by identifying modifiable factors that can help predict the risk of GDM in a large population of 2194 women living in Spain. They were recruited between 2009-2010 when screening for GDM was performed. Participants completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic, anthropomorphic and behavioral characteristics, and reproductive and medical history. A total of 213 (9.7% women were diagnosed as having GDM. Age, pregestational body weight (BW and body mass index (BMI, and number of events of medical, obstetric and family history were significantly associated with GDM. After logistic regression model, biscuits and pastries intake 30 minutes/day, and 30 minutes/day of sports at least 2 days/week, compared with opposite consumption, was associated with less GDM risk. Our study identified several pregestational modifiable lifestyle risk factors associated with an increase in the risk of developing GDM. This may represent a promising approach for the prevention of GDM and subsequent complications. Further intervention studies are needed to evaluate if this appraisal model of risk calculation can be useful for prevention and treatment of GDM.

  20. Tempeh flour as a substitute for soybean flour in coconut cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare roasted and lyophilized tempeh flour with soybean cultivar BRS 267 to apply them in the formulation of coconut biscuits. The cookies produced with whole soy flour and mixed flour of soybean and tempeh were evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid profile, and isoflavone aglycones in order to verify the effects of inoculation with the fungus Rhizopus oligosporus and those of the drying processes of roasting and lyophilization on the chemical characteristics of the final product. Sensory acceptance and purchase intention of the formulated products were also evaluated. The results indicate the maintenance of linolenic acid, which is important in the prevention of coronary diseases, and an increase in the aglycones levels when the tempeh flour was used. Lipids and proteins showed differences, and the sensory analyses demonstrated similarity between the cookies with satisfactory scores for aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability for both samples. when compared to the control. Purchase intent was also positive for the lyophilized and toasted tempeh flours, thus enabling the use of the roasting process as a simple drying method, for processing tempeh and obtaining a flour rich in proteins and aglycones that can be used as a partial substitute for soy flour in cookies and other bakery products.

  1. [Global trends in food consumption and nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe-Ottesen, G

    2000-01-10

    Obesity and lifestyle diseases increase all over the world, especially in developing countries. One reason is the change in diet. This nutrition transition is characterised by improvement in dietary variation, but also by increase in the content of fat and sugar. The transition seems to start at a lower level of income, compared to what occurred in the Western countries after the Second World War. The reason is that many foods are relatively cheaper, especially fat and sugar. The world market is presently flooded with cheap vegetable fat. Urbanisation leads to over-consumption by increasing market access to fatty and sugary foods, including fast foods. Globalization increases the consumption of sweet soda pops, biscuits and snacks produced by multinational companies. Western supermarkets and fast food franchises also promote these dietary changes (McDonaldization). It has been proposed that the population in developing countries is more vulnerable towards these dietary changes in regard to obesity and chronic diseases, due to undernutrition in early life (the Barker hypothesis). We may therefore expect an unprecedented increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases, especially diabetes type 2 in the developing countries. One may question if this increase will be a transient phenomenon, or if we can expect the same pattern as we have seen in the West, namely that the poor become the fat-test segment of the population, with the highest prevalence of chronic diseases.

  2. Bi-radiant oven: a low-energy oven system. Volume I. Development and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWitt, D.P.; Peart, M.V.

    1980-04-01

    The Bi-Radiant Oven system has three important features which provide improved performance. First, the cavity walls are highly reflective rather than absorptive thereby allowing these surfaces to operate at cooler temperatures. Second, the heating elements, similar in construction to those in a conventional oven, but operating at much lower temperatures, provide a prescribed, balanced radiant flux to the top and bottom surfaces of the food product. And third, the baking and roasting utensil has a highly absorptive finish. Instrumentation and methods of measurements have been developed for obtaining the important oven and food parameters during baking: wall, oven air, food and element temperatures; food mass loss rate; irradiance distribution; and convection heat flux. Observations on an experimental oven are presented and discussed. Thermal models relating the irradiance distribution to oven parameters have been compared with measurements using a new heat flux gage developed for the project. Using the DOE recommended test procedures, oven efficiencies of 20 to 23% have been measured. The heating requirements have been determined for seven food types: biscuits, meat loaf, baked foods, apple crisp, cornbread, macaroni and cheese casserole, and cheese souffle. Comparison of energy use with a conventional electric oven shows that energy savings greater than 50% can be realized. Detailed energy balances have been performed on two foods - beef roasts and yellow cake. Consideration of consumer acceptability of this new oven concept have been addressed.

  3. EXPANDING THE RANGE OF GLUTEN-FREE FLOUR CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS BASED ON BUCKWHEAT AND QUINOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchekoldina T. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Expanding the range of flour confectionery products for people suffering from intolerance to wheat protein is relevant in the circumstances of import substitution. The domestic market of gluten-free confectionery products fully meets the demand of this category of people, which are dominated by sweet tooth children, requiring constant variety of confectionery. Therefore, the purpose of the work, which consists in expanding the range of pastry products based on buckwheat and quinoa, is relevant. The study presents a shortbread recipe based on buckwheat flour with different dosages of quinoa, a block diagram of the production and evaluation of the quality of the finished confectionery. Sensory evaluation of quality was carried out by a tasting analysis by a special system of scores: quantified indicators of quality - color, taste, smell, surface, shape and form in a break - is presented in the form of balls, followed by mathematical processing. We have defined physical and chemical indicators of quality biscuits, including moisture, alkalinity, absorption, fat and sugar content. Based on the assessment of quality of gluten-free shortbread we have set the optimal ratio of buckwheat flour and quinoa is equal to 70:30. The developed formulation will expand the range of gluten-free flour confectionery and can be adapted to the process and the equipment installed on the existing confectionery businesses

  4. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of whole wheat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-Y Oliver; Kamil, Alison; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2015-02-01

    Whole wheat contains an array of phytochemicals. We quantified alkylresorcinols (AR), phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols in six whole wheat products and characterized their antioxidant capacity and ability to induce quinone reductase activity (QR). Total AR content ranged from 136.8 to 233.9 µg/g and was correlated with whole wheat content (r = 0.9248; p = 0.0083). Ferulic acid (FerA) was the dominant phenolic at 99.9-316.0 µg/g and mostly bound tightly to the wheat matrix. AR-C21 and total FerA predicted the whole wheat content in each product (R(2 )= 0.9933). Total phytosterol content ranged from 562.6 to 1035.5 µg/g. Total tocol content ranged from 19.3 to 292.7 µg/g. Phytosterol and tocol contents were independent of whole wheat content. Whole wheat biscuits and pasta were the most potent products to induce QR in Hepa1c1c7 cells. This study provides a platform to characterize the relationship between the phytochemical composition of whole wheat and products formulated with this whole grain.

  5. Determination of tangential and normal components of oral forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevam Barbosa de Las Casas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral forces applied to human teeth during biting and mastication are normally described in the literature only in terms of their axial components. The purpose of this study was to fully determine the spatial characteristics of the oral resultant force - its normal and tangential components - for a given individual. A load cell was especially manufactured to measure oral force and was temporarily implanted as a prosthetic device in the dental arch of a volunteer, replacing his missing upper first molar. The mastication and occlusion tests were carried out in such a way the cell should withstand the loads applied to the molar, and its state of strain was recorded by strain gauges attached to it. Based on the results of these tests and using balance equations, normal and tangential components of the resultant oral force were determined. For direct occlusion, without interposition any obstacle between cusps, a peak normal force of 135 N was recorded simultaneously to a tangential force of 44 N. For mastication of biscuits, a peak normal force of 133 N and a tangential force of 39 N were obtained.

  6. The Kinetics of Urinary Fumonisin B1 Excretion in Humans Consuming Maize-Based Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Ronald T.; Torres, Olga; Showker, Jency L.; Zitomer, Nicholas C.; Matute, Jorge; Voss, Kenneth A.; Gelineau-van Waes, Janee; Maddox, Joyce R.; Gregory, Simon G.; Ashley-Koch, Allison E.

    2013-01-01

    Fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins found in maize. The purpose of this study was to 1) determine the relationship between FB1, FB2 and FB3 intake and urinary excretion in humans, 2) validate a method to isolate urinary FB on C18-SPE cartridges for international shipment, and 3) test the method using samples from Guatemala. Volunteers (n=10) consumed 206 grams/day of tortillas and biscuits prepared from masa flour and a product containing maize flour. Volunteers estimated their daily urine output and samples were analyzed for FB1, FB2 and FB3 and hydrolyzed FB1. Only FB1 was detected in urine suggesting lower absorption of FB2 and FB3. Excretion was highly variable peaking soon after consumption began and decreasing rapidly after consumption stopped. Within five days after consumption ended FB1 was not detected in urine. In a study with eight volunteers, the average total urinary FB1 was 0.5% of the intake. FB1 was detected in 61% (107/177) of the samples collected in Guatemala. The results support the use of urinary FB1 to assess ongoing exposure in population based studies. However, relating the FB1 concentration in urine to dietary intake of FB by individual subjects will be complicated due to inter-individual variability and the rapidity of clearance. PMID:22815244

  7. Consumer brand choice: individual and group analyses of demand elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Foxall, Gordon R; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2006-03-01

    Following the behavior-analytic tradition of analyzing individual behavior, the present research investigated demand elasticity of individual consumers purchasing supermarket products, and compared individual and group analyses of elasticity. Panel data from 80 UK consumers purchasing 9 product categories (i.e., baked beans, biscuits, breakfast cereals, butter, cheese, fruit juice, instant coffee, margarine and tea) during a 16-week period were used. Elasticity coefficients were calculated for individual consumers with data from all or only 1 product category (intra-consumer elasticities), and for each product category using all data points from all consumers (overall product elasticity) or 1 average data point per consumer (interconsumer elasticity). In addition to this, split-sample elasticity coefficients were obtained for each individual with data from all product categories purchased during weeks 1 to 8 and 9 to 16. The results suggest that: 1) demand elasticity coefficients calculated for individual consumers purchasing supermarket food products are compatible with predictions from economic theory and behavioral economics; 2) overall product elasticities, typically employed in marketing and econometric research, include effects of interconsumer and intraconsumer elasticities; 3) when comparing demand elasticities of different product categories, group and individual analyses yield similar trends; and 4) individual differences in demand elasticity are relatively consistent across time, but do not seem to be consistent across products. These results demonstrate the theoretical, methodological, and managerial relevance of investigating the behavior of individual consumers.

  8. 2011年-2013年泰安市婴幼儿食品食源性致病菌污染状况调查%Investigation on contamination of food borne pathogens in infants foods of Tai'an from 2011 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金华; 张新峰; 陆娟娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the contamination of food borne pathogens from infants foods in Tai'an,so as to provide some scientific basis for early warning ofinfants food borne disease and control of food safety management.Methods According to GB4789-2010 and GB/T4789-2003 standard method,we performed iaolatioin,biochemical identification and serological identification of Bacillus cereus,Enterobacter sakazakii,Staphylococcus aureus,in four kinds of infants foods samples,including milk powder,ground rice,nutrient biscuit and flour products.Results We had checked up 220 samples from 2011 to 2013,as a result,there were 34 pathogenic bacteria to be found,(total detection rate was 15.5 %,34/220),involved 27 Bacillus cereus (with detection rate 12.3%,27/220),5 Enterobacter sakazakii (with detection rate 2.3%,5/220),2 Staphylococcus aureus(with detection rate 0.9%,2/220).There was significant difference of the contamination rates in 3 pathogenic bac.teria(x2 =34.668,P <0.001).The contamination rate detected in milk powder was 22.9% (16/70),ground rice 14.3% (8/56),nutrient biscuit 10.5% (6/57),flour products 10.8% (4/37).Conclusion Food borne pathogens contamination existed in infants food in Tai'an,and milk powder is the main contamination food,while the main pathogenic is bacteria Bacillus cereus.%目的 了解泰安市要幼儿食品食源性致病菌污染状况,为要幼儿食源性疾病预警及食品安全管理提供科学依据.方法 依据GB4789-2010及GB/T4789-2003检测程序对婴幼儿食品(包括奶粉、米粉、营养饼干、面制品4类)进行腊样芽孢杆菌、阪崎肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌的分离培养及鉴定.结果 2011年-2013年220份样品中共检出致病菌34株,总检出率为15.5% (34/220).其中腊样芽孢杆菌检出27株,检出率为12.3% (27/220);阪崎肠杆菌检出5株,检出率为2.3% (5/220);金黄色葡萄球菌检出2株,检出率为0.9% (2/220),不同致病菌检出

  9. Determination of the trans-fatty acids in hydrogenated fat processed foods by gas chromatography%气相色谱法测定氢化油脂加工食品中反式脂肪酸含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宏; 徐慧; 贾涛; 郭芳芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立气相色谱法测定氢化油脂加工食品中反式脂肪酸含量的分析方法。方法采用 HP-88毛细管石英柱(30 m×0.25 mm×0.20μm)分离定性和定量43种饱和脂肪酸、不饱和脂肪酸,并应用于市售饼干、糕点、冰淇淋、奶茶、巧克力、咖啡等加工食品中的反式脂肪酸含量测定。结果顺、反式脂肪酸在30 m长的毛细管石英柱分离情况良好,各反式脂肪酸在3~100µg/mL浓度范围内TFA线性良好(R≥0.9990),重现性好(RSD<6%),回收率85.3%~91.8%,检测限为0.01 g/100 g;其分离速度较100 m长的毛细管石英柱提高了1倍;奶油蛋糕、炼奶起士、饼干类含有的反式脂肪酸含量较高,且以反式棕榈油酸(t-C16:1)、反式油酸(t-C18:1)为主。结论该方法快速、准确、分离良好,可作为检测氢化油脂加工食品中反式脂肪酸含量的推广方法。%Objective To develop a method for the determination of trans-fatty acids in processed food by hydrogenated oil using gas chromatography(GC). Methods 43 kinds of fatty acids were separated qualitatively and quantitatively by HP-88 qualified column(30 m×0.25 mm×0.20μm), and the method was used to detect trans-fatty acid concentration of biscuits, cakes, ice cream, milk tea, coffee and other processed foods. Results The trans-and cis-fatty acids were separated. It had a good linearity at concentrations of 3~100 µg/mL, the RSD was within 6.0%, the recovery was 85.3%~91.8%, and the limit of detection was 0.01 g/100 g. The separation rate was doubled than that of 100 m long quartz capillary column. The results showed thatt-C16:1 and t-C18:1 trans-fatty acids were detected mainly in cream cakes, biscuits, and refined milk cheese classes. Conclusion The method is rapid, simple, and sensitive, and has been successfully applied in determination of trans-fatty acids in processed food by hydrogenated oil.

  10. High resolution TaqMan real-time PCR approach to detect hazelnut DNA encoding for ITS rDNA in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calleja, Inés María; de la Cruz, Silvia; Pegels, Nicolette; González, Isabel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2013-12-01

    A broad range of foods have been described as causing allergies, but the majority of allergic reactions can be ascribed to a limited number of food components. Recent extensive surveys showed how tree nuts, particularly hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) seeds, rank amongst the most important sources of food allergy. In order to protect the allergic consumer, efficient and reliable methods are required for the detection of allergenic ingredients. For this purpose, we have developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of hazelnut in commercial food products. In this way a specific hazelnut primer pair based on the ITS marker (70 bp) and a nuclease (TaqMan) probe labelled with FAM and BHQ were designed. Sensibility of real-time PCR was determined by analysis of raw and heat treated hazelnut-wheat flour mixtures with a range of detection of 0.1-100,000 ppm. Practical applicability of the real-time PCR assay developed for determining hazelnut in different food matrices was investigated by analyzing 179 commercial foodstuffs comprising snacks, biscuits, chocolates, bonbons, creams, nut bars, ice creams, precooked meals, breads, beverages, yogurts, cereals, meat products, rice cake and nougat. From the total of samples analyzed, 40 commercial food products that didn't declare hazelnut nor traces on the label were found to contain hazelnut. The real-time PCR method proposed herein due to its high sensitivity facilitates the detection of hazelnut traces in commercial food products and can also be useful for monitoring the effectiveness of cleaning processes and as consequence, can help to prevent the food allergic consumer from unintentional ingestion of hidden allergens.

  11. PENGARUH PENGERINGAN DENGAN FAR INFRARED DRYER, OVEN VAKUM DAN FREEZE DRYER TERHADAP WARNA, KADAR TOTAL KAROTEN, BETA KAROTEN DAN VITAMIN C PADA DAUM BAYAM (Amaranthus Tricolor L. [Effect of Drying with Far Infrared Dryer, Oven Vacuum, and Freeze Dryer on the Color, Total Carotene, Beta-Carotene, and Vitamin C of Spinach Leaves (Amaranthus Tricolor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Thahir2

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Spinach is a well known vegetable as a source of nutrition especially for is carotene. Soinach leaves need to be dried for application in product development of food like biscuit, extruded products and analysis. One the drying method that became popular is drying using infrared wave. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of blanching and drying (far infrared dryer, oven vacuum, and freeze dryer on the color, total carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamin C of spinach leaves. Blanching and drying of increased brightness, a value, and b value. The a value is shows spinach brightness in mix red-green color while b value shows mix blue-yellow. Total carotene of fresh spinach decreased by 10.47% after blanching. Drying with vacuum decreased the total carotene by 39.31% (with blanching and 31.66 (with blanching. Drying with freeze dryer decreased the beta carotene by 4.99% (with blanching and 18.60% (with blanching. Drying with FIR dryer decreased spinach total carotene by 34.90% (with blanching and 24.86% (with blanching. The beta-carotene of fresh spinach with balancing treatment decreased of by 16.53%.drying oven vacuum decreased the beta carotene by 42.80% (wiyh blanching and 18.91% (with blanching. Drying with freeze dyer decreased the beta carotene by 29.03% (with blanching the beta carotene. The decreased of beta-carotene is bigger than total carotene. Vitamin C of fresh spinach decreased by 20.35% after blanching. Drying with oven vacuum decreased of 55.77% (without blanching and 65.42% (with blanching f the vitamin C. drying with freeze dryer decreased the vitamin C by 13.21% (without blanching and 30.67% (with blanching. Meanwhile, the vitamin C of spinach after drying with FIR dyer decreased of 60.53% (without blanching and 70.29% (with blanching.

  12. Determination of melamine in milk-based products and other food and beverage products by ion-pair liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, Maria; Sancho, Juan V. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, E-12071, Castellon (Spain); Hernandez, Felix, E-mail: felix.hernandez@qfa.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, E-12071, Castellon (Spain)

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes a fast method for the sensitive and selective determination of melamine in a wide range of food matrices, including several milk-based products. The method involves an extraction with aqueous 1% trichloroacetic acid before the injection of the 10-fold diluted extract into the liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) system, using labelled melamine as the internal standard. As melamine is present in aqueous media in the cationic form, the chromatographic separation in reversed-phase LC requires the use of anionic ion-pair reagents, such as tridecafluoroheptanoic acid (THFA). This allows a satisfactory chromatographic retention and peak shape in all the types of food samples investigated. The method has been validated in six food matrices (biscuit, dry pasta and four milk-based products) by means of recovery experiments in samples spiked at 1 and 5 mg kg{sup -1}. Average recoveries (n = 5) ranged from 77% to 100%, with excellent precision (RSDs lower than 5%) and limits of detection between 0.01 and 0.1 mg kg{sup -1}. In addition, accuracy and robustness of the method was proven in different soya-based matrices by means of quality control (QC) sample analysis. QC recoveries, at 1 and 2.5 mg kg{sup -1}, were satisfactory, ranging from 79% to 110%. The method developed in this work has been applied to the determination of melamine in different types of food samples. All detections were confirmed by acquiring two MS/MS transitions (127 > 85 for quantification; 127 > 68 for confirmation) and comparing their ion intensity ratio with that of reference standards. Accuracy of the method was also assessed by applying it to a milk-based product and a baking mix material as part of an EU proficiency test, in which highly satisfactory results were obtained.

  13. Development of food-based complementary feeding recommendations for 9- to 11-month-old peri-urban Indonesian infants using linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santika, Otte; Fahmida, Umi; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2009-01-01

    Effective population-specific, food-based complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) are required to combat micronutrient deficiencies. To facilitate their formulation, a modeling approach was recently developed. However, it has not yet been used in practice. This study therefore aimed to use this approach to develop CFR for 9- to 11-mo-old Indonesian infants and to identify nutrients that will likely remain low in their diets. The CFR were developed using a 4-phase approach based on linear and goal programming. Model parameters were defined using dietary data collected in a cross-sectional survey of 9- to 11-mo-old infants (n = 100) living in the Bogor District, West-Java, Indonesia and a market survey of 3 local markets. Results showed theoretical iron requirements could not be achieved using local food sources (highest level achievable, 63% of recommendations) and adequate levels of iron, niacin, zinc, and calcium were difficult to achieve. Fortified foods, meatballs, chicken liver, eggs, tempe-tofu, banana, and spinach were the best local food sources to improve dietary quality. The final CFR were: breast-feed on demand, provide 3 meals/d, of which 1 is a fortified infant cereal; > or = 5 servings/wk of tempe/tofu; > or = 3 servings/wk of animal-source foods, of which 2 servings/wk are chicken liver; vegetables, daily; snacks, 2 times/d, including > or = 2 servings/wk of banana; and > or = 4 servings/wk of fortified-biscuits. Results showed that the approach can be used to objectively formulate population-specific CFR and identify key problem nutrients to strengthen nutrition program planning and policy decisions. Before recommending these CFR, their long-term acceptability, affordability, and effectiveness should be assessed.

  14. Application of fats in some food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vallerio Rios

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major

  15. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Geraldine Huini; Toh, Jia Ying; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Chia, Ai-Ru; Han, Wee Meng; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Kramer, Michael S.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup) and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all). Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life. PMID:27314387

  16. Nutritional Aspects of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undine E. Lang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics, which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  17. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Abboud; Brennan, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical), and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%–95.0%), 1000-kernel weight (35.2–46.9 g) and the test weight (82.2–88.0 kg/hL). All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours). A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **), as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *). Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **), extensibility (r = 0.8 **), and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = −0.69 **). Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **). Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  18. Easy to open? Exploring the 'openability' of hospital food and beverage packaging by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alison F; Walton, Karen L; Tapsell, Linda C

    2016-03-01

    Food is increasingly a packaged commodity, both in the community and in institutionalised settings such as hospitals, where many older people are malnourished. Previous research with patients aged over 65 years in NSW public hospitals identified difficulties opening milk, water, juices, cereal and tetra packs. The aim of this paper was to assess the ability of well older people living in the community to open food and beverage items routinely used in NSW hospitals in order to gain further insights into the older person/pack interaction and the role of hand and finger strength in pack opening. A sample of 40 older people in good health aged over 65 years from 3 community settings participated in the study. The attempts at pack opening were observed, the time taken to open the pack was measured and the correlation between grip and pinch strengths with opening times was determined. Tetra packs, water bottles, cereal, fruit cups, desserts, biscuits and cheese portions appeared to be the most difficult food products to open. Ten percent of the sample could not open the water bottles and 39% could not open cheese portions. The results were consistent with the previous research involving hospitalised older adults, adding emphasis to the conclusion that food and beverage packaging can be a potential barrier to adequate nutrition when particular types of packaged products are used in hospitals or the community. The ageing population is rapidly becoming a larger and more important group to consider in the provision of goods and services. Designers, manufacturers and providers of food and beverage products need to consider the needs and abilities of these older consumers to ensure good 'openability' and promote adequate nutritional intakes.

  19. 难消化淀粉的功能及其食品中的应用%Study on Function and Application of Indigestible Starch Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧仕益; 傅亮; 黄才欢; 朱新贵

    2001-01-01

    Enzyme - resistant starch (RS) refers to starch that is indigestible in small intestine and is fermented in colon by micro biota. Compared with non - starchpolysaccharides, RS has had higher fermentation rate (almostcompletely fermented) and produced more butyric acid when fermented in colon. RSintake could lower postprandial serum glucose and HDL cholesterol, protect against colon cancer and colitis, and promote the growth of probiotics. Its physiscal properties were found similar to those of common starch and the addition of RS would not change the color and texture of foods. Today, many kinds of RS - fortified foods have been prepared for consumers such as bread, buns, breakfast cereals, extruded foods, snacks, pasta, biscuits, yoghurt, ice cream, confectionary and beverages etc.%难消化淀粉是指难以被小肠吸收消化的淀粉,它能被结肠微生物发酵产生许多独特的生理作用;如抑制膳后血糖升高、防治肠胃疾病、降低血清胆固醇含量、促进益生菌的繁殖等。与膳食纤维相比,其发酵率更高,产生的丁酸更多。难消化淀粉的物性与普通淀粉相似,添加到食品后不会改变食品的颜色和质地。在国外,难消化淀粉已应用到许多食品中。

  20. Lupinus mutabilis: Composition, Uses, Toxicology, and Debittering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Larenas, F E; Linnemann, A R; Nout, M J R; Koziol, M; van Boekel, M A J S

    2016-07-03

    Lupinus mutabilis has protein (32.0-52.6 g/100 g dry weight) and lipid (13.0-24.6 g/100 g dry weight) contents similar to soya bean (Glycine max). The Ω3, Ω6, and Ω9 contents are 1.9-3.0, 26.5-39.6, and 41.2-56.2 g/100 g lipid, respectively. Lupins can be used to fortify the protein content of pasta, bread, biscuits, salads, hamburgers, sausages, and can substitute milk and soya bean. Specific lupin protein concentrates or isolates display protein solubility (>90%), water-absorption capacity (4.5 g/g dry weight), oil-absorption capacity (3.98 g/g), emulsifying capacity (2000 mL of oil/g), emulsifying stability (100%, 60 hours), foaming capacity (2083%), foaming stability (78.8%, 36 hours), and least gelation concentration (6%), which are of industrial interest. Lupins contain bitter alkaloids. Preliminary studies on their toxicity suggest as lethal acute dose for infants and children 10 mg/kg bw and for adults 25 mg/kg bw. However, alkaloids can also have medical use for their hypocholesterolemic, antiarrhythmic, and immunosuppressive activity. Bitter lupins can be detoxified by biological, chemical, or aqueous processes. The shortest debittering process requires one hour. This review presents the nutritional composition of lupins, their uses (as food, medicine, and functional protein isolates), toxicology, and debittering process scenarios. It critically evaluates the data, infers conclusions, and makes suggestions for future research.

  1. Ajustamentos nas agroindústrias de biscoitos e massas alimentícias no Brasil, 1995 a 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Ferreira Júnior

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os ajustamentos ocorridos nos segmentos de biscoitos e massas alimentícias no Brasil, no período de 1995 a 2001, utilizando-se o modelo Estrutura-Conduta-Desempenho, da teoria da Organização Industrial. Os resultados mostram que o novo ambiente competitivo, deflagrado pela desregulamentação setorial e pela abertura comercial, permitiu a intensificação da concorrência e restringiu o poder de mercado das maiores empresas. Os dois segmentos foram obrigados a seguir o processo de adequação às exigências do consumidor, como a melhoria da qualidade, o aumento da variedade e a redução nos preços dos produtos. Todo esse processo foi liderado pelas maiores empresas, que realizaram investimentos em tecnologia e em capacidade produtiva e aumentaram, gradualmente, suas participações no mercado. O resultado desses ajustamentos traduziu-se, portanto, em melhor desempenho econômico e em maior benefício para a sociedade.The present work aimed to evaluate the adjustments occurred in the food sector of biscuit and pastry in Brazil, from 1995 to 2001, using the Structure-Conduct-Performance model of the Industrial Organization theory. The results demonstrated that the new competitive environment, started by the non-regulation in the sector and by the commercial openness, allowed tougher competition and restrained the market power of the major industries. Both segments had to adjust themselves to the demands of the consumer in the market by improving the quality of their products, furnishing a wider variety and reducing their costs. The whole process was led by the major industries, which invested in technology and productive capacity and, continually, increased their participation in the market. Therefore, as a result of these adjustments, there has been an improvement in the economic performance and a greater benefit for society.

  2. The importance of taste on dietary choice, behaviour and intake in a group of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourouniotis, S; Keast, R S J; Riddell, L J; Lacy, K; Thorpe, M G; Cicerale, S

    2016-08-01

    The 'taste of food' plays an important role in food choice. Furthermore, foods high in fat, sugar and salt are highly palatable and associated with increased food consumption. Research exploring taste importance on dietary choice, behaviour and intake is limited, particularly in young adults. Therefore, in this study a total of 1306 Australian university students completed questionnaires assessing dietary behaviors (such as how important taste was on food choice) and frequency of food consumption over the prior month. Diet quality was also assessed using a dietary guideline index. Participants had a mean age of 20 ± 5 years, Body Mass Index (BMI) of 22 ± 3 kg/m(2), 79% were female and 84% Australian. Taste was rated as being a very or extremely important factor for food choice by 82% of participants. Participants who rated taste as highly important, had a poorer diet quality (p = 0.001) and were more likely to consume less fruit (p = 0.03) and vegetables (p = 0.05). Furthermore, they were significantly more likely to consume foods high in fat, sugar and salt, including chocolate and confectionary, cakes and puddings, sweet pastries, biscuits, meat pies, pizza, hot chips, potato chips, takeaway meals, soft drink, cordial and fruit juice (p = 0.001-0.02). They were also more likely to consider avoiding adding salt to cooking (p = 0.02) and adding sugar to tea or coffee (p = 0.01) as less important for health. These findings suggest that the importance individuals place on taste plays an important role in influencing food choice, dietary behaviors and intake.

  3. The HEALTHGRAIN definition of ‘whole grain’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Willem van der Kamp

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most cereal products, like white bread, pasta, and biscuits, are based on flour after removal of bran and germ, the two parts of grain kernels containing most of the dietary fibre and other bioactive components. In the past decade, consumers have been rediscovering whole grain-based products and the number of wholegrain products has increased rapidly. In most countries in Europe and worldwide, however, no legally endorsed definition of wholegrain flour and products exists. Current definitions are often incomplete, lacking descriptions of the included grains and the permitted flour manufacturing processes. The consortium of the HEALTHGRAIN EU project (FP6-514008, 2005–2010 identified the need for developing a definition of whole grain with the following scope: 1 more comprehensive than current definitions in most EU countries; 2 one definition for Europe – when possible equal to definitions outside Europe; 3 reflecting current industrial practices for production of flours and consumer products; 4 useful in the context of nutritional guidelines and for labelling purposes. The definition was developed in a range of discussion meetings and consultations and was launched in 2010 at the end of the HEALTHGRAIN project. The grains included are specified: a wide range of cereal grains from the Poaceae family, and the pseudo-cereals amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, and wild rice. The definition also describes manufacturing processes allowed for producing wholegrain flours. This paper compares the HEALTHGRAIN definition with previous definitions, provides more comprehensive explanations than in the definition itself regarding the inclusion of specific grains, and sets out the permitted flour manufacturing processes.

  4. Origin and evolutionary plasticity of the gastric caecum in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolet Gauthier

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The digestive tract of many metazoan invertebrates is characterized by the presence of caeca or diverticula that serve secretory and/or absorptive functions. With the development of various feeding habits, distinctive digestive organs may be present in certain taxa. This also holds true for sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea, in which a highly specialized gastric caecum can be found in members of a derived subgroup, the Irregularia (cake urchins, sea biscuits, sand dollars, heart urchins, and related forms. As such a specialized caecum has not been reported from "regular" sea urchin taxa, the aim of this study was to elucidate its evolutionary origin. Results Using morphological data derived from dissection, magnetic resonance imaging, and extensive literature studies, we compare the digestive tract of 168 echinoid species belonging to 51 extant families. Based on a number of characters such as topography, general morphology, mesenterial suspension, and integration into the haemal system, we homologize the gastric caecum with the more or less pronounced dilation of the anterior stomach that is observed in most "regular" sea urchin taxa. In the Irregularia, a gastric caecum can be found in all taxa except in the Laganina and Scutellina. It is also undeveloped in certain spatangoid species. Conclusions According to our findings, the sea urchin gastric caecum most likely constitutes a synapomorphy of the Euechinoidea. Its occurrence in "regular" euechinoids is linked to the presence of an additional festoon of the anterior stomach in ambulacrum III. Both structures, the additional festoon and the gastric caecum, are absent in the sister taxon to the Euechinoidea, the Cidaroida. Since the degree of specialization of the gastric caecum is most pronounced in the predominantly sediment-burrowing irregular taxa, we hypothesize that its evolution is closely linked to the development of more elaborate infaunal lifestyles. We

  5. Comparison of essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourmaghi, Mohammad Hossein Salehi; Kiaee, Gita; Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Jamalifar, Hossein; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2015-04-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), is an annual herb in the Apiaceae family which disperses in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions. The Coriander essential oil has been used in food products, perfumes, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries for its flavor and odor. In Iran, fruits of Coriander used in pickle, curry powders, sausages, cakes, pastries, biscuits and buns. The aim of this study was to investigate microwave radiation effects on quality, quantity and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Coriander fruits. The essential oils were obtained from the Coriander fruits by hydrodistillation (HD) and Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) then, the oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans by microdilution method. The results indicated that the HD and MAHD essential oils (EO) were dominated by monoterpenoids such as linalool, geranyl acetate and γ-terpinene. The major compound in both EO was linalool which its amount in HD and MAHD was 63 % and 66 %, respectively. The total amount of monoterpenes hydrocarbons in HD EO differ significantly with the amount in MAHD EO (12.56 % compare to 1.82 %). HD EO showed greater activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans than MAHD EO. Moreover, their activities against Ecoli and P. aeruginosa were the same with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) 0.781 and 6.25 μL mL(-1), respectively. By using MAHD method, it was superior in terms of saving energy and extraction time, although the oil yield and total composition decrease by using this method.

  6. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-04-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity.

  7. Viabilidade do processamento de biscoitos com farinha de pinhão / Viability of cookie-processing with Paraná pine nut flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Rigo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO pinhão é a semente do pinho ou pinheiro-do-paraná (Araucaria angustifolia de grande ocorrência no estado do Paraná. A farinha obtida é uma fonte de proteína, carboidratos e fibras e sua aplicação na indústria de alimentos poderia contribuir para melhorar o valor nutricional de vários produtos. Biscoito é o produto obtido pelo amassamento e cozimento de massa preparada com farinhas, amidos, fermentada ou não e outras substâncias alimentícias. Neste trabalho, foi estudada a elaboração de biscoito com farinha de pinhão. Foram preparadas três formulações, variando-se a adição da farinha de pinhão na formulação básica de biscoito. As amostras de biscoito com formulações de 0, 5, 10 e 20% foram submetidas a teste de aceitação. As três formulações foram bem aceitas, apresentando uma consistência semelhante ao padrão.AbstractThe seed from the evergreen species Paraná Pine (Araucaria angustifolia, which is found in Paraná State, is called “pinhão”. The “pinhão” flour is a source of protein, carbohydrates and fiber, so that its use in food industries may improve the nutritional value of several products. Cookies are made of a pastry prepared with flour, starch, with or without fermentation, and other ingredients. This research studied the production of biscuits with 5, 10 and 20% of “pinhão” flour. These three formulations were well accepted by subjects who participated in a tasting test and their texture was similar to standard cookies.

  8. A review of acrylamide: an industry perspective on research, analysis, formation, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeymans, Dominique; Wood, John; Ashby, Peter; Blank, Imre; Studer, Alfred; Stadler, Richard H; Gondé, Pierre; Van Eijck, Paul; Lalljie, Sam; Lingnert, Hans; Lindblom, Marianne; Matissek, Reinhard; Müller, Detflef; Tallmadge, Dan; O'Brien, John; Thompson, Sara; Silvani, David; Whitmore, Tricia

    2004-01-01

    Acrylamide is a synthetic monomer with a wide scope of industrial applications, mainly as a precursor in the production of several polymers, such as polyacrylamide. The main uses of polyacrylamides are in water and wastewater treatment processes, pulp and paper processing, and mining and mineral processing. The announcement by the Swedish National Food Administration in April 2002 of the presence of acrylamide predominantly in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods sparked intensive investigations into acrylamide, encompassing the occurrence, chemistry, agricultural practices, and toxicology, in order to establish if there is a potential risk to human health from the presence of this contaminant in the human diet. The link of acrylamide in foods to the Maillard reaction and, in particular, to the amino acid asparagine has been a major step forward in elucidating the first feasible chemical route of formation during the preparation and processing of food. Other probably minor pathways have also been proposed, including acrolein and acrylic acid. This review addresses the analytical and mechanistic aspects of the acrylamide issue and summarizes the progress made to date by the European food industries in these key areas. Essentially, it presents experimental results generated under laboratory model conditions, as well as under actual food processing conditions covering different food categories, such as potatoes, biscuits, cereals, and coffee. Since acrylamide formation is closely linked to food composition, factors such as the presence of sugars and availability of free amino acids are also considered. Many new findings that contribute towards a better understanding of the formation and presence of acrylamide in foods are presented. Many national authorities across the world are assessing the dietary exposure of consumers to acrylamide, and scientific projects have commenced to gather new information about the toxicology of acrylamide. These are expected to provide

  9. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  10. Dietary Patterns in Relation to Cardiovascular Disease Incidence and Risk Markers in a Middle-Aged British Male Population: Data from the Caerphilly Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Elly; Markey, Oonagh; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Givens, David Ian; Lovegrove, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary behaviour is an important modifiable factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. The study aimed to identify dietary patterns (DPs) and explore their association with CVD incidence and risk markers. A follow-up of 1838 middle-aged men, aged 47–67 years recruited into the Caerphilly Prospective Cohort Study at phase 2 (1984–1988) was undertaken. Principal component analysis identified three DPs at baseline, which explained 24.8% of the total variance of food intake. DP1, characterised by higher intakes of white bread, butter, lard, chips and sugar-sweetened beverages and lower intake of wholegrain bread, was associated with higher CVD (HR 1.35: 95% CI: 1.10, 1.67) and stroke (HR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.63) incidence. DP3, characterised by higher intakes of sweet puddings and biscuits, wholegrain breakfast cereals and dairy (excluding cheese and butter) and lower alcohol intake, was associated with lower CVD (HR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.93), coronary heart disease (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.90) and stroke (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.99) incidence and a beneficial CVD profile at baseline, while DP1 with an unfavourable profile, showed no clear associations after 12 years follow-up. Dietary pattern 2 (DP2), characterised by higher intake of pulses, fish, poultry, processed/red meat, rice, pasta and vegetables, was not associated with the aforementioned outcomes. These data may provide insight for development of public health initiatives focussing on feasible changes in dietary habits. PMID:28106791

  11. Research into the Problems and Methods of Collecting Ants in the Field%野外采集蚂蚁时关键问题和方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉玲

    2013-01-01

    In the period of May to October in 2011, in order to collect ants for experiment, I set two time periods, Daily from 8:00 to 10:00 and Daily from 14:00 to 19:00. The collection locations are corner, playground and woods. The Collection methods are Food trapping method, Fishing method ect. . The Trap-ping material such as Watermelon, biscuits, cake ect. . Ultimately collected more than 20,000 ants. The re-sults show that from 8:00 am to 9:00 and from 17:00 to 18:00 are the best time of the ants collected. Collec-ting a large number of ants quickly through Food trapping method . The trapping effect is relatively good with sweets ants.%在2011年5月至10月间,为了采集实验所需的蚂蚁,设置了两个时间段,分别为每天的8点~10点和14点~19点;采集地点为墙角、操场、树林;采集方法有食物诱捕法、垂钓法等;诱集物有西瓜、饼干、油饼等;最终采集到了2万多只蚂蚁。结果表明:在上午8~9点和下午17~19点是蚂蚁采集的最佳时间段;食物诱捕法可以大量而迅速的采集蚂蚁;甜食对蚂蚁的诱集效果相对较好。

  12. Genetic variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO in association with food preferences in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Brunkwall

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Earlier studies have indicated that the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO is not only associated with BMI and weight but also with appetite and dietary intake. Objectives: We investigated if the FTO rs9939609 associates with food preferences in healthy adults with no cancer, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes. Additionally, we challenged the question if the associations are modified by obesity status (BMI ≤25 or >25 kg/m2. Design: The analyses are made with 22,799 individuals from the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort Study, who were born between 1923 and 1945. To investigate food preference, 27 food groups conducted from a modified diet history method including a 7-day registration of cooked meals and cold beverages were used in the analyses. Bonferroni correction was used to correct for multiple testing, resulting in a cut-off value for significance level of p<0.002. Results: We observed that the obesity susceptible A-allele carriers reported a higher consumption of biscuits and pastry but lower consumption of soft drinks (P for trend <0.0001 for both as compared to TT genotype carriers. In contrast to our hypothesis, the results did not significantly differ depending on obesity status except for consumption of juice, where only the overweight individuals with A-allele had a higher consumption as compared to TT carriers (P for interaction=0.04. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the FTO A-allele may associate with certain food preference and in particular with certain energy-dense foods.

  13. Technical constraints in the development of reduced-fat bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, T

    2001-11-01

    The present study was funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, its aim being to identify the technical barriers to the development of reduced-fat alternatives for bakery products. Using National Food Survey (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, 1998) statistics on dietary consumption within the home, biscuits, cakes and pastries were identified as contributing significant amounts of fat to the population's dietary intake. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with contacts in the technical community of the baking industry, who were usually working in technical and new-product development functions. A discussion guide was developed to cover the main lines of enquiry. The companies selected were ingredient suppliers (eight), manufacturers (twelve) and retailers (four) and so represented each step of the food supply chain. In brief, results showed that current labelling rules were too stringent, and constrained development of reduced-fat bakery products. Products with lower fat levels are harder to make due to altered handling and processing properties. Their quality is usually poorer than standard products, particularly for flavour, texture and mouthfeel. The perception of freshness is reduced and product shelf-life may consequently be shorter. For the product developer, there are relatively few ingredients that can be used in place of fat, and knowledge of how they work is limited, which inhibits product development. There is no identifiable source of technical knowledge in this field. Consumers perceive reduced-fat bakery products to be of lower quality and are generally unwilling to pay higher prices than for standard products.

  14. 3DMADMAC|AUTOMATED: synergistic hardware and software solution for automated 3D digitization of cultural heritage objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sitnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article a fully automated 3D shape measurement system and data processing algorithms are presented. Main purpose of this system is to automatically (without any user intervention and rapidly (at least ten times faster than manual measurement digitize whole object’s surface with some limitations to its properties: maximum measurement volume is described as a cylinder with 2,8m height and 0,6m radius, maximum object's weight is 2 tons.  Measurement head is automatically calibrated by the system for chosen working volume (from 120mm x 80mm x 60mm and ends up to 1,2m x 0,8m x 0,6m. Positioning of measurement head in relation to measured object is realized by computer-controlled manipulator. The system is equipped with two independent collision detection modules to prevent damaging measured object with moving sensor’s head. Measurement process is divided into three steps. First step is used for locating any part of object’s surface in assumed measurement volume. Second step is related to calculation of "next best view" position of measurement head on the base of existing 3D scans. Finally small holes in measured 3D surface are detected and measured. All 3D data processing (filtering, ICP based fitting and final views integration is performed automatically. Final 3D model is created on the base of user specified parameters like accuracy of surface representation and/or density of surface sampling. In the last section of the paper, exemplary measurement result of two objects: biscuit (from the collection of Museum Palace at Wilanów and Roman votive altar (Lower Moesia, II-III AD are presented.

  15. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meha Mayuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow′s milk or buffalo′s milk are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs. Materials and Methods: The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year of age through both qualitative and quantitative methods. Feeding recommendations by HCPs were assessed through a quantitative method. Results: The children are commonly initiated on bovine milk post 3 months of age. The milk is not covered while boiling in 70% cases and boiled at suboptimal temperature (moderate: 62% or low: 31%. Half of the families store milk outside refrigerators openly in the kitchen or rooms. The milk is modified in the majority of cases (81% before being fed. Modification of the milk was often done with sugar (85%, followed by water (49%, biscuits, fennel seeds, cardamom or infant cereals before feeding the baby. Addition of water was more prevalent among mothers of infants between 3 and 6 months. HCPs do not advise consumption of bovine milk by infants unless there is no other option available. Conclusion: A clear gap exists between recommended and actual practices for infant feeding in India. There is a huge opportunity to educate mothers on importance of breast feeding and benefits of implementing appropriate processing, storage, and consumption practices of bovine milk.

  16. Dietary intake and food sources of added sugar in the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Linggang; Rangan, Anna; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-03-14

    Previous studies in Australian children/adolescents and adults examining added sugar (AS) intake were based on now out-of-date national surveys. We aimed to examine the AS and free sugar (FS) intakes and the main food sources of AS among Australians, using plausible dietary data collected by a multiple-pass, 24-h recall, from the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey respondents (n 8202). AS and FS intakes were estimated using a previously published method, and as defined by the WHO, respectively. Food groups contributing to the AS intake were described and compared by age group and sex by one-way ANOVA. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups. Usual intake of FS (as percentage energy (%EFS)) was computed using a published method and compared with the WHO cut-off of intake of the participants was 60·3 (SD 52·6) g/d. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for the greatest proportion of the AS intake of the Australian population (21·4 (sd 30·1)%), followed by sugar and sweet spreads (16·3 (SD 24·5)%) and cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (15·7 (sd 24·4)%). More than half of the study population exceeded the WHO's cut-off for FS, especially children and adolescents. Overall, 80-90% of the daily AS intake came from high-sugar energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. To conclude, the majority of Australian adults and children exceed the WHO recommendation for FS intake. Efforts to reduce AS intake should focus on energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods.

  17. DIABETES MELLITUS: GENERATING ISSUES FOR THE TEACHING OF BIOCHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Maciel Lima

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Current education has been grounded on traditional teaching practices; in other words, learning is regarded as an accumulation of knowledge given by the teachers. Use of resources such as videos and games can raise the interest of teachers since they are an attractive and less traditional alternative. Nevertheless, the use of generating issues stands out as it may help teachers to develop contextualized lessons. According to Freire (1987, this is the starting point in the process of constructing knowledge, replacing traditional practices and questioning the student’s previous knowledge of Biochemistry. OBJECTIVES: Thus, the aim of this study was to prepare and present a lesson to a 12th grade class at IF Fluminense on carbohydrates, diabetes mellitus, and isomerism based on the theme “Diabetes Mellitus”. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to collect data and check the validity of the use of such methodology in classes of Biochemistry, we used procedures such as: presentation of a video made by the authors about diabetes, a styrofoam model of a hepatic cell and biscuit models to show its metabolic functioning regarding metabolism of carbohydrates, styrofoam and toothpick molecular models aimed at explaining isomerism among main hexoses and, to finish the process, a roulette game named “Spinning with Biochemistry”, adapted from the television show Roda a Roda Jequiti, presented by SBT network. In addition, students had a class based on the “Three Pedagogical Moments” methodology proposed by Delizoicov et al. (2007. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS: After this, students developed more grounded scientific concepts, making use of terms common in scientific language. This suggests that the use of a Generating Issues, in a class based on problem-solving methods supported by playful strategies, was a meaningful contribution to improve the understanding of scientific knowledge. CONCLUSION: This type of class grounded on less traditional

  18. I Hear You Eat and Speak: Automatic Recognition of Eating Condition and Food Type, Use-Cases, and Impact on ASR Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Hantke

    Full Text Available We propose a new recognition task in the area of computational paralinguistics: automatic recognition of eating conditions in speech, i. e., whether people are eating while speaking, and what they are eating. To this end, we introduce the audio-visual iHEARu-EAT database featuring 1.6 k utterances of 30 subjects (mean age: 26.1 years, standard deviation: 2.66 years, gender balanced, German speakers, six types of food (Apple, Nectarine, Banana, Haribo Smurfs, Biscuit, and Crisps, and read as well as spontaneous speech, which is made publicly available for research purposes. We start with demonstrating that for automatic speech recognition (ASR, it pays off to know whether speakers are eating or not. We also propose automatic classification both by brute-forcing of low-level acoustic features as well as higher-level features related to intelligibility, obtained from an Automatic Speech Recogniser. Prediction of the eating condition was performed with a Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier employed in a leave-one-speaker-out evaluation framework. Results show that the binary prediction of eating condition (i. e., eating or not eating can be easily solved independently of the speaking condition; the obtained average recalls are all above 90%. Low-level acoustic features provide the best performance on spontaneous speech, which reaches up to 62.3% average recall for multi-way classification of the eating condition, i. e., discriminating the six types of food, as well as not eating. The early fusion of features related to intelligibility with the brute-forced acoustic feature set improves the performance on read speech, reaching a 66.4% average recall for the multi-way classification task. Analysing features and classifier errors leads to a suitable ordinal scale for eating conditions, on which automatic regression can be performed with up to 56.2% determination coefficient.

  19. I Hear You Eat and Speak: Automatic Recognition of Eating Condition and Food Type, Use-Cases, and Impact on ASR Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantke, Simone; Weninger, Felix; Kurle, Richard; Ringeval, Fabien; Batliner, Anton; Mousa, Amr El-Desoky; Schuller, Björn

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new recognition task in the area of computational paralinguistics: automatic recognition of eating conditions in speech, i. e., whether people are eating while speaking, and what they are eating. To this end, we introduce the audio-visual iHEARu-EAT database featuring 1.6 k utterances of 30 subjects (mean age: 26.1 years, standard deviation: 2.66 years, gender balanced, German speakers), six types of food (Apple, Nectarine, Banana, Haribo Smurfs, Biscuit, and Crisps), and read as well as spontaneous speech, which is made publicly available for research purposes. We start with demonstrating that for automatic speech recognition (ASR), it pays off to know whether speakers are eating or not. We also propose automatic classification both by brute-forcing of low-level acoustic features as well as higher-level features related to intelligibility, obtained from an Automatic Speech Recogniser. Prediction of the eating condition was performed with a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier employed in a leave-one-speaker-out evaluation framework. Results show that the binary prediction of eating condition (i. e., eating or not eating) can be easily solved independently of the speaking condition; the obtained average recalls are all above 90%. Low-level acoustic features provide the best performance on spontaneous speech, which reaches up to 62.3% average recall for multi-way classification of the eating condition, i. e., discriminating the six types of food, as well as not eating. The early fusion of features related to intelligibility with the brute-forced acoustic feature set improves the performance on read speech, reaching a 66.4% average recall for the multi-way classification task. Analysing features and classifier errors leads to a suitable ordinal scale for eating conditions, on which automatic regression can be performed with up to 56.2% determination coefficient.

  20. [Food habits of rural school children from Chile's metropolitan area. A comparative study. 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazbun Game, J; Ivanovic Marincovich, R; Durán Santana, M C; Ivanovic Marincovich, D

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the food habits of a representative sample of 651 rural school-age children from Chile's Metropolitan Region and to carry out a comparative study between 1986-1987 and 1989. Food habits were defined as the frequency of consumption of foods expressed as days per week and were determined through a questionnaire administered to school-age children by the investigators and were compared with Model Allowance, established by Chile's Ministry of Health. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured through Graffar's modified method. Statistical procedures included analysis of variance and student "t" test for comparison of the means. The frequency of consumption of most food decreased in 1989 compared with 1986-1987. Most consumed foods (above 90%) were bread and potatoes and between 70-75% of the school-age children consumed milk, meat, yoghurt, poultry, eggs, beans, onions, cabbage, squash, lettuce, bananas, oranges, apples, grapes, biscuits, spaghetti, rice, oil, butter, carbonated beverages and juices, candies, sugar and chocolate. Foods most disliked were fresh cheese (69.3%), radish (62.2%), shellfish (59.4%) and chickpeas (48.8%). Males presented a frequency of consumption of beans, chickpeas (p < 0.05), lentil and chard swiss (p < 0.01) significantly higher than females, but these last ones registered a frequency of consumption of apples, cookies, oil (p < 0.05), onions and candies (p < 0.01) significantly higher than males. The frequency of consumption of most foods, especially milk, fish and bread (p < 0.01) decreased with age. SES had no effect on food habits of the school-age children. These results could be useful in the School Feeding Program (PAE) and in nutrition education related to school population.

  1. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abboud Al-Saleh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical, and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%–95.0%, 1000-kernel weight (35.2–46.9 g and the test weight (82.2–88.0 kg/hL. All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours. A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **, as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *. Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **, extensibility (r = 0.8 **, and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = −0.69 **. Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **. Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  2. The Influence on 1-hour Postprandial Blood Glucose after Different Snacks with Same Energy in Diabetes%相同能量不同配方加餐对糖尿病患者餐后1小时血糖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关向东; 杨锡仪; 于芳; 苏运辉; 麦泳仪

    2014-01-01

    目的:探索相同能量不同配方加餐对糖尿病患者餐后1 h血糖的影响。方法:将96例糖尿病患者随机分为四组,分别于早餐后2h给予四种能量相同的不同配方加餐,并对四组糖尿病患者试验前后的血糖值进行比较。结果:高纤饼干加餐后1 h血糖与加餐前血糖比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:不同配方加餐对餐后1 h血糖有不同影响,加餐中脂肪、纤维含量较高者加餐后血糖相对较好。%To explore the influence on 1-hour postprandial blood glucose after different snacks with same energy in diabetes.Method:96 diabetic patients were randomly divided into 4 groups.Four different snack with same energy were given to 4 groups respectively 2 hours after breakfast.Result:The 1-hour postprandial blood glucose with snack of high-fiber biscuit were significantly better than postprandial blood glucose,the difference was statistically significant(P0.05). Conclusion:There are different effects on 1-hour postprandial blood glucose with different snacks.The postprandial blood glucose after snack with higher fat and fiber content are much better.

  3. Effects of eating rate on satiety: A role for episodic memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L; Lai, Samantha; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Martin, Ashley A; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2015-12-01

    Eating slowly is associated with a lower body mass index. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, our objective was to determine whether eating a meal at a slow rate improves episodic memory for the meal and promotes satiety. Participants (N=40) consumed a 400ml portion of tomato soup at either a fast (1.97ml/s) or a slow (0.50ml/s) rate. Appetite ratings were elicited at baseline and at the end of the meal (satiation). Satiety was assessed using; i) an ad libitum biscuit 'taste test' (3h after the meal) and ii) appetite ratings (collected 2h after the meal and after the ad libitum snack). Finally, to evaluate episodic memory for the meal, participants self-served the volume of soup that they believed they had consumed earlier (portion size memory) and completed a rating of memory 'vividness'. Participants who consumed the soup slowly reported a greater increase in fullness, both at the end of the meal and during the inter-meal interval. However, we found little effect of eating rate on subsequent ad libitum snack intake. Importantly, after 3h, participants who ate the soup slowly remembered eating a larger portion. These findings show that eating slowly promotes self-reported satiation and satiety. For the first time, they also suggest that eating rate influences portion size memory. However, eating slowly did not affect ratings of memory vividness and we found little evidence for a relationship between episodic memory and satiety. Therefore, we are unable to conclude that episodic memory mediates effects of eating rate on satiety.

  4. Exploring why junk foods are 'essential' foods and how culturally tailored recommendations improved feeding in Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavle, Justine A; Mehanna, Sohair; Saleh, Gulsen; Fouad, Mervat A; Ramzy, Magda; Hamed, Doaa; Hassan, Mohamed; Khan, Ghada; Galloway, Rae

    2015-07-01

    In Egypt, the double burden of malnutrition and rising overweight and obesity in adults mirrors the transition to westernized diets and a growing reliance on energy-dense, low-nutrient foods. This study utilized the trials of improved practices (TIPs) methodology to gain an understanding of the cultural beliefs and perceptions related to feeding practices of infants and young children 0-23 months of age and used this information to work in tandem with 150 mothers to implement feasible solutions to feeding problems in Lower and Upper Egypt. The study triangulated in-depth interviews (IDIs) with mothers participating in TIPs, with IDIs with 40 health providers, 40 fathers and 40 grandmothers to gain an understanding of the influence and importance of the role of other caretakers and health providers in supporting these feeding practices. Study findings reveal high consumption of junk foods among toddlers, increasing in age and peaking at 12-23 months of age. Sponge cakes and sugary biscuits are not perceived as harmful and considered 'ideal' common complementary foods. Junk foods and beverages often compensate for trivial amounts of food given. Mothers are cautious about introducing nutritious foods to young children because of fears of illness and inability to digest food. Although challenges in feeding nutritious foods exist, mothers were able to substitute junk foods with locally available and affordable foods. Future programming should build upon cultural considerations learned in TIPs to address sustainable, meaningful changes in infant and young child feeding to reduce junk foods and increase dietary quality, quantity and frequency.

  5. JUNK FOOD ASSOCIATION WITH THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF GASTRITIS-A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY AMONG RURAL CHILDREN OF MELMARUVATHUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumathi S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM Junk food consumption is common among children that have much adverse effect on the growth of the children and health. This study is aimed to assess the correlation of frequency of junk food intake with the morphological changes of gastric antral biopsies in dyspeptic children. MATERIALS AND METHODS This cross-sectional observational study was carried out in Melmaruvathur Medical College Hospital, Melmaruvathur, during the year 2014-2015. The participants were dyspeptic children between 10-15 years of age. They were interviewed using various junk food frequency questionnaires and antral biopsy was taken for histopathological assessment. The morphological changes of gastric antral biopsies were recorded and their association with junk food was analysed. RESULTS Out of 37 children studied, the predominant age group affected were between 5-10 years (56.8% with female predominance (67%. Among the frequency, daily usage of junk food constitutes 57% of cases and the remaining 43% were taking intermittently. Biscuits, chocolates, packed chips were regularly used by daily user and bottled drinks, ice cream were used intermittently. Morphological assessment of gastritis showed significant association of junk food intake with increased intensity of mononuclear cell infiltration with a P value of 0.05, presence of Helicobacter pylori with a P value of 0.02 and presence of regenerative atypical changes with a P value of 0.006. CONCLUSION There is a significant association between the junk food intake and the severity of gastritis. The intensity of inflammatory changes, regenerative atypical glands and Helicobacter pylori presence and load were more among those having the habit of daily junk food intake than those taking intermittently.

  6. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a nutrition education intervention performed by primary school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminia Agozzino

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Long-term interventions based on the active involvement of students, carried out by properly prepared staff using didactic support material (brochures, games etc. including the participation/involvement of mothers or associates in community interventions; seem to be the most effective ones. This study evaluates the effectiveness of nutrition education interventions carried out by teachers with active didactic methodologies.

    Methods: The research was carried out by administering a frequency of food intake questionnaire, before and after the intervention. To compare the answers given before and after the educational intervention the Wilcoxon-test was applied to dependent data discriminating the group with “sufficient implementation” of the project versus “insufficient implementation”.

    Results: Our data demonstrates that a substantial percentage of children do not report an adequate nutritional intake, making education interventions not only opportune but necessary. In both groups there was an increase in the number of subjects having breakfast, particularly in terms of bread and biscuits intake. In the group with “sufficient implementation” there was an increase in the intake of all kinds of food with respect to the previous day’s intake and a decrease in the intake of meat, fish and legumes consumed during the previous week; in the group with “insufficient implementation” only fish intake increased significantly while vegetable intake decreased in a non-significant way. So this educational intervention appears to have been particularly effective in modifying breakfast habits and reducing snack.

  7. Breakfast habits and heath perceptions in South-eastern Spanish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soriano-Ayala Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal aims of this study are to describe breakfast consumption patterns of south-eastern Spanish adolescents, examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and feelings of well-being and fitness and compare breakfast behaviour between men and women to identify if there is a gender gap. Design: A cross-sectional research with cluster sampling in two primary schools and seven secondary schools. The instrument used was a modified version of the Kidscreen-27 questionnaire. Sample: 2,125 students aged between 10 and 19 years old from different nationalities, mainly Romanian, Moroccan and Spanish. Results: The study identifies some youngsters who skip breakfast and no have no food intake over the course of the morning. About 35% of the teenagers skip daily breakfast before they leave for school, and a worrying 1,8% do not eat any food during the whole morning. Questionnaire outcomes also expresses that the amount of biscuits ingested increased as the number of times that adolescents have breakfast at home decreases. There are significant gender differences, women it less foods than men. Differences are especially significant in case of milk, bread or cereals and butter or oil. Finally, chisquare contrast analysis show students that have breakfast before leaving to school perceive better feelings about how well and fit they are than those student who do not have breakfast daily. Conclusions. Findings supports the need for further enhance health education programs focused on breakfast habits, especially with women. This study is part of the project “Education for Cross-cultural Health in Immigrant and Native Adolescents from Almeria: Analysis and intervention for optimization and improvement” supported by the National R+D Plan of the Ministry of Economy and Finance (Ref: EDU2011-26887

  8. Migration of mineral hydrocarbons into foods. 4. Waxed paper for packaging dry goods including bread, confectionery and for domestic use including microwave cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, L; Nichol, J; Gilbert, J

    1994-01-01

    Retail samples of dry goods (bread, biscuits and breakfast cereals) packaged in waxed paper were examined for the presence of mineral hydrocarbon wax. Bread loaves contained up to 50 mg/kg of the wax (associated with the outer surfaces) and crackers up to 185 mg/kg. Mineral oil was found in bread samples, at up to 550 mg/kg and was dispersed throughout indicating its use in food processing machinery as the likely source. Retail confectionery products wrapped in waxed paper (containing 12-44% w/w) gave rise to levels of 12-1300 mg/kg mineral hydrocarbon in the individually wrapped sweets. Migration into boiled sweets was lowest at 10-130 mg/kg, whilst soft chews and toffee products contained 110-1300 mg/kg. The distribution of wax hydrocarbons (principally n-alkanes) in the confectionery coincided exactly with that for the paper wrapping, with a range of C23 to C33 (95% material) centred around C26. This indicated that the transfer to the food occurred largely by adhesion rather than by diffusion since the latter would be expected to favour preferential migration of the low molecular weight components. In simulated home-use experiments with waxed bags sold in the United States for domestic use, migration into sandwiches and cake amounted to 40 mg/kg (1% transfer of wax). Use of these waxed bags in the microwave oven (as recommended) gave rise to contamination of foods from 210 to 1650 mg/kg (up to 60% transfer of wax).

  9. Effect of Nutritional Habits on Dental Caries in Permanent Den¬tition among Schoolchildren Aged 10-12 Years: A Zero-In-flated Generalized Poisson Regression Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin ALMASI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the associations between nutrition and dental caries in permanent dentition among schoolchildren.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 698 schoolchildren aged 10 to 12 yr from a random sample of primary schools in Kermanshah, western Iran, in 2014. The study was based on the data obtained from the questionnaire containing information on nutritional habits and the outcome of decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT index. The association between predictors and dental caries was modeled using the Zero Inflated Generalized Poisson (ZIGP regression model.Results: Fourteen percent of the children were caries free. The model was shown that in female children, the odds of being in a caries susceptible sub-group was 1.23(95% CI: 1.08-1.51 times more likely than boys (P=0.041. Additionally, mean caries count in children who consumed the fizzy soft beverages and sweet biscuits more than once daily was 1.41(95% CI: 1.19-1.63 and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.18-1.37 times more than children that were in category of less than 3 times a week or never, respectively.Conclusions: Girls were at a higher risk of caries than boys were. Since our study showed that nutritional status may have significant effect on caries in permanent teeth, we recommend that health promotion activities in school should be emphasized on healthful eating practices; especially limiting beverages containing sugar to only occasionally between meals. Keywords: Nutritional habits, Dental caries, Zero Inflated Generalized Poisson regression model, Schoolchildren

  10. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Huini Lim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all. Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life.

  11. Development of complementary feeding recommendations for 12-23-month-old children from low and middle socio-economic status in West Java, Indonesia: contribution of fortified foods towards meeting the nutrient requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmida, Umi; Santika, Otte

    2016-07-01

    Inadequate nutrient intake as part of a complementary feeding diet is attributable to poor feeding practices and poor access to nutritious foods. Household socio-economic situation (SES) has an influence on food expenditure and access to locally available, nutrient-dense foods and fortified foods. This study aimed to develop and compare complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) for 12-23-month-old children in different SES and evaluate the contribution of fortified foods in meeting nutrient requirements. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in low and medium SES households (n 114/group) in urban Bandung district, West Java province, Indonesia. Food pattern, portion size and affordability were assessed, and CFR were developed for the low SES (LSES) and middle SES (MSES) using a linear programming (LP) approach; two models - with and without fortified foods - were run using LP, and the contribution of fortified foods in the final CFR was identified. Milk products, fortified biscuits and manufactured infant cereals were the most locally available and consumed fortified foods in the market. With the inclusion of fortified foods, problem nutrients were thiamin in LSES and folate and thiamin in MSES groups. Without fortified foods, more problem nutrients were identified in LSES, that is, Ca, Fe, Zn, niacin and thiamin. As MSES consumed more fortified foods, removing fortified foods was not possible, because most of the micronutrient-dense foods were removed from their food basket. There were comparable nutrient adequacy and problem nutrients between LSES and MSES when fortified foods were included. Exclusion of fortified foods in LSES was associated with more problem nutrients in the complementary feeding diet.

  12. Sustainability of the effects of medicinal iron and iron rich food supplementation on haemoglobin, intelligence quotient and growth of school aged girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia in school aged girls is an important but neglected issue. Since iron supplementation programmes have had little reported success in reducing anaemia, interest is turning to food based approaches that have higher potential for achieving far reaching benefits. The purpose of the study was to observe sustainability of the effect of iron and food supplementation on haemoglobin (Hb, intelligence quotient (IQ and growth of the subjects. At baseline, estimation of haemoglobin (Hb, red cell indices, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, serum transferrin saturation and serum ferritin was done. IQ, weight and height were measured using standard procedures. Anaemic subjectswere divided into three groups, viz., (i twice weekly supplementation of iron folic acid syrup (53 mg iron/week; (ii daily supplementation of 4 niger seed and defatted soyaflour biscuits plus 2 lemons (45 mg iron/week and (iii control. Non anaemic group(NAC was not intervened. Endline data was collected after 120 days. Follow up for Hb, IQ, weight and height was done 4 months after cessation of supplementation. The prevalence of anaemia was 77% in the study population; 46% subjects had mild anaemia and 32% had moderate anaemia. Iron status was lower in anaemic subjects (p<0.001.Iron supplementation was more effective in raising Hb and building iron stores than iron rich food supplementation. Iron supplementation improved IQ but did not bring about catch up of anaemics to non anaemics. Iron rich food supplementation was better than medicinal iron in promoting growth in anaemic girls. The impact of iron rich food supplementation on Hb, IQ and growth sustained for 4 months while that of medicinal iron did not. Effects of food supplementation are sustainable for 4 months, therefore, this strategy holds more potential to control anaemia, in school aged girls.

  13. Implantação do HACCP na indústria de alimentos Implementation of the HACCP in the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veruschka Franca de Figueiredo

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O conceito da Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle (APPCC é uma abordagem sistemática para garantir a segurança do alimento. O método é baseado em vários princípios diferentes de detecção direta ou indireta de contaminação. O objetivo é controlar a segurança do alimento analisando os perigos em potencial, planejando o sistema para evitar problemas, envolvendo os operadores em tomada de decisão e registro das ocorrências. O conceito da HACCP (APPCC deveria ser aplicado em conjunto com as Boas Práticas de Fabricação. Este artigo discute a importância da HACCP (APPCC na Indústria de Biscoito e que tipo de contaminação é o ponto fraco neste produto. A experiência indicou que existem diversos problemas iniciais na implementação da HACCP, contudo benefícios tangíveis podem ser alcançados a partir da redução das reclamações do consumidor.The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP concept is a systematic approach to ensuring food safety. The method is based on several different principles of direct or indirect detection of contamination. The objective is to control food safety by analyzing the potential hazards, designing the system to prevent problems, involving the operators in decision making and documenting events. HACCP concepts should be applied together with Good Manufacturing Practices. This paper discusses the importance of HACCP in Biscuit Industry and what kind of contamination is a weak point in this product. The results indicated that there are several initial problems in implementing HACCP, however tangible benefits can be achieved through reduced customer complaints.

  14. [Presence of nitrates and nitrites in baker's products and in certain other flour products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabrzyski, M; Gajewska, R; Ganowiak, Z

    1990-01-01

    The results of the study demonstrated that the content of nitrates and nitrites in various baker's products varied from 0.96 (in wheat rolls and baguettes) to 44.07 mg KO3/kg in pumpernickel bread. In wholemeal bread, village bread, tourist bread, rye brown bread and Graham bread the content of these compounds was from 1.46 to 27.10 mg KNO3/kg. The mean content of nitrites in these bread sorts was 1.76 mg NaNo2/kg, range 0.10-4.40 mg NaNo2/kg. In white wheat flours (Wrocław flour, cake flour and Poznań flour) the content of nitrates ranged from 1.10 to 19.08 mg KNO3/kg, and in the dishes produced from them in household was from 0.50 to 16.33 mg KNO3/kg. The content of nitrites in these flours was in the range from 0.00 to 4.16 mg NaNo2/kg, and in the products prepared from them it was from 0.00 to 1.60 mg NaNO2/kg. Eleven types were tested also of popular biscuits, wafers, gingerbread and hard cakes in which the content of nitrates was from 3.66 to 17.72 mg/kg, and that of nitrites was from 0.00 to 8.80 mg NaNo2/kg. Considering the average consumption of these products per one person in the seashore region and the mean values of nitrates and nitrites it was calculated that they provided daily about 3.9 mg KNO3 and 0.4 NaNo2, that is about 1.8% of nitrates and 7.7% of nitrites consumed by adults in daily food ration.

  15. Food group contribution of essential elements of the Sao Paulo State market basket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pagliaro@usp.b, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Fabio F. da, E-mail: ffsusp@uol.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica. Empresa Junior de Informatica, Matematica e Estatistica

    2009-07-01

    To establish a Market Basket of Sao Paulo state seventy-one foods, with a mean consumption of more than 2 g day{sup -1} per person, were grouped into 30 food categories. The food groups were: cereals, leguminous, leafy vegetables, fruity vegetables, tuberous vegetables, tropical fruits, other fruits, flours, pastas, breads, biscuits, prime grade beef, standard grade beef, pork meats, other meats, poultry, milk/cream, other dairy products, sugars, sweets, salts, sauces, oils, fats, alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages, coffee, ready-made dishes, saltwater and freshwater fishes. Information about individual food consumption was obtained from a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' conducted by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics from July 2002 to June 2003. Sampling and kitchen preparation of foods were carried out in restaurants of the University of Sao Paulo. Each food item was individually prepared table-ready. Foods of the same group were mixed, homogenized, pulverized and analyzed for the determination of Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Average daily intake of each element was calculated by multiplying the element concentration in the food by the corresponding weight of the ready-to-consume food group. The contribution of each food group to the total daily intake of elements by the ready-to-consume food groups of the Market Basket was evaluated. The food groups representing the highest contributions were salts: 79% Na; breads: 37% Fe and 46% Cr; cereals: 19% Zn and milk/cream: 58% Ca and 24% K. (author)

  16. Cookie- versus cracker-baking--what's the difference? Flour functionality requirements explored by SRC and alveography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, Meera; Slade, Louise; Levine, Harry; Gannon, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The many differences between cookie- and cracker-baking are discussed and described in terms of the functionality, and functional requirements, of the major biscuit ingredients--flour and sugar. Both types of products are similar in their major ingredients, but different in their formulas and processes. One of the most important and consequential differences between traditional cracker and cookie formulas is sugar (i.e., sucrose) concentration: usually lower than 30% in a typical cracker formula and higher than 30% in a typical cookie formula. Gluten development is facilitated in lower-sugar cracker doughs during mixing and sheeting; this is a critical factor linked to baked-cracker quality. Therefore, soft wheat flours with greater gluten quality and strength are typically preferred for cracker production. In contrast, the concentrated aqueous sugar solutions existing in high-sugar cookie doughs generally act as an antiplasticizer, compared with water alone, so gluten development during dough mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting during baking are delayed or prevented in most cookie systems. Traditional cookies and crackers are low-moisture baked goods, which are desirably made from flours with low water absorption [low water-holding capacity (WHC)], and low levels of damaged starch and water-soluble pentosans (i.e., water-accessible arabinoxylans). Rheological (e.g., alveography) and baking tests are often used to evaluate flour quality for baked-goods applications, but the solvent retention capacity (SRC) method (AACC 56-11) is a better diagnostic tool for predicting the functional contribution of each individual flour functional component, as well as the overall functionality of flours for cookie- and/or cracker-baking.

  17. Development of aerated confectionery products of high nutritional value using triticale flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastries are very popular among the Russian population. Pastry are the most promising targets for the enrichment of their function ingredients.. One of the most promising feedstocks for the production of flour confectionery products is flour from grain crops ofspring triticale. The different varieties of triticale were studied in particular, triticale flour grade "Ukro" for use in technologies of shortbread-butter cookies with enhanced food value. The first in the history of our country varieties of spring triticale "Ukro" was included in the State Register of selection achievements since 2004. Triticale is characterized by high-protein content. Triticale, protein is higher than in wheat by amino acids lysine and tryptophan, minerals (calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, B vitamins. It was pointed the choice and ratio of prescription ingredients. Recipe shortbread-butter cookies based on the seeded triticale flour and flour from coarse whole meal grain, grade "Ukro", with high consumer properties was developed. Cake samples prepared on the basis of flour triticale exceed the reference sample of prime grade wheat flour. Biscuits have a high content of complete protein, vitamins, macro - and microelements, dietary fibers, high gustatory qualities. The influence of prescription components on organoleptic and physical-chemical properties of sandy butter cookies was studied. The nutritional and biological value was calculated. It was state the daily needs of the organism in these materials when using 100 g. As a result of the conducted studies proved the feasibility of the use of flour from grain triticale in the production of flour confectionery products of functional purpose.

  18. A POW'S STORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Aquadro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the interest of authenticity, editing has been kept to a bare minimum. This narrative thusappears in virtually its original form, as written in secret, under difficult conditions. Terminologyis often in the vernacular. Details of regiments, titles and place names may also have beenchanged in the interim. Editor.I was serving with the 4th Brigade, Signallers Company, in No. 1 Platoon attached to the U.M.R., Infantry of the 2nd SA Division, Garrison of Tobruk since March, 1942, until the 18th June, 1942, when Rommel made his last main assault on Tobruk, and the same day we were besieged, besieged for three days. On the 21st of June, our C.O. General Klopper of Tobruk surrendered to the Germans unconditionally. That Sunday morning of the 21st of June, we were ordered to destroy all the equipment we had, which we did thoroughly. At about 9 p.m. German Panzer Units rushed upon us, where we were holding a line on the central perimeter, and from there I was taken prisoner. I had a small valice packed with a change of clothing and shaving outfit, the remainder of my possessions I burnt. We were all lined up in three's about one thousand of us with not many German guards with automatic guns, and in the blistering heat we were marched from the perimeter to the aerodrome a distance of six miles. On this aerodome about 25 000 prisoners were massed including officers, everybody mixed. The same day each prisoner was issued with 1 WB. of water, 1 tin of our bully and two biscuits for the day. It is terribly hot and we have no shelter at all. We slept there in the open that night. 

  19. Wildfire, Fuels Reduction, and Herpetofaunas across Diverse Landscape Mosaics in Northwestern Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, R. Bruce

    2004-01-01

    The herpetofauna (amphibians and reptiles) of northwestern forests (U.S.A.) is diverse, and many species are locally abundant. Most forest amphibians west of the Cascade Mountain crest are associated with cool, cascading streams or coarse woody material on the forest floor, which are characteristics of mature forests. Extensive loss and fragmentation of habitat resulted from logging across approximately 50% of old-growth forests in northern California and approximately 80% of stands in Oregon and Washington. There is a complex landscape mosaic and overlap of northern and southern biotic elements in the Klamath-Siskiyou Region along the Oregon and California border, creating a biodiversity hotspot. The region experiences many low-severity fires annually, punctuated by periodic major fires, including the Biscuit fire, the largest in North America in 2002. In the fire's northern portion, severe fire occurred on >50% of stands of young, managed trees but on only about 25a??33% of old-growth stands. This suggests that the legacy of timber harvest may produce fire-prone stands. Calls for prescribed fire and thinning to reduce fuel loads will remove large amounts of coarse woody material from forests, which reduces cover for amphibians and alters nutrient inputs to streams. Our preliminary evidence suggests no negative effects of wildfire on terrestrial amphibians, but stream amphibians decrease following wildfire. Most reptiles are adapted to open terrain, so fire usually improves their habitat. Today, the challenge is to maintain biodiversity in western forests in the face of intense political pressures designed to 'prevent' catastrophic fires. We need a dedicated research effort to understanding how fire affects biota and to proactively investigate outcomes of fuel-reduction management on wildlife in western forests.

  20. Dietary Patterns in Relation to Cardiovascular Disease Incidence and Risk Markers in a Middle-Aged British Male Population: Data from the Caerphilly Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Mertens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary behaviour is an important modifiable factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD prevention. The study aimed to identify dietary patterns (DPs and explore their association with CVD incidence and risk markers. A follow-up of 1838 middle-aged men, aged 47–67 years recruited into the Caerphilly Prospective Cohort Study at phase 2 (1984–1988 was undertaken. Principal component analysis identified three DPs at baseline, which explained 24.8% of the total variance of food intake. DP1, characterised by higher intakes of white bread, butter, lard, chips and sugar-sweetened beverages and lower intake of wholegrain bread, was associated with higher CVD (HR 1.35: 95% CI: 1.10, 1.67 and stroke (HR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.63 incidence. DP3, characterised by higher intakes of sweet puddings and biscuits, wholegrain breakfast cereals and dairy (excluding cheese and butter and lower alcohol intake, was associated with lower CVD (HR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.93, coronary heart disease (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.90 and stroke (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.99 incidence and a beneficial CVD profile at baseline, while DP1 with an unfavourable profile, showed no clear associations after 12 years follow-up. Dietary pattern 2 (DP2, characterised by higher intake of pulses, fish, poultry, processed/red meat, rice, pasta and vegetables, was not associated with the aforementioned outcomes. These data may provide insight for development of public health initiatives focussing on feasible changes in dietary habits.

  1. Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract as antibacterial Salmonella typhimurium to increase productivity of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnani, Y; Dan, T M Wardiny; Taryati

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to apply effect of Morinda citrifolia L. citrifolia L. leaf extract as antibacterial of Salmonella typhimurium on mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ), egg production and Hen day, hatchability of layer quail. This research was conducted at Laboratory of microbiology and laboratory of poultry nutrition, faculty of animal science, bogor agricultural university and slamet quail farms cilangkap, sukabumi, west java, Indonesia on March-July 2012. Two hundred and forty heads of quail were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (sixty heads of quail/treatment). Experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The treatments consist of level of biscuit Morinda citrifolia L. Citrifolia L. leaf extract i.e R1 = 0%, R2 = 5%, R3 = 10%, R4 = 15%. The results indicated the treatments had significant effect (p Quail (DOQ). The average mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) was given extract Morinda citrifolia L. leaf were R1 (4.00%), R2 (1.00%), R3 (1.33%), R4 (0.67%). The average mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) was given 15% extract Morinda citrifolia L. leaf (R4) was lowest than control treatment (R1). The results of the analysis indicated that Morinda citrifolia L. leaf of quail drink had not significant effect (p > 0.05) on egg production, hen day and hatchability. It was concluded that the Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract 15% can reduce mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) and can increase its egg production, hen day and hatchability.

  2. Changes in physical properties of extruded sour cassava starch and quinoa flour blend snacks Mudanças nas propriedades físicas de snacks extrusados de misturas de polvilho azedo e farinha de quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Giolo Taverna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the broad acceptance of sour cassava starch biscuits in Brazil and the nutritional quality of quinoa flour, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, moisture, and amount of quinoa flour on the physical properties of puffed snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Effects of moisture and amount of quinoa flour on the expansion index and specific volume of snacks were observed. There was a pronounced increase in water solubility index of blends with the extrusion process with significant effects of all process parameters on the WSI. Higher water absorption index (WAI was observed under high temperature, low moisture, and lower quinoa flour amount. Temperature and amount of quinoa flour influenced the color of the snacks. A positive quadratic effect of quinoa flour on hardness of products was observed. Blends of sour cassava starch and quinoa flour have good potential for use as raw material in production of extruded snacks with good physical properties.Dada a ampla aceitação do biscoito de polvilho azedo no Brasil e a qualidade nutricional da farinha de quinoa, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da temperatura de extrusão, rotação da rosca, umidade e porcentagem de farinha de quinoa sobre as propriedades físicas de snacks expandidos. O processo foi realizado em extrusor monorrosca, seguindo o delineamento central composto rotacional para quatro fatores. Foi observado o efeito da umidade e da porcentagem de farinha de quinoa sobre o índice de expansão e volume específico. Houve um aumento pronunciado na solubilidade das misturas com o processo de extrusão, com efeitos significativos de todos os parâmetros de processo no ISA. Maior índice de absorção de água (IAA foi observado em alta temperatura, baixa umidade e menor porcentagem de farinha de quinoa. Temperatura e porcentagem de farinha de

  3. Trans fatty acids (tFA: sources and intake levels, biological effects and content in commercial Spanish food Ácidos grasos trans (AGt: fuentes y niveles de ingesta, efectos biológicos y contenido en los alimentos comerciales españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-M. Fernández-San Juan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of dietary habits in children and adolescents performed in Spain show that a high percentage of the daily energy intake corresponds to fat (42.0-43.0%. These findings show an excessive contribution of saturated fatty acids and also a considerable supply of trans fatty acids. These compounds are formed generally during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that converts vegetable oils into semisolid fats. Also, in some cases naturally occurring trans fatty acids in smaller amounts in meat and dairy products from ruminants (cows, sheep, these trans fatty acids are produced by the action of bacteria in the ruminant stomach by reactions of biohydrogenation. On the other hand, metabolic studies have clearly shown that trans fatty acids increase LDL cholesterol and reduce HDL cholesterol. Our results show that major sources of trans fatty acids in commercial Spanish foods are fast-food (hamburger, French fries, snacks, bakery products (cakes, donuts, biscuits, margarines and dehydrated soups.Estudios recientes sobre los hábitos alimentarios de niños y adolescentes llevados a cabo en nuestro país revelan que un alto porcentaje de las calorías que se ingieren en estos colectivos corresponden a las grasas (42,0-43,0%. Estos estudios muestran que existe una excesiva ingesta de ácidos grasos saturados y un preocupante incremento de la ingesta de ácidos grasos trans. Estos compuestos se forman generalmente en el proceso de hidrogenación catalítica parcial de los aceites vegetales comestibles, proceso que los convierte en grasas semisólidas, aunque en algunos casos también están presentes en pequeñas cantidades en carnes, leche y productos lácteos procedentes de animales rumiantes (vacas y ovejas ya que se originan de forma natural en reacciones de biohidrogenación producidas por la florabacteriana en el estómago de estos animales. Por otro lado, estudios metabólicos han demostrado que los ácidos grasos trans

  4. Escavações arqueológicas no Sobrado dos Azulejos, Rio Grande, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Augusto Mentz Ribeiro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O projeto “Escavações Arqueológicas no Sobrado dos Azulejos” procurou recuperar, através da cultura material, aspectos socioeconômicos e culturais que fizeram parte do cotidiano das pessoas que ocuparam aquele espaço. O “Sobrado dos Azulejos”, construído em 1864, está localizado na esquina das ruas Marechal Floriano e Francisco Marques, área antiga da cidade, próxima ao porto velho, representando um alto valor cultural e turístico para a cidade do Rio Grande. As escavações foram em duas etapas: junho – julho de 1998 e dezembro de 2000 – janeiro de 2001. Os resultados foram os seguintes: 1 Perfil estratigráfico visualizando três momentos: a. piso de tijolos referente a uma construção anterior ao Sobrado dos Azulejos; b. contrapiso, onde deveria estar assentado o piso de madeira (primeiro momento do Sobrado; c. piso de cimento com o respectivo entulho e/ou técnica de construção (segundo ou último momento. 2 Material arqueológico: fragmentos de vasilhas e de cachimbos de cerâmica Neobrasileira, cerâmica colonial, cerâmica colonial vidrada, tijolos, telhas, louça (faiança, faiança fina, ironstone, Salt-glazed, cachimbos (biscuit, peças de jogo (fragmentos de cerâmica vidrada e de louça; vidro (garrafas, plano de vidraças, frascos de perfume, vidros de remédio, copo, taça, etc.; pedras de pederneira e afiadores-polidores em arenito; metal (moedas, facas, botões, cravos, pregos, dedais, fivelas, ferraduras, colher; osso (contas-de-colar, pente, restos de alimentação, botões, cabos de faca; outros materiais. O material arqueológico foi classificado, restaurado, analisado, fotografado, desenhado, confeccionadas tabelas, gráficos e acondicionado. Em gabinete, realizaram-se os estudos comparativos, a arte final e a redação do presente artigo.

  5. Approaches to stream solute load estimation for solutes with varying dynamics from five diverse small watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulenbach, Brent T.; Burns, Douglas A.; Shanley, James B.; Yanai, Ruth D.; Bae, Kikang; Wild, Adam; Yang, Yang; Yi, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Estimating streamwater solute loads is a central objective of many water-quality monitoring and research studies, as loads are used to compare with atmospheric inputs, to infer biogeochemical processes, and to assess whether water quality is improving or degrading. In this study, we evaluate loads and associated errors to determine the best load estimation technique among three methods (a period-weighted approach, the regression-model method, and the composite method) based on a solute's concentration dynamics and sampling frequency. We evaluated a broad range of varying concentration dynamics with stream flow and season using four dissolved solutes (sulfate, silica, nitrate, and dissolved organic carbon) at five diverse small watersheds (Sleepers River Research Watershed, VT; Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH; Biscuit Brook Watershed, NY; Panola Mountain Research Watershed, GA; and Río Mameyes Watershed, PR) with fairly high-frequency sampling during a 10- to 11-yr period. Data sets with three different sampling frequencies were derived from the full data set at each site (weekly plus storm/snowmelt events, weekly, and monthly) and errors in loads were assessed for the study period, annually, and monthly. For solutes that had a moderate to strong concentration–discharge relation, the composite method performed best, unless the autocorrelation of the model residuals was <0.2, in which case the regression-model method was most appropriate. For solutes that had a nonexistent or weak concentration–discharge relation (modelR2 < about 0.3), the period-weighted approach was most appropriate. The lowest errors in loads were achieved for solutes with the strongest concentration–discharge relations. Sample and regression model diagnostics could be used to approximate overall accuracies and annual precisions. For the period-weighed approach, errors were lower when the variance in concentrations was lower, the degree of autocorrelation in the concentrations was

  6. The Use of CT, MRI Analysis in the Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment of Otogenic Meningitis%CT、MRI在耳源性脑膜炎的临床诊断与治疗分析上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽艳; 董险峰; 张振明; 朱峰; 张海燕; 张玉玲; 高志刚

    2013-01-01

      目的:对耳源性肥厚性硬脑膜炎(HCP)的CT和磁共振成像特点进行总结分析。方法:回顾性分析我院2006年至今临床证实的耳源性脑膜炎患者20例,所有患者均行CT和磁共振平扫及增强,比较两组的效果,并且进行对比分析。结果:CT可见值70-110Hu,内见点状钙质样密度,与黄韧带界限不清,中后颅底硬脑膜及小脑幕弥漫增厚并明显强化,MRI结果发现12例有单侧颞叶脑沟消失,6例均未见脑白质水肿信号,小脑幕强化可见“夹心饼”征,中耳乳突内呈峰窝状等或略长T1长T2信号,增强强化明显。结论:耳源性HCP的磁共振表现具有一定的特异性,而CT的灵敏度更高,所以两者结合使用能够清楚显示病灶、病变范围以及临近脑实质是否受累。%Objective:to hypertrophic hard otogenic meningitis (HCP) CT and mri (magnetic resonance imaging) characteristics analysis.Methods:retrospective analysis since 2006 clinical prove otogenic meningitis patients 20 cases, all patients were performed CT and mri flat and enhance Saul, compared with two groups of effect, and comparison analysis; Results:the CT 70-110 that eigenstate Hu, inside the see pointlike calcium kind density, and yellow ligament boundary is not clear, in the skull base dural and cerebellum thickening and obviously diffuse of strengthening, MRI found that 12 patients with unilateral temporal lobe brain ditch disappear, 6 cases of all did not see brain edema signal white matter, of strengthening the cerebellum visible "Sandwich Biscuit " levy, dash forward a peak in the middle ear shape or slightly long nest T1 long T2 signal, enhance obviously strengthened.Conclusion:The ear source sex of magnetic resonance HCP has certain specific performance, and the sensitivity of CT higher, so both use can be clearly showed lesions, and adjacent brain disease extent essence is affected.

  7. Synthesis of Acetylated Catechins of Different Substituting Degrees and Their Antioxidant Capacity in vitro%不同取代度乙酰化儿茶素的合成及体外抗氧化活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白艳; 江和源; 江用文; 张建勇; 王伟伟; 龙丹

    2012-01-01

    With the help of DryLab software to establish a method for the determination of 8 colorants in flour products by High Performance Liquid Chromatographic with PDA detection. [ Method ] Samples were ultrasonically extracted centrifugalize and filtered, then the sample solutions were injected into HPLC with PDA detection. [Result] The response of each analyte showed a good linearity with a correlation coefficient not less than 0. 999 9. The recoveries for biscuits were more than 90% ,with the relative standard deviations (n =3) pf less than 1.0, which demonstrated the good precision and accuracy of the present method. The method is rapid, accurate, reproducible. At the mean time, the optimal chromatogram was simulated and presented by Drylab, which was almost the same with actual chromatogram, greatly shorten the development cycle of chromatographic method. [Conclusion] The method has many advantages, such as simplified pretreatment, rapid detection speed, good recovery rate, et al.%[目的]研究乙酰化儿茶素的相关性质,,以期改善儿茶素的应用特性.[方法]以乙酸酐为酰化剂对表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)、茶多酚(TP)进行O-酰化修饰,分别合成了2种取代度的乙酰化儿茶素,考察了乙酰化程度对儿茶素溶解性、抗氧化性和紫外吸收能力的影响.[结果]随着取代度的增加,乙酰化儿茶素脂溶性增加,总抗氧化能力和清除超氧阴离子能力降低,清除羟自由基能力增加,紫外吸收带蓝移,吸收强度降低.[结论]研究筛选出高乙酰化儿茶素活性取代产物,从而为定向合成高活性的乙酰化儿茶素提供参考.

  8. Associação entre consumo alimentar e (insegurança alimentar e nutricional em São José dos Ramos - PB Association between consumption and food (insecurity in food and nutrition of São José dos Ramos - PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyton Cézar Souto Silva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência de insegurança alimentar é importante para a avaliação das condições de vida e para o planejamento de políticas públicas de combate à fome. A pesquisa foi realizada com 177 famílias de São José dos Ramos-PB, no ano de 2005, por meio de entrevista. A análise dos dados, por regressão logística e ODDS RATIO, utilizou como variável dependente estar ou não em segurança alimentar, avaliação resultante da aplicação da EBIA; e, como variável independente dicotômica, o consumo de 15 conjuntos de alimentos. O modelo em regressão logística e o odds ratio mostraram associação de leite integral, manteiga, biscoito, bolacha e bolo com a segurança alimentar. Contudo, deve-se levar em consideração o conceito ampliado de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional, que enfatiza outros fatores relevantes além do consumo alimentar, como a disponibilidade de alimento, que se incorpora às condições de renda e padrão de vida.The prevalence of food insecurity is important for the assessment of the conditions of life and planning of public policies for combating hunger. The survey was conducted with 177 families of São José dos Ramos, in the year 2005, through interview. Data analysis, through logistics regression and ODDS RATIO, used as the dependent variable is in food safety assessment resulting from the application of EBIA, and as a variable dichotomic-independent consumption of 15 sets of food. The regression model Logistics and the odds ration of Association showed whole milk; butter, biscuit, cracker, cake with food safety. However you should take into consideration the expanded concept food and nutritional security that emphasizes other relevant factors beyond the food consumption as food availability, which incorporates income conditions and standard of living.

  9. 甘草及提取物在食品中的应用进展%Application of Glycyrrhiza and Its Extractive in Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆康宁; 王飞; 罗海澜; 王富刚

    2014-01-01

    研究甘草在食品中应用,能够提高甘草的综合利用价值,制造出更多更好具有甘草特色的食品。甘草是药食两用资源,生理活性成分主要有三萜类化合物、黄酮类化合物及甘草多糖类化合物三大类成分。甘草提取物味甜,具有抑菌、抗病毒、抗氧化等诸多功能,在食品添加剂中作为甜味剂和抗氧化剂在饼干、肉制品等食品中使用,因具有生理活性功能在保健食品中应用广泛。目前甘草及提取物在粮油制品、肉制品、饮料、糖果、果冻、果脯、瓜子、酱油等食品中都有应用和研究。%Study on application of the glycyrrhiza and its extractive in the food industry can improve the comprehensive utilization of glycyrrhiza, which can promote to create more and better food with glycyrrhiza characteristics. Glycyrrhiza is medicine and food resources, physiological active ingredients are triterpenoids, flavonoids and polysaccharide. The glycyrrhiza and its extractive taste sweetly, that have antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant and many other functions, the glycyrrhiza and its extractive are used in biscuit, meat and other foods as a sweetener and antioxidant, which also has been widely applied in health food because of physiological active functions. Now the application of glycyrrhiza and its extractive in grain and oil products, meat products, beverage, candy, jelly, dried fruit, seeds, soy sauce and so on are researched widely.

  10. Experiential learning for education on Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, Antonella; D'Addezio, Giuliana; Todaro, Riccardo; Scipilliti, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    The Laboratorio Divulgazione Scientifica e Attività Museali of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV's Laboratory for Outreach and Museum Activities) in Rome, organizes every year intense educational and outreach activities to convey scientific knowledge and to promote research on Earth Science, focusing on volcanic and seismic hazard. Focusing on kids, we designed and implemented the "greedy laboratory for children curious on science (Laboratorio goloso per bambini curiosi di scienza)", to intrigue children from primary schools and to attract their interest by addressing in a fun and unusual way topics regarding the Earth, seismicity and seismic risk. We performed the "greedy laboratory" using experiential teaching, an innovative method envisaging the use and handling commonly used substances. In particular, in the "greedy laboratory" we proposed the use of everyday life's elements, such as food, to engage, entertain and convey in a simple and interesting communication approach notions concerning Earth processes. We proposed the initiative to public during the "European Researchers Night" in Rome, on September 26, 2014. Children attending the "greedy laboratory", guided by researchers and technicians, had the opportunity to become familiar with scientific concepts, such as the composition of the Earth, the Plate tectonics, the earthquake generation, the propagation of seismic waves and their shaking effects on the anthropogenic environment. During the hand-on laboratory, each child used not harmful substances such as honey, chocolate, flour, barley, boiled eggs and biscuits. At the end, we administered a questionnaire rating the proposed activities, first evaluating the level of general satisfaction of the laboratory and then the various activities in which it was divided. This survey supplied our team with feedbacks, revealing some precious hints on appreciation and margins of improvement. We provided a semi-quantitative assessment with a

  11. ANALISIS JENIS, JUMLAH, DAN MUTU GIZI KONSUMSI SARAPAN ANAK INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachruddin Perdana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to analyze type, amount, and nutritional quality of breakfast among Indonesian children aged 3—12 years old. Data used for this study was secondary data of Basic Health Survey 2010 (Riskesdas 2010. Data was collected from June until August 2010 by applying a cross sectional design. This study covered 33 provinces of Indonesia, with total 40,437 children consisted of 20,659 boys and 19,778 girls. The results of this study showed that ten major type of foods consumed during breakfast were rice, swamp cabbage, egg, fish, tempe, instant noodles, tofu, bread, chicken and biscuits; and five major type of beverages consumed during breakfast were drinking water, tea, milk, coffee, and syrup. The food consumed on average of more than 5 g a day during breakfast were rice, swamp cabbage, egg, fish, tempe, instant noodles; and the beverages consumed on average of more than 15 mL a day were water, tea, and milk. Only 10.6% of children breakfast met energy intake>30% RDA.Keywords: breakfast, breakfast amount, breakfast type, children, nutritional quality of breakfastABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis jenis, jumlah, dan mutu gizi konsumsi sarapan anak Indonesia usia 3—12 tahun. Data yang digunakan untuk penelitian ini adalah data sekunder (data konsumsi pangan yang diperoleh dari hasil penelitian Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2010 (Riskesdas 2010 yang dilaksanakan oleh Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Kementrian Kesehatan Indonesia. Pengumpulan data dilakukan pada bulan Juni sampai Agustus 2010 dengan menggunakan desain cross sectional. Penelitian ini mencakup 33 provinsi di Indonesia, dengan 40 437 total subjek; yang terdiri dari 20 659 laki-laki dan 19 778 perempuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sepuluh jenis makanan yang paling banyak dikonsumsi selama sarapan adalah nasi, kangkung, telur ayam, ikan, tempe, mi instan, tahu, roti, daging ayam, dan biskuit; lima jenis minuman yang

  12. Update on acrylamide levels in food from monitoring years 2007 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Recommendations on the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food by the European Commission (EC were extended in 2010 (EC, 2010. The new Recommendation includes a revised categorisation of food products for monitoring purposes. This report describes the results of European acrylamide monitoring during the period from 2007 to 2010 using the revised product categorisation with 10 main food categories and an additional 26 sub-categories. Twenty-five European countries submitted a total of 13 162 acrylamide results for the four-year period including 2 200 results for the year 2010. During the monitoring period, time trends in acrylamide levels for the food categories were estimated. In 2010, middle bound mean acrylamide values ranged from 31 μg/kg for ‘other processed cereal based foods for infants and young children’ to 1 350 μg/kg for ‘coffee substitutes’. The highest 95th percentile value of 8 044 μg/kg was reported for ‘instant coffee’. The trend analysis showed only few changes in acrylamide levels from 2007 to 2010. At main food category level, a ‘common European trend’ was a decrease in acrylamide levels for ‘processed cereal based foods for infants and young children’ and an increase for ‘coffee and coffee substitutes’. As a ‘common European trend’ at sub-category level, acrylamide levels of ‘biscuits and rusks for infants and young children’ and ‘non-potato savoury snacks’ showed a decrease and an increase was seen for ‘crisp bread’. A marginal decrease was observed for the sub-category ‘other processed cereal based foods for infants and young children’ and a marginal increase was observed for ‘French fries from fresh potatoes’ as well as for ‘instant coffee’. Although only applicable from 2011, acrylamide levels were compared with indicative values recommended by the EC. Indicative values were exceeded in the case of 3-20 % of samples in different food categories based on

  13. GlutenTox® Pro Test for the Detection of Gluten in Select Foods and Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Síglez, Miguel A; Nocea, Bárbara; del Mar Pérez, María; Ma García, Eva; León, Laura; Galera, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The GlutenTox® Pro Test is an immunochromatographic test for the detection of gluten in foods and on surfaces with varying compositions and levels of processing, from raw foods/ingredients to final product testing. The Method Developer evaluation for the validation of the GlutenTox Pro Test Kit (Biomedal Diagnostics, Sevilla, Spain) for the detection of gluten in foods and on surfaces was conducted at Biomedal, S. L., Camas, Sevilla, Spain. The GlutenTox Pro test method was evaluated by testing the following: cross-reactivity, interference, specificity and sensitivity, robustness, stability, lot-to-lot variation, food matrix, and environmental surface. To evaluate the performance of the GlutenToxPro test for the detection of gluten, 10 matrixes were selected: rice flour, bread/biscuit, rolled oat, pâté, and yogurt (and a second bread matrix for incurred sampled testing) for the food matrix study and food-grade painted wood, plastic, rubber, sealed ceramic, and stainless steel for the environmental surface matrix study. For the food matrix study, 30 replicates were evaluated at six spiked levels of gluten (0, 3, 8, 15, 25, and 45 ppm) against four detection thresholds (5, 10, 20, and 40 ppm) for each food matrix. Additionally, 10 replicates were evaluated at a concentration of 10,000 ppm using all four detection thresholds only for rice flour matrix. Three replicates of each concentration level of gluten were analyzed using paired samples by the AOAC OMA 2012.01 reference method for each food matrix. For the environmental surface study, 30 replicates were evaluated at a low spike level of gluten (16 ng/16 cm2), five replicates at a high spike level of gluten (400 ng/16 cm2), and five replicates at an unspiked control level (0 ng/16 cm2) for each surface matrix. Upon completion of testing, the probability of detection values and confidence intervals were calculated and plotted versus the concentration level as determined by the reference method when applicable. An

  14. An Organic Khorasan Wheat-Based Replacement Diet Improves Risk Profile of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Whittaker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Khorasan wheat is an ancient grain with previously reported health benefits in clinically healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to examine whether a replacement diet, thereby substituting all other cereal grains, with products made with organic khorasan wheat could provide additive protective effects in reducing lipid, oxidative and inflammatory risk factors, in patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS in comparison to a similar replacement diet using products made from organic modern wheat. A randomized double-blinded crossover trial with two intervention phases was conducted on 22 ACS patients (9 F; 13 M. The patients were assigned to consume products (bread, pasta, biscuits and crackers made either from organic semi-whole khorasan wheat or organic semi-whole control wheat for eight weeks in a random order. On average, patients ingested 62.0 g dry weight (DW day−1 khorasan or control semolina; and 140.5 g DW day−1 khorasan or control flour, respectively. An eight-week washout period was implemented between the respective interventions. Blood analyses were performed both at the beginning and end of each intervention phase; thereby permitting a comparison of both the khorasan and control intervention phases, respectively, on circulatory risk factors for the same patient. Consumption of products made with khorasan wheat resulted in a significant amelioration in total cholesterol (−6.8%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (−8.1% glucose (−8% and insulin (−24.6% from baseline levels, independently of age, sex, traditional risk factors, medication and diet quality. Moreover, there was a significant reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS, lipoperoxidation of circulating monocytes and lymphocytes, as well as in the levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha. No significant differences from baseline in the same patients were observed after the conventional control wheat intervention phase. The present results suggest that a

  15. A new classification of foods based on the extent and purpose of their processing Uma nova classificação de alimentos baseada na extensão e propósito do seu processamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new food classification which assigns foodstuffs according to the extent and purpose of the industrial processing applied to them. Three main groups are defined: unprocessed or minimally processed foods (group 1, processed culinary and food industry ingredients (group 2, and ultra-processed food products (group 3. The use of this classification is illustrated by applying it to data collected in the Brazilian Household Budget Survey which was conducted in 2002/2003 through a probabilistic sample of 48,470 Brazilian households. The average daily food availability was 1,792 kcal/person being 42.5% from group 1 (mostly rice and beans and meat and milk, 37.5% from group 2 (mostly vegetable oils, sugar, and flours, and 20% from group 3 (mostly breads, biscuits, sweets, soft drinks, and sausages. The share of group 3 foods increased with income, and represented almost one third of all calories in higher income households. The impact of the replacement of group 1 foods and group 2 ingredients by group 3 products on the overall quality of the diet, eating patterns and health is discussed.Este artigo descreve uma nova classificação de alimentos baseada na extensão e propósito do processamento industrial usado na sua produção. Três grupos são definidos: alimentos não processados ou minimamente processados (grupo 1, alimentos processados utilizados como ingredientes de preparações culinárias ou pela indústria de alimentos (grupo 2, e produtos alimentícios ultra-processados (grupo 3. O uso da classificação é ilustrado aplicando-a a dados coletados por Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares conduzida em 2002/2003 em uma amostra probabilística de 48.470 domicílios brasileiros. A disponibilidade diária foi de 1.792kcal/capita, sendo 42,5% de alimentos do grupo 1, 37,5% do grupo 2 e 20% do grupo 3. A contribuição do grupo 3 aumentou com a renda familiar, correspondendo a um terço do total calórico nos domicílios mais

  16. Cheese whey. Waste or raw material useful for foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals specialities?; Il siero di latte. Rifiuto o materia prima per prodotti alimentari, cosmetici e farmaceutici?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzichini, M. [ENEA, Divisione Biotecnologie e Agricoltura, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Montani, R.; Russo, C. [Inteam Srl, Genoa (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In Italy the waste whey (7 million tons/year), coming from cheese farms (2,500) is mainly employed as pigs fodder, or discharged in illegal manner into rivers or soils. It is well known that whey represents a serious environmental problem in relation with its high pollution charge (COD=70,000 O{sub 2} ppm). On the other hand, the whey's organic components as proteins, lactose, vitamins and salts, show an high commercial interest because they are used as food additives in souses, pasta, biscuits, chocolate, beverage, baby foods, etc., in cosmetics, as creams and shampoos, and also in pharmaceutical field, especially as food integrators for body builders. The application of membrane technology, as ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) permitted the recovery of the whey solute (proteins, lactose, mineral salts) and solvent as purified water. In this paper an industrial treatment process of 60 m{sup 3}/day, and the procedure for upgrading the biochemical properties of whey proteins, and consequently its commercial values, are discussed. It is also reported an economic process evaluation, obtained on the base of product recovery and process costs. [Italian] In Italia si producono circa 7 milioni di ton/anno di siero grezzo dagli oltre 2.500 caseifici sparsi sul territorio nazionale. Mentre al Nord il siero grezzo e' impiegato per l'alimentazione dei suini, al Centro-Sud viene smaltito illegalmente nei fiumi e sul terreno. Il siero di latte costituisce un problema importante del settore lattiero caseario poiche' ha una carica inquinante molto alta (COD 70.000 ppm di O{sub 2}). Il siero puo' rappresentare una fonte di sostanze nobili come proteine ad alto valore biologico, lattosio, vitamine sali minerali che trovano largo impiego nell'industria alimentare (salse, pasta, biscotti, cioccolato, bevande, baby foods, ecc., nell'industria cosmetica come creme idratanti o detergenti e nell

  17. Comprehensive Identification and Bread-Making Quality Evaluation of Common Wheat Somatic Variation Line AS208 on Glutenin Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyun; Wang, Ke; Xiao, Lele; Wang, Shunli; Du, Lipu; Cao, Xinyou; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) that determine wheat dough elasticity and processing quality. Clarification of the defined effectiveness of HMW-GSs is very important to breeding efforts aimed at improving wheat quality. To date, there have no report on the expression silencing and quality effects of 1Bx20 and 1By20 at the Glu-B1 locus in wheat. A wheat somatic variation line, AS208, in which both 1Bx20 and 1By20 at Glu-B1 locus were silenced, was developed recently in our laboratory. Evaluation of agronomic traits and seed storage proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) indicated that AS208 was highly similar to its parental cultivar Lunxuan987 (LX987), with the exception that the composition and expression of HMW-GSs was altered. The 1Bx20 and 1By20 in AS208 were further identified to be missing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Based on the PCR results for HMW-GS genes and their promoters in AS208 compared with LX987, 1Bx20 and 1By20 were speculated to be deleted in AS208 during in vitro culture. Quality analysis of this line with Mixograph, Farinograph, and Extensograph instruments, as well as analysis of bread-making quality traits, demonstrated that the lack of the genes encoding 1Bx20 and 1By20 caused various negative effects on dough processing and bread-making quality traits, including falling number, dough stability time, mixing tolerance index, crude protein values, wet gluten content, bread size, and internal cell structure. AS208 can potentially be used in the functional dissection of other HMW-GSs as a plant material with desirable genetic background, and in biscuit making industry as a high-quality weak gluten wheat source.

  18. Monitoring of Food-borne Pathogens in Ya'an in 2011%2011年雅安市食源性病原菌监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓉; 熊建明; 杨振宇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the major pathogens in food - borne illness caused by food contamination in Ya'an ctiy and to improve capabilities of detection, early warning and control of food - borne illness in Ya'an. Methods According to Workbook of Monitoring Food - borne Pathogens in 2011 (Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention) , 9 kinds of food were detected. Results A total of 180 samples included in 9 kinds (20 samples for each kind) were detected. Coliforms were found in following 8 kinds of food: cooked meat, frozen cooked rice products, ready - to - eat fermented soy products, infant formula powder and infant corn -based complementary food, cakes and biscuits, cold dishes, fresh fruit and vegetable juices, rice noodles, Liangpi, noodles and boxed meal. The detection rates were respectively 25% , 20% , 60% , 10% , 30% , 50% , 40% and 20%. The detection rates of mold in frozen of cooked rice products, pastries and cookies were 100% ; staphyhcoccus aureus in fresh fruit and vegetable juices, 5% ; monocytogenes listeria monocytogenes in frozen cooked rice products, 5%. Salmonella, Escherichia coli 0157, Shigella, Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus bacteria were not found in all the samples. Conclusion The sanitary situations of bulks or self - made direct - eat food, such as ready - to - eat fermented soy products, cold dishes, fresh fruit and vegetable juices, frozen cooked rice products, cakes and biscuits are not optimistic.The supervision and regulation of such kinds of food should be strengthened to secure food consumption.%目的 了解雅安市食品污染中引起食源性疾病的重要致病菌,提高雅安地区食源性疾病检测、预警和控制能力.方法 按照中国疾病预防控制中心营养与食品安全所《2011年食源性致病菌监测工作手册》,检测9大类食品.结果 抽检9大类食品各20件,共计180件.熟肉制品、速冻熟制米面制品、即食非发酵性

  19. Research on double enzymatic extraction and antioxidation properties of soybean polysaccharide%双酶法提取大豆多糖及其抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋慧; 苗敬芝; 董玉玮

    2011-01-01

    本文以大豆粕为原料,采用双酶法提取大豆多糖,探讨了酶种类、双酶组合、酶解时间、pH、固液比等对提取率的影响,通过正交试验优化工艺条件,并对其抗氧化活性进行研究.结果表明,大豆多糖提取的最佳工艺条件为pH为6.0,酶解时间为6h,固液比1∶20,加酶量为酸性蛋白酶10%+风味酶8%,大豆多糖提取率为9.28%.大豆多糖对·OH、·O2-自由基表现出较强的清除能力,其IC5o分别为0.083mg/mL和0.078mg/mL.说明从大豆粕中提取的大豆多糖具有良好的抗氧化活性,可作为功能性食品基料添加到乳制品、饮料、面包、饼干等食品中,既增加了产品的保健功能,同时又提高了大豆粕的附加值,为大豆粕的综合开发利用提供技术支撑.%In this paper, soybean meal was used as raw material. Soybean polysaccharide was extracted by double enzymes. Effects of enzyme type, double enzymes combination, hydrolysis time, pH, solid/liquid ratio on extraction rate were discussed. Orthogonal test was used to optimize extracting conditions and antioxidative activities tests. The results showed that the optimum extracting conditions were pH 6. 0, hydrolysis for 6 hours, solid/liquid ratio 1-20, acid protease 10% and flavor enzyme 8% , extraction rate of soybean polysaccharide was 9. 28% . Soybean polysaccharide scavenge ability of ? OH and ? O-2. IC50were 0. 083mg/mL and 0. 078mg/mL respectively. Soybean polysaccharide, extracted from soybean meal had good antioxidative activities. It may be used as a basic functional food material adding to dairy product, beverage, bread, biscuit to provide added value to these products. The experiment can be used for technological support on comprehensive development and utilization of soybean meal.

  20. Association between dietary habits, education, serum triglycerides and blood cholesterol among women of Cabildo, Buenos Aires Asociación entre hábitos nutricionales, educación, triglicéridos séricos y colesterol total en mujeres de Cabildo, Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J. Schneider

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study of 107 women between 20 and 69 years old, living in the town of Cabildo, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, which describes food intake and analyses its relation to their education, blood cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels. A food frequency questionnaire including questions regarding meal patterns and food use were completed by the participants. Questions regarding educational status were included. A nutritional risk score was created from nine food groups. Total blood cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels were determined. Average total blood cholesterol levels of the women who participated in the present study were higher (209 mg/dl than those recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program, while triglyceride values remained within the normal range (124 mg/dl. Total blood cholesterol levels increased with age. Bread, biscuits and cakes were consumed on a daily basis by 98% of the participants and dairy products by 92%, these being mainly full-fat. Meat and fast food intake were very high (96% and 100% respectively. Vegetable and fish intakes were higher among the more educated women. Mayonnaise (58% and butter (43% are popular as food dressings and bread spreads respectively, and sunflower oil was the most commonly used for cooking by 94% of the participants. Women with low educational levels (less than 7 years had higher nutritional risk scores, and thus unhealthier dietary habits than those with more years of formal education. No statistically significant association was found between food groups and cholesterol or triglyceride levels.Se realizó un estudio transversal en 107 mujeres, habitantes del pueblo de Cabildo, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, sobre el consumo de alimentos entre mujeres de 20 a 69 años de edad, analizando su relación con la educación, colesterol total y niveles de triglicéridos. Se encuestó a las participantes sobre el tipo y frecuencia de consumo alimentario y

  1. Avaliação do consumo e análise da rotulagem nutricional de alimentos com alto teor de ácidos graxos trans Consumption and analysis of nutricional label of foods with high content of trans fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ribeiro Dias

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, diversos estudos vêm sendo realizados visando avaliar os efeitos dos ácidos graxos trans sobre o organismo e identificar seu mecanismo de ação. Entretanto, somente a cerca de um ano, este item foi incluído na rotulagem nutricional obrigatória brasileira, permitindo ao consumidor controlar o consumo de ácidos graxos trans. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a adequação de alguns alimentos com alto teor de ácidos graxos trans (biscoitos, sorvetes, chocolates e fast-food frente à legislação pertinente e, ainda, o consumo diário por adultos e crianças observando a recomendação da OMS. A avaliação da rotulagem nutricional demonstrou que a maioria das amostras analisadas ainda não se adequou à nova legislação. Com base na análise dos questionários de consumo, identificou-se que 39,7% dos adultos e 41,4% das crianças consomem, diariamente, pelo menos um alimento com alto teor de ácidos graxos trans. Observou-se ainda, através do consumo estimado, que a ingestão parcial ou total destes produtos ultrapassa a recomendação diária para adultos (2 g e crianças (1 ano-0,8 g e 10 anos-1,9 g. Assim, uma atuação efetiva dos órgãos de fiscalização e a promoção de ações educativas visando à menor utilização desses produtos na alimentação deveriam ser estimuladas.Several studies have been carried over the last decades aiming at evaluating the effects of trans fatty acids on the organism and identifying their mechanism. However, only around one year ago it was included by law in the mandatory Brazilian nutritional food labeling. It now enables the consumer to control the consumption of trans fatty acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the compliance of foods with high content of trans fatty acids (biscuits, ice cream, chocolate, and fast-food with the legislation and the daily consumption recommendation by the OMS. The evaluation of Nutrition labeling indicated that some

  2. 糖尿病患者食用无糖食品的现状调查与思考%Investigation and Thinking on the Present situation of the Consumption of Sugar Free Foods in Patients with Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正源; 梁明钰; 张凌闻

    2016-01-01

    Objective to detect the classification and sugar content of the market in the sale of sugar free foods, to provide guid-ance for scientific consumption of diabetic patients, and to put forward suggestions for the industry regulation and the popu-larization of knowledge. Methods in laboratory by using Fehling Reagent Titration Method to detect the sugar content in sugar free food. Results were randomly selected 10 kinds of no sugar food and will be the three groups (black sesame paste, biscuits, yogurt) representative without food, sugar and sugar foods containing sugar contrast analysis, detected by Fehling titration, no sugar sugar content of food qualified rate was 80%. Conclusion diabetic patients can not eat sugar free foods, should be care-fully selected, the amount of consumption, at the same time according to the patient's weight is included in the daily intake of total calories, pay attention to total control, keep the heat balance. According to the sugar free food market situation, suggested that the government strengthen industry regulation, the establishment of the integrity of system; relevant institutions to strengthen the popularization of science, improve the scientific literacy of the public;production enterprises mark no sugar sug-ar content of food remind patients carefully chosen. The preliminary research results of this project laid the foundation for the study of diabetes diet, and it can be used as a reference for the health education of diabetes patients, the public popular science propaganda, the sugar free food market supervision and so on.%目的:检测了解市场在售无糖食品的分类和含糖量,为糖尿病患者科学食用提供指导意见,对行业监管和知识普及提出建议。方法:在实验室采用斐林试剂滴定法检测无糖食品的含糖量。结果随机抽取10种无糖食品,并将其中三组(黑芝麻糊、饼干、酸奶)代表性无糖食品和有糖食品进行含糖量对比分析,

  3. Monitoring of Food - borne Pathogens in Yongzhou City in 2011%2011年永州市食源性致病菌监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蓉; 唐旭辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of food - bome pathogens contamination in market - sold foods in Yongzhou, Hunan Province. Methods The food -bome pathogens, including Salmonella spp. , Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Shigella spp., Escherichia coli O157 :H7 and Enterobacter sakaza-kii were detected according to the Handbook of National Surveillance Network on Food - borne Diseases in 2011. Results Totally 20 strains of pathogens were identified in the 198 samples collected from cooked meat products, egg products, quick frozen cooked rice products, ready - to - use non- fermented soybean products, cakes or biscuit, cold and dressed vegetable, fresh fruits or vegetables juice, rice noodles (fast foods, rice noodles and cold noodles) and infant foods, with a total detection rate of 10.10%. Among 9 kinds of foods samples detected, the pathogen detection rate of quick frozen cooked rice products was the highest (27.27%). The pathogen detection rates in cooked meat products, rice noodles, cakes, cold and dressed vegetable, fresh fruits or vegetables juice and infant foods were 18.18%, 18.18%, 9.09%, 9.09%, 4.55% and4.55%, respectively. Conclusions The market - sold foods in Yongzhou Gty, especially the quick frozen cooked rice products, cooked meat products and rice noodles, are contaminated to by pathogens some extend. The food supervision and law enforcement departments should pay more attention to monitoring these food products so as to decrease and prevent the food - borne diseases effectively.%目的 了解湖南省永州市食品中食源性致病菌污染状况.方法 依据国家食源性疾病监测网2011年度工作手册,进行沙门菌、单增李斯特菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、蜡样芽孢杆菌、志贺菌、大肠埃希菌O157、阪崎肠杆菌的检测.结果 检测熟肉制品、蛋制品、速冻熟制米面制品、即食非发酵性豆制品、糕点及饼干、凉拌菜、鲜榨果蔬

  4. Investigation on nutrition knowledge and dietary behavior of primary and middle-school students in Qiongzhong county of Hainan Province%海南省琼中县中小学生营养知识和行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯棋琴; 王松; 王会琴; 周静; 张帆; 易聪

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解义务教育学生营养知识和膳食行为状况,为进一步制定营养干预措施提供依据和参考。方法按年级分层,以教学班为单位整群随机抽样,采用自编问卷对琼中县1420名中小学生进行调查。结果中小学生的营养知识水平较低,尤其小学生营养知识更缺乏;中小学生中每天吃早餐的占64.4%,5.5%从不吃早餐;93.8%的中小学生吃零食,选择的种类主要是蔬菜、水果、糖果、巧克力、饼干、面包、薯条等;中小学生奶类、豆类及其制品摄入情况均较差,每周摄入5 d及以上的分别为27.6%,5.7%。结论琼中县多数中小学生缺乏必要的营养知识,在吃早餐、零食选择、喝奶等行为方面存在一定问题,对学生进行营养教育十分必要。%ObjectiveTo investigate the levels of nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior of compulsory education school students in Qiongzhong County,so as to provide evidence and reference for adopting intervention measures.MethodsStratified by grade and a cluster random sampling method was used to choose the classes.The self-made questionnaire survey was conducted in 1420 primary and middle school students in Qiongzhong County. ResultsBoth Primary and middle school students' nutrition knowledge level is low,especially pupils which are more lack of nutrition knowledge. 64.4% of the primary and middle school students eat breakfast every day,and 5.5% never eat breakfast.93.8% of primary and middle school students eat snacks,What their main selections are vegetables and fruit,candy and chocolate,,biscuits and bread,puffed food such as potato crisp. The intake situation of primary and middle school students'dairy and beans products is poor. Which is respectively 27.6%,5.7% five days or more than five days a week.ConclusionMajority of primary and middle school students lack necessary nutrition knowledge, and there are some problems in the behavior of breakfast

  5. Escavações arqueológicas na praça 7 de Setembro e arredores – Rio Grande, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Augusto Mentz Ribeiro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho buscou encontrar vestígios materiais que auxiliem na localização do Forte Jesus, Maria, José, marco da colonização portuguesa no Rio Grande do Sul. Em julho de 2002, janeiro, fevereiro e novembro de 2003, a equipe do Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa em Antropologia e Arqueologia – LEPAN realizou quatro cortes experimentais e escavações, resultando na obtenção de relativa quantidade de material e a constatação de quatro camadas estratigráficas, a última representando o século XX, as duas seguintes o XIX e a primeira, o XVIII. Na base de um dos cortes experimentais foi revelada uma estrutura de mais ou menos 1,0m de largura, formada por seixos rolados ou fragmentos de rochas irregulares, com 10cm em média cada um. As escavações, então, direcionaram-se no sentido de verificar sua forma e dimensões. Tratava-se de uma construção ou paliçada quase circular com 8,60 x 8,80m internamente, que protegia, no seu interior, um poço (cacimba? com 3,00 x 2,60m. Conforme os dados históricos, este foi o primeiro que abasteceu a cidade e os ocupantes do Forte Jesus, Maria, José, nas proximidades. A praça anteriormente denominava-se Praça do Poço. No estacionamento localizado na esquina das ruas Fernando Duprat e República do Líbano e ainda num terreno contíguo na última rua também foram realizadas escavações. A área total escavada é de aproximadamente 300m² e a profundidade média de 1,20m. Material recolhido: ósseo (restos de alimentação, botões, escova de dente, etc.; metal (moedas dos séculos XVIII ao XX do Brasil e, ainda, dos Estados Unidos e Holanda, balas de chumbo, chaves, baioneta, grilhão, etc.; lítico (pedras utilizadas em estruturas; cerâmica (neobrasileira, colonial, colonial vidrada; louça (faiança portuguesa, faiança fina inglesa, salt glazed, biscuit [cachimbos holandeses]; vidro (fragmentos de garrafas, vidros de remédio e perfumaria, vidraças, etc.. O material recolhido ao

  6. Análise da rotulagem de alimentos industrializados destinados ao público infantil à luz da proposta de semáforo nutricional | Analysis of labels in prepackaged food for children in the light of Tra ic Light Labelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Simões de Freitas Silva

    2017-02-01

    /2010 and ConandaONANDA’s RDC nº163/2014- were collected. The 85 products selected were from different brands in order to enable comparison of the labels and nutrients between the same food group, considering the proposal of Traffic Light Labelling. There were alarming results in the groups of instant noodles and stuffed biscuits regarding the inadequacy of saturated fats, sodium and fiber. The fibers were the nutrients that presented greater amount of red ratings, and trans fats more adjustments (green in the food groups. As for the sugars, it was not possible to evaluate their presence, as it is not required to present sugars information in Brazil. The products analyzed appear to be nutritionally inappropriate in the context of a healthy diet and their consumption appears as a risk factor to the health of children.

  7. Study and application of nonlinear elastic-harden contact constitutive model to disturbed belt%非线性弹性-硬化接触本构模型在层间错动带中的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金长宇; 张春生; 冯夏庭

    2013-01-01

    An interlamination disturbed belt runs through the underground caverns of Baihetan hydropower station, characterized with low-angle dip and perfoliate formation developed from various tops of tuff. In fact, it is a disturbed shear zone of blended cataclasite and mudstone, etc. Under complicated geological processes. As such formation process and internal structure are relatively complicated, the mechanical behaviors are generally difficult to describe. To reveal the structure behaviors more intuitively and reasonably, this paper, using the two-body theory, considers a sandwich biscuit element with its mutual-contacting upper and lower layers and a weak belt clamped in the interlay er, and develops a nonlinear elastic-harden contact constitutive model for this structure based on the field test data. Then, we study this contact element, search and judge it automatically with the INTERFACE element and FISH language of FLAC3D, so that the parameters for calculation of its shear stiffness and friction angle can be regulated dynamically. The coefficients Ks and φ are analyzed with a neural network technique for regression of the field test data. Comparison with the field data shows that this model better reflects the mechanical properties of the contact interface. The model was applied to the Baihetan hydropower station for stability analysis of the adjacent rock of its underground caverns, and also for quantitative evaluation of the stability of the disturbed belt based on the dynamical safety parameters.%贯穿白鹤滩水电站地下洞室群的层间错动带是发育于各岩流层顶部凝灰岩层中的缓倾角、贯穿性的错动构造,受到不同地质作用,在错动带内部形成夹碎裂岩和泥岩等不同构造.由于其形成过程和内部构造相对复杂,因此其力学行为的描述也较为困难,为了直观合理地揭示其力学特性,借助两体理论,将该地质构造考虑为一种上下接触、中间夹软弱带的“夹心饼干

  8. HPLC-MS/MS determination of illegal drug benzocaine added in weight-loss functional foods%高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定减肥保健食品中非法添加药物苯佐卡因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马微; 代汉慧; 张英春; 陈冬东; 王海波; 柳彩云; 王秀君; 唐英章

    2011-01-01

    建立了测定减肥保健食品中非法添加药物笨佐卡因的高效液相色谱-串联质谱分析方法.减肥咖啡、减肥茶、减肥胶囊、减肥片刺、减肥饼干等不同类型的减肥保健食品经超声萃取后,以Waters Atlantis T3柱(150mm×2.1mm,3μm)分离后,采用多反应监测(MRM)正离子模式检测,定性离子对为m/z166与m/z138和m/z166与m/z94,采用m/z166与m/z138进行定量.实验结果表明,苯佐卡因在0.01~50μg/L的范围内呈良好的线性关系,相关系数为0.9985,在低、中、高的3个添加水平范围内的平均回收率为69.3%~95.6%.同时研究了苯佐卡因的电喷雾电离质谱特征,推测其裂解途径.本方法灵敏度高,操作简便,可用于不同减肥保健食品中非法添加苯佐卡因的检测.%A comprehensive analytical method based on high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of benzocaine.Various weight-loss functional foods, including weight-loss coffee, tea, capsule, tablet and biscuit were extracted under ultrasonication and were separated on Waters Atlantis T3 ( 150mm × 2.1 mm, 3μm) column.Benzocaine was detected by MS/MS technique using positive electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and employing two precursor- product ion pairs: m/z166 and m/z 138, m/z166 and m/z 94, as qualitative ion pairs, m/z1 66 and m/z 138 as quantification ion pairs.The results showed that the calibration curve showed good linearity for benzocaine in the ranges of 0.01~50μg/L,and the correlative coefficient was 0.9985.The mean recoveries at the three spiked levels (low, middle,high)were 69.3%~95.6%.The mass spectrum characterization of benzocaine and speculated on fragmentation pathways were also studied.The method is sensitive, simple and adapt to the determination of benzocaine in the different weight-loss functional foods.

  9. Analysis of food monitoring in Shenzhen during 2005-2007%深圳市2005-2007年食品安全监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡萍; 韩淑杰; 邓建和; 董珊

    2014-01-01

    针对深圳市食品安全监测基础数据研究不足的状况,统计分析深圳市食品生产加工企业产品的质量达标情况.结果表明,2005-2007年监督抽查全市食品生产加工企业产品共10269批次,总合格率为88.4%.监测食品包括大米及小麦粉、肉制品、食用植物油、食用盐、调味品、罐头、乳制品、糕点及糖果、白酒、啤酒、黄酒及果酒、方便主食品、冷冻饮品和非酒精液体饮料等15大类.2005-2007年的年度合格率依次为84.3%(1648/1954)、88.1%(2414/2741)和90.0%(5018/5574).2007年抽查大米及小麦粉、腌腊肉制品、食用盐、酱油、白酒、啤酒、瓶装饮用水和饼干等26种食品的合格率均高于同期全国食品专项监督抽查合格率.%In view of the inadequate data of basic research in food monitoring, this paper studies test results of product quality from food production enterprises in Shenzhen in order to assess food risk. The results of 10 269 samples from on-the-spot checks have shown that the total compliance rate was 88. 4% during 2005-2007 . Fifteen foodstuffs have been monitored, including rice and wheat flour, meat products, edible vegetable oil, edible salt, condiments, cans, dairy products, pastry and confectionery, white wine, beer, yellow rice wine and fruit wine, convenient staple food, frozen drinks, and non-alcoholic liquids. During 2005-2007, the ranking order of the qualified rate of food products from the lowest to the highest were 2005 ( 84. 3%, 1 648/1 954 ) , 2006 ( 88. 1%, 2 414/2 741)and 2007 (90. 0%, 5 018/5 574), respectively. Compared to corresponding period of 2007, the qualified rate of Shenzhen food was higher than that of the monitored foods at the national level, such as wheat flour, cured meat products, edible salt, soy sauce, bottled drinking water, biscuits, etc.

  10. Studies on the trans-fatty acids and the stability of the fats present in Indian bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariff, R.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fat is one of the most important ingredients in baked products which is highly susceptible to heat and moisture. Therefore, this study has been conducted to assess the thermoxidative changes occurring in the fat as well as the extent to which trans-fatty acids are present. Fats were extracted from products like rusk, white bread, sweet bun, dilkhush, pizza, plain cake, vegetable roll, gluco-biscuits and wafers. These fats and control shortening samples were taken for study. The totox value was found to be high (4.0-30.9 whereas the free fatty acid, peroxide and anisidine values were, 0.31-0.90%, 1.2-11.0 and 11.6-8.9 respectively. Since the products are baked at 180 to 200 °C polar components were determined to be between 3.3 to 5.3% showing a moderate hydrolysis and oxidative changes. Iodine value (51.0 to 73.3 and the Butyro-refractometer reading (42.2 to 55.8 showed moderate unsaturation and all the samples melted below 37 °C. Trans-fatty acid ranged from 35.5 to 46.2% as has also been confirmed by FT-IR. The products selected were considered safe but nutritionally inferior to products prepared with liquid shortenings.La grasa es uno de los ingredientes más importantes de los productos horneados altamente susceptible al calor y la humedad. Se han realizado estudios para evaluar los cambios termoxidativos ocurridos en las grasas y también la presencia de ácidos grasos trans. Las grasas se extrajeron de productos como galletas, pan blanco, pan dulce, Dilkhush, pizza, pastel, rollo vegetal, gluco-galletas y barquillos. Se utilizaron en este estudio las grasas extraidas de los mencionados productos, así como muestras control de shortening. Los valor encontrados de índice Totox fueron altos (4,0-30,9 en tanto que los porcentajes de ácidos grasos libres (%, índice de peróxido y anisidina fueron, 0,31-0,90, 1,2-11,0 y 11,6- 8,9, respectivamente. Puesto que los productos se hornean entre 180-200 °C se determinaron los componentes polares

  11. EDITORIAL: Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation Systems for the Food and Beverage Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong

    2006-02-01

    Advanced sensors and instrumentation systems are becoming increasingly important in the classification, characterization, authentication, quality control and safety management of food products and beverages. To bring together industrialists and academic researchers to discuss the latest developments and trends in this particular area, the ISAT (Instrument Science and Technology) Group of the Institute of Physics organized a highly focused one-day technical meeting, which was held at the Rutherford Conference Centre at the Institute of Physics in London on 15 December 2004. The event was co-sponsored by the Measurement, Sensors, Instrumentation and NDT Professional Network of the Institution of Electrical Engineers and the Measurement Science and Technology Panel of the Institute of Measurement and Control. The special feature in this issue (on pages 229 287) brings together a collection of some of the papers that were presented at the event. Also included in the special feature are two relevant papers that were submitted through the usual route. Technical topics covered, though wide ranging as reflected in part by the diversity of the papers, demonstrate recent developments and possible approaches that may offer solutions to a broad range of sensing and measurement problems in the food and beverage industries. The first paper, reported by Sheridan et al, is concerned with the quality monitoring of chicken, sausages and pastry products during their cooking processes using an optical fibre-based sensing system. Carter et al describe how digital imaging and image processing techniques have been applied to achieve the classification and authentication of rice grains. The challenges in the measurement and control of final moisture content in baked food products such as bread and biscuits are addressed and discussed by McFarlane. Juodeikiene et al report their progress in the development of acoustic echolocation-based techniques for the evaluation of porosity and

  12. 应用Bootstrap方法估计加工食品中污染物的残留浓度%Using Bootstrap method to estimate the residual concentration of pollutants in several common food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳立文; 闵捷; 王灿楠; 胡丹; 李朝赟; 肖珊

    2011-01-01

    目的 应用Bootstrap方法对几种常见加工食品污染物(铅)残留浓度与原料食品污染物残留浓度的比值做出估计,并与文中定义的折算系数进行比较,对两者的关系及其意义进行探讨.方法 从中国2000~2006年全国农产品污染物监测数据库中筛选出常见的、频数较多的几种食品,运用Bootstrap方法估计铅在加工食品与其原料食品残留浓度之间的比值.结果 果汁、馒头、米粉、豆腐类等残留浓度的比值小于1,饼干、面包、豆腐干、鱼罐头残留浓度的比值基本等于1,猪肉干及皮蛋的残留浓度的比值明显超过1,这些食品残留浓度比值大多与折算系数不同.结论 使用Bootstrap方法估计常见食品污染物残留浓度的比值具有可行性.加工过程对食品的污染物残留有一定影响,不能仅用稀释与浓缩解释.%Objective Using Bootstrap method to estimate the ratio of residual pollutants in processed foods to their raw materials in several common foods, comparing the conversion coefficient defined in this article and exploring its significance for applying in the future. Methods Several common foods sorted from the national data base of monitoring pollutants in agricultural products from 2000 to 2006 were used to estimate the ratio of residual lead in processed foods to their raw food materials by Bootstrap method. Results The ratio of residuals in juice, steamed bun, rice flour and bean curd to their raw materials was less than one. That in biscuit, bread, dried tofu and canned fish was almost equal to one, and that in dried pork and preserved eggs was obviously higher than one. These ratios were frequently different from the conversion coefficients. Conclusion Using Bootstrap method to estimate the ratio of residual concentration of pollutants in several common food is feasible. The amount of pollutants remained in food can be influenced by food processing, while not can be explained only by dilution

  13. 糯小麦面包的研制及货架期预测%Development and Shelf-life Evaluation of Waxy Wheat Flour Bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 张焕新

    2015-01-01

    糯小麦粉具有独特的理化特性,将其添加到面包中可以制作出货架期较长的面包。以面包的感官品质为评价指标,考察糯小麦粉、酵母、白砂糖、奶油添加量对糯小麦面包品质的影响,通过单因素和正交试验设计优化糯小麦面包的最佳配方,结果表明:糯小麦粉对面包感官品质影响最大,其次是酵母、奶油和白砂糖。糯小麦面包的最佳配比为:糯小麦粉12.0%、酵母1.6%、白砂糖7.0%、奶油4.0%。由此配比制得的糯小麦面包表面金黄、色泽均匀、形态饱满、口感纯正、松软可口,各项指标均符合国家标准。通过ASLT法预测糯小麦面包的货架期得出:储藏温度20℃和湿度60%的条件下,糯小麦面包的货架期大约为13 d,比市售白面包的货架期(<7 d)有显著提高。%Waxy wheat flour have some specific physicochemical properties compared with those of normal wheat starch, it was used to extend the shelf-life of bread in this paper. With the organoleptic score as the index, single-factor and orthogonal experiments were carried out to design the optimum formula of resistant starch bread as follows:waxy wheat flour, 12.0%;yeast, 1.6%;sugar, 7.0%;cream, 4.0%, the proportion of waxy wheat flour and yeast have significant influence to the sensory quality of bread. The organoleptic , physicochemical, and health indices of the bread produced using the optimum formula were measured. The results showed that the resistant starch biscuits had the advantages of uniform color (golden yellow), intact appearance, pure flavor, soft and delicate taste, no sticking to teeth, and no grainy taste. All the physicochemical and health indices met national standards. The shelf-life of bread was measured by the method of accelerated shelf-life testing, and it was approximately13 d, and the results indicated the waxy wheat flour prolong the shelf-life of bread significantly compared with the white bread

  14. 口腔修复材料氧化锆生物陶瓷的制备方法及应用进展%Preparation of zirconia bioceramics and its application in prosthodontics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 尹娇娇; 杨华哲

    2016-01-01

    :Preparation of zirconia bioceramics involves the folowing aspects:powder synthesis, biscuit molding, and ceramic sintering.To improvethe istability of zirconia al-ceramic crowns,we optimize the preparation of zirconia powder topromotethe purity, mechanical properties, biological properties and stability. Furthermore, it is necessary to explore the effects of crystal nucleation, growth, second phase and grain size on crystal stability and biomechanical propertiesof thetooth abutment, as wel astoconduct an in-depth theoretical analysis on the effect oftooth abutmentand lattice matching of porcelain crowns on the interface.

  15. Comparisons of watershed sulfur budgets in southeast Canada and northeast US: New approaches and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M.J.; Lovett, G.; Bailey, S.; Beall, F.; Burns, D.; Buso, D.; Clair, T.A.; Courchesne, F.; Duchesne, L.; Eimers, C.; Fernandez, I.; Houle, D.; Jeffries, D.S.; Likens, G.E.; Moran, M.D.; Rogers, C.; Schwede, D.; Shanley, J.; Weathers, K.C.; Vet, R.

    2011-01-01

    Most of eastern North America receives elevated levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur (S) that result from anthropogenic SO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Atmospheric S deposition has acidified sensitive terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in this region; however, deposition has been declining since the 1970s, resulting in some recovery in previously acidified aquatic ecosystems. Accurate watershed S mass balances help to evaluate the extent to which atmospheric S deposition is retained within ecosystems, and whether internal cycling sources and biogeochemical processes may be affecting the rate of recovery from decreasing S atmospheric loads. This study evaluated S mass balances for 15 sites with watersheds in southeastern Canada and northeastern US for the period 1985 to 2002. These 15 sites included nine in Canada (Turkey Lakes, ON; Harp Lake, ON; Plastic Lake, ON; Hermine, QC; Lake Laflamme, QC; Lake Clair, QC; Lake Tirasse, QC; Mersey, NS; Moosepit, NS) and six in the US (Arbutus Lake, NY; Biscuit Brook, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH; Cone Pond, NH; Bear Brook Watershed, ME). Annual S wet deposition inputs were derived from measured bulk or wet-only deposition and stream export was obtained by combining drainage water fluxes with SO42- concentrations. Dry deposition has the greatest uncertainty of any of the mass flux calculations necessary to develop accurate watershed balances, and here we developed a new method to calculate this quantity. We utilized historical information from both the US National Emissions Inventory and the US (CASTNET) and the Canadian (CAPMoN) dry deposition networks to develop a formulation that predicted SO2 concentrations as a function of SO2 emissions, latitude and longitude. The SO2 concentrations were used to predict dry deposition using relationships between concentrations and deposition flux derived from the CASTNET or CAPMoN networks. For the year 2002, we compared the SO2

  16. 衡阳市淀粉类油炸食品中丙烯酰胺含量调查%Survey of Acrylamide in Fried Starchy Food in Hengyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李程; 龚琴; 向艳; 何爱桃

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the level of acrylamide in fried starchy food in Hengyang. Methods A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method combined with solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to detect the level of acrylamide in 84 samples of fried starchy food which was obtained from the markets by random principle. Results The average levels of acrylamide in 8 kinds of fried starchy food, inculding French fries, biscuit, twisted dough - strips, deepfried pancake, cake, toast, fried dough twist and instant noodles were 1,082 μg/kg, 715 μg/kg, 390 μg/kg, 281 μg/kg, 165 μg/kg, 118 μg/kg, 92 μg/kg and 54 μg/kg, respectively. There were different levels of acrylamide found in 8 kinds of fried food (F= 126.44, P<0.01 ). There were statistically significant differences in the average levels of acrylanide among other 6 kinds of fried food (P< 0.05) except twisted dough- strips and toast (P >0.05). Conclusions The levels of acrylamide of 8 kinds of fried starchy foods are far higher than the acrylamide limited level in the drinking water recommended by the World Health Organization, which must be paid a lot of attention to.%目的 了解衡阳市淀粉类油炸食品中丙烯酰胺含量情况.方法 对衡阳市市售淀粉类油炸食品进行随机采样,在选定的色谱条件下,固相萃取-高效液相色谱法测定样品中的丙烯酰胺含量.结果 8种淀粉类油炸食品:薯条、饼干、油条、油饼、蛋糕、烤面包、麻花和方便面中丙烯酰胺平均含量依次为1 082,715,390,281,165,118,92,54μg/kg;8种淀粉类油炸食品中丙烯酰胺的含量不同(F=126.44,P0.05),其余各种淀粉类油炸食品的丙烯酰胺含量间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 8种淀粉类油炸食品中丙烯酰胺含量均远远超过世界卫生组织规定的饮水中丙烯酰胺的限量水平,应引起重视.

  17. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc); Estudo de dieta total no Estado de Sao Paulo: estimativa de ingestao dietetica de elementos toxicos (arsenio e cadmio) e essenciais (calcio, cromo, ferro, selenio, sodio, potassio e zinco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane Pagliaro

    2009-07-01

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275{+-}31mg Ca; 20.7{+-}1.9{mu}g Cr; 5.7{+-}0.4mg Fe; 861{+-}46mg K; 9.44{+-}0.48{mu}g Se; 1928{+-}278mg Na; 4.25{+-}0.24mg Zn; 1.53{+-}0.43{mu}g As and 1.31{+-}0.16{mu}g Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market

  18. Avaliação de habilidades orais de crianças nascidas pré-termo Assessing oral skills of preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneline Maria Ruedell

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar as habilidades orais de crianças nascidas pré-termo aos 4 e 6 meses de idade corrigida. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas 14 crianças, nascidas com idade gestacional entre 29 e 35 semanas, no Ambulatório de Seguimento de Prematuros do Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria, no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A avaliação aos 4 e 6 meses de idade corrigida compreendeu movimentos de língua, lábios e mandíbula durante a utilização da mamadeira ou seio, sendo que aos 6 meses também foi avaliado a retirada do alimento pastoso da colher, o uso do copo, e a mascagem com bolacha. Todas as avaliações foram filmadas e analisadas por 3 fonoaudiólogas. Um questionário sobre os hábitos alimentares das crianças foi respondido pelos pais. RESULTADOS: aos 4 e 6 meses o vedamento labial adequado foi observado em 71,4% e 85,7%, respectivamente. Aos 6 meses em 78,6% das crianças o lábio superior retirou de forma eficiente o alimento pastoso da colher, 42,9% conseguiram sorver o líquido do copo de forma adequada e 57,1% tiveram dificuldade no uso do copo. CONCLUSÃO: neste estudo, as crianças que nasceram prematuras aos 4 e 6 meses de idade corrigida apresentaram desenvolvimento das habilidades orais em uma seqüência progressiva, no entanto apresentaram comprometimento do vedamento labial durante a sucção e dificuldades no uso da colher e do copo para sua alimentação.PURPOSE: to evaluate the oral skills of preterm infants at 4 and 6 months of corrected age. METHODS: 14 preterm infants born between 29 and 35 weeks of gestational age were evaluated during their follow-up at the University Hospital of Santa Maria, state of Rio Grande do Sul. Assessment at 4 and 6 months of corrected age included movements of the tongue, lips and jaw during bottle or breastfeeding, and at 6 months, we also assessed their ability to remove the pasty food from the spoon, the use of the cup, and with munching biscuits. All assessments were recorded and

  19. Consumo alimentar de escolares das redes pública e privada de ensino em São Luís, Maranhão Food consumption of schoolchildren from private and public schools of São Luis, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Ismael Oliveira da Conceição

    2010-12-01

    was cited was considered and the foods were grouped according to the Brazilian food pyramid. The chi-square test was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: Low consumption of sausages (around 6%, adequate consumption of meat and eggs (95.9% and few skipping breakfast (3.2%, lunch (2.2% or dinner (3.1% were favorable aspects of the diet. Conversely, elevated consumption of biscuits (52.6%, low consumption of fruits (52.6% and greens (34.4%, high consumption of sugars and sweets (69.4% and oils and fat (65.6%, and the fact that the consumption of sodas (25.8% and powdered drink mixes (35.8% were higher than the consumption of fresh juices (23.4% were negative aspects of the diet. Energy consumption was inadequate for 66.3% of the schoolchildren, lipids for 30.2%, vitamin A for 28.7%, vitamin C for 59.2% and calcium for 98.8%. CONCLUSION: Educational strategies for the promotion of healthy eating habits should cover common and specific contents in order to deal with the different food consumption practices of schoolchildren from private and public schools.

  20. 福安市城乡学龄前儿童膳食与营养状况调查%Survey on dietary and nutritional status of children in urban and rural areas in Fu'an City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂芳; 徐英; 刘长节

    2011-01-01

    difference in underweight rate is not significant between these two groups ( P > 0.05 ). It comes to the conclusion that the nutrients in meals of children are somewhat unbalanced. Simple breakfast including a little mount of milk, biscuit or bread tends to result in the lack of vitamins, iron, zinc, calcium, protein and other important elements,even some children are sent to nursery without breakfast, thus it causes the shortage of three catgories of nutrients. Conclusion In view of this condition, we are obliged to carry out health education for nutritional knowledge for dietary taking and put it into "good pregnancy and good rearing" education for women at marriageable age, and set approach for monitoring the growth of children as well as their nutritional intake. and enhancing the health guidance for meals of children.

  1. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL EVALUATION OF BARU (Dipteryx alata Vog. COMPONENTS FOR SHELF LIFE STUDY AVALIAÇÃO QUÍMICA E FÍSICA DE COMPONENTES DO BARU (Dipteryx alata Vog. PARA ESTUDO DA VIDA DE PRATELEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Caliari

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Agroecology, a science that studies productive relations between man and nature, and whose goal is ecological, economic, social, cultural, political, and ethical sustainability, has been increasingly used as a tool for social and cultural transformation. Within that perspective, the Brazilian Cerrado provides fruits such as baru, which is highly genetically variable, but also widely used as a source of income by the regional population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical and physical characteristics of baru pulp, along a 181-day storage period. For that purpose, weight and size analyses, centesimal analysis, monitoring of changes, and sensorial analysis of dry biscuits, in which 25% of the wheat flour was replaced by baru pulp, were carried out. Physical characteristics such as weight, length, and width did not present significant differences, during the storage period. The level of total sugars and reducers increased during the storage period, unlike the tannin level, which decreased. Baru pulp may be considered an important source of sugars and dietary fiber. In addition, the biscuits obtained satisfactory scores for both taste and appearance, on the acceptability test, and their nutritional quality increased.

    KEY-WORDS: Baru; pulp; physical and chemical analyses; kinetics; sensorial analysis

  2. Characterizing the formation of secondary organic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunden, Melissa; Black, Douglas; Brown, Nancy

    2004-02-01

    concentrations of important gas phase nitrogen compounds. Experiments have been ongoing at the Blodgett field site since the fall of 2000, and have included portions of the summer and fall of 2001, 2002, and 2003. Analysis of both the gas and particle phase data from the year 2000 show that the particle loading at the site correlates with both biogenic precursors emitted in the forest and anthropogenic precursors advected to the site from Sacramento and the Central Valley of California. Thus the particles at the site are affected by biogenic processing of anthropogenic emissions. Size distribution measurements show that the aerosol at the site has a geometric median diameter of approximately 100 nm. On many days, in the early afternoon, growth of nuclei mode particles (<20 nm) is also observed. These growth events tend to occur on days with lower average temperatures, but are observed throughout the summer. Analysis of the size resolved data for these growth events, combined with typical measured terpene emissions, show that the particle mass measured in these nuclei mode particles could come from oxidation products of biogenic emissions, and can serve as a significant route for SOA partitioning into the particle phase. During periods of each year, the effect of emissions for forest fires can be detected at the Blodgett field location. During the summer of 2002 emissions from the Biscuit fire, a large fire located in Southwest Oregon, was detected in the aerosol data. The results show that increases in particle scattering can be directly related to increased black carbon concentration and an appearance of a larger mode in the aerosol size distribution. These results show that emissions from fires can have significant impact on visibility over large distances. The results also reinforce the view that forest fires can be a significant source of black carbon in the atmosphere, which has important climate and visibility. Continuing work with the 2002 data set, particularly the

  3. In 2011 Binyang county food security risk monitoring result analysis%2011年宾阳县食品安全风险监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何作凡; 邓赞民; 黄英哲; 林加义; 莫奔强

    2012-01-01

      目的:为了掌握宾阳县主要食品中主要污染物及有害因素的污染水平和趋势,确定危害因素的分布和可能来源,及时发现食品安全隐患,为风险预警提供依据.方法:采用或参考国家标准方法进行检测.结果:2011年共检测食品18类共193份,其中合格150个份,总合格率77.72%;其中油条、馒头、玉米及其制品、花生、液体奶、腌制蔬菜、凉拌菜、幼儿配方粉、蛋类合格率均为100%;饼干合格率91.67%、糕点合格率83.33%、鲜榨果汁合格率83.33%、速冻熟制米面制品合格率83.33%、盒饭合格率66.67.33%、非发酵性豆制品合格率50.00%、熟肉制品合格率44.44%、大米合格率40.00%、蔬菜合格率20.00%.在193份食品样品中,食品化学性污染物和有害因素常规监测的食品81份,合格63份,合格率77.78%;食源性微生物监测的食品112份,合格87份,合格率77.68%.结论:宾阳县主要食品存在污染物或有害物质污染,蔬菜、大米、熟肉制品、非发酵性豆制品合格率较低,通过监测测为宾阳县食品安全预警提供技术依据.%  Objective:In order to grasp in Binyang county main food the main polutant and the adverse factor polution level and the tendency, determined that the harm factor distributed and possible to originate,discovered promptly the food safe hidden danger, provides the basis for the risk early warning. Metods:Uses or the reference national standards method carries on the examination. Results:in 2011 altogether examines food 18 kinds of altogether 193, qualified 150 shares, total qualified rate 77.72%;And the cruler, the steamed bun, the corn and the product ,the peanut,the liquid milk, the souse vegetables, the cold food in sauce , the baby formula powder,the egg class qualified rate are 100%; The biscuit qualified rate 91.67%,cakes an pastries qualified rate 83.33%, press out the fruit juice qualified raet 83.33%, quick

  4. Risk assessment of fortification level for vitamin A in food in China%我国食物维生素A强化水平的风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩军花; 李晓瑜; 李艳平

    2012-01-01

    aged 14- 17 years had the lowest MSFL (1078.5 μgRE/1000 kJ).The MSFL for pregnant women was 1066.8 μgRE/1000 kJ.The results in different areas showed that men and women aged 14 - 17 years in large city had lower MFSL(997.3 and 879.1 μgRE/1000 kJ respectively),the MSFL in other groups in different areas were between 1000 - 2000 μgRE/1000 kJ.After conversion using the lowest MSFL,the highest fortification levels for vegetable oil,wheat flour,rice,modified milk,biscuit,soybean powder,milk powder for preschool children,milk powder for pregnant and lactating women were 33 063,12 650,12 729,1987,15 929,15 411,20 642,17 920 μgRE/kg respectively,higher than the current fortified level in national standard.Conclusion The current fortification levels in foods are safe and the risk of over intake of vitamin A from fortified food is very low.

  5. 北京市海淀区8~16岁儿童少年食用十类垃圾食品现况调查及影响因素分析%Study on factors related to top 10 junk food consumption at 8 to 16 years of age,in Haidian District of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱淑萍; 丁越江; 鲁向锋; 王宏伟; 杨暮; 汪建秀; 晁晓东; 赵振

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the current situation of ten types of junk food consumption (assessed by World Health Organization) among children and adolescent as well as the contributing factors in Haidian District, Beijing so as to provide evidence for developing preventive and control measures and interventions. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the consumption of ten types of junk food practices in 1019 children and adolescent aged 8-16 years in Beijing Haidian District. Results One month prior to the study, 97.50% of the children and adolescent had eaten at least one type of junk food and 15.88 % of them had eaten all types of them. Rates on having eaten deep fried food, pickled food,processed meat products, biscuits, coke or alike drinks, convenience/fast food, canned food, dried or preserved fruit, cold and sweet food, barbecue food etc. appeared to be 70.43%, 60.14%, 79.72%,64.24 % ,69.63 %, 78.72 %, 42.16 %, 51.95 %, 68.13 %, 60.14 % respectively. The rate on eaten more than once a day of these ten types were 26.95%, 36.88%, 34.84%, 32.97%, 27.40%, 28.18%,37.91% ,26.15 % ,37.39%, 22.10% respectively. The rates for "do not like" and "dislike" these ten types junk food were 10.96% ,27.42% ,7.08% ,12.11% ,6.56% ,6.59%, 17.80%, 13.59% ,3.42%,5.19% respectively. Most of the children and adolescent ate junk food mainly during breakfast at home.Most of the surveyed children and adolescent did not have correct idea on nutrition of junk food. They received the information of junk food mainly from sources as advertisement on TV (67.95%), mother (9.02%), newspaper or magazines ( 6.71% ). Many factors, such as individual factors ( including physiological and psychological situations), social factors, family factors and the characteristics of food contributed to the eating junk food practiees of children and adolescent. Conclusion Eating junk food is a popular event among children and adolescent in Beijing Haidian District. Education strategies on

  6. 合肥市大学新生膳食模式及其与骨密度的关系%Dietary patterns in college freshmen and its relation to bone mineral density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素芳; 穆敏; 赵艳; 王晓琴; 束龙; 李青艳; 李迎春

    2012-01-01

    . After adjusting for confounders, covariance with Bonferroni' s was used to further ' examine the associations between dietary patterns and bone mineral density ( BMD ). Results ( 1 ) Four major dietary patterns were noticed. Western food pattern ( high consumption in hamburger, fried food, nuts, biscuit, chocolate, cola, coffee, sugars). Animal protein pattern (high consumption in pork, mutton, beef, poultry meat, animal liver). Calcium pattern (high consumption in fresh fruits, eggs, fish and shrimps, kelp laver and sea fish, milk and dairy products, beans and bean products). Traditional Chinese pattern ( high consumption in rice and grain, fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, pork). (2) No association was observed between the western food pattern and bone mineral density. High animal protein pattern showed lower SOS value compared with low animal protein pattern. High calcium pattern showed higher SOS value compared with low calcium pattern. High traditional Chinese pattern showed higher SOS value compared with the low traditional Chinese pattern. Conclusion Dietary patterns are closely related with bone mineral density (BMD) of freshmen.

  7. Hábitos alimenticios y composición corporal de deportistas españoles de élite pertenecientes a disciplinas de combate Food habits and body composition of Spanish elite athletes in combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Úbeda

    2010-06-01

    su deporte.Introduction: There is a scarcity of information about the dietary intake and food selection of combat sport people. Optimizing nutritional status, body weight, and body composition are key factors for their performance. Aim: The assessment of dietary intake, food habits, and body composition in elite combat sport people. Subjects and methods: 22 sportmen were recruited from the Spanish National Teams of Taekwondo, Judo, and Boxing. Food intake (FFQ, food habits and bodycomposition (DXA and Bioimpedance were analyzed. Results and discussion: Weight and body composition of the individuals assessed were similar to that previously described, although almost half of them were moderately over their desired competition weight. A lower than the recommended intake of vegetables (77% of individuals, cereals, bread, rice, potatoes, and pasta (73%, while red meat and derivatives intake exceeded the recommendations. Their main preferences were pasta, meat, and cereals. Legumes, vegetables, and fish were their main dislikes. A statistically significant relationship between food preferences and intakes was only observed for legumes, yogurt, and nuts. The athletes reported that reducing the intake of biscuits and confectionery (68% of individuals, high-fat foods (36%, and/or bread (27% would be a good dietetic strategy for losing weight. None of them reported that voluntary dehydration would be a good strategy for this purpose. Conclusions: food offer to which this sport people have access and their choices are adequate, although the intake of some food groups (vegetables, red meat and derivatives does not follow the recommendations. Their body weight slightly exceeds their competition weight, what it is frequently found in these sports. Nevertheless, their knowledge about nutrition and dietetics applied to exercise are acceptable.

  8. Composição de lancheiras de alunos de escolas particulares de São Paulo Composición de las fiambreras de alumnos de escuelas privadas de São Paulo, Brasil Contents of students lunchboxes in private schools of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tenorio Matuk

    2011-06-01

    ños estudiados, 82% trajeron cereales, 67% jugos artificiales y otras bebidas, 65% leche y alimentos lácteos, 51% bizcocho, galletas y barras de cereales rellenas y/o con cobertura y 35% embutidos en por lo menos un día de recolección. La frecuencia de frutas y jugos naturales fue de 33% y de verduras y legumbres fue de 4%. Niñas llevaron para la escuela con más frecuencia frutas y hortalizas (pOBJETIVE: To evaluate the composition of lunchboxes of children attending second to fifth grades of private schools in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in five units of a private school, located in different regions of the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil. Every lunchbox was checked for three non-consecutive days in the year 2008. All children from second to fifth grades of these units (n=501 were studied and categorized according to the presence or absence of each food group in the lunchboxes on at least one of the three days of observation. RESULTS: Among the children studied, 82% brought cereals, 67% artificial juices and other beverages, 65% milk and dairy foods, 51% cake, biscuits and cereal bars with filling and/or icing and 35% sausages in at least one day. The frequency of students who brought fruit and natural juices was 33%, and vegetables 4%. Girls more often took fruits and vegetables to school (p<0.05. Older students more often did not carry lunchboxes to the school, compared to younger ones, during the three days of observation (11 and 4% respectively; p<0,05. CONCLUSIONS: The composition of the school lunch-boxes, despite some positive aspects, was inadequate. Lunchboxes presented over-processed foods, usually with a high content of sugar, fat and sodium, and absence of fruits and vegetables.

  9. Dietary patterns and its influencing factors among freshmen students in college%大学新生膳食模式及其影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素芳; 穆敏; 赵艳; 李湖中; 方炎福; 王海林; 李李; 胡传来

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dietary pattern in college freshmen students and to analyze the influencing factors on their dietary patterns. Methods A questionnaire survey on situation of dietary pattern and influencing factors was conducted among 1319 freshmen students.Results Four major dietary patterns were noticed and they were: Ⅰ , high consumption in hamburger,fried food, nuts, biscuit, chocolate, cola, coffee, sugars, Ⅱ, high consumption in pork, mutton, beef,poultry meat, animal liver, Ⅲ, high consumption in fresh fruits, eggs, fish and shrimps, kelp laver and sea fish, milk and dairy products, beans and bean products, Ⅳ, high consumption in rice and grain,fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, pork. Risk factors on dietary pattern were presented as follows: ( 1 )boys: having the food pattern Ⅰ and Ⅱ showed a strong positive association with the place where they live (OR= 1.67, 95%CI: 0.87-3.19; OR= 1.51,95%CI: 0.79-2.88), eating place (OR=1.63,95%CI: 1.O3-2.59; OR= 1.83, 95%CI: 1.04-3.23), level of mother' s education (OR=2.52,95%CI: 1.07-5.95; OR=3.38, 95%CI: 1.50-7.63), family income (OR=2.24, 95%CI: 1.30-3.88;OR=3.06, 95% CI: 1.77-5.29) and the status of passive smoking (OR= 1.80, 95%CI: 0.70-4.59;OR=1.83, 95%CI: 0.75-4.45). Inverse correlations was found on the level of mother's education (OR=0.56,95%CI: 0.17-1.79). The food pattern Ⅳ showed a strong positive association with place of eating(OR= 1.83,95%CI: 1.04-3.23) but having an inverse correlation with the level of mother's education (OR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.17-1.79). (2)girls when compared with boys, the food pattern Ⅰ showed minor association with the places of living and eating; while the food pattern Ⅱ and Ⅲ had minor association with the status of passive smoking. Conclusion Socio-demographic factors and lifestyle had influenced on the dietary patterns among college freshmen students who should be guided to have a reasonable, balanced diet in the college

  10. Valor nutricional de alimentos para suínos determinado na Universidade Federal de Lavras Nutritional value of feedstuffs for pigs determined at the University of Lavras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleide Alves de Souza Santos

    2005-02-01

    , digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME for the proteic feeds from vegetal by-products were 66,2%, 2480 Kcal/kg, 2190 Kcal/kg for cottonseed meal; 77,3%, 2365 Kcal/kg, 2289 Kcal/kg for sun flower meal; 72,3%, 2880 Kcal/kg, 2580 Kcal/kg for linseed meal; 86,5%,3430 Kcal/kg., 3360 Kcal/kg for soybean meal 46% of crude protein; 86,8.8%, 4580 Kcal/kg, 4359 Kcal/kg for micronized soybean; 81,2% 3292 Kcal/kg, 3146 Kcal/kg for peanuts meal. For the protein feeds from animal by-products were 47,3%, 3470 Kcal/kg, 3310 Kcal/kg for swine pancreas meal; 81,3%, 3660 Kcal/kg, 3550 Kcal/kg for swine viscera meal. For the energetic feed from vegetal by-product were 84,4%, 3220 Kcal/kg, 3185 Kcal/kg for biscuit meal; 85,3%, 3480 Kcal/kg, 3320 Kcal/kg for ground corn; 81.2%, 3308 Kcal/kg; 3257 Kcal/kg for QPM corn; 86.2%, 3213 Kcal/kg, 3048 Kcal/kg for ground millet; 83.5%, 3123 Kcal/kg, 2950 Kcal/kg for whole grain millet. For both oils and fats, the values of digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME were 8630 Kcal/kg, 8340 Kcal/kg for canola oil; 8380 Kcal/kg, 8220 Kcal/kg for linseed oil; 8670 Kcal/kg, 8340 Kcal/kg for soybean oil 8110 Kcal/kg , 7960 Kcal/kg for coconut fat; 8360 Kcal/kg, 8280 Kcal/kg for swine fat. In general, the data analyzed shown variations in the chemical composition, digestibility and energetic values of the feeds relative to those cited in the Brazilian and foreign tables and values reported by other researchers. The value obtained, in addition to furnishing subsides to increase information for data bank relative to the making of table for national swine feed table also will be able to contribute to tecnal improvement in formulating swine rations.