Sample records for biscogniauxia mediterranea syn

  1. Diversity of Biscogniauxia mediterranea within Single Stromata on Cork Oak

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    Joana Henriques


    Full Text Available Charcoal canker, caused by the fungus Biscogniauxia mediterranea, is one of the most frequent diseases of cork oak in Portugal. The pathogen has been considered a secondary invader that attacks only stressed hosts; however, in recent years, an increasing number of young trees exhibiting the disease symptoms have been recorded. A collection of monoascosporic cultures isolated from single stromata of B. mediterranea in cork oak from different locations was analyzed by means of microsatellite—Primed Polymerase Chain Reaction—using three microsatellite primers, in order to detect the genetic variation of the population thus discussing its plasticity and ability to adapt to different conditions. The results showed a high level of genetic variability among isolates obtained from the same stroma, being impossible to distinguish isolates from individual stromata neither from different geographical location.

  2. Biscogniauxone, a New Isopyrrolonaphthoquinone Compound from the Fungus Biscogniauxia mediterranea Isolated from Deep-Sea Sediments

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    Bin Wu


    Full Text Available The properties and the production of new metabolites from the fungal strain LF657 isolated from the Herodotes Deep (2800 m depth in the Mediterranean Sea are reported in this study. The new isolate was identified as Biscogniauxia mediterranea based on ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 28S rRNA gene sequences. A new isopyrrolonaphthoquinone with inhibitory activity against glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β was isolated from this fungus. This is the first report of this class of compounds from a fungus isolated from a deep-sea sediment, as well as from a Biscogniauxia species.

  3. Pre-exposure to ozone predisposes oak leaves to attacks by Diplodia corticola and Biscogniauxia mediterranea. (United States)

    Paoletti, Elena; Anselmi, Naldo; Franceschini, Antonio


    One-year-old cork oak (Quercus suber) and turkey oak (Q. cerris) seedlings were exposed to ozone (110 ppb, 5 h day(-1), for 30 days) and were inoculated with Diplodia corticola and Biscogniauxia mediterranea, respectively, by spraying a suspension of spores on the leaves. Both fungi are endophytic and may act as weak parasites, contributing to oak decline. Ozone exposure stimulated leaf attacks after inoculation, although the physiological, visible, and structural responses of both oaks to O3 exposure were weak. In fact, steady-state gas exchange, leaf waxes, and wettability were not significantly affected by O3. In Q. cerris, O3 altered the structure of stomata, as observed by scanning microscopy, and reduced the leaf relative water content. No hyphal entry through stomata or growth towards stomata was, however, observed. Inoculations were performed in a humid chamber at low light; stomata were likely to be closed. When Q. cerris was inoculated in natural conditions, i.e., in a forest infected by B. mediterranea, seedlings pre-exposed to the enhanced O3 regime had a higher number of B. mediterranea isolates than the controls. This suggests that pre-exposure to O3 predisposed Q. cerris leaves to attacks by B. mediterranea independent of stomata. The hyphae of both fungi were able to enter the leaf through the cuticle, either by gradual in-growth into the cuticle or erosion of a hollow in the cuticle at the point of contact. The primary cause of increased leaf injury in O3-exposed seedlings appeared to be higher germination of spores than on control leaves.

  4. Pre-Exposure to Ozone Predisposes Oak Leaves to Attacks by Diplodia corticola and Biscogniauxia mediterranea

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    Elena Paoletti


    Full Text Available One-year-old cork oak (Quercus suber and turkey oak (Q. cerris seedlings were exposed to ozone (110 ppb, 5 h day˗1, for 30 days and were inoculated with Diplodia corticola and Biscogniauxia mediterranea, respectively, by spraying a suspension of spores on the leaves. Both fungi are endophytic and may act as weak parasites, contributing to oak decline. Ozone exposure stimulated leaf attacks after inoculation, although the physiological, visible, and structural responses of both oaks to O3 exposure were weak. In fact, steady-state gas exchange, leaf waxes, and wettability were not significantly affected by O3. In Q. cerris, O3 altered the structure of stomata, as observed by scanning microscopy, and reduced the leaf relative water content. No hyphal entry through stomata or growth towards stomata was, however, observed. Inoculations were performed in a humid chamber at low light; stomata were likely to be closed. When Q. cerris was inoculated in natural conditions, i.e., in a forest infected by B. mediterranea, seedlings pre-exposed to the enhanced O3 regime had a higher number of B. mediterranea isolates than the controls. This suggests that pre-exposure to O3 predisposed Q. cerris leaves to attacks by B. mediterranea independent of stomata. The hyphae of both fungi were able to enter the leaf through the cuticle, either by gradual in-growth into the cuticle or erosion of a hollow in the cuticle at the point of contact. The primary cause of increased leaf injury in O3-exposed seedlings appeared to be higher germination of spores than on control leaves.

  5. Essential Oils of Myrtaceae Species Growing Wild in Tunisia: Chemical Variability and Antifungal Activity Against Biscogniauxia mediterranea, the Causative Agent of Charcoal Canker. (United States)

    Yangui, Islem; Zouaoui Boutiti, Meriem; Boussaid, Mohamed; Messaoud, Chokri


    The chemical composition of five Eucalyptus species and five Myrtus communis L. populations was investigated using GC/MS and GC-FID. For Eucalyptus essential oils, 32 compounds, representing 88.56 - 96.83% of the total oil according to species, were identified. The main compounds were 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, p-cymene, γ-gurjunene, α-aromadendrene, and β-phellandrene. For Myrtle essential oils, 26 compounds, representing 93.13 - 98.91% of the total oil were identified. α-Pinene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, and myrtenyl acetate were found to be the major compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed chemical differentiation between Eucalyptus species and between Myrtle populations. Biscogniauxia mediterranea, the causative agent of charcoal canker, was identified according to its morphological and molecular characteristics. Essential oils of the investigated Eucalyptus species and Myrtle populations were tested for their antifungal capacity against this fungus. The antifungal activity varied according to the essential oil composition. Biscogniauxia mediterranea exhibited powerful resistance to some essential oils including them of Eucalyptus lehmannii and Eucalyptus sideroxylon but it was very sensitive to Eucalyptus camaldulensis oil (IC50  = 3.83 mg/ml) and M. communis oil from Zaghouan (IC50  = 1 mg/ml). This sensitivity was found to be correlated to some essential oil compounds such as p-cymene, carvacrol, cuminaldehyde, and linalool. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. Biscopyran, a phytotoxic hexasubstituted pyranopyran produced by Biscogniauxia mediterranea, a fungus pathogen of cork oak. (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Andolfi, Anna; Maddau, Lucia; Franceschini, Antonio; Marras, Francesco


    A new phytotoxic hexasubstituted pyranopyran, biscopyran (3), was isolated together with phenylacetic acid (2) and previously isolated 5-methylmellein (1) from the liquid culture filtrates of Biscogniauxiamediterranea, a major fungal pathogen involved in oak decline in Sardinia. Biscopyran was characterized by spectroscopic methods as a new (Z)-2-methoxy-1-[7-((Z)-2-methoxybut-2-enoyl)-3,4,5,6-tetramethyl-2H,7H-pyrano[2,3-b]pyran-2-yl]but-2-en-1-one. Biscopyran assayed at 0.26-0.026 mM concentration range caused epinasty on cork oak cuttings. On a nonhost plant, tomato, biscopyran caused wilting. Phenylacetic acid, assayed at the same concentration, was toxic to Q. suber, while on tomato cuttings it induced internal tissue collapse on the stem.

  7. The Occurrence of Charcoal Disease Caused by Biscogniauxia mediterranea on Chestnut-Leaved Oak (Quercus castaneifolia) in the Golestan Forests of Iran

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    Mirabolfathy, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.


    The chestnut-leaved oak (Quercus castaneifolia) is native to the Alborz Mountains, including the Golestan Forests, in northern Iran. Trees grow up to 35 (-50) m tall with a trunk up to 2.5 (-3.5) m in diameter. During 2010, we received reports of a decline of oak trees in the Ghorogh Region of the G

  8. Synæstesi

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    Karstoft, Karen-Inge


    Alfabetet opleves i grønt, gult, blåt og rødt, og berøringer kan smages. Tonerne fra Beethovens 9. ses i kavalkader af pink, og duften fra aftensmåltidet føles blød, varm og luftig. For synæstetikere er grænserne mellem sansemodaliteter flydende, og de »ekstra« og »unormale« sanseoplevelser kan...

  9. Toxicity of tributyltin (TBT) to the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. (United States)

    Ofoegbu, Pearl U; Simão, Fátima C P; Cruz, Andreia; Mendo, Sónia; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Pestana, João L T


    The freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, one of the best characterized animal models for regeneration research and developmental biology, is being recognised as a useful species for ecotoxicological studies. Sensitive endpoints related to planarians' behaviour and regeneration can be easily evaluated after exposure to environmental stressors. In this work the sensitivity of S. mediterranea to a gradient of environmentally relevant concentrations of TBT was studied using multiple endpoints like survival, locomotion, head regeneration and DNA damage. In addition, a feeding assay based on planarian's predatory behaviour was performed. Results indicated that TBT is toxic to planarians with LC50's of 1.87 μg L(-1) Sn and 1.31 μg L(-1) Sn at 48 h and 96 h of exposure respectively. Sub-lethal exposures to TBT significantly reduced locomotion and feeding, delayed head regeneration and caused DNA damage in planarians. The behavioural endpoints (feeding and locomotion) and head regeneration were the most sensitive parameters followed by DNA damage. Similar to other aquatic model organisms, S. mediterranea showed high sensitivity towards TBT exposure. Based on our results, and though further research is required concerning their sensitivity to other pollutants, the use of freshwater planarians as a model species in ecotoxicology is discussed.

  10. Sharpening the species boundaries in the Cladonia mediterranea complex (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota)

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    Pino-Bodas, R.; Pérez-Vargas, I.; Stenroos, S.; Ahti, T.; Burgaz, A.R.


    The complex Cladonia mediterranea belongs to the section Impexae and is formed by C. azorica, C. macaronesica and C. mediterranea. These species are basically distributed in the Mediterranean and Macaronesian Regions. In the present work the limits between the species of this complex are re-examined

  11. HOX gene complement and expression in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea

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    Ko W. Currie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freshwater planarians are well known for their regenerative abilities. Less well known is how planarians maintain spatial patterning in long-lived adult animals or how they re-pattern tissues during regeneration. HOX genes are good candidates to regulate planarian spatial patterning, yet the full complement or genomic clustering of planarian HOX genes has not yet been described, primarily because only a few have been detectable by in situ hybridization, and none have given morphological phenotypes when knocked down by RNAi. Results Because the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea (S. mediterranea is unsegmented, appendage less, and morphologically simple, it has been proposed that it may have a simplified HOX gene complement. Here, we argue against this hypothesis and show that S. mediterranea has a total of 13 HOX genes, which represent homologs to all major axial categories, and can be detected by whole-mount in situ hybridization using a highly sensitive method. In addition, we show that planarian HOX genes do not cluster in the genome, yet 5/13 have retained aspects of axially restricted expression. Finally, we confirm HOX gene axial expression by RNA deep-sequencing 6 anterior–posterior “zones” of the animal, which we provide as a dataset to the community to discover other axially restricted transcripts. Conclusions Freshwater planarians have an unappreciated HOX gene complexity, with all major axial categories represented. However, we conclude based on adult expression patterns that planarians have a derived body plan and their asexual lifestyle may have allowed for large changes in HOX expression from the last common ancestor between arthropods, flatworms, and vertebrates. Using our in situ method and axial zone RNAseq data, it should be possible to further understand the pathways that pattern the anterior–posterior axis of adult planarians.

  12. Flussi migratori, religione e diritto nella polis euro-mediterranea

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    Fortunato Freni


    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazioneSOMMARIO: 1. L’incremento dell’immigrazione in Europa nell’attuale contesto politico e religioso - 2. La “Primavera araba” e le tensioni afferenti alla libertà religiosa nei nuovi equilibri geopolitici - 3. Gli odierni fermenti culturali e giuridici nell’Islam mediterraneo - 4. La prospettiva di una laicità inclusiva euro-mediterranea avverso gli esclusivi schemi “mondialatinizzanti” - 5. Il ruolo dell’Europa nel bacino del Mediterraneo - 6. Alcuni strumenti per estendere la libertà di coscienza a tutte le tendenze culturali: a il dialogo interreligioso - 7. Segue: b le normative concordate - 8. Il decentramento comunitario e l’esigenza di una duttile (ma anche non discriminatoria governance europea.

  13. The Identification and the Functional Validation of Eye Development and Regeneration Genes in Schmidtea Mediterranea



    Discovering the master genes necessary to build the eye in an invertebrate model such as S. mediterranea could help us to understand numerous retinopathies and age-related degeneration of the human eye. The aim of this study was to select and determine the functional activity of genes involved in the regeneration and development of the S. mediterranea eye. Gene ontology was the tool used to select the genes; while RNA interference and RNA hybridization provided the first approach towards esta...

  14. A premeiotic function for boule in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. (United States)

    Iyer, Harini; Issigonis, Melanie; Sharma, Prashant P; Extavour, Cassandra G; Newmark, Phillip A


    Mutations in Deleted in Azoospermia (DAZ), a Y chromosome gene, are an important cause of human male infertility. DAZ is found exclusively in primates, limiting functional studies of this gene to its homologs: boule, required for meiotic progression of germ cells in invertebrate model systems, and Daz-like (Dazl), required for early germ cell maintenance in vertebrates. Dazl is believed to have acquired its premeiotic role in a vertebrate ancestor following the duplication and functional divergence of the single-copy gene boule. However, multiple homologs of boule have been identified in some invertebrates, raising the possibility that some of these genes may play other roles, including a premeiotic function. Here we identify two boule paralogs in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea Smed-boule1 is necessary for meiotic progression of male germ cells, similar to the known function of boule in invertebrates. By contrast, Smed-boule2 is required for the maintenance of early male germ cells, similar to vertebrate Dazl To examine if Boule2 may be functionally similar to vertebrate Dazl, we identify and functionally characterize planarian homologs of human DAZL/DAZ-interacting partners and DAZ family mRNA targets. Finally, our phylogenetic analyses indicate that premeiotic functions of planarian boule2 and vertebrate Dazl evolved independently. Our study uncovers a premeiotic role for an invertebrate boule homolog and offers a tractable invertebrate model system for studying the premeiotic functions of the DAZ protein family.

  15. Complete genome sequence of the melanogenic marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea type strain (MMB-1T)

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    Lucas-Elio, Patricia [University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Johnston, Andrew W. B. [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio [University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain


    Marinomonas mediterranea MMB-1 T Solano & Sanchez-Amat 1999 belongs to the family Oceanospirillaceae within the phylum Proteobacteria. This species is of interest because it is the only species described in the genus Marinomonas to date that can synthesize melanin pigments, which is mediated by the activity of a tyrosinase. M. mediterranea expresses other oxidases of biotechnological interest, such as a multicopper oxidase with laccase activity and a novel L-lysine-epsilon-oxidase. The 4,684,316 bp long genome harbors 4,228 proteincoding genes and 98 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  16. Redescription and establishment of a holotype and three paratypes for the species Hemimycale mediterranea sp. nov.

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    Maria J. Uriz


    Full Text Available Background In a recent paper, we described a new sponge species named Hemimycale mediterranea Uriz, Garate & Agell, 2017. However, we failed to designate a holotype and a type locality, as required by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN. Although the validity of the previous conclusions remains unchanged, the species name cannot be considered available according to ICZN regulations until a holotype is designated. Results The present work fulfills the requirements of the ICZN by designating a holotype, three paratypes and the type locality for the new species Hemimycale mediterranea and has been registered in ZooBank.

  17. Py4Syn: Python for synchrotrons. (United States)

    Slepicka, H H; Canova, H F; Beniz, D B; Piton, J R


    In this report, Py4Syn, an open-source Python-based library for data acquisition, device manipulation, scan routines and other helper functions, is presented. Driven by easy-to-use and scalability ideals, Py4Syn offers control system agnostic solution and high customization level for scans and data output, covering distinct techniques and facilities. Here, most of the library functionalities are described, examples of use are shown and ideas for future implementations are presented.

  18. Molecular Analysis of Fomitiporia mediterranea Isolates from Esca-Affected Grapevines in Southern Italy

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    C. Ciccarone


    Full Text Available Four Fomitiporia isolates representative of a collection of about 300 isolates from esca-affected grapevines in southern Italy (Apulia, Campania and Abruzzo were examined by molecular methods. The DNA of each isolate was analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification using ITS5 and ITS4 primers. An amplification product of 740 bp was obtained from all isolates. The denaturated products had the same migration pattern when analysed by single-strand conformation polymorphism. The PCR fragments that included the ribosomal ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region were sequenced. In order to ascertain the taxonomic identity of the isolates, the ITS sequences were compared with those of Fomitiporia mediterranea, F. punctata and F. robusta deposited in the GenBank. The ITS sequences of the isolates were uniform and homologous with those of the type culture of Fomitiporia mediterranea M. Fischer, to which the southern Italian isolates were compared.

  19. Stochastic Model of TCP SYN Attacks

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    Simona Ramanauskaitė


    Full Text Available A great proportion of essential services are moving into internet space making the threat of DoS attacks even more actual. To estimate the real risk of some kind of denial of service (DoS attack in real world is difficult, but mathematical and software models make this task easier. In this paper we overview the ways of implementing DoS attack models and offer a stochastic model of SYN flooding attack. It allows evaluating the potential threat of SYN flooding attacks, taking into account both the legitimate system flow as well as the possible attack power. At the same time we can assess the effect of such parameters as buffer capacity, open connection storage in the buffer or filte­ring efficiency on the success of different SYN flooding attacks. This model can be used for other type of memory depletion denial of service attacks.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Schmidtea mediterranea phylogeography: an old species surviving on a few Mediterranean islands?

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    Pala Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schmidtea mediterranea (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Continenticola is found in scattered localities on a few islands and in coastal areas of the western Mediterranean. Although S. mediterranea is the object of many regeneration studies, little is known about its evolutionary history. Its present distribution has been proposed to stem from the fragmentation and migration of the Corsica-Sardinia microplate during the formation of the western Mediterranean basin, which implies an ancient origin for the species. To test this hypothesis, we obtained a large number of samples from across its distribution area. Using known and new molecular markers and, for the first time in planarians, a molecular clock, we analysed the genetic variability and demographic parameters within the species and between its sexual and asexual populations to estimate when they diverged. Results A total of 2 kb from three markers (COI, CYB and a nuclear intron N13 was amplified from ~200 specimens. Molecular data clustered the studied populations into three groups that correspond to the west, central and southeastern geographical locations of the current distribution of S. mediterranea. Mitochondrial genes show low haplotype and nucleotide diversity within populations but demonstrate higher values when all individuals are considered. The nuclear marker shows higher values of genetic diversity than the mitochondrial genes at the population level, but asexual populations present lower variability than the sexual ones. Neutrality tests are significant for some populations. Phylogenetic and dating analyses show the three groups to be monophyletic, with the west group being the basal group. The time when the diversification of the species occurred is between ~20 and ~4 mya, although the asexual nature of the western populations could have affected the dating analyses. Conclusions S. mediterranea is an old species that is sparsely distributed in a harsh habitat

  1. Evolution of the EGFR pathway in Metazoa and its diversification in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. (United States)

    Barberán, Sara; Martín-Durán, José M; Cebrià, Francesc


    The EGFR pathway is an essential signaling system in animals, whose core components are the epidermal growth factors (EGF ligands) and their trans-membrane tyrosine kinase receptors (EGFRs). Despite extensive knowledge in classical model organisms, little is known of the composition and function of the EGFR pathway in most animal lineages. Here, we have performed an extensive search for the presence of EGFRs and EGF ligands in representative species of most major animal clades, with special focus on the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. With the exception of placozoans and cnidarians, we found that the EGFR pathway is potentially present in all other analyzed animal groups, and has experienced frequent independent expansions. We further characterized the expression domains of the EGFR/EGF identified in S. mediterranea, revealing a wide variety of patterns and localization in almost all planarian tissues. Finally, functional experiments suggest an interaction between one of the previously described receptors, Smed-egfr-5, and the newly found ligand Smed-egf-6. Our findings provide the most comprehensive overview to date of the EGFR pathway, and indicate that the last common metazoan ancestor had an initial complement of one EGFR and one putative EGF ligand, which was often expanded or lost during animal evolution.

  2. Tryptophan hydroxylase Is Required for Eye Melanogenesis in the Planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.

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    Bramwell G Lambrus

    Full Text Available Melanins are ubiquitous and biologically important pigments, yet the molecular mechanisms that regulate their synthesis and biochemical composition are not fully understood. Here we present a study that supports a role for serotonin in melanin synthesis in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We characterize the tryptophan hydroxylase (tph gene, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis, and demonstrate by RNA interference that tph is essential for melanin production in the pigment cups of the planarian photoreceptors. We exploit this phenotype to investigate the biological function of pigment cups using a quantitative light-avoidance behavioral assay. Planarians lacking eye pigment remain phototactic, indicating that eye pigmentation is not essential for light avoidance in S. mediterranea, though it improves the efficiency of the photophobic response. Finally, we show that the eye pigmentation defect observed in tph knockdown animals can be rescued by injection of either the product of TPH, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, or serotonin. Together, these results highlight a role for serotonin in melanogenesis, perhaps as a regulatory signal or as a pigment substrate. To our knowledge, this is the first example of this relationship to be reported outside of mammalian systems.

  3. CNoA: Challenging Number Approach for uncovering TCP SYN flooding using SYN spoofing attack

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    Full Text Available The challenging number is used for the detection of Spoofing attack. The IP Spoofing is considered to beone of the potentially brutal attack which acts as a tool for the DDoS attack which is considered to be amajor threat among security problems in today’s internet. These kinds of attack are extremely severe.They bring down business of company drastically. DDoS attack can easily exhaust the computing andcommunication resources of its victim within a short period of time. There are attacks exploiting somevulnerability or implementation bug in the software implementation of a service to bring that down andsome attacks will use all the available resources at the target machine. This deals on attacks thatconsume all the bandwidth available to the victim machine. While concentrating on the bandwidth attackthe TCP SYN flood is the more prominent attack. TCP/IP protocol suite is the most widely used protocolsuite for data communication. The TCP SYN flood works by exhausting the TCP connection queue of thehost and thus denying legitimate connection request. There are various methods used to detect andprevent this attack, one of which is to block the packet based on SYN flag count from the same IP address.This kind of prevention methods becomes unsuitable when the attackers use the Spoofed IP address. TheSYN spoofing becomes a major tool the TCP SYN flooding. For the prevention of this kind of attacks, theTCP specific probing is used in the proposed scheme where the client is requested challenging numberwhile sending the ACK in the three way hand shake. This is very useful to find the Spoofed IPPackets/TCP SYN flood and preventing them.

  4. Production of filmable medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates produced from glycerol by Pseudomonas mediterranea. (United States)

    Pappalardo, Francesco; Fragalà, Manuela; Mineo, Placido G; Damigella, Arcangelo; Catara, Antonino F; Palmeri, Rosa; Rescifina, Antonio


    Glycerol is an effective carbon source for the production of scl- and mcl-polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by Pseudomonas spp. P. mediterranea 9.1 (CFBP 5447) synthesizes an amorphous mcl-PHA when grown on crude glycerol, whereas on both reagent grade (RG) and partially refined (PR) glycerol, it produces two very similar distinctive mcl-PHAs with the unusual property of producing, with the appropriate treatment, a transparent film. Mcl-PHAs recovered after biomass extraction have an average molecular weight of approximately 56,000/63,000 Da. The monomer composition and physicochemical properties of such mcl-PHAs suggest their potential application as a softener of biopolymeric blends for food packaging and medical devices.

  5. Toxicity profiles and solvent-toxicant interference in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea after dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) exposure. (United States)

    Stevens, An-Sofie; Pirotte, Nicky; Plusquin, Michelle; Willems, Maxime; Neyens, Thomas; Artois, Tom; Smeets, Karen


    To investigate hydrophobic test compounds in toxicological studies, solvents like dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) are inevitable. However, using these solvents, the interpretation of test compound-induced responses can be biased. DMSO concentration guidelines are available, but are mostly based on acute exposures involving one specific toxicity endpoint. Hence, to avoid solvent-toxicant interference, we use multiple chronic test endpoints for additional interpretation of DMSO concentrations and propose a statistical model to assess possible synergistic, antagonistic or additive effects of test compounds and their solvents. In this study, the effects of both short- (1 day) and long-term (2 weeks) exposures to low DMSO concentrations (up to 1000 µl l(-1) ) were studied in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We measured different biological levels in both fully developed and developing animals. In a long-term exposure set-up, a concentration of 500 µl l(-1) DMSO interfered with processes on different biological levels, e.g. behaviour, stem cell proliferation and gene expression profiles. After short exposure times, 500 µl l(-1) DMSO only affected motility, whereas the most significant changes on different parameters were observed at a concentration of 1000 µl l(-1) DMSO. As small sensitivity differences exist between biological levels and developmental stages, we advise the use of this solvent in concentrations below 500 µl l(-1) in this organism. In the second part of our study, we propose a statistical approach to account for solvent-toxicant interactions and discuss full-scale solvent toxicity studies. In conclusion, we reassessed DMSO concentration limits for different experimental endpoints in the planarian S. mediterranea.

  6. Analysis of the SYN Flood DoS Attack

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    Mitko Bogdanoski


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes systems vulnerability targeted by TCP (Transmission Control Protocol segments when SYN flag is ON, which gives space for a DoS (Denial of Service attack called SYN flooding attack or more often referred as a SYN flood attack. The effects of this type of attack are analyzed and presented in OPNET simulation environment. Furthermore, the paper presents two anomaly detection algorithms as an effective mechanism against this type of attack. Finally, practical approaches against SYN flood attack for Linux and Windows environment which are followed by are shown.

  7. Dendritic Cells for SYN Scan Detection

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    Greensmith, Julie


    Artificial immune systems have previously been applied to the problem of intrusion detection. The aim of this research is to develop an intrusion detection system based on the function of Dendritic Cells (DCs). DCs are antigen presenting cells and key to activation of the human immune system, behaviour which has been abstracted to form the Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA). In algorithmic terms, individual DCs perform multi-sensor data fusion, asynchronously correlating the the fused data signals with a secondary data stream. Aggregate output of a population of cells, is analysed and forms the basis of an anomaly detection system. In this paper the DCA is applied to the detection of outgoing port scans using TCP SYN packets. Results show that detection can be achieved with the DCA, yet some false positives can be encountered when simultaneously scanning and using other network services. Suggestions are made for using adaptive signals to alleviate this uncovered problem.

  8. The RNA polymerase of marine cyanophage Syn5. (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Tabor, Stanley; Raytcheva, Desislava A; Hernandez, Alfredo; King, Jonathan A; Richardson, Charles C


    A single subunit DNA-dependent RNA polymerase was identified and purified to apparent homogeneity from cyanophage Syn5 that infects the marine cyanobacteria Synechococcus. Syn5 is homologous to bacteriophage T7 that infects Escherichia coli. Using the purified enzyme its promoter has been identified by examining transcription of segments of Syn5 DNA and sequencing the 5'-termini of the transcripts. Only two Syn5 RNAP promoters, having the sequence 5'-ATTGGGCACCCGTAA-3', are found within the Syn5 genome. One promoter is located within the Syn5 RNA polymerase gene and the other is located close to the right genetic end of the genome. The purified enzyme and its promoter have enabled a determination of the requirements for transcription. Unlike the salt-sensitive bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase, this marine RNA polymerase requires 160 mm potassium for maximal activity. The optimal temperature for Syn5 RNA polymerase is 24 °C, much lower than that for T7 RNA polymerase. Magnesium is required as a cofactor although some activity is observed with ferrous ions. Syn5 RNA polymerase is more efficient in utilizing low concentrations of ribonucleotides than T7 RNA polymerase.

  9. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, Billings, MT (United States)


    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  10. Solid municipal waste management in a mediterranean sea; La gestione dei rifiuti solidi urbani in un'area mediterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcetta, M. [Ministero degli Esteri, Direzione Generale per la Cooperazione e lo Sviluppo, Rome (Italy); Grauso, S. [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione del Territorio, S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Pietrelli, L.; Sgroi, S. [ENEA, Divisione Ingegneria Ambientale, S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy)


    Development and results of a co-operative project on solid waste management in Palestine. The project was the first part of a broader programme of environmental co-operation between Italy and the Palestinian National Authority. [Italian] Lo sviluppo e i risultati raggiunti da un progetto di cooperazione italo-palestinese sulla gestione dei rifiuti solidi urbani in Palestina. Il progetto si presta ad essere replicato nei Paesi in via di sviluppo mediterranea.

  11. Research on Protecting Against SYN Flooding on a Firewall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Wei-bin; ZHANG De-yun; LIU Wei-na; GAO Lei; WU Zhan


    SYN proxy is a firewall's solution to protect against SYN flooding. It plays well under the low rate of attacks, but stumbles under heavy loads. In this paper, a novel approach based on SYN proxy is introduced, its design explained, and its performance evaluated. In this approach, the hash table is used to save half-connection states under light loads, and SYN cookie used under heavy loads. A bitmap is introduced into buckets of the hash table,which speedups of the lookup under SYN Flooding. Bucket length of the hash table is limited to a predefined value,thereby the performance degradation is prevented. A firewall implementing our proposal is tested, which shows that good performance is achieved.

  12. SynCardia: the total artificial heart. (United States)

    Torregrossa, Gianluca; Anyanwu, Anelechi; Zucchetta, Fabio; Gerosa, Gino


    The SynCardia total artificial heart (TAH) currently provides the most definitive option for patients with biventricular failure who are not candidates for isolated left ventricular (LV) assist device placement. The techniques for implantation are adaptable to almost all patients with advanced heart failure, including those with severe biventricular cardiomyopathy, complex congenital heart disease, failed LV assist devices, failed transplantations, and acquired structural heart defects that have failed or are not amenable to conventional surgical treatment. Over the years, the implantation technique has evolved in order to minimize the surgical invasiveness of the procedure, in anticipation of additional future surgery. Meticulous hemostasis with double layer sutures, use of Gore-Tex sheets around the TAH and the pericardial cavity, and use of tissue expanders to avoid contraction of pericardial cavity around the device are discussed in detail in the following report. Additionally, we will provide our experience with implantation of TAH in various challenging scenarios, such as patients with a small chest cavity, congenital heart defects, and simultaneous use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).

  13. Bioactivity and phytochemical constituents of marine red seaweeds (Jania rubens, Corallina mediterranea and Pterocladia capillacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soad M. Mohy El-Din


    Full Text Available Seaweeds are potential renewable resources in the marine environment. The antibacterial activity of Jania rubens, Corallina mediterranea and Pterocladia capillacea were analyzed against human pathogenic bacteria. The present study was performed to investigate the phytochemical constituents of seaweeds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and phlobatannins. In this study, we estimated phenols, flavonoids, tannins, pigments and mineral contents and determined the hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity of various extracts of selected seaweeds. Phytochemicals were extracted from the three seaweeds using various solvents, such as methanol, ethanol, acetone and chloroform. Among the various extracts, the methanolic extract was found to have the highest reducing power and total antioxidant capacity. We evaluated the seaweeds against Vibrio fluvialis, and Pterocladia capillacea was the most effective at controlling its growth. The highest zone of inhibition was recorded in the methanol extract. The chemical constituents of the seaweeds were characterized by GC–MS, which showed that they contain organic compounds, such as 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid.

  14. Ultrastructure of spermatogenesis and mature spermatozoon of the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea (Platyhelminthes, Paludicola). (United States)

    Harrath, Abdul Halim; Alwasel, Saleh; Zghal, Fathia; Tekaya, Saïda


    The aim of this study was to characterize for the first time spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea using both light and electron microscopy. Starting from the border towards the testis lumen we found types I and II spermatogonia, clusters of primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and free spermatozoa. Light microscope observations show that type I spermatogonia have a large and pale nucleus whereas type II spermatogonia are significantly smaller than the one of type I, and show a darker and central bulky nucleus. At the ultrastructure level, both type I and type II spermatogonia are characterized by a wide nucleus with scanty cytoplasm containing free ribosomes, mitochondria and a dense chromatoid body whereas endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex were not observed. The cytoplasm of primary and secondary spermatocytes displays numerous free ribosomes and many endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and Golgi complexes, suggesting that the development of these organelles during spermatogenesis might contribute to the synthesis of hormones and proteins such as testosterone, transcription factors and tubulin. Mature spermatozoa structure closely resembles those of other freshwater triclads with a nucleus, a single fused mitochondrion, a row of cortical microtubules and a pair of flagella conforming to the 9+'1' microtubule pattern described for other Platyhelminthes.

  15. Lasiolactols A and B Produced by the Grapevine Fungal Pathogen Lasiodiplodia mediterranea. (United States)

    Andolfi, Anna; Basso, Sara; Giambra, Selene; Conigliaro, Gaetano; Lo Piccolo, Sandra; Alves, Artur; Burruano, Santella


    A strain of Lasiodiplodia mediterranea, a fungus associated with grapevine decline in Sicily, produced several metabolites in liquid medium. Two new dimeric γ-lactols, lasiolactols A and B (1 and 2), were characterized as (2S*,3S*,4R*,5R*,2'S*,3'S*,4'R*,5'R*)- and (2R*,3S*,4R*,5R*,2'R*,3'S*,4'R*,5'R*)-(5-(4-hydroxymethyl-3,5-dimethyl-tetrahydro-furan-2-yloxy)-2,4-dimethyl-tetrahydro-furan-3-yl]-methanols by IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS. Other four metabolites were identified as botryosphaeriodiplodin, (5R)-5-hydroxylasiodiplodin, (-)-(1R,2R)-jasmonic acid, and (-)-(3S,4R,5R)-4-hydroxymethyl-3,5-dimethyldihydro-2-furanone (3 - 6, resp.). The absolute configuration (R) at hydroxylated secondary C-atom C(7) was also established for compound 3. The compounds 1 - 3, 5, and 6, tested for their phytotoxic activities to grapevine cv. Inzolia leaves at different concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml) were phytotoxic and compound 5 showed the highest toxicity. All metabolites did not show in vitro antifungal activity against four plant pathogens.

  16. Comparative genomic analysis of multiple strains of two unusual plant pathogens: Pseudomonas corrugata and Pseudomonas mediterranea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil A Trantas


    Full Text Available The non-fluorescent pseudomonads, Pseudomonas corrugata (Pcor and P. mediterranea (Pmed, are closely related species that cause pith necrosis, a disease of tomato that causes severe crop losses. However, they also show strong antagonistic effects against economically important pathogens, demonstrating their potential for utilization as biological control agents. In addition, their metabolic versatility makes them attractive for the production of commercial biomolecules and bioremediation. An extensive comparative genomics study is required to dissect the mechanisms that Pcor and Pmed employ to cause disease, prevent disease caused by other pathogens, and to mine their genomes for commercially significant chemical pathways. Here, we present the draft genomes of nine Pcor and Pmed strains from different geographical locations. This analysis covered significant genetic heterogeneity and allowed in-depth genomic comparison. All examined strains were able to trigger symptoms in tomato plants but not all induced a hypersensitive-like response in Nicotiana benthamiana. Genome-mining revealed the absence of a type III secretion system and of known type III effectors from all examined Pcor and Pmed strains. The lack of a type III secretion system appears to be unique among the plant pathogenic pseudomonads. Several gene clusters coding for type VI secretion system were detected in all genomes.

  17. SynLam(TM) Primary Mirror Evaluation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), has developed sandwich core composite material (SynLam(TM)) and related fabrication technology to address the drawbacks of...

  18. CNoA: Challenging Number Approach for uncovering TCP SYN flooding using SYN spoofing attack

    CERN Document Server

    Kavisankar, L


    The challenging number is used for the detection of Spoofing attack. The IP Spoofing is considered to be one of the potentially brutal attack which acts as a tool for the DDoS attack which is considered to be a major threat among security problems in today's internet. These kinds of attack are extremely severe. They bring down business of company drastically. DDoS attack can easily exhaust the computing and communication resources of its victim within a short period of time. There are attacks exploiting some vulnerability or implementation bug in the software implementation of a service to bring that down and some attacks will use all the available resources at the target machine. This deals on attacks that consume all the bandwidth available to the victim machine. While concentrating on the bandwidth attack the TCP SYN flood is the more prominent attack. TCP/IP protocol suite is the most widely used protocol suite for data communication. The TCP SYN flood works by exhausting the TCP connection queue of the h...

  19. Overview of SYN flood attack detection techniques%SYN flood攻击检测技术综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    分析SYN flood attack攻击原理,并在此基础上研究几种典型的SYN flood攻击检测方法。对主要技术进行分析和比较,这些技术均有各自的优点和局限性,多种方法有机融合互补将成为SYN flood攻击检测研究的重点。%This paper analyses the principle of SYN flood attack,and some typical detecting methods are researched based on it.This paper summarizes and analyzes each of these schemes.These schemes have their own advantages and limitations,so organically combining s

  20. Transcriptome analysis of Pseudomonas mediterranea and P. corrugata plant pathogens during accumulation of medium-chain-length PHAs by glycerol bioconversion. (United States)

    Licciardello, Grazia; Ferraro, Rosario; Russo, Marcella; Strozzi, Francesco; Catara, Antonino F; Bella, Patrizia; Catara, Vittoria


    Pseudomonas corrugata and P. mediterranea are soil inhabitant bacteria, generally living as endophytes on symptomless plants and bare soil, but also capable of causing plant diseases. They share a similar genome size and a high proteome similarity. P. corrugata produces many biomolecules which play an important role in bacterial cell survival and fitness. Both species produce different medium-chain-length PHAs (mcl-PHAs) from the bioconversion of glycerol to a transparent film in P. mediterranea and a sticky elastomer in P. corrugata. In this work, using RNA-seq we investigated the transcriptional profiles of both bacteria at the early stationary growth phase with glycerol as the carbon source. Quantitative analysis of P. mediterranea transcripts versus P. corrugata revealed that 1756 genes were differentially expressed. A total of 175 genes were significantly upregulated in P. mediterranea, while 217 were downregulated. The largest group of upregulated genes was related to transport systems and stress response, energy and central metabolism, and carbon metabolism. Expression levels of most genes coding for enzymes related to PHA biosynthesis and central metabolic pathways showed no differences or only slight variations in pyruvate metabolism. The most relevant result was the significantly increased expression in P. mediterranea of genes involved in alginate production, an important exopolysaccharide, which in other Pseudomonas spp. plays a key role as a virulence factor or in stress tolerance and shows many industrial applications. In conclusion, the results provide useful information on the co-production of mcl-PHAs and alginate from glycerol as carbon source by P. mediterranea in the design of new strategies of genetic regulation to improve the yield of bioproducts or bacterial fitness.

  1. Principle and prevention of TCP SYN Flood attack%TCP SYN Flood攻击的原理与防范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华光; 甘燕玲


    保证网络安全是网络技术正常发展和网络的正常运行的重要研究方向,通过讨论TCP三次握手的缺陷和TCP SYN Flood攻击的基本原理,探讨防御TCP SYN Flood攻击可以采取的措施.

  2. Finding New Enzymes from Bacterial Physiology: A Successful Approach Illustrated by the Detection of Novel Oxidases in Marinomonas mediterranea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sanchez-Amat


    Full Text Available The identification and study of marine microorganisms with unique physiological traits can be a very powerful tool discovering novel enzymes of possible biotechnological interest. This approach can complement the enormous amount of data concerning gene diversity in marine environments offered by metagenomic analysis, and can help to place the activities associated with those sequences in the context of microbial cellular metabolism and physiology. Accordingly, the detection and isolation of microorganisms that may be a good source of enzymes is of great importance. Marinomonas mediterranea, for example, has proven to be one such useful microorganism. This Gram-negative marine bacterium was first selected because of the unusually high amounts of melanins synthesized in media containing the amino acid L-tyrosine. The study of its molecular biology has allowed the cloning of several genes encoding oxidases of biotechnological interest, particularly in white and red biotechnology. Characterization of the operon encoding the tyrosinase responsible for melanin synthesis revealed that a second gene in that operon encodes a protein, PpoB2, which is involved in copper transfer to tyrosinase. This finding made PpoB2 the first protein in the COG5486 group to which a physiological role has been assigned. Another enzyme of interest described in M. mediterranea is a multicopper oxidase encoding a membrane-associated enzyme that shows oxidative activity on a wide range of substrates typical of both laccases and tyrosinases. Finally, an enzyme very specific for L-lysine, which oxidises this amino acid in epsilon position and that has received a new EC number (, has also been described for M. mediterranea. Overall, the studies carried out on this bacterium illustrate the power of exploring the physiology of selected microorganisms to discover novel enzymes of biotechnological relevance.

  3. SynMap2 and SynMap3D: web-based whole-genome synteny browsers. (United States)

    Haug-Baltzell, Asher; Stephens, Sean A; Davey, Sean; Scheidegger, Carlos E; Lyons, Eric


    Current synteny visualization tools either focus on small regions of sequence and do not illustrate genome-wide trends, or are complicated to use and create visualizations that are difficult to interpret. To address this challenge, The Comparative Genomics Platform (CoGe) has developed two web-based tools to visualize synteny across whole genomes. SynMap2 and SynMap3D allow researchers to explore whole genome synteny patterns (across two or three genomes, respectively) in responsive, web-based visualization and virtual reality environments. Both tools have access to the extensive CoGe genome database (containing over 30 000 genomes) as well as the option for users to upload their own data. By leveraging modern web technologies there is no installation required, making the tools widely accessible and easy to use. Both tools are open source (MIT license) and freely available for use online through CoGe ( ). SynMap2 and SynMap3D can be accessed at and , respectively. Source code is available: . Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  4. Defensive research on SYN Flood attack%SYN Flood攻击的防御性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟威; 薛仁政; 姜永曾; 吴迪


    SYN Flood attack is one of the popular attack in distributed denial of service attack.The attack is mainly the use of loopholes in the agreement,sending a large number of the source IP address forgery attack messages,in order to make the target system resource depletion.For the effective prevention of SYN Flood attack,it describes in kinds of SYN Flood attack defense measures,in order that legitimate users access to network resource.%SYN Flood 攻击是分布式拒绝服务攻击中流行的攻击方式之一。这种攻击主要是利用协议的漏洞,发送大量伪造的源IP地址的攻击报文,使目标系统资源耗尽。为了有效地防范SYN Flood的攻击,描述了几种防御SYN Flood攻击的措施,使合法用户正常访问网络资源。

  5. New Recorded Phytoplankton Species of Meringosphaera mediterranea Lohmann (Chrysophyceae) in the Yellow Sea%黄海浮游植物新纪录种--地中海棘球藻Meringosphaera mediterranea Lohmann(金藻纲)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红梅; 陈瑞盛


    Phytoplankton samples are collected from the Yellow Sea in May, 2009. A new recorded species of Chrysophyceae, Meringosphaera mediterranea, is found by using Scanning Electronic Microscope ( SEM ) . This species is characterized by 1) spherical cells, 2) with long, undulating spine bearing thorns, 3) a base plate con-nected at the inboard end of the spine. This species is widely distributed in the world, but little is known about its morphological and ecological characteristics.%在对黄海海域浮游植物进行调查取样中,通过对样品进行扫描电镜( SEM)观察,发现了金藻的一个新记录种———地中海棘球藻Meringosphaera mediterranea Lohmann.该种的主要特征是:细胞球形,具有长刺状结构,长刺波状,其上有棘,长刺的底端呈盘状,圆盘上有一个缺口.该种在世界各海域广泛分布,但其藻体形态、生态习性等的报道较少.

  6. SynBlast: Assisting the analysis of conserved synteny information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Peter F


    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation In the last years more than 20 vertebrate genomes have been sequenced, and the rate at which genomic DNA information becomes available is rapidly accelerating. Gene duplication and gene loss events inherently limit the accuracy of orthology detection based on sequence similarity alone. Fully automated methods for orthology annotation do exist but often fail to identify individual members in cases of large gene families, or to distinguish missing data from traceable gene losses. This situation can be improved in many cases by including conserved synteny information. Results Here we present the SynBlast pipeline that is designed to construct and evaluate local synteny information. SynBlast uses the genomic region around a focal reference gene to retrieve candidates for homologous regions from a collection of target genomes and ranks them in accord with the available evidence for homology. The pipeline is intended as a tool to aid high quality manual annotation in particular in those cases where automatic procedures fail. We demonstrate how SynBlast is applied to retrieving orthologous and paralogous clusters using the vertebrate Hox and ParaHox clusters as examples. Software The SynBlast package written in Perl is available under the GNU General Public License at

  7. Characterization of three mnp genes of Fomitiporia mediterranea and report of additional class II peroxidases in the order hymenochaetales. (United States)

    Morgenstern, Ingo; Robertson, Deborah L; Hibbett, David S


    We report the sequence-based characterization and expression patterns of three manganese peroxidase genes from the white rot fungus and grape vine pathogen Fomitiporia mediterranea (Agaricomycotina, Hymenochaetales), termed Fmmnp1, Fmmnp2, and Fmmnp3. The predicted open reading frames (ORFs) are 1,516-, 1,351-, and 1,345-bp long and are interrupted by seven, four, and four introns, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences encode manganese peroxidases (EC containing 371, 369, and 371 residues, respectively, and are similar to the manganese peroxidases of the model white rot organism Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The expression of the genes is most likely differentially regulated, as revealed by real-time PCR analysis. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that other members of the order Hymenochaetales harbor mnp genes encoding proteins that are related only distantly to those of F. mediterranea. Furthermore, multiple partial lip- and mnp-like sequences obtained for Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (Agaricomycotina, Polyporales) suggest that lignin degradation by white rot taxa relies heavily on ligninolytic peroxidases and is not efficiently achieved by laccases only.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of SL3: a stem cell-specific SL RNA from the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. (United States)

    Rossi, Alessandro; Ross, Eric J; Jack, Antonia; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro


    Spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing is a biological phenomenon, common among many metazoan taxa, consisting in the transfer of a short leader sequence from a small SL RNA to the 5' end of a subset of pre-mRNAs. While knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms driving this process has accumulated over the years, the functional consequences of such post-transcriptional event at the organismal level remain unclear. In addition, the fact that functional analyses have been undertaken mainly in trypanosomes and nematodes leaves a somehow fragmented picture of the possible biological significance and evolution of SL trans-splicing in eukaryotes. Here, we analyzed the spatial expression of SL RNAs in the planarian flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea, with the goal of identifying novel developmental paradigms for the study of trans-splicing in metazoans. Besides the previously identified SL1 and SL2, S. mediterranea expresses a third SL RNA described here as SL3. While, SL1 and SL2 are collectively expressed in a broad range of planarian cell types, SL3 is highly enriched in a subset of the planarian stem cells engaged in regenerative responses. Our findings provide new opportunities to study how trans-splicing may regulate the phenotype of a cell.

  9. SynUTC - high precision time synchronization over ethernet networks

    CERN Document Server

    Höller, R; Horauer, M; Kerö, N; Schmid, U; Schossmaier, K


    This article describes our SynUTC (Synchronized Universal Time Coordinated) technology, which enables high-accuracy distribution of GPS time and time synchronization of network nodes connected via standard Ethernet LANs. By means of exchanging data packets in conjunction with moderate hardware support at nodes and switches, an overall worst-case accuracy in the range of some 100 ns can be achieved, with negligible communication overhead. Our technology thus improves the 1 ms-range accuracy achievable by conventional, software-based approaches like NTP by 4 orders of magnitude. Applications can use the high-accuracy global time provided by SynUTC for event timestamping and event generation both at hardware and software level. SynUTC is based upon inserting highly accurate time information into dedicated data packets at the media-independent interface (MII) between the physical layer transceiver and the network controller upon packet transmission and reception, respectively. As a consequence, every node has acc...

  10. First report of adelphophagy in flatworms during the embryonic development of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea (Benazzi, Baguñà, Ballester, Puccinelli & Del Papa, 1975) (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrath, A.H.; Sluys, R.; Zghal, F.; Tekaya, S.


    This paper details the embryonic development of the triclad flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea and describes, for the first time in flatworms, the phenomenon of adelphophagy. Embryonic development, which takes 23 days at 18-20°C, basically corresponds with the developmental stages documented in other s

  11. Methylenedioxy- and methoxyflavones from Melicope coodeana syn. Euodia simplex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Larsen, Michael D; Nielsen, Merete W;


    Three new natural products, 3,8-dimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavone, 3,6,8-trimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavone and 3,6,8,3',4'-pentamethoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone were isolated from Melicope coodeana syn. Euodia simplex (Rutaceae) along with 3,6,3'-trimethoxy-5...

  12. The repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors in the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni and the model organism Schmidtea mediterranea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanian Mostafa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs constitute one of the largest groupings of eukaryotic proteins, and represent a particularly lucrative set of pharmaceutical targets. They play an important role in eukaryotic signal transduction and physiology, mediating cellular responses to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli. The phylum Platyhelminthes is of considerable medical and biological importance, housing major pathogens as well as established model organisms. The recent availability of genomic data for the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni and the model planarian Schmidtea mediterranea paves the way for the first comprehensive effort to identify and analyze GPCRs in this important phylum. Results Application of a novel transmembrane-oriented approach to receptor mining led to the discovery of 117 S. mansoni GPCRs, representing all of the major families; 105 Rhodopsin, 2 Glutamate, 3 Adhesion, 2 Secretin and 5 Frizzled. Similarly, 418 Rhodopsin, 9 Glutamate, 21 Adhesion, 1 Secretin and 11 Frizzled S. mediterranea receptors were identified. Among these, we report the identification of novel receptor groupings, including a large and highly-diverged Platyhelminth-specific Rhodopsin subfamily, a planarian-specific Adhesion-like family, and atypical Glutamate-like receptors. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out following extensive gene curation. Support vector machines (SVMs were trained and used for ligand-based classification of full-length Rhodopsin GPCRs, complementing phylogenetic and homology-based classification. Conclusions Genome-wide investigation of GPCRs in two platyhelminth genomes reveals an extensive and complex receptor signaling repertoire with many unique features. This work provides important sequence and functional leads for understanding basic flatworm receptor biology, and sheds light on a lucrative set of anthelmintic drug targets.

  13. Porcine synapsin 1: SYN1 gene analysis and functional characterization of the promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Claus; Kjaer-Sorensen, Kasper; Madsen, Lone Bruhn


    of elements responsible for neuron-specific expression. Expression analysis of SYN1 demonstrated presence of transcript during embryonic development. Analysis of GFP expression in transgenic zebrafish embryos suggests that the pig SYN1 promoter directs expression in neuronal cells. Thus, the SYN1 promoter...

  14. DPT tautomerisation of the G·A(syn) and A*·G*(syn) DNA mismatches: a QM/QTAIM combined atomistic investigation. (United States)

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Hovorun, Dmytro M


    By applying a combined QM and QTAIM atomistic computational approach we have established for the first time that the G·A(syn) and A*·G*(syn) DNA mismatches (rare tautomers are marked with an asterisk), causing spontaneous transversions with substantially various probabilities, radically differ from each other in their ability to tautomerise through the double proton transfer (DPT). The A*·G*(syn) mismatch tautomerises quite easily (ΔΔG(TS) ≈ 4·kT at room temperature) into the A·G*(syn) mismatch through the asynchronous concerted mechanism, whereas the G·A(syn) base mispair does not tautomerise via the DPT at all, since there is no local minimum corresponding to the tautomerised G*·A*(syn) mismatch on the potential energy surface. It was established that the A·G*(syn) base mispair is a dynamically unstable H-bonded complex with an extremely short lifetime of 2.17 × 10(-13) s. Consequently, the obtained results allow us to believe that spontaneous or forced dissociation of both the G·A(syn) and A*·G*(syn) DNA mismatches by the DNA-polymerase occurs with the preservation of the tautomeric status of the bases.

  15. Review of syn-flooding attack detection mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Manna, Mehdi Ebady


    Denial of Service (DoS) is a security threat which compromises the confidentiality of information stored in Local Area Networks (LANs) due to unauthorized access by spoofed IP addresses. SYN Flooding is a type of DoS which is harmful to network as the flooding of packets may delay other users from accessing the server and in severe cases, the server may need to be shut down, wasting valuable resources, especially in critical real-time services such as in e-commerce and the medical field. The objective of this paper is to review the state-of-the art of detection mechanisms for SYN flooding. The detection schemes for SYN Flooding attacks have been classified broadly into three categories - detection schemes based on the router data structure, detection schemes based on statistical analysis of the packet flow and detection schemes based on artificial intelligence. The advantages and disadvantages for various detection schemes under each category have been critically examined. The performance measures of the cate...

  16. Haemolytic activities of plant saponins and adjuvants. Effect of Periandra mediterranea saponin on the humoral response to the FML antigen of Leishmania donovani. (United States)

    Santos, W R; Bernardo, R R; Peçanha, L M; Palatnik, M; Parente, J P; Palatnik de Sousa, C B


    An 87.7% (P saponin combined to the fucose-mannose ligand of Leishmania donovani (FML). However, an undesirable haemolytic effect was described for several saponins. Aiming to improve the formulation with FML/saponin, we comparatively analysed the haemolytic potential of recently characterized plant saponins and currently used adjuvants. The haemolytic activity of steroidic saponins from Agave sisalana; Smilax officinalis as well as commercial saponin (Riedel De Haën's), was higher than that of triterpenoid ones (Bredemeyera floribunda; Periandra mediterranea) and the Freund's complete adjuvant. The concentration resulting in 50% haemolysis was 500 micrograms ml-1 for aluminum hydroxide. The low haemolytic effect of P. mediterranea saponin was abolished by removal of its glycidic moiety and its sapogenin fraction as well as the Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant were non-haemolytic within this range. Furthermore, the adjuvant effect of three doses of P. mediterranea saponin injected with the FML antigen of L. donovani, was assayed in mice, either by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) or the subcutaneous (s.c.) route. The anti-FML IgG antibody levels increased and detectable levels were observed up to 3 months in the s.c. group. The response was expanded in both groups after an injection with a fourth vaccine dose. The IgG response showed increased levels of IgG2a only in the i.p. group, while IgG2b and IgG1 but not IgG3 antibodies were higher than controls in both groups. In conclusion, the results suggest that the recently described triterpenoid fractions of P. mediterranea can be safely used as adjuvant with low or non-haemolytic effect.

  17. A Brief Analysis on Principle and Realization of SYN Flood Attack%浅析SYN Flood攻击的原理及实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁; 田亚兰


    SYN Flood attack is a common denial of service attack and a typical network threat at present. SYN flood uses the leaks in the process of establishing TCP connections to attack. On the basis of analy- zing TCP protocol and the principle of SYN Flood attack, the paper introduces TCP/IP packet header for- mat and partial attacking programs. Besides, an attacking experiment is carried out on a simple network platform by using designed attacking programs. According to the experimental results, the bad effects of SYN Flood are analyzed to help to make effective defense designs.%SYN Flood攻击是拒绝服务攻击中的一种典型攻击手段,是目前主流的网络威胁.SYN flood是利用TCP协议连接建立过程中存在的漏洞进行攻击.在分析了TCP协议和SYN Flood攻击原理的基础上,介绍了TCP/IP报文首部格式及部分攻击程序,并通过设计好的攻击程序在搭建的简单网络平台上进行攻击实验.根据实验结果分析SYN Flood所产生的危害,能帮助我们进行有效防御设计.

  18. Internal hysteresis experienced on a high pressure syn gas compressor (United States)

    Zeidan, F. Y.


    A vibration instability phenomenon experienced in operating high pressure syn gas centrifugal compressors in two ammonia plants is described. The compressors were monitored by orbit and spectrum analysis for changes from baseline readings. It is found that internal hysteresis was the major destabilizing force; however, the problem was further complicated by seal lockup at the suction end of the compressor. A coupling lockup problem and a coupling fit problem, which frettage of the shaft, are also considered as contributors to the self excited vibrations.

  19. Research on a New Intrusion Protection Model Against the SYN Flood Attacks%一个新的SYN Flood攻击防御模型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小荟; 冷明; 刘冬生; 李平; 金士尧


    针对现有的SYN Flood攻击防御方法的不足,本文提出了一个基于TCP连接三次握手的新的防御模型.当系统检测到SYN Flood攻击后,立即把那些占用系统资源的带有典型攻击特征的第一次握手请求永久抛弃,以保证新的正常请求能够被接受;而把其他带有疑似攻击特征的第一次握手请求暂时抛弃,尔后启动自适应学习模块来修正现有的入侵模式,最后再启动SYN Flood攻击检测模块来进一步精确判定.在此基础上设计实现了一套新的SYN Flood攻击防御系统.实验测试结果表明,本入侵防御系统能有效地帮助整个系统提高对抗SYN Flood攻击的能力.%Aiming at the drawbacks of the current SYN flood attack prevention methods, a new intrusion prevention model against the SYN flood attacks is put forward based on the three-way handshake process. When the network system is suffering from the SYN flood attacks, the first handshake requests with the typical SYN flood attack feature will be immediately picked out and abandoned permanently;thereby the attacked system has adequate resources to deal with the new normal network requests. Other first handshake requests with the suspected SYN flood attack feature will be abandoned temporarily,and then adaptive learning module is started to revise the current intrusion patterns. In the end, the SYN Flood attack detection module will be restarted to get the further precise determination based on the updated intrusion patterns. An efficient intrusion prevention system against the SYN Flood attacks is designed and implemented, and the experimental results show that our intrusion prevention system can improve the whole system's protection capability against the SYN flood attacks.

  20. Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of Syn-Vinyl Alcohol (United States)

    Raston, Paul; Bunn, Hayley


    Vinyl alcohol has been extensively studied in both the microwave and mid-IR spectral regions, where 9 out of 15 vibrational modes have been identified. Here we present the first far-IR spectrum of vinyl alcohol, collected below 700 wn at the Australian Synchrotron. The high resolution (0.001 wn) spectrum reveals the νb{11} and νb{15} fundamentals of syn-vinyl alcohol at 489 wn and 407 wn, in addition to two hot bands of the νb{15} mode at 369 wn and 323 wn. High J transitions in the R-branch of the νb{15} band were found to be perturbed by an a-axis Coriolis interaction with the nearby νb{11} state. The νb{15} torsional mode of syn-vinyl alcohol was fit using a Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian to yield rotational, centrifugal distortion, and Coriolis coupling parameters. S. Saito, Chem. Phys. Lett. 42, 3 (1976) M. Rodler et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 106, 4029 (1948) Y. Koga et al., J. Mol. Spec. 145, 315 (1991) D-L. Joo et al., J. Mol. Spec. 197, 68 (1999)

  1. Adaptive Timer-Based Countermeasures against TCP SYN Flood Attacks (United States)

    Tanabe, Masao; Akaike, Hirofumi; Aida, Masaki; Murata, Masayuki; Imase, Makoto

    As a result of the rapid development of the Internet in recent years, network security has become an urgent issue. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are one of the most serious security issues. In particular, 60 percent of the DDoS attacks found on the Internet are TCP attacks, including SYN flood attacks. In this paper, we propose adaptive timer-based countermeasures against SYN flood attacks. Our proposal utilizes the concept of soft-state protocols that are widely used for resource management on the Internet. In order to avoid deadlock, a server releases resources using a time-out mechanism without any explicit requests from its clients. If we change the value of the timer in accordance with the network conditions, we can add more flexibility to the soft-state protocols. The timer is used to manage the resources assigned to half-open connections in a TCP 3-way handshake mechanism, and its value is determined adaptively according to the network conditions. In addition, we report our simulation results to show the effectiveness of our approach.

  2. Proteomic profiling of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and its mucous reveals similarities with human secretions and those predicted for parasitic flatworms. (United States)

    Bocchinfuso, Donald G; Taylor, Paul; Ross, Eric; Ignatchenko, Alex; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Kislinger, Thomas; Pearson, Bret J; Moran, Michael F


    The freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has been used in research for over 100 years, and is an emerging stem cell model because of its capability of regenerating large portions of missing body parts. Exteriorly, planarians are covered in mucous secretions of unknown composition, implicated in locomotion, predation, innate immunity, and substrate adhesion. Although the planarian genome has been sequenced, it remains mostly unannotated, challenging both genomic and proteomic analyses. The goal of the current study was to annotate the proteome of the whole planarian and its mucous fraction. The S. mediterranea proteome was analyzed via mass spectrometry by using multidimensional protein identification technology with whole-worm tryptic digests. By using a proteogenomics approach, MS data were searched against an in silico translated planarian transcript database, and by using the Swiss-Prot BLAST algorithm to identify proteins similar to planarian queries. A total of 1604 proteins were identified. The mucous subproteome was defined through analysis of a mucous trail fraction and an extract obtained by treating whole worms with the mucolytic agent N-acetylcysteine. Gene Ontology analysis confirmed that the mucous fractions were enriched with secreted proteins. The S. mediterranea proteome is highly similar to that predicted for the trematode Schistosoma mansoni associated with intestinal schistosomiasis, with the mucous subproteome particularly highly conserved. Remarkably, orthologs of 119 planarian mucous proteins are present in human mucosal secretions and tear fluid. We suggest planarians have potential to be a model system for the characterization of mucous protein function and relevant to parasitic flatworm infections and diseases underlined by mucous aberrancies, such as cystic fibrosis, asthma, and other lung diseases.

  3. 基于策略系统的SYN Flooding攻击防御机制%Mechanism of Preventing SYN Flooding Attack Based on Policy System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇小锋; 陈鸣; 蒋序平


    拒绝服务(denial of service)攻击对网络带来的危害越来越严重,SYN Flooding攻击是DoS攻击中著名的一种.本文介绍了在网络测量平台上基于策略系统的SYN Flooding攻击防御机制.文章首先简单介绍了SYN Flooding的攻击原理、防御方法以及网络监测系统,然后对策略系统进行了讨论,最后详细阐述了网络测量平台上基于策略系统的SYN Flooding攻击检测和追踪工具的设计与实现,并进行了分析.

  4. Structural Design of SynRM Rotor, and the Effect on Power Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Matthew Lee; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad;


    In this paper, structural designs for multiple synchoronous reluctance machine (SynRM) rotor configurations are presented. The rotor flux bridges are increased in thickness until mechanical integrity is achieved, and then the performance of the resulting SynRM is observed. After performing this a...

  5. Structural Design of SynRM Rotor, and the Effect on Power Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Matthew Lee; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad;


    In this paper, structural designs for multiple synchoronous reluctance machine (SynRM) rotor configurations are presented. The rotor flux bridges are increased in thickness until mechanical integrity is achieved, and then the performance of the resulting SynRM is observed. After performing...

  6. Diverse chromatin remodeling genes antagonize the Rb-involved SynMuv pathways in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxue Cui


    Full Text Available In Caenorhabditis elegans, vulval cell-fate specification involves the activities of multiple signal transduction and regulatory pathways that include a receptor tyrosine kinase/Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and synthetic multivulva (SynMuv pathways. Many genes in the SynMuv pathways encode transcription factors including the homologs of mammalian Rb, E2F, and components of the nucleosome-remodeling deacetylase complex. To further elucidate the functions of the SynMuv genes, we performed a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi screen to search for genes that antagonize the SynMuv gene activities. Among those that displayed a varying degree of suppression of the SynMuv phenotype, 32 genes are potentially involved in chromatin remodeling (called SynMuv suppressor genes herein. Genetic mutations of two representative genes (zfp-1 and mes-4 were used to further characterize their positive roles in vulval induction and relationships with Ras function. Our analysis revealed antagonistic roles of the SynMuv suppressor genes and the SynMuv B genes in germline-soma distinction, RNAi, somatic transgene silencing, and tissue specific expression of pgl-1 and the lag-2/Delta genes. The opposite roles of these SynMuv B and SynMuv suppressor genes on transcriptional regulation were confirmed in somatic transgene silencing. We also report the identifications of ten new genes in the RNAi pathway and six new genes in germline silencing. Among the ten new RNAi genes, three encode homologs of proteins involved in both protein degradation and chromatin remodeling. Our findings suggest that multiple chromatin remodeling complexes are involved in regulating the expression of specific genes that play critical roles in developmental decisions.

  7. SMED-TLX-1 (NR2E1) is critical for tissue and body plan maintenance in Schmidtea mediterranea in fasting/feeding cycles. (United States)

    Raška, O; Kostrouchová, V; Behenský, F; Yilma, P; Saudek, V; Kostrouch, Z; Kostrouchová, M


    Nuclear receptors (NRs), or nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs), are transcription factors that regulate development and metabolism of most if not all animal species. Their regulatory networks include conserved mechanisms that are shared in-between species as well as mechanisms that are restricted to certain phyla or even species. In search for conserved members of the NHR family in Schmidtea mediterranea, we identified a molecular signature of a class of NRs, NR2E1, in the S. mediterranea genome and cloned its complete cDNA coding sequence. The derived amino acid sequence shows a high degree of conservation of both DNA-binding domain and ligand- binding domain and a remarkably high homology to vertebrate NR2E1 and C. elegans NHR-67. Quantitative PCR detected approximately ten-fold higher expression of Smed-tlx-1 in the proximal part of the head compared to the tail region. The expression of Smed-tlx-1 is higher during fed state than during fasting. Smed-tlx-1 down-regulation by RNA interference affects the ability of the animals to maintain body plan and induces defects of brain, eyes and body shape during fasting and re-growing cycles. These results suggest that SMED-TLX-1 is critical for tissue and body plan maintenance in planaria.

  8. Loss of SynDIG1 Reduces Excitatory Synapse Maturation But Not Formation In Vivo (United States)

    Kaur, Inderpreet; Liu, Xiao-Bo; Kirk, Lyndsey M.; Speca, David J.; McMahon, Samuel A.; Zito, Karen


    Abstract Modification of the strength of excitatory synaptic connections is a fundamental mechanism by which neural circuits are refined during development and learning. Synapse Differentiation Induced Gene 1 (SynDIG1) has been shown to play a key role in regulating synaptic strength in vitro. Here, we investigated the role of SynDIG1 in vivo in mice with a disruption of the SynDIG1 gene rather than use an alternate loxP-flanked conditional mutant that we find retains a partial protein product. The gene-trap insertion with a reporter cassette mutant mice shows that the SynDIG1 promoter is active during embryogenesis in the retina with some activity in the brain, and postnatally in the mouse hippocampus, cortex, hindbrain, and spinal cord. Ultrastructural analysis of the hippocampal CA1 region shows a decrease in the average PSD length of synapses and a decrease in the number of synapses with a mature phenotype. Intriguingly, the total synapse number appears to be increased in SynDIG1 mutant mice. Electrophysiological analyses show a decrease in AMPA and NMDA receptor function in SynDIG1-deficient hippocampal neurons. Glutamate stimulation of individual dendritic spines in hippocampal slices from SynDIG1-deficient mice reveals increased short-term structural plasticity. Notably, the overall levels of PSD-95 or glutamate receptors enriched in postsynaptic biochemical fractions remain unaltered; however, activity-dependent synapse development is strongly compromised upon the loss of SynDIG1, supporting its importance for excitatory synapse maturation. Together, these data are consistent with a model in which SynDIG1 regulates the maturation of excitatory synapse structure and function in the mouse hippocampus in vivo.

  9. Communication: Thermal unimolecular decomposition of syn-CH3CHOO: A kinetic study (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Lam; McCaslin, Laura; McCarthy, Michael C.; Stanton, John F.


    The thermal decomposition of syn-ethanal-oxide (syn-CH3CHOO) through vinyl hydrogen peroxide (VHP) leading to hydroxyl radical is characterized using a modification of the HEAT thermochemical protocol. The isomerization step of syn-CH3CHOO to VHP via a 1,4 H-shift, which involves a moderate barrier of 72 kJ/mol, is found to be rate determining. A two-dimensional master equation approach, in combination with semi-classical transition state theory, is employed to calculate the time evolution of various species as well as to obtain phenomenological rate coefficients. This work suggests that, under boundary layer conditions in the atmosphere, thermal unimolecular decomposition is the most important sink of syn-CH3CHOO. Thus, the title reaction should be included into atmospheric modeling. The fate of cold VHP, the intermediate stabilized by collisions with a third body, has also been investigated.

  10. Appetitively motivated instrumental learning in SynGAP heterozygous knockout mice


    Muhia, M; Feldon, J; Knuesel, I.; Yee, B. K.


    The synaptic Ras/Rap-GTPase-activating protein (SynGAP) regulates specific intracellular events following N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation. Here, the impact of SynGAP heterozygous knockout (SG+/-) on NMDAR-dependent functions was assessed using different positive reinforcement schedules in instrumental conditioning. The knockout did not affect the temporal control of operant responding under a fixed interval (FI) schedule, but led to a putative enhancement in response vigor an...

  11. Genomic and structural analysis of Syn9, a cyanophage infecting marine Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. (United States)

    Weigele, Peter R; Pope, Welkin H; Pedulla, Marisa L; Houtz, Jennifer M; Smith, Alexis L; Conway, James F; King, Jonathan; Hatfull, Graham F; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Hendrix, Roger W


    Cyanobacteriophage Syn9 is a large, contractile-tailed bacteriophage infecting the widespread, numerically dominant marine cyanobacteria of the genera Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Its 177,300 bp genome sequence encodes 226 putative proteins and six tRNAs. Experimental and computational analyses identified genes likely involved in virion formation, nucleotide synthesis, and DNA replication and repair. Syn9 shows significant mosaicism when compared with related cyanophages S-PM2, P-SSM2 and P-SSM4, although shared genes show strong purifying selection and evidence for large population sizes relative to other phages. Related to coliphage T4 - which shares 19% of Syn9's genes - Syn9 shows evidence for different patterns of DNA replication and uses homologous proteins to assemble capsids with a different overall structure that shares topology with phage SPO1 and herpes virus. Noteworthy bacteria-related sequences in the Syn9 genome potentially encode subunits of the photosynthetic reaction centre, electron transport proteins, three pentose pathway enzymes and two tryptophan halogenases. These genes suggest that Syn9 is well adapted to the physiology of its photosynthetic hosts and may affect the evolution of these sequences within marine cyanobacteria.

  12. A dual platform approach to transcript discovery for the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea to establish RNAseq for stem cell and regeneration biology. (United States)

    Blythe, Martin J; Kao, Damian; Malla, Sunir; Rowsell, Joanna; Wilson, Ray; Evans, Deborah; Jowett, Jamie; Hall, Amy; Lemay, Virginie; Lam, Sabrina; Aboobaker, A Aziz


    The use of planarians as a model system is expanding and the mechanisms that control planarian regeneration are being elucidated. The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea in particular has become a species of choice. Currently the planarian research community has access to this whole genome sequencing project and over 70,000 expressed sequence tags. However, the establishment of massively parallel sequencing technologies has provided the opportunity to define genetic content, and in particular transcriptomes, in unprecedented detail. Here we apply this approach to the planarian model system. We have sequenced, mapped and assembled 581,365 long and 507,719,814 short reads from RNA of intact and mixed stages of the first 7 days of planarian regeneration. We used an iterative mapping approach to identify and define de novo splice sites with short reads and increase confidence in our transcript predictions. We more than double the number of transcripts currently defined by publicly available ESTs, resulting in a collection of 25,053 transcripts described by combining platforms. We also demonstrate the utility of this collection for an RNAseq approach to identify potential transcripts that are enriched in neoblast stem cells and their progeny by comparing transcriptome wide expression levels between irradiated and intact planarians. Our experiments have defined an extensive planarian transcriptome that can be used as a template for RNAseq and can also help to annotate the S. mediterranea genome. We anticipate that suites of other 'omic approaches will also be facilitated by building on this comprehensive data set including RNAseq across many planarian regenerative stages, scenarios, tissues and phenotypes generated by RNAi.

  13. The role of western Mediterranea tectonic evolution in the geometry of a karstic domain in the Betic Cordilleras (Sierra Gorda, Spain): Importance of a tardy extensional regime (United States)

    Pistre, Séverin; Lopez-Chicano, Manuel; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio; Drogue, Claude


    Located in the central part of the Betic Cordilleras, the large carbonate Sierra Gorda Massif provides an example of a west-Mediterranean karstic aquifer. In spite of a complex polyphased tectonic history, the fracturing presents, from aerial views and at outcrop scale a quite organised geometry. Four fracture directions are found over the massif: N000-010, N050-070, N090-100 and N140-170. The statistical and geostatistical approach allows the characteristics (lengths, orientations) and the spatial structure for each fracture set to be determined. The NOOO-010 and N140-170 sets are grouped in packets whereas the two other sets are grouped in bands. The microtectonic study describes the evolution of the massif in the geodynamic context of this part of Mediterranea, distinguishing three recent stages of brittle tectonic activity in the massif: a WNW-ESE Middle Miocene compression, then a NNW-SSE to NW-SE compression with a poorly wrenching regime, and finally a probably pre-Quaternary N-S radial distension. This last stage is essential for the karstification of the massif and groundwater circulation. From the combined analysis of fracture network geometry and palaeostresses a multiple porosity model in agreement with hydrological observations made inside the massif can be proposed: in particular, the hectometric N090-100 (and N050-070) fractures which are essential for the network connectivity, and have a major drainage role at aquifer scale, while the N000-010 and N140-170 ones have a more local drainage role. This extensive tardy regime, which is for the first time described separately from the internal zones of the Cordilleras, must be considered as a significant phenomenon on a regional scale, and henceforth integrated in future geodynamic schemes of this part of Mediterranea.

  14. MicroSyn: A user friendly tool for detection of microsynteny in a gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaohan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The traditional phylogeny analysis within gene family is mainly based on DNA or amino acid sequence homologies. However, these phylogenetic tree analyses are not suitable for those "non-traditional" gene families like microRNA with very short sequences. For the normal protein-coding gene families, low bootstrap values are frequently encountered in some nodes, suggesting low confidence or likely inappropriateness of placement of those members in those nodes. Results We introduce MicroSyn software as a means of detecting microsynteny in adjacent genomic regions surrounding genes in gene families. MicroSyn searches for conserved, flanking colinear homologous gene pairs between two genomic fragments to determine the relationship between two members in a gene family. The colinearity of homologous pairs is controlled by a statistical distance function. As a result, gene duplication history can be inferred from the output independent of gene sequences. MicroSyn was designed for both experienced and non-expert users with a user-friendly graphical-user interface. MicroSyn is available from: Conclusions Case studies of the microRNA167 genes in plants and Xyloglucan ndotransglycosylase/Hydrolase family in Populus trichocarpa were presented to show the utility of the software. The easy using of MicroSyn in these examples suggests that the software is an additional valuable means to address the problem intrinsic in the computational methods and sequence qualities themselves in gene family analysis.

  15. SYN3D: a single-channel, spatial flux synthesis code for diffusion theory calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C. H.


    This report is a user's manual for SYN3D, a computer code which uses single-channel, spatial flux synthesis to calculate approximate solutions to two- and three-dimensional, finite-difference, multigroup neutron diffusion theory equations. SYN3D is designed to run in conjunction with any one of several one- and two-dimensional, finite-difference codes (required to generate the synthesis expansion functions) currently being used in the fast reactor community. The report describes the theory and equations, the use of the code, and the implementation on the IBM 370/195 and CDC 7600 of the version of SYN3D available through the Argonne Code Center.

  16. Synthesis of 2′-Fluoro RNA by Syn5 RNA polymerase (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Hernandez, Alfredo; Tan, Min; Wollenhaupt, Jan; Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.


    The substitution of 2′-fluoro for 2′-hydroxyl moieties in RNA substantially improves the stability of RNA. RNA stability is a major issue in RNA research and applications involving RNA. We report that the RNA polymerase from the marine cyanophage Syn5 has an intrinsic low discrimination against the incorporation of 2′-fluoro dNMPs during transcription elongation. The presence of both magnesium and manganese ions at high concentrations further reduce this discrimination without decreasing the efficiency of incorporation. We have constructed a Syn5 RNA polymerase in which tyrosine 564 is replaced with phenylalanine (Y564F) that further decreases the discrimination against 2′-fluoro-dNTPs during RNA synthesis. Sequence elements in DNA templates that affect the yield of RNA and incorporation of 2′-fluoro-dNMPs by Syn5 RNA polymerase have been identified. PMID:25897116

  17. An Enhanced SYN Cookie Defence Method for TCP DDoS Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hang


    Full Text Available With the development of network, the issues of network security are rapidly becoming a serious problem, and the Denial of Service (DoS attack has already become the greatest threat to the network. SYN Flood attack is one of the most common distributed denial of service attack way (DDoS. This paper presents an improved SYN Cookie method, designing a novel attack detector processing and a enhanced attack respondor with a new cookie verification algorithm and changing the definition of cookie field, to reduce algorithm complexity with the ensurance of security. The experiment results show that the proposed method provided an average computational complexity reduction of 30% compared with the traditional method. The new method can be an effective defense against the TCP SYN Flood attack with a lower complexity.

  18. A GDF5 point mutation strikes twice--causing BDA1 and SYNS2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Degenkolbe

    Full Text Available Growth and Differentiation Factor 5 (GDF5 is a secreted growth factor that belongs to the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP family and plays a pivotal role during limb development. GDF5 is a susceptibility gene for osteoarthritis (OA and mutations in GDF5 are associated with a wide variety of skeletal malformations ranging from complex syndromes such as acromesomelic chondrodysplasias to isolated forms of brachydactylies or multiple synostoses syndrome 2 (SYNS2. Here, we report on a family with an autosomal dominant inherited combination of SYNS2 and additional brachydactyly type A1 (BDA1 caused by a single point mutation in GDF5 (p.W414R. Functional studies, including chondrogenesis assays with primary mesenchymal cells, luciferase reporter gene assays and Surface Plasmon Resonance analysis, of the GDF5(W414R variant in comparison to other GDF5 mutations associated with isolated BDA1 (p.R399C or SYNS2 (p.E491K revealed a dual pathomechanism characterized by a gain- and loss-of-function at the same time. On the one hand insensitivity to the main GDF5 antagonist NOGGIN (NOG leads to a GDF5 gain of function and subsequent SYNS2 phenotype. Whereas on the other hand, a reduced signaling activity, specifically via the BMP receptor type IA (BMPR1A, is likely responsible for the BDA1 phenotype. These results demonstrate that one mutation in the overlapping interface of antagonist and receptor binding site in GDF5 can lead to a GDF5 variant with pathophysiological relevance for both, BDA1 and SYNS2 development. Consequently, our study assembles another part of the molecular puzzle of how loss and gain of function mutations in GDF5 affect bone development in hands and feet resulting in specific types of brachydactyly and SYNS2. These novel insights into the biology of GDF5 might also provide further clues on the pathophysiology of OA.

  19. Sedimentology and significance of an early syn-rift paleovalley, Wadi Tayiba, Suez Rift, Egypt (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher Aiden-Lee


    Wadi Tayiba is located along the western margin of the Hammam Faraun fault block, western Sinai, Egypt and is generally thought to contain exposures of the 'type-section' for late pre-rift to early syn-rift stratigraphy associated with the Oligo-Miocene Suez Rift. Previous studies have suggested a complex vertical succession of sedimentary facies characterise the late pre-rift to early syn-rift and imply major and abrupt variations in relative sea-level during this time. Detailed sedimentological and stratigraphic analysis of the Wadi Tayiba type-section presented in this study identifies not only a far simpler vertical facies succession than previously suggested but also the development of a major paleovalley system at the base of the early syn-rift succession. It is suggested that this subtle but significant feature is the cause of the complex vertical facies succession previously interpreted. It is concluded that continuous marine sedimentation and only moderate amplitude variations in relative sea-level occurred during the Eocene to Early Oligocene within at least this part of the Suez Rift. A major relative sea-level fall occurred during the middle Oligocene and a regionally developed erosional surface associated with this event marks the contact between late pre-rift and early syn-rift strata. The results of this study have major implications for sub-regional correlations of late pre-rift to early syn-rift stratigraphic units and resultant palaeogeographic reconstructions of the late pre-rift to early syn-rift period.

  20. BrisSynBio: a BBSRC/EPSRC-funded Synthetic Biology Research Centre. (United States)

    Sedgley, Kathleen R; Race, Paul R; Woolfson, Derek N


    BrisSynBio is the Bristol-based Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)/Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)-funded Synthetic Biology Research Centre. It is one of six such Centres in the U.K. BrisSynBio's emphasis is on rational and predictive bimolecular modelling, design and engineering in the context of synthetic biology. It trains the next generation of synthetic biologists in these approaches, to facilitate translation of fundamental synthetic biology research to industry and the clinic, and to do this within an innovative and responsible research framework. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Bimanes (1,5-Diazabicyclo(3.3.0)Octadiendiones). Laser Activity in syn- Bimanes (United States)


    oou InterimzOCRA Technica FROM 6/189T5.3j9 3 a 19 16mitr SUPPLEENTAR NOTATION ONOACESIN Heteroatom Chmitr 22217-0 (99) 11. 7CSTIT icueScrt CastoD n)8...bimanes 1. , 4 LO, 4 26 and i-thia-syn-(methylenemethyl)binane 50: and RE. 0-20 for 26 syn-bimanes. The bimane dyes tended to be more photostable and more ...Boyer, C. M. Lau, I. R. Politzer, K. Thangaraj, G. Kumar, V. T. Ramakrishnan, and T. G. Pavlopoulos Prepared for Publication in the Heteroatom Chemistry

  2. 40 CFR 174.529 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN... (United States)


    ... protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 in cotton; exemption from the requirement... Tolerance Exemptions § 174.529 Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD... Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 are...

  3. Grundtvigs syn på jødedom og jøder i dansk kontekst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten, Martin Schwarz


    Grundtvig og jødefejderne 1813-1830. Historie og teologi i Grundtvigs syn på jødedom og jøder. Grundtvig og debatten om jødernes politiske og sociale rettigheder, og hans syn på mission blandt jøder og jøders konversion til kristendom...

  4. A first step beyond traditional boundaries: destination therapy with the SynCardia total artificial heart. (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, Sotirios; Koerfer, Reiner; Tenderich, Gero


    The SynCardia total artificial heart is currently used as a bridge to transplantation therapy in cases of irreversible, acute or chronic, biventricular heart failure. We describe the implementation of this technology in the context of destination therapy in a patient with an end-stage heart failure on grounds of primary amyloidosis.

  5. Role of Human DNA Polymerase kappa in Extension Opposite from a cis-syn Thymine Dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Vasquez-Del Carpio; T Silverstein; S Lone; R Johnson; L Prakash; S Prakash; A Aggarwal


    Exposure of DNA to UV radiation causes covalent linkages between adjacent pyrimidines. The most common lesion found in DNA from these UV-induced linkages is the cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer. Human DNA polymerase {Kappa} (Pol{Kappa}), a member of the Y-family of DNA polymerases, is unable to insert nucleotides opposite the 3'T of a cis-syn T-T dimer, but it can efficiently extend from a nucleotide inserted opposite the 3'T of the dimer by another DNA polymerase. We present here the structure of human Pol{Kappa} in the act of inserting a nucleotide opposite the 5'T of the cis-syn T-T dimer. The structure reveals a constrained active-site cleft that is unable to accommodate the 3'T of a cis-syn T-T dimer but is remarkably well adapted to accommodate the 5'T via Watson-Crick base pairing, in accord with a proposed role for Pol{Kappa} in the extension reaction opposite from cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in vivo.

  6. SynBioLGDB: a resource for experimentally validated logic gates in synthetic biology (United States)

    Wang, Liqiang; Qian, Kun; Huang, Yan; Jin, Nana; Lai, Hongyan; Zhang, Ting; Li, Chunhua; Zhang, Chunrui; Bi, Xiaoman; Wu, Deng; Wang, Changliang; Wu, Hao; Tan, Puwen; Lu, Jianping; Chen, Liqun; Li, Kongning; Li, Xia; Wang, Dong


    Synthetic biologists have developed DNA/molecular modules that perform genetic logic operations in living cells to track key moments in a cell's life or change the fate of a cell. Increasing evidence has also revealed that diverse genetic logic gates capable of generating a Boolean function play critically important roles in synthetic biology. Basic genetic logic gates have been designed to combine biological science with digital logic. SynBioLGDB ( aims to provide the synthetic biology community with a useful resource for efficient browsing and visualization of genetic logic gates. The current version of SynBioLGDB documents more than 189 genetic logic gates with experimental evidence involving 80 AND gates and 16 NOR gates, etc. in three species (Human, Escherichia coli and Bacillus clausii). SynBioLGDB provides a user-friendly interface through which conveniently to query and browse detailed information about these genetic logic gates. SynBioLGDB will enable more comprehensive understanding of the connection of genetic logic gates to execute complex cellular functions in living cells.

  7. A fuzzy logic based network intrusion detection system for predicting the TCP SYN flooding attack

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkuzangwe, Nenekazi NP


    Full Text Available presents a fuzzy logic based network intrusion detection system to predict neptune which is a type of a Transmission Control Protocol Synchronized (TCP SYN) flooding attack. The performance of the proposed fuzzy logic based system is compared to that of a...

  8. Comparison of Leishmania killicki (syn. L. tropica) and Leishmania tropica Population Structure in Maghreb by Microsatellite Typing. (United States)

    Chaara, Dhekra; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Haouas, Najoua; Talignani, Loïc; Lami, Patrick; Mezhoud, Habib; Harrat, Zoubir; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Babba, Hamouda; Pratlong, Francine


    Leishmania (L.) killicki (syn. L. tropica), which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in Maghreb, was recently described in this region and identified as a subpopulation of L. tropica. The present genetic analysis was conducted to explore the spatio-temporal distribution of L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) and its transmission dynamics. To better understand the evolution of this parasite, its population structure was then compared with that of L. tropica populations from Morocco. In total 198 samples including 85 L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) (from Tunisia, Algeria and Libya) and 113 L. tropica specimens (all from Morocco) were tested. Theses samples were composed of 168 Leishmania strains isolated from human skin lesions, 27 DNA samples from human skin lesion biopsies, two DNA samples from Ctenodactylus gundi bone marrow and one DNA sample from a Phlebotomus sergenti female. The sample was analyzed by using MultiLocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE) and MultiLocus Microsatellite Typing (MLMT) approaches. Analysis of the MLMT data support the hypothesis that L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) belongs to the L. tropica complex, despite its strong genetic differentiation, and that it emerged from this taxon by a founder effect. Moreover, it revealed a strong structuring in L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) between Tunisia and Algeria and within the different Tunisian regions, suggesting low dispersion of L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) in space and time. Comparison of the L. tropica (exclusively from Morocco) and L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) population structures revealed distinct genetic organizations, reflecting different epidemiological cycles.

  9. Comparison of Leishmania killicki (syn. L. tropica and Leishmania tropica Population Structure in Maghreb by Microsatellite Typing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhekra Chaara


    Full Text Available Leishmania (L. killicki (syn. L. tropica, which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in Maghreb, was recently described in this region and identified as a subpopulation of L. tropica. The present genetic analysis was conducted to explore the spatio-temporal distribution of L. killicki (syn. L. tropica and its transmission dynamics. To better understand the evolution of this parasite, its population structure was then compared with that of L. tropica populations from Morocco. In total 198 samples including 85 L. killicki (syn. L. tropica (from Tunisia, Algeria and Libya and 113 L. tropica specimens (all from Morocco were tested. Theses samples were composed of 168 Leishmania strains isolated from human skin lesions, 27 DNA samples from human skin lesion biopsies, two DNA samples from Ctenodactylus gundi bone marrow and one DNA sample from a Phlebotomus sergenti female. The sample was analyzed by using MultiLocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE and MultiLocus Microsatellite Typing (MLMT approaches. Analysis of the MLMT data support the hypothesis that L. killicki (syn. L. tropica belongs to the L. tropica complex, despite its strong genetic differentiation, and that it emerged from this taxon by a founder effect. Moreover, it revealed a strong structuring in L. killicki (syn. L. tropica between Tunisia and Algeria and within the different Tunisian regions, suggesting low dispersion of L. killicki (syn. L. tropica in space and time. Comparison of the L. tropica (exclusively from Morocco and L. killicki (syn. L. tropica population structures revealed distinct genetic organizations, reflecting different epidemiological cycles.

  10. Expanding Applicability of Total Artificial Heart Therapy: The 50-cc SynCardia Total Artificial Heart. (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, Sotirios; Dimitriou, Alexandros Merkourios; Guersoy, Dilek; Koerfer, Reiner; Tenderich, Gero


    The 50-cc SynCardia total artificial heart is designed to facilitate orthotopic replacement of the native ventricles in patients with a body surface area below 1.7 m(2) in need of long-term circulatory support as a result of end-stage biventricular heart failure. We describe the implementation of this technology in a female patient with irreversible cardiogenic shock on the grounds of acute myocardial infarction and chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy.

  11. 对TCP SYN Flood攻击和防御的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    TCP SYN Flood(TCP同步洪水攻击)是目前最流行的DoS(拒绝服务攻击)与DDoS的方式之一,这是一种利用TCP协议缺陷,破坏TCP三次握手建立正常连接,从而使得被攻击方资源耗尽的攻击方式。

  12. Synthesis of Transient Climate Evolution of the last 21-kyr (SynTraCE-21)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhengyu Liu


    Climate evolution in the last 21,000 years provides critical observations for testing state-of-the-art climate models on the simulation of climate evolution and abrupt climate changes. Proxy evidences and new modeling activities have led to rapid advances in our understanding of climate change for this past time period. This funding helps to support the first international SynTraCE-21k workshop at Mount Hood, Oregon from 10-13 October, 2010.

  13. Intracellular assembly of cyanophage Syn5 proceeds through a scaffold-containing procapsid. (United States)

    Raytcheva, Desislava A; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron; Piret, Jacqueline M; King, Jonathan A


    Syn5 is a marine cyanophage that is propagated on the marine photosynthetic cyanobacterial strain Synechococcus sp. WH8109 under laboratory conditions. Cryoelectron images of this double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) phage reveal an icosahedral capsid with short tail appendages and a single novel hornlike structure at the vertex opposite the tail. Despite the major impact of cyanophages on life in the oceans, there is limited information on cyanophage intracellular assembly processes within their photosynthetic hosts. The one-step growth curve of Syn5 demonstrated a short cycle with an eclipse period of ∼45 min, a latent phase of ∼60 min, and a burst size of 20 to 30 particles per cell at 28°C. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis of cell lysates at different times after infection showed the synthesis of major virion proteins and their increase as the infection progressed. The scaffolding protein of Syn5, absent from virions, was identified in the lysates and expressed from the cloned gene. It migrated anomalously on SDS-PAGE, similar to the phage T7 scaffolding protein. Particles lacking DNA but containing the coat and scaffolding proteins were purified from Syn5-infected cells using CsCl centrifugation followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Electron microscopic images of the purified particles showed shells lacking condensed DNA but filled with protein density, presumably scaffolding protein. These findings suggest that the cyanophages form infectious virions through the initial assembly of scaffolding-containing procapsids, similar to the assembly pathways for the enteric dsDNA bacteriophages. Since cyanobacteria predate the enteric bacteria, this procapsid-mediated assembly pathway may have originated with the cyanophages.

  14. QTL Mapping of Low-Temperature Germination Ability in the Maize IBM Syn4 RIL Population


    Shuaidong Hu; Thomas Lübberstedt; Guangwu Zhao; Michael Lee


    Low temperature is the primary factor to affect maize sowing in early spring. It is, therefore, vital for maize breeding programs to improve tolerance to low temperatures at seed germination stage. However, little is known about maize QTL involved in low-temperature germination ability. 243 lines of the intermated B73×Mo17 (IBM) Syn4 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was used for QTL analysis of low-temperature germination ability. There were significant differences in germination-rela...

  15. The role of pH in Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza development within commercial orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. Thomas


    Full Text Available The accepted advice when establishing a plantation of Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum is that young inoculated trees should be planted on calcareous soils with a naturally high pH level. When a site is employed that has a naturally low pH level, lime is often applied to raise the pH to a considered ideal level of c.7.5. However, this may not be the correct approach. Here we present data from 33 data points taken from commercial truffle orchards in England, UK. Soil pH is correlated to Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza survivorship and development. The optimal observed pH was 7.51 but the actual optimal pH for cultivation may be higher. Sub optimal pH levels lead to a reduction of Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza. This reduction is not permanent and mycorrhization levels may be improved within a 12 month period by amending the soil pH. The importance of understanding the interaction of pH with other variables and the results in relation truffle cultivation are discussed.

  16. AutoSyn:A new approach to automated synthesis of composite web services with correctness guarantee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUAI JinPeng; DENG Ting; LI XianXian; DU ZongXia; GUO HuiPeng


    How to compose existing web services automatically and to guarantee the correctness of the design (e.g.freeness of deadlock and unspecified reception,and temporal constraints) is an important and challenging problem in web services.Most existing approaches require a detailed specification of the desired behaviors of a composite service beforehand and then perform certain formal verification to guarantee the correctness of the design,which makes the composition process both complex and time-consuming.In this paper,we propose a novel approach,referred to as AutoSyn to compose web services,where the correctness is guaranteed in the synthesis process.For a given set of services,a composite service is automatically constructed based on L* algorithm,which guarantees that the composite service is the most general way of coordinating services so that the correctness is ensured.We show the soundness and completeness of our solution and give a set of optimization techniques for reducing the time consumption.We have implemented a prototype system of AutoSyn and evaluated the effectiveness and efficiency of AutoSyn through an experimental study.

  17. SynQor100A半砖DC/DC转换器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    <正> 日前,SynQor公司推出大电流、高效率的半砖DC/DC转换器。PowerQor Peta系列在单板上输出电流高达100A,采用开放框架封装。Peta系列转换器采用同步整流及SynQor公司的专利拓扑,从而使转换器的1.5Vout效率达到非常高的水平,在输出电流50A和100A时分别为90%和84%。 100A Peta系列扩充了SynQor的Kilo、mega、Giga、Tera半砖、四分之一砖、八分之一砖模块等众多广受嘉奖的产品,从而能为15A~100A的高效率转换器提供更多选择,更加适合各种电源应用。

  18. Two novel proteins of cyanophage Syn5 compose its unusual horn structure. (United States)

    Raytcheva, Desislava A; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron; Piret, Jacqueline; King, Jonathan A


    The marine cyanophage Syn5 can be propagated to a high titer in the laboratory on marine photosynthetic Synechococcus sp. strain WH8109. The purified particles carry a novel slender horn structure projecting from the vertex opposite the tail vertex. The genome of Syn5 includes a number of genes coding for novel proteins. Using immune-electron microscopy with gold-labeled antibodies, we show that two of these novel proteins, products of genes 53 and 54, are part of the horn structure. A third novel protein, the product of gene 58, is assembled onto the icosahedral capsid lattice. Characterization of radioactively labeled precursor procapsids by sucrose gradient centrifugation shows that there appear to be three classes of particles-procapsids, scaffold-deficient procapsids, and expanded capsids. These lack fully assembled horn appendages. The horn presumably assembles onto the virion just before or after DNA packaging. Antibodies raised to the recombinant novel Syn5 proteins did not interfere with phage infectivity, suggesting that the functions of these proteins are not directly involved in phage attachment or infection of the host WH8109. The horn structure may represent some adaption to the marine environment, whose function will require additional investigation.

  19. Appetitively motivated instrumental learning in SynGAP heterozygous knockout mice. (United States)

    Muhia, Mary; Feldon, Joram; Knuesel, Irene; Yee, Benjamin K


    The synaptic Ras/Rap-GTPase-activating protein (SynGAP) regulates specific intracellular events following N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation. Here, the impact of SynGAP heterozygous knockout (SG+/-) on NMDAR-dependent functions was assessed using different positive reinforcement schedules in instrumental conditioning. The knockout did not affect the temporal control of operant responding under a fixed interval (FI) schedule, but led to a putative enhancement in response vigor and/or disinhibition. When examined on differential reinforcement of low rates of response (DRL) schedules, SG+/- mice showed increased responding under DRL-4s and DRL-8s, without impairing the response efficiency (total rewards/total lever presses) because both rewarded and nonrewarded presses were elevated. Motivation was unaffected as evaluated using a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Yet, SG+/- mice persisted in responding during extinction at the end of PR training, although an equivalent phenotype was not evident in extinction learning following FI-20s training. This extinction phenotype is therefore schedule-specific and cannot be generalized to Pavlovian conditioning. In conclusion, constitutive SynGAP reduction increases vigor in the execution of learned operant behavior without compromising its temporal control, yielding effects readily distinguishable from NMDAR blockade.

  20. Rosebud syncoal partnership SynCoal{sup {reg_sign}} demonstration technology development update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Company, Billings, MT (United States); Heintz, S.J. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    Rosebud SynCoal{reg_sign} Partnership`s Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) is an advanced thermal coal upgrading process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal is processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors where oxygen functional groups are destroyed removing chemically bound water, carboxyl and carbonyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the SynCoal{reg_sign} is cleaned using a deep-bed stratifier process to effectively separate the pyrite rich ash. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank western coals with moisture contents ranging from 2555%, sulfur contents between 0.5 and 1.5 %, and heating values between 5,500 and 9,000 Btu/lb. The upgraded stable coal product has moisture contents as low as 1 %, sulfur contents as low as 0.3%, and heating values up to 12,000 Btu/lb.

  1. SynTec Final Technical Report: Synthetic biology for Tailored Enzyme cocktails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Janine [Novozymes, Inc., Davis, CA (United States); Teter, Sarah [Novozymes, Inc., Davis, CA (United States)


    Using a novel enzyme screening method inspired by synthetic biology, Novozymes developed new technology under SynTec which allows for more rapidly tailoring of enzyme cocktails. The methodology can be applied to specific feedstocks, and or coupled to address a specific hydrolytic conversion process context. Using combinatorial high throughput screening of libraries of enzyme domains, we can quickly assess which combination of catalytic modules delivers the best performance for a specific condition. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the screening process, we measured performance of the output catalytic cocktail compared to CTec3/HTec3. SynTec benchmark cocktail - blend of Cellic® CTec3 and HTec3. The test substrate was - ammonia fiber expansion pretreated corn stover (AFEX™ PCS).CTec3/HTec3 was assayed at the optimal pH and temperature, and also in the absence of any pH adjustment. The new enzyme cocktail discovered under SynTec was assayed in the absence of any pH adjustment and at the optimal temperature. Conversion is delivered by SynTec enzyme at significant dose reduction relative to CTec3/HTec3 at the controlled pH optimum, and without titrant required to maintain pH, which delivers additional cost savings relative to current state of the art process. In this 2.5 year $4M project, the team delivered an experimental cocktail that significantly outperformed CTec3/HTec3 for a specific substrate, and for specific hydrolysis conditions. As a means of comparing performance improvement delivered per research dollar spent, we note that SynTec delivered a similar performance improvement to the previous award, in a shorter time and with fewer resources than for the previously successful DOE project DECREASE, a 3.5 year, $25M project, though this project focused on a different substrate and used different hydrolysis conditions. The newly implemented technology for rapid sourcing of new cellulases and hemicellulases from nature is an example of Novozymes

  2. Comparison of Leishmania killicki (syn. L. tropica) and Leishmania tropica Population Structure in Maghreb by Microsatellite Typing.


    Dhekra Chaara; Anne-Laure Bañuls; Najoua Haouas; Loïc Talignani; Patrick Lami; Habib Mezhoud; Zoubir Harrat; Jean-Pierre Dedet; Hamouda Babba; Francine Pratlong


    Leishmania (L.) killicki (syn. L. tropica), which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in Maghreb, was recently described in this region and identified as a subpopulation of L. tropica. The present genetic analysis was conducted to explore the spatio-temporal distribution of L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) and its transmission dynamics. To better understand the evolution of this parasite, its population structure was then compared with that of L. tropica populations from Morocco. In total 198 samples...

  3. Detection of SYN Flooding Attacks Based on Non-parametric CUSUM Algorithm%基于非参数CUSUM算法的SYN Flooding攻击检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程军; 林白; 芦建芝; 李鸥


    针对危害性极大的SYN Flooding攻击,提出了一种新的检测方法.该方法监控进入网络的TCP业务的SYN包与FIN(RsT)包的平衡性,并使用非参数累积和(CUSUM)算法来检测SYN包与FIN(RST)包数量的均衡性的变化.该方法不需要正常业务和攻击业务的详细模型,能提高检测的准确性和在线检测速度,降低运算开销.

  4. Three Syns. (United States)

    Larsen, Richard B.


    Introduces three terms--synapsis, synesthesia, and synergy--applied to writing instruction as heuristic concepts. Describes classroom exercises, such as removing transitions from an essay and asking students to restore synaptic life to the paragraphs, viewing painting masterpieces to find analogous aesthetic concepts in written composition, and…

  5. Comparative analysis of septic injury-inducible genes in phylogenetically distant model organisms of regeneration and stem cell research, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilcinskas Andreas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris have emerged as valuable model organisms in regeneration and stem cell research because of their prominent ability to regenerate a complete organism from any small body fragment. Under natural conditions wounding may result from predator attacks. These injuries open their innermost to a wide array of microbes present in the environment. Therefore, we established the hypothesis that regeneration processes may be linked to or at least accompanied by innate immune responses. In order to screen for septic wounding inducible genes we dissected individuals using a scalpel in the presence of a crude bacterial lipopolysaccharide preparation that is commonly used to elicit innate immune responses in animals and applied the suppression subtractive hybridization technique that selectively amplifies cDNAs of differentially expressed genes. Results This analysis revealed the induced expression of 27 genes in immune challenged Schmidtea and 35 genes in immune challenged Hydra. Identified genes from both animals encode proteins that share sequence similarities with potential homologues from other organisms known to be involved in signaling (e.g. calreticulin in Schmidtea and major vault protein in Hydra, stress responses (e.g. Hsp20 in Schmidtea and a PRP19/PSO4 DNA repair protein in Hydra, or to represent potential antimicrobial effectors (e.g. perforin-like protein in Schmidtea and PR-1-like protein and neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 in Hydra. As expected, septic wounding also induces expression of genes in Schmidtea and Hydra potentially involved in tissue remodeling associated with regeneration processes (e.g. matrix metalloproteinase in Schmidtea and a potential von Willebrand factor in Hydra. Conclusion We identified numerous immune-inducible genes in Hydra and Schmidtea that show a similar distribution corresponding to their physiological roles, although lineages of

  6. SynLethDB: synthetic lethality database toward discovery of selective and sensitive anticancer drug targets. (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Liu, Hui; Zheng, Jie


    Synthetic lethality (SL) is a type of genetic interaction between two genes such that simultaneous perturbations of the two genes result in cell death or a dramatic decrease of cell viability, while a perturbation of either gene alone is not lethal. SL reflects the biologically endogenous difference between cancer cells and normal cells, and thus the inhibition of SL partners of genes with cancer-specific mutations could selectively kill cancer cells but spare normal cells. Therefore, SL is emerging as a promising anticancer strategy that could potentially overcome the drawbacks of traditional chemotherapies by reducing severe side effects. Researchers have developed experimental technologies and computational prediction methods to identify SL gene pairs on human and a few model species. However, there has not been a comprehensive database dedicated to collecting SL pairs and related knowledge. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive database, SynLethDB (, which contains SL pairs collected from biochemical assays, other related databases, computational predictions and text mining results on human and four model species, i.e. mouse, fruit fly, worm and yeast. For each SL pair, a confidence score was calculated by integrating individual scores derived from different evidence sources. We also developed a statistical analysis module to estimate the druggability and sensitivity of cancer cells upon drug treatments targeting human SL partners, based on large-scale genomic data, gene expression profiles and drug sensitivity profiles on more than 1000 cancer cell lines. To help users access and mine the wealth of the data, we developed other practical functionalities, such as search and filtering, orthology search, gene set enrichment analysis. Furthermore, a user-friendly web interface has been implemented to facilitate data analysis and interpretation. With the integrated data sets and analytics functionalities, SynLethDB would

  7. rac-syn-Diethyl 2-hydroxy-4-oxo-1-phenylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Jun Wang


    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H22O6, was obtained by the domino oxa–Michael–aldol (DOMA reaction and has the cyclohexanone ring in a chair conformation with intra-annular torsion angles in the range 49.9 (2–58.9 (2°. The two ethoxycarbonyl substituents on the cyclohexanone ring adopt a syn configurations. In the crystal, the molecules self-assemble through duplex intermolecular hydroxy–carbonyl O—H...O hydrogen bonds, giving centrosymmetric cyclic dimers [graph set R22(12] which inter-associate through weak C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  8. Target Specific Tactics in Olefin Metathesis: Synthetic Approach to cis-syn-cis-Triquinanes and -Propellanes. (United States)

    Kotha, Sambasivarao; Aswar, Vikas R


    A concise and simple synthetic approach to cis-syn-cis-triquinanes and -propellanes has been demonstrated via olefin metathesis starting with exo-nadic anhydride. This approach involves a ring-opening and ring-closing metathesis sequence of norbornene derivatives using Grubb's catalyst. Early-stage diallylation of norbornene derivatives is demonstrated followed by ring-closing metathesis that delivers propellanes exclusively. Surprisingly, ring-opening metathesis, late-stage diallylation, followed by ring-closing metathesis delivers triquinane as well as propellane derivatives.

  9. Astrocyte-specific disruption of SynCAM1 signaling results in ADHD-like behavioral manifestations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula S Sandau

    Full Text Available SynCAM1 is an adhesion molecule involved in synaptic differentiation and organization. SynCAM1 is also expressed in astroglial cells where it mediates astrocyte-to astrocyte and glial-neuronal adhesive communication. In astrocytes, SynCAM1 is functionally linked to erbB4 receptors, which are involved in the control of both neuronal/glial development and mature neuronal and glial function. Here we report that mice carrying a dominant-negative form of SynCAM1 specifically targeted to astrocytes (termed GFAP-DNSynCAM1 mice exhibit disrupted diurnal locomotor activity with enhanced and more frequent episodes of activity than control littermates during the day (when the animals are normally sleeping accompanied by shorter periods of rest. GFAP-DNSynCAM1 mice also display high levels of basal activity in the dark period (the rodent's awake/active time that are attenuated by the psychostimulant D,L-amphetamine, and reduced anxiety levels in response to both avoidable and unavoidable provoking stimuli. These results indicate that disruption of SynCAM1-dependent astroglial function results in behavioral abnormalities similar to those described in animals model of attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD, and suggest a hitherto unappreciated contribution of glial cells to the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  10. Formation and syn-rifting process of the Wan'an Basin,South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Caili; YAO Yongjian; WU Shiguo; DONG Dongdong


    Based on seismic and drilling data,we calculated tectonic subsidence amounts and rates of the Wan'an Basin by backstripping.The genetic mechanism and syn-rifting process of the basin were analyzed in combination with the regional geological setting.The results reveal that the basin syn-rifted in the Eocene and early Miocene under the control of the dextral strike-slip Wan'an Fault Zone.The transtensional/extentional stresses along this fault zone may be attributed to seafloor spreading of the South China Sea (SCS) in multiple episodes.Extensive basal faults and some small initial rifts in the early Paleogene can be related to southeastward extrusion and clockwise rotation of the Indochina Block.During the Oligocene,the nearly N-S directed spreading of the SCS derived the transtensional stresses in a roughly NW-SE orientation.The basin subsided rapidly in the middle and north to form two major subsidence centers.In the early Miocene,the SCS spread again in a nearly NW-SE direction,resulting in rapid subsidence in the southern basin continuous extending until the period ~ 16.3 Ma.

  11. Technical Note: n-Alkane lipid biomarkers in loess: post-sedimentary or syn-sedimentary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Faust


    Full Text Available There is an ongoing discussion whether n-alkane biomarkers – and organic matter (OM from loess in general – reflect a syn-sedimentary paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate signal or whether they are significantly a post-sedimentary feature contaminated by root-derived OM. We present first radiocarbon data for the n-alkane fraction of lipid extracts and for the first time luminescence ages for the Middle to Late Weichselian loess-paleosol sequence of Gleina in Saxony, Germany. Comparison of these biomarker ages with sedimentation ages as assessed by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating shows that one n-alkane sample features a syn-sedimentary age (14C: 29.2 ± 1.4 kyr cal BP versus OSL: 27.3 ± 3.0 kyr. By contrast, the 14C ages derived from the other n-alkane samples are clearly younger (20.3 ± 0.7 kyr cal BP, 22.1 ± 0.7 kyr cal BP and 29.8 ± 1.4 kyr cal BP than the corresponding OSL ages (26.6 ± 3.1 kyr, 32.0 ± 3.5 kyr and 45.6 ± 5.3 kyr. This finding suggests that a post-sedimentary n-alkane contamination presumably by roots has occurred. In order to estimate the post-sedimentary n-alkane contamination more quantitatively, we applied a 14C mass balance calculation based on the measured pMC (percent modern carbon values, the calculated syn-sedimentary pMC values and pMC values suspected to reflect likely time points of post-sedimentary contamination (current, modern, 3 kyr, 6 kyr and 9 kyr. Accordingly, current and modern root-contamination would account for up to 7%, a 3 kyr old root-contamination for up to 10%, and an Early and Middle Holocene root-contamination for up to 20% of the total sedimentary n-alkane pool. We acknowledge and encourage that these first radiocarbon results need further confirmation both from other loess-paleosol sequences and for different biomarkers, e.g. carboxylic acids or alcohols as further lipid biomarkers.

  12. Budgettets rolle: Skal vi ændre vores syn på budgetter og motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj


    relation til budgetopfølgningen. Formålet er at vurdere, om den måde, budgettering traditionelt håndterer motivation på, er hensigtsmæssig, eller om der er behov for et ændret syn på budgetter og motivation. Artiklen tager udgangspunktet i den normative litteratur på området, og det påpeges...... af den kritik af budgettet, der har været rejst de senere år f.eks. i forbindelse med Beyond Budgeting-modellen, der bl.a. har udgangspunkt i de klassiske motivationsteorier. I forlængelse heraf diskuteres de motivationsmæssige elementer i Beyond Budgeting, og det påpeges, at også denne model...

  13. An Analysis of Sawtooth Noise in the Timing SynPaQ III GPS Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy S. SHMALIY


    Full Text Available This paper addresses a probabilistic analysis of sawtooth noise in the one pulse per second (1PPS output of the timing SynPaQ III GPS Sensor. We show that sawtooth noise is uniformly distributed within the bounds caused by period of the Local Time Clock of the sensor and that the probability density function (pdf of this noise is formed with 1ns sampling interval used in the sensor to calculate the negative sawtooth. We also show that the pdf has at zero a spike of 1ns width caused by roll-off. It is demonstrated that an unbiased finite impulse response filter is an excellent suppresser of such a noise in the estimates of the time interval errors of local clocks.

  14. The transporter SynPAM71 is located in the plasma membrane and thylakoids, and mediates manganese tolerance in Synechocystis PCC6803

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandini, Chiara; Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Husted, Søren


    symptoms were observed in WT cells exposed to excess Mn. Moreover, CyanoP, which is involved in the early steps of PSII assembly, is massively upregulated in ΔSynPAM71. SynPAM71 was detected in both the plasma membrane and, to a lesser extent, the thylakoid membranes. Our results suggest that SynPAM71...... to chloroplast Mn homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we characterize the function of its homolog in Synechocystis (SynPAM71). We used a loss-of-function line (ΔSynPAM71), wild-type (WT) cells exposed to Mn stress and strains expressing a tagged variant of SynPAM71 to characterize the role of SynPAM71...... in cyanobacterial Mn homeostasis. The ΔSynPAM71 strain displays an Mn-sensitive phenotype with reduced levels of chlorophyll and PSI accumulation, defects in PSII photochemistry and intracellular Mn enrichment, particularly in the thylakoid membranes. These effects are attributable to Mn toxicity, as very similar...

  15. Supporting Security against SYN Flooding Attack in Distributed DoS Via Measuring IPFIX-Based Traffic (United States)

    Alipour, H.; Kia, M. Kashefi; Esmaeili, M.

    Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers after 2000 have become a serious problem. In the distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks often seen recently, multiple distributed nodes concurrently attack a single server. To assure that network services will not be interrupted, faster and more effective defense mechanisms is needed to protect against malicious traffic, especially SYN floods. One problem in detecting SYN flood traffic is that server nodes or firewalls cannot distinguish the SYN packets of normal TCP connections from those of a SYN flood attack. Our method, FDFIX, relies on the use of monitoring and measurement techniques to evaluate the impact of DoS attacks. It uses flow based measurements. Capturing flow information is very important for detecting DoS and also other kinds of attacks. Flow monitoring allows detecting suspicious traffics and in the next step can analyze attacking flows and the results can be used for defense methods. Our method provides required information for many mechanisms that use traffic measurement as their input.

  16. Implantation technique of the 50-cm3 SynCardia Total Artificial Heart: does size make a difference? (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, Sotirios; Guersoy, Dilek; Dimitriou, Alexandros Merkourios; Koerfer, Reiner; Tenderich, Gero


    Despite downsizing, implantation technique of the 50-cm(3) SynCardia Total Artificial Heart and settings of the Companion driver remain unchanged. Owing to the absence of de-airing nipples, de-airing procedure is even more crucial and has to be performed carefully.

  17. SynMuv genes redundantly inhibit lin-3/EGF expression to prevent inappropriate vulval induction in C. elegans. (United States)

    Cui, Mingxue; Chen, Jun; Myers, Toshia R; Hwang, Byung Joon; Sternberg, Paul W; Greenwald, Iva; Han, Min


    Activation of EGFR-Ras-MAPK signaling in vulval precursor cells (VPCs) by LIN-3/EGF from the gonad induces vulval development in C. elegans. The prevailing view is that LIN-3 overcomes an "inhibitory signal" from the adjacent hyp7 hypodermal syncytium. This view originated from observations indicating that inactivation of functionally redundant Synthetic Multivulva (SynMuv) genes in hyp7 can activate EGFR-Ras-MAPK signaling in the VPCs. Many SynMuv genes encode transcription and chromatin-associated factors, including the Rb ortholog. Here, we show that the SynMuv A and SynMuv B gene classes are functionally redundant for transcriptional repression of the key target gene, lin-3/EGF, in the hypodermis. These observations necessitate a revision of the concept of "inhibitory signaling." They also underscore the importance of preventing inappropriate cell signaling during development and suggest that derepression of growth factors may be the mechanism by which tumor suppressor genes such as Rb can have cell nonautonomous effects.

  18. DFT Conformation and Energies of Amylose Fragments at Atomic Resolution Part I: Syn Forms of Alpha-Maltotetraose (United States)

    DFT optimization studies of ninety syn '-maltotetraose (DP-4) amylose fragments have been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. The DP-4 fragments studied include V-helix, tightly bent conformations, a boat, and a 1C4 conformer. The standard hydroxymethyl rotamers (gg, gt, tg) were ...

  19. Discovery of syn-/anti-cocaine-N-oxide diastereomers in unwashed postmortem hair via LC-MS-MS. (United States)

    Marsh, Christine M; Crawley, Lindsey R; Himes, Sarah K; Aranda, Roman; Miller, Mark L


    The discovery of two cocaine-N-oxide (CNO) diastereomers, syn- and anti-CNO, is reported for the first time. Prior to this study, only one structural form of CNO was known to exist and has not been analyzed in hair before. CNO is a metabolite of cocaine (COC) and may be considered as an additional biomarker of COC use, along with other known COC metabolites. The analysis of COC in hair for forensic applications is under scrutiny due to the possibility of external contamination. A qualitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed, validated and applied to unwashed postmortem hair samples from drug users. The limit of detection in hair was 8 pg/mg (using 10 mg of unwashed hair) for each CNO diastereomer. The presence of both syn- and anti-forms of CNO was verified in vivo using hair samples collected from known COC-using individuals. Due to the low levels of CNO, it will not always be detectable in COC user hair. In the hair samples analyzed, syn-CNO was detected in more samples than anti-CNO. The stereoselective N-oxidation of COC which favors syn-CNO could have a diagnostic value for COC ingestion determination in hair analysis.

  20. Genome sequence, structural proteins, and capsid organization of the cyanophage Syn5: a "horned" bacteriophage of marine synechococcus. (United States)

    Pope, Welkin H; Weigele, Peter R; Chang, Juan; Pedulla, Marisa L; Ford, Michael E; Houtz, Jennifer M; Jiang, Wen; Chiu, Wah; Hatfull, Graham F; Hendrix, Roger W; King, Jonathan


    Marine Synechococcus spp and marine Prochlorococcus spp are numerically dominant photoautotrophs in the open oceans and contributors to the global carbon cycle. Syn5 is a short-tailed cyanophage isolated from the Sargasso Sea on Synechococcus strain WH8109. Syn5 has been grown in WH8109 to high titer in the laboratory and purified and concentrated retaining infectivity. Genome sequencing and annotation of Syn5 revealed that the linear genome is 46,214 bp with a 237 bp terminal direct repeat. Sixty-one open reading frames (ORFs) were identified. Based on genomic organization and sequence similarity to known protein sequences within GenBank, Syn5 shares features with T7-like phages. The presence of a putative integrase suggests access to a temperate life cycle. Assignment of 11 ORFs to structural proteins found within the phage virion was confirmed by mass-spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. Eight of these identified structural proteins exhibited amino acid sequence similarity to enteric phage proteins. The remaining three virion proteins did not resemble any known phage sequences in GenBank as of August 2006. Cryo-electron micrographs of purified Syn5 virions revealed that the capsid has a single "horn", a novel fibrous structure protruding from the opposing end of the capsid from the tail of the virion. The tail appendage displayed an apparent 3-fold rather than 6-fold symmetry. An 18 A resolution icosahedral reconstruction of the capsid revealed a T=7 lattice, but with an unusual pattern of surface knobs. This phage/host system should allow detailed investigation of the physiology and biochemistry of phage propagation in marine photosynthetic bacteria.

  1. Ductile strain rate recorded in the Symvolon syn-extensional plutonic body (Rhodope core complex, Greece) (United States)

    Cirrincione, Rosolino; Fazio, Eugenio; Ortolano, Gaetano; Fiannacca, Patrizia; Kern, Hartmut; Mengel, Kurt; Pezzino, Antonino; Punturo, Rosalda


    The present contribution deals with quantitative microstructural analysis, which was performed on granodiorites of the syn-tectonic Symvolon pluton (Punturo et al., 2014) at the south-western boundary of the Rhodope Core Complex (Greece). Our purpose is the quantification of ductile strain rate achieved across the pluton, by considering its cooling gradient from the centre to the periphery, using the combination of a paleopiezometer (Shimizu, 2008) and a quartz flow law (Hirth et al., 2001). Obtained results, associated with a detailed cooling history (Dinter et al., 1995), allowed us to reconstruct the joined cooling and strain gradient evolution of the pluton from its emplacement during early Miocene (ca. 700°C at 22 Ma) to its following cooling stage (ca. 500-300°C at 15 Ma). Shearing temperature values were constrained by means of a thermodynamic approach based on the recognition of syn-shear assemblages at incremental strain; to this aim, statistical handling of mineral chemistry X-Ray maps was carried out on microdomains detected at the tails of porphyroclasts. Results indicate that the strain/cooling gradients evolve "arm in arm" across the pluton, as also testified by the progressive development of mylonitic fabric over the magmatic microstructures approaching the host rock. References • Dinter, D. A., Macfarlane, A., Hames, W., Isachsen, C., Bowring, S., and Royden, L. (1995). U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Symvolon granodiorite: Implications for the thermal and structural evolution of the Rhodope metamorphic core complex, northeastern Greece. Tectonics, 14 (4), 886-908. • Shimizu, I. (2008). Theories and applicability of grain size piezometers: The role of dynamic recrystallization mechanisms. Journal of Structural Geology, 30 (7), 899-917. • Hirth, G., Teyssier, C., and Dunlap, J. W. (2001). An evaluation of quartzite flow laws based on comparisons between experimentally and naturally deformed rocks. International Journal of Earth

  2. Development of SYN-004, an oral beta-lactamase treatment to protect the gut microbiome from antibiotic-mediated damage and prevent Clostridium difficile infection. (United States)

    Kaleko, Michael; Bristol, J Andrew; Hubert, Steven; Parsley, Todd; Widmer, Giovanni; Tzipori, Saul; Subramanian, Poorani; Hasan, Nur; Koski, Perrti; Kokai-Kun, John; Sliman, Joseph; Jones, Annie; Connelly, Sheila


    The gut microbiome, composed of the microflora that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and their genomes, make up a complex ecosystem that can be disrupted by antibiotic use. The ensuing dysbiosis is conducive to the emergence of opportunistic pathogens such as Clostridium difficile. A novel approach to protect the microbiome from antibiotic-mediated dysbiosis is the use of beta-lactamase enzymes to degrade residual antibiotics in the gastrointestinal tract before the microflora are harmed. Here we present the preclinical development and early clinical studies of the beta-lactamase enzymes, P3A, currently referred to as SYN-004, and its precursor, P1A. Both P1A and SYN-004 were designed as orally-delivered, non-systemically available therapeutics for use with intravenous beta-lactam antibiotics. SYN-004 was engineered from P1A, a beta-lactamase isolated from Bacillus licheniformis, to broaden its antibiotic degradation profile. SYN-004 efficiently hydrolyses penicillins and cephalosporins, the most widely used IV beta-lactam antibiotics. In animal studies, SYN-004 degraded ceftriaxone in the GI tract of dogs and protected the microbiome of pigs from ceftriaxone-induced changes. Phase I clinical studies demonstrated SYN-004 safety and tolerability. Phase 2 studies are in progress to assess the utility of SYN-004 for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile disease.

  3. Rh-Catalyzed Intermolecular Syn-Carboamination of Alkenes via a Transient Directing Group (United States)

    Piou, Tiffany; Rovis, Tomislav


    Alkenes are the most ubiquitous pro-chiral functional groups accessible to synthetic chemists. For this reason, difunctionalization reactions of alkenes are particularly important, as they can be used to access highly complex molecular architectures.1,2 Stereoselective oxidation reactions, including dihydroxylation, aminohydroxylation and halogenation reactions,3,4,5,6 are well-established methods for functionalizing alkenes. However, the intermolecular incorporation of both carbon- and nitrogen-based functionalities stereoselectively across an alkene has not been reported. In this manuscript, we describe the Rh(III)-catalyzed syn carboamination of alkenes initiated by a C–H activation event that uses enoxyphthalimides as the source of the carbon and the nitrogen functionalities. The reaction methodology allows for the stereospecific formation of one C–C and one C–N bond across an alkene in a fully intermolecular sense, which is unprecedented. The reaction design involves the in situ generation of a bidentate directing group and the use of a novel cyclopentadienyl ligand to control the reactivity of Rh(III). The results provide a new route to functionalized alkenes and are expected to lead to the more convergent and stereoselective assembly of amine-containing acyclic molecules. PMID:26503048

  4. Physiological characterization of the SynCardia total artificial heart in a mock circulation system. (United States)

    Crosby, Jessica R; DeCook, Katrina J; Tran, Phat L; Smith, Richard G; Larson, Douglas F; Khalpey, Zain I; Burkhoff, Daniel; Slepian, Marvin J


    The SynCardia total artificial heart (TAH) has emerged as an effective, life-saving biventricular replacement system for a wide variety of patients with end-stage heart failure. Although the clinical performance of the TAH is established, modern physiological characterization, in terms of elastance behavior and pressure-volume (PV) characterization has not been defined. Herein, we examine the TAH in terms of elastance using a nonejecting left ventricle, and then characterize the PV relation of the TAH by varying preload and afterload parameters using a Donovan Mock Circulatory System. We demonstrate that the TAH does not operate with time-varying elastance, differing from the human heart. Furthermore, we show that the TAH has a PV relation behavior that also differs from that of the human heart. The TAH does exhibit Starling-like behavior, with output increasing via preload-dependent mechanisms, without reliance on an alteration of inotropic state within the operating window of the TAH. Within our testing range, the TAH is insensitive to variations in afterload; however, this insensitivity has a limit, the limit being the maximum driving pressure of the pneumatic driver. Understanding the physiology of the TAH affords insight into the functional parameters that govern artificial heart behavior providing perspective on differences compared with the human heart.

  5. Syn-lethality: an integrative knowledge base of synthetic lethality towards discovery of selective anticancer therapies. (United States)

    Li, Xue-juan; Mishra, Shital K; Wu, Min; Zhang, Fan; Zheng, Jie


    Synthetic lethality (SL) is a novel strategy for anticancer therapies, whereby mutations of two genes will kill a cell but mutation of a single gene will not. Therefore, a cancer-specific mutation combined with a drug-induced mutation, if they have SL interactions, will selectively kill cancer cells. While numerous SL interactions have been identified in yeast, only a few have been known in human. There is a pressing need to systematically discover and understand SL interactions specific to human cancer. In this paper, we present Syn-Lethality, the first integrative knowledge base of SL that is dedicated to human cancer. It integrates experimentally discovered and verified human SL gene pairs into a network, associated with annotations of gene function, pathway, and molecular mechanisms. It also includes yeast SL genes from high-throughput screenings which are mapped to orthologous human genes. Such an integrative knowledge base, organized as a relational database with user interface for searching and network visualization, will greatly expedite the discovery of novel anticancer drug targets based on synthetic lethality interactions. The database can be downloaded as a stand-alone Java application.

  6. SynFace—Speech-Driven Facial Animation for Virtual Speech-Reading Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvi Giampiero


    Full Text Available This paper describes SynFace, a supportive technology that aims at enhancing audio-based spoken communication in adverse acoustic conditions by providing the missing visual information in the form of an animated talking head. Firstly, we describe the system architecture, consisting of a 3D animated face model controlled from the speech input by a specifically optimised phonetic recogniser. Secondly, we report on speech intelligibility experiments with focus on multilinguality and robustness to audio quality. The system, already available for Swedish, English, and Flemish, was optimised for German and for Swedish wide-band speech quality available in TV, radio, and Internet communication. Lastly, the paper covers experiments with nonverbal motions driven from the speech signal. It is shown that turn-taking gestures can be used to affect the flow of human-human dialogues. We have focused specifically on two categories of cues that may be extracted from the acoustic signal: prominence/emphasis and interactional cues (turn-taking/back-channelling.

  7. SynProt: A Comprehensive Database for Proteins of the Detergent-Resistant Synaptic Junctions Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer ePielot


    Full Text Available Chemical synapses are highly specialized cell-cell contacts for communication between neurons in the CNS characterized by complex and dynamic protein networks at both synaptic membranes. The cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ organizes the apparatus for the regulated release of transmitters from the presynapse. At the postsynaptic side, the postsynaptic density constitutes the machinery for detection, integration and transduction of the transmitter signal. Both pre- and postsynaptic protein networks represent the molecular substrates for synaptic plasticity. Their function can be altered both by regulating their composition and by post-translational modification of their components. For a comprehensive understanding of synaptic networks the entire ensemble of synaptic proteins has to be considered. To support this, we established a comprehensive database for synaptic junction proteins (SynProt database primarily based on proteomics data obtained from biochemical preparations of detergent-resistant synaptic junctions. The database currently contains 2,788 non-redundant entries of rat, mouse and some human proteins, which mainly have been manually extracted from twelve proteomic studies and annotated for synaptic subcellular localization. Each dataset is completed with manually added information including protein classifiers as well as automatically retrieved and updated information from public databases (UniProt and PubMed. We intend that the database will be used to support modeling of synaptic protein networks and rational experimental design.

  8. SynProt: A Database for Proteins of Detergent-Resistant Synaptic Protein Preparations (United States)

    Pielot, Rainer; Smalla, Karl-Heinz; Müller, Anke; Landgraf, Peter; Lehmann, Anne-Christin; Eisenschmidt, Elke; Haus, Utz-Uwe; Weismantel, Robert; Gundelfinger, Eckart D.; Dieterich, Daniela C.


    Chemical synapses are highly specialized cell–cell contacts for communication between neurons in the CNS characterized by complex and dynamic protein networks at both synaptic membranes. The cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) organizes the apparatus for the regulated release of transmitters from the presynapse. At the postsynaptic side, the postsynaptic density constitutes the machinery for detection, integration, and transduction of the transmitter signal. Both pre- and postsynaptic protein networks represent the molecular substrates for synaptic plasticity. Their function can be altered both by regulating their composition and by post-translational modification of their components. For a comprehensive understanding of synaptic networks the entire ensemble of synaptic proteins has to be considered. To support this, we established a comprehensive database for synaptic junction proteins (SynProt database) primarily based on proteomics data obtained from biochemical preparations of detergent-resistant synaptic junctions. The database currently contains 2,788 non-redundant entries of rat, mouse, and some human proteins, which mainly have been manually extracted from 12 proteomic studies and annotated for synaptic subcellular localization. Each dataset is completed with manually added information including protein classifiers as well as automatically retrieved and updated information from public databases (UniProt and PubMed). We intend that the database will be used to support modeling of synaptic protein networks and rational experimental design. PMID:22737123

  9. Prevalence of Calodium hepaticum (Syn. Capillaria hepatica) in house mice (Mus musculus) in the Azores archipelago. (United States)

    Resendes, A R; Amaral, A F S; Rodrigues, A; Almeria, S


    Calodium hepaticum (Syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a zoonotic liver nematode of mammals distributed worldwide. Rodents are believed to be the main reservoirs of this nematode. In this paper, prevalence of the parasite was analyzed in liver histological sections from 51 house mice (Mus musculus) caught in human-inhabited houses, from two localities (Furnas and Rabo de Peixe) on São Miguel island from the Azores archipelago (Portugal). Mean prevalence of infection was 19.6%, with 33.3% prevalence in Furnas and 4.1% in Rabo de Peixe (P=0.07). No significant differences were found between the prevalence of infection and the age, body weight and the sex of mice. Hepatic lesions found were either acute and/or chronic stage and consisted of moderate to severe multifocal pyogranulomatous hepatitis with encapsulated eggs with typical bipolar plugs and moderate to severe necrotizing hepatitis consistent with larva tracks. Periportal inflammatory infiltration, hepatocyte regeneration and bile duct hyperplasia were also noted. In most cases, hepatic lesions occupied more than 50% of the liver, but despite severe lesions, in some mice, no signs of hepatic failure were noticed. The high rate of infection found in the present study suggests that house mice are an important reservoir for this parasite in the Azores and could have a role in human transmission.

  10. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Biomass-Degrading Fungus Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Antonio D.; Berka, Randy; Henrissat, Bernard; Saloheimo, Markku; Arvas, Mikko; Baker, Scott E.; Chapman, Jaro d; Chertkov, Olga; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Danchin, Etienne G.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Harris, Paul; Jackson, Melissa ?.; kubicek, Christian P.; Han, Cliff F.; Ho, Isaac; Larrando, Luis F.; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Magnuson, Jon K.; Merino, Sandy; Misra, Monica; Nelson, Beth; Putnam, Nicholas; Robbertse, Barbara; Salamov, Asaf; Schmoll, Monika; Terry, Astrid ?.; Thayer, Nina; Westerholm-Parvinen, Ann; Schoch, Conrad L.; Yao, Jian ?.; Barbote, Ravi; Nelson, Mary Anne; Detter, Chris J.; Bruce, David; Kuske, Cheryl; Xie, Gary; Richardson, P. M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Lucas, Susan; Rubin, Eddie M.; Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Ward, Michael ?.; Brettin, T.


    A major thrust of the white biotechnology movement involves the development of enzyme systems which depolymerize biomass to simple sugars which are subsequently converted to sustainable biofuels (e.g., ethanol) and chemical intermediates. The fungus Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina) represents a paradigm for the industrial production of highly efficient cellulases and hemicellulases needed for hydrolysis of biomass polysaccharides. Herein we describe intriguing attributes of the T. reeseigenome in relation to the future of fuel biotechnology. The T. reesei genome sequence was derived using a whole genome shotgun approach combined with finishing work to generate an assembly comprising 89 scaffolds totaling 34 Mbp with few gaps. In total, 9,130 gene models were predicted using a combination of ab initio and sequence similarity-based methods and EST data. Considering the industrial utility and effectiveness of its enzymes, the T. reesei genome surprisingly encodes the fewest cellulases and hemicellulases of any fungus having the ability to hydrolyze plant cell wall polysaccharides and whose genome has been sequenced. Many genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes are distributed non-randomly in groups or clusters that interestingly lie between regions of synteny with other Sordariomycetes. Additionally, the T. reesei genome contains a multitude of genes encoding biosynthetic pathways for secondary metabolites (possible antibacterial and antifungal compounds) which may promote successful competition and survival in the crowded and competitive soil habitat occupied by T. reesei. Our analysis coupled with the availability of genome sequence data provides a roadmap for construction of enhanced T. reesei strains for industrial applications.

  11. Syn-vivo bioerosion of Nautilus by endo- and epilithic foraminiferans (New Caledonia and Vanuatu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Seuss

    Full Text Available A variety of syn-vivo bioerosion traces produced by foraminiferans is recorded in shells of Nautilus sampled near New Caledonia and Vanuatu. These are two types of attachment scars of epilithic foraminiferans and two forms of previously undescribed microborings, a spiral-shaped and a dendritic one, both most likely being the work of endolithic 'naked' foraminiferans. Scanning electron microscopy of epoxy-resin casts of the latter revealed that these traces occur in clusters of up to many dozen individuals and potentially are substrate-specific. The foraminiferan traces are the sole signs of bioerosion in the studied Nautilus conchs, and neither traces of phototrophic nor other chemotrophic microendoliths were found. While the complete absence of photoautotrophic endoliths would be in good accordance with the life habit of Nautilus, which resides in aphotic deep marine environments and seeks shallower waters in the photic zone for feeding only during night-time, the absence of any microbial bioerosion may also be explained by an effective defence provided by the nautilid periostracum. Following this line of reasoning, the recorded foraminiferan bioerosion traces in turn would identify their trace makers as being specialized in their ability to penetrate the periostracum barrier and to bioerode the shell of modern Nautilus.

  12. Syn-vivo bioerosion of Nautilus by endo- and epilithic foraminiferans (New Caledonia and Vanuatu). (United States)

    Seuss, Barbara; Wisshak, Max; Mapes, Royal H; Landman, Neil H


    A variety of syn-vivo bioerosion traces produced by foraminiferans is recorded in shells of Nautilus sampled near New Caledonia and Vanuatu. These are two types of attachment scars of epilithic foraminiferans and two forms of previously undescribed microborings, a spiral-shaped and a dendritic one, both most likely being the work of endolithic 'naked' foraminiferans. Scanning electron microscopy of epoxy-resin casts of the latter revealed that these traces occur in clusters of up to many dozen individuals and potentially are substrate-specific. The foraminiferan traces are the sole signs of bioerosion in the studied Nautilus conchs, and neither traces of phototrophic nor other chemotrophic microendoliths were found. While the complete absence of photoautotrophic endoliths would be in good accordance with the life habit of Nautilus, which resides in aphotic deep marine environments and seeks shallower waters in the photic zone for feeding only during night-time, the absence of any microbial bioerosion may also be explained by an effective defence provided by the nautilid periostracum. Following this line of reasoning, the recorded foraminiferan bioerosion traces in turn would identify their trace makers as being specialized in their ability to penetrate the periostracum barrier and to bioerode the shell of modern Nautilus.

  13. Syn-thrusting polygonal normal faults exposed in the hinge of the Cingoli anticline, northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo ePetracchini


    Full Text Available The Cingoli arcuate anticline is part of the Apennines fold-thrust belt in Italy. The anticline involves sedimentary carbonate strata generally affected by syn-thrusting contractional structures such as bed-normal pressure solution seams, folds, and reverse faults. An exception is constituted by an outcrop in the anticline hinge, where sub-horizontal carbonate and chert beds are affected by joints and intraformational short normal faults. These faults are poorly-systematic and conceivably polygonal in map view. They cut through the carbonate beds while usually stop against the chert layers that are bent and extended along the faults themselves. At the fault tips, the displacement is generally transferred, via a lateral step, to an adjacent similar fault segment. The fault surfaces are often characterized by slickolites, greenish clayey residue, and micro-breccias including chert and carbonate clasts. Fault displacement is partly or largely accommodated by pressure solution. The faults, in effect, are usually accompanied by bed-parallel pressure solution seams in the two contractional quadrants located at the present or past fault tips. The pressure solution features fade away departing from the faults. This evidence and others are analytically explained with fault tip stress distributions. The faults are interpreted as polygonal normal faults syn-tectonically (syn-thrusting nucleated in response to multi-directional stretching processes occurred at the Cingoli triple-folded anticline extrados. The faults then grew through a four-stage process: (1. stop the faults stopped at the competent chert beds; (2. shrink faulting produced shrinkage (pressure solution of carbonate beds at the fault compressive tips; (3. shrink and step the faults stepped laterally at the competent chert beds; (4. shatter the chert beds were shattered along the fault surfaces. The case presented constitutes the first reported one of syn-thrusting non-diagenetic polygonal

  14. 17 børns syn på skolen i skoleåret 2016-2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    Skoleforsker: Målrettede elever tager skolen meget seriøst Danske skoleelever har et nuanceret syn på livet, viser ministudie. Samtidig er reformen ikke slået helt igennem. Stig Broström har fulgt en gruppe elever fra forskellige skoler gennem syv år, hvor han har stillet dem spørgsmål om deres d...

  15. 基于时间序列分析的SYN Flooding源端检测方法%Detection method against SYN Flooding attacks based on source end by analysis of time series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝辉; 苏旸


    提出了一种基于时间序列分析从源端对SYN Flooding攻击进行检测的方法.该方法是为了从源端对网络流量进行检测并预测,从而判断是否发生了SYN Flooding攻击,为受害者端及时响应提供依据;利用攻击网络流量的自相似性,采用Bloom Filter提取数据流特征信息,构造网络流量时间序列,建立自回归预报模型;通过动态预测网络流量并与设定的阈值进行比较来对攻击预警,提前作出响应.仿真实验结果表明,该方法能准确地统计出网络中数据包和新源IP数据包的出现次数,具有较好的检测率和较低的误报率,能够较准确地预测出下一时间段甚至几个时间段的网络流量,能为有效防御SYN Flooding攻击提供有力的数据支撑.%This paper proposed a method of detecting DDoS attacks based on source end by analyzing the abrupt change of time series data. By detecting and predicting the data flow in the Internet at source end, the method could judge whether SYN Flooding was occurred or not for providing the foundation for the victim end. It extracted the characteristic information of data flow by using the self-similarity of network traffic flow and Bloom Filter algorithm, so that it could construct the time series of the network traffic flow and build the auto-regressive( AR) forecasting model. By dynamically forecasting traffic flow and coin-paring with definite threshold, pre-alert was sent and response was ahead adopted. The experimental results show that the scheme can count the number of the data packages and the number of the new IP data packages with the better detection rate and lower misinformation rate, besides, it can predict the traffic flow in the next period even several periods correctly, which can provide strong support for effectively defending against SYN Flooding attacks.

  16. O-2 Substituted pyranosyl oxacarbenium ions are C-2-O-2 2-fold rotors with a strong syn preference. (United States)

    Ionescu, Andrei R; Whitfield, Dennis M; Zgierski, Marek Z


    The substituent at O-2 of glycopyranosides is known to have a pronounced effect on both the formation and the cleavage of glycosides at C-1. This is primarily attributed to stereoelectronic effects on the formation and stability of the related glycopyranosyl oxacarbenium ions. Previous QM studies of 2-O-methyl substituted manno and gluco configured pyranosyl oxacarbenium ions found a preference for the methyl carbon to be syn to the CH-2 methine. This study examines the conformational preference of variously substituted O-2 tetrahydropyranosyl oxacarbenium ions and confirms this syn preference. Neutral analogues are shown to have the expected 3-fold rotation whereas the charged species exhibit 2-fold rotation about C-2-O-2. Natural bond order (NBO) calculations suggest that the dominant stabilizing interaction is a unimodal O-2 lone pair to C-1-O-5 pi-bond hyperconjugative interaction. This syn conformational preference has important implications for mimics of glycopyranosyl oxacarbenium ion transition states. It also suggests a conformational based mechanism that can be exploited to tune the reactivity of glycopyranosyl donors in the glycosylation reaction.

  17. In vivo hemodynamic and electrocardiographic changes following Crataegus aronia syn. Azarolus L administration to normotensive Wistar rats. (United States)

    Shatoor, Abdullah S


    To evaluate the effects of the whole plant aqueous extract of Crataegus aronia (C. aronia) syn. Azarolus (L) on the hemodynamic and electrocardiographic intervals in albino rats. This study was carried out in 2 stages at the Research Laboratory, Physiology Department, Medical College of King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between February and June 2012. First, the effects of C. aronia syn. Azarolus (L) on the hemodynamics and electrocardiograph in 54 Wistar male rats were assessed, then the mechanisms underlying the hemodynamic and electrocardiographic changes observed in the first stage were evaluated in 48 rats of the same species. The C. aronia administered at escalating doses (0.05-20 microgram/kg) produced a dose-time-dependent decrease in heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Higher doses (15 and 20 microgram/kg) produced the most significant reduction in both HR and MAP, and induced sinus node suppression and progressive atrio-ventricular blockade. The underlying mechanism of the induced bradyarrhythmia appeared to be due to the direct stimulation of the muscarinic receptor M2 and possible blockade of beta-receptors, while the hypotension was caused by enhanced nitric oxide release. No significant alterations in the electrocardiogram (ECG) components were observed. The administration of the C. aronia syn. Azarolus extract induced bradyarrhythmia and hypotension, without alteration in the ECG components.

  18. Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of syn formyl azide (HC(O)N3) in seven vibrational states (United States)

    Walters, Nicholas A.; Amberger, Brent K.; Esselman, Brian J.; Woods, R. Claude; McMahon, Robert J.


    Millimeter-wave spectra for formyl azide (HC(O)N3) were obtained from 240 to 360 GHz at ambient temperature. For the ground state of syn formyl azide, over 1500 independent rotational transitions were measured and least-squares fit to a complete S-reduced 8th order centrifugal distortion/rigid rotor Hamiltonian. The decomposition of formyl azide was monitored over a period of several hours, the half-life (t½ = 30 min) was determined, and its decomposition products were investigated. Transitions from five vibrational satellites of syn formyl azide (ν9, ν12, 2ν9, ν9 + ν12, and ν11) were observed, measured, and least-squares fit to complete or nearly complete octic centrifugally-distorted, single-state S-reduced models. A less complete single-state fit of 3ν9 (509.3 cm-1) was obtained from an unperturbed subset of its assignable transitions. This state is apparently coupled to the fundamental ν8 (489.4 cm-1) and the overtone 2ν12 (503.6 cm-1), but the coupling remains unanalyzed. Anharmonic CCSD(T)/ANO1 estimates of the vibrational frequencies of syn formyl azide were in close agreement with previously published experimental and computational values. Experimentally determined vibration-rotation interaction (αi) values were in excellent agreement with coupled-cluster predicted αi values for the fundamentals ν9, ν12, and ν11.

  19. - and Syn-Eruptive Surface Movements of Azerbaijan Mud Volcanoes Detected Through Insar Analysis: Preliminary Results (United States)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico; Luzi, Guido; Feyzullayev, Akper; Aliyev, Chingiz


    edifices. In particular, for the Ayaz-Akhtarma, the interferograms show the pre- and the syn-eruptive phases, reaching a maximum displacements about 5.3 cm in 70 days. In the case of the Khara Zira mud volcano eruption, the time span covered by the interferograms with good coherence values ends some months before the eruption, thus only the initial stages of the pre-eruption deformation can be observed, with a maximum uplift about 2.3 cm in 70 days. Paroxysmal phases that occasionally may interrupt the quiescent activity of mud volcanoes consist of violent release of large mud flows and flaming eruption caused by the self-ignition of the methane. The bulging observed in the interferograms connected with the pre- and syn-eruptive phases is probably due to an increase of overpressure which precedes a paroxysmal activity phase.

  20. A Concise and Highly Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-Mefloquine Hydrochloride: Definitive Absolute Stereochemical Assignment of the Mefloquines. (United States)

    Rastelli, Ettore J; Coltart, Don M


    A concise asymmetric (>99:1 e.r.) total synthesis of (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine hydrochloride from a common intermediate is described. The key asymmetric transformation is a Sharpless dihydroxylation of an olefin that is accessed in three steps from commercially available materials. The Sharpless-derived diol is converted into either a trans or cis epoxide, and these are subsequently converted into (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine, respectively. The synthetic (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine samples were derivatized with (S)-(+)-mandelic acid tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether, and a crystal structure of each derivative was obtained. These are the first X-ray structures for mefloquine derivatives that were obtained by coupling to a known chiral, nonracemic compound, and provide definitive confirmation of the absolute stereochemistry of (+)-anti- as well as (-)-syn-mefloquine.

  1. Assigning the stereochemistry of syn and anti β-trimethylsiloxy-α-trimethylsilyl alkanoic acid silyl esters using GIAO 1H NMR chemical shift calculations (United States)

    Hadj Mohamed, Slim; Trabelsi, Mahmoud; Champagne, Benoît


    The stereostructure of β-trimethylsiloxy-α-trimethylsilyl alkanoic acid silyl esters synthesized by Bellassoued et al. [J. Org. Chem. 2001, 66, 5054-5057] using Mukaiyama aldol reaction has been reassigned using density functional theory NMR 1H chemical shifts calculations. It is now concluded that the major diastereoisomer is syn and the minor is anti. Within this assignment, for all silyl esters, δHa(anti) > δHa(syn), δHb(anti) 3JHa-Hb (syn). Since the experimental assignment was based on the stereostructure (E/Z) of the cinnamic acid obtained by elimination of trimethylsilyl 3-phenyl-3-(trimethylsiloxy)-2-(trimethylsilyl)propanoate in the presence of TiCl4 and on the assumption that this elimination is anti stereospecific in acidic medium, one arrives at the conclusion that the elimination of syn and anti β-trimethylsiloxy-α-trimethylsilyl alkanoic acid silyl esters is not anti stereospecific.

  2. SynTView — an interactive multi-view genome browser for next-generation comparative microorganism genomics (United States)


    Background Dynamic visualisation interfaces are required to explore the multiple microbial genome data now available, especially those obtained by high-throughput sequencing — a.k.a. “Next-Generation Sequencing” (NGS) — technologies; they would also be useful for “standard” annotated genomes whose chromosome organizations may be compared. Although various software systems are available, few offer an optimal combination of feature-rich capabilities, non-static user interfaces and multi-genome data handling. Results We developed SynTView, a comparative and interactive viewer for microbial genomes, designed to run as either a web-based tool (Flash technology) or a desktop application (AIR environment). The basis of the program is a generic genome browser with sub-maps holding information about genomic objects (annotations). The software is characterised by the presentation of syntenic organisations of microbial genomes and the visualisation of polymorphism data (typically Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms — SNPs) along these genomes; these features are accessible to the user in an integrated way. A variety of specialised views are available and are all dynamically inter-connected (including linear and circular multi-genome representations, dot plots, phylogenetic profiles, SNP density maps, and more). SynTView is not linked to any particular database, allowing the user to plug his own data into the system seamlessly, and use external web services for added functionalities. SynTView has now been used in several genome sequencing projects to help biologists make sense out of huge data sets. Conclusions The most important assets of SynTView are: (i) the interactivity due to the Flash technology; (ii) the capabilities for dynamic interaction between many specialised views; and (iii) the flexibility allowing various user data sets to be integrated. It can thus be used to investigate massive amounts of information efficiently at the chromosome level. This

  3. A 28 nt long synthetic 5′UTR (synJ as an enhancer of transgene expression in dicotyledonous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanoria Shaveta


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high level of transgene expression is required, in several applications of transgenic technology. While use of strong promoters has been the main focus in such instances, 5′UTRs have also been shown to enhance transgene expression. Here, we present a 28 nt long synthetic 5′UTR (synJ, which enhances gene expression in tobacco and cotton. Results The influence of synJ on transgene expression was studied in callus cultures of cotton and different tissues of transgenic tobacco plants. The study was based on comparing the expression of reporter gene gus and gfp, with and without synJ as its 5′UTR. Mutations in synJ were also analyzed to identify the region important for enhancement. synJ, enhances gene expression by 10 to 50 fold in tobacco and cotton depending upon the tissue studied. This finding is based on the experiments comparing the expression of gus gene, encoding the synJ as 5′UTR under the control of 35S promoter with expression cassettes based on vectors like pBI121 or pRT100. Further, the enhancement was in most cases equivalent to that observed with the viral leader sequences known to enhance translation like Ω and AMV. In case of transformed cotton callus as well as in the roots of tobacco transgenic plants, the up-regulation mediated by synJ was much higher than that observed in the presence of both Ω as well as AMV. The enhancement mediated by synJ was found to be at the post-transcriptional level. The study also demonstrates the importance of a 5′UTR in realizing the full potential of the promoter strength. synJ has been utilized to design four cloning vectors: pGEN01, pBGEN02, pBGEN02-hpt and pBGEN02-ALSdm each of which can be used for cloning the desired transgene and achieving high level of expression in the resulting transgenic plants. Conclusions synJ, a synthetic 5′UTR, can enhance transgene expression under a strong promoter like 35S as well as under a weak promoter like nos in

  4. Syn and post- emplacement transformations of the Misti (Peru) volcanic debris avalanches into lahars (United States)

    Bernard, K.; Van Wyk de Vries, B.; Thouret, J.


    We identify stratigraphic, sedimentological and structural variations in lithofacies of debris-avalanche deposits from El Misti volcano in the Quebrada San Lazaro and Río Chili Valley, near the city of Arequipa (south Peru), to determine lithofacies transformations. We describe the internal process associated to the external conditions acting on debris-avalanche deposits in order to assess stages of transformations from the proximal to distal debris-avalanche deposits and the associated epiclastic deposits. Syn-emplacement transformations inside the volcanic debris-avalanche deposits in the upper course of the Rio Chili Valley: within a few meters, the proximal block facies of the sheared debris-avalanche deposit is transformed at the contact of the ash-rich alluvial deposits in thick units comprising a strongly sheared base of the deposit, then stratified matrix dominated beds with normally sorted boulders aligned with the beds. This is interpreted as the effect of strong shearing inside the confined and proximal debris avalanche during motion, which generated a localised stretching near the base of the deposit and the bulking of the thin water saturated basal layers: the bearing capacity of the matrix debris- avalanche is modified, the block facies has been transformed in a stratified matrix facies. The transformations by bulking along a strong sheared contact contribute to reduce the run-out distance of the debris avalanches in the Río Chili valley. Post-deposition evolutions of the debris-avalanche deposits in the Quebrada San Lazaro: in the upper course of the valley, the landslides in the debris- avalanche deposits related to water circulation destabilise the covering scree and volcanic colluvium dipping at 70°. The fragmentation and sorting due to gravity and water are the external processes which separate matrix and block elements; This is the first stage of transformation. The remobilisation of these separated fractions into lahars transforms this

  5. QTL Mapping of Low-Temperature Germination Ability in the Maize IBM Syn4 RIL Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaidong Hu

    Full Text Available Low temperature is the primary factor to affect maize sowing in early spring. It is, therefore, vital for maize breeding programs to improve tolerance to low temperatures at seed germination stage. However, little is known about maize QTL involved in low-temperature germination ability. 243 lines of the intermated B73×Mo17 (IBM Syn4 recombinant inbred line (RIL population was used for QTL analysis of low-temperature germination ability. There were significant differences in germination-related traits under both conditions of low temperature (12°C/16 h, 18°C/8 h and optimum temperature (28°C/24 h between the parental lines. Only three QTL were identified for controlling optimum-temperature germination rate. Six QTL controlling low-temperature germination rate were detected on chromosome 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9, and contribution rate of single QTL explained between 3.39%~11.29%. In addition, six QTL controlling low-temperature primary root length were detected in chromosome 4, 5, 6, and 9, and the contribution rate of single QTL explained between 3.96%~8.41%. Four pairs of QTL were located at the same chromosome position and together controlled germination rate and primary root length under low temperature condition. The nearest markers apart from the corresponding QTL (only 0.01 cM were umc1303 (265.1 cM on chromosome 4, umc1 (246.4 cM on chromosome 5, umc62 (459.1 cM on chromosome 6, bnl14.28a (477.4 cM on chromosome 9, respectively. A total of 3155 candidate genes were extracted from nine separate intervals based on the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database ( Five candidate genes were selected for analysis as candidates putatively affecting seed germination and seedling growth at low temperature. The results provided a basis for further fine mapping, molecular marker assisted breeding and functional study of cold-tolerance at the stage of seed germination in maize.

  6. QTL Mapping of Low-Temperature Germination Ability in the Maize IBM Syn4 RIL Population. (United States)

    Hu, Shuaidong; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Zhao, Guangwu; Lee, Michael


    Low temperature is the primary factor to affect maize sowing in early spring. It is, therefore, vital for maize breeding programs to improve tolerance to low temperatures at seed germination stage. However, little is known about maize QTL involved in low-temperature germination ability. 243 lines of the intermated B73×Mo17 (IBM) Syn4 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was used for QTL analysis of low-temperature germination ability. There were significant differences in germination-related traits under both conditions of low temperature (12°C/16 h, 18°C/8 h) and optimum temperature (28°C/24 h) between the parental lines. Only three QTL were identified for controlling optimum-temperature germination rate. Six QTL controlling low-temperature germination rate were detected on chromosome 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9, and contribution rate of single QTL explained between 3.39%~11.29%. In addition, six QTL controlling low-temperature primary root length were detected in chromosome 4, 5, 6, and 9, and the contribution rate of single QTL explained between 3.96%~8.41%. Four pairs of QTL were located at the same chromosome position and together controlled germination rate and primary root length under low temperature condition. The nearest markers apart from the corresponding QTL (only 0.01 cM) were umc1303 (265.1 cM) on chromosome 4, umc1 (246.4 cM) on chromosome 5, umc62 (459.1 cM) on chromosome 6, bnl14.28a (477.4 cM) on chromosome 9, respectively. A total of 3155 candidate genes were extracted from nine separate intervals based on the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database ( Five candidate genes were selected for analysis as candidates putatively affecting seed germination and seedling growth at low temperature. The results provided a basis for further fine mapping, molecular marker assisted breeding and functional study of cold-tolerance at the stage of seed germination in maize.

  7. Late Triassic syn-exhumation magmatism in central Qiangtang, Tibet: Evidence from the Sangehu adakitic rocks (United States)

    Liu, Han; Wang, Bao-di; Ma, Long; Gao, Rui; Chen, Li; Li, Xiao-bo; Wang, Li-quan


    The geodynamic setting of Late Triassic magmatic activity along the Longmu Co-Shuanghu suture zone (LSSZ) in central Qiangtang, Tibet is a matter of debate. This paper presents zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages, zircon Hf isotopic compositions, and whole-rock geochemical data for the Sangehu (SGH) granitic intrusion in central Qiangtang, and addresses the petrogenesis of Late Triassic magmatism, and the history of collision between the northern and southern Qiangtang terranes. The SGH pluton consists mainly of biotite adamellite with mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs), and small amounts of K-feldspar granite. The biotite adamellite, MMEs, and K-feldspar granite give ages of 207.8 ± 3.0 Ma, 212.4 ± 31 Ma, and 211.6 ± 3.8 Ma, respectively. The MMEs show magmatic textures and acicular apatite, and are coeval with the host biotite adamellite, suggesting they were produced by magma mixing. All samples from the SGH pluton show high Sr and low Y contents, and positive Eu anomalies, similar to adakitic rocks. The high K2O contents and low Mg#, Cr, and Ni contents, and enriched Hf isotopic characteristics of the zircons indicate that these magmas were derived from the partial melting of thickened crust. However, the whole-rock geochemical data and zircon Hf isotopic compositions also reveal heterogeneity at the source. The combined magmatic and metamorphic records suggest that Triassic magmatic activity in central Qiangtang was closely related to the collision of the northern and southern Qiangtang terranes. The large-scale Late Triassic (225-200 Ma) magmatic event in central Qiangtang may have resulted from the breakoff of the Longmu Co-Shuanghu Tethys Ocean lithospheric slab in the early Late Triassic (236-230 Ma). The Late Triassic magmatic rocks, including adakitic rocks, are coeval with retrograde high-pressure (HP) to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks in central Qiangtang, and show characteristics of syn-exhumation magmatism. The early adakitic rocks (>220 Ma

  8. Fluorescent C-linked C8-aryl-guanine probe for distinguishing syn from anti structures in duplex DNA. (United States)

    Manderville, Richard A; Omumi, Alireza; Rankin née Schlitt, Katherine M; Wilson, Katie A; Millen, Andrea L; Wetmore, Stacey D


    The synthesis and optical properties of the carbon (C)-linked C(8)-(2"-benzo[b]thienyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine ((Bth)dG), which acts as a fluorescent reporter of syn versus anti glycosidic conformations in duplex DNA, are described. In the syn-conformation, the probe stabilizes a G:G mismatch, emits at ∼385 nm (excitation ∼285 nm), and shows an induced circular dichroism (ICD) signal at ∼320 nm. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations predict a wedge (W)-conformation for the mismatched duplex with the C(8)-benzo[b]thienyl moiety residing in the minor groove. In contrast, the probe destabilizes the duplex when base paired with its normal pyrimidine partner C. With flanking purine bases, a major groove B-type duplex is favored with (Bth)dG present in the anti-conformation emitting at ∼413 nm (excitation ∼326 nm) and no ICD signal. However, with flanking pyrimidine bases, (Bth)dG adopts the syn-conformation when base paired with C, and MD simulations predict a base-displaced stacked (S)-conformation, with the opposing C flipped out of the helix. The different duplex (B-, S-, and W-) conformers formed upon incorporation of (Bth)dG are known to play a critical role in the biological activity of N-linked C8-dG adducts formed by arylamine carcinogens. Bulky environment-sensitive fluorescent C(8)-dG adducts that mimic the duplex structures formed by carcinogens may be useful in luminescence-based DNA polymerase assays.

  9. Facies, stratal and stacking patterns of syn-rift sequences along present-day and fossil hyperextended rifted margins (United States)

    Ribes, Charlotte; Epin, Marie-Eva; Gillard, Morgane; Chenin, Pauline; Ghienne, Jean-Francois; Manatschal, Gianreto; Karner, Garry D.; Johnson, Christopher A.


    Research on the formation and evolution of deep-water rifted margins has undergone a major paradigm shift in recent years. An increasing number of studies of present-day and fossil rifted margins allows us to identify and characterize the architecture of hyperextended rifted margins. However, at present, little is known about the depositional environments, sedimentary facies and stacking and stratal patterns in syn-rift sequences within these domains. In this context, characterizing and understanding the spatial and temporal evolution of the stratal and stacking patterns is a new challenge. The syn-rift sequence at rifted margins is deposited during the initial stages of stretching to the onset of oceanic accretion and comprises pre-, syn- and post-kinematic deposits along the margin. A difficulty arises from the fact that the observed stratigraphic geometries and facies relationships result from the complex interplay between sediment supply and creation of accommodation, which in turn are controlled by regional synchronous events (i.e. crustal necking and onset of seafloor spreading) and diachronous events (i.e. migration of deformation during rifting, lags in sediment input to the distal margin). These parameters are poorly constrained in hyperextended rift systems. Indeed, the complex structural evolution of hyperextended systems include an evolution from initially distributed to localized extension (i.e. necking) and the development of poly-phase in-sequence and/or out of sequence extensional faulting associated with mantle exhumation and magmatic activity. This multiphase structural evolution can generate complex accommodation patterns over a highly structured top basement but can only be recognized if there is sufficient sediment input to record the events. In our presentation, we show preliminary results for fossil Alpine Tethys margins exposed in the Alps and seismic examples of the present-day deep water rifted margins offshore Australian-Antarctica, East

  10. First records of syn-diagenetic non-tectonic folding in quaternary thermogene travertines caused by hydrothermal incremental veining (United States)

    Billi, Andrea; Berardi, Gabriele; Gratier, Jean-Pierre; Rossetti, Federico; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Baykara, M. Oruç; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Kele, Sándor; Soligo, Michele; De Filippis, Luigi; Shen, Chuan-Chou


    This study is the first documentation of syn-diagenetic non-tectonic contractional deformations observed in two Pleistocene thermogene travertine deposits from the late Miocene-Pleistocene Tuscan extensional-hydrothermal province (Italy). The deposits consist of primary porous beds hosting secondary bed-parallel carbonate veins. The porous beds are generally flat-lying, particularly in the upper section of the deposits, whereas the veined beds frequently form undulated structures. These structures are up to a few meters in wavelength, are mostly confined within the lower-middle section of the deposits, and are here mostly interpreted as folds. Field observations, U-Th geochronology, and stable isotope analyses are used to characterize the origin of veins and folds. Radiometrically-determined age inversions, structure overprinting relationships, downward growth of vein crystals, deformation of primary sedimentary structures, and downward increasing frequency of veins and folds show that the undulated travertine beds can be mainly interpreted as the product of syn-diagenetic hydrothermal rejuvenation causing non-tectonic veining and folding. The non-tectonic hypothesis is also supported by the absence of contractional deformation in the travertine-hosting sediments. The folds were generated by complex mechanisms including bending and buckling caused by laterally-confined volume expansion during syn-diagenetic circulation of mineralizing fluids and related incremental veining. Modeling some folds with the Biot-Ramberg's buckling equation shows a vein-to-host travertine viscosity ratio between 1.5 and 4, confirming the syn-diagenetic origin of folds. Veining and folding changed some original properties of travertines including rheology, fabric, porosity, and chronological sequence. The identification of these structures and related changes of rock properties (e.g., age rejuvenation) is relevant for the proper interpretation of thermogene travertines as recorders of

  11. PREVALENCE OF Calodium hepaticum (SYN. Capillaria hepatica IN Rattus norvegicus IN THE URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel O. Simões


    Full Text Available The nematode Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica is a zoonotic helminth found mainly infecting rats. It was studied the prevalence of C. hepaticum infection in Rattus norvegicus in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, with low urban planning and sanitation. The presence of C. hepaticum was identified through visible yellowish-white lesions in liver tissue and histological analyses. The total prevalence of infection was 45%, with no significant differences between sex and age. The presence of infected rodents near the peridomestic area poses substantial risk to human health.

  12. Total synthesis of (+)-geldanamycin and (-)-o-quinogeldanamycin with use of asymmetric anti- and syn-glycolate aldol reactions. (United States)

    Andrus, Merritt B; Meredith, Erik L; Simmons, Bryon L; Soma Sekhar, B B V; Hicken, Erik J


    Geldanamycin (GA), an antitumor Hsp90 inhibitor, was made for the first time by using an oxidative demethylation reaction as the final step. A biaryldioxanone auxiliary set the anti C11-12 hydroxy-methoxy functionality and a methylglycolate auxiliary based on norephedrine was used for the syn C6-7 methoxy-urethane. p-Quinone-forming oxidants, CAN and AgO, produced an unusual aza-quinone product. Nitric acid gave GA from a trimethoxy precursor in 55% yield as a 1:10 mixture with nonnatural o-quino-GA. [structure: see text


    Arnould, M.


    There is a number of marine clays, mudstones, marls, 100 to 200 m thick, showing smectites, mixed layers illite/smectite, with a small percentage of organic matter and sulphides with a variable clay, silt, and carbonate content. I published (Arnould , 2006) examples from Lower Cambrian to Miocene in age and from the Baltic shore to Spain in Europe. Observations were made mostly in quarries and pits down to more than 40 m and in underground research laboratories (URL). Only visible on fresh cuts amongst a variety of fissures there is always a network of joints. Schematically one family is the bedding (horizontal) the two others are normal to the bedding and orthogonal between them. The orientations of vertical joints are different from the orientations of pits and quarries’s walls. The networks are intrinsic. It was first well described by Skempton & al (1969) in Eocene London Clay. Joints are matt in texture, clean, without filling or cement. The order of magnitude of their linear dimensions is decimeter to meter. It is necessary to start from the original sediment: mud. Deposited in flakes mud has a bee’s nest microscopic structure. Each nest is full of water. Hence mud may have a water content up to 300%, reported to its dry weight. Paradoxically mud is impervious. As proposed by Cosgrove (2001) progressive but discontinuous hydraulic fracturing could be the origin of vertical joints, with drainage upwards and compaction of the sediment. Geological observations show that ioints are formed during the sedimentation process. There is also a world literature concluding at the necessary early fracturing of mudstones and marls hosts of sand dykes. Very few faults are identified in field observations and on exploration logs. But it is obvious that drainage and compaction of mud over thousands square kilometers induced differential settlements with many syn-sedimentary non tectonic faults constituting another discontinuity network. These faults inside the same

  14. Does the G.G*syn DNA mismatch containing canonical and rare tautomers of the guanine tautomerise through the DPT? A QM/QTAIM microstructural study (United States)

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O.; Hovorun, Dmytro M.


    We have established that the asynchronous concerted double proton transfer (DPT), moving with a time gap and without stable intermediates, is the underlying mechanism for the tautomerisation of the G.G*syn DNA base mispair (C1 symmetry), formed by the keto and enol tautomers of the guanine in the anti- and syn-configurations, into the G*.G*syn base mispair (C1), formed by the enol and imino tautomers of the G base, using quantum-mechanical calculations and Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules. By constructing the sweeps of the geometric, electron-topological, energetic, polar and natural bond orbital properties along the intrinsic reaction coordinate of the G.G*syn↔G*.G*syn DPT tautomerisation, the nine key points, that are critical for the atomistic understanding of the tautomerisation reaction, were set and comprehensively analysed. It was found that the G.G*syn mismatch possesses pairing scheme with the formation of the O6...HO6 (7.01) and N1H...N7 (6.77) H-bonds, whereas the G*.G*syn mismatch - of the O6H...O6 (10.68) and N1...HN7 (9.59 kcal mol-1) H-bonds. Our results highlight that these H-bonds are significantly cooperative and mutually reinforce each other in both mismatches. The deformation energy necessary to apply for the G.G*syn base mispair to acquire the Watson-Crick sizes has been calculated. We have shown that the thermodynamically stable G*.G*syn base mispair is dynamically unstable structure with a lifetime of 4.1 × 10-15 s and any of its six low-lying intermolecular vibrations can develop during this period of time. These data exclude the possibility to change the tautomeric status of the bases under the dissociation of the G.G*syn mispair into the monomers during DNA replication. Finally, it has been made an attempt to draw from the physico-chemical properties of all four incorrect purine-purine DNA base pairs a general conclusion, which claims the role of the transversions in spontaneous point mutagenesis.

  15. Stereoselective synthesis and biological evaluation of syn-1-amino-3-[18F]fluorocyclobutyl-1-carboxylic acid as a potential positron emission tomography brain tumor imaging agent. (United States)

    Yu, Weiping; Williams, Larry; Camp, Vernon M; Malveaux, Eugene; Olson, Jeffrey J; Goodman, Mark M


    Amino acid syn-1-amino-3-fluoro-cyclobutyl-1-carboxylic acid (syn-FACBC) 12, the isomer of anti-FACBC, has been selectively synthesized and [(18)F] radiofluorinated in 52% decay-corrected yield using no-carrier-added [(18)F]fluoride. The key step in the synthesis of the desired isomer involved stereoselective reduction using lithium alkylborohydride/zinc chloride, which improved the ratio of anti-alcohol to syn-alcohol from 17:83 to 97:3. syn-FACBC 12 entered rat 9L gliosarcoma cells primarily via L-type amino acid transport in vitro with high uptake of 16% injected dose per 5 x 10(5) cells. Biodistribution studies in rats with 9L gliosarcoma brain tumors demonstrated high tumor to brain ratio of 12:1 at 30 min post injection. In this model, amino acid syn-[(18)F]FACBC 12 is a promising metabolically based radiotracer for positron emission tomography brain tumor imaging.

  16. U Pb zircon and monazite geochronology of Variscan magmatism related to syn-convergence extension in Central Northern Portugal (United States)

    Valle Aguado, B.; Azevedo, M. R.; Schaltegger, U.; Martínez Catalán, J. R.; Nolan, J.


    The Viseu area is located in the Central Iberian Zone of the Iberian Variscan Belt and hosts numerous post-thickening, collision-related granitoids intruded into upper and middle crustal levels. The present paper reports high precision U-Pb zircon and monazite ages for four plutons of the Viseu area: the syn-kinematic granitoids of Maceira (314±5 Ma), Casal Vasco (311±1 Ma) and Junqueira (307.8±0.7 Ma) and the late-kinematic biotite monzogranites of Cota (306±9 Ma). This points to a synchronous emplacement of the different syn-kinematic plutons shortly followed by the intrusion of the late-kinematic granites and shows that the Upper Carboniferous plutonism occurred within a short time span of ca. 10 million years. The ascent of granite magmas took place after an extensional tectonic event (D 2) and is coeval with dextral and sinistral crustal-scale transcurrent shearing (D 3). Field and petrographical evidence suggest a narrow time-span between peak T metamorphic conditions and the intrusion of granitic melts which implies very fast uplift rates accommodated through active tectonic exhumation. Magma compositions evolve through time, reflecting an increasing involvement of mid-crustal sources and the underplating effect of an upwelling asthenospheric mantle at the base of a thinning and stretching continental crust.

  17. SynSysNet: integration of experimental data on synaptic protein–protein interactions with drug-target relations (United States)

    von Eichborn, Joachim; Dunkel, Mathias; Gohlke, Björn O.; Preissner, Sarah C.; Hoffmann, Michael F.; Bauer, Jakob M. J.; Armstrong, J. D.; Schaefer, Martin H.; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Le Novere, Nicolas; Croning, Michael D. R.; Grant, Seth G. N.; van Nierop, Pim; Smit, August B.; Preissner, Robert


    We created SynSysNet, available online at, to provide a platform that creates a comprehensive 4D network of synaptic interactions. Neuronal synapses are fundamental structures linking nerve cells in the brain and they are responsible for neuronal communication and information processing. These processes are dynamically regulated by a network of proteins. New developments in interaction proteomics and yeast two-hybrid methods allow unbiased detection of interactors. The consolidation of data from different resources and methods is important to understand the relation to human behaviour and disease and to identify new therapeutic approaches. To this end, we established SynSysNet from a set of ∼1000 synapse specific proteins, their structures and small-molecule interactions. For two-thirds of these, 3D structures are provided (from Protein Data Bank and homology modelling). Drug-target interactions for 750 approved drugs and 50 000 compounds, as well as 5000 experimentally validated protein–protein interactions, are included. The resulting interaction network and user-selected parts can be viewed interactively and exported in XGMML. Approximately 200 involved pathways can be explored regarding drug-target interactions. Homology-modelled structures are downloadable in Protein Data Bank format, and drugs are available as MOL-files. Protein–protein interactions and drug-target interactions can be viewed as networks; corresponding PubMed IDs or sources are given. PMID:23143269

  18. Structural development of the Australian Otway passive margin; the kinematics and interaction of syn-sedimentary faults (United States)

    Tanner, D. C.; Ziesch, J.; Krawczyk, C. M.


    The onshore Otway passive margin basin is characterized by a large number of normal faults. All the faults were active during sedimentation, but to varying degrees, between ca. 120 and 50 Ma, before they died out. Using a detailed interpretation of a 3-D reflection seismic cube (32.3 km x 14.35 km x 4100 ms TWT), we interpreted the kinematics of the faults within the 2.2 km thick syn-rift Late Cretaceous to Recent sediments. From analysis of fault juxtaposition and fault tip-line propagation maps, as well as analysis of thickness maps we determine the amount of syn-sedimentary movement and the kinematics of each fault. We observe two very different behaviours of the faults' tip line propagation as well as internal isolines of fault slip: while all fault strike lengths decrease stratigraphically upwards as the faults retreated (relay zones between faults even maintain their width, without breaking apart). The isolines and tip lines either propagated in a symmetrical or strongly asymmetrical manner (but always in a dextral sense), which we interpret as oblique dextral propagation of the faults. This is in agreement with cylindricity and curvature of the fault surfaces that suggest the fault possess distinct elongated asperities with the same sense of obliquity, with respect to the fault dip azimuth. The distribution of the oblique dextral and dip-slip faults suggests strain partitioning took place on a kilometre scale.

  19. Stereochemistry of the epoxidation of bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene and its 7-syn-substituted derivatives. A DFT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy I. Okovytyy


    Full Text Available The stereochemical aspects of epoxidation of norbornene and its 7-syn-substituted derivatives by performic acid were investigated. Geometry and thermodynamic parameters of transition states and prereactive complexes were computed at the UBHandHLYP/6-31G(d level of theory. It is shown that the transition states have a pronounced biradical character and a nearly coplanar orientation of the C=C bond and the molecule of performic acid. Transition state analysis revealed that, in the case of the syn-7-hydroxy derivative, the preference for the exo-approach of the oxidant can be explained by the stabilization of transition state with hydrogen bonding. In contrast, a chlorine atom or a methyl group at the 7-syn position facilitated the formation of endo-epoxides due to steric repulsion between the substituent and the oxidant.

  20. Synthesis, structural and conformational study of new amides derived from 2-methyl-2-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-5 syn ( anti) amines (United States)

    Toledano, M. S.; Fernández, M. J.; Huertas, R.; Gálvez, E.; Server, J.; Cano, F. H.; Bellanato, J.; Carmona, P.


    A series of amides derived from syn and anti 2-methyl-2-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-5-amines has been synthesized and studied by IR, Raman, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of 2-methyl-5- syn-(4-quinolinecarboxamide)-2-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane Id has been determined by X-ray diffraction. It has been found that syn amides present a preferred conformation in CDCl 3 solution, with the CH 3H bond in exo position. This is also observed for compound Id in the solid state. However, for anti amides the CH 3N bond adopts a favoured endo position. A conformational analysis using molecular modelling techniques was undertaken in order to gain additional information.

  1. Petrogenesis of granitoid rocks at the northern margin of the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt and evidence of syn-collisional magmatism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samarendra Bhattacharya; Rajib Kar; S Moitra


    The northern margin of the Eastern Ghats Mobile belt against the Singhbhum craton exposes granitic rocks with enclaves from both the high-grade and low-grade belts. A shear cleavage developed in the boundary region is also observed in these granitoids. Field features and petrography indicate syn-tectonic emplacement of these granitoids. Petrology-mineralogy and geochemistry indicate that some of the granitoids are derived from the high-grade protoliths by dehydration melting. Others could have been derived from low-grade protoliths. Moreover, microstructural signatures in these granitoids attest to their syn-collisional emplacement.

  2. The Uses of Copper and Zinc Aluminates to Capture and Convert Carbon dioxide to Syn-gas at Higher Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Y. Raskar


    Full Text Available The uses of copper and zinc aluminates to capture and convert the CO2 to syn-gas were studied at higher temperatures. The samples of copper and zinc aluminates were prepared by solid-solid fusion method by calcining in air at 900 oC for 3 h. Those samples were characterized by acidity/alkalinity, surface area, XRD pattern, IR, SEM images and screening to capture CO2 at the different temperatures. The phases Cu2O, CuO, ZnO, CuAl2O4 and ZnAl2O4 were found to be in the samples of zinc and copper aluminates. Acidity and surface area of the samples of copper and zinc aluminates were found to be in the ranges from 0.063 to 9.37 mmol g-1 and 3.04 to 11.8 m2 g-1, respectively. The captured CO2 by the samples of copper and zinc aluminates was found to be 19.92 to 31.52 wt% for the temperature range 40 to 850 oC. The captured CO2 at 550 oC by variable Zn/Al and Cu/Al mol ratio from 0.5 to 6 of the samples of copper and zinc aluminates was found to be 12.81 to 18.04 wt%. The reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc and copper aluminates was observed. The conversion of CO2 by methane over variable mol ratio of Cu/Al and Zn/Al in copper and zinc aluminates, respectively, at 500 oC showed the production of syn-gas by using the gas hourly space velocities (GHSV 12000, 12000 and 6000 ml. h-1. g-1 of helium, CO2 and methane. The conversions of CO2 by methane over the samples of zinc and copper aluminates were studied at different mol ratios of CO2 to methane.  © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 13rd May 2013; Revised: 8th November 2013; Accepted: 8th November 2013[How to Cite: Raskar, R.Y., Gaikwad, A.G. (2014. The Uses of Copper and Zinc Aluminates to Cap-ture and Convert Carbon Dioxide to Syn-gas at Higher Temperature. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (1: 1-15. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.1.4899.1-15[Permalink/DOI:

  3. Undeniable Confirmation of the syn-Addition Mechanism for Metal-Free Diboration by Using the Crystalline Sponge Method. (United States)

    Cuenca, Ana B; Zigon, Nicolas; Duplan, Vincent; Hoshino, Manabu; Fujita, Makoto; Fernández, Elena


    The stereochemical outcome of the recently developed metal-free 1,2-diboration of aliphatic alkenes has, until now, only been elucidated by indirect means (e.g. derivatization). This is because classical conformational analysis of the resulting 1,2-diboranes is not viable; in the (1)H NMR spectrum the relevant (1)H resonances are broadened by (11)B, and the occurrence of the products as oily compounds precludes X-ray crystallographic analysis. Herein, the crystalline sponge method is used to display the crystal structures of the diboronic esters formed from internal E and Z olefins, evidencing the stereospecific syn addition mechanism of the reaction, which is fully consistent with the prediction from DFT calculations.

  4. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons (United States)

    Pavlis, T. L.; Miller, M.; Serpa, L.


    The term turtleback was first coined to describe the curvilinear fault surfaces that produced a distinctive geomorphic form in the Black Mountains east of Death Valley, and although it was decades before their full significance was appreciated, they remain one of the most distinctive features of the extensional structure of the Death Valley region. Historically the interpretation of the features has varied markedly, and misconceptions about their character continue to abound, including descriptions in popular field guides for the area. It the 1990's, however, the full history of the systems began to be apparent from several key data: 1) the dating of the plutonic assemblage associated with the turtlebacks demonstrated that late Miocene, syn-extensional plutonism was fundamental to their formation; 2) the plutonic assemblage forms an intrusive sheet structurally above the turtlebacks, indicating a tie between much of the high grade metamorphism and Cenozoic plutonism; 3) a modern analog for the syn-extensional plutonism in the Black Mountains was recognized beneath Death Valley with the imaging of a mid-crustal magma body; 4) the Neogene structural history was worked out in the turtlebacks showing that folding of early-formed shear zones formed the turtleback anticlinoria but overprinting by brittle faults produced the final form as they cut obliquely across the older structure; and 5) the pre-extensional structural history was clarified, demonstrating that Mesozoic basement-involved thrust systems are present within the turtlebacks, but have been overprinted by the extensional system. An unresolved issue is the significance of Eocene U-Pb dates for pegmatites within the region, but presumably these relate somehow to the pre-extensional history. Miller and Pavlis (2005; E. Sci. Rev.) reviewed many features of the turtlebacks, and our working model for the region is that the turtlebacks originated as mid-crustal ductile-thrust systems within the Cordilleran fold

  5. 3D modelling of a dolomitized syn-sedimentary structure: an exhumed potential analogue of hydrocarbon reservoir. (United States)

    Martinelli, Mattia; Franceschi, Marco; Massironi, Matteo; Bistacchi, Andrea; Di Cuia, Raffaele; Rizzi, Alessandro


    The decrease in discoveries of new hydrocarbon reservoirs has twofold implications: i) the need to improve our knowledge of classic reservoirs, such as traps within extensional syn-sedimentary structures, and ii) enhanced efforts aimed at better understanding complex type of reservoirs. In particular, in the last few years, fault related dolomitized bodies, often associated to extensional faults, received worldwide attention thanks to the capability of dolomitizing fluids to improve the pore network. However, the shape and geometries of the dolomitized bodies within complex fault network as well as the related porosity distribution and evolution is difficult to predict. The study of outcrop analogues can help to solve these issues. In this work, we focused our attention on the Early Jurassic carbonate sediments of the Calcari Grigi Group deposited on the Trento Platform (Italian Southern Alps). The stratigraphic succession encompasses (from bottom to top): the peritidal limestones of the Monte Zugna Formation, the initially highly porous Loppio Oolitic Limestone and the nearly tight marls and marly limestones of the lower Rotzo Formation. During Early Jurassic, after the deposition of the Loppio Oolitic Limestone, the Trento Platform underwent syn-sedimentary extensional tectonics, which caused the formation of numerous tilted blocks. Differential subsidence of these blocks is testified by abrupt thickness changes in Rotzo Formation. This created a structural framework favourable to the formation of syn-sedimentary extensional traps (with the Loppio Oolitic Limestone as reservoir and Rotzo Formation as seal). In the Tertiary, Alpine compressional tectonics caused the reactivation of the Jurassic faults with a strike slip kinematics and was associated with the circulation of dolomitizing fluids. The combination of these events led to the formation of secondary fault-related dolomitized bodies. The enhanced pore network in correspondence of the dolomitized dykes

  6. SynSen PFT: Synergistic Retrieval of Phytoplankton Functional Types from Space From Hyper-and Multispectral Measurements (United States)

    Soppa, Mariana A.; Loza, Svetlana N.; Dinter, Tilman; Wolanin, Aleksandra; Bricaud, Annick; Brewein, Robert; Rozanov, Vladimir; Barcher, Astrid


    To gain knowledge on the role of marine phytoplankton in the global marine ecosystem and biogeochemical cycles, information on the global distribution of major phytoplankton functional types is essential. The Synergistic Retrieval of Phytoplankton Functional Types from Space from Hyper- and Multispectral Measurements project (SynSenPFT) aims to improve the retrieval of phytoplankton types (PFTs) from space by exploring the synergistic use of low-spatial-hyper- spectral and high-spatial-multi-spectral satellite data. Three PFTs are investigated: diatoms, coccolithophores and cyanobacteria. The work involves the improvement/revision of existing PFT algorithms based on hyper- (PhytoDOAS, [1]) and multi-spectral (OC- PFT, [2]) datasets, development of synergistic PFT products combining the retrievals of these two algorithms and intercomparison of the synergistic PFT products with those derived from other methods [3,4,5].

  7. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora do Rocio Klisiowicz


    Full Text Available Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding is explained by the area being located in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, surrounded by preserved forests and because the inhabitants consume the meat of wild mammals.

  8. Glucocorticosteroids do not impact directly growth rate and biomass of Rhizopus arrhizus (syn. R. oryzae) in vitro. (United States)

    Bellanger, A P; Minetos, Y D; Albert, N; Shirazi, F; Walsh, T J; Kontoyiannis, D P


    Glucocorticoid (GC) use is a common risk factor for invasive fungal infections. This is attributed to the complex dysregulation of immunity caused by GCs. However, studies have demonstrated increased growth with GC exposure for some molds, such as Aspergillus fumigatus and Exserohilum rostratum. No such data exist for Mucorales. Therefore, we investigated the influence of GC exposure on the growth of Rhizopus arrhizus (syn. R. oryzae) in different culture media and in different atmospheres. We measured continuous spore growth using spectrophotometry and biomass variations using XTT assay. We did not observe enhanced growth or biomass variation with any of the GCs regardless of the medium or conditions. These results support the existence of fungus-specific differences in the effect of GCs on fungal biology.

  9. Radiation chemistry of cis-syn-cis dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6): Acidity and uranyl nitrate dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draye, Micheline [Laboratoire de Chimie Moleculaire et Environnement (EA1651), Universite de Savoie-Polytech' Savoie, Campus Scientifique, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex (France)], E-mail:; Favre-Reguillon, Alain [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique (UMR7084), Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, 2 rue conte, 75003 Paris (France); Faure, Rene [Laboratoire des sciences analytiques, UMR CNRS 5180, Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon 1, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lemaire, Marc [Laboratoire de Catalyse et Synthese Organique, UMR CNRS 5246, Institut de Chimie et Biochimie Moleculaires et Supramoleculaires, Universite Lyon 1 CPE, 43 boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, Villeurbanne 69622 (France)


    The cis-syn-cis isomer of dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) has been shown to be an efficient extractant able to perform the separation of Pu(IV) and U(VI) from fission products and then the separation of Pu(IV) from U(VI) without valence exchange as required in the PUREX process. This macrocycle was irradiated in nitric acid with a {sup 137}Cs {gamma} source to study its radiation chemical stability. Radiation chemical yields (G) were determined by gas chromatography. The results show that the presence of uranyl nitrate has a strong influence on DCH18C6 radiation chemical stability. Indeed, the presence of this template ion increases the macrocycle stability by promoting fragments recombination.

  10. How vein sealing boosts fracture widening rates - The buckling-enhanced aperture growth mechanism for syn-tectonic veins (United States)

    Nüchter, Jens-Alexander


    The paper introduces the mechanism of buckling-enhanced aperture growth for syn-tectonic veins that formed in simple-shear dominated kinematic frameworks in the middle or lower crust. Apart from the well understood concepts of fracture widening driven by effective tensile stresses, buckling-enhanced fracture aperture growth relates widening to active outward buckling of more viscous incipient cement layers precipitated as hydrothermal minerals for the pore fluid on the walls of juvenile syn-tectonic veins, driven by fracture-parallel compressive creep strain in the host rocks. Thus, the mechanism proposed here follows similar principles as tectonic folding, although important differences exist. Inspired by the structural record of low-aspect ratio veins exposed in HP/LT metamorphic rocks cropping out on south Evia island, Greece, generic numerical models are calculated to study development of buckling instabilities in such incompletely cemented veins and their impact on aperture growth rates. The models indicate (1) that aperture growth rates increase with increasing viscosity contrast between the host rocks and the cement layers, (2) an increase in the thickness of the cement layers cause acceleration of aperture growth, (3) that support of restraining forces at the vein tips offered by the host rocks against buckling of the cement layers cause fully compressive states of stress ahead the fracture tips, and (4) that fracture aperture growth is possible against fully compressive fracture-normal stresses. The buckling-enhanced vein aperture growth mechanism yields important implications for the maintenance and decay of fracture-bound permeability and for the mechanical state of the middle and lower crust in seismically active regions.

  11. The Applications of Mixed Metal Oxides to Capture the CO2 and Convert to Syn-Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gaikwad


    Full Text Available AbstractThe applicationsof different mixed metal oxides were explored for the capture of CO2and convert of CO2 to syn-gas. The several samples of the mixedmetal oxides were prepared by the sol gel, solid-solid fusion, precipitation,molten salt and template methods in order to investigate the performance ofmixed mtal oxides to the CO2 applications. These samples werecalcined for the 3h in air at 900 oC. The mixed metal oxides sampleswere characterized by acidity/ basicity, surface area, XRD pattern, SEM imagesand to capture CO2. The basicity and surface area of the samples of mixedmetal oxides were found to be in the range from 0.7 to 15.7 mmol g-1and 2.24 to 138.76 m2 g-1, respectively. The obtainedresults of prepared mixed metal oxides by different method were compared forthe purpose of searching the efficient materials. The temperature profiles of thecaptured CO2 by the samples of mixed metal oxides were obtained inthe range 100 to 800 oC. The captured CO2 was found to bein the range from 7.36 to 26.93 wt%. The conversions of CO2 bymethane were explored to syn-gas over the mixed metal oxides including the calciumiron lanthanum mixed metal oxides and Pd (5 wt %/Al2O3at 700 oC with the gas hourly space velocities (GHSV 6000 ml h-1g-1 of methane, 6000 ml h-1 g-1 of CO2and 24000 ml h-1 g-1 of helium.

  12. An asymmetric route to 2,3-epoxy-syn-1,4-cyclohexane diol derivatives using ring closing metathesis (RCM)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumitra Maity; Subrata Ghosh


    An asymmetric route for the synthesis of highly functionalized 2,3-epoxy-syn-1,4-cyclohexane diol derivatives present in some polyketide natural products has been developed. The key step involves RCM of an appropriately constructed 1,7-dienol derived from D-mannitol to cyclohexane-1,4-diol followed by its stereoselective epoxidation.

  13. Polysialic acid modification of the synaptic cell adhesion molecule SynCAM 1 in human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte precursor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werneburg


    Full Text Available Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs are the progenitors of myelinating oligodendrocytes in brain development and repair. Successful myelination depends on the control of adhesiveness during OPC migration and axon contact formation. The decoration of cell surface proteins with the glycan polysialic acid (polySia is a key regulatory element of OPC interactions during development and under pathological conditions. By far the major protein carrier of polySia is the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM, but recently, polysialylation of the synaptic cell adhesion molecule SynCAM 1 has been detected in the developing mouse brain. In mice, polySia-SynCAM 1 is associated with cells expressing NG2, a marker of a heterogeneous precursor cell population, which is the primary source for oligodendrocytes in development and myelin repair but can also give rise to astrocytes and possibly neurons. It is not yet clear if polySia-SynCAM 1 is expressed by OPCs and its occurrence in humans is elusive. By generating uniform human embryonic stem cell-derived OPC cultures, we demonstrate that polySia is present on human OPCs but down-regulated during differentiation into myelin basic protein-positive oligodendrocytes. PolySia on NCAM resides on the isoforms NCAM-180 and NCAM-140, and SynCAM 1 is identified as a novel polySia acceptor in human OPCs.

  14. Direct Syn Addition of Two Silicon Atoms to a C≡C Triple Bond by Si-Si Bond Activation: Access to Reactive Disilylated Olefins. (United States)

    Ahmad, Maha; Gaumont, Annie-Claude; Durandetti, Muriel; Maddaluno, Jacques


    A catalytic intramolecular silapalladation of alkynes affords, in good yields and stereoselectively, syn-disilylated heterocycles of different chemical structure and size. When applied to silylethers, this reaction leads to vinylic silanols that undergo a rhodium-catalyzed addition to activated olefins, providing the oxa-Heck or oxa-Michael products, depending on the reaction conditions.

  15. BF3·OEt2-mediated syn-selective Meyer-Schuster rearrangement of phenoxy propargyl alcohols for Z-β-aryl-α,β-unsaturated esters. (United States)

    Puri, Surendra; Hari Babu, Madala; Sridhar Reddy, Maddi


    Synthesis of Z-β-aryl-α,β-unsaturated esters from readily available 1-aryl-3-phenoxy propargyl alcohols is achieved via a BF3-mediated syn-selective Meyer-Schuster rearrangement under ambient conditions. The reaction mechanism is postulated to involve an electrophilic borylation of an allene intermediate as the key step to kinetically control the stereoselectivity.

  16. Syn-Rift Stratigraphic Architecture Reveals the Growth History of a Sub-basinal Fault Population in the Outer Moray Firth, North Sea (United States)

    Kane, K.; Gupta, S.; Trudgill, B.; Johnson, H.


    Processes of normal fault propagation and linkage are recorded in the stratigraphic record by syn-rift sedimentary deposits that fill the generated accommodation volume. Using 3D seismic stratigraphic analysis, supported by well log and core interpretation, we investigate how the growth of an intrabasinal fault population led to the progressive development of an extensional sub-basin in the Moray Firth rift arm of the North Sea. The North Halibut Graben sub-basin has an E-W to WNW-ESE orientation and formed through the interaction of two main structural trends during late Jurassic rifting. E-W trending structural barriers bound the sub-basin to the north (Tartan and Petronella Ridges) and south (Halibut Horst Spur) whilst major NE-SW trending structures occur at the eastern margin. Spatial and temporal changes in syn-rift stratigraphic architecture reflect the history of faulting within the North Halibut Graben sub-basin. Fault parallel seismic profiles and intra-syn rift isochron maps demonstrate how faults initially developed as separate segments and subsequently linked to form longer strands through progressive growth and propagation. They also provide clear evidence that a major change in the structural framework occurred during rifting, supporting earlier studies advocating sequential rather than synchronous normal fault activity. The syn-rift sequence can be divided into at least two phases based on shifts in sedimentary packages and reorganistation of sequence thicknesses. Isochron maps illustrate that from late Oxfordian times (syn-rift phase I), early syn-rift sedimentation was controlled solely by NE-SW trending faults at the eastern margin of the basin. Strain was initially accommodated across several distributed, highly segmented faults but, with progressive linkage, stress became localised on one or two major through-going fault strands whilst shorter surrounding segments were switched off. From early-mid Volgian times we observe a progressive switch

  17. Does the tautomeric status of the adenine bases change upon the dissociation of the A*·A(syn) Topal-Fresco DNA mismatch? A combined QM and QTAIM atomistic insight. (United States)

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Zhurakivsky, Roman O; Hovorun, Dmytro M


    We have scrupulously explored the tautomerisation mechanism via the double proton transfer of the A*·A(syn) Topal-Fresco base mispair (C(s) symmetry), formed by the imino and amino tautomers of the adenine DNA base in the anti- and syn-conformations, respectively, bridging quantum-mechanical calculations with Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules. It was found that the A*·A(syn) ↔ A·A*(syn) tautomerisation is the asynchronous concerted process. It was established that the A*·A(syn) DNA mismatch is stabilized by the N6H···N6 (6.35) and N1H···N7 (6.17) hydrogen (H) bonds, whereas the A·A*(syn) base mispair (Cs) by the N6H···N6 (8.82) and N7H···N1 (9.78) H-bonds and the C8H···HC2 HH-bond (0.30 kcal mol(-1)). Using the sweeps of the energies of the intermolecular H-bonds, it was observed that the N6H···N6 and N1H···N7/N7H···N1 H-bonds are anti-cooperative and mutually weaken each other in the A*·A(syn) and A·A*(syn) mispairs. It was revealed that the A·A*(syn) DNA mismatch is a dynamically unstable structure with a short lifetime of 1.12 × 10(-13) s and any of its 6 low-frequency intermolecular vibrations can develop during this period of time. This observation makes it impossible to change the tautomeric status of the A bases upon the dissociation of the A*·A(syn) base mispair into the monomers during DNA replication.

  18. Strain Localization Within a Syn-Tectonic Pluton in a Back-Arc Extensional Context: the Naxos granodiorite (Cyclades, Greece) (United States)

    Bessiere, Eloïse; Rabillard, Aurélien; Arbaret, Laurent; Jolivet, Laurent; Augier, Romain; Menant, Armel


    Naxos Island is part of the central Cyclades (Aegean Sea, Greece) where a series of migmatite-cored metamorphic domes were exhumed below large-scale detachment systems during a Cenozoic back-arc extension. On Naxos, the Miocene exhumation history of the high-temperature metamorphic dome was notably achieved through two anastomosing and closely spaced top-to-the-north detachments belonging to the Naxos-Paros detachment system. According to previous contributions, the late exhumation stages were accompanied by the emplacement of a syn-kinematic I-type granodiorite that intruded a ductile-then-brittle detachment. Later the detachment migrated at the interface between the pluton and the metamorphic unit under ductile-to-brittle conditions. To clarify how extensional deformation was precisely distributed within the pluton, a multi-scale approach from field observations to laboratory investigations was undertaken. Through macro- to micro-structural observations, we show a continuous deformation history from magmatic to solid-state ductile/brittle conditions under an overall north-directed shearing deformation. The early magmatic or sub-solidus deformation is evidenced in a large part of the granodiorite, notably in its southern part where the original intrusive contact is still preserved. Solid-state deformation is recorded further north when approaching the detachment zone, highlighted by a thicker cataclastic zone and numerous pseudotachylite veins. From these field observations, we defined six strain facies, leading us to propose a qualitative strain map of the Naxos granodiorite. Based on field pictures and X-ray tomography of oriented samples collected along the strain gradient, we quantified the intensity of mineralogical fabrics in 2D and 3D. This step required the treatment of 600 rocks samples and pictures using SPO2003 (Shape Preferred Orientation) and Intercepts2003. Measured shape variations of the strain ellipsoid thus corroborate the large-scale strain

  19. 沙生蜡菊花中的黄酮类成分%Flavones from Helichrysi flos SYN.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文娟; 吴立军


    目的:沙生蜡菊花的化学成分研究.方法:采用多种色谱方法(硅胶柱色谱、ODS柱色谱和HPLC柱色谱)分离纯化,依据理化性质、波谱数据分析进行结构鉴定.结果:从沙生蜡菊花的甲醇提取物中分离得到7个黄酮类化合物,分别鉴定为槲皮素-3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,1),芹菜素-7-O-β-D-龙胆二糖苷(apigenin 7-O-β-D-gen-tiobioside,2),槲皮素3-O-芸香糖苷(quercetin 3-O-rutinoside,3),芹菜素-7,4'-二-O-葡萄糖苷(apigenin-7,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranasideside,4),山柰酚-3,4'-二-O-葡萄糖苷(kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,5),槲皮素-3,3'-O-二葡萄糖(quercetin-3,3'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranaside,6),芹菜素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖醛酸甲酯(apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester,7).结论:化合物2,4~7为首次从该属植物中分离得到.%Objective:To study the chemical constituents of Helichrysi flos syn.Method:The chemical constituents were isolated by various methods of isolation(silica gel,ODS column chromatography and HPLC)and their structure were elucidated by the analysis of spectral data and chemical properties.Result:Seven flavone compounds were isolated from the MeOH extract of Helichrysi flos syn.The chemical structures were elucidated as quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(1),apigenin-7-O-β-D-gentiobioside(2),quercetin-3-O-rutinoside(3),apigenin-7,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(4),kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(5),quercetin-3,3'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(6),apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester(7).Conclusion:Compounds 2,4-7 were obtained from the genus Helichrysum.for the first time.

  20. Flavonones from Helichrysi flos syn.%沙生蜡菊花中的二氢黄酮类成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立波; 森川敏生; 高慧媛; 孙博航; 黄健; 吉川雅之; 吴立军


    AIM: To study the chemical constituents of Helichrysiflos syn. METHOD: The chemical constituents were isolated by various methods of isolation (silica gel, ODS and HPLC column chromatography) and their structures were elucidated by the analysis of spectral data, CD spectral data and chemical properties. RESULT: Eight flavonones compounds were isolated from the MeOH extract of Helichrysi flos syn. The chemical structures were elucidated as (2S)-Helichrysin A (1), (2R)-Helichrysin A (2), (2S)-Naringenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), (2R,3R)-Dihydrokaempferol 7-O-β-D-glucoside (4), Helicioside A (5), (2R)-Eriodictyol-5-O-β-D-glucoside (6), (2S)-Naringenin-5,7-di-O-β-D-glucoside (7), (2R)-Naringenin-5,7-di-O-β-D-glucoside (8). CONCLUSION: Compound 4~8 were obtained from Helichrysum Mill. for the first time, compound 2, 3 were obtained from Helichrysum arenarium (L.) MOENCH for the first time.%目的:研究沙生蜡菊花的化学成分.方法:采用多种色谱方法(硅胶柱色谱、ODS柱色谱和HPLC柱色谱)分离纯化,依据理化性质、核磁数据分析并结合CD谱进行结构鉴定.结果:从沙生蜡菊花的甲醇提取物中分离得到8个二氢黄酮类化合物,分别鉴定为(2S)-Helichrysin A(1)、(2R)-Helichrysin A(2)、Naringenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(3)、(2R,3R)-Dihydrokaempferol-7-Oβ-D-glucoside(4)、Helicioside A(5), (2R)-Eriodictyol-5-O-β-D-glucoside(6)、(2S)-Naringenin-5,7-di-O-β-D-glucoside(7)、(2R)-Naringenin-5,7-di-O-β-D-glucoside(8).结论:化合物4~8为从该属植物中首次分离得到的化合物,化合物2、3为从该植物中首次分离得到的化合物.

  1. 40Ar/39Ar geochronological constraints on syn-orogenic strike-slip movement of Tan-Lu fault zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guang; LIU Guosheng; W. J. Dunlap; C. Teyssier; WANG Yongsheng; NIU Manlan


    Two phases of sinistral strike-slip ductile shear belts occur on the eastern margin of the Dabie orogenic belt.A muscovite 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 128 Ma was obtained from mylonite in the later ductile shear zone. Three muscovite samples separated from mylonites of 3 localities in the earlier ductile shear belts yield 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 192.5±0.7 Ma, 189.7±0.6 Ma and 188.7±0.7 Ma, respectively. They are interpreted as cooling ages of the earlier sinistrai strike-slip deformation. It is suggested that left-lateral displacement of the Tan-Lu fault zone started in a late stage of the collision orogeny in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt between the North and South China plates. Therefore, the earlier Tan-Lu fault zone was syn-orogenic strike-slip tectonics.The fault zone was used again for sinistral displacement during tectonic activities of peri-Pacific regime in Early Cretaceous. It is proposed that the fault zone occurred as a transform fault during the orogenic process.

  2. Mapping lacustrine syn-rift reservoir distribution using spectral attributes: A case study of the Pematang Brownshale Central Sumatra Basin (United States)

    Haris, A.; Yustiawan, R.; Riyanto, A.; Ramadian, R.


    Pematang Brownshale is the lake sediment, which is proven as the main source rock in Malacca Strait Area. So far Brownshale is only considered as source rock, but the well data show intercalated sand layers encountered within the Pematang Brownshale, where several downhole tests proved this series as a potential hydrocarbon reservoir. Pematang formation is a syn-rift sequent deposited in Malacca Strait following the opening of central Sumatra basin during a late cretaceous to early Oligocene, which is proven as potential source rock and reservoir. The aim of the study is to identify the distribution of sandstone reservoir in Pematang Brownshale using spectral attributes. These works were carried out by integrating log data analysis and frequency maps extracted from spectral attributes Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). All these data are used to delineate reservoir distribution in Pematang Brownshale. Based on CWT analysis the anomalies are only visible on the frequency of I5 and I0 Hz maps, which are categorized as low frequencies. Low-frequency shadow anomaly is commonly used as an indication of the presence of hydrocarbons. The distribution of these anomalies is covering an area of approximately 3840.66 acres or equal to I554.25 sq. km, where the low-frequency pattern is interpreted as a deltaic lacustrine feature. By considering the Pematang Brown Shale of Malacca Strait area as a potential reservoir, it would open new play to another basin that has similar characteristics.

  3. Thermal evolution of the syn-tectonic Ainsa-Jaca basin (South Pyrenean Zone). New constraints from a multiproxy approach. (United States)

    Lahfid, A.; Lacroix, B.; Hoareau, G.; Meresse, F.; Michel, K.; Buatier, M.


    Constraining the Thermal history of tectonically active basins is of special importance for the petroleum industry. Indeed, the estimation of geothermal gradients and their evolution are basic parameters to understand the tectono-sedimentary evolution of fold-and-thrust belts and associated foreland basins. In this work, we focus on the turbiditic deposits of the Ainsa-Jaca basin (western part of the South Pyrenean Zone) which consist of an accreted foreland basin composed of Eocene syn-tectonic sediments. The aim is to quantify peak temperatures of the basin that underwent late diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism conditions during the Pyrenean activity. For this, turbiditic rocks and calcite veins (extensional and shear veins) were systematically sampled along a section over a thickness of 4 km through the Monte Perdido unit. In order to constrain the structures observed, sampling was accompanied with a detailed structural analysis. We have combined three thermometric indicators to evaluate peak temperature of rocks: Raman thermometry on carbonaceous material, fluid inclusion microthermometry on calcite/quartz shear and extensional veins and compositional chlorite thermometry on Fe-chlorite observed in shear veins. The Raman temperatures obtained show variations ranging from Jaca basin do not seem so obvious and need to be carefully used. In order to better constrain the thermal history of South Pyrenean Zone, we are currently working on the acquisition of more data.

  4. Geochemical signature variation of pre-, syn-, and post-shearing intrusives within the Najd Fault System of western Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Hassan, M.; Abu-Alam, T. S.; Hauzenberger, C.; Stüwe, K.


    Late Precambrian intrusive rocks in the Arabian-Nubian Shield emplaced within and around the Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia feature a great compositional diversity and a variety of degrees of deformation (i.e. pre-shearing deformed, sheared mylonitized, and post-shearing undeformed) that allows placing them into a relative time order. It is shown here that the degree of deformation is related to compositional variations where early, usually pre-shearing deformed rocks are of dioritic, tonalitic to granodioritic, and later, mainly post-shearing undeformed rocks are mostly of granitic composition. Correlation of the geochemical signature and time of emplacement is interpreted in terms of changes in the source region of the produced melts due to the change of the stress regime during the tectonic evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The magma of the pre-shearing rocks has tholeiitic and calc-alkaline affinity indicating island arc or continental arc affinity. In contrast, the syn- and post-shearing rocks are mainly potassium rich peraluminous granites which are typically associated with post-orogenic uplift and collapse. This variation in geochemical signature is interpreted to reflect the change of the tectonic regime from a compressional volcanic arc nature to extensional within-plate setting of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Within the context of published geochronological data, this change is likely to have occurred around 605-580 Ma.

  5. Structural and thermodynamics characters of isolated α-syn12 peptide: long-time temperature replica-exchange molecular dynamics in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zanxia Cao; Lei Liu; Ping Wu; Jihua Wang


    The structural and thermodynamics characters of α-syn12 (residues 1-12 of the human α-synuclein protein) peptide in aqueous solution were investigated through temperature replica-exchange molecular dynamics (T-REMD) simulations with the GROMOS 43A1 force field. The two independent T-REMD simulations were completed starting from an initial conformational α-helix and an irregular structure,respectively. Each replica was run for 300ns. The structural and thermodynamics characters were studied based on parameters such as distributions of backbone dihedral angles, free energy surface, stability of folded β-hairpin structure, and favorite conformations. The results showed that the isolated α-syn12 peptide in water adopted four different conformational states: the first state was a β-hairpin ensemble with Turno-6 and four hydrogen bonds, the second state was a β-hairpin ensemble with two turns (Turn9-6 and Turn5-2) and three hydrogen bonds, the third state was a disordered structure with both Turn8-5 and Turn5-2, and the last state was a π-helix ensemble. Meanwhile, we studied the free energy change of α-syn12 peptide from the unfolded state to the β-hairpin state, which was in good agreement with the experiments and molecular dynamics simulations for some other peptides. We also analyzed the driving force of the peptide transition.The results indicated that the driving forces were high solvent exposure of hydrophobic Leu8 and hydrophobic residues in secondary structure. To our knowledge, this was the first report to study the isolated α-syn12 peptide in water by T-REMD.

  6. Miniundersøgelse 18 børns syn på skolen i skoleåret 2015-2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    Selv om der således er variation blandt børnenes svar er der alligevel belæg for at sige, at hovedparten af børnene: - udtrykker et kritisk syn på indførelse af lektiecafeen - har begrænsede oplevelser af pædagogens virke og iværksættelse af alternative aktiviteter - kun i begrænset omfang har op...

  7. Acquiring research-grade ERPs on a shoestring budget: A comparison of a modified Emotiv and commercial SynAmps EEG system. (United States)

    Barham, Michael P; Clark, Gillian M; Hayden, Melissa J; Enticott, Peter G; Conduit, Russell; Lum, Jarrad A G


    This study compared the performance of a low-cost wireless EEG system to a research-grade EEG system on an auditory oddball task designed to elicit N200 and P300 ERP components. Participants were 15 healthy adults (6 female) aged between 19 and 40 (M = 28.56; SD = 6.38). An auditory oddball task was presented comprising 1,200 presentations of a standard tone interspersed by 300 trials comprising a deviant tone. EEG was simultaneously recorded from a modified Emotiv EPOC and a NeuroScan SynAmps RT EEG system. The modifications made to the Emotiv system included attaching research grade electrodes to the Bluetooth transmitter. Additional modifications enabled the Emotiv system to connect to a portable impedance meter. The cost of these modifications and portable impedance meter approached the purchase value of the Emotiv system. Preliminary analyses revealed significantly more trials were rejected from data acquired by the modified Emotiv compared to the SynAmps system. However, the ERP waveforms captured by the Emotiv system were found to be highly similar to the corresponding waveform from the SynAmps system. The latency and peak amplitude of N200 and P300 components were also found to be similar between systems. Overall, the results indicate that, in the context of an oddball task, the ERP acquired by a low-cost wireless EEG system can be of comparable quality to research-grade EEG acquisition equipment. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. The SYN flooding Attack Principle and Its Precautions%SYN洪泛攻击原理及其防范策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      The SYN flooding attack, which are currently the focus of research of the network security circle, are a virulent, rela⁃tively new type of attack on the availability of Internet services and resources. The TCP SYN flooding attack is among the most popular DoS attack methods. The author makes a comprehensive study of the TCP SYN attack and its countermeasurements and proposes a new comprehensive attack detection technology, which can beat this kind of attack effectively.%  SYN洪泛攻击是出现在这几年的一种具有很强攻击力而又缺乏有效防御手段的Internet攻击手段,是目前网络安全界研究的热点.TCP SYN洪流攻击是最常见的DoS攻击手段之一.文中着重对TCP SYN洪流攻击及其防范措施进行了深入研究,提出了一种新的综合攻击检测技术,较好地解决了对此类攻击的防范问题.

  9. Combining Experimental Petrology and 3D Imaging to Gain Insight into Syn-eruptive Conditions of the Bishop Tuff, California (United States)

    Chattin, Archer; Pamukcu, Ayla; Gardner, James; Gualda, Guilherme


    The Bishop tuff is a rhyolitic ignimbrite deposited by a supereruption 0.76 million years ago that formed the Long Valley Caldera in California, USA. Pamukcu et. al (2012) identifies two distinct crystal populations present in the Bishop Tuff, the first being a long-lived, large phenocryst population that records storage conditions, and the second a rapidly nucleated, quickly staunched microlite population thought to result from eruptive decompression. Laboratory experiments to reproduce this quickly grown population may help constrain the conditions and rates under which decompression took place. Rapid nucleation of microlites is accompanied by just as rapid bubble nucleation when volatiles exsolve during decompression; the size distribution of vesicles in eruptive products may thus provide important information on syn-eruptive processes. In this study we combine information from vesicle size distributions on natural pumice with data on experimentally produced microlite crystals with the goal of better understanding the syn-eruptive evolution of a supereruption-forming magma body. Decompression experiments are run using a natural Bishop tuff pumice clast ground and melted in the presence of water to obtain a melt representative of late-erupted Bishop Tuff (LBT) magmas. Experimental charges were subjected to decompression at varying rates and initial temperatures. At this time five experiments have been completed. All decompression experiments start at 130MPa, consistent with water concentration in LBT glass inclusions, and end at 10 MPa. Initial temperatures are either 710°C or 785°C, while decompression rates are 20 MPa/hr, 5.5MPa/hr, or 1.7MPa/hr Experimental products were compared to natural products using Scanning Electron Microscopy to document eventual crystal rims and microlites. We have been successful in causing limited feldspar crystallization, but have yet to generate quartz microlites. Bubble size distributions are obtained by analyzing x

  10. Syn-metamorphic interconnected porosity during blueschist facies reactive fluid fluxes at the slab-mantle interface (United States)

    Konrad-Schmolke, Matthias; Klitscher, Nicolai; Halama, Ralf; Wirth, Richard; Morales, Luiz


    At the slab-mantle interface in subdution zones fluids released from the downgoing plate infiltrate into a mechanical mixture of rocks with different chemical compositions, different hydration states and different rheological behaviour resulting in a highly reactive mélange within a steep temperature gradient. Fluid pathways, reaction mechanisms and reaction rates of such fluxes, however, are poorly known, although these parameters are thought to be crucial for several seismic phenomena, such as those commonly referred to as slow earthquakes (e.g., episodic tremor and slip (ETS)). We discovered syn-metamorphic fluid-pathways in the form of interconnected metamorphic porosity in eclogite and blueschist facies mélange rocks from the Franciscan Complex near Jenner, CA. The sampled rocks occur as rigid mafic blocks of different sizes (cm to decametre) in a weak chlorite-serpentine matrix interpreted to be an exhumed slab-mantle interface. Some of these mafic blocks record reactive fluid infiltration that transforms dry eclogite into hydrous blueschist with a sharp reaction front clearly preserved and visible from outcrop- down to µm-scale. We can show that a number of interconnected fluid pathways, such as interconnected metamorphic porosity between reacting omphacite and newly formed sodic amphibole enabled fluid infiltration and interface coupled solution-reprecipitation reactions at blueschist facies conditions. We investigated the different types of fluid pathways with TEM and visualized their interconnectivity with 3D focused ion beam (FIB) sections. The eclogitic parts of the samples preserve porous primary omphacite as a product of amphibole and epidote breakdown during subduction. This primary porosity in omphacite I results from a negative volume change in the solids during amphibole and epidote dehydration. The resulting pores appear as (fluid filled) elongated inclusions the orientations of which are controlled by the omphacite lattice. During

  11. Structures of Syn-deformational Granites in the Longquanguan Shear Zone and Their Monazite Electronic Microprobe Dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jinjiang; ZHAO Lan; LIU Shuwen


    The Longquanguan shear zone is an important structural belt in the North China Craton,separating the underlying Fuping complex from the overlying Wutai complex. This shear zone has experienced three episodes of deformation: the first and main episode is a ductile top-to-ESE shear along the gently northwest-west dipping foliations, while the other two episodes are later collapse sliding. Prolonged granites parallel to the shear foliations make one of the main compositions of the Longquanguan shear zone. These granites experienced deformation to form mylonitic rocks when they emplaced during the first episode of deformation. Structural characters of the granites and their contacts to the country rocks indicate that these granites possibly resulted from in-situ partial remelting by shearing, i.e., they are syn-deformational granites. Monazites in these mylonitic granites are magmatic minerals and their crystallization ages may represent ages of the magmatic events, and also the ages for the main deformation of the Longquanguan shear zone. Monazite electronic microprobe dating were carried on two samples of granite, which gives multiple peak ages, among which 1,846 Ma and 1,877 Ma are the main peak ages for the two samples. These ages represent the main deformation of the Longquanguan shear zone, which is consistent with the main regional geological event at about 1,850 Ma caused by the collision between the Eastern and Western Blocks in North China. The good match between the monazite ages and the corresponding regional tectono-thermal events shows the feasibility and reliability of monazite electronic microprobe dating.

  12. The Oral β-Lactamase SYN-004 (Ribaxamase) Degrades Ceftriaxone Excreted into the Intestine in Phase 2a Clinical Studies (United States)

    Roberts, Tracey; Coughlin, Olivia; Sicard, Eric; Rufiange, Marianne; Fedorak, Richard; Carter, Christian; Adams, Marijke H.; Longstreth, James; Whalen, Heidi; Sliman, Joseph


    ABSTRACT SYN-004 (ribaxamase) is a β-lactamase designed to be orally administered concurrently with intravenous β-lactam antibiotics, including most penicillins and cephalosporins. Ribaxamase's anticipated mechanism of action is to degrade excess β-lactam antibiotic that is excreted into the small intestine. This enzymatic inactivation of excreted antibiotic is expected to protect the gut microbiome from disruption and thus prevent undesirable side effects, including secondary infections such as Clostridium difficile infections, as well as other antibiotic-associated diarrheas. In phase 1 clinical studies, ribaxamase was well tolerated compared to a placebo group and displayed negligible systemic absorption. The two phase 2a clinical studies described here were performed to confirm the mechanism of action of ribaxamase, degradation of β-lactam antibiotics in the human intestine, and were therefore conducted in subjects with functioning ileostomies to allow serial sampling of their intestinal chyme. Ribaxamase fully degraded ceftriaxone to below the level of quantitation in the intestines of all subjects in both studies. Coadministration of oral ribaxamase with intravenous ceftriaxone was also well tolerated, and the plasma pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone were unchanged by ribaxamase administration. Since ribaxamase is formulated as a pH-dependent, delayed-release formulation, the activity of ribaxamase in the presence of the proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole was examined in the second study; coadministration of these drugs did not adversely affect ribaxamase's ability to degrade ceftriaxone excreted into the intestine. These studies have confirmed the in vivo mechanism of action of ribaxamase, degradation of β-lactam antibiotics in the human intestine (registered at under NCT02419001 and NCT02473640). PMID:28052855

  13. Deformation and thermal histories of ordinary chondrites: Evidence for post-deformation annealing and syn-metamorphic shock (United States)

    Ruzicka, Alex; Hugo, Richard; Hutson, Melinda


    We show that olivine microstructures in seven metamorphosed ordinary chondrites of different groups studied with optical and transmission electron microscopy can be used to evaluate the post-deformation cooling setting of the meteorites, and to discriminate between collisions affecting cold and warm parent bodies. The L6 chondrites Park (shock stage S1), Bruderheim (S4), Leedey (S4), and Morrow County (S5) were affected by variable shock deformation followed by relatively rapid cooling, and probably cooled as fragments liberated by impact in near-surface settings. In contrast, Kernouvé (H6 S1), Portales Valley (H6/7 S1), and MIL 99301 (LL6 S1) appear to have cooled slowly after shock, probably by deep burial in warm materials. In these chondrites, post-deformation annealing lowered apparent optical strain levels in olivine. Additionally, Kernouvé, Morrow County, Park, MIL 99301, and possibly Portales Valley, show evidence for having been deformed at an elevated temperature (⩾800-1000 °C). The high temperatures for Morrow County can be explained by dynamic heating during intense shock, but Kernouvé, Park, and MIL 99301 were probably shocked while the H, L and LL parent bodies were warm, during early, endogenically-driven thermal metamorphism. Thus, whereas the S4 and S5 chondrites experienced purely shock-induced heating and cooling, all the S1 chondrites examined show evidence for static heating consistent with either syn-metamorphic shock (Kernouvé, MIL 99301, Park), post-deformation burial in warm materials (Kernouvé, MIL 99301, Portales Valley), or both. The results show the pitfalls in relying on optical shock classification alone to infer an absence of shock and to construct cooling stratigraphy models for parent bodies. Moreover, they provide support for the idea that "secondary" metamorphic and "tertiary" shock processes overlapped in time shortly after the accretion of chondritic planetesimals, and that impacts into warm asteroidal bodies were

  14. Novel illudins from Coprinopsis episcopalis (syn. Coprinus episcopalis), and the distribution of illudin-like compounds among filamentous fungi. (United States)

    Gonzalez del Val, Antonio; Platas, Gonzalo; Arenal, Francisco; Orihuela, Juan Carlos; Garcia, María; Hernández, Pilar; Royo, Inmaculada; De Pedro, Nuria; Silver, Lynn L; Young, Katherine; Vicente, María Francisca; Pelaez, Fernando


    The illudins are a family of fungal sesquiterpenes that have been studied as anti-tumor agents, and they also have antibacterial activity. Over a four-year period, 25 304 fungal isolates (approximately 97% ascomycetes and 3% basidiomycetes), were screened for antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Illudin-like compounds with antibacterial and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines were observed in 10 basidiomycete strains. The isolates were recovered from different types of substrata using indirect methods and only formed sterile mycelia in pure culture. The isolates were genetically related but not identical, based on PCR-based fingerprinting techniques. DNA sequencing of the ITS1-5.8 S-ITS2 region of the strains revealed that nine had identical sequences, indicating that they were conspecific. The sequence of the remaining isolate was 96.34% similar, suggesting that it was a closely related species. The D1-D2 region of the 25 S rRNA gene of the two strain types was also sequenced. Both sequences were 99.39% similar, and Coprinopsis gonophylla (syn. Coprinus gonophyllus) was the closest match for both. Strains were grown in pure culture on a rice-based medium that allowed the development of basidiomata from one culture of the main strain type, which was identified as C. episcopalis, a close relative of C. gonophyllus. Both species (or strain types) produced different types of illudin-like compounds. Three novel illudins (I, I2 and J2) were found to be produced by the cultures identified as C. episcopalis, while only illudinic acid was produced by the other Coprinopsis sp. The taxonomical relationships of the Coprinops is species identified in this study with other illudin producers previously reported in the literature are discussed.

  15. Characterization of the relA/spoT homologue slr1325 (syn-rsh) of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp.PCC6803%集胞藻PCC6803中relA/spoT同源基因syn-rsh(slr1325)的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪小刚; 刘惠玲; 宁德刚


    [目的]四磷酸或五磷酸鸟苷(Guanosine 3′,5′-bispyrophosphate,(p)ppGpp)是细菌在遭遇环境胁迫时细胞产生应激反应的信号分子,(p)ppGpp由其合成酶RelA或具有合成酶或水解酶双重催化功能的RelA/SpoT合成.本文证明了集胞藻PCC6803(Synechocystis sp.)中唯一编码RelA/SpoT同源蛋白(命名为Syn-RSH)的基因slr1325(syn-rsh)的功能.[方法]通过互补试验证明syn-rsh表达产物的生物学功能;以纤维素薄层层析检测不同条件下Escherichia coli(p)ppGpp合成缺陷突变株及集胞藻PCC6803细胞中的(p)ppGpp.[结果]诱导Syn-RSH表达可使(p)ppGpp合成酶和水解酶基因缺失的E.coli突变株回复野生型表型,并在细胞中积累一定水平的ppGpp;在实验室培养条件下,集胞藻PCC6803细胞中可检测到低水平的ppGpp,氨基酸饥饿可诱导ppGpp水平升高并维持在相应水平.[结论]Syn-RSH具有(p)ppGpp合成酶和水解酶的双重功能,(p)ppGpp是集胞藻PCC6803在实验室生长条件下细胞生长所必需的.

  16. Syn for sagn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang, Caroline


    and a representative of the early folkloristic movement, and his engagement in three different photographical projects during the years 1895—1927. Through a study of the actual pictures as well as readings of Olrik’s personal letters, applications for funding, and academic writings, two main arguments for the use...... of photography are identified: one line of argumentation pertains to the potential of photography as a conservatory technology; another series of reasons promotes photographs as a particularly well-suited medium for conveying the past in a holistic way. Furthermore, the article shows how these arguments hinge...

  17. The Early Paleozoic Tiefosi syn-collisional granite in the northern Dabie Orogen:Geochronological and geochemical constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Tiefosi granitic pluton is located 5 km northwest of Xinyang City,northern Dabie Orogen,and was emplaced in the Proterozoic Qinling Group. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating suggests its crystallization at 436 ± 11 Ma. It is composed of monzogranite and syenogranite containing some amounts of muscovite and few mafic minerals. The rocks are characterized by high and restricted SiO2 content,low FeO,Fe2O3 and MgO contents,high K2O/Na2O ratio,and display high-K calc-alkaline and peraluminous (ACNK>1.1) characteristics. They are generally enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSE). They can be divided into three groups in light of rare earth elements (REE) and trace elements. Group I is moderate in ΣREE and characterized by the absence of Eu anom-aly,high (La/Yb)N ratio,and moderate Rb/Sr and Rb/Ba ratios. Group Ⅱ has moderately negative Eu anomaly,low (La/Yb)N ratio and high ΣREE contents,Rb/Sr and Rb/Ba ratios. Group Ⅲ displays positive Eu anomaly,moderate (La/Yb)N ratio,and low ΣREE,Rb/Sr and Rb/Ba ratios. The calculated εNd(440Ma) values of the rocks vary from 8.8 to 9.9 and Nd depleted mantle model ages are about 2.0 Ga,which resemble those of the paragneisses from the Qinling Group. The results indicate that the Tiefosi granite is crust-derived,syn-collisional S-type granite. Generation of Group I was related to low degree melting of the Qinling Group,while Group Ⅱ was formed by fractionational crystallization of plagioclase from Group I magmas,and Group Ⅲ resulted possibly from magma mingling with plagioclase cumulates. The Tiefosi granite was formed within crustal level related to the collision between the North China and South China blocks in the Early Paleozoic time.

  18. The Early Paleozoic Tiefosi syn-collisional granite in the northern Dabie Orogen: Geochronological and geochemical constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JinYang; MA ChangQian; SHE ZhenBing; ZHANG XiangGuo; ZHOU HongSheng


    The Tiefosi granitic pluton is located 5 km northwest of Xinyang City, northern Dabie Orogen, and was emplaced in the Proterozoic Qinling Group. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating suggests its crystallization at 436±11 Ma. It is composed of monzogranite and syenogranite containing some amounts of muscovite and few mafic minerals. The rocks are characterized by high and restricted SiO2 content, low FeO, Fe2O3and MgO contents, high K2O/Na2O ratio, and display high-K calc-alkaline and peraluminous (ACNK>1.1)characteristics. They are generally enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSE). They can be divided into three groups in light of rare earth elements (REE) and trace elements. Group Ⅰ is moderate in ∑REE and characterized by the absence of Eu anom aly, high (La/Yb)N ratio, and moderate Rb/Sr and Rb/Ba ratios. Group Ⅱ has moderately negative Eu anomaly, low (La/Yb)N ratio and high ∑REE contents, Rb/Sr and Rb/Ba ratios. Group Ⅲ displays positive Eu anomaly, moderate (La/Yb)N ratio, and low ∑REE, Rb/Sr and Rb/Ba ratios. The calculated εNd(440Ma)values of the rocks vary from -8.8 to -9.9 and Nd depleted mantle model ages are about 2.0 Ga, which resemble those of the paragneisses from the Qinling Group. The results indicate that the Tiefosi granite is crust-derived, syn-collisional S-type granite. Generation of Group Ⅰ was related to low degree melting of the Qinling Group, while Group Ⅱ was formed by fractionational crystallization of plagioclase from Group Ⅰ magmas, and Group Ⅲ resulted possibly from magma mingling with plagioclase cumulates.The Tiefosi granite was formed within crustal level related to the collision between the North China and South China blocks in the Early Paleozoic time.

  19. Syn- and Post-Accretionary Structures in the Neoproterozoic Central Allaqi-Heiani Suture Zone, Southeastern Egypt (United States)

    Abdeen, M. M.; Abdelghaffar, A. A.


    The Allaqi-Heiani suture (AHS) is the western part of the main Allaqi-Heiani-Gerf-Onib-Sol Hamed-Yanbu suture and represents one of the Neoproterozoic, arc-arc sutures in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). It separates the ca. 750 Ma South Eastern Desert terrane in the north from the ca. 830-720 Ma Gabgaba terrane in the south. The AHS is a deformed belt of ophiolitic rocks, syn-tectonic granitoids and metasediments. The central AHS zone is divided into three structural domains. The western domain (Ι) is characterized by NNE low thrusts and SSW-vergent folds. The central domain (ΙΙ) includes upright tight to isoclinal NNW-SSE oriented folds and transpressional faults. The eastern domain (ΙΙΙ) shows NNW-SSE oriented open folds. Structural analysis indicates that the area has a poly-phase deformation history involving at least two events. Event D1 was an N-S to NNE-SSW regional shortening generating the SSW-verging folds and the NNE dipping thrusts. Event D2 was an ENE-WSW shortening producing NNW-SSE oriented folds in the central and eastern parts of the study area and reactivating older thrusts with oblique-slip reverse fault movement. The tectonic evolution of the area involves two episodes of collision: an early collision between the South Eastern Desert terrane and the Gabgaba terrane along the AHS after the consumption of a basin floored by oceanic crust above a north-dipping subduction zone; and a later collision between East- and West-Gondwanas at ca. 750-650 Ma, leading to the closure of the Mozambique Ocean. This collision deformed the AHS along N-S trending shortening zones and produced NW-SE and NE-SW oriented sinistral and dextral transpressional faults, respectively. The early collision episode is related to the terrane accretion during the early Pan-African orogen, while the later phase is related to a late Pan-African or Najd orogen.

  20. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the internal zone of the Pan-African Lufilian orogenic belt (Zambia): Implications for crustal reworking and syn-orogenic uranium mineralizations (United States)

    Eglinger, Aurélien; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; André-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Goncalves, Philippe; Zeh, Armin; Durand, Cyril; Deloule, Etienne


    The internal zone of the Pan-African Lufilian orogenic belt (Zambia) hosts a dozen uranium occurrences mostly located within kyanite micaschists in a shear zone marking the contact between metasedimentary rocks attributed to the Katanga Neoproterozoic sedimentary sequence and migmatites coring domes developed dominantly at the expense of the pre-Neoproterozoic basement. The P-T-t-d paths reconstructed for these rocks combining field observations, microstructural analysis, metamorphic petrology and thermobarometry and geochronology indicate that they have recorded burial and exhumation during the Pan-African orogeny. Both units of the Katanga metasedimentary sequence and pre-Katanga migmatitic basement have underwent minimum peak P-T conditions of ~ 9-11 kbar and ~ 640-660 °C, dated at ca. 530 Ma by garnet-whole rock Lu-Hf isochrons. This suggests that this entire continental segment has been buried up to a depth of 40-50 km with geothermal gradients of 15-20 ° 1 during the Pan-African orogeny and the formation of the West Gondwana supercontinent. Syn-orogenic exhumation of the partially molten root of the Lufilian belt is attested by isothermal decompression under P-T conditions of ~ 6-8 kbar at ca. 530-500 Ma, witnessing an increase of the geothermal gradients to 25-30 °C·km- 1. Uranium mineralizations that consist of uraninite and brannerite took place at temperatures ranging from ~ 600 to 700 °C, and have been dated at ca. 540-530 Ma by U-Pb ages on uraninite. The main uranium deposition thus occurred at the transition from the syn-orogenic burial to the syn-orogenic exhumation stages and has been then partially transposed and locally remobilized during the post-orogenic exhumation accommodated by activation of low-angle extensional detachment.

  1. Alteration of Polyketide Stereochemistry from anti to syn by a Ketoreductase Domain Exchange in a Type I Modular Polyketide Synthase Subunit. (United States)

    Eng, Clara H; Yuzawa, Satoshi; Wang, George; Baidoo, Edward E K; Katz, Leonard; Keasling, Jay D


    Polyketide natural products have broad applications in medicine. Exploiting the modular nature of polyketide synthases to alter stereospecificity is an attractive strategy for obtaining natural product analogues with altered pharmaceutical properties. We demonstrate that by retaining a dimerization element present in LipPks1+TE, we are able to use a ketoreductase domain exchange to alter α-methyl group stereochemistry with unprecedented retention of activity and simultaneously achieve a novel alteration of polyketide product stereochemistry from anti to syn. The substrate promiscuity of LipPks1+TE further provided a unique opportunity to investigate the substrate dependence of ketoreductase activity in a polyketide synthase module context.

  2. Chemical communication in termites: syn-4,6-dimethylundecan-1-ol as trail-following pheromone, syn-4,6-dimethylundecanal and (5E)-2,6,10-trimethylundeca-5,9-dienal as the respective male and female sex pheromones in Hodotermopsis sjoestedti (Isoptera, Archotermopsidae). (United States)

    Lacey, Michael J; Sémon, Etienne; Krasulová, Jana; Sillam-Dussès, David; Robert, Alain; Cornette, Richard; Hoskovec, Michal; Záček, Petr; Valterová, Irena; Bordereau, Christian


    The trail-following pheromone and sex pheromones were investigated in the Indomalayan termite Hodotermopsis sjoestedti belonging to the new family Archotermopsidae. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after solid phase microextraction (SPME) of the sternal gland secretion of pseudergates and trail-following bioassays demonstrated that the trail-following pheromone of H. sjoestedti was syn-4,6-dimethylundecan-1-ol, a new chemical structure for termite pheromones. GC-MS after SPME of the sternal gland secretion of alates also allowed the identification of sex-specific compounds. In female alates, the major sex-specific compound was identified as (5E)-2,6,10-trimethylundeca-5,9-dienal, a compound previously identified as the female sex pheromone of the termite Zootermopsis nevadensis. In male alates, the major sex-specific compound was identified as syn-4,6-dimethylundecanal, a homolog of syn-4,6-dimethyldodecanal, which has previously been confirmed as the male sex pheromone of Z. nevadensis. The presence of sex-specific compounds in alates of H. sjoestedti strongly suggests for this termite the presence of sex-specific pairing pheromones which were only known until now in Z. nevadensis. Our results showed therefore a close chemical relationship between the pheromones of the taxa Hodotermopsis and Zootermopsis and, in contrast, a clear difference with the taxa Stolotermes and Porotermes, which is in total agreement with the recent creation of the families Archotermopsidae and Stolotermitidae as a substitute for the former family Termopsidae.

  3. SynPAnal: software for rapid quantification of the density and intensity of protein puncta from fluorescence microscopy images of neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Danielson

    Full Text Available Continuous modification of the protein composition at synapses is a driving force for the plastic changes of synaptic strength, and provides the fundamental molecular mechanism of synaptic plasticity and information storage in the brain. Studying synaptic protein turnover is not only important for understanding learning and memory, but also has direct implication for understanding pathological conditions like aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and psychiatric disorders. Proteins involved in synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity are typically concentrated at synapses of neurons and thus appear as puncta (clusters in immunofluorescence microscopy images. Quantitative measurement of the changes in puncta density, intensity, and sizes of specific proteins provide valuable information on their function in synaptic transmission, circuit development, synaptic plasticity, and synaptopathy. Unfortunately, puncta quantification is very labor intensive and time consuming. In this article, we describe a software tool designed for the rapid semi-automatic detection and quantification of synaptic protein puncta from 2D immunofluorescence images generated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The software, dubbed as SynPAnal (for Synaptic Puncta Analysis, streamlines data quantification for puncta density and average intensity, thereby increases data analysis throughput compared to a manual method. SynPAnal is stand-alone software written using the JAVA programming language, and thus is portable and platform-free.

  4. Forceful Emplacement of Granitic Plutons in an Extensional Tectonic Setting: Syn-kinematic Plutons in the Yagan-Onch Hayrhan Metamorphic Core Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 郑亚东; 李天兵; 高永军; 马铭波


    It is generally considered that granitic plutons are forcefully emplaced in a compressional setting and permissively emplaced in an extensional setting. This paper, however, shows that syn-kinematic (extensional) elliptic granitic plutons in the Yagan-Onch Hayrhan metamorphic core complex (MCC) have relatively strong forceful emplacement, which are indicated by (1) concentric distribution of the rock units, (2) a strain pattern with strong strains on the margins and low strains at the centre of a pluton, and particularly (3) syn-emplacement shortening of the host rocks within the aureole. The strain analysis for the host rocks shows that the host-rock ductile shortening, I.e. Forceful emplacement, provides about 16?24% of the emplacement space for the present plutons. All these suggest that forceful emplacement occurs not only in a compressional tectonic setting, but also in an extensional setting. This study further demonstrates the significance of the multiple emplacement of granitic plutons and provides new information about the causality between granitic magmatism and the formation of the MCC and its dynamics.

  5. Fluid systems and fracture development during syn-depositional fold growth: An example from the Pico del Aguila anticline, Sierras Exteriores, southern Pyrenees, Spain (United States)

    Beaudoin, Nicolas; Huyghe, Damien; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Lacombe, Olivier; Emmanuel, Laurent; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Ouanhnon, Laure


    This paper reports an integrated, spatio-temporal analysis of the fracture-controlled paleo-fluid system in the Pico del Aguila anticline, a N-S trending fold located in the Sierras Exteriores, the southern front of the Spanish Pyrenees. Eight fracture sets (joints or faults) are recognized throughout the fold and are separated into a fracture sequence that is defined using field relationships and the remarkable temporal constraints offered by the syn-tectonic sedimentary deposits. This fracture sequence records a complex Paleocene to Early Oligocene structural evolution, including map-view, clockwise rotation and tilting of the fold axis. The geochemical analysis of calcite cements from the different mineralized fracture/vein sets reveals a compartmentalized fluid system during most of fold development. This initial paleofluid system was later perturbed when bending-related fractures associated with foreland flexure and outer arc extension triggered small-scale, vertical fluid migration. Fractures developed in shallow strata facilitated downward migration of surficial fluids that controlled the paleo-fluid system in the Late Priabonian/Stampian continental deposits. The study of the Pico del Aguila anticline depicts for the first time the evolution of a fluid system in a shallow, syn-depositional compressional setting, and results further strengthen the statement that fluids migrate vertically across stratigraphic boundaries take place during fold hinge-related deformation.

  6. U Pb dating of the end of the Pan-African orogeny in the Tuareg shield: the post-collisional syn-shear Tioueine pluton (Western Hoggar, Algeria) (United States)

    Paquette, J. L.; Caby, R.; Djouadi, M. T.; Bouchez, J. L.


    The Tioueine pluton intrudes the Neoproterozoic series of the Iskel terrane, located in the Tuareg shield, western Hoggar. The consistency of the internal structures as well as the nature and organization of the associated microstructures demonstrate that the Tioueine pluton was emplaced syn-kinematically while N-S strike-slip shear zones were active. The syn-tectonic emplacement of the Tioueine massif implies that this pluton, although belatedly crystallized, entirely belongs to the concept of post-collisional magmatism. In order to date precisely the late Pan-African tectono-metamorphic event in the studied area, an U-Pb age of 523±1 Ma was obtained from abraded zircons of a late quartz-syenite from the Tioueine pluton. This early Cambrian age is younger than the other plutons of the Tuareg shield, which were mainly emplaced between 630 Ma and 580 Ma. This dating also shows that the Tuareg shield was not a single coherent block at 525 Ma, but rather an amalgam of active terranes moving each other along major shear zones. Finally, the Tioueine massif represents probably the final welding of the Tuareg shield assembly of terranes and consequently the end of the post-collisional orogenic episode in the whole Pan-African belt.

  7. Conditional transgenic mice expressing C-terminally truncated human α-synuclein (αSyn119 exhibit reduced striatal dopamine without loss of nigrostriatal pathway dopaminergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flint Beal M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Missense mutations and multiplications of the α-synuclein gene cause autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD. α-Synuclein protein is also a major component of Lewy bodies, the hallmark pathological inclusions of PD. Therefore, α-synuclein plays an important role in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic PD. To model α-synuclein-linked disease in vivo, transgenic mouse models have been developed that express wild-type or mutant human α-synuclein from a variety of neuronal-selective heterologous promoter elements. These models exhibit a variety of behavioral and neuropathological features resembling some aspects of PD. However, an important deficiency of these models is the observed lack of robust or progressive nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal degeneration that is characteristic of PD. Results We have developed conditional α-synuclein transgenic mice that can express A53T, E46K or C-terminally truncated (1–119 human α-synuclein pathological variants from the endogenous murine ROSA26 promoter in a Cre recombinase-dependent manner. Using these mice, we have evaluated the expression of these α-synuclein variants on the integrity and viability of nigral dopaminergic neurons with age. Expression of A53T α-synuclein or truncated αSyn119 selectively in nigrostriatal pathway dopaminergic neurons for up to 12 months fails to precipitate dopaminergic neuronal loss in these mice. However, αSyn119 expression in nigral dopaminergic neurons for up to 12 months causes a marked reduction in the levels of striatal dopamine and its metabolites together with other subtle neurochemical alterations. Conclusion We have developed and evaluated novel conditional α-synuclein transgenic mice with transgene expression directed selectively to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons as a potential new mouse model of PD. Our data support the pathophysiological relevance of C-terminally truncated α-synuclein species in vivo. The

  8. Ungdomar, mat och träning: En studie om ungdomars medvetenhet, kunskap och syn på kost och näring


    Moberg, Kajsa; Lindskog, Emma


    Idrott är en populär aktivitet bland Sveriges ungdomar. Eftersom det under tonåren krävs extra mycket energi och näring har många ungdomar svårt att få i sig tillräckliga mängder, och en orsak är okunskap bland de tränande individerna. Syftet var att undersöka idrottande ungdomars syn på mat och måltider, medvetenheten om kostens betydelse för prestationen och vilka informationskällor ungdomarna använder samt kunskapsnivån i grundläggande kost- och näringslära. Studien genomfördes genom en we...

  9. SynQor的52.5V半砖型DC/DC转换器适用于局域网供电

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    SYnQor公司日前宣布推出一款单输出隔离式DC/DC转换器。该产品适于通过局域网、IP电话和隔离式总线电压供电应用。这款标准半砖型模块属于PowerQor Tera系列.它的输出电压为525V.输出功率为200W.是一款采用同步整流和专利布局技术的开放式架结构转换器,满负载效率可达92%.散热性能好。

  10. Property study of poly nitro compounds of cis-syn-cis-2, 6-dioxodecahydro-lH, 5H-diimidazo [4, 5-b: 4', 5'-e] pyrazine (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Zhibin; Xu, Yudong; Xu, Liang; Meng, Zihui


    Poly nitro group substituted cis-syn-cis-2, 6-dioxodecahydro-lH, 5H-diimidazo [4, 5-b: 4', 5'-e] pyrazine derivatives are synthesized by modified method and adequately characterized. All compounds have good performance both in density (ρ> 1.85 g/cm3) and high detonation velocity (vD > 8800 m/s, calculated). Some representative compounds, for example, 4 (vD: 9405 ms-1; P: 41.6 GPa) and 5 (vD:9781 ms-1; P: 45.6 GPa) exhibit excellent detonation performances, which are comparable with current energetic compounds such as RDX (vD: 8724 ms-1; P: 35.2 GPa) and HMX (vD:9059 ms-1; P: 39.2 GPa). Considering the sensitivity increasing with the number of nitro group, two componds with tetranitro groups (2 and 3) are worthy of deep research.

  11. 3-D ore body modeling and structural settings of syn-to late orogenic Variscan hydrothermal mineralization, Siegerland district, Rhenish Massif, NW Germany (United States)

    Peters, Meike; Hellmann, André; Meyer, Franz Michael


    The Siegerland district is located in the fold-and thrust-belt of the Rhenish Massif and hosts diverse syn-to late orogenic mineralization styles. Peak-metamorphism and deformation occurred at 312-316±10 Ma (Ahrendt et al., 1978) at temperature-pressure conditions of 280-320°C and 0.7-1.4 kbar (Hein, 1993). In addition to syn-orogenic siderite-quartz mineralization at least four different syn-to late orogenic mineralization stages are identified comprising Co-Ni-Cu-Au, Pb-Zn-Cu, Sb-Au, and hematite-digenite-bornite ores (Hellmann et al., 2012). The earliest type of syn-orogenic ore mineralization is formed by siderite-quartz veins, trending N-S, E-W and NE-SW. The vein systems are closely related to fold and reverse fault geometries (Hellmann et al., 2012). The most important structural feature is the first-order Siegen main reverse fault showing an offset into three major faults (Peters et al., 2012). The structural control on ore formation is demonstrated by the Co-Ni-Cu-Au mineralization generally hosted by NE-ENE trending reverse faults and associated imbrication zones that have reactivated the older siderite-quartz veins. In this study, we developed a 3-D model of the Alte Buntekuh ore bodies in the Siegerland district, using Datamine Studio3 to investigate the structural setting of Co-Ni-Cu-Au mineralization. The salient structural and spatial data for the 3-D model were taken from old mine level plans as well as from geological and topographical maps. The ore bodies are located immediately in the hanging wall of the southern branch of the Siegen main reverse fault (Peters et al., 2012). From the model it becomes obvious, that the earlier siderite-quartz veins, dipping steeply to the NW, are cross-cut and segmented by oppositely dipping oblique reverse faults. Individual ore body segments are rotated and displaced, showing a plunge direction to the SW. The 3-D model further reveals the presence of hook-like, folded vein arrays, highly enriched in cobalt

  12. A double chain reversal loop and two diagonal loops define the architecture of a unimolecular DNA quadruplex containing a pair of stacked G(syn)-G(syn)-G(anti)-G(anti) tetrads flanked by a G-(T-T) Triad and a T-T-T triple. (United States)

    Kuryavyi, V; Majumdar, A; Shallop, A; Chernichenko, N; Skripkin, E; Jones, R; Patel, D J


    The architecture of G-G-G-G tetrad-aligned DNA quadruplexes in monovalent cation solution is dependent on the directionality of the four strands, which in turn are defined by loop connectivities and the guanine syn/anti distribution along individual strands and within individual G-G-G-G tetrads. The smallest unimolecular G-quadruplex belongs to the d(G2NnG2NnG2NnG2) family, which has the potential to form two stacked G-tetrads linked by Nn loop connectivities. Previous studies have focused on the thrombin-binding DNA aptamer d(G2T2G2TGTG2T2G2), where Nn was T2 for the first and third connecting loops and TGT for the middle connecting loop. This DNA aptamer in K(+) cation solution forms a unimolecular G-quadruplex stabilized by two stacked G(syn)-G(anti)-G(syn)-G(anti) tetrads, adjacent strands which are antiparallel to each other and edge-wise connecting T2, TGT and T2 loops. We now report on the NMR-based solution structure of the d(G2T4G2CAG2GT4G2T) sequence, which differs from the thrombin-binding DNA aptamer sequence in having longer first (T4) and third (GT4) loops and a shorter (CA) middle loop. This d(G2T4G2CAG2GT4G2T) sequence in Na(+) cation solution forms a unimolecular G-quadruplex stabilized by two stacked G(syn)-G(syn)-G(anti)-G(anti) tetrads, adjacent strands which have one parallel and one antiparallel neighbors and distinct non-edge-wise loop connectivities. Specifically, the longer first (T4) and third (GT4) loops are of the diagonal type while the shorter middle loop is of the double chain reversal type. In addition, the pair of stacked G-G-G-G tetrads are flanked on one side by a G-(T-T) triad and on the other side by a T-T-T triple. The distinct differences in strand directionalities, loop connectivities and syn/anti distribution within G-G-G-G tetrads between the thrombin-binding DNA aptamer d(G2T2G2TGTG2T2G2) quadruplex reported previously, and the d(G2T4G2CAG2GT4G2T) quadruplex reported here, reinforces the polymorphic nature of higher

  13. Time span of plutonism, fabric development, and cooling in a Neoproterozoic magmatic arc segment: U Pb age constraints from syn-tectonic plutons, Sark, Channel Islands, UK (United States)

    Miller, Brent V.; Samson, Scott D.; D'Lemos, Richard S.


    New U-Pb zircon and titanite dates from syn-tectonic plutons on the British Channel Island of Sark constrain the time span of plutonism, fabric development, and cooling in this part of the Neoproterozoic Cadomian magmatic arc. The Tintageu leucogneiss is a mylonitic unit that was dated previously at 615.6 +4.2-2.3 Ma. The Port du Moulin quartz diorite, which intruded the Tintageu unit, contains a high-strain solid-state deformation fabric that is less intense than, but parallel to, fabrics in the leucogneiss and yields a U-Pb zircon date of 613.5 +2.3-1.5 Ma. The Little Sark quartz diorite also displays solid-state deformation fabrics in addition to relict magmatic textures, and yields a U-Pb zircon date of 611.4 +2.1-1.3 Ma. The North Sark granodiorite is largely penetratively undeformed, exhibits mainly magmatic fabrics and textures and has a U-Pb zircon date of 608.7 +1.1-1.0 Ma. Two fractions of titanite from each intrusion are essentially concordant and are identical within error, with mean dates of 606.5±0.4 Ma (Port du Moulin quartz diorite), 606.2±0.6 Ma (Little Sark quartz diorite), 606.4±0.6 Ma (North Sark granodiorite). The new U-Pb data, in combination with previous U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar data and previous field studies, confirm the syn-tectonic nature of the Sark plutons and quantify the time span (ca. 7 m.y.) required for intrusion and sufficient crystallization of each body to record incremental strain during waning deformation. Titanite U-Pb and hornblende 40Ar/ 39Ar dates mark final cooling about 2 m.y. after intrusion of the last pluton.

  14. Thermolytic Behavior of 4-Fold Bridged syn-Tricyclo[,5)]octa-3,7-dienes. (United States)

    Brand, Stefan; Gleiter, Rolf


    The syntheses of the 4-fold-bridged compounds syn-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12-dodecahydro-8b,12b-butanobenzo[3',4']cyclobuta[1',2':3,4]cyclobuta[1,2-e]biphenylene (7), syn-1,4,5,8,9,12-hexahydro-8b,12b-(but-3-eno)benzo[3',4']cyclobuta[1',2':3,4]cyclobuta[1,2-e]biphenylene (8), and 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15-tetradecahydro-10b,15b-pentano-1H-cyclobuta[1",2":2,3;3",4":3',4']dicyclobuta[1,2:3,4:1',2']triscycloheptene (9) have been achieved starting from the cyclic diynes 10-12. Heating 7 and 8 at 200 degrees C without solvent leads to 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12-dodecahydro-8b,12b-butanobenzo[3,4]cyclobuta[1,2-l]phenanthrene (18) and 1,4,5,8,9,12-hexahydro-8b,12b-(but-3-eno)benzo[3,4]cyclobuta[1,2-l]phenanthrene (19). Both systems contain a bridged bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-2,4,7-triene skeleton. The thermolysis of 9 yields (Delta(5a,5b;10a,11;11a,16a;17,17a))-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,12,13,14,15,16-tetradecahydro-11,17-pentano-1H-triscyclohepta[a,c,f]cyclooctene (20), a 4-fold-bridged cyclooctatetraene derivative. Treatment of 8 with DDQ leads to the dehydrogenation products 21 and 22. The different behavior in the thermolysis of 7 and 8 as compared to 9 is ascribed to the different lengths of the bridges.

  15. Hybrid macrocycle formation and spiro annulation on cis-syn-cis-tricyclo[,6]undeca-3,11-dione and its congeners via ring-closing metathesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivarao Kotha


    Full Text Available We have developed a simple methodology to transform cis-syn-cis-triquinane derivative 2 into the diindole based macrocycle 6 involving Fischer indolization and ring-closing metathesis (RCM. Various spiro-polyquinane derivatives have been assembled via RCM as a key step.

  16. A new synthesis of enantiomerically pure syn-(S)-β-hydroxy-α-amino acids via asymmetric aldol reactions of aldehydes with a homochiral Ni(II)-glycine/(S)-BPB Schiff base complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belokon, Yuri N.; Kochetkov, Konstantin A.; Ikonnikov, Nikolai S.; Strelkova, Tatiana V.; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Saghiyan, Ashot S.


    syn-(S)-β-Hydroxy-α-amino acids were synthesised stereoselectively via elaboration of the asymmetric aldol reactions of aldehydes with a chiral Ni(II)-(S)-BPB/glycine Schiff base complex in the presence of equimolar NaH in THF. The stereoselectivity of the reaction was studied as a function of time,

  17. Phosphorylation of synaptic GTPase-activating protein (synGAP) by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) alters the ratio of its GAP activity toward Ras and Rap GTPases. (United States)

    Walkup, Ward G; Washburn, Lorraine; Sweredoski, Michael J; Carlisle, Holly J; Graham, Robert L; Hess, Sonja; Kennedy, Mary B


    synGAP is a neuron-specific Ras and Rap GTPase-activating protein (GAP) found in high concentrations in the postsynaptic density (PSD) fraction from the mammalian forebrain. We have previously shown that, in situ in the PSD fraction or in recombinant form in Sf9 cell membranes, synGAP is phosphorylated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), another prominent component of the PSD. Here, we show that recombinant synGAP (r-synGAP), lacking 102 residues at the N terminus, can be purified in soluble form and is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) as well as by CaMKII. Phosphorylation of r-synGAP by CaMKII increases its HRas GAP activity by 25% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 76%. Conversely, phosphorylation by CDK5 increases r-synGAP's HRas GAP activity by 98% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 20%. Thus, phosphorylation by both kinases increases synGAP activity; CaMKII shifts the relative GAP activity toward inactivation of Rap1, and CDK5 shifts the relative activity toward inactivation of HRas. GAP activity toward Rap2 is not altered by phosphorylation by either kinase. CDK5 phosphorylates synGAP primarily at two sites, Ser-773 and Ser-802. Phosphorylation at Ser-773 inhibits r-synGAP activity, and phosphorylation at Ser-802 increases it. However, the net effect of concurrent phosphorylation of both sites, Ser-773 and Ser-802, is an increase in GAP activity. synGAP is phosphorylated at Ser-773 and Ser-802 in the PSD fraction, and its phosphorylation by CDK5 and CaMKII is differentially regulated by activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors in cultured neurons. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. A new approach in the monitoring of the phytosanitary conditions of forests: the case of oak and beech stands in the Sicilian Regional Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Rizza


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the health conditions of oak and beech stands in the three Regional Parks of Sicily (Etna, Madonie and Nebrodi. A total of 81 sampling areas were investigated, 54 in oak stands and 27 in beech stands. The phytosanitary conditions of each tree within the respective sampling area was expressed with a synthetic index namely phytosanitary class (PC. Oak stands showed severe symptoms of decline, with 85% of the sampling areas including symptomatic trees. In general, beech stands were in better condition, with the exception of Nebrodi Park, where trees showed severe symptoms of decline. On oak trees, infections of fungal pathogens were also observed, including Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Polyporus sp., Fistulina hepatica, Mycrosphaera alphitoides and Armillaria sp. By contrast, on beech trees Biscogniauxia nummularia, Fomes fomentarius and Neonectria radicicola were recognized. Furthermore, twenty-two permanent sampling areas were delimited with the aim of monitoring regularly the health conditions of forests in these three parks.

  19. Syn- and post-eruptive erosion, gully formation, and morphological evolution of a tephra ring in tropical climate erupted in 1913 in West Ambrym, Vanuatu (United States)

    Németh, Károly; Cronin, Shane J.


    Syn- and post-eruptive erosion of volcanic cones plays an important role in mass redistribution of tephra over short periods. Descriptions of the early stages of erosion of tephra from monogenetic volcanic cones are rare, particularly those with a well-constrained timing of events. In spite of this lack of data, cone morphologies and erosion features are commonly used for long-term erosion-rate calculations and relative age determinations in volcanic fields. This paper offers new observations which suggest differing constraints on the timing of erosion of a tephra ring may be operating than those conventionally cited. In 1913 a tephra ring was formed as part of an eruption in west Ambrym Island, Vanuatu and is now exposed along a continuous 2.5 km long coastal section. The ring surrounds an oval shaped depression filled by water. It is composed of a succession of a phreatomagmatic fall and base-surge beds, interbedded with thin scoriaceous lapilli units. Toward the outer edges of the ring, base-surge beds are gradually replaced in the succession by fine ash-dominated debris flows and hyperconcentrated flow deposits. The inter-fingering of phreatomagmatic deposits with syn-volcanic reworked volcaniclastic sediments indicates that an ongoing remobilisation of freshly deposited tephra was already occurring during the eruption. Gullies cut into the un-weathered tephra are up to 4 m deep and commonly have c. 1 m of debris flow deposit fill in their bases. There is no indication of weathering, vegetation fragments or soil development between the gully bases and the basal debris flow fills. Gully walls are steep and superficial fans of collapsed sediment are common. Most gullies are heavily vegetated although some active (ephemeral) channels occur. These observations suggest that the majority of the erosion of such tephra rings in tropical climates takes place directly during eruption and possibly for only a period of days to weeks afterward. After establishment of the

  20. Genesis and evolution of a syn-orogenic basin in transpression: Insights from petrography, geochemistry and Sm Nd systematics in the Variscan Pedroches basin (Mississippian, SW Iberia) (United States)

    Armendáriz, Maider; López-Guijarro, Rafael; Quesada, Cecilio; Pin, Christian; Bellido, Félix


    The Pedroches basin is an outstanding syn-orogenic Variscan (Mississippian) depocenter, located in the vicinity of, and overstepping onto the Neoproterozoic (Cadomian) suture between the Ossa Morena and Central Iberian zones of the SW Iberian Massif. Its formation appears to be related to transtensional processes at a major releasing bend in the reactivated suture during sinistral escape of the Ossa Morena Zone from the zone of frontal Variscan collision between northern Gondwana and Laurussia. Subsequent basin inversion resulted in compartmentalization and internal deformation, and was probably related to transpression at a restraining bend along the reactivated suture (Badajoz-Córdoba shear zone). Basin fill consists of both igneous and metasedimentary rocks generally deposited in a shallow marine, storm-dominated platform environment. By using new petrographic, geochemical and Sm-Nd isotopic data, we attempt to characterize: 1) the sources and geological evolution of the Pedroches basin fill, and 2) the processes involved in basin development and sediment supply and dispersal. Sampling was carried out in both sedimentary and igneous rocks belonging to three major structural units within the central part of the basin: Guadiato unit, Guadalbarbo unit and South Pedroches Valley unit. The combined Nd isotopic and geochemical data from the Pedroches Mississippian metasedimentary rocks indicate an upper continental crust provenance and a high degree of sedimentary recycling of these materials throughout the basin; i.e., they are derived from old, recycled upper crust without any significant juvenile component despite the presence of interbedded basaltic rocks. The igneous rocks in turn correspond to submarine basalts and trachy-andesitic basalts plus some hybrid rocks including crust-derived components. Concerning the mafic rocks, major element compositions reveal a tholeiitic and transitional tholeiitic character for the Guadalbarbo unit rocks (MORB type) and an

  1. The high-resolution crystal structure of a parallel intermolecular DNA G-4 quadruplex/drug complex employing syn glycosyl linkages (United States)

    Clark, George R.; Pytel, Patrycja D.; Squire, Christopher J.


    We have determined the X-ray structure of the complex between the DNA quadruplex d(5′-GGGG-3′)4 and daunomycin, as a potential model for studying drug–telomere interactions. The structure was solved at 1.08 Å by direct methods in space group I4. The asymmetric unit comprises a linear arrangement of one d(GGGG) strand, four daunomycin molecules, a second d(GGGG) strand facing in the opposite direction to the first, and Na and Mg cations. The crystallographic 4-fold axis generates the biological unit, which is a 12-layered structure comprising two sets of four guanine layers, with four layers each of four daunomycins stacked between the 5′ faces of the two quadruplexes. The daunomycin layers fall into two groups which are novel in their mode of self assembly. The only contacts between daunomycin molecules within any one of these layers are van der Waals interactions, however there is substantial π–π stacking between successive daunomycin layers and also with adjacent guanine layers. The structure differs significantly from all other parallel d(TGGGGT)4 quadruplexes in that the 5′ guanine adopts the unusual syn glycosyl linkage, refuting the widespread belief that such conformations should all be anti. In contrast to the related d(TGGGGT)/daunomycin complex, there are no ligand–quadruplex groove insertion interactions. PMID:22373921

  2. ATP Sulfurylase is Essential for the Utilization of Sulfamate as a Sulfur Source in the Yeast Komagataella pastoris (syn. Pichia pastoris). (United States)

    Linder, Tomas


    The methylotrophic yeast Komagataella pastoris (syn. Pichia pastoris) is one of the few known yeasts that can utilize sulfamate ([Formula: see text]) as a sulfur source. The biochemical pathway responsible for the catabolism of sulfamate has yet to be identified. The present study sought to investigate whether sulfamate catabolism proceeds through either of the inorganic sulfur intermediates sulfate ([Formula: see text]) or sulfite ([Formula: see text]) before its assimilation and subsequent incorporation into sulfur-containing amino acids and their derivatives. Two key genes in the K. pastoris inorganic sulfur assimilation pathway were deleted separately and the ability of each deletion mutant to utilize sulfamate and other selected sulfur sources was studied. Deletion of the MET3 gene (which encodes the enzyme ATP sulfurylase) did not affect growth on L-methionine, sulfite, methanesulfonate, or taurine but completely abolished growth on sulfate, methyl sulfate and sulfamate. Deletion of the MET5 gene (which encodes the β subunit of the enzyme sulfite reductase) abolished growth on all tested sulfur sources except L-methionine. These results suggest that the catabolism of sulfamate proceeds through a sulfate intermediate before its assimilation.

  3. Tectonic controls on the quality and distribution of Syn- to Post-Rift reservoir sands in the Southern Red Sea, offshore Western Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.M.L. [Petroleum Geologists Group Ltd., Reading (United Kingdom)


    Previous geophysical and drilling results in the southern Red Sea, and the presence of numerous oil seeps, indicate that the syn- to post-rift section is prospective for oil and gas. The relatively high geothermal gradient offshore western Yemen makes intra-salt and post-salt reservoir sands the only viable exploration targets. The quality and distribution of the reservoir sands remains one of the main unknown risk factors, An improved understanding of the controls on deposition of these sands is achieved by use of LandSat data, which provide evidence of a regional tectonic framework involving NE/SW-trending oceanic transform faults which are expressed onshore as strike-slip features, in some cases representing reactivated Precambrian lineaments. These faults are thought to have played two fundamental roles in the Neogene to Recent evolution of the southern Red Sea - firstly by directing clastic input from the rising Yemen Highlands into offshore depocentres, and secondly by influencing the location of salt diapirs sourced by Upper Miocene evaporates. By considering these factors, together with the pattern of heat flow from the developing oceanic rift of the southern Red Sea, it is possible to delineate areas of offshore western Yemen where reservoir characteristics are likely to be most favourable.

  4. The textural record of conduit and syn-eruptive degassing preserved in ballistic bombs from cyclic Vulcanian explosions of Galeras volcano, Colombia (United States)

    Bain, A. A.


    Volcanic bombs preserve textural data that record conduit conditions as well as syn-eruptive processes that acted upon a parcel of magma following decompression. Specifically, these pyroclasts may record several episodes of crystal and bubble growth, as well as bubble coalescence and collapse. Furthermore, bombs retrieved from sequential eruptions provide valuable insight into the unobservable evolution of a volcanic conduit over time. We present results from a morphological and textural study of vesicle size distributions in ballistic bombs from six Vulcanian eruptions from the 2004-2012 period of activity of Galeras volcano, Colombia. These violent eruptions cyclically destroyed and ejected a stalled, degassed and crystal-rich plug and a limited amount of underlying magma. They were followed by resumption of the slow rise of magma in the shallow conduit, accompanied by redevelopment of a plug and the perpetuation of a hazardous cycle. We find that bombs from these eruptions fall into three morphological classes including dense bombs, breadcrusted bombs and vesicular bombs based on the existence or absence of a primary quenched rind and comparison of the interior and exterior vesicularities. We study vesicle populations using image analysis of SEM images followed by stereological conversion to reconstruct the degassing history of each pyroclast. The results of this study will be used to produce a quantitative model of the evolution of porosity, permeability and degassing in the upper conduit of Galeras volcano during the 2004-2012 eruptive episode.

  5. Synthesis of syn- and anti-1-amino-3-[18F]fluoromethyl-cyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FMACBC), potential PET ligands for tumor detection. (United States)

    Martarello, Laurent; McConathy, Jonathan; Camp, Vernon M; Malveaux, Eugene J; Simpson, Nicholas E; Simpson, Chiab P; Olson, Jeffrey J; Bowers, Geoffrey D; Goodman, Mark M


    syn- and anti-1-amino-3-[18F]fluoromethyl-cyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FMACBC, 16 and 17), analogues of anti-1-amino-3-[18F]fluorocyclobutyl-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC), were prepared to evaluate the contributions of C-3 substitution and configuration on the uptake of these radiolabeled amino acids in a rodent model of brain tumors. Radiofluorinated targets [18F]16 and [18F]17 were prepared by no-carrier-added radiofluorination from their corresponding methanesulfonyl esters 12 and 13, respectively, with decay-corrected radiochemical yields of 30% for [18F]16 and 20% for [18F]17. In amino acid transport assays performed in vitro using 9L gliosarcoma cells, both [18F]16 and [18F]17 were substrates for L type amino acid transport, while [18F]17 but not [18F]16 was a substrate for A type transport. Biodistribution studies in normal Fischer rats with [18F]16 and [18F]17 showed high uptake of radioactivity (>2.0% dose/g) in the pancreas while other tissues studied, including liver, heart, lung, kidney, blood, muscle, and testis, showed relatively low uptake of radioactivity (FACBC, [18F]16 and [18F]17 are excellent candidates for imaging brain tumors.

  6. A study of the distribution, structure and seismic stratigraphy of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments in the Faroe sector of the Faroe-Shetland Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olavsdottir, Jana

    Emplacement of the Cenozoic sediments in the Faroese sector of the Faroe-Shetland Basin appear to be controlled by decelerating thermal subsidence of the basin, and local uplift of sediment source areas. However, the actual distribution of sediments appears to be controlled by re-activation of ol......Emplacement of the Cenozoic sediments in the Faroese sector of the Faroe-Shetland Basin appear to be controlled by decelerating thermal subsidence of the basin, and local uplift of sediment source areas. However, the actual distribution of sediments appears to be controlled by re...... is a potential tool understanding deviations from “normal” thermal subsidence and for predicting the prospectivity in syn- and post-rift succession in the Faroe-Shetland Basin. On top of the basalt in the Faroe-Shetland Basin there is deposited up to 3.5 km thick sedimentary package, which led into the basin...... from different directions. With interpretations of 2-D and 3-D reflection seismic data of the post-basalt package it is shown which adjacent areas the various sub-sedimentary packages comes from and where they are located in the basin at specific time intervals. The adjacent areas to the Faroe-Shetland...

  7. The high-resolution crystal structure of a parallel intermolecular DNA G-4 quadruplex/drug complex employing syn glycosyl linkages. (United States)

    Clark, George R; Pytel, Patrycja D; Squire, Christopher J


    We have determined the X-ray structure of the complex between the DNA quadruplex d(5'-GGGG-3')(4) and daunomycin, as a potential model for studying drug-telomere interactions. The structure was solved at 1.08 Å by direct methods in space group I4. The asymmetric unit comprises a linear arrangement of one d(GGGG) strand, four daunomycin molecules, a second d(GGGG) strand facing in the opposite direction to the first, and Na and Mg cations. The crystallographic 4-fold axis generates the biological unit, which is a 12-layered structure comprising two sets of four guanine layers, with four layers each of four daunomycins stacked between the 5' faces of the two quadruplexes. The daunomycin layers fall into two groups which are novel in their mode of self assembly. The only contacts between daunomycin molecules within any one of these layers are van der Waals interactions, however there is substantial π-π stacking between successive daunomycin layers and also with adjacent guanine layers. The structure differs significantly from all other parallel d(TGGGGT)(4) quadruplexes in that the 5' guanine adopts the unusual syn glycosyl linkage, refuting the widespread belief that such conformations should all be anti. In contrast to the related d(TGGGGT)/daunomycin complex, there are no ligand-quadruplex groove insertion interactions.

  8. Diversity and antifungal activity of the endophytic fungi associated with the native medicinal cactus Opuntia humifusa (Cactaceae) from the United States. (United States)

    Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Carvalho, Camila R; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H


    The endophytic fungal community associated with the native cactus Opuntia humifusa in the United States was investigated and its potential for providing antifungal compounds. A hundred-eight endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and identified by molecular methods into 17 different taxa of the genera Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Biscogniauxia, Cladosporium, Cryptococcus, Curvularia, Diaporthe, Epicoccum, Paraconiothyrium, Pestalotiopsis and Phoma. The most frequent species associated with O. humifusa were Alternaria sp. 3, Aureobasidium pullulans and Diaporthe sp. The fungal community of O. humifusa had a high richness and diversity; additionally, the species richness obtained indicates that the sample effort was enough to recover the diversity pattern obtained. Six extracts of endophytes showed antifungal properties and (1)H NMR analyses of the extracts of Alternaria sp. 5 Ohu 8B2, Alternaria sp. 3 Ohu 30A, Cladosporium funiculosum Ohu 17C1 and Paraconiothyrium sp. Ohu 17A indicated the presence of functional groups associated with unsaturated fatty-acid olefinic protons and fatty acid methylene and methyl protons. GC-FID analysis of these extracts confirmed the presence of a mixture of different fatty acids. The (1)H NMR analyses of Biscogniauxia mediterranea Ohu 19B extracts showed the presence of aromatic compounds. From the extract of B. mediterranea we isolated the compound 5-methylmellein that displayed moderate antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Phomopsis obscurans. Our results suggest that native medicinal cacti of the United States can live symbiotically with rich and diverse endophytic communities and may be a source of bioactive molecules, including those able to inhibit or control plant disease pathogens.

  9. The loss of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) during normal aging or from siRNA knockdown augments human alpha-synuclein (α-syn) toxicity to rat nigral neurons. (United States)

    Salganik, Maxim; Sergeyev, Valeriy G; Shinde, Vishal; Meyers, Craig A; Gorbatyuk, Marina S; Lin, Jonathan H; Zolotukhin, Sergey; Gorbatyuk, Oleg S


    Age-related structural changes and gradual loss of key enzymes significantly affect the ability of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to facilitate proper protein folding and maintain homeostasis. In this work, we present several lines of evidence supporting the hypothesis that the age-related decline in expression of the ER chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) could be related to the development of Parkinson's disease. We first determined that old (24 months) rats exhibit significantly lower levels of GRP78 protein in the nigrostriatal system as compared with young (2 months) animals. Then using recombinant adeno-associate virus-mediated gene transfer, we found that GRP78 downregulation by specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) aggravates alpha-synuclein (α-syn) neurotoxicity in nigral dopamine (DA) neurons. Moreover, the degree of chaperone decline corresponds with the severity of neurodegeneration. Additionally, comparative analysis of nigral tissues obtained from old and young rats revealed that aging affects the capacity of nigral DA cells to upregulate endogenous GRP78 protein in response to human α-syn neurotoxicity. Finally, we demonstrated that a sustained increase of GRP78 protein over the course of 9 months protected aging nigral DA neurons in the α-syn-induced rat model of Parkinson's-like neurodegeneration. Our data indicate that the ER chaperone GRP78 may have therapeutic potential for preventing and/or slowing age-related neurodegeneration.

  10. Enhanced Ras activity in pyramidal neurons induces cellular hypertrophy and changes in afferent and intrinsic connectivity in synRas mice. (United States)

    Gärtner, Ulrich; Alpár, Alán; Seeger, Gudrun; Heumann, Rolf; Arendt, Thomas


    Neurotrophic actions are critically controlled and transmitted to cellular responses by the small G protein Ras which is therefore essential for normal functioning and plasticity of the nervous system. The present study summarises findings of recent studies on morphological changes in the neocortex of synRas mice expressing Val12-Ha-Ras in vivo under the control of the rat synapsin I promoter. In the here reported model (introduced by Heumann et al. [J. Cell Biol. 151 (2000) 1537]), transgenic Val12-Ha-Ras expression is confined to the pyramidal cell population and starts postnatally at a time, when neurons are postmitotic and their developmental maturation has been basically completed. Expression of Val12-Ha-Ras results in a significant enlargement of pyramidal neurons. Size, complexity and spine density of dendritic trees are increased, which leads, finally, to cortical expansion. However, the main morphological design principles of 'transgenic' pyramidal cells remain preserved. In addition to somato-dendritic changes, expression of Val12-Ha-Ras in pyramidal cells induces augmented axon calibres and upregulates the establishment of efferent boutons. Despite the enlargement of cortical size, the overall density of terminals representing intra- or interhemispheric, specific and non-specific afferents is unchanged or even higher in transgenic mice suggesting a significant increase in the total afferent input to the neocortex. Although interneurons do not express the transgene and are therefore excluded from direct, intrinsic Val12-Ha-Ras effects, they respond with morphological adaptations to structural changes. Thus, dendritic arbours of interneurons are extended to follow the cortical expansion and basket cells establish a denser inhibitory innervation of 'transgenic' pyramidal cells perikarya. It is concluded that expression of Val12-Ha-Ras in pyramidal neurons results in remodelling of neocortical structuring which strongly implicates a crucial involvement of

  11. Analog modeling and kinematic restoration of inverted hangingwall synclinal basins developed above syn-kinematic salt: Application to the Lusitanian and Parentis basins (United States)

    Roma, Maria; Vidal-Royo, Oskar; McClay, Ken; Ferrer, Oriol; Muñoz, Josep Anton


    The formation of hagingwall syncline basins is basically constrained by the geometry of the basement-involved fault, but also by salt distribution . The formation of such basins is common around the Iberian Peninsula (e.g. Lusitanian, Parentis, Basque-Cantabian, Cameros and Organyà basins) where Upper Triassic (Keuper) salt governed their polyphasic Mesozoic extension and their subsequent Alpine inversion. In this scenario, a precise interpretation of the sub-salt faults geometry and a reconstruction of the initial salt thickness are key to understand the kinematic evolution of such basins. Using an experimental approach (sandbox models) and these Mesozoic basins as natural analogues, the aim of this work is to: 1) investigate the main parameters that controlled the formation and evolution of hagingwall syncline basins analyzing the role of syn-kinematic salt during extension and subsequent inversion; and 2) quantify the deformation and salt mobilization based on restoration of analog model cross sections. The experimental results demonstrate that premature welds are developed by salt deflation with consequent upward propagation of the basal fault in salt-bearing rift systems with a large amount of extension,. In contrast, thicker salt inhibits the upward fault propagation, which results into a further salt migration and development of a hagingwall syncline basins flanked by salt walls. The inherited extensional architecture as well as salt continuity dramatically controlled subsequent inversion. Shortening initially produced the folding and the uplift of the synclinal basins. Minor reverse faults form as a consequence of overtightening of welded diapir stems. However, no trace of reverse faulting is found around diapirs stems, as ductile unit is still available for extrusion, squeezing and accommodation of shortening. Restoration of the sandbox models has demonstrated that this is a powerful tool to unravel the complex structures in the models and this may

  12. Regional comparison of syn- and post-rift sequences in salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter


    The large South Atlantic basins offshore South America and Africa record a highly variable syn- to post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development. The present-day diversity in the structural and sedimentary architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are i) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, ii) the post break-up geodynamic history including tectonics and magmatism, and iii) variations in the type, quantity and distribution of sediment input to the respective margin segment. Particularly the basins around the Rio Grande Rise - Walvis Ridge volcanic complex show a pronounced tectono-stratigraphic asymmetry both along the respective continental margin and across the Atlantic. Only a few attempts exist to establish a regional tectono-stratigraphic correlation framework across the South Atlantic Ocean, mainly because of the lack of data across entire margin segments and limited resolution of basin wide geophysics. Still unresolved issues particularly concern the explanation of the basin-specific geological evolution of respective margin segments along the same continental margin, as well as the correlation of conjugate basins and margin segments across the Atlantic Ocean. In our study we present interpretations and first-pass restorations of regional 2D seismic-reflectivity data from the large basins offshore Brazil (Pelotas Basin, Santos Basin, Campos Basin, Espirito Santo Basin), and offshore Namibia and Angola (Walvis Basin, Namibe Basin, Benguela Basin, Kwanza Basin), which represent four adjacent pairs of conjugate basins on both sides of the South Atlantic. Results are used to document and compare on a basin-scale the contrasting styles of rift and post-rift settings during and after the continental breakup.

  13. Investigating syn- vs. post-eruption hydration mechanisms of the 2012 Havre submarine explosive eruption: Water speciation analysis of pumiceous rhyolitic glass (United States)

    Mitchell, S. J.; McIntosh, I. M.; Houghton, B. F.; Shea, T.; Carey, R.


    Volatiles preserved in volcanic glass can record the quenching, fragmentation and solubility conditions during an explosive eruption. The VEI-5 2012 eruption of Havre volcano, which produced >1.5 km3 of rhyolite, provides exciting new insight into deep-submarine explosive eruptions. With no direct observations of the eruption at the 900 mbsl vent, the analysis and interpretation of volatile concentrations and speciation within pyroclasts is essential to constraining the eruption style and quenching mechanisms in this understudied environment. We present here the first detailed water speciation data for a large submarine explosive eruption. Water concentrations were measured in pyroclasts from known deposit localities across the Havre stratigraphic succession after ROV collection in 2015. Variations in total water concentration (H2OT) within pyroclasts were determined using high spatial resolution (1 - 2 µm) micro-Raman spectroscopy and water speciation (molecular water (H2Om) and OH) concentrations were measured using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. H2OT concentrations are consistent between Raman and FTIR analysis, ranging from 0.1 - 1.5 wt % H2OT over different stratigraphic units. Comparison of water speciation data with speciation models suggests the Havre pyroclasts experienced secondary, non-magmatic hydration. Since OH is unaltered by secondary hydration, OH concentrations aid in the interpretation of quench depths and inferring of eruption mechanisms. The variability of excess H2Om across units suggests a more complex glass-hydration mechanism during the eruption instead of exclusively post-eruption, low-temperature secondary rehydration. The young sample ages are inconsistent with our current understanding of low-temperature H2O-diffusivity timescales, implying faster secondary rehydration in a higher-temperature submarine setting. We here explore potentially novel syn-eruptive, higher-temperature hydration mechanisms for deep-submarine pumice.

  14. High-grade iron ore at Windarling, Yilgarn Craton: a product of syn-orogenic deformation, hypogene hydrothermal alteration and supergene modification in an Archean BIF-basalt lithostratigraphy (United States)

    Angerer, Thomas; Hagemann, Steffen G.; Danyushevsky, Leonid


    Banded iron formation (BIF)-hosted iron ore deposits in the Windarling Range are located in the lower greenstone succession of the Marda-Diemals greenstone belt, Southern Cross domain, Yilgarn Craton and constitute a total hematite-martite-goethite ore resource of minimum 52 Mt at 60 wt.% Fe (0.07 P). Banded iron formation is interlayered with high-Mg basalts at Windarling and precipitated during episodes of volcanic quiescence. Trace element content and the rare earth element (REE) ratios Y/Ho (42 to 45), Sm/Yb (1.5), together with positive La and Gd anomalies in `least-altered' hematite-magnetite-metachert-BIF indicate the precipitation from Archean seawater that was fertilised by hydrothermal vent fluids with a basaltic HREE-Y signature. Hypogene iron ore in sub-greenschist facies metamorphosed BIF formed during three distinct stages: ore stage 1 was a syn- to post-metamorphic, syn-D1, Fe-Ca-Mg-Ni-Co-P-REE metasomatism that produced local Ni-REE-rich Fe-dolomite-magnetite alteration in BIF. Hydrothermal alteration was induced by hot fluid flow controlled by brittle-ductile reactivation of BIF-basalt margins and crosscutting D1 faults. The Ni-Co-rich content of dolomite and a shift in REE ratios in carbonate-altered BIF towards Archean mafic rock signature (Y/Ho to 31 to 40, Sm/Yb to 1 to 2 and Gd/Gd* to 1.2 to 1.4) suggest that high-Mg basalts in the Windarling Range were the primary source of introduced metals. During ore stage 2, a syn-deformational and likely acidic and oxidised fluid flow along BIF-basalt margins and within D1 faults leached carbonate and precipitated lepidoblastic and anhedral/granoblastic hematite. High-grade magnetite-hematite ore is formed during this stage. Ore stage 3 hydrothermal specular hematite (spcH)-Fe-dolomite-quartz alteration was controlled by a late-orogenic, brittle, compressional/transpressional stage (D4; the regional-scale shear-zone-related D3 is not preserved in Windarling). This minor event remobilised iron oxides

  15. Syn-convergence extension in the southern Lhasa terrane: Evidence from late Cretaceous adakitic granodiorite and coeval gabbroic-dioritic dykes (United States)

    Ma, Xuxuan; Xu, Zhiqin; Meert, Joseph G.


    Late Cretaceous (∼100-80 Ma) magmatism in the Gangdese magmatic belt plays a pivotal role in understanding the evolutionary history and tectonic regime of the southern Lhasa terrane. The geodynamic process for the formation of the early Late Cretaceous magmatism has long been an issue of hot debates. Here, petrology, geochronology and geochemistry of early Late Cretaceous granodiorite and coeval gabbroic-dioritic dykes in the Caina region, southern Lhasa, were investigated in an effort to ascertain their petrogenesis, age of intrusion, magma mixing and tectonic setting. Zircon U-Pb dating of granodiorite yields 206Pb/238U ages of 85.8 ± 1.7 and 86.4 ± 1.1 Ma, whilst that of the E-W trending dykes yields ages of 82.7 ± 2.6 and 83.5 ± 3.5 Ma. Within error, the crystallization ages of the dykes and the granodiorite are indistinguishable. Field observations and mineralogical microstructures are suggestive of a magma mixing process during the formation of the dykes and the granodiorite. The granodiorite exhibits geochemical features that are in agreement with those of subduction-related high-SiO2 adakites. The granodiorite and dykes have relatively constant εNd(t) values of +2.2 to +4.9 and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7045-0.7047). These similar characteristics are herein interpreted as an evolutionary series from the dykes to granodiorite, consistent with magma mixing process. Ti-in-zircon thermometer and Al-in-hornblende barometer indicate that the granodiorite and the dioritic dyke crystallized at temperatures of ca. 750 and 800 °C, depths of ca. 6-10 and 5-9 km, respectively. Taking into account the synchronous magmatic rocks in the Gangdese Belt and the coeval rifted basin within the Lhasa terrane, the granodiorite and dykes reveal an early Late Cretaceous syn-convergence extensional regime in the southern Lhasa terrane, triggered by slab rollback of the Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere.

  16. Petrology of HP/LT metapelitic rocks of an accretionary wedge, the Central Pontides, Turkey: evidence for tectonic stacking and syn-subduction exhumation (United States)

    Aygül, Mesut; Okay, Aral; Oberhänsli, Roland


    Cretaceous HP/LT chloritoid-bearing metapelitic rocks crop out widely in the central part of the Pontides, northern Turkey. They are associated with eclogite to blueschist-facies metabasites and represent deep levels of an underplated subduction-accretion complex, which is tectonically overlain by low-grade HP phyllite/metasandstone intercalation along an extensional shear zone. Close to the shear zone, the footwall micaschists consist of quartz, phengite, paragonite, chlorite, rutile with syn-kinematic albite porphyroblast formed by pervasive shearing during exhumation. This type of micaschists is tourmaline-bearing and their retrograde nature suggests high-fluid flux along shear zones. Peak metamorphic assemblages are partly preserved in the chloritoid-micaschist farther away from the shear zone. Three peak metamorphic assemblages are identified and their PT conditions are constrained by pseudosections produced by Theriak-Domino and by Raman spectra of carbonaceous material: 1) garnet-chloritoid-glaucophane with lawsonite pseudomorphs (P: 17.5 ± 1 Kbar, T: 390-450 °C) 2) chloritoid with glaucophane pseudomorphs (P: 16-18 Kbar, T: 475 ± 40 °C) and 3) relatively high-Mg chloritoid (17%) with jadeite pseudomorphs (22-25 Kbar; T: 440 ± 30 °C) in addition to phengite, paragonite, quartz, chlorite, rutile. The last mineral assemblage is interpreted as transformation of the chloritoid + glaucophane assemblage to chloritoid + jadeite paragenesis with increasing pressure. Absence of tourmaline suggests that the chloritoid-micaschist did not interact with B-rich fluids during zero strain exhumation. Peak metamorphic assemblages and PT estimates suggest tectonic stacking within wedge with different depths of burial. 40Ar/39Ar phengite age of a pervasively sheared footwall micaschist is constrained to 100.6 ± 1.3 Ma and that of a chloritoid-micaschist is constrained to 91.8 ± 1.8 Ma suggesting exhumation during on-going subduction. Coupling and exhumation of the

  17. Fluid systems and fracture development during syn-depositional fold growth: example from the Pico del Aguilla anticline, Sierras Exteriores, Southern Pyrenees, Spain. (United States)

    Beaudoin, Nicolas; Huyghe, Damien; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Lacombe, Olivier; Emmanuel, Laurent; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Ouanhon, Laure


    This study presents a reconstruction of fold-fracture-fluid evolution at the Pico del Aguila Anticline, located on the southwestern front of the Jaca piggy-back basin, Southern Pyrenees, Spain. The kinematic evolution of the Pico del Aguila anticline is related to the successive development of N-S ramps and reactivation of E-W striking basement thrusts that occurred coevally with sedimentation in the foreland basin. Consequently, this anticline offers an ideal frame to assess the evolution of the fluid system during the syn-depositional deformation at the front of a fold-thrust belt. Eight fracture sets (joints or faults) observed at fold-scale compose the fracture sequence defined by field and micro-scale chronological relationships. This fracture sequence reflects the Middle Eocene to Early Oligocene tectonic events and the progressive rotation of some fracture sets from NE-SW to E-W witnesses the clockwise rotation that occurred during folding. ∂18O and ∂13C values from vein cements suggest a fluid system buffered by host rocks in most cases. Fluid inclusion microthermometry measurements indicate a fluid entrapment temperature <50°C, supporting that the fluid system reflects strata burial during the main part of strata history. Small-scale vertical migrations from reservoir to reservoir are triggered by fractures related to strata-curvature, both during foreland flexure/forebulge and fold development. After folding, fractures developing in shallow sub-continental to continental strata triggered downward migration of surficial fluids, likely of meteoric origin. This phenomenon is poorly developed in early marine deposits but strongly influenced the fluid system recorded in the late continental deposits. The case study of the Pico del Aguila supports recent finding that fold-fluid systems seem to exhibit a common behavior during folding, with development of curvature-related joints triggering vertical migration of fluids from a reservoir to another. It also

  18. Fluid Inclusion characteristics of syn-late orogenic Co-Ni-Cu-Au deposits in the Siegerland District of the Rhenish Massif, Germany (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, Christoph; Hellmann, André; Meyer, Franz Michael


    The Siegerland District is located in the fold-and-thrust-belt of the Rhenish Massif and hosts various syn- late orogenic vein-hosted hydrothermal mineralization types. Peak-metamorphism and deformation occurred at 312-316 ± 10 Ma (Ahrendt et al., 1978) at pT-conditions of 280 - 320 °C and 0.7 - 1.4 kbar (Hein, 1993). The district is known for synorogenic siderite-quartz mineralization formed during peak-metamorphic conditions. At least 4 syn-late orogenic mineralization types are distinguished: Co-Ni-Cu-Au, Pb-Zn-Cu, Sb-Au and hematite-digenite-bornite mineralization (Hellmann et al., 2012b). Co-Ni-Cu-Au mineralization of the Siegerland District belongs to the recently defined class of metasediment hosted synorogenic Co-Cu-Au deposits (i.e. Slack et al, 2010). Ore minerals are Fe-Co-Ni sulpharsenides, bearing invisible gold, chalcopyrite, and minor As-bearing pyrite. The gangue is quartz. The alteration mineralogy comprises chlorite, illite-muscovite and quartz. The epigenetic quartz veins are closely related to the formation of reverse faults (Hellmann et al., 2011a). Microthermometric studies of fluid inclusions concerning the relationship between mineralization and microstructures have not been done so far for this deposit-class and this will be addressed here. Fluid inclusions are investigated in hydrothermally formed vein-quartz, selected from Co-Ni-Cu-Au mineralization bearing veins showing only minor overprints by later mineralization types. Two quartz generations are distinguished: subhedral quartz-I showing growth zonation and fine grained, recrystallized- and newly formed quartz-II grains forming irregular masses and fracture fillings in quartz-I. Co-Ni-Fe sulpharsenides and chalcopyrite are closely intergrown with quartz-II, implying their contemperaneous formation. However, fluid inclusions in quartz-II are often small, therefore fluid inclusions in quartz-I have been mostly investigated. In total, 180 inclusions from 4 different deposits have been

  19. Diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of (E)-2-Methyl-1,2-syn- and (E)-2-Methyl-1,2-anti-3-pentenediols via allenylboronate kinetic resolution with ((d)Ipc)2BH and aldehyde allylboration. (United States)

    Han, Jeng-Liang; Chen, Ming; Roush, William R


    Enantioselective hydroboration of racemic allenylboronate (±)-1 with 0.48 equiv of ((d)Ipc)(2)BH at -25 °C proceeds with efficient kinetic resolution and provides allylborane (R)-Z-4. When heated to 95 °C, allylborane (R)-Z-4 isomerizes to the thermodynamically more stable allylborane isomer (S)-E-7. Subsequent allylboration of aldehydes with (R)-Z-4 or (S)-E-7 at -78 °C followed by oxidative workup provides 1,2-syn- or 1,2-anti-diols, 2 or 3, respectively, in 87-94% ee.

  20. 基于Linux平台防止IP欺骗的SYN攻击防火墙的设计与实现%Design and implementation of Linux-based firewall preventing IP spoofing SYN attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏跃伟; 牛文倩; 刘金广


    Currently,SYN FLOOD attack occupies 70%~80% in total attacks,among which IP spoofing is a commonly used way. How to prevent IP spoofing SYN attack has become a research hotspot. A packet filtering firewall resisting SYN attack was designed and realized on the basis of redhat5.0 platform and RED algorithm. The firewall judges the dropping probability of a data packet in the case of mild and moderate attack. The data packets is stored in the hash table if it is discarded,and then the host computer waits for the client to retransmit TCP connection request and checks the authenticity of the IP address. The analysis and experimental verification results indicate that it has better throughput,and its normal data packet passing rate is al-so high. When it subjects to severe attacks,the random discard packets in RED is used directly.%目前,SYN FLOOD攻击占70%~80%。IP欺骗是常用的方式,如何防止IP欺骗的SYN攻击成为研究热点。设计是以redhat 5.0为平台,结合RED算法设计并实现一个抗SYN攻击的包过滤防火墙,该防火墙在轻度和中度攻击的情况下判断一个数据包的丢弃概率,当被丢弃则保存该数据包到哈希表中,主机等待客户机重传TCP连接请求,检测是否是真实性的IP地址,经过分析研究和实验的验证具有较好的吞吐量,同时正常数据包的通过率很高。当遭受的是重度攻击时,则直接采用的是RED中的随机丢弃数据包。

  1. Elementi di Icnografia mediterranea (Protonuraghi a camera naviforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manca Demurtas, Lucia


    Full Text Available Not available

    Definimos como protonuraghi con cámara «naviforme» aquellos nuraghi caracterizados por un corredor o espacio principal que, por ampliación de las paredes laterales, se transforma en cámara Esta presenta la parte posterior en forma de ábside semicircular y la cubierta en ojiva. El tipo, ya examinado por nosotros en el ámbito de un análisis general, aunque preliminar, sobre los protonuraghi, parece, por el momento, preludiar. en una propuesta de evolución arquitectónica, al nuraghe en tholos. Nuestro análisis no intenta fijar los puntos cronológicos en el interior del paso evolutivo aunque parece presumible que la creación y la difusión de este tipo de monumento pueda encuadrarse entre el Bronce antiguo y el Bronce medio teniendo en cuenta también los datos materiales adquiridos hasta ahora. Aunque sin infravalorar un posible aporte externo en la definición del tholos, parece igualmente evidente que la aceptación de tal modelo arquitectónico no pudo ser tan contrastante con la experiencia ya adquirida. [it] Definiamo protonuraghi con camera «naviforme» quei nuraghi il cui elemento caratterizzante è il corridoio o spazio principale che per l'ampliamento delle pareti laterali si muta in camera. Essa presenta la parte posteriore in forma di abside semicircolare e la copertura ad ogiva . II tipo, da noi giii preso in esame nell'ambito di un'analisi generale, seppure preliminare, sui protonuraghi, sembrerebbe, al momento, preludere, in una proposta di evoluzione architettonica, al nuraghe a tholos. La nostra analisi esula dall'intento di fissare dei punti cronologici all'interno del passaggio evolutivo anche se appare presumibile che la creazione e la diffusione di questo tipo di monumento possa inquadrarsi tra il Bronzo antieo e il Bronzo medio tenendo conto anche dei dati materiali fin' ora acquisiti. Anche non sottovalutando un possibile apporto estemo nel definirsi della tholos, appare altrettanto evidente che l'accettazione di tale modulo architettonico non puó essere casi contrastante con le esperienze gia acquisite.

  2. Modi di pensare e vedere la città mediterranea


    Pace Giuseppe


    This essay attempt to summarise what is known about the mediterranean cities and their relationship to the so-called Global Cities, principally based on immaterial fluxes, which offer a growing centrality to cities networks and communication systems. A new dualism has sprung, global/local, pointing out the problem of local cultures’ knowledge and preservation as fundamental elements for their planning and management. An important matter could be to define the Mediterranean City, not only thro...

  3. Neoblast Specialization in Regeneration of the Planarian Schmidtea mediterranea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lucila Scimone


    Full Text Available Planarians can regenerate any missing body part in a process requiring dividing cells called neoblasts. Historically, neoblasts have largely been considered a homogeneous stem cell population. Most studies, however, analyzed neoblasts at the population rather than the single-cell level, leaving the degree of heterogeneity in this population unresolved. We combined RNA sequencing of neoblasts from wounded planarians with expression screening and identified 33 transcription factors transcribed in specific differentiated cells and in small fractions of neoblasts during regeneration. Many neoblast subsets expressing distinct tissue-associated transcription factors were present, suggesting candidate specification into many lineages. Consistent with this possibility, klf, pax3/7, and FoxA were required for the differentiation of cintillo-expressing sensory neurons, dopamine-β-hydroxylase-expressing neurons, and the pharynx, respectively. Together, these results suggest that specification of cell fate for most-to-all regenerative lineages occurs within neoblasts, with regenerative cells of blastemas being generated from a highly heterogeneous collection of lineage-specified neoblasts.

  4. Mediterranea Forecasting System: a focus on wave-current coupling (United States)

    Clementi, Emanuela; Delrosso, Damiano; Pistoia, Jenny; Drudi, Massimiliano; Fratianni, Claudia; Grandi, Alessandro; Pinardi, Nadia; Oddo, Paolo; Tonani, Marina


    The Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) is a numerical ocean prediction system that produces analyses, reanalyses and short term forecasts for the entire Mediterranean Sea and its Atlantic Ocean adjacent areas. MFS became operational in the late 90's and has been developed and continuously improved in the framework of a series of EU and National funded programs and is now part of the Copernicus Marine Service. The MFS is composed by the hydrodynamic model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) 2-way coupled with the third generation wave model WW3 (WaveWatchIII) implemented in the Mediterranean Sea with 1/16 horizontal resolution and forced by ECMWF atmospheric fields. The model solutions are corrected by the data assimilation system (3D variational scheme adapted to the oceanic assimilation problem) with a daily assimilation cycle, using a background error correlation matrix varying seasonally and in different sub-regions of the Mediterranean Sea. The focus of this work is to present the latest modelling system upgrades and the related achieved improvements. In order to evaluate the performance of the coupled system a set of experiments has been built by coupling the wave and circulation models that hourly exchange the following fields: the sea surface currents and air-sea temperature difference are transferred from NEMO model to WW3 model modifying respectively the mean momentum transfer of waves and the wind speed stability parameter; while the neutral drag coefficient computed by WW3 model is passed to NEMO that computes the turbulent component. In order to validate the modelling system, numerical results have been compared with in-situ and remote sensing data. This work suggests that a coupled model might be capable of a better description of wave-current interactions, in particular feedback from the ocean to the waves might assess an improvement on the prediction capability of wave characteristics, while suggests to proceed toward a fully coupled modelling system in order to achieve stronger enhancements of the hydrodynamic fields.

  5. The role of partial melting and syn-orogenic deformation in the pre-concentration of uranium and thorium. The example of the CAGE District (Northern Quebec). (United States)

    Trap, Pierre; Goncalves, Philippe; Durand, Cyril; Marquer, Didier; Feybesse, Jean-Louis; Richard, Yoann; Lacroix, Brice; Caillet, Yoann; Paquette, Jean-Louis


    C and δ18O results obtained on calcite and graphite within a marble suggest temperature of 650-770°C for undeformed zones and 470-550°C in mylonitic shear zones. Within some shear zones within paragneiss, the metamorphic assemblages and disappearance of monazite suggest a possible hydrothermal alteration after the circulation of an acidic fluid under subsolidus condition. We propose a metallogenic model for remobilization of U and Th in response of syn-orogenic partial metling and deformation of a continental crust. During peak metamorphism, partial melting is responsible for a passive concentration of monazite in migmatitic paragneiss. Crystallization of anatectic melt released hydro-magmatic fluids that will move along the shear zones toward higher structural levels. These fluids are responsible for dissolution of monazite under sub-solidus conditions. The subsequent U-Th-rich fluids will precipitate U-Th along shear zone, within pegmatites, skarn or marbles. This process may act as strong pre-concentration mechanism process for world-class U-Th deposits.

  6. Development of a Lithocodium (syn. Bacinella irregularis-reef-mound- A patch reef within Middle Aptian lagoonal limestone sequence near Nova Gorica (Sabotin Mountain, W-Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Koch


    .Using different time lines (marker horizons for correlation it can be shown that already very early differential compaction of fine-grained uncemented sediments in comparison to the core area of the patch reef is of great importance.The greater thickness of the patch reef itself is caused by an intensive early diagenetic marine phreatic cementation within the core zone and by the early fixing of sediment by Lithocodium aggregatum (syn. Bacinella irregularis resulting in a greater resistivity against compaction. Furthermore a lagoonal side and an more open marine side of the patch reef can be determined. Lithocodium aggregatum is the main constructing organism within the buildup investigated, beginning with the incrustation of varying substrates and biogenic particles. Finally, a dense network of encrustation-sequences is formed interfingering with the general sedimentary textures intensively and resulting in larger „biogeniccemented“ patches within the sediment.The correlation of the three profiles A, B, and C allows to reveal the history of differential compaction of the associated lagoonal sediments in comparison to the more massive patch reef limestones. It becomes obvious that the main compaction must have occurred within the time span of about 50 m sediment-deposition overlying the patch reef. Differential compaction resulted in differences in thickness of about 10 m from the patch reef (profile B to the more lagoonal influenced sediments (profile A within a lateral distance of about 50 m.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Oktarini A.C.Dewi


    Full Text Available ABSTRAK : Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antioksidan dari biji terong belanda dalam menghambat reaksi peroksidasi lemak plasma darah pada tikus dan menentukan golongan flavonoid yang aktif sebagai antioksidan. Uji aktivitas antioksidan dilakukan dengan metode DPPH dan pengukuran kadar MDA darah tikus Wistar. Partisi ekstrak etanol biji menghasilkan fraksi n-heksan, etil asetat, dan n-butanol. Fraksi etil asetat dan n-butanol positif mengandung senyawa flavonoid. Uji aktivitas antioksidan menggunakan metode DPPH menunjukkan bahwa fraksi etil asetat memiliki aktivitas antioksidan lebih besar dengan nilai IC50 1162,608 ppm. Fraksi etil asetat dipisahkan dengan kromatografi kolom menggunakan eluen n-heksan:etil asetat:n-butanol (6:4:0,1, diperoleh dua fraksi (Fraksi A dan fraksi B. Analisis dengan spektroskopi inframerah menunjukkan bahwa kedua isolat diduga mengandung gugus fungsi yang sama (OH, CH, C=O, C=C aromatik, C-O, CH alifatik. Analisis dengan spektroskopi UV-Vis diindikasikan bahwa fraksi A merupakan golongan dihidroflavonol dengan gugus hidroksi pada cincin A yaitu pada atom C-6, C-7 atau C-7, C-8 dan fraksi B merupakan golongan flavanon dengan gugus hidroksi pada cincin A yaitu pada atol C-7 dan C-8. Hasil analisis statistik pada pengukuran kadar MDA darah tikus Wistar menunjukkan bahwa fraksi etil asetat dengan dosis 200 mg/kgBB mampu menurunkan kadar MDA darah tikus Wistar yang diberi aktivitas fisik maksimal. Kata kunci : Solanum betaceum, syn, malondialdehid, peroksidasi lemak, flavonoid ABSTRACT : The aims of this study are to determine the antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds extracted from  Dutch eggplant seeds in inhibiting lipid peroxidation reactions in the Wistar rat blood plasma and to determine the active flavonoid compounds as antioxidants. The test of antioxidant activity was carried out with DPPH (diphenilpikril hidrazil method and measurment of MDA (malondialdehyde level of blood of the

  8. U-Th-PbT Monazite Gechronology in the South Carpathian Basement: Variscan Syn-Metamorphic Tectonic Stacking and Long-Lasting Post-Peak Decompressional Overprints (United States)

    Săbău, G.; Negulescu, E.


    -tuned by comparison with the general probability function calculated from all individual age and error values. Monazite chemical compositions and variations, in connection with the textural and zonal setting of the analyzed spots, were used to estimate the geological relevance of the derived age clusters, along with inter-sample comparisons anchored on granitoid samples displaying well-expressed age plateaus, conspicuously related to consolidation and emplacement ages. The resultant ages are consistent with sandwiching of juvenile Variscan metamorphic units and slivers of reworked older basement fragments in structurally coherent sequences, formed by syn/late-metamorphic tectonic stacking. Differential exhumation and ensuing areal or local lower pressure overprinting initiated in early Permian lasted up until the Late Jurassic. The age distribution of the pervasive metamorphic overprints, in consistency with the variation of the metamorphic conditions recorded, requires a partial revision and an iterative adjustment between determined ages and metamorphic features, and the lithostratigraphic separations operated in several basement units of the South Carpathians. Acknowledgements Grant PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0030 by the Romanian Executive Unit for Financing Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation (UEFISCDI)

  9. Pre-, syn-, and postcollisional stratigraphic framework and provenance of upper triassic-upper cretaceous strata in the northwestern talkeetna mountains, alaska (United States)

    Hampton, B.A.; Ridgway, K.D.; O'Neill, J. M.; Gehrels, G.E.; Schmidt, J.; Blodgett, R.B.


    by previously unrecognized nonmarine strata informally referred to here as the Caribou Pass formation. This unit is at least 250 m thick and has been tentatively assigned an Albian-Cenomanian-to-younger age based on limited palynomorphs and fossil leaves. Sandstone composition (Q-65% F-9% L-26%-Lv-28% Lm-52% Ls-20%) from this unit suggests a quartz-rich metamorphic source terrane that we interpret as having been the Yukon-Tanana terrane. Collectively, provenance data indicate that there was a fundamental shift from mainly arc-related sediment derivation from sources located south of the study area during Jurassic-Early Cretaceous (Aptian) time (Kahiltna assemblage) to mainly continental margin-derived sediment from sources located north and east of the study area by Albian-Cenomanian time (Caribou Pass formation). We interpret the threepart stratigraphy defined for the northwestern Talkeetna Mountains to represent pre- (the Honolulu Pass formation), syn- (the Kahiltna assemblage), and post- (the Caribou Pass formation) collision of the Wrangellia composite terrane with the Mesozoic continental margin. A similar Mesozoic stratigraphy appears to exist in other parts of south-central and southwestern Alaska along the suture zone based on previous regional mapping studies. New geologic mapping utilizing the three-part stratigraphy interprets the northwestern Talkeetna Mountains as consisting of two northwest-verging thrust sheets. Our structural interpretation is that of more localized thrust-fault imbrication of the three-part stratigraphy in contrast to previous interpretations of nappe emplacement or terrane translation that require large-scale displacements. Copyright ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  10. Comment on “Stratigraphy, petrography and dispersion of the lower Permian syn-eruptive deposits in the Viar Basin, Spain” by S. Sierra, C. Moreno and E. Pascual [Sedimentary Geology 217 (2009) 1-29 (United States)

    Wagner, R. H.; Mayoral, E.


    Comments are provided on a published paper on "Lower Permian" strata in SW Spain [S. Sierra, C. Moreno and E. Pascual, Stratigraphy, petrography and dispersion of the lower Permian syn-eruptive deposits in the Viar Basin, Spain, Sedimentary Geology 217 (2009) 1-29], which failed to take into account up-to-date information on this most southerly occurrence in western Europe. This generally lacustrine basin commenced with valley fill deposits in a deeply incised palaeotopography and contains mainly red beds with two basaltic intervals and a major acidic volcanic episode linked to a nearby volcanic centre to the Northeast. The stratigraphic succession shows southeasterly onlap. Although a syn-sedimentary fault has been postulated on the NE basin margin, the field evidence disproves this notion as well as the assumption that this "Early Permian" basin would have been controlled by a rejuvenated Ossa-Morena/South Portuguese boundary fault. In fact, this basin lies within the (former) area of Ossa-Morena.

  11. Using vein fabric and fluid inclusion characteristics as an integrated proxy to constrain the relative timing of non cross-cutting, syn- to late-orogenic quartz vein generations (United States)

    Jacques, Dominique; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel


    Research on ancient fluid systems mainly focuses on veins, because they offer the opportunity to combine macro- and microstructural data with geochemical data to gain insight into the P-T-X conditions present during veining. By applying such an integrated petrographic and microthermometric methodology to syn- to late-orogenic quartz veins in the Palaeozoic High-Ardenne slate belt (Belgium), we were able to define the relative timing and related P-T-X conditions of different quartz vein generations, despite of the absence of any mutual cross-cutting relationships in the field (Jacques et al., 2014). The different quartz vein generations represent the meso-scale brittle accommodation during fold initiation, amplification and locking. The presence of free polycrystal growth in cavities at a midcrustal depth, and fluid-assisted brecciation indicate that veining occurred under overpressured fluid conditions during the orogeny. Significant differences in crystal-plastic deformation microstructures and P-T trapping conditions indicate that the different processes accommodating folding occurred in a progressive manner along a retrograde deformation path. While vein quartz in an extrados vein and in the peripheral part of a lenticular, fault-accommodating vein shows moderate crystal-plastic deformation (e.g. bulging recrystallisation, deformation lamellae, shear bands), crystal-plastic deformation is relatively absent in the vein quartz of a saddle reef and the core of the lenticular vein (i.e. no to minor undulose extinction). Successive veining occurred from peak metamorphic conditions (ca. 300 ° C and 190 MPa), measured in the extrados vein, to lower P-T conditions in the periphery of the lenticular vein (ca. 275 ° C and 180 MPa), the late-orogenic saddle reef (ca. 245 ° C and 160 MPa) and the core of the lenticular vein (ca. 220 ° C and 150 MPa). The relative timing and accompanying decrease in P-T conditions of the different quartz vein generations reflect the

  12. Kinematics of syn- and post-exhumational shear zones at Lago di Cignana (Western Alps, Italy): constraints on the exhumation of Zermatt-Saas (ultra)high-pressure rocks and deformation along the Combin Fault and Dent Blanche Basal Thrust (United States)

    Kirst, Frederik; Leiss, Bernd


    Kinematic analyses of shear zones at Lago di Cignana in the Italian Western Alps were used to constrain the structural evolution of units from the Piemont-Ligurian oceanic realm (Zermatt-Saas and Combin zones) and the Adriatic continental margin (Dent Blanche nappe) during Palaeogene syn- and post-exhumational deformation. Exhumation of Zermatt-Saas (U)HP rocks to approximately lower crustal levels at ca. 39 Ma occurred during normal-sense top-(S)E shearing under epidote-amphibolite-facies conditions. Juxtaposition with the overlying Combin zone along the Combin Fault at mid-crustal levels occurred during greenschist-facies normal-sense top-SE shearing at ca. 38 Ma. The scarcity of top-SE kinematic indicators in the hanging wall of the Combin Fault probably resulted from strain localization along the uppermost Zermatt-Saas zone and obliteration by subsequent deformation. A phase of dominant pure shear deformation around 35 Ma affected units in the direct footwall and hanging wall of the Combin Fault. It is interpreted to reflect NW-SE crustal elongation during updoming of the nappe stack as a result of underthrusting of European continental margin units and the onset of continental collision. This phase was partly accompanied and followed by ductile bulk top-NW shearing, especially at higher structural levels, which transitioned into semi-ductile to brittle normal-sense top-NW deformation due to Vanzone phase folding from ca. 32 Ma onwards. Our structural observations suggest that syn-exhumational deformation is partly preserved within units and shear zones exposed at Lago di Cignana but also that the Combin Fault and Dent Blanche Basal Thrust experienced significant post-exhumational deformation reworking and overprinting earlier structures.

  13. Geochemistry, U-Pb geochronology, Sm-Nd and O isotopes of ca. 50 Ma long Ediacaran High-K Syn-Collisional Magmatism in the Pernambuco Alagoas Domain, Borborema Province, NE Brazil (United States)

    Francisco da Silva Filho, Adejardo; de Pinho Guimarães, Ignez; Santos, Lucilene; Armstrong, Richard; Van Schmus, William Randall


    The Pernambuco Alagoas (PEAL) domain shows the major occurrence of granitic batholiths of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil, with Archean to Neoproterozoic range of Nd TDM model ages, giving clues on the role of granites during the Brasiliano orogeny. SHRIMP U/Pb zircon geochronological data for seven granitic intrusions of the PEAL domain divide the studied granitoids into three groups: 1) early-to syn-collision granitoids with crystallization ages ca. 635 Ma (Serra do Catú pluton), 2) syn-collision granitoids with crystallization ages 610-618 Ma (Santana do Ipanema, Água Branca, Mata Grande and Correntes plutons) and 3) late-to post-collision granitoids with ages of ca. 590 Ma (Águas Belas, and Cachoeirinha plutons). The intrusions of group 1 and 2, except the Mata Grande and Correntes plutons, show Nd TDM model ages ranging from 1.2 to 1.5 Ga, while the granitoids from group 3, and Mata Grande Pluton and Correntes plutons have Nd TDM model ages ranging from 1.7 to 2.2 Ga. The studied granitoids with ages plutons, together with the available Nd isotopic data suggest that the Brasiliano orogeny strongly reworked older crust, of either Paleoproterozoic or Tonian ages. The studied granitoids are coeval with calc-alkaline granitoids of the Transversal Zone and Sergipano domains and rare high-K calc-alkaline granitoids from the Transversal Zone domain. Such large volumes of high-K granitoids with crystallization ages older than 600 Ma are not recorded in the Transversal Zone domains, suggesting that at least between 600 and 650 Ma, the granitic magmatism of these two areas were distinct. However, the studied granitoids (630-580 Ma) located in the north part of the PEAL domain, north of the Palmares shear zone are coeval with granitoids of similar geochemical compositions in the Transversal Zone domain. It suggests that the southeastern part of the Transversal Zone and the northern part of the PEAL domains belonged to the same crustal block during the Brasiliano

  14. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of new 2,4-syn-functionalized (S)-glutamate analogues and structure-activity relationship studies at ionotropic glutamate receptors and excitatory amino acid transporters. (United States)

    Assaf, Zeinab; Larsen, Anja P; Venskutonytė, Raminta; Han, Liwei; Abrahamsen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Birgitte; Gajhede, Michael; Kastrup, Jette S; Jensen, Anders A; Pickering, Darryl S; Frydenvang, Karla; Gefflaut, Thierry; Bunch, Lennart


    In the mammalian central nervous system, (S)-glutamate (Glu) is released from the presynaptic neuron where it activates a plethora of pre- and postsynaptic Glu receptors. The fast acting ionotropic Glu receptors (iGluRs) are ligand gated ion channels and are believed to be involved in a vast number of neurological functions such as memory and learning, synaptic plasticity, and motor function. The synthesis of 14 enantiopure 2,4-syn-Glu analogues 2b-p is accessed by a short and efficient chemoenzymatic approach starting from readily available cyclohexanone 3. Pharmacological characterization at the iGluRs and EAAT1-3 subtypes revealed analogue 2i as a selective GluK1 ligand with low nanomolar affinity. Two X-ray crystal structures of the key analogue 2i in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of GluA2 and GluK3 were determined. Partial domain closure was seen in the GluA2-LBD complex with 2i comparable to that induced by kainate. In contrast, full domain closure was observed in the GluK3-LBD complex with 2i, similar to that of GluK3-LBD with glutamate bound.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of syn-[(η5-C5Me5)2W2(S)2(μ-S)2]·0.5anti-[(η5-C5Me5)2W2(S)2(μ-S)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪顺俊; 虞虹; 郎建平


    The reactions of [PPh4][(η5-C5Me5)WS3] with equimolar Hg2Cl2 in DMF produced syn-[(η5-C5Me5)2W2(S)2(μ-S)2]@0.5anti-[(η5-C5Me5)2W2(S)2(μ-S)2] 1. The structure of 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. 1 crystallizes in the triclinic space group Pī (No. 2) with a = 8.400(2), b = 8.729(2), c = 23.329(8) ?, α = 93.329(8), β = 93.446(2), γ = 96.673(1)°, V = 1725.1(5) ?3, Z = 2, C30H45S6W3, Mr = 1149.60, Dc = 2.213 g/cm3, F(000) = 1086, μ (MoKα) = 10.37 cm-1 and T = 193 K. With the use of 6199 observed reflections (I > 3.0σ(I)), the structure was refined to R = 0.053 and wR = 0.065. 1 consists of one syn-[(η5-C5Me5)2W2(S)2(μ-S)2] and one-half of anti-[(η5-C5Me5)2W2(S)2(μ-S)2]. Both syn- and anti-isomer contain a four-membered W2(μ-S)2 ring. The W-W distances of the syn and anti forms are 2.8973(5) and 2.9113(8) , respectively.

  16. Clinical value of serum osteopontin in patients with polycystic ovary syn-drome%多囊卵巢综合征患者血清骨桥蛋白含量测定的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文翠; 张吉才; 谢飞; 高波


    目的:探讨测定多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者血清骨桥蛋白(OPN)水平的临床价值。方法选择2012年1月~2014年8月于湖北医药学院附属十堰市太和医院(以下简称“我院”)就诊的PCOS患者54例为研究对象,根据体重指数(BMI)分为肥胖组32例(BMI≥25 kg/m2)和非肥胖组22例(BMI0.05)。结论多囊卵巢综合征患者血清中OPN水平处于升高状态,提示PCOS患者机体处于一种慢性炎性状态,未来可将减缓机体炎性状态作为治疗PCOS患者的策略之一。%Objective To investigate clinical value of serum osteopontin (OPN) in patients with polycystic ovary syn-drome (PCOS). Methods 54 patients with PCOS from January 2012 to August 2014 in the Affiliated Taihe Hospital of Hubei Medical College (“our hospital”for short) were selected as study objects, according to the body mass index (BMI), they were divided into obese group (32 cases, BMI≥25 kg/m2) and non-obese group (22 cases, BMI 0.05). Conclusion Polycystic o-vary syndrome patients are under a state of elevated serum levels of OPN, which may indicate that the PCOS patients maybe in a state of chronic inflammatory, slowing down the body's inflammatory state may become as part of the strate-gy for the treatment of patients with PCOS.

  17. A phase 1 study of a group B meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine made from a strain with deleted lpxL2 and synX and stable expression of opcA. (United States)

    Keiser, Paul B; Gibbs, Barnett T; Coster, Trinka S; Moran, E Ellen; Stoddard, Mark B; Labrie, Joseph E; Schmiel, Deborah H; Pinto, Valerian; Chen, Ping; Zollinger, Wendell D


    This phase 1 clinical trial assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a native outer membrane vesicle (NOMV) vaccine prepared from a lpxL2(-) synX(-) mutant of strain 44/76 with opcA expression stabilized. Thirty-four volunteers were assigned to one of the three dose groups (25 mcg, 25 mcg with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, and 50 mcg) to receive three intramuscular injections at 0, 6 and 24 weeks. Specific local and systemic adverse events (AEs) were solicited by diary and at visits on days 1, 2, 7 and 14 after each vaccination and at the end of the study at 30 weeks. Blood chemistries, complete blood count, and coagulation studies were measured on each vaccination day and again two days later. Blood for antibody measurements and bactericidal assays were drawn 0, 14, and 42 days after each vaccination. The proportion of volunteers who developed a fourfold or greater increase in serum bactericidal activity (SBA) to the wild-type parent of the vaccine strain with high opcA expression at 6 weeks after the third dose was 12/26 (0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.27-0.65). Antibody levels to OpcA were significantly higher in vaccine responders than in non-responders (p=0.008), and there was a trend for higher antibody levels to the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) (p=0.059). Bactericidal depletion assays on sera from volunteers with high-titer responses also indicate a major contribution of anti-OpcA and anti-LOS antibodies to the bactericidal response.These results suggest that genetically modified NOMV vaccines can induce protection against group B meningococcus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of An Nao Wan on the Expression of OX42,BDNF and SYN in Rats after Intracerebral Hemorrhage%安脑丸对急性脑出血大鼠OX42、脑源性神经营养因子及突触素表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁慧; 梅元武


    Objective: To study the effects of An Nao Wan (ANW) on the expression of OX42,BDNF and SYN in rats after intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods: One hundred and ninety SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group (n=10), sham operated group, model group and ANW treatment group (n = 60 respectively). Experimental intracerebral haematoma was made by injecting Ⅶ type collagenase into the right globus pallidus of rats in the model group and the ANW treatment group. The rats in the ANW treatment group were treated by ANW. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis were employed to detect the expression of OX-42, BDNF and SYN at l2 h,ld,2d,4d,7d or 10 d after the operation. Results: The numbers of OX42 and BDNF positive cells and the expression of BDNF and SYN protein in the model group and the ANW treatment group were increased significantly when compared with those in the normal control group and the sham operated group (P<0. 01). Compared with those in the model group, the number of OX42 positive cells was decreased significantly while the number of BDNF positive cells and the expression of BDNF and SYN protein were increased significantly in the ANW treatment group (P<0. 01). Conclusion: The activation of microglia and the expression of BDNF and SYN were involved in the pathological process of intracerebral hemorrhage. ANW treatment could inhibit the activation of microglia and increase the expression of BDNF and SYN protein after intracerebral hemorrhage.%目的:观察安脑丸对大鼠脑出血后OX42、脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)及突触素(SYN)表达的影响.方法:SD大鼠190只随机分为正常组10只,假手术组、模型组、安脑丸组各60只;后3组又随机分为造模后12h、1d、2d、4d、7d、10 d共6个时间点,各10只.模型组制作脑出血模型,安脑丸组加用安脑丸灌胃.于各时间点采用免疫组化法及western blot法检测OX42、BDNF及SYN表达情况.结果:模型组及安脑丸组OX42及BDNF

  19. Rapport om DanDiaSyn-projektet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik; Hagedorn, Karen


    Artiklen gør rede for hovedprincipperne bag det indsamlingsarbejde om dansk dialektsyntaks som forfatterne deltog i 2007-9......Artiklen gør rede for hovedprincipperne bag det indsamlingsarbejde om dansk dialektsyntaks som forfatterne deltog i 2007-9...

  20. Rapport om DanDiaSyn-projektet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik; Hagedorn, Karen


    Artiklen gør rede for hovedprincipperne bag det indsamlingsarbejde om dansk dialektsyntaks som forfatterne deltog i 2007-9......Artiklen gør rede for hovedprincipperne bag det indsamlingsarbejde om dansk dialektsyntaks som forfatterne deltog i 2007-9...

  1. Transfer/transform relationships in continental rifts and margins and their control on syn- and post-rift denudation: the case of the southeastern Gulf of Aden, Socotra Island, Yemen (United States)

    Pik, Raphael; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Leroy, Sylvie; Denele, Yoann; Razin, Philippe; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Khanbari, Khaled


    Transfer zones are ubiquist features in continental rifts and margins, as well as transform faults in oceanic lithosphere. Here, we present the structural study of such a structure (the Hadibo Transfer Zone, HTZ) from the southeastern Gulf of Aden, in Socotra Island, Yemen. There, from field data, the HTZ is interpreted as being reactivated, obliquely to divergence, since early rifting stages. Then, from a short review of transfer/transform fault zone geometries worldwide, we derive a classification in terms of relative importance (1st, 2nd, 3rd order), geometry, and location. We suggest that the HTZ is a 1st order transfer fault zone as it controls the initiation of a 1st order oceanic transform fault zone. We then investigate the denudation history of the region surrounding the HTZ in order to highlight the interplay of normal and transfer/transform tectonic structures in the course of rift evolution. Samples belong from two distinct East and West domains of the Socotra Island, separated by the (HTZ). Tectonic denudation started during the Priabonian-Rupelian along flat normal faults and removed all the overlying sedimentary formations, allowing basement exhumation up to the surface (~ 1.2 - 1.6 km of exhumation). Forward t-T modelling of the data requires a slightly earlier date and shorter period for development of rifting in the E-Socotra domain (38 - 34 Ma), compared to the W-Socotra domain (34 - 25 Ma), which suggests that the HTZ was already active at that time. A second major event of basement cooling and exhumation (additional ~ 0.7 - 1 km), starting at about ~ 20 Ma, has only been recorded on the E-Socotra domain. This second denudation phase significantly post-dates local rifting period but appears synchronous with Ocean Continent Transition (OCT: 20 - 17.6 Ma). This late syn-OCT uplift is maximum close to the HTZ, in the wedge of hangingwall delimited by this transfer system and the steep north-dipping normal faults that accommodated the vertical

  2. Two stages of zircon crystallization in the Jingshan monzogranite, Bengbu Uplift: Implications for the syn-collisional granites of the Dabie-Sulu UHP orogenic belt and the climax of movement on the Tan-Lu fault (United States)

    Wang, X.; Chen, J.; Griffin, W. L.; O'Reilly, S. Y.; Huang, P. Y.; Li, X.


    The detailed study of zircon can provide vital clues about the petrogenetic environment of granitoid rocks. Morphological and chemical studies of zircon grains from the Jingshan monzogranite in the Bengbu Uplift (Anhui province, eastern China) identify three phases of growth. Zircon I is brown, translucent, ovoid, and occurs as inherited cores. It shows two groups of 206Pb/ 238U ages, corresponding to the country rock of the Jingshan monzogranite and the basement of the Bengbu Uplift. Zircon II is colorless, transparent and idiomorphic-hypidiomorphic with Ipr = 0.34-0.52, Ipy = 0.03-0.24 and Iel = 0.26-0.34. It shows a very bright CL due to high contents of trace elements (e.g., Y, U and Th), and the oscillatory zoning associated with sector zoning. It contains 1.40-1.66 wt.% HfO 2 with a mean ɛ Hf (t) of - 17.88. These features indicate the igneous crystallization of Zircon II from a peraluminous granite of mainly crustal origin. Based on the field geology, petrography, geochemical analysis, and especially a weighted mean age of 222 Ma for Zircon II, we argue that the Jingshan monzogranite is a syn-collisional granite of the Dabie UHP orogenic belt. This provides new evidence for the northward subduction of the South China Block beneath the North China Block just before 222 Ma, and allows quantitative estimates of the rate of post-UHP exhumation in the Dabie orogenic belt. Zircon III is also colorless and transparent, but is totally idiomorphic with Ipr = 0.41-1.00, Ipy = 0.88-1.00 and Iel = 0.39-0.83. It occurs only as overgrowths on Zircon II, and shows weak CL due to its depletion in trace elements. Zircon III has widely variable contents of HfO 2 (1.12 to 3.01 wt.%) and Hf-isotope compositions very similar to those of Zircon II. These features suggest crystallization of Zircon III from small volumes of leucosome, probably in the beginning stages of migmatisation. Zircon III has a weighted mean age of 156 Ma, interpreted as representing the climax of movement

  3. Volcano-sedimentary characteristics in the Abu Treifiya Basin, Cairo-Suez District, Egypt: Example of dynamics and fluidization over sedimentary and volcaniclastic beds by emplacement of syn-volcanic basaltic rocks (United States)

    Khalaf, E. A.; Abdel Motelib, A.; Hammed, M. S.; El Manawi, A. H.


    temperature, confining pressure, sediment fluidization, and vapor film at the magma-sediment interactions. Peperites in the study area record deposition within a shallow marine and fluvio-lacustrine environment accumulated in a rift-related basin developed during pre- to syn-rift phase, respectively. The facies transitions (peperites) in this area resulted from the explosive and sediment depositional processes, which were mingled separately by volcanism under contrast geological conditions. The development of such contrast in the depositional sequences reflects variation in the accommodation to sediment supply in the same accumulation space inside the depocenters during the rifting of the Abu Treifiya Basin. Hydrothermal mineralizations comprising quartz and carbonate are restricted to peperites and lava flows.

  4. ACS 患者超敏-CRP 和 SYNTAX 积分的相关性研究%Correlation between high sensitive CRP level and SYNTAX score in patients with acute coronary syn-drome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王黎; 任品芳; 沈剑耀


    目的:探讨超敏-CRP (hs-CRP)和SYNTAX积分所反映的ACS患者冠状动脉病变范围和严重程度的关系。方法选取 ACS 患者218例,根据 SYNTAX 积分将其分为低分组152例(1~22分)和中高分组66例(≥23分),对患者的一般临床特征、hs-CRP 等血液指标、冠状动脉造影特征等和 SYNTAX 积分的关系进行分析。结果ACS 患者中高分组的 hs-CRP 水平[(13.2±3.3)mg/L]高于低分组患者[(10.4±3.9)mg/L,P <0.05]。中高分组的年龄、血糖、血清肌酐、总胆固醇、LDL、CK-MB、心肌肌钙蛋白 T 均高于低分组(P 均<0.05),而中高分组的 LVEF 为(43.7±3.9)%,低于低分组的(53.7±6.8)%,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。Logistic 回归显示hs-CRP、年龄、LVEF、ST 段抬高型心肌梗死、LDL、慢性完全闭塞性病变是 SYNTAX 中高分组的独立预测因子。结论hs-CRP 是 SYNTAX 积分所反映的 ACS 患者冠状动脉病变范围和严重程度的独立预测因子。%Objective To explore the relationship between high sensitive CRP (hs-CRP)and the ex-tent and severity of coronary artery disease in patients with ACS reflected by SYNTAX score.Methods 218 cases of patients with ACS were selected.According to the SYNTAX score,the patients were divided into low SYNTAX score group (1-22 scores)including 152 cases of patients and intermediate-high SYNTAX score group (≥23 scores)including 66 cases of patients.The relationship between the clinic characteristics,blood biochemical parameters such as hs-CRP etc.coronary angiography features,etc.and SYNTAX score were ana-lyzed.Results hs-CRP levels in intermediate-high SYNTAX score group were higher than those in low SYN-TAX score group (13.2 ±3.3 mg/L vs.10.4 ±3.9 mg/L,P <0.05).At the same time,the age of pa-tients,blood glucose,serum creatinine,total cholesterol,LDL,CK-MB,cTnT in the intermediate-high SYN-TAX score group were

  5. Fungal endophytic communities on twigs of fast and slow growing Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in northern Spain. (United States)

    Sanz-Ros, Antonio V; Müller, Michael M; San Martín, Roberto; Diez, Julio J


    Most plant species harbour a diverse community of endophytic, but their role is still unknown in most cases, including ecologically and economically important tree species. This study describes the culturable fungal endophytic community of Pinus sylvestris L. twigs in northern Spain and its relationship with diametric growth of the host. In all, 360 twig samples were collected from 30 Scots pines in fifteen stands. Isolates were obtained from all twig samples and 43 fungal taxa were identified by morphogrouping and subsequent ITS rDNA sequencing. All isolates were Ascomycetes, being Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes the most abundant classes. Half of the species were host generalists while the others were conifer or pine specialists. We found three new endophytic species for the Pinaceae: Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Phaeomoniella effusa and Plectania milleri, and additional six new species for P. sylvestris: Daldinia fissa, Hypocrea viridescens, Nigrospora oryzae, Ophiostoma nigrocarpum, Penicillium melinii and Penicillium polonicum. The endophytic community of fast and slow growing trees showed differences in species composition, abundance and evenness, but not in diversity. Phoma herbarum was associated to fast growing trees and Hypocrea lixii to those growing slow. Our results support the hypothesis that some endophytic species may affect growth of P. sylvestris.

  6. SYN TAX 及 SYN TAX Ⅱ评分的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽媛(综述); 韩雅君(审校)


    冠状动脉血运重建是冠心病的有效治疗手段,对于左主干及复杂血管病变的冠心病患者,如何选择血运重建策略目前仍存在争议。SYNTAX评分经过5年临床实践证明是评价预后较好的工具,但仅限于冠状动脉解剖评价,具有临床局限性。SYNTAX Ⅱ评分将SYNTAX评分及临床相关危险因素包含在内,自2013年提出后,近年来国外大规模临床实验研究进一步证实了SYNTAX Ⅱ评分是评价预后的良好工具,也在现实世界中为患者血运重建策略的选择提供了依据。

  7. Anesthesia effects of the syn-form atracurii besilas by target controlled infusion on laparoscopic cholecystectomy%靶控输注顺式苯磺酸阿曲库铵在腹腔镜胆囊切除手术中的麻醉效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冠同; 温清娴; 陈新妹; 李金波; 李银妹


    目的 探讨靶控输注顺式苯磺酸阿曲库铵在腹腔镜胆囊切除手术中的临床麻醉效果.方法 选择行腹腔镜胆囊切除术的患者52例,均按美国麻醉师协会分级(ASA)Ⅰ~Ⅱ级,采用全凭静脉麻醉,患者意识丧失后给予靶控输注顺式苯磺酸阿曲库铵,并观察其肌肉松弛效果、血流动力学的变化、气管插管情况.结果 所有患者在抑制达到100%时,完成气管插管;术中血流动力学稳定,所有患者未见皮肤潮红和支气管痉挛的症状.结论 靶控输注顺式苯磺酸阿曲库铵在腹腔镜胆囊切除手术中,不但可以提供满意的插管条件,肌肉松弛恢复时间也快,且对血流动力学无明显的影响.%Objective To discuss the anesthesia effects of the syn-form atracurii besilas by target controlled infusion on laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods 52 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were chosen, and all were graded for Ⅰ to Ⅱ grade according to the American Association of Anesthetists (ASA), using the total intravenous anesthesia, when all the patients had no consciousness, and began to use the target controlled infusion to the syn-form a-tracurii besilas, the effects of the muscular relaxation, the change of the hemodynamics, trachea cannula circs were observed. Results When all the patients were bated to achieve 100%, and then finished the trachea cannula, the change of the hemodynamics was stabilization, no patients had the erubescence and bronchial spasm was no change. Conclusion In laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the syn-form atracurii besilas by target controlled infusion can afford the satisfactory trachea cannula condition. The comeback of the muscular relaxation is rapidness, and no influence on the hemodynamics.

  8. La Longobardia meridionale e le relazioni commerciali nell’area mediterranea: il caso di Salerno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Gianluca Cicco


    Full Text Available In questo saggio si è inteso recuperare le testimonianze scritte – relative a fonti narrative e documentarie – e archeologiche circa il ruolo di Salerno longobarda nei commerci mediterranei tra VIII e XI secolo, a partire dalla reggenza del principe beneventano Arechi II che, all’indomani della conquista franca del regno longobardo, intese puntare sullo sviluppo economico e sulla struttura urbana della città marittima. Nell’economia del saggio si è cercato di far luce anche sulla reale esistenza di uno scalo portuale a Salerno per i secoli altomedievali, così come sull’ubicazione dei mercati in città e nel territorio limitrofo. Trattazioni differenziate affrontano l’attivismo commerciale – alquanto modesto – di Salerno longobarda negli scambi con le vicine province bizantine, le colonie saracene nel Mezzogiorno peninsulare e la Sicilia.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Meduri


    Full Text Available The study aims to identify guidelines for defining a model of cultural planning oriented to the development of the emerging sector of the territory of Reggio Calabria’s metropolitan city, specifically rural areas, to provide an integrated plan of development of cultural identity. The methodology consisted of a preliminary fact-finding investigation. This has lead to, in theory, an operating model where it is proved that the first action to be performed is the accurate identification of an effective tool that can be applied to the province towed to the emergence and local development: the Mediterranean diet. The second step involved the selection of municipalities able to apply the best practices in the area for the promotion of the Mediterranean Diet. Through a checklist, formulated ad hoc, is checked for quality valorization plans that each municipality must prepare. What you intend to prove is that a careful and participatory cultural program could be the possible way out from the narrow vision of culture as a marginal aspect of economic life and in fact placed in the policies of socio-economic development of the territory.

  10. Ecologia e comportamento della lontra eurasiatica (Lutra lutra) in un'area mediterranea (Alentejo, Portugal)




    Despite being a highly studied carnivore, the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) still offers the opportunity to explore many aspects of its ecology and behaviour that are poorly known or have only been investigated in temperate areas. From April 2007 to October 2010, the OPA research project (Otter Project in Alentejo) was conducted in the south-central Alentejo region of Portugal, in an area of roughly 800 km2. Through the capture and subsequent radio-tracking of 16 wild Lutra lutra individual...

  11. La rete mediterranea della devozione. Le teresiane della provincia di Napoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Fiorelli


    Full Text Available Filo conduttore del saggio è la vita di madre Serafina di Dio, carismatica caprese fondatrice, nel secolo XVII, di sette congregazioni femminili ispirate alla spiritualità teresiana. L’affiliazione alla santa di Avila e l’adesione alla matrice della sua riforma hanno consentito alle nuove comunità devote nate da un’iniziativa periferica di collocarsi nell’alveo della Chiesa nella prospettiva istituzionale della trasformazione in monasteri di clausura. Due i focus della ricerca. Da un lato ci si è soffermati sull’omogeneità organizzativa e spirituale dei conservatori garantita da reti devozionali saldamente dipendenti dal carisma della fondatrice secondo un meccanismo nel quale resta assai difficile determinare i confini tra una vita modellizzata dalla santità e il progetto di santificazione della propria vita. Dall’altro si è evidenziata l’importanza della tradizione religiosa e devozionale nel processo di costante contaminazione dell’identità culturale delle due principali penisole del Mediterraneo mai trasformata in fusione, nonostante gli intensi rapporti e la subalternità politica di Napoli a Madrid. The underlying theme of the essay is the life of Mother Serafina di Dio from Capri, the charismatic founder, in the seventeenth century, of seven women’s congregations inspired by the Teresian spirituality. The affiliation to the saint of Avila and the connection to the matrix of her reform allowed these peripheral and devoted communities to position themselves within the fold of the Church, from the perspective of institutional transformation in cloistered monasteries. The first research focus is about the uniformity of organization and spirituality within the retreats guaranteed by devotional networks firmly dependent on the charisma of the founder. A mechanism in which is very difficult to determine the boundaries between a life modeled on the holiness and a project of sanctification of her own life. The other one, is about the importance of religious and devotional traditions in the process of constant contamination of the cultural identity of the two main peninsulas in Mediterranean, never turned into fusion, despite the penetrating contacts and the political subordination of Naples in Madrid.

  12. The Impact of the Little Ice Age on Coccolithophores in the Central Mediterranea Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Incarbona


    Full Text Available The Little Ice Age (LIA is the last episode of a series of Holocene climatic anomalies. There is still little knowledge on the response of the marine environment to the pronounced cooling of the LIA and to the transition towards the 20th century global warming. Here we present decadal-scale coccolithophore data from four short cores recovered from the central Mediterranean Sea (northern Sicily Channel and Tyrrhenian Sea, which on the basis of 210Pb activity span the last 200–350 years. The lowermost part of the record of one of the cores from the Sicily Channel, Station 407, which extends down to 1650 AD, is characterized by drastic changes in productivity. Specifically, below 1850 AD, the decrease in abundance of F. profunda and the increase of placoliths, suggest increased productivity. The chronology of this change is related to the main phase of the Little Ice Age, which might have impacted the hydrography of the southern coast of Sicily and promoted vertical mixing in the water column. The comparison with climatic forcings points out the importance of stronger and prolonged northerly winds, together with decreased solar irradiance.

  13. Molecular Phylogeny, Diversity, and Bioprospecting of Endophytic Fungi Associated with wild Ethnomedicinal North American Plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae). (United States)

    Carvalho, Camila R; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H


    The endophytic fungal community associated with the ethnomedicinal plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 different taxa of 16 genera, of which Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum dematium, and Stagonosporopsis sp. 2 are the most frequent colonizers. The extracts of 29 endophytic fungi displayed activities against important phytopathogenic fungi. Eight antifungal extracts were selected for chemical analysis. Forty fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis. The compounds (-)-5-methylmellein and (-)-(3R)-8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin were isolated from Biscogniauxia mediterraneaEPU38CA crude extract. (-)-5-Methylmellein showed weak activity against Phomopsis obscurans, P. viticola, and Fusarium oxysporum, and caused growth stimulation of C. fragariae, C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and Botrytis cinerea. (-)-(3R)-8-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin appeared slightly more active in the microtiter environment than 5-methylmellein. Our results indicate that E. purpurea lives symbiotically with different endophytic fungi, which are able to produce bioactive fatty acids and aromatic compounds active against important phytopathogenic fungi. The detection of the different fatty acids and aromatic compounds produced by the endophytic community associated with wild E. purpurea suggests that it may have intrinsic mutualistic resistance against phytopathogen attacks in its natural environment.

  14. 针刺长强穴对FMR1基因敲除小鼠海马CA1区BDNF和SYN表达的影响%Effects of Acupuncturing at Changqiang on Expressions of BDNF and SYN in Hippocampal CA1 Area of FMR1 Gene Knockout Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩平; 俞萍; 陈可爱; 林栋; 张学君; 吴强


    目的 研究针刺长强穴对FMR1基因敲除小鼠海马CA1区脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)与突触素(SYN)的表达. 方法 选取28日龄脆性X智力低下基因1(FMR1)缺失KO小鼠与野生型(WT)小鼠各30只,分为KO长强组、KO非穴组、KO空白组和WT长强组、WT非穴组、WT空白组,每组10只,检测小鼠海马CA1区BDNF、SYN蛋白的表达. 结果 FMR1基因敲除小鼠海马区BDNF的表达低于野生型小鼠;FMR1基因敲除小鼠长强组BDNF的表达明显高于非穴组和空白组;FMR1基因敲除小鼠海马区SYN的表达低于野生型小鼠;FMR1基因敲除小鼠长强组SYN的表达明显高于非穴组和空白组. 结论 针刺长强穴能上调FMR1基因敲除小鼠海马CA1区BDNF和SYN的表达.

  15. A phase 1 study of a meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine made from a group B strain with deleted lpxL1 and synX, over-expressed factor H binding protein, two PorAs and stabilized OpcA expression. (United States)

    Keiser, P B; Biggs-Cicatelli, S; Moran, E E; Schmiel, D H; Pinto, V B; Burden, R E; Miller, L B; Moon, J E; Bowden, R A; Cummings, J F; Zollinger, W D


    This phase I clinical trial assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a native outer membrane vesicle (NOMV) vaccine prepared from an lpxL1(-) synX(-) mutant of strain 8570(B:4:P1.19,15:L8-5) of Neisseria meningitidis. Additional mutations enhance the expression of factor H binding protein variant 1 (fHbp v.1), stabilize expression of OpcA and introduce a second PorA (P1.22,14). Thirty-six volunteers were assigned to one of four dose groups (10, 25, 50 and 75 mcg, based on protein content) to receive three intramuscular injections at six week intervals with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Specific local and systemic adverse events were solicited by diary and at visits on days 2, 7, and 14 after each vaccination. Blood chemistries, complete blood count, and coagulation studies were measured on each vaccination day and again 2 and 14 days later. Blood for ELISA and serum bactericidal assays was drawn two and six weeks after each vaccination. The proportion of volunteers who developed a fourfold or greater increase in bactericidal activity to the wild type parent of the vaccine strain at two weeks after the third dose was 27 out of 34 (0.79, 95% C.I. 0.65-0.93). Against four other group B strains the response rate ranged from 41% to 82% indicating a good cross reactive antibody response. Depletion assays show contributions to bactericidal activity from antibodies to lipooligosaccharide (LOS), fHbp v.1 and OpcA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. SynLight - the world's largest artificial sun (United States)

    Wieghardt, Kai; Funken, Karl-Heinz; Dibowski, Gerd; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard; Laaber, Dmitrij; Hilger, Patrick; Eßer, Kai-Peter


    High-flux solar simulators, providing predictable and reproducible solar radiation, have emerged to indispensable tools for efficient development of CSP components or solar chemical processes. In the last decade, a number of such facilities have been erected, however significantly below the typical scale of pilot plants. DLR started the construction of a large solar simulator in Jülich near its solar power tower. The facilities' modular design is novel and characterized by 149 individually controllable 7kW Xenon short-arc lamps. Solar radiant powers of up to 280kW and 2 x 220kW are expected to be available in three separately useable radiation chambers. In 2017, the large artificial sun shall be available for the global CSP and solar chemical community within cooperative research projects.

  17. Nazikommunisme? : Arbeiderpartiets syn på Sovjetunionen 1939-40


    Sundvall, Eirik Wig


    Den 23. August 1939 inngikk Sovjetunionen ikkeangrepspakt med det nazistiske Tyskland. Pakten ga Hitler frie tøyler til å gå til krig mot Polen, noe han gjorde litt over en uke senere. 17. september marsjerte sovjetiske tropper inn i Øst-Polen med tysk velsignelse. I november samme år angrep Sovjetunionen Finland. Den norske arbeiderbevegelsen var rystet i grunnvollene. «Nazikommunisme» ble et vanlig skjellsord for å betegne Sovjetunionens nye linje. Sovjets utenrikspolitikk i disse månedene,...

  18. Genomet og syns- og høresansen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen


    understanding of pathophysiology, eventually leading to novel and more individualized treatments. Furthermore, genetic evaluation and counselling can contribute to molecular diagnosis, better prognostication, and mode of inheritance. Next Generation Sequencing is a technology well suited to dissect the vast...

  19. strain partitioning and dimensional preferred orientation in a syn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    a non-hydrostatic stress state, dimensional preferred orientation and strain are partitioned ... attention paid to the relationship existing among the various lithology ... Macroscopic analysis: The most dominant intrusive rock type in the western ... Mesoscopic observations: At the level of the exposure and hand specimen, the ...

  20. RT-Syn: A real-time software system generator (United States)

    Setliff, Dorothy E.


    This paper presents research into providing highly reusable and maintainable components by using automatic software synthesis techniques. This proposal uses domain knowledge combined with automatic software synthesis techniques to engineer large-scale mission-critical real-time software. The hypothesis centers on a software synthesis architecture that specifically incorporates application-specific (in this case real-time) knowledge. This architecture synthesizes complex system software to meet a behavioral specification and external interaction design constraints. Some examples of these external constraints are communication protocols, precisions, timing, and space limitations. The incorporation of application-specific knowledge facilitates the generation of mathematical software metrics which are used to narrow the design space, thereby making software synthesis tractable. Success has the potential to dramatically reduce mission-critical system life-cycle costs not only by reducing development time, but more importantly facilitating maintenance, modifications, and extensions of complex mission-critical software systems, which are currently dominating life cycle costs.

  1. Syn-collision Hairhan layered intrusion, Lakes Zone, Western Mongolia (United States)

    Vishnevskiy, A. V.; Izokh, A. E.; Kalugin, V. M.; Gertner, I. F.


    In the structure of the Lakes Zone of Western Mongolia, which is reconstructed as the Early Cambrian island arc (Lakes island arc terrane), there are several groups of contiguous space gabbroic intrusions, merged in Hirgisnuur complex. The largest (70 km2) is Hairhan intrusion, located in the central part of the Lake Zone in the Bumbat-Hairhan ridge. The structure of the intrusion disturbed by later tectonic movements and the subsequent formation of Cambrian granitoids Tohtoginshil complex. The structures of the body are two groups of rocks: layered series and marginal facies, fragmentary spread to the periphery of intrusion. Gabbronorites of marginal facies have intrusive contacts with the sedimentary rocks of Early Cambrian age Burgastay formation. The marginal facies, apparent thickness which is 1.5 km, is composed primarily of non-olivine gabbronorites in which there is trachytoid and sometimes bedding. Layered series composes the central part of the Hairhan intrusion, the direction of layering has a northwest strike, coaxial with the long axis of the intrusion. The lower part of the layered series consists mainly troctolites with minor olivine gabbroids. The upper part of the layered series consists mainly of olivine gabbro, troctolite occur here less frequently also observed small schlieren anorthosites. Of particular interest is the horizon taxitic gabbro and being above it - the horizon orbicular gabbro at the top of the layered series. The rocks are widely manifested magmatic disruptive and plastic deformation - both macro and micro levels. They are expressed in the collapse of layering of elements in small folds of varying amplitude (typically to a few tens centimeters), often passing into areas and zones taxitic disruption. The greatest number of these structural elements characteristic of the upper part of the layered series, including the orbicular gabbro and troctolites taxitic horizons. These features indicate intensive tectonic processes that accompanied not only direct intruding, but also the further formation of the magmatic body. Considering we have obtained petrochemical and geochemical data can be summarized that the rocks Hairhan intrusive are of low-Ti and high-Al gabbroic rocks, characterized by Th-U, Zr-Hf, and Ta-Nb minima, a moderate enrichment of LIL-elements and a maximum of Sr, which indicates the source of the melt, associated with island arc related setting. Marginal facies rocks are characterized by increased amounts of TiO2, K2O, P2O5, and more Fe#. The spectra of the REE distribution have identical shape, and differ only by the concentration of the elements. The dating of rocks by SHRIMP-II on single grains of zircon showed age 511±12 Ma, which are reported by other researchers of Lakes Zone indicates the formation of Hairhan intrusion in the settings of island arc accretion to the Proterozoic Baidrag block of Central Mongolia.

  2. SynCoPation: Interactive Synthesis-Coupled Sound Propagation. (United States)

    Rungta, Atul; Schissler, Carl; Mehra, Ravish; Malloy, Chris; Lin, Ming; Manocha, Dinesh


    Recent research in sound simulation has focused on either sound synthesis or sound propagation, and many standalone algorithms have been developed for each domain. We present a novel technique for coupling sound synthesis with sound propagation to automatically generate realistic aural content for virtual environments. Our approach can generate sounds from rigid-bodies based on the vibration modes and radiation coefficients represented by the single-point multipole expansion. We present a mode-adaptive propagation algorithm that uses a perceptual Hankel function approximation technique to achieve interactive runtime performance. The overall approach allows for high degrees of dynamism - it can support dynamic sources, dynamic listeners, and dynamic directivity simultaneously. We have integrated our system with the Unity game engine and demonstrate the effectiveness of this fully-automatic technique for audio content creation in complex indoor and outdoor scenes. We conducted a preliminary, online user-study to evaluate whether our Hankel function approximation causes any perceptible loss of audio quality. The results indicate that the subjects were unable to distinguish between the audio rendered using the approximate function and audio rendered using the full Hankel function in the Cathedral, Tuscany, and the Game benchmarks.

  3. Species boundaries and nomenclature of Rhizopus arrhizus (syn. R. oryzae). (United States)

    Dolatabadi, Somayeh; de Hoog, G Sybren; Meis, Jacques F; Walther, Grit


    Rhizopus arrhizus (Mucorales, Mucoromycotina) is the prevalent opportunist worldwide among the mucoralean species causing human infections. On the other hand the species has been used since ancient times to ferment African and Asian traditional foods and condiments based on ground soybeans. As producer of organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes it is widely applied in food industry and biotechnology. Using a set of 82 strains we studied phylogenetic and biological species boundaries within Rhizopus arrhizus s.l. to test the taxonomic status of R. delemar that was recently separated from R. arrhizus. Sequence analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer region, the gene of the largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II, a part of the actin gene, and the translation elongation factor 1-α as well as amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis were performed. Phenotypic characters such as enzyme profiles and growth kinetics were examined and the mating behavior was tested. Molecular analyses supported the existence of two phylogenetic species. However, the results of the mating test suggest that the mating barrier is still not complete. No physiological, ecological or epidemiological distinction could be found beside the difference in the production of organic acids. Consequently the status of varieties is proposed for the two phylogenetic species. Because the description of the first described R. arrhizus is considered to be conclusive we recommend the use of Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus and var. delemar.

  4. The Mi-2-like Smed-CHD4 gene is required for stem cell differentiation in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. (United States)

    Scimone, M Lucila; Meisel, Joshua; Reddien, Peter W


    Freshwater planarians are able to regenerate any missing part of their body and have extensive tissue turnover because of the action of dividing cells called neoblasts. Neoblasts provide an excellent system for in vivo study of adult stem cell biology. We identified the Smed-CHD4 gene, which is predicted to encode a chromatin-remodeling protein similar to CHD4/Mi-2 proteins, as required for planarian regeneration and tissue homeostasis. Following inhibition of Smed-CHD4 with RNA interference (RNAi), neoblast numbers were initially normal, despite an inability of the animals to regenerate. However, the proliferative response of neoblasts to amputation or growth stimulation in Smed-CHD4(RNAi) animals was diminished. Smed-CHD4(RNAi) animals displayed a dramatic reduction in the numbers of certain neoblast progeny cells. Smed-CHD4 was required for the formation of these neoblast progeny cells. Together, these results indicate that Smed-CHD4 is required for neoblasts to produce progeny cells committed to differentiation in order to control tissue turnover and regeneration and suggest a crucial role for CHD4 proteins in stem cell differentiation.





    El hecho de que los purines de cerdo actualmente constituyan un problema medio ambiental grave se debe principalmente al cambio en el sistema de explotación ganadera, ligado a su intensificación. Entre los años 60 y 90, hubo en España una reducción de las explotaciones de porcino con tierra del 75% (Coll, 1993). Esta tendencia a un sistema productivo de tipo Intensivo, con explotaciones sin tierra, alta mecanización, alimentación a base de piensos compuestos, etc., lleva consigo una serie ...

  6. Evaluation of a bioassays battery for ecotoxicological screening of marine sediments from Ionian Sea (Mediterranea Sea, Southern Italy). (United States)

    Prato, Ermelinda; Parlapiano, Isabella; Biandolino, Francesca


    Sediments are an ecologically important component of the aquatic environment and may play a key role in mediating the exchange of contaminants between particulate, dissolved, and biological phases. For a comprehensive assessment of potential sediment toxicity, the use of a single species may not detect toxicant with a specific mode of action. Therefore it is advisable to carry out ecotoxicological tests on a base-set of taxa utilizing test species belonging to different trophic levels. This paper describes the ecotoxicological evaluation of marine sediments from seven sites of Mar Piccolo estuary (Southern, Italy), four of them were located in the first inlet and three in the second inlet of Mar Piccolo estuary. Sediment samples from a site in Taranto Gulf were used as control sediment. Dunaliella tertiolecta, Tigriopus fulvus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and Corophium insidiosum, were employed to identify the quality of sediments. The integration of biological tests results showed that all sampling sites located in the first inlet of Mar Piccolo were identified as toxic, according to all tests, while the sites of second inlet were found not toxic. The results obtained in this study indicate that the use of a battery of biological tests have important implications for risk assessment in estuarine e coastal waters.

  7. Solar plan Mediterranean and Euro-Mediterranean energy integration; El plan solar Mediterraneo y la integracion energetica Euro-Mediterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Quemada, J. M.; Escribano Frances, G.


    The Euro-mediterranean Partnership, the EU energy policy and the neighbourhood policy have shown their limits in fostering Euro-mediterranean energy integration. This article argues that an adequate design of the Mediterranean Solar Plan could offer a functioning driver for physical, and more importantly, normative integration of renewable energies that could subsequently ease the integration of conventional energies. In order to achieve such a result, it will be needed to develop well-defined and predictable regulatory mechanisms and institutional frameworks that facilitate investments. (Author) 33 refs.

  8. Syn-collisional exhumation of Sumdo eclogite in the Lhasa Terrane, Tibet: Evidences from structural deformation and 40Ar-39Ar geochronology.%拉萨地体内松多榴辉岩的同碰撞折返:来自构造变形和40Ar-39Ar年代学的证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李化启; 许志琴; 杨经绥; 唐哲民; 杨梅


    松多地区的区域构造变形与糜棱质白云母石英片岩和绿片岩的白云母单矿物40Ar-39Ar年代学测试表明拉萨地体内的松多地区于220~240 Ma经历过印支期碰撞造山事件.这次造山事件为晚二叠世松多榴辉岩带代表的古特提斯洋盆消失闭合之后北拉萨地体与南冈瓦那大陆碰撞的结果.该区榴辉岩与退变榴辉岩白云母和角闪石的40Ar-39Ar测年结果也为220~240 Ma,且退变榴辉岩经历了与围岩一致的同构造变形,说明榴辉岩折返退变的时代和碰撞造山的时代一致.即碰撞造山的强挤压及挤压转换作用应是本区榴辉岩折返出露的主要机制.拉萨地体内印支晚期(210~190 Ma)大规模花岗岩带的发育从另一个侧面说明松多榴辉岩的折返与造山后伸展和区域内大规模花岗岩浆活动等后期热事件没关系,应为同碰撞折返机制.研究结果为高压变质岩石的同碰撞折返研究提供了一个具体实例和翔实的地质资料.%The structural deformation and muscovite and amphibole 40Ar-39Ar dating of muscovite quartz schist,eclogite and retrograde eclogite indicate that an Indosinian orogenesis occurred in 220 - 240 Ma in the Lhasa Terrane, which caused the closure of Paleo-Tethys ocean basin and the collision between the northern Lhasa Terrane and southern Gondwana. The accordance of muscovite and amphibole 40Ar-39Ar dating among eclogite,retrograde eclogite and muscovite quartz schist shows that the eclogite exhumation and Indosinian collisional orogenesis occurred simultaneously, which suggests that the regional ductile extrusion should be the main mechanism for the exhumation of Sumdo eclogite. The existence of large scale granite belt of late Indochina EPoch in the Lhasa Terrane, with the high precision single zircon U-Pb ages of 210 - 190 Ma, confirms the syn-collisional exhumation of eclogite from the another side, indicating that the eclogite exhumation had no relation to the

  9. Theoretical study on magneto-structural correlation of trinuclear copper (II) complex with the hydroxo bridge and bidentate syn-syn carboxylate group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Zhongnan; WU Jian; LIU Chengbu; WANG Ruoxi; SUN Youmin


    The theoretical study on magneto- structural correlation in linear trinuclear Cu (II) complex bridged by hydroxo group and bidentate formato group has been performed using the broken symmetry approach with the framework of density functional theory (DFT-BS). The magnetic coupling constant for the model complex is 70.97 cm-1, comparable with the experimentally measured J value (77 cm-1). The calculated results show that the magnetic coupling interaction firstly slightly increases with the changes of the coordination environment around the terminal Cu atoms from a distorted square pyramid to a trigonal bi-pyramid, and decreases subsequently. In the course of changes, the sign of J value shifts from positive to negative. The magnetic coupling interaction is sensitive to coordination environment of the terminal Cu. The calculated results also reveal that the ferromagnetic coupling arises from the countercomplementarity of the hydroxo and formato bridges. Molecular orbital analysis validates the conclusion.

  10. Identificación y caracterización de una glicina oxidasa en Marinomonas mediterranea perteneciente a una nueva familia de qinoproteínas


    Campillo Brocal, Jonatan Cristian


    Las L-aminoácido oxidasas (LAOs) son flavoproteínas que oxidan L-aminoácidos en posición alfa y producen el cetoácido correspondiente, amonio y peróxido de hidrógeno, que les proporciona cierta capacidad antimicrobiana. Están ampliamente distribuidas a lo largo de la escala evolutiva y están implicadas en procesos como la defensa innata de peces, sistema inmune de humanos, desarrollo de biofilms bacterianos, etc. El estudio de las LAOs tiene un gran interés en campos como la biomedicina y son...

  11. Perturbaciones de los fuegos de verano en la palma mas austral del mundo (Jubaea Chilensis (mol. Baillon en microcuencas costeras de la Zona Mediterranea de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Quintanilla Pérez


    Full Text Available Uno de los principales factores de degradación de las microcuencas costeras de la región de Valparaíso corresponde a los incendios forestales, como también a la expansión urbana y a las obras de infraestructura, que han implicado una importante disminución de la superficie vegetal nativa y que posee especies de un alto valor geobotánico y endémico, como es el caso de la palma chilena (Jubaea chilensis. Esta palmera se encuentra en la formación del bosque esclerófilo de Chile central (30o-37oS., área en la cual ocurren la mayor parte de los fuegos vegetales durante el vera- no en el país. A través de los registros de incendios que comprende el período 2000-2012, se han definido en el área de estudio los sectores críticos con mayor impacto de los fuegos; información que es complementada con la aplicación de índices de vegetación (NDVI a partir de imágenes satelitales Landsat e imágenes Theos-I de diferentes temporadas de verano.

  12. Mediterranean-style diet effect on the structural properties of the erythrocyte cell membrane of hypertensive patients: the Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea Study. (United States)

    Barceló, Francisca; Perona, Javier S; Prades, Jesús; Funari, Sérgio S; Gomez-Gracia, Enrique; Conde, Manuel; Estruch, Ramon; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina


    A currently ongoing randomized trial has revealed that the Mediterranean diet, rich in virgin olive oil or nuts, reduces systolic blood pressure in high-risk cardiovascular patients. Here, we present a structural substudy to assess the effect of a Mediterranean-style diet supplemented with nuts or virgin olive oil on erythrocyte membrane properties in 36 hypertensive participants after 1 year of intervention. Erythrocyte membrane lipid composition, structural properties of reconstituted erythrocyte membranes, and serum concentrations of inflammatory markers are reported. After the intervention, the membrane cholesterol content decreased, whereas that of phospholipids increased in all of the dietary groups; the diminishing cholesterol:phospholipid ratio could be associated with an increase in the membrane fluidity. Moreover, reconstituted membranes from the nuts and virgin olive oil groups showed a higher propensity to form a nonlamellar inverted hexagonal phase structure that was related to an increase in phosphatidylethanolamine lipid class. These data suggest that the Mediterranean-style diet affects the lipid metabolism that is altered in hypertensive patients, influencing the structural membrane properties. The erythrocyte membrane modulation described provides insight in the structural bases underlying the beneficial effect of a Mediterranean-style diet in hypertensive subjects.

  13. Piattaforma multimediale e interattiva, per la conoscenza e la salvaguardia del patrimonio Ambientale ed Architettonico in area Mediterranea con particolare riferimento alla regione del Maghreb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Tosto


    Full Text Available La salvaguardia del patrimonio culturale, storico e architettonico occupa un posizione di rilievo all’interno dei diversi campi di applicazione che riguardano la comunicazione globale. La società attuale trova al giorno d’oggi nella comunicazione globale il più importante strumento di informazione. Dall’interazione tra beni culturali e nuove tecnologie, sicuramente, potranno crearsi numerose opportunità a livello conservativo, comunicativo e di sviluppo economico per quello che riguarda il ricchissimo patrimonio storico-artistico presente nel Mediterraneo. Il bacino mediterraneo ed in particolar modo l’area del Maghreb offre un vastissimo repertorio di casi utili per sperimentare metodi di indagine, teorie e tecniche utili per la comprensione, il recupero e la salvaguardia di impianti architettonici di rilevante importanza storico-culturale. Con il termine Maghreb (che in arabo significa “occidente” si identifica l’intera regione dell’Africa settentrionale che comprende Marocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libia, Egitto.

  14. SYN-JEM : A Quantitative Job-Exposure Matrix for Five Lung Carcinogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roel; Portengen, L??tzen; Olsson, Ann; Kendzia, Benjamin; Vincent, Raymond; Savary, Barbara; LavouCrossed Sign, Jcrossed D Signr??me; Cavallo, Domenico; Cattaneo, Andrea; Mirabelli, Dario; Plato, Nils; Fevotte, Joelle; Pesch, Beate; Br??ning, Thomas; Straif, Kurt; Kromhout, Hans


    OBJECTIVE The use of measurement data in occupational exposure assessment allows more quantitative analyses of possible exposure-response relations. We describe a quantitative exposure assessment approach for five lung carcinogens (i.e. asbestos, chromium-VI, nickel, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  15. Argumentera mera! : Sju svensklärares syn på arbetet med argumenterande text


    Wiberg, Maria; Johansson, Simon


    This essay is a qualitative study that examines seven teachers ́ views on argumentative texts. The aim is to examine how teachers work and discuss argumentative texts, and how they work to develop students ́ writing. The main question is: What are the teachers experience, perception and attitude about working with argumentative text? Furthermore: What specific features are important when they mark this type of text? : How do teachers work with formative grading in terms of writing this type o...

  16. Syn- and postkinematic cement textures in fractured carbonate rocks: Insights from advanced cathodoluminescence imaging (United States)

    Ukar, Estibalitz; Laubach, Stephen E.


    In calcite and dolomite deposits in fractures, transmitted light and optical cathodoluminescence methods detect crack-seal texture in some fractures, but scanning electron microscope-based cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) combined with secondary-electron images and element maps, reveals crack-seal and cement growth textures where previous SEM-CL imaging methods found massive or featureless deposits. In a range of fractured carbonate rocks, patterns and textures of calcite and dolomite cements precipitated during and after fracture growth resemble complex accumulation patterns found in quartz in sandstone fractures, suggesting that some apparent differences between carbonate mineral and quartz deposits in fractures reflect the limits of previous imaging methods. Advances in delineating textures in widespread carbonate mineral deposits in fractures provide evidence for growth and occlusion of fracture porosity.

  17. An unusual syn-eruptive bimodal eruption: The Holocene Cuicuiltic Member at Los Humeros caldera, Mexico (United States)

    Dávila-Harris, Pablo; Carrasco-Núñez, Gerardo


    The Cuicuiltic Member (CM) at Los Humeros Caldera, eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt is a Holocene (6.4 ka B.P.) succession of alternated fallout deposits of contrasting composition (trachydacite pumice and basaltic andesite scoria). The CM covers approximately 250 km2 on its proximal facies and its thickness ranges from 1.5 m to 8.0 m. It postdates two caldera-forming ignimbrites (Xaltipan and Zaragoza) and numerous Plinian successions. It is subdivided in 9 units (C1 to C9) according to its textural and chemical characteristics. Sub-horizontal, topography-draping layers of trachydacite pumice lapilli, andesitic pumice lapilli and basaltic-andesite scoria lapilli with sporadic one-meter blocks are common lithofacies. The base is formed by coarse trachydacite pumice lapilli (C1 and C2), overlain by a layer with banded pumice (C3). Thin layers of ash and ash-tuff are intermittent on lower units, whilst continuous at the base of C4. The middle units, C4 and C6 are basaltic-andesite pumice, and scoria lapilli to blocks; C5 is in-between the two mafic units and it is represented by a layer of pale grey pumice lapilli. Units C7 and C8 are a mixture of white trachydacite pumice, scoria lapilli and banded pumice. The uppermost layer, C9, is a brown to grey andesitic pumice lapilli. Extensive fieldwork allowed a close and reliable correlation of layers that helps to understand the complexity of stratigraphic relations and sources for those layers. The distribution of these units is varied across the caldera, with the trachydacite layers dispersal from the centre towards the NW, whilst the andesitic units have maximum thicknesses over the SE and NE sectors of the caldera. Isopach and isopleth maps, combined with detailed mapping of near-vent spatter facies, orientation of local bomb sags and variation of mean clasts size for some layers were very useful to determine the vent location, particularly for the andesitic-basaltic layers.

  18. Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia: Muridae Infected by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum (syn. Le. chagasi in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana de Oliveira Lara-Silva


    Full Text Available In the present study we surveyed the fauna of phlebotomine sand flies and small mammals in peridomestic areas from a Brazilian municipality where the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is endemic. A total of 608 female phlebotomine sand flies were captured during nine months in 2009 and 2010. Seven different species were represented with 60% of them being Lutzomyia intermedia and Lu. whitmani, both incriminated vectors of ACL. Lu. longipalpis, a proven vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL was also captured at high proportion (12.8%. Genomic DNA analysis of 136 species-specific pools of female sand flies followed by molecular genotyping showed the presence of Leishmania infantum DNA in two pools of Lu. longipalpis. The same Leishmania species was found in one blood sample from Rattus norvegicus among 119 blood and tissue samples analysed. This is the first report of Le. infantum in R. norvegicus in the Americas and suggests a possible role for this rodent species in the zoonotic cycle of VL. Our study coincided with the reemergence of VL in Governador Valadares.

  19. Forfriskende syn på bæredygtighed (Refreshing view on sustainability)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen


    . This ascribes a high sustainability to highly developed living creatures like humans. Based on this definition, the book analyses how the present systems is deteriorated by humans in various ways, and suggest how this process can be reversed through political actions, mainly in the biological sphere like...

  20. Danske og svenske forbrugeres syn på e-handel med dagligvarer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Niels


    deresdagligvareindkøb online. En medvirkende årsag kan dog desuden være, at mangeforbrugere ikke har tilstrækkeligt med informationer til at kunne skønne omfanget af deomkostninger, som må bæres af online leverandøren i forbindelse med pakning,distribution mv. af dagligvarerne.Undersøgelsen viser, at et klart og...... gratisugentlig levering ved køb over et bestemt beløb. Virksomheden kan beregne sig frem tilhvilket max. indkøbsbeløb pr. køb, der skal til, for at den tjener penge på at sælge. Gebyrfrilevering af dagligvarer har vist sig vigtig for at få gang i den hendøende e- handel. Hvisforbrugerne ønsker en bedre service...

  1. Vad är Anime? : Svensk syn på ett japanskt fenomen


    Hansson, Pelle


    Syftet med min uppsats är att försöka förmedla hur man ser på anime, ett så typiskt japanskt fenomen, här i väst? Vidare så har jag genom litteraturstudier försökt presentera för läsaren vad anime är för något. Detta görs genom en kort historisk presentation av anime för att sedan djupare visa strukturen i anime, karaktärer, innehåll och slutligen huruvida anime återspeglar nutida oro i det egna samhället. Även en viss diskussion förs gällande anime och dess legitimitet som japanskt kulturarv...

  2. Ultrastructural aspects of Cystoisospora belli (syn. Isospora belli) in continuous cell lines. (United States)

    Resende, Deisy V; Assis, Dnieber C; Ribeiro, Múcio F Barbosa; Cabrine-Santos, Marlene; Frenkel, Jacob K; Correia, Dalmo; Oliveira-Silva, Márcia B


    Cystoisospora belli is an opportunistic protozoan that causes human cystoisosporiasis, an infection characterized by diarrhea, steatorrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. The lack of animal models susceptible to C. belli, and the difficulty in obtaining clinical samples with fair amounts of oocysts have limited the research pertaining to the basic biology of this parasite. This study aimed to describe the ultrastructure of endogenous stages of C. belli in Monkey Rhesus Kidney Cells (MK2) and Human Ileocecal Adenocarcinoma cells (HCT-8). Zoites of C. belli exhibited typical morphological features of coccidia, which included a trilaminar pellicle, an apical complex formed by a conoid, polar rings, rhoptries, and micronemes, in addition to dense granules and the endoplasmic reticulum. No crystalloid body was observed but various lipid and amylopectin granules were usually present in the cytoplasm of zoites. We observed a tendency of the endoplasmic reticulum of the host cell to be located near the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. Merozoites were formed by endodyogeny and during replication, the apical complex of the mother cell remained intact. The formation of gametes or oocysts was not observed. The ultrastructural findings of C. belli are further evidence of its proximity to Sarcocystidae family members and corroborate their reclassification as Cystoisospora spp.

  3. Growth physiology and dimorphism of Mucor circinelloides (syn. racemosus) during submerged batch cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcintyre, Mhairi; Breum, J.; Arnau, J.


    filamentous fungi under similar growth conditions. High levels of ethanol were observed with all growth conditions. The overriding effector of morphological development was found to be oxygen. In batch cultures it was therefore possible to induce the dimorphic shift by controlling the influent gas atmosphere...... of biomass on glucose (Y-SX) was 0.12 (c-mole basis). A high maximum specific growth rate was obtained when the organism grew as the filamentous form under aerobic conditions (0.25 h(-1)), with a Y-SX of 0.24 (c-mole basis). The maximum specific growth rates achieved are comparable to most industrial....... A specific growth rate of 0.19 h(-1) was maintained during the shift from the yeast to the filamentous form....

  4. Syn-ecological study of benthic foraminifera of the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiltermann, H.


    The ecological-biosociological analysis of 170 secies of benthic foraminifera obtained from 87 bottom sediment samples of the Gulf of Mexico (Depth range 152 to 3515 m) as presented by Pflum and Frerichs 1976 allows the distinction of 8 different biocenoses. Each of these biocenotic units is characterized by its own specific parameters. One of those, the temperatur, appears to be important for the ecology. The average specimen-number decreases with increasing water depth down to 10.4% of the number observed in shallower water. The agglutinated foraminifera have the highest occurrence of specimens between 710 and 1980 m. In 2 of the 8 units species were observed which are foreign to the biotops.

  5. Tabte galdeblæresten i bughulen - et sjældent syn ved obduktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolborg, Uffe


    Der præsenteres en sygehistorie, hvor man ved retslægelig obduktion fandt galdesten i abdomen hovedsaglig i tarmkrøset og på leverens overflade.......Der præsenteres en sygehistorie, hvor man ved retslægelig obduktion fandt galdesten i abdomen hovedsaglig i tarmkrøset og på leverens overflade....

  6. Revision of Myxobolus heterosporus Baker, 1963 (syn. Myxosoma Heterospora) (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) in African records. (United States)

    el-Mansy, A


    There is uncertainty regarding the validity of Myxobolus heterosporus Baker, 1963. The present study revises the taxonomy, using specimens isolated from plasmodia situated in the infected cornea of Oreochromis aureus, O. niloticus or Tilapia zillii inhabiting the River Nile, Egypt. In addition, histological effects of the parasite on the infected tissue were examined. The spores of M. heterosporus had a variety of shapes expressing remarkable heteromorphism. Five main Myxobolus-like spore types and tailed-spores were found. All forms were photographed, measured, sketched and described. Light and electron microscopy supported that spores of a Myxobolus-like morphology co-existed with so-called tailed-spores in one plasmodium. Some transitional stages from Myxobolus-like spore types to tailed-spores were observed. Therefore, some tailed-spores may be simply heteromorphs of Myxobolus.

  7. Tabte galdeblæresten i bughulen - et sjældent syn ved obduktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolborg, Uffe


    Der præsenteres en sygehistorie, hvor man ved retslægelig obduktion fandt galdesten i abdomen hovedsaglig i tarmkrøset og på leverens overflade.......Der præsenteres en sygehistorie, hvor man ved retslægelig obduktion fandt galdesten i abdomen hovedsaglig i tarmkrøset og på leverens overflade....

  8. Genes and Structural Proteins of the Phage Syn5 of the Marine Cyanobacteria Synechococcus (United States)


    was attached to an aquarium pump, filtered through a 0.4[1 bacterial air vent (VWR) and attached to the air input of the culture vessel. Opposite the...2005; Sullivan et al., 2005). The short-tailed Synechococcus phage P60 (isolated on WH7803 from a Georgia estuary), while morphologically identical to...isolates of the Sargasso Sea and Georgia Estuary, respectively, the latter 97 hypothesis seems unlikely. On the other hand, examination of ORF54 appears to

  9. Pre-, Syn- and Post Eruptive Seismicity of the 2011 Eruption of Nabro Volcano, Eritrea (United States)

    Goitom, Berhe; Hammond, James; Kendall, Michael; Nowacky, Andy; Keir, Derek; Oppenheimer, Clive; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Ayele, Atalay; Ibrahim, Said; Jacques, Eric


    Nabro volcano, located in south-east Eritrea, East Africa, lies at the eastern margin of the Afar Rift and the Danakil Depression. Its tectonic behaviour is controlled by the divergence of the Arabian, Nubian and Somali plates. Nabro volcano was thought to be seismically quiet until it erupted in June 2011 with limited warning. The volcano erupted on June 12, 2011 around 20:32 UTC, following a series of earthquakes on that day that reached a maximum magnitude of 5.8. It is the first recorded eruption of Nabro volcano and only the second in Eritrea, following the Dubbi eruption in 1861. A lava flow emerged from the caldera and travelled about 20 km from the vent and buried settlements in the area. At the time of this eruption there was no seismic network in Eritrea, and hence the volcano was not monitored. In this study we use ten Ethiopian, one Yemeni and one Djibouti stations to investigate the seismicity of the area before, during and after the eruption. Four Eritrean seismic stations deployed in June 2011, four days after the eruption, are also included in the dataset. Travel time picks supplied by colleagues from Djibouti were also incorporated into the dataset. Our analysis covers roughly three months before and after the eruption and shows that Nabro was seismically quiet before the eruption (nine events), with the exception of one major earthquake (4.8 magnitude) that occurred on March 31, 2011. In contrast, the region shows continued seismic activity after the eruption (92 events). During the eruption seismicity levels are high (123 events), with two days particularly active, June 12 and June 17 with 85 and 28 discrete events, respectively. Maximum magnitudes of 5.8 and 5.9 were recorded on these two days. The two days of increased seismicity are consistent with satellite observations of the eruption which show two distinct phases of the eruption. The period between these two phases was dominated by volcanic tremor. The tremor signal lasted for almost one month following the initiation of the eruption. In summary, we have shown that the volcano was relatively quiet before eruption but continued to be seismically active for an extended period of time afterwards.

  10. Det offentliges snævre syn på konkurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas


    Det er et mantra, men et stærkt funderet mantra, at velfungerende konkurrence på markeder er et godt fundament for virksomhedernes udvikling af deres konkurrenceevne - og dermed er konkurrence godt for velfærd og vækst....

  11. Immobilisation and characterisation of glucose dehydrogenase immobilised on ReSyn: a proprietary polyethylenimine support matrix

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Twala, BV


    Full Text Available Immobilisation of enzymes is of considerable interest due to the advantages over soluble enzymes, including improved stability and recovery. Glucose Dehydrogenase (GDH) is an important biocatalytic enzyme due to is ability to recycle the biological...

  12. Fault zone architecture within Miocene–Pliocene syn-rift sediments, Northwestern Red Sea, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Khairy S Zaky


    The present study focusses on field description of small normal fault zones in Upper Miocene–Pliocene sedimentary rocks on the northwestern side of the Red Sea, Egypt. The trend of these fault zones is mainly NW–SE. Paleostress analysis of 17 fault planes and slickenlines indicate that the tension direction is NE–SW. The minimum (σ3) and intermediate (σ2) paleostress axes are generally sub-horizontal and the maximum paleostress axis (σ1) is sub-vertical. The fault zones are composed of damage zones and fault core. The damage zone is characterized by subsidiary faults and fractures that are asymmetrically developed on the hanging wall and footwall of the main fault. The width of the damage zone varies for each fault depending on the lithology, amount of displacement and irregularity of the fault trace. The average ratio between the hanging wall and the footwall damage zones width is about 3:1. The fault core consists of fault gouge and breccia. It is generally concentrated in a narrow zone of ∼0.5 to ∼8 cm width. The overall pattern of the fault core indicates that the width increases with increasing displacement. The faults with displacement <1 m have fault cores ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 cm, while the faults with displacements of >2 m have fault cores ranging from 4.0 to 8.0 cm. The fault zones are associated with sliver fault blocks, clay smear, segmented faults and fault lenses’ structural features. These features are mechanically related to the growth and linkage of the fault arrays. The structural features may represent a neotectonic and indicate that the architecture of the fault zones is developed as several tectonic phases.

  13. Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia: Muridae) Infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn. Le. chagasi) in Brazil. (United States)

    Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Lopes, Maria Olímpia Garcia; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Dias, Edelberto Santos


    In the present study we surveyed the fauna of phlebotomine sand flies and small mammals in peridomestic areas from a Brazilian municipality where the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic. A total of 608 female phlebotomine sand flies were captured during nine months in 2009 and 2010. Seven different species were represented with 60% of them being Lutzomyia intermedia and Lu. whitmani, both incriminated vectors of ACL. Lu. longipalpis, a proven vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was also captured at high proportion (12.8%). Genomic DNA analysis of 136 species-specific pools of female sand flies followed by molecular genotyping showed the presence of Leishmania infantum DNA in two pools of Lu. longipalpis. The same Leishmania species was found in one blood sample from Rattus norvegicus among 119 blood and tissue samples analysed. This is the first report of Le. infantum in R. norvegicus in the Americas and suggests a possible role for this rodent species in the zoonotic cycle of VL. Our study coincided with the reemergence of VL in Governador Valadares.

  14. Charles Darwin havde et nuanceret syn på dyreforsøg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen


    Jeg har i en tidligere blog været inde på, hvordan Charles Darwins evolutionsteori har haft betydning for vores valg af forsøgsdyr. Men hvordan så Charles Darwin egentlig selv på dyreforsøg og dyrevelfærd? Faktisk var det et emne, der optog ham dybt. Allerede i 1838, over tyve år før offentliggør...... (engelsk: The Descent of Man). Først da turde han på tryk redegøre for, at mennesket og dyrene har fælles ophav....

  15. First report of Pantoea ananatis (Syn. Erwinia uredovora) being associated with peanut rust in Georgia (United States)

    Peanut rust is caused by the fungus Puccinia arachidis. This disease, if not treated can cause severe damage and defoliation. While sequencing DNA of urediniospores of the rust fungus, BLAST analysis detected many sequences corresponding to the bacterial species Pantoea ananatis. This bacterium, ...

  16. Syn for sagn. Dansk arkæologi og historie i 1800-tallet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerløff, Anne Katrine


    En undersøgelse af forholdet mellem historie og den forhistoriske arkæologi i Danmark i 1800-tallet. Der lægges vægt på arkæologiens professionalisering  og begyndende afvisning af de skriftlige kilders relevans for forhistorien og på kildeopfattelsens betydning for de to fags adskillelse og iden...

  17. Fault zone architecture within Miocene-Pliocene syn-rift sediments, Northwestern Red Sea, Egypt (United States)

    Zaky, Khairy S.


    The present study focusses on field description of small normal fault zones in Upper Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary rocks on the northwestern side of the Red Sea, Egypt. The trend of these fault zones is mainly NW-SE. Paleostress analysis of 17 fault planes and slickenlines indicate that the tension direction is NE-SW. The minimum ( σ3) and intermediate ( σ2) paleostress axes are generally sub-horizontal and the maximum paleostress axis ( σ1) is sub-vertical. The fault zones are composed of damage zones and fault core. The damage zone is characterized by subsidiary faults and fractures that are asymmetrically developed on the hanging wall and footwall of the main fault. The width of the damage zone varies for each fault depending on the lithology, amount of displacement and irregularity of the fault trace. The average ratio between the hanging wall and the footwall damage zones width is about 3:1. The fault core consists of fault gouge and breccia. It is generally concentrated in a narrow zone of ˜0.5 to ˜8 cm width. The overall pattern of the fault core indicates that the width increases with increasing displacement. The faults with displacement 2 m have fault cores ranging from 4.0 to 8.0 cm. The fault zones are associated with sliver fault blocks, clay smear, segmented faults and fault lenses' structural features. These features are mechanically related to the growth and linkage of the fault arrays. The structural features may represent a neotectonic and indicate that the architecture of the fault zones is developed as several tectonic phases.

  18. Views on safety culture at Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants; Syn paa saekerhetskultur vid svenska och finska kaernkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammar, L. [ES-konsulent, (Sweden); Wahlstroem, B.; Kettunen, J. [VTT Automation (Finland)


    The report presents the results of interviews about safety culture at Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants. The aim is to promote the safety work and increase the debate about safety in nuclear power plants, by showing that the safety culture is an important safety factor. The interviews point out different threats, which may become real. It is therefor necessary that the safety aspects get support from of the society and the power plant owners. (EHS)

  19. N-Phenyl-2-p-tolylthiazole-4-carboxamide derivatives: Syn-thesis and cytotoxicity evaluation as anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohammadi-Farani


    Conclusion: A new series of phenylthiazole derivatives were synthesized and their anticancer activity was assessed against cancerous cell lines. More structural modifications and derivatization is necessary to achieve to the more potent compounds.       

  20. Occurrence of antioxidant and radical scavenging proanthocyanidins from the Indian minor spice nagkesar (Mammea longifolia planch and triana syn). (United States)

    Rao, Lingamallu Jagan Mohan; Yada, Hiroshi; Ono, Hiroshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Yoshida, Mitsuru


    Nagkesar (buds of Mammea longifolia) is extensively used in culinary preparations especially in spice blend in India. Previously thirteen compounds were identified from the medium polar fractions of methanol extract of buds of M. longifolia. In continuation of the study, the polar fraction of methanol extract exhibited stronger antioxidative and radical scavenging activities. An attempt was made to separate and identify the active compounds and found that those were proanthocyanidin oligomers with mean degree of polymerisation ranges from 2 to 10. This is the first report to indicate that Mammea buds contain antioxidant and radical scavenging procyanidin oligomers.

  1. Analysis on the Formation and Elimination of Ambiguity in English Syn-tactic Ambiguity from the Cognitive Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-rong


    English ambiguity expressions have been a heat topic in language research for a long time with a variety of theories and methods. Among them, the cognitive approach, just like the Figure-Ground theory, relevance theory and cognitive context theory, is a relatively new and vigorous perspective. However, as to studying ambiguity from the perspective of attention, very few researches have been done in this regard. By analyzing different types of English ambiguity expressions, it is necessary to explore how ambiguity expressions are formed and eliminated from the attentional view, and to provide some new insights into ambiguity study.

  2. Diastereodivergent Access to Syn and Anti 3,4-Substituted β-Fluoropyrrolidines: Enhancing or Reversing Substrate Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelbye, Kasper; Marigo, Mauro; Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius


    A practical diastereodivergent access to β-fluoropyrrolidines with two adjacent stereocenters has been demonstrated, by either enhancing or completely reversing the substrate control, in the diastereoselective fluorination of a series of diverse pyrrolidinyl carbaldehydes using organocatalysis...

  3. Highly selective biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to Rd by the phytopathogenic fungus Cladosporium fulvum (syn. Fulvia fulva). (United States)

    Zhao, Xuesong; Wang, Juan; Li, Jie; Fu, Ling; Gao, Juan; Du, Xiuli; Bi, Hongtao; Zhou, Yifa; Tai, Guihua


    Fourteen phytopathogenic fungi were tested for their ability to transform the major ginsenosides to the active minor ginsenoside Rd. The transformation products were identified by TLC and HPLC, and their structures were assigned by NMR analysis. Cladosporium fulvum, a tomato pathogen, was found to transform major ginsenoside Rb(1) to Rd as the sole product. The following optimum conditions for transforming Rd by C. fulvum were determined: the time of substrate addition, 24 h; substrate concentration, 0.25 mg ml(-1); temperature, 37 degrees C; pH 5.0; and biotransformation period, 8 days. At these optimum conditions, the maximum yield was 86% (molar ratio). Further, a preparative scale transformation with C. fulvum was performed at a dose of 100 mg of Rb(1) by a yield of 80%. This fungus has potential to be applied on the preparation for Rd in pharmaceutical industry.

  4. 检测SYN洪水攻击的动态模型%A Dynamic Model for Detecting SYN Flooding Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东琦; 王长山; 林延福


    分布式拒绝服务攻击对Internet威胁很大.正常服务器在这种攻击下资源会被很快消耗掉,从而不能为合法用户提供服务.本文提出了一个简单实用的动态检测模型用于检测SYN洪水攻击,可以实时有效和准确地检测到最为流行的SYN洪水攻击.在模型中采用基于CUSUM(Cumulative Sum)的自调整算法,可以有效降低系统的误报率.

  5. Syn-kinematic palaeogeographic evolution of the West European Platform: correlation with Alpine plate collision and foreland deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sissingh, W.

    Sequence stratigraphic correlations indicate that intermittent changes of the kinematic far-field stress-field regimes, and the associated geodynamic re-organisations at the plate-tectonic contacts of the African, Apulian, Iberian and European plates, affected the Tertiary palaeogeographic evolution

  6. Cladosporium fulvum (syn. Passalora fulva), a highly specialized plant pathogen as a model for functional studies on plant pathogenic Mycosphaerellaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Esse, van H.P.; Crous, P.W.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.


    Taxonomy: Cladosporium fulvum is an asexual fungus for which no sexual stage is currently known. Molecular data, however, support C. fulvum as a member of the Mycosphaerellaceae, clustering with other taxa having Mycosphaerella teleomorphs. C. fulvum has recently been placed in the anamorph genus Pa

  7. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Cis-syn Cyclobutane 1-(Carboxyethyl)thymine Dimer Monopentyl Amide Monotryptophan Methyl Ester Amide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Wen-Jian; SONG Hai-Bin; SONG Qin-Hua


    The crystal structure of the title compound (C34H47N7O9, Mr=697.79) has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal belongs to monoclinic, space group P21 with a=9.000(8), b=11.360(10), c=17.841(15)(A), β=97.083(14)°, V=1810(3) (A)3, Z=2, F(000)=744, Dc=1.280 g/cm3, μ=0.094 mm-1, the final R=0.0721 and wR=0.1942 for 2479 observed reflections with Ⅰ > 2σ(Ⅰ). The two methyl groups attached to the cyclobutane ring are cis oriented. An intramolecular hydrogen bond (N(6)-H(6)…O(8)) (A)ntroduces rigidity into the title molecule and the crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N-H…O hydrogen bonds.

  8. Neotectonics of the Roer Valley rift system; style and rate of crustal deformation inferred from syn-tectonic sedimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.W.


    River sediments of the Meuse, Rhine and local Belgian systems have been preserved in various parts of the Roer Valley rift. Age-altitude positions of Meuse terraces provide a detailed record of neotectonic regional uplift. It shows accelerations and decelerations superimposed on a long-term average

  9. Excitatory Synaptic Drive and Feedforward Inhibition in the Hippocampal CA3 Circuit Are Regulated by SynCAM 1


    Park, Kellie A.; Ribic, Adema; Laage Gaupp, Fabian M.; Coman, Daniel; Huang, Yuegao; Dulla, Chris G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Biederer, Thomas


    Select adhesion proteins control the development of synapses and modulate their structural and functional properties. Despite these important roles, the extent to which different synapse-organizing mechanisms act across brain regions to establish connectivity and regulate network properties is incompletely understood. Further, their functional roles in different neuronal populations remain to be defined. Here, we applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a modality of magnetic resonance imaging...

  10. Controls and measurements of KU engine test cells for biodiesel, SynGas, and assisted biodiesel combustion (United States)

    Cecrle, Eric Daniel

    This thesis is comprised of three unique data acquisition and controls (CDAQ) projects. Each of these projects differs from each other; however, they all include the concept of testing renewable or future fuel sources. The projects were the following: University of Kansas's Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Synthesis Gas Reforming rig, Feedstock-to-Tailpipe Initiative's Biodiesel Single Cylinder Test Stand, and a unique Reformate Assisted Biodiesel Combustion architecture. The main responsibility of the author was to implement, develop and test CDAQ systems for the projects. For the Synthesis Gas Reforming rig, this thesis includes a report that summarizes the analysis and solution of building a controls and data acquisition system for this setup. It describes the purpose of the sensors selected along with their placement throughout the system. Moreover, it includes an explanation of the planned data collection system, along with two models describing the reforming process useful for system control. For the Biodiesel Single Cylinder Test Stand, the responsibility was to implement the CDAQ system for data collection. This project comprised a variety of different sensors that are being used collect the combustion characteristics of different biodiesel formulations. This project is currently being used by other graduates in order to complete their projects for subsequent publication. For the Reformate Assisted Biodiesel Combustion architecture, the author developed a reformate injection system to test different hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixtures as combustion augmentation. Hydrogen combustion has certain limiting factors, such as pre-ignition in spark ignition engines and inability to work as a singular fuel in compression ignition engines. To offset these issues, a dual-fuel methodology is utilized by injecting a hydrogen/carbon monoxide mixture into the intake stream of a diesel engine operating on biodiesel. While carbon monoxide does degrade some of the desirable properties of hydrogen, it acts partially like a diluent in order to prevent pre-ignition from occurring. The result of this mixture addition allows the engine to maintain power while reducing biodiesel fuel consumption with a minimal NOx emissions increase.

  11. Evaluasi Reliability dan Safety pada Sistem Pengendalian Level Syn Gas 2ND Interstage Separator Di PT. Petrokimia Gresik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Nur Rahmawati


    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan evaluasi reliability dan safety pada sistem pengendalian level separator. Tujuan dilakukan tugas akhir ini yaitu untuk mengetahui evaluasi perhitungan reliability dan nilai SIL yang terpakai pada sistem pengendalian level separator. Metode yang digunakan yaitu metode kuantitatif. Synthesis gas compressor adalah plant untuk menaikkan pressure dari 30 kg/cm2 menjadi 180 kg/cm2. Plant ini terdiri dari 4 tingkat yang didalamnya terdapat cooler dan separator. Separator merupakan tabung bertekanan yang digunakan untuk memisahkan gas dengan air. Didalam separator diharapkan tidak terdapat air karena air dapat menyebabkan vibrasi dikompressor. Dari hasil evaluasi didapatkan nilai reliability terendah dimiliki oleh komponen LV 1159 sebesar 0,58574 selama 8760 jam. Untuk tingkat safety komponen sistem pengendalian level separator berada pada SIL 1, namun pada komponen LV 1159 dilakukan penurunan nilai PFD dengan metode redundant yang semula nilai PFD-nya 0,05220 menjadi 0,00892 sehingga nilai SIL-nya menjadi SIL 2. Berdasarkan batas acuan nilai reliability untuk dilakukan preventive maintenance sebesar 0,8 maka untuk komponen LV 1159 memiliki waktu preventive maintenance 1900 jam atau 2,5 bulan, LT 1159 t = 13900 jam atau 19 bulan, dan LIC 1159 t = 17300 jam atau 2 tahun. Dengan biaya preventive maintenance keseluruhan komponen sebesar Rp. 516.120,00 pertahunnya.

  12. Ny politikk på diabetesfeltet? Nøkkelinformanters syn på dagens og morgendagens tilbud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Foss


    Health care service for patients with chronic diseases has undergone fundamental changes in recent years: focus on self-management, de-centralisation to municipals with an emphasis on prevention and an urge for interdisciplinary and intersectoral collaboration. In the operationalization of the political signals to specific measures in the field, key actors’ understanding influences the formulation of policy. As part of a larger international study (EU-Wise qualitative semi-structural interview was performed with 15 informants who hold key positions with an ability to influence the specific implementation of health policy for people with type 2 diabetes. The key informants showed abundant variation in what they saw as important challenges and measures. The informants have few descriptions of initiatives to fight social inequalities and were vague in their descriptions of measures that are not individual-oriented. The vagueness may indicate the need for more specific recommendations of measures in the field

  13. A simple medium modification for isolation, growth and enumeration of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (syn. Thiobacillus thiooxidans) from water samples. (United States)

    Starosvetsky, Janeta; Zukerman, Udy; Armon, Robert H


    High concentrations of H(2)S in groundwater are commonly removed using Biological Trickling Filter (BTF) that contains high numbers of biofilm immobilized sulfur oxidizing bacteria (mainly Thiobacillus thiooxidans). BTF performance requires continuous monitoring of these bacteria at several sampling points. The Most Probable Number (MPN) technique is at the moment the method of choice to enumerate viable T. thiooxidan cells under the above conditions. However, this method is extremely time-consuming (7-10days) and not always suitable for environmental monitoring. In the present study, Thiobacillus agar recommended for isolation and cultivation of Thiobacillus species by Spread plate method was modified by addition of bromocresol green (BCG) in order obtain a clear-cut resolution of the growing colonies resulting in similar or higher numbers compared to other methods. Visual emergence of bacterial colonies on the 3rd and 4th days, from the initial plating, was associated with sulfuric acid production, resulting in an unambiguous color change from blue to yellow, around each colony. This study revealed that BCG modified Thiobacillus agar is substantially time saving and much easier to infer compared to MPN technique.

  14. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Shallow marine syn-rift sedimentation: Middle Jurassic Pelion Formation, Jameson Land, East Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engkilde, Michael


    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic Pelion Formation – Fossilbjerget Formation couplet of Jameson Land, East Greenland, is a well-exposed example of the Middle Jurassic inshore–offshore successions characteristicof the rifted seaways in the Northwest European – North Atlantic region. Early Jurassic deposition took place under relatively quiet tectonic conditions following Late Permian – earliest Triassic and Early Triassic rift phases and the Lower Jurassic stratal package shows an overall layer-cake geometry. A long-term extensional phase was initiated in Middle Jurassic (Late Bajocian time, culminated in the Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian–Volgian, and petered out in the earliest Cretaceous (Valanginian. The Upper Bajocian – Middle Callovian early-rift succession comprises shallow marine sandstones of the Pelion Formation and correlative offshore siltstones of theFossilbjerget Formation. Deposition was initiated by southwards progradation of shallow marine sands of the Pelion Formation in the Late Bajocian followed by major backstepping in Bathonian–Callovian times and drowning of the sandy depositional system in the Middle–Late Callovian. Six facies associations are recognised in the Pelion–Fossilbjerget couplet, representing estuarine, shoreface, offshore transition zone and offshore environments. The north–southtrendingaxis of the Jameson Land Basin had a low inclination, and deposition was sensitive to even small changes in relative sea level which caused the shorelines to advance or retreat over tens to several hundreds of kilometres. Eight composite sequences, termed P1–P8, are recognised and are subdivided into a total of 28 depositional sequences. The duration of the two orders of sequences was about 1–2 Ma and 360,000 years, respectively. The Upper Bajocian P1–2 sequencesinclude the most basinally positioned shallow marine sandstones, deposited during major sealevel lowstands. The lowstands were terminated by significant marine flooding events, during which sandstone deposition was restricted to northern, more proximal parts of the basin. The Upper Bajocian – Middle Bathonian P3–4 sequences show an overall progradational stacking pattern. The sequence boundary at the top of P4 marks a significant shift in stacking pattern, and the Upper Bathonian – Middle Callovian P5–8 sequences show large-scale backstepping, terminating in a widespread condensed succession at the distal, southern end of the basin. The largescalebackstepping was governed by combined tectonically-induced subsidence, reflecting increased rates of extension, and eustatic sea-level rise. The depositional trends of the Pelion Formation – Fossilbjerget Formation couplet provide a well-exposed analogue to contemporaneous subsurface deposits which form major hydrocarbon reservoirs on the west Norway shelf, and in the Northern North Sea.

  15. Miniundersøgelse om børns syn på at gå i 2. klasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    De 20 børn udtaler sig som individuelle personer, de anlægger varierede betragtninger, men fremdrager alligevel mange fælles vurderinger. Til spørgsmålet om hvad de har lært, hvad der har været spændende og mindre spændende kan de alle fortælle om interessante undervisningsforløb, hvor de er blev...

  16. Miniundersøgelse om børns syn på at gå i 2. klasse


    Broström, Stig


    De 20 børn udtaler sig som individuelle personer, de anlægger varierede betragtninger, men fremdrager alligevel mange fælles vurderinger.Til spørgsmålet om hvad de har lært, hvad der har været spændende og mindre spændende kan de alle fortælle om interessante undervisningsforløb, hvor de er blevet engageret og optagede af indholdet. Men samtidigt med deres begejstring har de heller ikke svært ved at fremkomme med eksempler på kedelige og trivielle aktiviteter i skolen. Set i lyset af børnenes...

  17. Syn-extensional plutonism and peak metamorphism in the albion-raft river-grouse creek metamorphic core complex (United States)

    Strickland, A.; Miller, E.L.; Wooden, J.L.; Kozdon, R.; Valley, J.W.


    The Cassia plutonic complex (CPC) is a group of variably deformed, Oligocene granitic plutons exposed in the lower plate of the Albion-Raft River- Grouse Creek (ARG) metamorphic core complex of Idaho and Utah. The plutons range from granodiorite to garnet-bearing, leucogranite, and during intrusion, sillimanite- grade peak metamorphism and ductile attenuation occurred in the country rocks and normal-sense, amphibolite-grade deformation took place along the Middle Mountain shear zone. U-Pb zircon geochronology from three variably deformed plutons exposed in the lower plate of the ARG metamorphic core complex revealed that each zircon is comprised of inherited cores (dominantly late Archean) and Oligocene igneous overgrowths. Within each pluton, a spread of concordant ages from the Oligocene zircon overgrowths is interpreted as zircon recycling within a long-lived magmatic system. The plutons of the CPC have very low negative whole rock ??Nd values of -26 to -35, and initial Sr values of 0.714 to 0.718, consistent with an ancient, crustal source. Oxygen isotope ratios of the Oligocene zircon overgrowths from the CPC have an average ??18O value of 5.40 ?? 0.63 permil (2SD, n = 65) with a slight trend towards higher ??18O values through time. The ??18O values of the inherited cores of the zircons are more variable at 5.93 ?? 1.51 permil (2SD, n = 29). Therefore, we interpret the plutons of the CPC as derived, at least in part, from melting Archean crust based on the isotope geochemistry. In situ partial melting of the exposed Archean basement that was intruded by the Oligocene plutons of the CPC is excluded as the source for the CPC based on field relationships, age and geochemistry. Correlations between Ti and Hf concentrations in zircons from the CPC suggest that the magmatic system may have become hotter (higher Ti concentration in zircon) and less evolved (lower Hf in zircon concentration) through time. Therefore, the CPC represents prolonged or episodic magmatism system (32-25 Ma), and the intrusions were each accompanied by sillimanite-grade deformation and extension. The Oligocene magmatism and peak metamorphism preserved in the ARG metamorphic core complex are likely related to regional trends in mantle-derived magmatism that led to protracted heating, melting and mobilization of the deeper crust.

  18. Effectiveness of hydrological forest restoration projects on soil erosion control in Mediterranean catchment; Efectividad de los proyectos de restauracion hidrologico forestal para el control de la erosion en cuencas mediterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, V. M.; Boix Fayos, C.; Vente, J. de; Martinez-Mena, M.; Barbera, G. G.


    Extensive land use changes have occurred in many Mediterranean catchments as a result of reforestation and the abandonment of agricultural activities. Besides this, the establishment of check-dams has been promoted to reduce soil erosion and sediment transport. In this study a combination of field work, mapping and modelling was used to test influence of land use scenarios with and without sediment control structures on sediment yield at catchment scale. Model simulation shows that in a scenario without check-dams, the land used changes between 1956 and 1997 caused a progressive decrease in sediment yield of 54%. In a scenario without land use changes but with check-dams, about 77% of the sediment yield was retained behind the dams. Both land use changes and check-dams are effective measures decreasing sediment yield in catchment, however they act at very different temporal scales. (Author) 5 refs.

  19. Caracterización funcional de la vía Wnt/Bcatenina en el restablecimiento y mantenimiento del eje anteroposterior durante la regeneración y homeostasis de la planaria Schmidtea mediterranea


    Iglesias García, Marta


    La gran mayoría de planarias son capaces de regenerar, y cuando lo hacen, invariablemente mantienen la polaridad de regeneración; es decir, siempre regeneran una cabeza en las heridas anteriores y una cola en las posteriores al ser amputadas transversalmente. Entender los mecanismos que subyacen dicho fenómeno ha sido objeto de investigación desde finales del siglo XIX. Asimismo, muchos investigadores se han interesado en comprender como una planaria mantiene las proporciones corporales dura...

  20. Characterization of pollutants cycles evolution in a coastal mediterranean area under summer conditions; Caracterizacion de ciclos de evolucion de contaminantes en una zona costera mediterranea en situaciones de verano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaza, J.; Artinano, B.


    This work performs a jointly interpretation of meteorological and pollutant concentration measurements during three experimental campaigns in the coastal and inland zones of Castellon, in summer time and prevailing local conditions. Thermal origin circulations, sea and land breezes, slope and valley winds, and local topography, give rise to daily cycle recirculation of pollutants, both at surface and higher levels. Related to the associated ozone levels, the observed natural background varies from 40-50 ppb, whom can be added 20-50 ppb as contribution by photochemical generation. This has been observed to be transported up to 100 Km inland and re-circulated again through the coastal Area. (Author) 7 refs.

  1. The quality of the diet of foxes (Vulpes vulpes in a Mediterranean coastal area (Central Italy / Qualità della dieta della Volpe Vulpes vulpes in un'area costiera mediterranea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani


    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of foxes in the Natural Park of Maremma includes essentially Juniperus fruits and Arthropods, mainly Coleoptera and Orthoptera. These components were analysed in order to value their chemical nutritive. The following parameters were determined: proximate analysis (crude protein Nx6.25; ether extract; crude fibre; ash, aminoacids, and mineral contents. Juniperus berries are characterized by a low crude protein and ash content (1.83 and 2.75% on dry matter while the level of fibrous constituents, expressed in terms of crude fibre, occurs in relatively high quantities (30.8% on dry matter. By contrast, Orthoptera and Coleoptera show high crude protein content (67.3 and 57.8% on dry matter of average nutritive value (chemical score 0.52 and 0.51. The ash level is 68.8 and 76.6 g/kg on dry matter, with high phosphorus, iron and zinc content. Juniperus berries are a feed component of moderate energy level, while Arthropods seem to be an important mineral and protein source. Riassunto La dieta della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes nel Parco Naturale della Maremma è costituita essenzialmente da frutti di Ginepro e da Artropodi, soprattutto Coleotteri ed Ortotteri. Allo scopo di fornire una valutazione delle caratteristiche chimico-nutritive di questi componenti alimentari, sono stati analizzati diversi campioni della dieta. Sono stati determinati i parametri riguardanti le analisi standard per gli alimenti di uso zootecnico, il contenuto in aminoacidi e in elementi minerali. I frutti di Ginepro sono caratterizzati da uno scarso tenore in proteine grezze e in ceneri (1,83 e 2,75% della sostanza secca, mentre il contenuto in costituenti fibrosi, espressi in termini di fibra grezza, risulta relativamente elevato (30,8% della sostanza secca. Gli Ortotteri ed i Coleotteri mostrano invece un considerevole contenuto in proteine grezze (67,3 e 57,8% della sostanza secca, di valore nutritivo medio (punteggio chimico 0,52 e 0,51. I1 contenuto in ceneri è pari a 68,8 e 76,6 g/kg di sostanza secca, con abbondanti apporti in fosforo, ferro e zinco. Nell'ambito della dieta della Volpe, i frutti di Ginepro sono un componente alimentare a moderato apporto energetico, mentre gli Artropodi sembrano costituire un importante elemento di riequilibrio alimentare di natura proteica e minerale.

  2. Cost-effectiveness assessment of transactions international water basins. an application to the andalusian Mediterranean basins; Valoracion coste eficacia de las transacciones de agua inter cuencas. Una aplicacion a las cuencas mediterraneas andaluzas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmedilla Perez, S.


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate through a cost-effectiveness approach water use transactions implemented under Water law framework. These measures complement others proposed by Water Plan of the Mediterranean-andallucian Basin. This water transfers were planned in order to improve the environmental conditions of the water body belonging to low Basin of almanzora river . The analysis was developed including uncertainty related with the availability of resources under various water scarcity scenarios. The results show that water use transactions, from a cost effectiveness approach, has a more favorable assessment than the measures which are explicitly outlined in the river Basin Plan. Furthermore, the study also incorporates a reflection about the suitability of this approach in front of others that consider not just the economic costs, but also others variables, such as social and environmental cost concerned in implementing such measures. (Author)

  3. Origin and spread of beta-globin gene mutations in India, Africa, and Mediterranea: analysis of the 5' flanking and intragenic sequences of beta S and beta C genes. (United States)

    Trabuchet, G; Elion, J; Baudot, G; Pagnier, J; Bouhass, R; Nigon, V M; Labie, D; Krishnamoorthy, R


    Nucleotide polymorphisms of both the 5' flanking and intragenic regions of the human beta-globin gene were investigated by directly sequencing genomic DNA after amplification by the polymerase chain reaction in 47 subjects homozygous for the beta S or the beta C mutation. The sickle-cell mutation was found in the context of five different haplotypes defined by eight nucleotide substitutions and various structures of a region of the simple repeated sequence (AT) chi Ty. All subjects from the same geographic origin bear an identical chromosomal structure, defining the Senegal-, Bantu-, Benin-, Cameroon-, and Indian-type chromosomes. These results strengthen our previous conclusions about the multiple occurrence of the sickle-cell mutation. The Benin-type chromosome was also found among Algerian and Sicilian sickle-cell patients, whereas the Indian-type chromosome was observed in two geographically distant tribes, illustrating the spread of these sickle-cell genes. We also found that the intragenic sequence polymorphisms (frameworks) are not always in linkage disequilibrium with the BamH I polymorphism downstream from the beta-globin gene, as had been previously observed. Finally, we present a tentative phylogenetic tree of the different alleles at this locus. Some polymorphisms of this sequence might be contemporary with our last common ancestor, the great apes, that is, about 4-6 millions years old.

  4. Dating of lithospheric buckling : 40Ar/39Ar ages of syn-orocline strike-slip shear zones in northwestern Iberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-Alonso, Gabriel; Collins, Alan S.; Fernández-Suárez, Javier; Pastor-Galán, Daniel; González-Clavijo, Emilio; Jourdan, Fred; Weil, Arlo B.; Johnston, Stephen T.


    Orogenic curvature is a ubiquitous feature of mountain belts, and the plate tectonic and geodynamic setting responsible for the development of curved orogens is a subject of debate. In order to distinguish between different models of orocline formation it is necessary to tightly constrain the absolu

  5. The Hypocrea jecorina (syn. Trichoderma reesei) lxr1 gene encodes a D-mannitol dehydrogenase and is not involved in L-arabinose catabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, Benjamin; de Vries, Ronald P; Polak, Stefan; Seidl, Verena; Seiboth, Bernhard


    The Hypocrea jecorina LXR1 was described as the first fungal L-xylulose reductase responsible for NADPH dependent reduction of L-xylulose to xylitol in L-arabinose catabolism. Phylogenetic analysis now reveals that LXR1 forms a clade with fungal D-mannitol 2-dehydrogenases. Lxr1 and the orthologous

  6. The Montalet granite, Montagne Noire, France: An Early Permian syn-extensional pluton as evidenced by new U-Th-Pb data on zircon and monazite (United States)

    Poilvet, Jean-Charles; Poujol, Marc; Pitra, Pavel; Van Den Driessche, Jean; Paquette, Jean-Louis


    Dating the magmatism in the Montagne Noire gneiss dome in the southern French Massif Central is a key point for understanding the Late Palaeozoic evolution of this part of the Variscan belt, which is characterised by compressive tectonics during the Carboniferous and extensional tectonics during Stephanian-Permian times. The Montalet granite crops out in the north-western part of the dome and was first considered as an early syntectonic intrusion related to compressive deformation. More recently, it has been dated at 327 Ma and considered as contemporaneous with the diapiric ascent of the Montagne Noire gneiss dome before the Stephanian-Permian extension. We show that in fact, this pluton was emplaced 294 ± 1 Ma ago and is therefore contemporaneous with the Stephanian-Permian extension. This age is consistent with the interpretation of the Montagne Noire Massif as an extensional gneiss dome.

  7. The use of a retractor system (SynFrame) for open, minimal invasive reconstruction of the anterior column of the thoracic and lumbar spine


    Kossmann, Thomas; Jacobi, Dagmar; Trentz, Otmar


    In 65 consecutive cases of trauma (n=55), pseudo-arthrosis (n=4) and metastasis (n=6), anterior reconstruction of the thoracic and lumbar spine was performed using a new minimal invasive but open access procedure. No operation had to be changed into an open procedure. The thoracolumbar junction was approached by a left-sided mini-thoracotomy (n=50), the thoracic spine by a right-sided mini-thoracotomy (n=8) and the lumbar spine by a left sided mini-retroperitoneal approach (n=7), using a new ...

  8. The life-cycle of the digenetic trematode, Proctoeces maculatus (Looss, 1901) Odhner, 1911 (Syn. P. rubtenuis [Linton, 1907] Hanson, 1950), and description of Cerceria adranocerca n. sp (United States)

    Stunkard, H.W.; Uzmann, J.R.


    The genus Proctoeces was erected by Odhner ( 191 1) to contain Distonium maculatuni Looss, 1901, from Labrus merula and Crenilabrus spp. at Triest. Odhner had found the parasite in Blennius ocellaris at Naples. One adult specimen from Chrysophrys bifasciata and two immature specimens from lulis lunaris taken in the Red Sea, were described as a new species, Proctoeces erythraeus. Dawes (1946) listed P. erythraeus as a synonym of  P. maculatus (Looss) , but the species was recognized by Manter ( 1947) on the basis of six specimens he had collected from Calamus calamus and Calamus bajonado at the biological laboratory of the Carnegie Institution at Dry Tortugas, Florida. Several additional species have been de scribed. Fujita ( 1925) reported a metacercaria from the Japanese oyster, Ostrea gigas, as a new species, Proctoeces ostreae. The paper was translated by R. Ph. Dollfus who noted (p. 57) ,“Il est à souhaiter que des recherches chez les poissons mangers de Lamellibranches, sur les côtes de la préfecture d'Hiroshima, permettent de découvrir des exemplaires complètement adultes de Proctoeces ostreae Fuj., chez lesquels l'extension des vitellogènes et les dimensions des oeufs puissent être observées avec précision; il sera alors possible de savoir définitivement si P. ostreae Fuj. doit ou non tomber en synonymie avec P. maculatus (Looss)." Yamaguti (1934) described P. maculatus from Sparus aries, Sparws macrocephalus, Pagrosomus auratus, and Epinephelus akaara in Japan. Several specimens from Pagrosomus auratus, which differed from P. maculatus in larger size, larger eggs, and trilobed ovary, he described as a new species, Proctoeces major. Yamaguti ( 1938) reported P. nzaculatus from Sensicossyphus reticulatus and described a larva from the liver of the pelecypod mollusk, Brachidontes senhausi, as an unidentified member of the genus Proctoeces. Manter ( 1940) described Proctoeces tnagnorus from a single specimen found in the intestine of Caulolatilus ano,nalus, taken at Cerros Island, Mexico. Hanson ( 1950) identified two specimens collected from Calamus sp. at Bermuda by the late F. D. Barker as Distontuni subtenue Linton, 1907, a species described originally from Calantus calanius in the same area. Comparison of these specimens with those from Tortugas identified by Manter as P. erythraeus established their identity, and P. erythraeus was suppressed as a synonym of Proctoeces subtenue (Linton, 1907). Hanson corrected the statement of Manter (1947), noting that it is the vitellaria, not the uterus, which never extends into the post testicular region.

  9. Stock density and fruit yield of African walnut, Plukenetia conophora Mull-Arg (Syn. Tetracarpidium conophorum in tropical lowland rainforests of southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TO Amusa


    Full Text Available Despite the huge socio-economic potentials of the African walnut, Plukenetia conophora Mull-Arg, there is a dearth of information on stock density and yield studies under different site conditions. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the stock density and fruit yields of P. conophora in three different habitats (i.e. less disturbed natural forest, recently disturbed natural forest and plantation forest within Omo Forest Reserve (OFR and Shasha Forest Reserve (SFR of Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was used to carry out inventory survey. Fruit yields were determined by collecting fruit falls through double sampling approach. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analyzing the data at P = 0.05. Stock densities of P. conophora were 5.33+1.7stands/ha, 14.67+2.05stands/ha and 16.00+2.94stands/ha in OFR, while they were 7.33+0.47stands/ha, 14.67+1.25stands/ha and 10.67+04.7stands/ha in SFR for recently disturbed forest, less disturbed forest and plantation forest respectively. There were significant differences in number and distribution of species by forest types, but not between forest reserves. The mean yield of P. conophora/ha/yr was estimated at 7,800.00kg for OFR and 6,534.00kg for SFR. Yields from plantation area contributed more in OFR, while yields from less disturbed natural forest area were higher in SFR. Yields from recently disturbed natural forest were consistently lower in the two reserves. These results show that P. conophora thrives better in plantation and old re-growth forests. This information is pertinent towards improving the management of the species, increase its productivity and enhance benefits in a more sustainable manner to the rural populace.

  10. MultiSyn: A Webtool for Multiple Synteny Detection and Visualization of User’s Sequence of Interest Compared to Public Plant Species (United States)

    Baek, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Junah; Kim, Chang-Kug; Sohn, Seong-Han; Choi, Dongsu; Ratnaparkhe, Milind B.; Kim, Do-Wan; Lee, Tae-Ho


    Information on multiple synteny between plants and/or within a plant is key information to understand genome evolution. In addition, visualization of multiple synteny is helpful in interpreting evolution. So far, some web applications have been developed to determine and visualize multiple homology regions at once. However, the applications are not fully convenient for biologists because some of them do not include the function of synteny determination but visualize the multiple synteny plots by allowing users to upload their synteny data by determining the synteny based only on BLAST similarity information, with some algorithms not designed for synteny determination. Here, we introduce a web application that determines and visualizes multiple synteny from two types of files, simplified browser extensible data and protein sequence file by MCScanX algorithm, which have been used in many synteny studies. PMID:27594782

  11. Immobilisation and characterisation of biocatalytic co-factor recycling enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and NADH oxidase, on aldehyde functional ReSynTM polymer microspheres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Twala, BV


    Full Text Available The use of enzymes in industrial applications is limited by their instability, cost and difficulty in their recovery and re-use. Immobilisation is a technique which has been shown to alleviate these limitations in biocatalysis. Here we describe...

  12. Gympa i förskolan? : En studie om pedagogers syn på motorik och rörelseglädje i förskolan


    Erlandsson, Jessica


    The intention of the study is to investigate pedagogues understanding of physical activities in preschool. Should special activities be planned in order to stimulate children´s progress in motor skills? I also want to find out if pedagogues found the acitivities in preschool curriculum which says that the aim is to develop children´s body perception and teaching children how to care for their own health. I have interviewed seven pedagogues and focus of the question lied within motor skills an...

  13. Integrating multidisciplinary science, modelling and impact data into evolving, syn-event volcanic hazard mapping and communication: A case study from the 2012 Tongariro eruption crisis, New Zealand (United States)

    Leonard, Graham S.; Stewart, Carol; Wilson, Thomas M.; Procter, Jonathan N.; Scott, Bradley J.; Keys, Harry J.; Jolly, Gill E.; Wardman, Johnny B.; Cronin, Shane J.; McBride, Sara K.


    New Zealand's Tongariro National Park volcanoes produce hazardous eruptions every few years to decades. On 6 August 2012 the Te Maari vent of Tongariro Volcano erupted, producing a series of explosions and a fine ash of minor volume which was dispersed rapidly to the east. This manuscript presents a summary of the eruption impacts and the way these supported science communication during the crisis, particularly in terms of hazard map development. The most significant proximal impact was damage from pyroclastic surges and ballistics to the popular and economically-important Tongariro Alpine Crossing track. The only hazard to affect the medial impact zone was a few mms of ashfall with minor impacts. Field testing indicated that the Te Maari ash had extremely low resistivity when wetted, implying a very high potential to cause disruption to nationally-important power transmission networks via the mechanism of insulator flashover. This was not observed, presumably due to insufficient ash accumulation on insulators. Virtually no impacts from distal ashfall were reported. Post-event analysis of PM10 data demonstrates the additional value of regional air quality monitoring networks in quantifying population exposure to airborne respirable ash. While the eruption was minor, it generated a high level of public interest and a demand for information on volcanic hazards and impacts from emergency managers, the public, critical infrastructure managers, health officials, and the agriculture sector. Meeting this demand fully taxed available resources. We present here aspects of the New Zealand experience which may have wider applicability in moving towards improved integration of hazard impact information, mapping, and communication. These include wide use of a wiki technical clearinghouse and email listservs, a focus on multi-agency consistent messages, and a recently developed environment of collaboration and alignment of both research funding and technical science advice. Hazard maps were integral to science communication during the crisis, but there is limited international best practice information available on hazard maps as communication devices, as most volcanic hazard mapping literature is concerned with defining hazard zones. We propose that hazard maps are only as good as the communications framework and inter-agency relationships in which they are embedded, and we document in detail the crisis hazard map development process. We distinguish crisis hazard maps from background hazard maps and ashfall prediction maps, illustrating the complementary nature of these three distinct communication mechanisms. We highlight issues that arose and implications for the development of future maps.

  14. The Hypocrea jecorina (syn. Trichoderma reesei) lxr1 gene encodes a D-mannitol dehydrogenase and is not involved in L-arabinose catabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, Benjamin; de Vries, Ronald P; Polak, Stefan; Seidl, Verena; Seiboth, Bernhard


    The Hypocrea jecorina LXR1 was described as the first fungal L-xylulose reductase responsible for NADPH dependent reduction of L-xylulose to xylitol in L-arabinose catabolism. Phylogenetic analysis now reveals that LXR1 forms a clade with fungal D-mannitol 2-dehydrogenases. Lxr1 and the orthologous

  15. South African report of first case of chromoblastomycosis caused by Cladosporium (syn Cladophialophora) carrionii infection in a cat with feline immunodeficiency virus and lymphosarcoma. (United States)

    Zambelli, Anthony B; Griffiths, Catherine A


    This report describes a 6-year-old neutered male feline immunodeficiency-positive cat with repeated abdominal and thoracic effusions. The cat was diagnosed with and treated for lymphosarcoma but remission was short-lived and, on re-evaluation, a fungal peritoneal exudate was noted. Cytology of the organisms is described and the culture elucidated Cladosporium carrionii, an important cause of chromoblastomycosis. Treatment with itraconazole was unsuccessful in this case.

  16. A study on trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. protease inhibitory activity in Cassia tora (L. syn Senna tora (L. Roxb. seed extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Satyendra K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteases play an important role in virulence of many human, plant and insect pathogens. The proteinaceous protease inhibitors of plant origin have been reported widely from many plant species. The inhibitors may potentially be used for multiple therapeutic applications in viral, bacterial, fungal diseases and physiological disorders. In traditional Indian medicine system, Cassia tora (Senna tora is reportedly effective in treatment of skin and gastrointestinal disorders. The present study explores the protease inhibitory activity of the above plant seeds against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. Methods The crushed seeds of Cassia tora were washed thoroughly with acetone and hexane for depigmentation and defatting. The proteins were fractionated by ammonium sulphate (0-30, 30-60, 60-90% followed by dialysis and size exclusion chromatography (SEC. The inhibitory potential of crude seed extract and most active dialyzed fraction against trypsin and proteases was established by spot test using unprocessed x-ray film and casein digestion methods, respectively. Electrophoretic analysis of most active fraction (30-60% and SEC elutes were carried employing Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and Gelatin SDS-PAGE. Inhibition of fungal spore germination was studied in the presence of dialyzed active inhibitor fraction. Standard deviation (SD and ANOVA were employed as statistical tools. Results The crude seeds' extract displayed strong antitryptic, bacterial and fungal protease inhibitory activity on x-ray film. The seed protein fraction 30-60% was found most active for trypsin inhibition in caseinolytic assay (P Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases remained only 4, 7 and 3.1%, respectively when proteases were incubated with 3 mg ml-1 seed protein extract for 60 min. The inhibitory activity was evident in gelatin SDS-PAGE where a major band (~17-19 kD of protease inhibitor (PI was detected in dialyzed and SEC elute. The conidial germination of Aspergillus flavus was moderately inhibited (30% by the dialyzed seed extract. Conclusions Cassia tora seed extract has strong protease inhibitory activity against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. The inhibitor in Cassia tora may attenuate microbial proteases and also might be used as phytoprotecting agent.

  17. Docking studies and effects of syn-anti isomery of oximes derived from pyridine imidazol bicycled systems as potential human acetylcholinesterase reactivators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guimarães, Ana Paula; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Ramalho, Teodorico Castro; Rennó, Magdalena Nascimento; da Cunha, Elaine Fontes Ferreira; Matos, Karina Silvia; Mancini, Daiana Teixeira; Kuča, Kamil


    In order to contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of oximes, we evaluated the affinities of 10 new oximes, derived from pyridine-imidazol bicycled systems, for human acetylcholinesterase (HssAChE...



    Yakelin Rodríguez; Yolande Dalpé; Sylvie Séguin


    Dentro de la colección de cepas de hongos micorrizógenos arbusculares (HMA) del INCA se destaca por su importancia económica y ecológica la cepa INCAM-2, al constituir la base de biopreparados que se aplican en diversos sistemas agrícolas y se comercializan ampliamente a nivel mundial. El objetivo de este trabajo fue confirmar la clasificación taxonómica preliminar realizada de dicha cepa, mediante taxonomía polifásica. Para ello se analizaron con mayor profundidad las características mor...

  19. Syn-depositional alteration of coral reef framework through bioerosion, encrustation and cementation: Taphonomic signatures of reef accretion and reef depositional events (United States)

    Perry, C. T.; Hepburn, L. J.


    The development of coral reef framework and the preservational character of both in-situ and rubble coral is strongly influenced by a range of physical, chemical and biologically-mediated taphonomic processes. These operate at, or just below, the reef framework-water interface and can be defined as having either a constructive or destructive effect upon primary reef framework (i.e., coral) constituents. Constructional activities add additional calcium carbonate to the primary framework structure via secondary framework growth and early cementation. Destructive processes, which remove or degrade primary (and secondary) framework carbonate, are associated with the effects of either physical (mainly storm) disturbance or biological erosion (termed bioerosion). Key bioeroding groups include the grazing fish and echinoid groups, as well as the activities of an array of infaunal borers. These include specific groups of sponges, bivalves and worms (termed macroborers), as well as cyanobacteria, chlorophytes, rhodophytes and fungi (termed microborers). The relative importance of each process and the rates at which they operate vary spatially across individual reef systems. In addition, many of these processes leave distinctive signatures on, or in, the coral framework. In some cases (e.g., calcareous encrusters) these are the skeletons of the organisms themselves, whilst in other cases the organism may leave behind a trace of their activity (e.g., macro- and microborers). These represent useful palaeoenvironmental tools, firstly because they often have good preservation potential and, secondly because the range and extent of many of the individual species, groups and processes involved exhibit reasonably well-constrained environment and/or depth-related distributions. As a result these taphonomically important organisms or processes can be used to delineate between reef environments in core or outcrop, and to aid the interpretation of reef depositional processes and 'events'. This review summarises current understanding regarding the distribution of these species/processes within contemporary reef settings and considers the suites of taphonomic signatures that may aid in the recognition and interpretation of depositional environments and events.

  20. Moestrupia oblonga gen. et comb. nov. (syn.: Gyrodinium oblongum), a new marine dinoflagellate genus characterized by light and electron microscopy, photosynthetic pigments and LSU rDNA sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert; Daugbjerg, Niels


    A small-sized, peridinin-containing, athecate dinoflagellate (13–17 µm long) was isolated into clonal culture from a water sample collected at a nearshore location in Tenerife, Spain (October 2004). Based on phenotypic characters (size, shape, pyrenoid and nucleus position), the culture was ident...

  1. Ecological differentiation, lack of hybrids involving diploids, and asymmetric gene flow between polyploids in narrow contact zones of Senecio carniolicus (syn. Jacobaea carniolica, Asteraceae). (United States)

    Hülber, Karl; Sonnleitner, Michaela; Suda, Jan; Krejčíková, Jana; Schönswetter, Peter; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Winkler, Manuela


    Areas of immediate contact of different cytotypes offer a unique opportunity to study evolutionary dynamics within heteroploid species and to assess isolation mechanisms governing coexistence of cytotypes of different ploidy. The degree of reproductive isolation of cytotypes, that is, the frequency of heteroploid crosses and subsequent formation of viable and (partly) fertile hybrids, plays a crucial role for the long-term integrity of lineages in contact zones. Here, we assessed fine-scale distribution, spatial clustering, and ecological niches as well as patterns of gene flow in parental and hybrid cytotypes in zones of immediate contact of di-, tetra-, and hexaploid Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) in the Eastern Alps. Cytotypes were spatially separated also at the investigated microscale; the strongest spatial separation was observed for the fully interfertile tetra- and hexaploids. The three main cytotypes showed highly significant niche differences, which were, however, weaker than across their entire distribution ranges in the Eastern Alps. Individuals with intermediate ploidy levels were found neither in the diploid/tetraploid nor in the diploid/hexaploid contact zones indicating strong reproductive barriers. In contrast, pentaploid individuals were frequent in the tetraploid/hexaploid contact zone, albeit limited to a narrow strip in the immediate contact zone of their parental cytotypes. AFLP fingerprinting data revealed introgressive gene flow mediated by pentaploid hybrids from tetra- to hexaploid individuals, but not vice versa. The ecological niche of pentaploids differed significantly from that of tetraploids but not from hexaploids.

  2. A clinical study of imaging for Fahr disease and Fahr syn-drome%Fahr病和 Fahr综合征的影像学临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    直玉秋; 杨迎伟; 曹桂华; 胡太春


    目的:探讨Fahr病和Fahr综合征的临床类型和影像学特点。方法对12例经头颅CT证实的Fahr病和Fahr综合征患者的临床表现及钙化分布特点进行分析。结果患者钙化多局限于双侧苍白球以内,临床多无症状和体征;钙化范围可扩大到脑叶或小脑等,临床多表现为头痛头晕、震颤、肢体活动受限、言语不清、痴呆等。结论 Fahr病和Fahr综合征基底节钙化出现的临床症状取决于受损部位,多与神经元损害的程度有关。%Objective To explore clinical types and imaging characteristics of of Fahr disease and Fahr syndrome .Methods Clinical manifestations and calcifica-tion distribution characteristics were analyzed for 12 patients with Fahr disease and Fahr syndrome confirmed by brain CT .Results Most of calcification were within the limits of bilater-al globus pallidus ,patients had no symptoms and signs clinically ;calcification could extend to hemicere-brum ,cerebellum and so on ,at this time main clinical manifestations were headache/dizziness ,tremor , limited limbs activities ,slurred speech ,dementia and so on .Conclusion Clinical symptoms of basal gan-glia calcification of Fahr disease and Fahr syndrome depend on lesion sites and most are related to the de-gree of neuron lesion .

  3. Syn-Extensional Constrictional Folding of the Gwoira Rider Block, a Large Fault-Bounded Slice Atop the Mai'iu Low-Angle Normal Fault, Woodlark Rift. (United States)

    Little, T. A.; Webber, S. M.; Norton, K. P.; Mizera, M.; Oesterle, J.; Ellis, S. M.


    The Mai'iu Fault is an active and corrugated low-angle normal fault (LANF) in Woodlark Rift, Eastern Papua New Guinea, which dips 21° NNE, accommodating rapid N-S extension. The Gwoira rider block is a large fault-bounded sedimentary slice comprising the Gwoira Conglomerate, located within a large synformal megamullion in the Mai'iu Fault surface. The Gwoira Conglomerate was originally deposited on the Mai'iu Fault hanging wall concurrent with extension, and has since been buried to a maximum depth of 1600-2100 m (evidenced by vitrinite reflectance data), back-tilted, and synformally folded. Both the Gwoira Conglomerate (former hanging wall) and mylonitic foliation (footwall) of the Mai'iu Fault have been shortened E-W, perpendicular to the extension direction. We show that E-W synformal folding of the Gwoira Conglomerate was concurrent with ongoing sedimentation and extension on the Mai'iu Fault. Structurally shallower Gwoira Conglomerate strata are folded less than deeper strata, indicating that folding was progressively accrued concurrent with N-S extension. We also show that abandonment of the inactive strand of the Mai'iu Fault in favor of the Gwoira Fault, which resulted in formation of the Gwoira rider block, occurred in response to progressive megamullion amplification and resultant misorientation of the inactive strand of the Mai'iu Fault. We attribute E-W folding to extension-perpendicular constriction. This is consistent with observations of outcrop-scale conjugate strike-slip faults that deform the footwall and hanging wall of the Mai'iu Fault, and accommodate E-W shortening. Constrictional folding remains active in the near-surface as evidenced by synformal tilting of inferred Late Quaternary fluvial terraces atop the Gwoira rider block. This sequence of progressive constrictional folding is dated using 26Al/10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide burial dating of the Gwoira Conglomerate. Finally, because rider block formation records abandonment of the uppermost part of a LANF, Coulomb fault mechanical analysis (after Choi and Buck, 2012) can be applied to field observations to provide an upper limit on LANF frictional strength (µf). Modelling constrains the µf for the Mai'iu Fault to ≤0.25, which suggests that the Mai'iu Fault is frictionally very weak.

  4. Michael Haverkamp, Synästhetisches Design. Kreative Produktentwicklung für alle Sinne, München, Wien: Hanser 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Strötgen


    Full Text Available Angesichts des Titels mag eine Vorstellung dieses Buches hier zunächst etwas deplatziert anmuten, scheint es doch vor allem für Produktdesigner verfasst zu sein. Tatsächlich ist dies auch die primäre Zielgruppe der Publikation von Haverkamp, der selbst Ingenieur und im Automobildesign der Ford-Werke in Köln tätig ist. Die Relevanz für den Fachbereich Musik und Performance, der Musik als Teil einer mit allen Sinnen erlebten Welt betrachtet, erschließt sich jedoch recht schnell angesichts des erklärten und recht ambitionierten Ziels, "alle Möglichkeiten der Verknüpfung von Sinnesempfindungen zusammenzustellen".

  5. Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Plenodomus tracheiphilus (Petri Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley [syn. Phoma tracheiphila (Petri L.A. Kantschaveli & Gikashvili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH


    Full Text Available The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to perform a pest categorisation of Phoma tracheiphila, the fungal pathogen responsible for “mal secco” disease of citrus. This pathogen is listed in Annex IIAII of Directive 2000/29/EC. Recently, the pathogen has been reclassified as Plenodomus tracheiphilus (Petri Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, based on molecular phylogenetic analysis. Plenodomus tracheiphilus is a single taxonomic entity, and sensitive and specific methods are available for its differentiation from other related Plenodomus species. The main host is lemon (Citrus limon L., but the pathogen has also been reported on other species of the genera Citrus, Fortunella, Poncirus and Severinia and on their hybrids. Host plants are widely grown in the southern EU Member States (MSs and climatic conditions are conducive to disease development in both orchards and nurseries. The pathogen is present in part of the risk assessment area, being mainly reported on lemon grown in Italy, Greece, Cyprus and France, where it has a serious impact on the citrus industry. There are no obvious ecological/climatic factors limiting the potential establishment and spread of the pathogen in the, so far, non-infested citrus-producing EU MSs (i.e. Spain, Portugal, Malta and Croatia. Short-distance spread of the pathogen occurs via water splash and wind-driven rain, whereas movement of infected host plants for planting, particularly asymptomatic plants, is considered to be responsible for the introduction of the pathogen into new areas. Cultural practices and copper-based fungicide sprays may reduce inoculum sources and prevent new infections but they cannot eliminate the pathogen. P. tracheiphilus fulfils all of the pest categorisation criteria for having the potential to be a quarantine pest and a regulated non-quarantine pest, as those are defined in the International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No 11 and 21, respectively.

  6. Geografilärares och niondeklassares syn på undervisningen om klimatförändringenClimate change education: Geography teachers’ and ninth-graders’ views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaela Hermans


    Full Text Available It has been increasingly recognised that education plays a key role in addressing human-induced climate change. The ultimate goal of climate change education (CCE is positive impacts on the climate through both individual and collective actions. The aim of this study is to investigate geography teachers’ and their ninth-graders’ views about CCE. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews with geography teachers (N = 13 and questionnaires for ninth-graders (N = 549 at eleven secondary schools from all parts of Swedish-speaking Finland. The results show that although the students’ attitudes to CCE is positive, it does not supply them with action competence. The geography teachers in this study largely miss the ultimate goal of CCE, pointing at the need for more effort to be made in the process of developing CCE at secondary school.

  7. Draft genome sequence of the yeast Starmerella bacillaris (syn., Candida zemplinina) FRI751 isolated from fermenting must of dried Raboso grapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemos Junior, Wilson Jose Fernandes; Treu, Laura; da Silva Duarte, Vinicius


    Starmerella bacillaris is an ascomycetous yeast commonly present in enological environments. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of S. bacillaris FRI751, which will facilitate the study of the characteristics of this interesting enological yeast....

  8. An assessment of Osmia rufa (syn. bicornis) as a pollinator of the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cv. Stevnsbaer in eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansted, Lise; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo


    The sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cv. Stevnsbaer is self-fertile but it is recommended that bees are placed in the orchards during flowering. The solitary bee Osmia rufa can be managed, and has previously been suggested as an alternative pollinator to Apis mellifera, so consequently, this study....... The remaining 8 pollen types were from entomophilous plants. Based on the results it is estimated that a mean of 220,000 O. rufa cocoons would be needed per hectare if the species were to be an effective, supplementary pollinator of P. cerasus cv. Stevnsbaer. Practical, economic and environmental considerations...... suggest that the use of O. rufa as an alternative pollinator to A. mellifera in this instance is not realistic....

  9. Pharmacognostical evaluation of aerial parts of Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff. (Syn: Justicia picta Linn.): A well-known folklore medicinal plant. (United States)

    Singh, Pradeep; Khosa, Ratan L; Mishra, Garima; Jha, Keshri K


    Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff. (Family-Acanthaceae) occupies a key role in traditional system of medicine. Since an extensive literature survey did not provide any information about studies on its standardization. Therefore, we designed the current study to establish the quality control parameters of G. pictum aerial parts. The investigation included determination of various standardization parameters such as macroscopic and microscopic studies, physicochemical parameters as well as phytochemical analysis of the crude drug. The microscopy study of aerial parts revealed that stem shows typical dicotyledonous characters with prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in the cortical region and dorsiventral leaf. Physicochemical constants such as moisture content, ash values, fluorescence analysis, and extractive values were established. Preliminary phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, etc. The present study suggests establishing the parameters for pharmacopoeial standardization of G. pictum.

  10. New U-Pb zircon and 40Ar/39Ar muscovite age constraints on the emplacement of the Lizio syn-tectonic granite (Armorican Massif, France)


    Tartese, Romain; Poujol, Marc; Ruffet, Gilles; Boulvais, Philippe; Yamato, Philippe; Kosler, Jan


    International audience; LA-ICP-MS U-Pb analyses performed on zircon grains from the Lizio granite yielded an emplacement age of 316 6 Ma. Typical S-C structures show that the Lizio granite was emplaced contemporaneously with dextral shearing along the northern branch of the South Armorican Shear Zone and that it was therefore active at that time. 40Ar/39Ar analyses performed on muscovite grains yielded plateau dates ranging between 311.5 and 308.2 Ma. Muscovite chemistry is typical of primary...

  11. Syn-orogenic high-temperature crustal melting: Geochronological and Nd-Sr-Pb isotope constraints from basement-derived granites (Central Damara Orogen, Namibia) (United States)

    Ostendorf, Jörg; Jung, Stefan; Berndt-Gerdes, Jasper; Hauff, Folkmar


    Major and trace element and Nd, Sr and Pb isotope data from c. 550 Ma-old gray granites and c. 510 Ma-old red leucogranites of the high-grade central part of the Damara orogen (Namibia) indicate a dominantly deep crustal origin. Moderately peraluminous gray granites are isotopically evolved (initial ɛNd: c. - 17) and were likely derived from meta-igneous sources with late Archean to Paleoproterozoic crustal residence ages. Based on a comparison with experimental results, the granites were derived by partial melting of a granodioritic biotite gneiss at c. 900-950 °C and less than 10 kbar. Slightly peraluminous red leucogranites are also isotopically evolved (initial ɛNd: - 15 to - 18) but have undergone extensive crystal fractionation coupled with minor contamination of mid crustal meta-pelitic material. Major and trace element data do not support closed-system fractional crystallization processes for all samples, however, some chemical features underline the importance of crystal fractionation processes especially for the leucogranites. Isotope data do not support mixing of different crust-derived melts or assimilation of crustal rocks by a mafic magma on a large scale. For the gray granites, unradiogenic Pb isotope compositions with substantial variation in 207Pb/204Pb at almost constant 206Pb/204Pb, strongly negative ɛNd values and moderately radiogenic Sr isotope compositions argue for an undepleted nature of the source. High Rb/Sr ratios of the red leucogranites permit a comparison with the gray granites but similar initial ɛNd values indicate that the source of these granites is not fundamentally different to the source of the gray granites. The most acceptable model for both granite types involves partial melting of meta-igneous basement rocks of Archean to Proterozoic age. The consistency of the chemical data with a crustal anatectic origin and the observation that the gray granites intruded before the first peak of high-grade regional metamorphism suggests that they intruded simultaneously with crustal thickening. The red leucogranites are interpreted to be a result of crustal melting during the main peak of regional metamorphism. The heating events that promoted melting of fertile deep-crustal rocks might have been caused by the inferred high heat productivity of heat-producing radioactive elements (Th, U, K) together with crustal thickening during the main periods of orogeny.

  12. Sustainability and ethnic peace discourse: in search for syn-ergies from bringing together discourses on intercultural communication and on global sustainability

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    Dominic BUSCH


    Full Text Available In political discourse, the notion of sustainability frames a worldwide debate on how to ensure future constructive development on a global scale. Decades ago, the finiteness of natural reserves firstly initiated an awareness for the need of sustainable economic development. Recently, political agendas on sustainability and sustainable development also comprise the pillar of social sustainability. While intercultural understanding is seen as a necessary condition to ensure social sustainability, a corresponding concept of the sustainability of intercultural understanding has not been elaborated any further, yet. This article fleshes out the normative frameworks of the political discourse on sustainability. It will then explore the contemporary field of intercultural communication research to find out in what ways the existing research can contribute to specify the role of intercultural understanding in sustainability discourse. Centrally, potential normative orientations underlying intercultural communication theory and research need to be identified to build a bridge to the normative discourse on sustainability.

  13. [Gymnophallus rebecqui n. sp. (syn. Parvatrema sp. 1, J. Rebecq, 1964) (Digenea: Gymnophallidae), an intestinal parasite of ducks from Camargue (France)]. (United States)

    Bartoli, P


    Gymnophallus rebecqui n. sp. replace Parvatrema sp. 1 J. Rebecq, 1964. Metacercariae are described. They occur free in the extrapallial space of Cerastoderma glaucum and Abra ovata, at the central part of the valves. Pallial epithelium hypertrophy is induced by metacercariae and damages are produced at the inner face of the shell of Abra ovata. Adults have been reared in laboratory hosts (Aythya ferina, A. fuligula, Anas platyrhynchos, Tadorna tadorna and Larus argentatus michaellis). Natural adults have been discovered in the anterior and median gut of Aythya ferina, A. fuligula and Anas clypeata. Adults are described and compared with other related Gymnophallid species. This new species is not a member of Parvatrema but belongs to Gymnophallus genera.


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    Jianfen Li


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a supported tri-metallic catalyst (nano-Ni-La-Fe/γ-Al2O3 for tar removal in biomass steam gasification, to significantly enhance the quality of the produced gas. For this purpose, the supported tri-metallic catalysts were prepared by a deposition-precipitation (DP method. Different analytical approaches were used to characterize the synthesized catalysts. The results showed that the prepared tri-metallic catalysts had an egg-shell structure with a specific surface area of 214.7 m2/g. The activity of the catalysts for gas production and tar removal in the process of biomass gasification was also investigated using a bench-scale combined fixed bed reactor. The experiments indicated that the tar yield after adding catalyst was reduced significantly and the efficiency of tar removal reached 99% for the biomass steam gasification at 800oC, while the gas yield after adding catalysts increased markedly and less coke was found over the catalyst. Meanwhile, the compositions of gas products before and after adding catalyst in the process also changed significantly; in particular, the content of hydrogen in catalytic steam gasification was improved by over 10 vol%. Therefore, using the prepared tri-metallic catalyst in biomass gasification can significantly improve the quality of the produced gas and efficiently eliminate the tar generation, preventing coke deposition on the catalyst surfaces, thus demonstrating a long lifetime of the catalyst.

  15. MultiSyn: A Webtool for Multiple Synteny Detection and Visualization of User's Sequence of Interest Compared to Public Plant Species. (United States)

    Baek, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Junah; Kim, Chang-Kug; Sohn, Seong-Han; Choi, Dongsu; Ratnaparkhe, Milind B; Kim, Do-Wan; Lee, Tae-Ho


    Information on multiple synteny between plants and/or within a plant is key information to understand genome evolution. In addition, visualization of multiple synteny is helpful in interpreting evolution. So far, some web applications have been developed to determine and visualize multiple homology regions at once. However, the applications are not fully convenient for biologists because some of them do not include the function of synteny determination but visualize the multiple synteny plots by allowing users to upload their synteny data by determining the synteny based only on BLAST similarity information, with some algorithms not designed for synteny determination. Here, we introduce a web application that determines and visualizes multiple synteny from two types of files, simplified browser extensible data and protein sequence file by MCScanX algorithm, which have been used in many synteny studies.

  16. Hur styrs försvarsmakten? : Politisk och militär syn på försvarsdoktrin under 1990-talet


    Edström, Håkan


    Is there a common notion amongst the political and military leadership in Sweden on how to defend the country? Several events in the arena of international politics during the 20th century argue for the importance of coherence between political and military thinking. Different focus during peacetime has subsequently caused fatal consequences in times of war. This thesis studies a less obvious case: Sweden, a small-state, during the 1990’s in the aftermath of the Cold War. In the effort of ide...

  17. Two cryptic anatectic events within a syn-collisional granitoid from the Araçuaí orogen (southeastern Brazil): Evidence from the polymetamorphic Carlos Chagas batholith (United States)

    Melo, M. G.; Stevens, G.; Lana, C.; Pedrosa-Soares, A. C.; Frei, D.; Alkmim, F. F.; Alkmin, L. A.


    From the earliest (ca. 630 Ma) pre-collisional plutons to the latest (ca. 480 Ma) post-collisional intrusions, the Araçuaí orogen (SE Brazil) records an outstanding succession of granite production events in space and time. The Carlos Chagas batholith (CCB) is the largest ( 14,000 km2) granitic body ascribed to the collisional plutonism (G2 supersuite) in the back-arc region of the Araçuaí orogen, to the east of the Rio Doce magmatic arc. A wide range of monazite and zircon ages (> 725 Ma to ca. 490 Ma) have been found in CCB granites, recording a rich history of crustal recycling and inheritance, magmatic crystallization and anatexis. The CCB includes a dominant granite richer in garnet than in biotite, in which three mineral assemblages can be identified: 1) Qz + Pl + Kfs + Bt + Grt + Ilm ± Rt; 2) Qz + Pl + Kfs + Bt + Grt + Ilm + Sil; and 3) Qz + Pl + Kfs + Bt + Grt + Ilm + Sil + Spl. Rocks which contain mineral assemblage 2 and 3 all contain two generations of garnet. Textural evidence for the presence of former melt, recognized in all studied CCB samples, includes: silicate melt inclusions in poikiloblastic garnet, pseudomorphed thin films of melt surrounding both generations of garnet, pseudomorphed melt pools adjacent to garnet and biotite, and plagioclase and quartz with cuspate-lobate shapes occurring among matrix grains. Both generations of garnet crystals (Grt1 and Grt2) are unzoned in terms of major element concentration, contain small rounded inclusions of Ti-rich biotite and, in addition, the Grt2 crystals also contain inclusions of remnant sillimanite needles. Microstructural evidence, in combination with mineral chemistry, indicates that the garnet crystals grew during two distinct metamorphic-anatectic events, as the peritectic products of fluid-absent melting reactions which consumed biotite, quartz and plagioclase, in the case of Grt1, and which consumed biotite, quartz, plagioclase and sillimanite in the case of Grt2. P-T pseudosections calculated via Theriak-Domino, in combination with in situ U-Pb monazite and zircon dating, provide new constraints on the thermal evolution of the back-arc region of the Araçuaí orogen. Data from assemblage 1 suggests P-T conditions for the first granulite-facies metamorphic event (M1) at 790-820 °C and 9.5-10.5 kbar, while the assemblage 2 records P-T conditions for a second granulite-facies metamorphism (M2) of around 770 °C and 6.6 kbar. Monazite and zircon within garnets from the different assemblages give age peaks at 570-550 Ma (M1) and 535-515 Ma (M2), recording two anatectic events in the CCB during a single orogenic cycle. The PT conditions for these metamorphic events can be related to: i) M1, striking crustal thickening, probably involving thrusting of the magmatic arc onto the back-arc region; and ii) M2, decompression related to the gravitational collapse of the Araçuaí orogen.

  18. Temporal constraints on the kinematics of the destabilization of an orogen : syn- to post-orogenic extensional collapse of the Northern Aegean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, A.L.W.


    The Mediterranean region is situated at the interface of the African and Eurasian plates and has been shaped by the Alpine Orogeny and the subsequent post-orogenic extension during the convergence and collision of the African and Eurasian plates. Numerous tectonic studies have focussed on the role o

  19. 40Ar-39Ar laser dating of ductile shear zones from central Corsica (France): Evidence of Alpine (middle to late Eocene) syn-burial shearing in Variscan granitoids (United States)

    Di Vincenzo, Gianfranco; Grande, Antonietta; Prosser, Giacomo; Cavazza, William; DeCelles, Peter G.


    The island of Corsica (France) plays a central role in any reconstruction of Western Mediterranean geodynamics and paleogeography but several key aspects of its geological evolution are still uncertain. The most debated topics include the interpretation of the Corsican orogen as the result of an east- or west-directed subduction, and the actual involvement of the Variscan basement of Corsica in the Alpine orogenic cycle. This study integrates 40Ar-39Ar laserprobe, mesostructural, microtextural, and microchemical analyses and places relevant constraints on the style, P-T conditions, and timing of Alpine-age, pervasive ductile shear zones which affected the Variscan basement complex of central Corsica, a few kilometers to the west of the present-day front of the Alpine nappes. Shear zones strike ~ NNE-SSW, dip at a high angle, and are characterized by a dominant sinistral strike-slip component. Two of the three investigated shear zones contain two texturally and chemically resolvable generations of white mica, recording a prograde (burial) evolution: (1) deformed celadonite-poor relicts are finely overgrown by (2) a celadonite-rich white mica aligned along the main foliation. White mica from a third sample of another shear zone, characterized by a significantly lower porphyroclast/matrix ratio, exhibits a nearly uniform high-celadonite content, compositionally matching the texturally younger phengite from the nearby shear zones. Mineral-textural analysis, electron microprobe data, and pseudosection modeling constrain P-T conditions attained during shearing at ~ 300 °C and minimum pressures of ~ 0.6 GPa. In-situ 40Ar-39Ar analyses of coexisting low- and high-celadonite white micas from both shear zones yielded a relatively wide range of ages, ~ 45-36 Ma. Laser step-heating experiments gave sigmoidal-shaped age profiles, with step ages in line with in-situ spot dates. By contrast, the apparently chemically homogenous high-celadonite white mica yielded concordant in-situ ages at ~ 34 Ma, but a hump-shaped age spectrum, with maximum ages of ~ 35 Ma and intermediate- to high-temperature steps as young as ~ 33-32 Ma. Results indicate that the studied samples consist of an earlier celadonite-poor white mica with a minimum age of ~ 46 Ma, overgrown by a synshear high-celadonite white mica, developed at greater depth between ~ 37 and 35 Ma; faint late increments in shearing occurred at ≤ 33-32 Ma, when white mica incipiently re-equilibrated during exhumation. Results suggest that ductile shearing with a dominant strike-slip component pervasively deformed the Corsican basement complex during the emplacement and progressive thickening of the Alpine orogenic wedge and broaden the extent of the domain affected by the Alpine tectonometamorphic events. Integration of petrological modeling and geochronological data shows that the Variscan basement of central Corsica, close to the Alpine nappes, was buried during the late Eocene by ≥ 18 km of Alpine orogenic wedge and foreland deposits. Our results, combined with previously published apatite fission-track data, imply an overburden removal ≥ 15 km from the late Eocene (Priabonian) to the early Miocene (Aquitanian), pointing to a minimum average exhumation rate of 1.3-1.5 mm/a.

  20. The growth-form of Euphorbia hedyotoides N. E. Br. (syn. E. decariana Croiz.

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    Rauh, Werner


    Full Text Available A detailed description is given or Euphorbia hedyotoides N. E. Or. from southern Madagascar with a peculiar growth-form. Together with E. eliotii Léandri it is placed in a separate group: the E. hedyotoides-group.

    S'ofereix una detallada descripció d'una peculiar forma de creixement d'E. hedyotoides N. E. Or. procedent del sud de Madagascar. Es situa,juntament amb E. eliotii Léandri, en un grup separat : el grup E. hedyotoides.

  1. Pathogenesis of Cell Injury by Rickettsia conorii (United States)


    Hotivenaiehel, M., A. Ottomani, 0. Raoult, M. Rouzaud, J.C. Manell1, and J. 3iimar. 19P84. Une forme grave de fievre boutonneuse and rlditerranpenne. Ann. Franc...Martin, V.C. Vincent, F. Sanz, A. Mateos, R. Querol, and J. Portugal. 1985. Formas graves de fiebre exantematica mediterranea. Anal isis prospectivo la fiebre exantematica mediterranea. Revista Espanola de Enfermedades del Aparato Digestivo (in press). 89. Ruiz, R., A.M. Martin, F. Sanz, A

  2. Further data about Crocidura cossyrensis Contoli, 1989, with respect to other species of the Genus in the Mediterranean / Ulteriori dati su Crocidura cossyrensis Contoli, 1989, con particolare riguardo a specie congeneri dell'area mediterranea (Mammalia, Soricidae

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    Longino Contoli


    Full Text Available Abstract The description of C. cossyrensis Contoli, 1989, from Pantelleria, is verified and justified through comparison with the other known species of the middle Mediterranean region. Apart from the quite large size, the main differences concern the skull base, the P4, the skull dorsal outline and pelage colour. Riassunto L'istituzione di C. cossyrensis Contoli, 1989 è, ad oggi, giustificata attraverso un confronto con le altre specie congeneri del Mediterraneo centrale.

  3. A paradox in the restoration of limestone quarries on mediterranean basin: physical characteristics of substrate as determinant of dynamics of created system; Una paradoja en la restauracion de canteras de caliza en el area mediterranea: caracteristicas fisicas del sustrato como condicionante de la dinamica del sistema creado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorba, M.; Hereter, A.; Josa March, R.


    The restoration of open cast mining land looks for the quick integration in the landscape and the erosion control of derelict areas. The characteristics of substrate can determinate the behaviour of novel system. The stony substrates used have a great Ks and a very low water storage capacity. This paper presents the results of an experiment performed on story mineral substrates amended with sewage sludge under Mediterranean climatic conditions in a limestone quarry in the SW of Barcelona (NE of Spain). the experiments was carried out at container scale and the aim was to evaluate the vegetation response in two substrates with different stoniness and with irrigation during dry period. Water content in the mineral substrate was monitored using vertical TDR probes during the experiment. The growth of introduced plants was monitored monthly. Throughout the experiment, populations of sown plants fluctuated according to the available water in the substrate. The irrigation applied was not sufficient to maintain the vegetation in summer (period of higher evaporative demand at that time of year). The volume of leachate was high and nitrates, sulfates and chlorides were washed. (Author) 4 refs.

  4. On the identity of Chauliognathus flavipes (Coleoptera: Cantharidae: revision of type specimens, new synonyms and new status

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    Gabriel Biffi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The identity, taxonomic history, type series and synonyms of Chauliognathus flavipes (Fabricius, 1781, C. fallax (Germar, 1823, C. axillaris (Fischer von Waldheim, 1823 and C. basalis Lacordaire, 1857 are herein discussed. Twenty-five new synonyms are proposed for C. flavipes , with designation of lectotypes: C. fallax var. atrofasciata Pic, 1925 syn. nov., C. fallax var. basireducta Pic, 1925 syn. nov., C. fallax var. concolor Pic, 1927 syn. nov., C. fallax var. medioreducta Pic, 1928 syn. nov., C. fallax var. edmondi Pic, 1948 syn. nov., C. fallax var. petri Pic, 1948 syn. nov., C. fallax var. henrici Pic, 1948 syn. nov., C. fallax var. reductemaculata Pic, 1949 syn. nov., C. plagiatus Blanchard, 1844 syn. nov., C. plagiatus var. latejuncta Pic, 1925 syn. nov., C. plagiatus var. orbygnyi Pic, 1948 syn. nov., C. plagiatus var. alcidei Pic, 1948 syn. nov., C. inbasalis Pic, 1925 syn. nov., C. bimaculatus Pic, 1925 syn. nov., C. mendesensis Pic, 1933 syn. nov., C. opacicollis Pic, 1946 syn. nov., C. opacicollis var. freiburgana Pic, 1946 syn. nov., C. bireductipennis Pic, 1947 syn. nov., C. quadripunctatus var. lebisi Pic, 1947 syn. nov., C. diversesignatus Pic, 1949 syn. nov., C. neopici Wittmer, 1951 syn. nov., C. rufipes Pic, 1924 syn. nov., C. rufipes var. quadrinotata Pic, 1928 syn. nov., C. rufipes var. haasi Pic, 1928 syn. nov., C. ensellatus var. innotatithorax Pic, 1944 syn. nov. The name Chauliognathus neopici var. schneideri Pic, 1934 syn. nov. is also proposed as a junior synonym of Chauliognathus plicatus Pic, 1915. Chauliognathus plagiatus var. latebasalis Pic, 1925 is elevated to species rank (= C . latebasalis Pic, 1925 stat. nov. and the homonymy of C. basalis Lacordaire, 1857 and C. basalis LeConte, 1859 is discussed. Finally, a redescription and a distribution map of C. flavipes are given.

  5. A synopsis of the orchid weevil genus Orchidophilus Buchanan (Curculionidae, Baridinae), with taxonomic rectifications and description of one new species (United States)

    Six species of the weevil genus Orchidophilus Buchanan are recognized: O. epidendri (Murray) comb. n. (=Acythopeus genuinus Pascoe syn. n., =Baris orchivora Blackburn syn. n., =Apotomorhinus orchidearum Kolbe syn. n.), O. aterrimus (Waterhouse), O. eburifer (Pascoe) comb. n. (=Acythopeus gilvonotatu...

  6. Notas sinonímicas em Lepturini sul-americanos (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lepturinae Synonymical notes on South American Lepturini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lepturinae

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    Miguel A. Monné


    Full Text Available Novas sinonímias propostas: Strangalia flavocincta (Thomson, 1860 = Ophistomis tristis Melzer, 1922 syn. nov. = O. latifasciata Melzer, 1926 syn. nov.; Strangalia succincta (Redtenbacher, 1867 = O. auriflua Redtenbacher, 1867 syn. nov.; Strangalia melanura (Redtenbacher, 1867 = Euryptera dimidiata Redtenbacher, 1867 syn. nov.; Strangalia lyrata (Redtenbacher, 1867 = Ophistomis discophora Redtenbacher, 1867 syn. nov.; Strangalia fulvicornis (Bates, 1872 = Ophistomis variabilis Melzer, 1926 syn. nov. = O. flavovittata Melzer, 1926 syn. nov.; Strangalia melanophthisis (Berg, 1889 reval. = Euryptera melanura var. nigripennis Melzer, 1930 syn. nov.; Anastrangalia sanguinolenta (Linnaeus, 1761 (espécie introduzida na Argentina = Leptura bonaeriensis Burmeister, 1865 syn. nov.New synonyms proposed: Strangalia flavocincta (Thomson, 1860 = Ophistomis tristis Melzer, 1922 syn. nov. = O. latifasciata Melzer, 1926 syn. nov.; Strangalia succincta (Redtenbacher, 1867 = O. auriflua Redtenbacher, 1867 syn. nov.; Strangalia melanura (Redtenbacher, 1867 = Euryptera dimidiata Redtenbacher, 1867 syn. nov.; Strangalia lyrata (Redtenbacher, 1867 = Ophistomis discophora Redtenbacher, 1867 syn. nov.; Strangalia fulvicornis (Bates, 1872 = Ophistomis variabilis Melzer, 1926 syn. nov. = O. flavovittata Melzer, 1926 syn. nov.; Strangalia melanophthisis (Berg, 1889 reval. = Euryptera melanura var. nigripennis Melzer, 1930 syn. nov.; Anastrangalia sanguinolenta (Linnaeus, 1761 (species introduced in Argentina = Leptura bonaeriensis Burmeister, 1865 syn. nov.

  7. The genera of Nematinae (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae

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    Marko Prous


    Full Text Available Recent phylogenetic studies on Nematinae based on DNA sequences have shown extensive incongruencies with current nomenclature of genus-group taxa. Here, we expand previous DNA sequence datasets based on three genes (CoI, Cytb, and EF-1α, to include a fourth (NaK and more genera. The analyses largely confirm the previous findings, particularly the existence of two well-supported large clades, Euura and Pristiphora, together comprising more than 75% of the species of Nematinae. Basal relationships within these two clades remain poorly resolved, mirroring the difficulties in delimiting genera based on morphology. In addition, a moderately supported small clade, Nematus, is found. The relationships between the Euura, Pristiphora, and Nematus clades are uncertain. Therefore, to stabilize the nomenclature we treat these clades as genera. This taxonomic treatment results in numerous new combinations of species names. The following synonymies are proposed for the available genus-group names. Synonyms of Euura Newman, 1837: Cryptocampus Hartig, 1837, Euura Agassiz, 1848, Pontania Costa, 1852, syn. n., Epitactus Förster, 1854, syn. n., Amauronematus Konow, 1890, syn. n., Holcocneme Konow, 1890, syn. n., Pachynematus Konow, 1890, syn. n., Holcocnema Schulz, 1906, syn. n., Holcocnemis Konow, 1907, syn. n., Pteronidea Rohwer, 1911, syn. n., Pontopristia Malaise, 1921, syn. n., Brachycoluma Strand, 1929, syn. n., Decanematus Malaise, 1931, syn. n., Pikonema Ross, 1937, syn. n., Phyllocolpa Benson, 1960, syn. n., Eitelius Kontuniemi, 1966, syn. n., Gemmura E.L. Smith, 1968, Eupontania Zinovjev, 1985, syn. n., Larinematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, syn. n., Polynematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, syn. n., Bacconematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, syn. n., Alpinematus Lacourt, 1996, syn. n., Epicenematus Lacourt, 1998, syn. n., Kontuniemiana Lacourt, 1998, syn. n., Lindqvistia Lacourt, 1998, syn. n., Luea Wei and Nie, 1998, syn. n., and Tubpontania Vikberg, 2010, syn. n. Synonyms

  8. "Likväl som du kan leka med Lego, kan du ha en surfplatta" : Förskollärares syn på surfplattans roll i arbetet med naturvetenskap och teknik.


    Ternström, Emma


    The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers attitude how a tablet can be used to arouse children's interests and curiosity when it comes to science and technology. To examine this, interviews with six preschool teachers from five different preschools in three municipalities implemented. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were chosen to find out their personal views and thereby increase the possibilities to get as detailed and complete answers as possible. The results of thi...

  9. Observation on Therapeutic Effect of Comprehensive Treatment for Acute Respiratory Distress Syn-drome%综合治疗急性呼吸窘迫综合征的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万小兵; 陈宇洁; 陆海英


    目的:探讨呼吸支持、液体管理、抗炎和抗凝等综合方法治疗急性呼吸窘迫综合征( ARDS)的疗效。方法对2006年1月至2012年12月四川省第四人民医院呼吸内科收治的ARDS患者52例,在积极处理原发病基础上,应用呼吸支持、液体管理、抗炎和抗凝等综合治疗措施,观察治疗前后相关临床指标的变化。结果52例ARDS患者死亡12例,病死率为23.1%;治疗48 h后,患者血氧饱和度、pH值、动脉血氧分压、碳酸氢根显著高于治疗前[(0.89±0.13)比(0.80±0.30)、(7.9±0.7)比(7.1±0.6)、(82.4±6.9) mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa)比(62.3±7.9) mmHg、(21.2±2.5) mmHg比(19.7±3.9) mmHg],二氧化碳分压显著低于治疗前[(40.6±6.9) mmHg 比(46.3± 8.4) mmHg,P<0.01]。结论经机械通气、液体管理、抗炎和抗凝等综合措施治疗 ARDS患者效果较好,治疗前后各项指标均有好转迹象,可有效降低其病死率。%Objective To explore the application of respiratory support,fluid management,anti-inflam-matory and anticoagulant therapy in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS) .Methods A total of 52 ARDS patients admitted in Sichuan Fourth People′s Hospital from Jan.2006 to Dec.2012 were select-ed.On the basis of active treatment for primary disease,the patients were treated by comprehensive therapies, including respiratory support,fluid management,anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant,the changes of clinical indicators were observed before and after treatment.Results After treatment,12 cases out of 52 died,the mortality rate was 23.1%.And 48 h after treatment,the transcutaneous oxygen saturation,pH value,oxygen partial pressure,bicarbonate of the patients were higher than those before treatment,there were statistically significant differences[(0.89 ±0.13) vs (0.80 ±0.30),(7.9 ±0.7) vs (7.1 ±0.6),(82.4 ±6.9) mmHg vs (62.3 ±7.9) mmHg,(21.2 ±2.5) mmHg vs (19.7 ±3.9) mmHg],while partial pressure of carbon dioxide was significantly lower than that before treatment [(40.6 ±6.9) mmHg vs (46.3 ±8.4) mmHg, P<0.01].Conclusion The comprehensive therapy of mechanical ventilation, fluid management, anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant for ARDS has good effect ,clinical indicators of the patients generally become better after treatment.It can effectively reduce the mortality.

  10. 临床护理路径在预防产后晕厥中的应用价值%Application of clinical care pathway in the prevention of postpartum syn-cope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭静芳; 罗琳虹; 洪勉辉; 何玉敏


    Objective To investigate the effects of clinical care pathway on preventing postpartum syncope. Methods 200 expectant mothers demand to vaginal delivery from January to September 2012 in Department of Obstetrics of the First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Shantou University were evaluated according to high-risk score chart Nesbitt, and they were randomly divided into observation group and control group according to the random number table, 100 cases in each group. Both groups were given the breast feeding promotion, nursing safety notice before enter-ing the delivery room, and conventional care. Specially, the observation group simultaneously was received full-time care by nurses according to the clinical pathway of natural childbirth. Maternity patients' time of labor stage, blood pressure, and postpartum syncope were compared in the two groups. Results The total labor time of the observation group and control group were (629.0±157.7) min and (710.0±192.2) min respectively;the postpartum systolic blood pres-sure before leaving the bed in two groups were (122.7±5.3) mm Hg (1mm Hg=0.133 kPa) and (105.6±6.4) mm Hg re-spectively, and the rate of postpartum syncope were 1% and 10% respectively, the difference of two were statistically significant (all P<0.01). Conclusion Clinical care pathway play an important roles in preventing postpartum syncope and reducing accidents in wards.%目的:探讨临床护理路径在预防产后晕厥中的应用效果。方法2010年1~9月根据Nesbitt高危评分表对汕头大学医学院第一附属医院产科200例有阴道分娩意愿的孕妇进行评估,按随机数字表将孕妇分为观察组和对照组,每组各100例。两组孕妇均在产前进行母乳喂养宣教,入病室及产房时发放护理安全告知书及以常规护理,观察组根据制订的自然分娩临床护理路径表由责任护士进行专职护理。对比两组产妇分娩的产程时间、血压及产后昏厥发生情况。结果观察组和对照组总产程时间分别为(629.0±157.7)min和(710.0±192.2)min;产后下床前收缩压分别为(122.7±5.3)mm Hg(1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa)和(105.6±6.4)mm Hg;产后晕厥发生率分别为1%和10%;两组比较差异均有高度统计学意义(均P<0.01)。结论临床护理途径可有效防止产后晕厥的发生,降低病区意外事件发生率。

  11. A brief summary of TCM syndromes characteristics and treatment ideas on polycystic ovary syn-drome%多囊卵巢综合征中医证候特征及中医药治疗思路评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛喜艳; 李东; 郭佳; 刘承; 姬晓兰


    Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a reproduction endocrine disorder disease which is com-monly seen in women of childbearing age, and it brings great trouble to clinical treatment and research be-cause of the complex pathophysiology changes. Chinese medicine incorporated PCOS into the disease of“a-menorrhea” and“menstrual disorder”, and a series of researches had been carried out around its pathogen-esis, syndromes and treatment, and there have been certain results, but also some problems still not solved. So we briefly summarize on the research status and problems to provide some ideas for systemic and regulatory TCM clinical research of PCOS.%多囊卵巢综合征( polycystic ovary syndrome,PCOS)是育龄期妇女最常见的生殖内分泌紊乱性疾病,因其病理生理改变复杂,给临床治疗与研究带来极大困扰。中医学将其纳入“闭经”、“月经失调”等范畴,并围绕PCOS的病因病机、证候分型及治疗思路开展了一系列研究,取得了一定的成果,但同时也存在一些亟待解决的问题。现就其研究现状及存在问题做简要概述,为开展系统规范的PCOS中医临床研究提供一定的思路。

  12. Syn-collapse eclogite metamorphism and exhumation of deep crust in a migmatite dome: The P-T-t record of the youngest Variscan eclogite (Montagne Noire, French Massif Central) (United States)

    Whitney, Donna L.; Roger, Françoise; Teyssier, Christian; Rey, Patrice F.; Respaut, J.-P.


    In many orogens, high-pressure (HP) metamorphic rocks such as eclogite occur as lenses in quartzofeldspathic gneiss that equilibrated at much lower pressures. The pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) history of eclogite relative to host gneiss provides information about mechanisms and timescales of exhumation of orogenic crust. The Montagne Noire of the southern Massif Central, France, is an eclogite-bearing gneiss (migmatite) dome located at the orogen-foreland transition of the Variscan belt. Results of our study show that it contains the youngest eclogite in the orogen, similar in age to migmatite and granite that crystallized under low-pressure conditions. P-T conditions for an exceptionally unaltered eclogite from the central Montagne Noire were estimated using a pseudosection supplemented by garnet-clinopyroxene and Zr-in-rutile thermometry. Results indicate peak P ∼ 1.4 GPa and T ∼ 725°C for Mg-rich garnet rim (50 mol% pyrope) + omphacite (36 mol% jadeite) + rutile + quartz. U-Pb geochronology (LA-ICP-MS) of 16 zoned zircon grains yielded ∼360 Ma (4 cores) and ∼315 Ma (12 rims and cores). Rare earth element abundances determined by LA-ICP-MS for dated zircon are consistent with crystallization of ∼315 Ma zircon under garnet-stable, plagioclase-unstable conditions that we interpret to indicate high pressure; in contrast, the ∼360 Ma zircon core corresponds to crystallization under lower pressure plagioclase-stable conditions. Based on garnet zoning and inclusion suites, rutile textures and Zr zoning, P-T results, and zircon petrochronology, we interpret the ∼315 Ma date as the age of eclogite-facies metamorphism that only slightly preceded dome formation and crystallization at 315-300 Ma. This age relation indicates that eclogite formation at high pressure and migmatite dome emplacement at low pressure were closely spaced in time. We propose that collapse-driven material transfer from the hot orogen to the cool foreland resulted in thickening of the orogen edge, leading to eclogite facies metamorphism of the deep crust. Soon after, the low-viscosity partially molten crust flowed from the plateau toward the foreland, incorporating and exhuming eclogite. The P-T-t history of the Montagne Noire eclogite shows that some dome material ascended from >40 km depth to shallow crustal levels, likely in a single decompression event, and that migmatite domes are therefore very efficient at exhuming the deep crust.

  13. Investigation into the effects of trace coal syn gas species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cell anodes, PhD. thesis, Russ College of Engineering and Technology of Ohio University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembly, Jason P. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States). Russ College of Engineering and Technology


    Coal is the United States’ most widely used fossil fuel for the production of electric power. Coal’s availability and cost dictates that it will be used for many years to come in the United States for power production. As a result of the environmental impact of burning coal for power production more efficient and environmentally benign power production processes using coal are sought. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) combined with gasification technologies represent a potential methodology to produce electric power using coal in a much more efficient and cleaner manner. It has been shown in the past that trace species contained in coal, such as sulfur, severely degrade the performance of solid oxide fuel cells rendering them useless. Coal derived syngas cleanup technologies have been developed that efficiently remove sulfur to levels that do not cause any performance losses in solid oxide fuel cells. The ability of these systems to clean other trace species contained in syngas is not known nor is the effect of these trace species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells. This works presents the thermodynamic and diffusion transport simulations that were combined with experimental testing to evaluate the effects of the trace species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells. The results show that some trace species contained in coal will interact with the SOFC anode. In addition to the transport and thermodynamic simulations that were completed experimental tests were completed investigating the effect of HCl and AsH3 on the performance of SOFCs.

  14. Estudio de Catalizadores de Rutenio para la obtención de Gas de Síntesis a partir del Reformado Seco de Metano A Study on Ruthenium Catalysts to Obtain SynGas by Dry Methane Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia C.P Maina


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el comportamiento catalítico en reformado seco de catalizadores de Ru soportados sobre alúminas con agregado de Na, K, Mg, Ca o Ba. Los soportes y catalizadores fueron caracterizados y se analizó el comportamiento catalítico en la reacción de reformado de CH4 con CO2. Los catalizadores Ru/Al2O3-Na y Ru/Al2O3-K ofrecen mayores conversiones y mejores relaciones H2/CO, asunto que está relacionado con la dispersión metálica y con la basicidad del soporte. La disminución del tiempo de reducción previa del catalizador en H2, produce una disminución de las conversiones de CO2 y CH4 para todos los catalizadores excepto para el Ru/Al2O3-Na. Este fenómeno no sería debido al efecto térmico sino al tiempo de reducción propiamente dicho.This work studies the catalytic performance in dry reforming of Ru catalysts supported on γ-Al2O3 promoted with Na, K, Mg, Ca and Ba. The supports and the catalysts were characterized and tested in the reaction of CH4 reforming with CO2. Ru/Al2O3-Na and Ru/Al2O3-K catalysts showed higher conversions and better H2/CO molar ratios. This catalytic behavior would be related with the higher metallic dispersions and with the basicity of the support. When the reduction time in H2 was shortened, a decrease of the conversions for all the catalysts, except for Ru/Al2O3-Na, was observed. This phenomenon would not be due to the thermal effect but to the reduction time.

  15. GreenSynFuels. Economical and technological statement regarding integration and storage of renewable energy in the energy sector by production of green synthetic fuels for utilization in fuel cells. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebaek, J. (Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark)); Boegild Hansen, J. (Haldor Topsoee, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Mogens (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)) (and others)


    The purpose of the project is to select and validate technology concepts for the establishment of a Danish production of green synthetic fuels primarily for fuel cells. The feasibility of the selected concepts is assessed trough a techno-economical calculation, which includes mass and energy balances and economics including CAPEX and OPEX assessments. It is envisioned by the project partners that a production of green synthetic fuels, such as methanol, can 1) bring stability to a future electricity grid with a high share of renewable energy, 2) replace fossil fuels in the transport sector, and 3) boost Danish green technology export. In the project, two technology concepts were derived through carefully considerations and plenum discussions by the project group members: Concept 1): Methanol/DME Synthesis based on Electrolysis assisted Gasification of Wood. Concept 2): Methanol/DME synthesis based on biogas temporarily stored in the natural gas network. Concept 1) is clearly the most favored by the project group and is therefore analyzed for its techno-economic feasibility. Using mass and energy balances the technical perspectives of the concept were investigated, along with an economic breakdown of the CAPEX and OPEX cost of the methanol production plant. The plant was technically compared to a traditional methanol production plant using gasified biomass. The project group has decided to focus on large scale plants, as the scale economics favor large scale plants. Therefore, the dimensioning input of the concept 1) plant is 1000 tons wood per day. This is truly a large scale gasification plant; however, in a methanol synthesis context the plant is not particularly large. The SOEC electrolyzer unit is dimensioned by the need of hydrogen to balance the stoichiometric ratio of the methanol synthesis reaction, which will result in 141 MW installed SOEC. The resulting methanol output is 1,050 tons methanol per day. In comparison to a traditional methanol synthesis plant operating on biomass gasification without electrolysis, the plant methanol output is doubled and the methanol production efficiency is boosted from 59 % to 71 %. The total plant efficiency was 81.6 %. The economic analysis revealed that green methanol can indeed be produced at prices very close to the current oil price. In the scenario using the present energy prices and assuming that the critical plant components were readily available, the methanol production was found to be 120 USD/barrel equivalents, which is very close to the current oil price. It can be concluded that the present report has shown that green methanol can indeed be produced at competitive prices and be used as step towards expanding the share of renewable in the energy system and especially in the transportation segment. Therefore, producing methanol from using electrolysis assisted gasification it is possible to produce green methanol from biomass with this ratio: 1,000 t wood = 1,053 t methanol at 120-170 USD/barrel equivalent (1.5 - 2 times the existing oil price - February 2010). (LN)

  16. Recovery plan for Scots pine blister rust caused by Cronartium flaccidum (Alb. & Schwein.) G. Winter and Peridermium pini (Pers.) Lév. [syn. C. asclepiadeum (Willd.) Fr., Endocronartium pini (Pers.) Y. Hiratsuka (United States)

    Brian W. Geils; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; Pauline Spaine; Bryce A. Richardson; Paul J. Zambino; Charles G. Shaw; James Walla; Russ Bulluck; Laura Redmond; Kent. Smith


    The sexually reproducing form of Scots pine blister rust, C. flaccidum, completes its life cycle alternating between pines of the subgenus Pinus and seed-plants of various families. Scots pine blister rust is also caused by a form of the rust that spreads directly from pine to pine and is named, Peridermium pini...

  17. "Man får göra så gott man kan" : En studie över skolbibliotekariers syn på läsfrämjande verksamhet för högstadieelever.



    The purpose of this essay is to explore school librarians view on junior high school students literacy and approaches to promoting reading in the school library. My main focus is to identify what norms and values that are made visible in the school librariens description of a junior high school student literacy and a junior high school student as a reading subject. The empircal study is based on qualitative interviews with five school librarians from Stocholm county. Social constructivism is ...

  18. Mångkulturell vägledning – särskiljande eller inkluderande? : En studie om vägledares syn på begreppet mångkulturell vägledning


    Theodoridou, Voula; St Clair Maitland, Rita


    Det huvudsakliga syftet med vår uppsats är att undersöka attityder och förhållningssätt till begreppet mångkulturell vägledning hos verksamma studie- och yrkesvägledare i den kommunala sektorn. Vi vill också ta reda på om mångkulturell vägledning per definition används i den dagliga verksamheten och vilka premisser den i så fall förutsätter. Undersökningen har en kvantitativ ansats och grundar sig på en enkät som har mailats ut till 100 studie- och yrkesvägledare som arbetar i en skola där an...

  19. Genuspedagogik i praktiken : En kvalitativ studie om personalens syn på genuspedagogiskt arbete och deras bemötande gentemot flickor och pojkar i en fijiansk förskola


    Boström, Jenny; Gädeke, Zara


    Detta examensarbete syftade till att studera hur genuspedagogiskt arbete uppfattades av personalen i en fijiansk förskola. Även likheter och skillnader i personalens bemötande av flickor och pojkar i dagliga situationer i förskolan studerades i arbetet. I studien användes kvalitativa forskningsmetoder och med hjälp av intervju besvarades frågeställning 1) Hur ser personalen på genuspedagogiskt arbete i den fijianska förskolan? och genom observation besvarades frågeställning 2) Hurudana likhet...

  20. Kinematics of syn-tectonic unconformities and implications for the tectonic evolution of the Hala'alat Mountains at the northwestern margin of the Junggar Basin, Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Ma


    Full Text Available The Hala'alat Mountains are located at the transition between the West Junggar and the Junggar Basin. In this area, rocks are Carboniferous, with younger strata above them that have been identified through well data and high-resolution 3D seismic profiles. Among these strata, seven unconformities are observed and distributed at the bases of: the Permian Jiamuhe Formation, the Permian Fengcheng Formation, the Triassic Baikouquan Formation, the Jurassic Badaowan Formation, the Jurassic Xishanyao Formation, the Cretaceous Tugulu Group and the Paleogene. On the basis of balanced sections, these unconformities are determined to have been formed by erosion of uplifts or rotated fault blocks primarily during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. In conjunction with the currently understood tectonic background of the surrounding areas, the following conclusions are proposed: the unconformities at the bases of the Permian Jiamuhe and Fengcheng formations are most likely related to the subduction and closure of the Junggar Ocean during the late Carboniferous–early Permian; the unconformities at the bases of the Triassic Baikouquan and Jurassic Badaowan formations are closely related to the late Permian–Triassic Durbut sinistral slip fault; the unconformities at the bases of the middle Jurassic Xishanyao Formation and Cretaceous Tugulu Group may be related to reactivation of the Durbut dextral slip fault in the late Jurassic–early Cretaceous, and the unconformity that gives rise to the widely observed absence of the upper Cretaceous in the northern Junggar Basin may be closely related to large scale uplift. All of these geological phenomena indicate that the West Junggar was not calm in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic and that it experienced at least four periods of tectonic movement.

  1. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Dothistroma septosporum (Dorog. M. Morelet (Mycosphaerella pini E. Rostrup, syn. Scirrhia pini and Dothistroma pini Hulbary to the EU territory with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH


    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Scirrhia pini for the European Union (EU territory, identified risk management options and evaluated their effectiveness. The risk assessment was conducted taking into account current EU legislation. The Panel also provided an opinion on the effectiveness of the present EU requirements against this organism listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Considering that there has been taxonomic confusion over the pest mentioned in the EU plant health legislation, the assessment was carried out for Dothistroma septosporum (the anamorph of S. pini, the latter renamed to Mycosphaerella pini and Dothistroma pini (teleomorph unknown, both of which cause Dothistroma needle blight. Three major pathways for entry were identified: host plants intended for planting/grafting (excluding fruit and seeds, natural means (wind, rain, wind-driven rain, etc., and host plants and plant parts with foliage not intended for planting (e.g., fresh branches, cut Christmas trees, etc.; probability of entry was considered very likely, likely and unlikely, respectively, with high uncertainty. The establishment and further spread were both considered very likely. The current consequences were considered major and they include loss of wood volume, tree mortality, and losses in terms of landscape value, amenity value, recreational uses and tourism. The Panel concluded that introduction and spread of the two pests are not fully prevented by Council Directive 2000/29/EC, mainly because of the possibility to import and trade host plant material other than Pinus plants for planting. In order to prevent the potentially serious impacts in those parts of the risk assessment area where the pathogens are currently not known to occur, additional risk reduction options have been identified, in the form of simultaneous implementation of measures targeted at reducing the movement of infected host plants and the further spread of the pests by natural means.

  2. Use of spent mushroom substrates from Agaricus subrufescens (syn. A. blazei, A. brasiliensis) and Lentinula edodes productions in the enrichment of a soil-based potting media for lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivation: Growth promotion and soil bioremediation. (United States)

    Ribas, L C C; de Mendonça, M M; Camelini, C M; Soares, C H L


    This study aimed to assess physicochemical and microbiological properties of fresh spent mushroom substrates (SMSs)--without post-crop heat treatment--from Agaricus subrufescens and Lentinula edodes production to optimize the use of these residues in the soil enrichment for lettuce growth promotion and soil remediation. Organic matter and C content of both SMSs were high. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was a good source of N, P and K. On the other hand, L. edodes SMS presented a lower concentration of these nutrients and a high level of immaturity. Both SMSs presented high electric conductivity values (2.5-3.4 mS/cm). Microbiological analysis, based upon enumeration of culturable bacteria (thermophilic and mesophilic) and fungi, and also evolution of CO(2), showed that SMSs played higher microbial diversity than soil control. Laccase activity from A. subrufescens SMS tended to remain constant during a 2-month period, while L. edodes SMS presented low laccase activity throughout the same period. Agaricus subrufescens and L. edodes were able to grow on a PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) media supplemented with different concentrations of atrazine (1-50 microg/ml), degraded the herbicide, attaining rates of 35% and 26%, respectively. On experiments of lettuce growth promotion using a soil-based potting media with different SMS rates, 5% and 10% (dw) rates of A. subrufescens SMS resulted in higher lettuce aerial dry weights than the rates of 25% and 40%, the chemical fertilization (NPK) and the control (soil). At 10% supplementation, lettuce aerial dry weight increased 2.2 and 1.3 times compared to the control and the NPK treatment, respectively. Protein content increased along with SMS rates. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was an excellent supplement for lettuce growth promotion and showed potential for remediation of biocides possibly due to improved microbial diversity and enzymatic activity. Fresh L. edodes SMS was not a good fertilizer, at least under the conditions tested. However, microbiological analysis showed that promising results may be achieved when using fresh L. edodes SMS for soil remediation.

  3. Prognostic factors of cardiac arrest patients with cardiopulmonary resuscitation spontaneous circulation syn-drome%心脏骤停患者心肺复苏自主循环综合征预后相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞宁; 吕立文; 唐宇涛; 齐玉晶


    目的:探讨影响心脏骤停后心肺复苏自主循环综合征患者预后的相关因素,为临床上预后评估提供依据。方法收集2013-2015年入住我院急诊重症监护室成功心肺复苏自主循环200例,除去年龄不符(小于16岁)的,还有资料不完整的,最后纳入研究150例,对可能与预后相关的因素进行单因素分析和多因素分析,找出它们之间的相关性。结果单因素Logistic回归分析发现年龄,基础疾病史情况,性别,这三个因素对患者预后无统计学意义(P>0.05)。多因素Logistic 回归分析发现影响患者预后的因素有:心脏复苏开始的时间,持续时间,第4天的APACHEⅡ评分,以及复苏后有无肌肉阵挛,肌肉抽搐,有无脑干反应,有无室颤,室速等,这些因素对患者预后有统计学意义( P 0. 05 ) . Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the influencing factors included CPR start time, duration, day 4 APACHEⅡscore, presence or absence of recovery after muscle clonus, muscle twitching, with or without brainstem response, chamber flutter, and ventricu-lar tachycardia (P<0. 05). Conclusion The prognostic factors of cardiopulmonary resuscitation spontaneous circu-lation include recovery start time, duration, day 4 APACHEⅡ score, presence or absence of myoclonic recovery, muscle twitching, with or without ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, with or without stem, etc.

  4. Etnografi som metod för att förstå något om lärande och identitet – en tvärvetenskaplig syn på slöjd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ahlskog-Björkman


    Full Text Available Om man betraktar slöjd ur en nordisk kulturell synvinkel kan man säga att slöjden inte längre bara är ett hantverk utan är något som överförts också till utbildningens formella rum och vidare till storstadens informella rum. Inom aktuell slöjdpedagogisk forskning blir det därför tydligt att det finns behov att diskutera slöjdens betydelse både i och utanför skola och utbildning nu och i framtiden. Syftet med artikeln är att beskriva hur den slöjdpedagogiska forskaren kan använda etnografi som ett metodiskt angreppssätt. Artikelskribenterna1 är intresserade av två ytterligheter: slöjdaktiviteter i förskolan och slöjd i storstadens subkultur. Lärande och identitet betraktas ur ett sociokulturellt perspektiv. För analysen används Foucaults diskursteori (1980, 1993, eftersom etnografin alltid är knuten till en kulturell kontext. I artikeln beskrivs datainsamling och analys-metoder med utgångspunkt i etnografisk forskning som kan tillämpas på det slöjdpedagogiska fältet. Teorin belyses genom exempel dels genom barns berättelser om sina upplevelser av artefakter som de själva skapat, dels genom aktivisters berättelser medierade genom deras artefakter. I fokus ligger en vald social inramning som överspänner både det formella och det informella rummet (Lave & Wenger, 2003. Artikeln visar hur man kan använda etnografisk metod som redskap för att lyfta fram hur de som gör slöjd lär sig färdigheter och hur de genom slöjd ger uttryck för sin identitet. Slöjd i detta sammanhang kan beskrivas som en kommunikativ estetisk gestaltning.Sökord: metod, slöjd, etnografi, kulturteori, diskursanalysURN:NBN:no-29954

  5. Crustal melting and recycling: geochronology and sources of Variscan syn-kinematic anatectic granitoids of the Tormes Dome (Central Iberian Zone). A U-Pb LA-ICP-MS study (United States)

    López-Moro, F. J.; López-Plaza, M.; Gutiérrez-Alonso, G.; Fernández-Suárez, J.; López-Carmona, A.; Hofmann, M.; Romer, R. L.


    In this study, we report U-Pb Laser Ablation ICP-MS zircon and ID-TIMS monazite ages for peraluminous granitoid plutons (biotite ± muscovite ± cordierite ± sillimanite) in the Tormes Dome, one of the gneiss-cored domes located in the Central Iberian Zone of the Variscan belt of northern Spain. Textural domains in zircon, interpreted to represent the magmatic crystallization of the granitoids (and one monazite fraction in the Ledesma pluton) yielded ages around 320 Ma, in agreement with other geochronological studies in the region. This age is interpreted to date the timing of decompression crustal melting driven by the extensional collapse of the orogenic belt in this domain of the Variscan chain of western Europe. In addition, there are several populations of inherited (xenocrystic) zircon: (1) Carboniferous zircon crystals (ca. 345 Ma) as well as one of the monazite fractions in the coarse-grained facies of the Ledesma pluton that also yielded an age of ca. 343 Ma. (2) Devonian-Silurian zircon xenocrysts with scattered ages between ca. 390 and 432 Ma. (3) Middle Cambrian-Ordovician (ca. 450-511 Ma). (4) Ediacaran-Cryogenian zircon ages (ca. 540-840 Ma). (5) Mesoproterozoic to Archaean zircon (900-2700 Ma). The abundance of Carboniferous-inherited zircon shows that crustal recycling/cannibalization may often happen at a fast pace in orogenic scenarios with only short lapses of quiescence. In our case study, it seems plausible that a "crustal layer" of ca. 340 Ma granitoids/migmatites was recycled, partially or totally, only 15-20 My after its emplacement.

  6. Crop physiology in (semi-)closed greenhouses - Final report of the TransForum scientific project “SynErgy: Monitoring and control system for conditioning of plants and greenhouse” (WP-066)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, J.A.; Qian, T.; Elings, A.; Marcelis, L.F.M.


    In The Netherlands, since 2002, a number of (semi-)closed greenhouses was constructed. Climate conditions in these greenhouses were found to differ considerably from those in conventional greenhouses. Knowledge of the effects of these climate conditions on the crop was scarce. Therefore, in the rese

  7. Progress of Chinese Medicine Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syn-drome Diagnosis and Treatment%中医药治疗多囊卵巢综合征诊断与治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高众辉; 吴效科


    探讨中医药治疗多囊卵巢综合征的研究进展,为临床治疗提供依据。中医药治疗多囊卵巢综合征有独特的治疗优势,无论从辨证论治、理法方药、针灸治疗等方面均有一定的治疗效果,充分体现了中医药治疗的特点。现将近十年中医药治疗多囊卵巢综合征的治疗方法进行综述。%To investigate the progress of medical treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome, provide the basis for clinical treatment. Chinese medicine treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome has a u-nique therapeutic advantages, in terms of diagnosis and treatment, hair cut herbs, acupuncture, etc. have a certain therapeutic effect, fully embodies the characteristics of Chinese medicine treatment. Now nearly a decade treatment of Chinese medicine treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome were reviewed.

  8. Design of double CAN port syn-communication board based on TMS320LF2407A%基于TMS320LF2407A的双CAN口同步通讯板设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 周希鹏; 荣溪超; 王锋



  9. Thoughts on the Using of Functional Fitness Training in Syn- chronized Swimming%关于功能性体能训练在花样游泳项目中运用的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    反思花样游泳项目体能训练的现状,分析对于花样游泳专项训练最为重要的体能素质:有氧能力、无氧能力、核心力量和小肌肉群力量,并结合花样游泳专项特点,分析了不同体能素质未来发展的基本思路,为花样游泳项目体能训练的安排提供了理论依据。%The article introspected the situation of fitness training in Synchronized Swimming team, analyzed the four most important as- pects of Synchronized Swimming: Aerobic ability, anaerobic capaci- ty, core capacity and fine motor capacity. Then the researchers showed different developing trends of future fitness training in this sport, and offered theoretical reference for the arrangement of fitness training in the sport.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤艳兰; 郑黎; 李玲


    [Objective] To investigate the depression status and relevant factors in patents with nephrotic syndrome. [Methods] The depression status of 180 patients with nephrotic syndrome were investigated through Zung self-rating depression scale. [Results] The total incidence rate of depression was 46.5% and relevant factors were degree of education, pecuniary condition, medical insurance, curative effect, course of disease and occurrence of complications. [Conclusion] Depression exists in most patients with nephrotic syndrome. Psychotherapy should be strengthened besides clinical treatment.%[目的]了解肾病综合征患者抑郁现况及影响因素.[方法]采用Zung自评抑郁量表(SDS)对180例肾病综合征患者进行调查.[结果]抑郁症患病率为46.5%.影响患者抑郁得分值的因素有文化程度、经济状况、医保情况、激素效果、治疗时间、复发情况、并发症.[结论]对肾病综合征患者应及时采取针对性的措施进行心理状况干预,以改善患者的心理状态,提高患者的生活质量.

  11. Syn- and post-orogenic alkaline magmatism in a continental arc: Along-strike variations in the composition, source, and timing of igneous activity in the Ross Orogen, Antarctica (United States)

    Hagen-Peter, G.; Cottle, J. M.


    Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic convergence and subduction along the margin of East Gondwana (Australia, New Zealand, Antarctica) resulted in a belt of deformed and metamorphosed sedimentary rocks and batholith-scale igneous intrusions comparable in size to the present day Andes. Mid-crustal levels of this belt, known as the Ross Orogen in Antarctica, are exposed in the basement of the Cenozoic Transantarctic Mountains, providing snapshots of the intrusive magma system of a major continental arc. Whole rock major- and trace-element geochemistry, Hf isotopes in zircon, and U-Pb geochronology have identified along-strike variations in the composition, source, and timing of magmatism along ~200 km of the southern Victoria Land segment of the orogen. There is an apparent younging of the igneous activity from south to north. New U-Pb ages for intrusive rocks from the Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Province (KGAP) reveal that igneous activity spanned ca. 565-500 Ma (~30 m.y. longer than previously recognized), while immediately to the north in the Dry Valleys area most igneous activity was confined to a relatively short period (ca. 515-495 Ma). Alkaline and subalkaline igneous rocks occur in both the Dry Valleys area and the KGAP, but alkaline rocks in the Dry Valleys are restricted to the latest phase of magmatism. Na-alkaline rocks in the KGAP, including nepheline syenites, carbonatites, and A-type granites, range in age from ca. 545-500 Ma and overlap in age with more typical subduction/collision-related I- and S-type granites elsewhere in southern Victoria Land. Strong enrichments in the LILE and LREE and high LILE/HFSE and LREE/HREE of samples from the KGAP reveal a source enriched in aqueous-mobile elements, potentially a strongly metasomatized mantle wedge beneath the arc. In the Dry Valleys area, rocks with alkali-calcic composition constitute only the youngest intrusions (505-495 Ma), apparently reflecting a shift to post-orogenic magmatism. Zircons from Dry Valleys granitoids have ɛHfT values that range from -2 to -8.5, with a general decrease in ɛHfT with increasing silica content. The most primitive samples (~50 wt% SiO2) range from -4 to -6. These data suggest either: 1) mixing between a subordinate depleted mantle and a dominant crustal source or 2) an enriched mantle source with low 'crust-like' ɛHf and varying degrees of crustal contamination. A binary mixing model with basalt sourced from depleted mantle and Proterozoic crust (constrained by the Hf concentration and isotope composition of local metasediments) end members suggests greater than 50% recycled crust in the source. Ongoing work is focused on Hf isotope composition of intrusive rocks from the KGAP for comparison. The distinct composition of synchronous magmatism in the KGAP and Dry Valleys may be due to: 1) chemical heterogeneity of the mantle wedge beneath the two areas or 2) a metasomatized mantle source for the KGAP intrusives versus a recycled crustal source for those in the Dry Valleys. Such a model implies that crustal growth and crustal recycling may operate proximally and synchronously within a single segment of a continental arc.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of a Ditriflate-Bridged, Diiron(II) Complex with Syn-N-Donor Ligands: [Fe(2)(μ-OTf)(2)(PIC(2)DET)(2)](BARF)(2). (United States)

    Kodanko, Jeremy J; Lippard, Stephen J


    The synthesis and characterization of the diiron(II) complex [Fe(2)(μ-OTf)(2)-(PIC(2)DET)(2)](BARF)(2) (2), where PIC(2)DET is a 2,3-diethynyltriptycene-linked dipicolinic methyl ester ligand, are described. The dication in 2, contains, [Fe(2)(μ-OTf)(2)(PIC(2)DET)(2)](2+) two symmetry-equivalent iron atoms with octahedral coordination geometries. Each metal ion has a N(2)O(4) atom donor set that includes four atoms from two picolinic ester N,O chelate rings, as well as two oxygen atoms from the bridging trifluoromethanesulfonate groups. The Fe(2)(μ-OTf)(2) core of 2 is stabilized by two PIC(2)DET ligands that bind the two metal ions in a head-to-head fashion, leading to an Fe···Fe distance of 5.173(1)Å. Molar conductivity data for 2 are consistent with Fe(2)(μ-OTf)(2)(PIC(2)DET)(2)](2+) retaining its identity in acetone solutions, where it behaves as a 2:1 electrolyte. (1)H NMR spectroscopic, solution (d(6)-acetone) and solid-state magnetic susceptibility data all indicate that the iron atoms of 2 are high-spin (S = 2). A fit of the magnetic data (2 - 300K) to a spin-only isotropic exchange Hamiltonian H = -2JS(1)·S(2) are consistent with weak antiferromagnetic coupling between the two iron atoms with J ~ -0.99(2) cm(-1) and g = 2.10(1).

  13. Overview of the influence of syn-sedimentary tectonics and palaeo-fluvial systems on coal seam and sand body characteristics in the Westphalian C strata, Campine Basin, Belgium (United States)

    Dreesen, Roland; Bossiroy, Dominique; Dusar, Michiel; Flores, R.M.; Verkaeren, Paul; Whateley, M. K. G.; Spears, D.A.


    The Westphalian C strata found in the northeastern part of the former Belgian coal district (Campine Basin), which is part of an extensive northwest European paralic coal basin, are considered. The thickness and lateral continuity of the Westphalian C coal seams vary considerably stratigraphically and areally. Sedimentological facies analysis of borehole cores indicates that the deposition of Westphalian C coal-bearing strata was controlled by fluvial depositional systems whose architectures were ruled by local subsidence rates. The local subsidence rates may be related to major faults, which were intermittently reactivated during deposition. Lateral changes in coal seam groups are also reflected by marked variations of their seismic signatures. Westphalian C fluvial depositional systems include moderate to low sinuosity braided and anastomosed river systems. Stable tectonic conditions on upthrown, fault-bounded platforms favoured deposition by braided rivers and the associated development of relatively thick, laterally continuous coal seams in raised mires. In contrast, rapidly subsiding downthrown fault blocks favoured aggradation, probably by anastomosed rivers and the development of relatively thin, highly discontinuous coal seams in topogenous mires.

  14. Characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rot of citrus in southern Italy. (United States)

    Roccotelli, Angela; Schena, Leonardo; Sanzani, Simona M; Cacciola, Santa O; Mosca, Saveria; Faedda, Roberto; Ippolito, Antonio; di San Lio, Gaetano Magnano


    The characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rots in commercial citrus orchards in southern Italy revealed that both white and brown rot fungi are implicated in this disease. Fomitiporia mediterranea was the most prevalent species causing a white rot, followed by Fomitopsis sp. which, by contrast, was associated with brown rot wood decay. Furthermore, Phellinus spp. and other nonidentified basidiomycetous fungi showing genetic affinity with the genera Phellinus and Coniophora were occasionally isolated. Artificial inoculations on lemon (Citrus limon) branches showed a faster wood colonization by Fomitopsis sp. compared with F. mediterranea, indicating that the former species as a potentially serious pathogen of citrus trees. The analysis of F. mediterranea internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed a high level of genetic variability, with 13 genotypes which were both homozygous (6 genotypes) and heterozygous (7 genotypes). The presence of heterozygous genomes based on ITS sequences has never been reported before for F. mediterranea. This, together with the high frequency of basidiomata on infected wood, unambiguously confirms the outcrossing nature of reproduction in F. mediterranea and the primary role of basidiospores in the dissemination of inoculum. Similarly, high genetic variability was observed analyzing Fomitopsis sp. Because basidiomata of this fungus have not been observed on citrus trees, it can be hypothesized that basidiospores are produced on alternative host plants.

  15. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 427711467 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  16. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 428222362 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  17. Nature Identical Prosody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Henrichsen, Peter


    ; such as low naturalness (DiSyn) and dependence on huge amounts of background data (UnitSyn). We present a hybrid model based on high-level speech data. As preliminary tests show, prosodic models combining DiSyn style at the phone level with UnitSyn style at the supra-segmental levels may approach Unit...

  18. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 428222259 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  19. Interprocess Communication Protocols for Computer Networks (United States)


    connection, ESN must be set equal to ISN in both directions. To accomplish this, each CCP may try to keep the sarra state information that the other CCP...Pick ISN and send S’N packet ulth ACK of received SYN. OPEN SS Pick ISN and send SYN packst. ACK, elf Ignors sines no pscksts osnding...Quit, Data, Retrane SS SYN SR Accept SYN packet. Seid ACK referencing received SYN. OPEN elf Ignors sines already in progress. Retrane elf

  20. New nomenclatorial changes in the family Dermestidae (Coleoptera):


    Háva, Jiři


    The following new nomenclatorial acts are proposed: Trogoderma granarium Everts, 1898 (= T. koningsbergeri Pic, 1933 syn. n.); T. pectinicornis Reitter, 1881 (= Hadrotoma argentina Pic, 1906 syn. n.); T. ruficolle Reitter,1881 (= T. thoracicum var. bicoloripes Pic, 1936 syn. n.); Trogoderma obscurum Pic, 1936 stat. n.; Attagenus gounellei (Pic, 1915) comb. n. (= A. brasiliensis Pic, 1923 syn. n.); Megatoma (Pseudohadrotoma) graeseri (Reitter,1887) (= M. graeseri var. latenotata Pic, 1902 syn....

  1. Systematic revision and review of the extant and fossil snout butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Libytheinae). (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y


    Extant and fossil genera and species in the Libytheinae (Nymphalidae) are revised and reviewed. The Libytheinae includes two genera: Libythea Fabricius and Libytheana Michener. Fifteen species and an additional 24 subspecies are recognized and 41 names are synonymized. Species recognized are: Libythea celtis (Laicharting), L. collenettei Riley, L. cinyras Trimen revised status, L. geoffroyi Godart, L. labdaca Westwood, L. laius Trimen, L. lepita Moore, L. myrrha Godart, L. narina Godart, Libytheana carinenta (Cramer), L. florissanti (Scudder), L. fulvescens (Lathy), L. motya (Hübner), L. terena (Godart), and L. vagabunda (Scudder). New synonymies that are established for Libythea celtis (Laicharting [1782]) include: Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. obscura Millière 1879 syn. nov.; Libythea celtis f. denudata Dannehl 1925 syn. nov.; Libythea celtis f. separata Dannehl 1925 syn. nov.; Libythea celtis livida Saggara 1926 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. albonervulata Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. latefulva Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. obscurenervulata Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. pallida Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. pygmaea Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. rubescens Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. subochracea Verity 1950 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) celtis f. violacea Verity 1950 syn. nov.; and Libythea celtis platooni Korb 2005 syn. nov. Synonyms of Libythea geoffroyi geoffroyi Godart 1822 include: Libythea antipoda Boisduval, 1859 syn. nov.; Libythea orientalis Godman and Salvin, 1888 syn. nov.; Libythea hauxwelli Moore, 1901 syn. nov.; Libythea (Libythea) geoffroy var. sumbensis Pagenstecher, 1901 syn. nov.; Libythea geoffroy deminuta Fruhstorfer, 1909 syn. nov.; and Libythea geoffroy maenia Fruhstorfer, 1909 syn. nov. Libythea batchiana Wallace 1869 syn. nov. is a synonym of Libythea geoffroyi ceramensis Wallace 1869

  2. Editors note, and Dedication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mugnai


    Full Text Available This Supplement to volume 50 of Phytopathologia Mediterranea contains original, peer reviewed research papers, prepared from presentations at the 7th International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases (IWGTD. This Workshop was held in Santa Cruz, Chile, 17–21 January 2010, and was organized by the International Council on Grapevine Trunk Diseases (ICGTD.  Publication of this Supplement has been financially assisted by the International Society for Plant Pathology (ISPP.This Supplementary Issue of Phytopathologia Mediterranea is dedicated to the memory of Dr Luigi Chiarappa, the founder and inspiration of the ICGTD.  


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Caldara


    Full Text Available In accordo con le disposizioni del codice internazionale di Nomenclatura Zoologica, vengono proposte otto azioni allo scopo di salvaguardare la stabilità della nomenclatura attuale di alcune specie della tribù Tychiini. seguendo le indicazioni dell’Articolo 23.9.1, Sibinia subelliptica Desbrochers, 1873 è considerato nomen protectum e Gymnetron schaumi Becker, 1864 è considerato nomen oblitum; Sibinia phalerata Gyllenhal, 1836 è considerato nomen protectum e Sibinia centromaculata Villa & Villa, 1835 è considerato nomen oblitum. Essendo presenti le condizioni richieste dall’articolo 75.3, vengono designati i neotipi dei seguenti taxa: Sibinia centromaculata Villa & Villa, 1835; Sybines pulchellus Desbrochers, 1875. Sono inoltre stabiliti i lectotypi di: Gymne­ tron schaumi Becker, 1864; Sibinia attalica Gyllenhal var. lateralis Desbrochers, 1895; Sibinia cinctella Desbrochers, 1898; Sibinia pozuelica Fuente, 1910; Tychius barceloni­cus Desbrochers, 1908; Tychius edentatus Desbrochers, 1895; Tychius pallidicornis Desbrochers, 1875; Tychius parvulus Stephens, 1831; Tychius seductor Desbrochers, 1908. Vengono proposte le seguenti nuove sinonimie: Sibinia bipunctata Kirsch, 1870 = Sibi­nia postsignata Voss, 1971 n. syn.; Sibinia exigua Faust = Sibinia cinctella Desbrochers, 1898 n. syn.; Sibinia femoralis Germar, 1824 = Sibinia attalica var. lateralis Desbrochers, 1895 n. syn. = Sibinia consanguinea Desbrochers, 1895 n. syn. = Sibinia attalica var. curtula Desbrochers, 1907 n. syn. = Sibinia dilataticollis Desbrochers, 1907 n. syn.= Sibinia seducta Desbrochers, 1907 n. syn. = Sibinia pozuelica Fuente, 1910 n. syn.; Si­binia pici Desbrochers = Sibinia otiosa Hustache, 1944 n. syn. = Sibinia praeventa Hustache, 1944 n. syn.; Sibinia subelliptica Desbrochers, 1873 = Sibinia schaumei Desbrochers, 1895 n. syn.; Sibinia unicolor Fåhraeus, 1843 = Sybines pulchellus Desbrochers, 1875 n. syn. = Sibinia ochreata Schilsky, 1912 n. syn

  4. Oxidative stress-induced posttranslational modifications of alpha-synuclein: specific modification of alpha-synuclein by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal increases dopaminergic toxicity. (United States)

    Xiang, Wei; Schlachetzki, Johannes C M; Helling, Stefan; Bussmann, Julia C; Berlinghof, Marvin; Schäffer, Tilman E; Marcus, Katrin; Winkler, Jürgen; Klucken, Jochen; Becker, Cord-Michael


    Aggregation and neurotoxicity of misfolded alpha-synuclein (αSyn) are crucial mechanisms for progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of αSyn caused by oxidative stress, including modification by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE-αSyn), nitration (n-αSyn), and oxidation (o-αSyn), have been implicated to promote oligomerization of αSyn. However, it is yet unclear if these PTMs lead to different types of oligomeric intermediates. Moreover, little is known about which PTM-derived αSyn species exerts toxicity to dopaminergic cells. In this study, we directly compared aggregation characteristics of HNE-αSyn, n-αSyn, and o-αSyn. Generally, all of them promoted αSyn oligomerization. Particularly, HNE-αSyn and n-αSyn were more prone to forming oligomers than unmodified αSyn. Moreover, these PTMs prevented the formation of amyloid-like fibrils, although HNE-αSyn and o-αSyn were able to generate protofibrillar structures. The cellular effects associated with distinct PTMs were studied by exposing modified αSyn to dopaminergic Lund human mesencephalic (LUHMES) neurons. The cellular toxicity of HNE-αSyn was significantly higher than other PTM species. Furthermore, we tested the toxicity of HNE-αSyn in dopaminergic LUHMES cells and other cell types with low tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, and additionally analyzed the loss of TH-immunoreactive cells in HNE-αSyn-treated LUHMES cells. We observed a selective toxicity of HNE-αSyn to neurons with higher TH expression. Further mechanistic studies showed that HNE-modification apparently increased the interaction of extracellular αSyn with neurons. Moreover, exposure of differentiated LUHMES cells to HNE-αSyn triggered the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, preceding neuronal cell death. Antioxidant treatment effectively protected cells from the damage triggered by HNE-αSyn. Our findings suggest a specific

  5. Selective lowering of synapsins induced by oligomeric α-synuclein exacerbates memory deficits. (United States)

    Larson, Megan E; Greimel, Susan J; Amar, Fatou; LaCroix, Michael; Boyle, Gabriel; Sherman, Mathew A; Schley, Hallie; Miel, Camille; Schneider, Julie A; Kayed, Rakez; Benfenati, Fabio; Lee, Michael K; Bennett, David A; Lesné, Sylvain E


    Mounting evidence indicates that soluble oligomeric forms of amyloid proteins linked to neurodegenerative disorders, such as amyloid-β (Aβ), tau, or α-synuclein (αSyn) might be the major deleterious species for neuronal function in these diseases. Here, we found an abnormal accumulation of oligomeric αSyn species in AD brains by custom ELISA, size-exclusion chromatography, and nondenaturing/denaturing immunoblotting techniques. Importantly, the abundance of αSyn oligomers in human brain tissue correlated with cognitive impairment and reductions in synapsin expression. By overexpressing WT human αSyn in an AD mouse model, we artificially enhanced αSyn oligomerization. These bigenic mice displayed exacerbated Aβ-induced cognitive deficits and a selective decrease in synapsins. Following isolation of various soluble αSyn assemblies from transgenic mice, we found that in vitro delivery of exogenous oligomeric αSyn but not monomeric αSyn was causing a lowering in synapsin-I/II protein abundance. For a particular αSyn oligomer, these changes were either dependent or independent on endogenous αSyn expression. Finally, at a molecular level, the expression of synapsin genes SYN1 and SYN2 was down-regulated in vivo and in vitro by αSyn oligomers, which decreased two transcription factors, cAMP response element binding and Nurr1, controlling synapsin gene promoter activity. Overall, our results demonstrate that endogenous αSyn oligomers can impair memory by selectively lowering synapsin expression.

  6. Phantom spiders: notes on dubious spider species from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitling, Rainer


    Full Text Available A surprisingly large number of European spider species have never been reliably rediscovered since their first description many decades ago. Most of these are probably synonymous with other species or unidentifiable, due to insufficient descriptions or missing type material. Here we discuss about 50 of these cases, declare some names as nomina dubia and establish the following new or re-confirmed synonymies: Agelena mengeella Strand, 1942 = Allagelena gracilens (C. L. Koch, 1841 syn. conf.; Anyphaena accentuata obscura (Sundevall, 1831 = Anyphaena accentuata (Walckenaer, 1802 syn. conf.; Anyphaena accentuata obscura Lebert, 1877 = Anyphaena accentuata (Walckenaer, 1802 syn. nov.; Araneus diadematus stellatus C. L. Koch, 1836 = Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus diadematus islandicus (Strand, 1906 = Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus quadratus minimus Simon, 1929 = Araneus quadratus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus quadratus subviridis (Franganillo, 1913 = Araneus quadratus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Centromerus unctus (L. Koch, 1870 = Leptorhoptrum robustum (Westring, 1851 syn. nov.; Clubiona caliginosa Simon, 1932 = Clubiona germanica Thorell, 1871 syn. nov.; Coelotes atropos anomalus Hull, 1955 = Coelotes atropos (Walckenaer, 1830 syn. nov.; Coelotes atropos silvestris Hull, 1955 = Coelotes atropos (Walckenaer, 1830 syn. nov.; Coelotes obesus Simon, 1875 = Pireneitega pyrenaea (Simon, 1870 syn. conf.; Coelotes simoni Strand, 1907 = Coelotes solitarius (L. Koch, 1868 syn. nov.; Diplocephalus semiglobosus (Westring, 1861 nomen oblitum = Entelecara congenera (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879 syn. nov.; Drassodes voigti (Bösenberg, 1899 = Scotophaeus blackwalli (Thorell, 1871 syn. conf.; Erigone decens Thorell, 1871 = Hylyphantes graminicola (Sundevall, 1830 syn. nov.; Liocranoeca striata gracilior (Kulczynski, 1898 = Liocranoeca striata (Kulczynski, 1882 syn. conf.; Phlegra rogenhoferi (Simon, 1868 = Phlegra cinereofasciata

  7. Genus-level revision of the family Phalacridae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea). (United States)

    Gimmel, Matthew L


    A pre-phylogenetic revision of the family Phalacridae at the genus level is presented. Twenty-eight new generic synonymies are established as follows: Acylomus Sharp 1888 (=Liophalacrus Sharp 1888, syn. nov.; Ganyrus Guillebeau 1894, syn. nov.; Podocesus Guillebeau 1894, syn. nov.; Tinodemus Guillebeau 1894, syn. nov.; Ledorus Guillebeau 1895, syn. nov.; Astenulus Guillebeau 1896, syn. nov.; Afronyrus Švec 2006, syn. nov.), Apallodes Reitter 1873 (=Litolibrus Sharp 1889, syn. nov.; Sphaeropsis Guillebeau 1893, syn. nov.; Gyromorphus Guillebeau 1894, syn. nov.), Augasmus Motschulsky 1858 (=Megischius Guillebeau 1896, syn. nov.; Nematolibrus Sahlberg 1913, syn. nov.), Entomocnemus Guillebeau 1894 (=Stilbomimus Champion 1924, syn. nov.), Grouvelleus Guillebeau 1892 (=Ochrolitoides Champion 1924, syn. nov.; Litotarsus Champion 1925, syn. nov.), Litochrus Erichson 1845 (=Merobrachys Guillebeau 1895, syn. nov.), Litostilbus Guillebeau 1894 (=Pseudolitochrus Liubarsky 1993, syn. nov.), Ochrolitus Sharp 1889 (=Gorginus Guillebeau 1894, syn. nov.), Olibroporus Casey 1890 (=Parasemus Guillebeau 1894, syn. nov.), Olibrosoma Tournier 1889 (=Lichrotus Lyubarsky 1993, syn. nov.), Phaenocephalus Wollaston 1873 (=Phalacratomus Scott 1922, syn. nov.; Heterostilbus Champion 1924, syn. nov.), Phalacrinus Blackburn 1891 (=Sphaerostilbus Champion 1924, syn. nov.), Pseudolibrus Flach 1889 (=Biophytus Guillebeau 1894, syn. nov.; Polyaloxus Guillebeau 1894, syn. nov.), Pycinus Guillebeau 1893 (=Ochrodemus Guillebeau 1893, syn. nov.; Radinus Guillebeau 1893, syn. nov.; Euphalacrus Champion 1925, syn. nov.). Ten new genera and seven new species are described: Antennogasmus, gen. nov. (type species: A. cordatus, sp. nov.), Austroporus, gen. nov. (type species: A. victoriensis (Blackburn)), Malagasmus Gimmel, gen. nov. (type species: M. thalesi, sp. nov.), Malagophytus, gen. nov. (type species: M. steineri, sp. nov.), Neolitochrus, gen. nov. (type species: N. pulchellus (Le

  8. Evolution of the Pannonian basin and its geothermal resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, F.; Musitz, B.; Balázs, A.; Végh, A.; Uhrin, A.; Nádor, A.; Koroknai, B.; Pap, N.; Tóth, T.; Wórum, G.


    The Pannonian basin is an integral part of the convergence zone between the Eurasian and Nubian plates characterized by active subductions of oceanic and continental plates, and formation of backarc basins. The first part of this paper presents an overview of the evolution of the Alpine-Mediterranea

  9. Report on the new and insufficiently studied taxa in the flora of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatković, B.


    Full Text Available Several important floristic records were established during our recent floristic investigations of southeastern Serbia and Province Kosovo-Metohija. Minuartia mediterranea (Caryophyllaceae and Arabis glabra subsp. pseudoturritis (Brassicaceae are reported for the first time from the territory of Serbia, while presence of neglected species Symphytum bulbosum (Boraginaceae and Valerianella microcarpa (Valerianaceae is reevaluated, as they were reported from new localities.

  10. The genus Sertularella Gray, 1848 (Cnidaria: Hydroida) along the coasts of Galicia (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramil, F.; Parapar, J.; Vervoort, W.


    Species of the genus Sertularella from the coasts of Galicia (Atlantic coast of Spain) have been studied and 5 species, S. gayi (Lamouroux, 1821), S. polyzonias (Linnaeus, 1758), S. ellisii (Deshayes & MilneEdwards, 1836), S. fusiformis (Hincks, 1861), and S. mediterranea Hartlaub, 1901, are recogni

  11. The Physical Oceanography of the Alboran Sea. (United States)


    inclinacion transversal de las W ater. aguas atlanticas y Mediterraneas en el Estrecho de Gibraltar. Boletin del Instituto Espaiol de X1. References...gyre in the Alboran Sea. Jour- Parrilla, 6. (1983b). Mar de Alboran. Situacion del nal of Geophysical Researcj 84(C7):3733-3742. giro anticihonico en

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15232-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H-aac45e05.g1 Agen 0058 Schmidtea mediterranea... 74 6e-39 5 ( CN499937 ) Dl_sw_12D06_TEXF1 Diplosoma list...erianum mixed adu... 68 9e-39 6 ( FE253817 ) CAPH4735.fwd CAPH Naegleria gruberi am

  13. A Summary of Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Reproductive Biology with an Emphasis on Seed Biology and Ecology from the Chesapeake Bay Region (United States)


    features on the bottom such as animal burrows, pits, and mounds, act to shield seeds from flow and prevent their being washed out (Luckenbach and Orth...marina L. seeds. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 7:55-58. Harwell, M. C., and R. J. Orth. 1999. Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) seed protection for field

  14. Addicions a la flora algològica del Principat de Catalunya


    Ribera Siguan, M. Antònia; Gómez Garreta, Amelia; Romero, Javier


    In a sandy-bed near Arenys de Mar (Barcelona, Spain) some algal species were collected, using scuba-diving techniques, at 25-32 m depth. Three of them were for the first time found in the catalan coast: Halymenia latifolia Crouan & Crouan, Halymenia floresia (Clemente) C. Agardh var. pinnata Codomier and Carpomitra costata (Stackhouse) Batters var. mediterranea Feldmann.

  15. Transcriptional signatures of somatic neoblasts and germline cells in Macrostomum lignano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grudniewska, Magda; Mouton, Stijn; Simanov, Daniil; Beltman, Frank; Grelling, Margriet; de Mulder, Katrien; Arindrarto, Wibowo; Weissert, Philipp M.; van der Elst, Stefan; Berezikov, Eugene


    he regeneration-capable flatworm Macrostomum lignano is a powerful model organism to study the biology of stem cells in vivo. As a flatworm amenable to transgenesis, it complements the historically used planarian flatworm models, such as Schmidtea mediterranea. However, information on the transcript

  16. Dietary fat and the prevention of type 2 diabetes: impact on inflammation and underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van S.J.


    The incidence of metabolic syndrome, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing rapidly. Changes in dietary fat composition from saturated fat (SFA) to monounsaturated fat (MUFA) from olive oil, which is highly consumed in a Mediterranea

  17. Evolution of the Pannonian basin and its geothermal resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, F.; Musitz, B.; Balázs, A.; Végh, A.; Uhrin, A.; Nádor, A.; Koroknai, B.; Pap, N.; Tóth, T.; Wórum, G.


    The Pannonian basin is an integral part of the convergence zone between the Eurasian and Nubian plates characterized by active subductions of oceanic and continental plates, and formation of backarc basins. The first part of this paper presents an overview of the evolution of the Alpine-Mediterranea

  18. A polyphasic approach to the taxonomy of the Alternaria infectoria species-group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Nielsen, Kristian Fog;


    morphologically identifiable as belonging to the A. infectoria species-group together with 12 strains belonging to closely related species: Alternaria malorum (syn. Cladosporium malorum), Chalastospora cetera (syn. Alternaria cetera) and Embellisia abundans. Morphological examination separated the 51 strains...

  19. New combinations in Senegalia and Vachellia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) for Southeast Asia and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maslin, B.R.; Seigler, D.S.; Ebinger, J.


    Fragmentation of the former broadly circumscribed genus Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) necessitates combinations in Senegalia (syn. Acacia subg. Aculeiferum) and Vachellia (syn. former Acacia subg. Acacia) for the following 40 taxa that are recorded for the region encompassed by Southeast Asia

  20. Herpes simplex virus type-1(HSV-1 oncolytic and highly fusogenic mutants carrying the NV1020 genomic deletion effectively inhibit primary and metastatic tumors in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Andrew T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NV1020 oncolytic herpes simplex virus type-1 has shown significant promise for the treatment of many different types of tumors in experimental animal models and human trials. Previously, we described the construction and use of the NV1020-like virus OncSyn to treat human breast tumors implanted in nude mice. The syncytial mutation gKsyn1 (Ala-to-Val at position 40 was introduced into the OncSyn viral genome cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome using double-red mutagenesis in E. coli to produce the OncdSyn virus carrying syncytial mutations in both gB(syn3 and gK(syn1. Results The OncdSyn virus caused extensive virus-induced cell fusion in cell culture. The oncolytic potential of the OncSyn and OncdSyn viruses was tested in the highly metastatic syngeneic mouse model system, which utilizes 4T1 murine mammary cancer cells implanted within the interscapular region of Balb/c mice. Mice were given three consecutive intratumor injections of OncSyn, OncdSyn, or phosphate buffered saline four days apart. Both OncSyn and OncdSyn virus injections resulted in significant reduction of tumor sizes (p Conclusion These results show that the attenuated, but highly fusogenic OncSyn and OncdSyn viruses can effectively reduce primary and metastatic breast tumors in immuncompetent mice. The available bac-cloned OncSyn and OncdSyn viral genomes can be rapidly modified to express a number of different anti-tumor and immunomodulatory genes that can further enhance their anti-tumor potency.

  1. Nutrient deprivation induces α-synuclein aggregation through endoplasmic reticulum stress response and SREBP2 pathway


    Jiang, Peizhou; Gan, Ming; Lin, Wen-Lang; Yen, Shu-Hui C.


    Abnormal accumulation of filamentous α-synuclein (α-syn) in neurons, regarded as Lewy bodies (LBs), are a hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD). Although the exact mechanism(s) underlying LBs formation remains unknown, autophagy and ER stress response have emerged as two important pathways affecting α-syn aggregation. In present study we tested whether cells with the tetracycline-off inducible overexpression of α-syn and accumulating α-syn aggregates can benefit from autophagy activation elicite...

  2. Nutrient deprivation induces α-synuclein aggregation through endoplasmic reticulum stress response and SREBP2 pathway


    Peizhou eJiang; Ming eGan; Wen-Lang eLin; Yen, Shu-Hui C.


    Abnormal accumulation of filamentous α-synuclein (α-syn) in neurons, regarded as Lewy bodies(LBs), are a hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD). Although the exact mechanism(s) underlying LBs formation remains unknown, autophagy and ER stress response have emerged as two important pathways affecting α-syn aggregation. In present study we tested whether cells with the tetracycline-off inducible overexpression of α-syn and accumulating α-syn aggregates can benefit from autophagy activation elicited...

  3. Timing-Sequence Testing of Parallel Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yu; LI Shu; ZHANG Hui; HAN Chengde


    Testing of parallel programs involves two parts-testing of controlflow within the processes and testing of timing-sequence.This paper focuses on the latter, particularly on the timing-sequence of message-passing paradigms.Firstly the coarse-grained SYN-sequence model is built up to describe the execution of distributed programs. All of the topics discussed in this paper are based on it. The most direct way to test a program is to run it. A fault-free parallel program should be of both correct computing results and proper SYN-sequence. In order to analyze the validity of observed SYN-sequence, this paper presents the formal specification (Backus Normal Form) of the valid SYN-sequence. Till now there is little work about the testing coverage for distributed programs. Calculating the number of the valid SYN-sequences is the key to coverage problem, while the number of the valid SYN-sequences is terribly large and it is very hard to obtain the combination law among SYN-events. In order to resolve this problem, this paper proposes an efficient testing strategy-atomic SYN-event testing, which is to linearize the SYN-sequence (making it only consist of serial atomic SYN-events) first and then test each atomic SYN-event independently. This paper particularly provides the calculating formula about the number of the valid SYN-sequences for tree-topology atomic SYN-event (broadcast and combine). Furthermore,the number of valid SYN-sequences also,to some degree, mirrors the testability of parallel programs. Taking tree-topology atomic SYN-event as an example, this paper demonstrates the testability and communication speed of the tree-topology atomic SYN-event under different numbers of branches in order to achieve a more satisfactory tradeoff between testability and communication efficiency.

  4. 77 FR 14362 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications (United States)


    ... material necessary for its production (via elements of vector pSYN12274) in 5307 Corn (SYN- 53 7-1) at 0... and the genetic material necessary for its production (via elements of vector pSYN12274) in 5307 Corn.... Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111)....


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Lillethorup, Thea Pinholt; Landeck, Natalie

    SYN) fibrils, overexpressing aSYN using Lentivirus (LV) and Adeno Assosiated Virus (AAV) vectors or proteasome inhibition in the nigrostriatal system, we hope to create a new porcine models for PD. Methods: Using conventional human-intended stereotaxic neurosurgery methods, we apply aSYN or preformed fibrils...

  6. An Exonic Insertion Encodes an Alanine Stretch in Porcine Synapsin I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Claus; Bendixen, Emøke; Jensen, Poul Henning;


    The synapsin (syn) protein family comprises the neuron-specific phosphoproteins syn I, II, and III, all found in at least two isoforms (Südhof et al. 1989 ; Porton et al. 1999 ). Mature syns localize to the membrane of neurotransmitter-releasing synaptic vesicles; they are expected to have regula...

  7. The utility of α-synuclein as biofluid marker in neurodegenerative diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Kuiperij, Bea; El-Agnaf, Omar Mukhtar Ali


    to the involvement of the periphery in PD the quantification of α-syn in peripheral fluids such as serum, plasma and saliva has been investigated as well. We review how the development of multiple assays for the quantification of α-syn has yielded novel insights into the variety of α-syn species present...

  8. Updates to the Nomenclature of Platygastroidea in the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (United States)

    Parabaryconus Kozlov & Kononova n. syn. is treated as a junior synonym of Cremastobaeus Ashmead; Cremastobaeus artus (Kozlov & Kononova) n. comb. is transferred from Parabaryconus; Paridris macrurous Kozlov & Le n. syn. and P. taekuli Talamas & Masner n. syn. are treated as junior synonyms of P. bis...

  9. A new method for quantitative immunoblotting of endogenous α-synuclein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Newman

    Full Text Available β-Sheet-rich aggregates of α-synuclein (αSyn are the hallmark neuropathology of Parkinson's disease and related synucleinopathies, whereas the principal native structure of αSyn in healthy cells--unfolded monomer or α-helically folded oligomer--is under debate. Our recent crosslinking analysis of αSyn in intact cells showed that a large portion of endogenous αSyn can be trapped as oligomers, most notably as apparent tetramers. One challenge in such studies is accurately quantifying αSyn Western blot signals among samples, as crosslinked αSyn trends toward increased immunoreactivity. Here, we analyzed this phenomenon in detail and found that treatment with the reducible amine-reactive crosslinker DSP strongly increased αSyn immunoreactivity even after cleavage with the reducing agent β-mercaptoethanol. The effect was observed with all αSyn antibodies tested and in all sample types from human brain homogenates to untransfected neuroblastoma cells, permitting easy detection of endogenous αSyn in the latter, which had long been considered impossible. Coomassie staining of blots before and after several hours of washing revealed complete retention of αSyn after DSP/β-mercaptoethanol treatment, in contrast to a marked loss of αSyn without this treatment. The treatment also enhanced immunodetection of the homologs β- and γ-synuclein and of histones, another group of small, lysine-rich proteins. We conclude that by neutralizing positive charges and increasing protein hydrophobicity, amine crosslinker treatment promotes adhesion of αSyn to blotting membranes. These data help explain the recent report of fixing αSyn blots with paraformaldehyde after transfer, which we find produces similar but weaker effects. DSP/β-mercaptoethanol treatment of Western blots should be particularly useful to quantify low-abundance αSyn forms such as extracellular and post-translationally modified αSyn and splice variants.

  10. Abnormal colonic motility in mice overexpressing human wild-type α-synuclein



    The presynaptic protein α-synuclein (αSyn) has been implicated in both familial and sporadic forms of Parkinson’s disease. We examined whether human αSyn-overexpressing mice under Thy1 promoter (Thy1-αSyn) display alterations of colonic function. Basal fecal output was decreased in Thy1-αSyn mice fed ad libitum. Fasted/refed Thy1-αSyn mice had a slower distal colonic transit than the wild-type mice, as monitored by 2.2-fold increase in time to expel an intracolonic bead and 2.9-fold higher co...

  11. Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini: descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara


    Full Text Available Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini; descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae. The genera Hemiptycha Germar, Metheisa Fowler, Maturnaria Metcalf, Aphetea Fowler, Dioclophara Kirkaldy, and Phormophora Stål, are redescribed; Creonus, gen.n. (type species: Maturna lloydi Funkhouser, 1914, and Aphetea robustula, sp.n. (from Bolivia, are described. Some nomenclatural changes are introduced, as follow: - Hemiptycha Germar, 1833 = Polyrhyssa Stål, 1869, syn.n.: - Hemiptycha cultrata (Coquebert, 1801, comb.n., = Polyglyptodes flavocostatus Haviland, 1925, syn.n., = Polyrhyssa cultrata maculata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Hemiptycha obtecta (Fabricius, 1803 = Hille herbicola Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Maturnaria ephippigera (Fairmaire, 1846 = Publilia tumulata Buckton, 1903, syn.n., = Metheisa fowleri Funkhouser, 1927, syn.n. - Creonus lloydi (Funkhouser, 1914, comb.n. - Aphetea parvula (Fabricius, 1803, comb.n., = Aphetea affinis Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Dioclophara Kirkaldy, 1904 = lncolea Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Dioclophara viridula (Fairmaire, 1846 = Maturna multilineata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Dioclophara variegata (Goding, 1926, comb.n. = lncolea viridis Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Phormophora maura (Fabricius, 1803 = Darnis dorsata Fabricius, 1803, syn.n.

  12. A rapid, semi-quantitative assay to screen for modulators of alpha-synuclein oligomerization ex vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion eDelenclos


    Full Text Available Alpha synuclein (αsyn aggregates are associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease and others related disorders. Although modulation of αsyn aggregation is an attractive therapeutic target, new powerful methodologies are desperately needed to facilitate in vivo screening of novel therapeutics. Here we describe an in vivo rodent model with the unique ability to rapidly track αsyn-αsyn interactions and thus oligomerization using a bioluminescent protein complementation strategy that monitors spatial and temporal αsyn oligomerization ex vivo. We find that αsyn forms oligomers in vivo as early as 1 week after stereotactic AAV injection into rat substantia nigra. Strikingly, although abundant αsyn expression is also detected in striatum at one week, no αsyn oligomers are detected at this time point. By 4 weeks, oligomerization of αsyn is detected in both striatum and substantia nigra homogenates. Moreover, in a proof-of-principle experiment, the effect of a previously described Hsp90 inhibitor known to prevent αsyn oligomer formation, demonstrates the utility of this rapid and sensitive animal model to monitor αsyn oligomerization status in the rat brain.

  13. Fish Synucleins: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Toni


    Full Text Available Synucleins (syns are a family of proteins involved in several human neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. Since the first syn discovery in the brain of the electric ray Torpedo californica, members of the same family have been identified in all vertebrates and comparative studies have indicated that syn proteins are evolutionary conserved. No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins. Molecular studies showed that the number of syn members varies among vertebrates. Three genes encode for α-, β- and γ-syn in mammals and birds. However, a variable number of syn genes and encoded proteins is expressed or predicted in fish depending on the species. Among biologically verified sequences, four syn genes were identified in fugu, encoding for α, β and two γ (γ1 and γ2 isoforms, whereas only three genes are expressed in zebrafish, which lacks α-syn gene. The list of “non verified” sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases. In this review we provide an overview of published papers and known syn sequences in agnathans and fish that are likely to impact future studies in this field. Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins.

  14. Defined α-synuclein prion-like molecular assemblies spreading in cell culture. (United States)

    Aulić, Suzana; Le, Tran Thanh Nhat; Moda, Fabio; Abounit, Saïda; Corvaglia, Stefania; Casalis, Loredana; Gustincich, Stefano; Zurzolo, Chiara; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Legname, Giuseppe


    α-Synuclein (α-syn) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies, a group of neurodegenerative disorders that includes Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy. Several findings from cell culture and mouse experiments suggest intercellular α-syn transfer. Through a methodology used to obtain synthetic mammalian prions, we tested whether recombinant human α-syn amyloids can promote prion-like accumulation in neuronal cell lines in vitro. A single exposure to amyloid fibrils of human α-syn was sufficient to induce aggregation of endogenous α-syn in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Remarkably, endogenous wild-type α-syn was sufficient for the formation of these aggregates, and overexpression of the protein was not required. Our results provide compelling evidence that endogenous α-syn can accumulate in cell culture after a single exposure to exogenous α-syn short amyloid fibrils. Importantly, using α-syn short amyloid fibrils as seed, endogenous α-syn aggregates and accumulates over several passages in cell culture, providing an excellent tool for potential therapeutic screening of pathogenic α-syn aggregates.

  15. The utility of α-synuclein as biofluid marker in neurodegenerative diseases: a systematic review of the literature. (United States)

    Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Kuiperij, Bea; El-Agnaf, Omar Mukhtar Ali; Engelborghs, Sebastian; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Parnetti, Lucilla; Rektorova, Irena; Vanmechelen, Eugeen; Kapaki, Elisabeth; Verbeek, Marcel; Mollenhauer, Brit


    The discovery of α-synuclein (α-syn) as a major component of Lewy bodies, neuropathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies and of glial inclusions in multiple system atrophy initiated the investigation of α-syn as a biomarker in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Due to the involvement of the periphery in PD the quantification of α-syn in peripheral fluids such as serum, plasma and saliva has been investigated as well. We review how the development of multiple assays for the quantification of α-syn has yielded novel insights into the variety of α-syn species present in the different fluids; the optimal preanalytical conditions required for robust quantification and the potential clinical value of α-syn as biomarker. We also suggest future approaches to use of CSF α-syn in neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Abnormal colonic motility in mice overexpressing human wild-type alpha-synuclein. (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Fleming, Sheila M; Chesselet, Marie-Françoise; Taché, Yvette


    The presynaptic protein alpha-synuclein (alphaSyn) has been implicated in both familial and sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease. We examined whether human alphaSyn-overexpressing mice under Thy1 promoter (Thy1-alphaSyn) display alterations of colonic function. Basal fecal output was decreased in Thy1-alphaSyn mice fed ad libitum. Fasted/refed Thy1-alphaSyn mice had a slower distal colonic transit than the wild-type mice, as monitored by 2.2-fold increase in time to expel an intracolonic bead and 2.9-fold higher colonic fecal content. By contrast, Thy1-alphaSyn mice had an increased fecal response to novelty stress and corticotropin releasing factor injected intraperipherally. These results indicate that Thy1-alphaSyn mice display altered basal and stress-stimulated propulsive colonic motility and will be a useful model to study gut dysfunction associated with Parkinson's disease.

  17. Electromyography and Ultrasound Application in Diabetic Patients Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syn-drome%神经肌电图和超声检查在合并糖尿病的腕管综合征诊断中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚薇; 袁宇; 闫旭


    Objective To discuss the value of electrophysiology diagnosis on diabetic patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Methods Twenty-five cases of diabetic patients (experimental group) and 10 healthy subjects (control group) were reviewed. Electromy-ography equipment was used to measure the nerve conduction velocities of all subjects and then the velocities were compared. Results The differences of median nerve distal motor latency, (5.01 ± 1.37) ms、(3.15 ± 0.55) ms, the sensory conduction velocities of finger 1-wrist (45.56±8.69) m/s、(57.90±2.47)m/s, finger3-wrist (42.03± 11.59) m/s、(58.20 ± 3.08) m/s and the ring finger LAT differences of median nerve and ulnar nerve (1.50 ± 1.50) ms、(0.12 ± 0.06) ms were statistically significant(P0.05). Using ultrasound examination to observe the median nerve cross-sectional area of the experimental group patients showed the positive rate of carpal tunnel syndrome was 77%. Conclusion By electrophysiological examination carpal tunnel syndrome of diabetic patients can be discovered earlier, with combination of ultrasound the presence and severity of compression can be displayed better, thus to implement accurate treatment for better results.%目的:探讨电生理检查对糖尿病患者的腕管综合征的诊断价值.方法:选取糖尿病患者25例(实验组)及10例健康体检者(对照组),采用神经肌电图仪器测定所有受试者神经传导速度并进行比较.结果:两组正中神经运动传导末端潜伏期(5.01±1.37)ms、(3.15±0.55)ms、指1-腕感觉神经传导速度(45.56±8.69)m/s、(57.90±2.47)m/s、指3-腕感觉神经传导速度(42.03±11.59)m/s、(58.20±3.08)m/s及环指正中/尺神经感觉传导潜伏期差值(1.50±1.50)ms、(0.12±0.06)ms,差异具有统计学意义(P0.05),应用超声检查观察实验中患者正中神经横截面积,诊断腕管综合征阳性率为77%.结论:通过电生理检查,可以早期发现糖尿病患者的腕管综合征,结合超声检查更好地显示中晚期神经受压情况及程度,对患者实施准确治疗及提高患者的生活质量.

  18. 针刺与艾灸对腕管综合征患者周围神经电生理特征的影响%Effects of acupuncture and moxibustion on electrophysiological characteristics of peripheral nerve in patients with carpal tunnel syn-drome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁乾; 沈芳


    目的:探讨针刺与艾灸对腕管综合征患者周围神经电生理特征的影响。方法选取2009年2月至2014年9月中医科门诊就诊的72例腕管综合征患者,根据患者自愿的方式分为针刺组、艾灸组及刺灸结合组,观察各组治疗前后的数字疼痛评估量表(NRS)评分、整体症状分数表(GSS)评分、电生理相关指标以及解剖相关指标,并进行组间比较。结果与治疗前相比,各组治疗后各项指标均明显好转( P ﹤0.05)。刺灸结合组 NRS、GSS 评分均低于针刺组、艾灸组( P ﹤0.05);刺灸结合组正中神经末端运动潜伏时(DML)低于艾灸组和针刺组;拇指-腕感觉传导速度(SCV)、拇指-腕感觉神经动作单位(SNAP)及中指-腕 SNAP 高于艾灸组和针刺组,差异均有统计学意义( P ﹤0.05);刺灸结合组豌豆骨正中神经横切面积(MNTA)、桡尺关节平面 MNTA 及扁平率(FRMN)均优于艾灸组和针刺组( P ﹤0.05)。结论艾灸、针刺可有效改善腕管综合征患者周围神经电生理相关指标,而针刺配合艾灸对于腕管综合征患者中神经DML、拇指-腕 SCV、拇指-腕 SNAP 及中指-腕 SNAP 方面等电生理指标的改善作用更明显。%Objective To investigate the effect of acupuncture and moxibustion on electrophysiological characteristics of peripheral nerve in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome(CTS). Methods Seventy - two CTS patients who visited the hospital from February 2009 to September 2014 were studied. According to the patient voluntariness,the patients were divided into acupuncture group,moxibustion group,and needling -moxibustion group. Numerical rating scale(NRS)pain score,global symptom score(GSS),electrophysiological and anatomical related indicators were observed before and after treatment and compared between groups. Results All items observed were significantly improved in each group af-ter treatment in comparison with those before treatment( P ﹤ 0. 05). NRS,GSS scores were lower in needling - moxibustion group than those in acupuncture and moxibustion group( P ﹤ 0. 05). The distal motor latency(DML)of median nerve in needing - moxibustion group was below the moxibustion group and acupuncture group;the sensory conduction velocity(SCV)of thumb - wrist and sensory nerve action potential(SNAP)of thumb - wrist and middle finger - wrist in needing - moxibustion group were above the acupuncture and moxibustion group,the differences were statistically significant(all P ﹤ 0. 05). Cross - sectional area of median nerve at pisiform and radio - ulnar level and flattening ratio in needling -moxibustion group were better than moxibustion group and acupuncture group( P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion Moxibustion and acupuncture can effec-tively improve peripheral nerve electrophysiological indicators in CTS,but with needling - moxibustion,the improvements are more obvious for me-dian nerve DML,thumb - wrist SCV and SNAP of thumb - wrist and middle finger - wrist.

  19. 温和灸激痛点治疗肩背部肌筋膜疼痛综合征:随机对照研究%A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial for Treatment of Shoulder-back Myofascial Pain Syn-drome with Mild Moxibustion at Trigger Points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王列; 马帅; 赵悦; 曹锐; 王颖; 马铁明


    Objective To compare the efficacy difference between the mild moxibustion and acupuncture stimulation at trigger points in the treatment of shoulder and back myofascial pain syndrome (MPS),so as to provide a reference for clinical treatment of MPS.Methods A total of 60 patients with shoulder and back MPS were equally and randomly divided into mild moxibustion group and acupuncture group.The myofascial trigger points in the shoulder and back regions were stimulated with mild moxibustion for 20- 1 00 min every time or punctured with filiform needles by retaining the needles for 30 min after twirling for a while.The treatment was conducted once daily for 1 0 days.The short-form McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ)including the pain rating index [PRI consisting of 1 5 descriptors (1 1 sensory,4 affective)which are rated on an intensity scale as 0 = none,1 =mild,2=moderate and 3=severe],present pain intensity (PPI)index of the standard MPQ and a visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to assess the patient’s pain severity before and after the treatment.Results Following the treatment,of the two 30 cases of MPS patients in the acupuncture and mild moxibustion groups,1 and 7 were cured,1 1 and 1 7 experienced marked im-provement,1 4 and 5 were effective,4 and 1 was invalid,with the effective rates being 86.7% (26/30)and 96.7%(29/30),re-spectively.The cured plus markedly effective rate of the mild moxibustion group was significantly better than that of the acupunc-ture group(P 0.05).Conclusion Mild moxibustion stimulation of myofascial trigger point is effective in relieving shoulder-back MPS,being comparable to that of acupuncture therapy.%目的::比较温和灸与针刺激痛点治疗肩背部肌筋膜疼痛综合征(MPS)的疗效差异,为肩背部MPS 的治疗提供参考。方法:60例肩背部 MPS 患者随机分为温和灸组和针刺组,每组30例,两组均选取疼痛部位的激痛点进行治疗。温和灸组采用温和灸疗法,每次艾灸因人而异,20~100 min 不等,以患者出现透热感为度;针刺组采用毫针与皮肤呈45°角斜刺入并贯穿激痛点结节,每次留针30 min。两组每日均治疗1次,10次为一疗程,治疗1个疗程后,采用国际公认的简化麦吉尔疼痛量表(McGill)作为观察指标,以治疗前后疼痛分级指数(PRI)、视觉模拟评分(VAS)和现时疼痛强度(PPI)的变化来评价疗效。结果:温和灸组愈显率80.0%(24/30),优于针刺组愈显率40.0%(12/30,P 0.05)。结论:温和灸激痛点与针刺激痛点对肩背部 MPS 均具有良好的治疗效果,但温和灸治愈显效更为明显,且操作简便,易于推广。

  20. 小剂量阿糖胞苷联合沙利度胺治疗骨髓增生异常综合征疗效观察%Observation on the efficacy of low - dosage cytarabine combined with thalidomide in treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syn-drome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾卫军; 张鲁勤


    Objective To explore the efficacy of low - dosage cytarabine combined with thalidomide in treatment of patients with myelo-dysplastic syndrome. Methods A total of 40 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome in this hospital during January 1,2010 to January 1,2014 were divided into observation group and control group with 20 cases in each group. Patients in control group were treated with routine treatment while patients in observation group were treated with low - dosage cytarabine combined with thalidomide. After treatment,the efficacy,sustained duration of efficacy,adverse reactions and other indicators were observed and compared. Results After comparison between these two groups,the total effective rates of observation group and control group were 90. 0%(17 / 20)and 75. 0%(15 / 20)respectively,and the difference was statis-tically significant( P ﹤ 0. 05). The recurrence rate,loss of efficacy,the number of patients turned to acute myeloid leukemia and duration of effi-cacy were compared between these two groups,and the difference was not statistically significant( P ﹤ 0. 05). The incidence rates of bone marrow suppression and impairment of liver function were compared between these 2 groups,and the difference was significant( P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion The efficacy of application of low - dosage cytarabine combined with thalidomide in treatment of patients with MDS is significant,durable,safe and effective.%目的:探讨小剂量阿糖胞苷联合沙利度胺治疗骨髓增生异常综合征(MDS)的临床疗效。方法选取2010年1月1日至2014年1月1日收治的40例 MDS 患者,随机将其分为对照组及观察组,分别采取常规治疗、小剂量阿糖胞苷联合沙利度胺治疗。观察两组患者的疗效、疗效维持时间、不良反应等指标。结果治疗后,观察组及对照组的总有效率分别为90.0%(18/20)及75.0%(15/20),观察组总有效率高于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P ﹤0.05)。两组患者经过治疗后,其复发、丧失疗效、转为髓系白血病人数及疗效维持时间经过对比后,差异无统计学意义( P ﹤0.05)。观察组患者骨髓抑制及肝功能损伤发生率明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P ﹤0.05)。结论小剂量阿糖胞苷联合沙利度胺治疗 MDS 患者,疗效显著,安全有效。

  1. 盐酸二甲双胍治疗多囊卵巢综合征对排卵和子宫内膜容受性的影响%Effect on ovulation and endometrial receptivity of metformin hydrochloride in the treatment of polycystic ovary syn-drome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To analyze effect on ovulation and endometrial receptivity of metformin hydrochloride in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods 49 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome selected from Jun 2012 to Mar 2014 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed and treated as the observation group , the whole group of patients had insulin resistance. Selected 49 cases of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome in our hospital at the corresponding period and they were treated as the control group, this group of patients had spontaneous ovulation. Observation group was treated with metformin hy-drochloride therapy, the control group took no medication. Compared the interstitial gland integrin αv, β3 expression and PR, ER, AR expression of two groups. Results The total ovulation rate of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome taken medica-tion was 29.23%, the observation group before ovulation, endometrial thickness were significantly higher than those of the con-trol group, there were significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05). Interstitial gland integrin αv, β3 expression of observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group, PR, ER, AR expression were significantly lower than those of the control group, there was significant difference in the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion The treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome with metformin hydrochloride can increase ovulation rate , endometrial thickness and improve en-dometrial receptivity.%分析盐酸二甲双胍治疗多囊卵巢综合征对排卵和子宫内膜容受性的影响。方法对2012年6月~2014年3月来我院就诊的49例多囊卵巢综合征患者进行回顾性分析并将其作为观察组,本组患者均伴有胰岛素抵抗;选取同期来我院就诊的49例多囊卵巢综合征患者作为对照组,本组患者均有自发排卵。观察组口服盐酸二甲双胍治疗,对照组不服用任何药物。比较两组间质、腺体整合素αv、β3的表达及PR、ER、AR表达。结果多囊卵巢综合征患者用药后总排卵率为29.23%,观察组排卵前内膜厚度与对照组比较明显较高,两组有显著性差异(P<0.05)。观察组间质、腺体整合素αv、β3的表达与对照组比较均明显较高,PR、ER、AR的表达与对照组比较均明显较低,两组有显著性差异(P<0.05)。结论盐酸二甲双胍治疗多囊卵巢综合征可以提高排卵率,使子宫内膜厚度增加,子宫内膜容受性也得到明显改善。

  2. Clinical effect of CPAP breathing machine joint with ambroxol treatment on neonatal respiratory distress syn-drome%CPAP呼吸机联合氨溴索治疗新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征的临床效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨采用氨溴索联合CPAP呼吸机治疗新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征的临床效果。方法随机选取开封市妇产医院2012年7月至2015年1月收治的新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征患儿90例,按照治疗方案的不同将其分为观察组和对照组,其中对照组患儿采用机械通气进行常规治疗,观察组患儿采用CPAP呼吸机联合氨溴索对其进行治疗,对两组患儿的临床治疗效果进行观察记录。结果观察组患者的临床治疗总有效率明显高于对照组患者,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组患儿治疗后的动脉血气指标、氧合指标均明显优于对照组患儿,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论采用CPAP呼吸机联合氨溴索治疗新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征,效果显著,能够有效改善患儿的呼吸功能,对于保障新生儿的生命安全具有十分积极的意义。%Objective To investigate the effect of ambroxol combined with CPAP breathing machine on neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Methods From July 2012 to January 2015, ninety cases of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome were randomly selected according to the different treatment options, and were divided into observation group and the control group. The patients in the control group received conventional mechanical ventilation, and the patients in obser-vation group were treated with CPAP breathing machine joint with ambroxol. The clinical effects were observed in both groups. Results The total clinical effective rate in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group(P<0. 05);the arterial blood gas index and the oxygenation index after treatment in the observation group was signif-icantly better than that in the control group(P<0. 05). Conclusions The effect of CPAP machine combined with ambrox-ol treatment on neonatal respiratory distress syndrome is significant, it can improve children’ s respiratory function, and has positive implications for the protection of life of newborns.

  3. House owners' views on investing in district heating - a study of applied sales strategies and the customers choice at conversion from electric heating; Smaahusaegarnas syn paa att koepa fjaerrvaerme - en studie av tillaempade foersaeljningsstrategier och kunders val vid konvertering fraan direktverkande el

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin; Pyrko, Jurek [Div. of Efficient Energy Systems, Dept. of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)


    This report presents results from the project 'Converting direct resistive electric heating into district heating - customer related aspects'. The main objective of this study was to investigate how specific households within one housing area (Sandsbro in Vaexjoe with 110 one-family houses) experienced the conversion process, in order to understand the reasons behind 'yes' or 'no' responses to the utility's offer. A qualitative approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews with a specially selected sample of households from 10 converted and 13 not converted houses was chosen as the main method. The investigation led to the following conclusions and recommendations: Household reactions to the terms of sale and conversion: Many households felt that the decisions were rushed - there is a need for better planning, especially for the older households. The information provided was evaluated as detailed and sufficient. The 'demonstration villa' was a good idea but the installation should be done more professionally - aesthetics are very important here. Home visits were the only personal contact and should be conducted in all houses in order to answer questions and explain problems. Co-ordination of excavation should be better in order to limit the time the ground is open. A few of the households undertook some of the works themselves to reduce costs but the compensation was often considered as too low to motivate customers. Household opinions on the product and/or service: Almost all households felt that the thermal comfort was better than before - more stable indoor temperature, no problems with overheated radiators or smell of burning dust. On the other hand, hot water comfort was worse - longer waiting time for hot water and too low water temperature during summer. Aesthetics were considered very important and could be crucial for the decision to convert the heating system. Many of the interviewed households were uncertain how to adjust and take care of the system - there is a notable need for information here. Household understanding of the economic terms of the district heating conversion: It was clear that many of the interviewed households did not have a view about the change of energy costs after conversion. It was also difficult for them to make a profitability analysis before the decision. However, the offer was considered to be very favourable in this specific case. It is important that the offer and investment comes at the right time for the households - regardless of the price. One argument raised against district heating conversion was fear of monopoly and high energy costs. All households, even those not converted, were convinced that the investment would be paid back in the future because of an increased property value following conversion. Household reasons to say 'no' to district heating conversion: The household has recently invested in a new heating system or in a secondary system, Negative views about aesthetics of the waterborne system, It's too labour intensive to convert, Wrong facts or misunderstanding. Household reasons to say 'yes' to district heating conversion: Improved thermal comfort, Convenience, Low investment costs, Expectations about lower energy costs, Few alternatives to direct resistive space heating, Better than electricity from an environmental point of view. Statistical analysis proved that variables such as 'age', 'type of household' and 'energy use level' could, to some extent, be related to the decision to convert from electric radiators to district heating.

  4. «Hvis de hadde oppført seg som vanlige nordmenn, hadde alt vært greit, tror jeg» — Nordmenns syn på årsaken til negative holdninger til jøder og muslimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibeke Moe


    Full Text Available This article explores contemporary images of Jews and Muslims in Norway by using qualitative empirical data, namely the answers to an open-ended question that was included in a quantitative survey on attitudes towards Jews and other minorities in Norway, conducted in 2012. The target group for the survey consisted of Norwegian residents aged 18 and above. A total of 1522 people answered the questionnaire. The results of the survey can be considered as representative of the Norwegian population with respect to age, gender, education and geographical distribution. Respondents were asked what they regarded to be the reasons for existing negative attitudes towards Jews and Muslims respectively. This article analyzes whether the perceptions reflected in the respondents’ answers represent stereotypical views and partly include traces of conspiracy beliefs. The article also discusses these perceptions within the broader perspective of Norwegian society, asking in which ways the data reflects ideas of inclusion and exclusion. The analysis exposes differences regarding traditional stereotypes and prejudices against the two minorities and the ways in which these prejudices are linked to (perceived contemporary conflicts and tensions – both within Norwegian society and internationally. Negative attitudes towards Jews are often explained with reference to the role played by Israel in the Middle East conflict, and almost never with specific reference to Norwegian society. The material contains few examples describing Jews as scapegoats for current social problems in Norway. On the contrary, respondents’ answers indicate social distance. Approximately half of the answers claim that negative attitudes towards Jews are due to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The images of Jews presented in connection with this conflict are predominantly negative and characterized by topics such as oppression, ruthlessness and power. The analysis shows how these statements serve to reduce complexity by effectively equating “Jews” with “Israelis”. As a consequence Jews seem to be excluded from the notion of the Norwegian national collective. The statements about Muslims show that they are regarded to be citizens and as such part of Norwegian society, but with characteristics perceived as problematic and threatening. Respondents often connected negative attitudes towards Muslims with a “foreign culture”. Many statements describe Muslims as oppressive to women, as harboring undemocratic attitudes or as criminals. The data shows how people develop generalizations, describing something as “typically Muslim” or “typically Jewish”, reflecting current debates and media coverage. Such generalizations derive their strength from placing the speaker in a morally superior position. In the present material these attitudes represent the antithesis of an implicit notion of the Norwegian community as a liberal, egalitarian and peace-loving society. Despite the differences, a clear picture emerges that the characterizations of both Jews and Muslims seem to serve a common function: to provide a contrast to this national self-image. Such polarized notions of “us” and “them”, however, undermine the values generally constructed as “Norwegian”: when “the other” bears problematic features that we do not want to acknowledge in ourselves or our communities, we lose the ability to critically reflect on who we are. While maintaining an idealized notion of “us”, we become increasingly dependent on a rejection and denial of the “other”. 

  5. 氨噻肟酸稀土配合物的合成、抗氧化性及抗菌活性的研究%Synthesis,Antioxidative Activity and Antibacterial Activity of Complexes of Rare Earth with Syn-2-(2′-Aminothiazolyl-)-2-Methoxyimino Acetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 李一志; 李勤喜; 王流芳



  6. Effect of distraction osteogenesis combined with postoperative rehabilitation nursing on obstructive sleep apnea syn-drome after ankylosis of temporomandibular joint%牵张成骨并术后康复护理对颞凳关节强直后睡眠呼吸暂停综合征的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于擘; 刘彦普; 侯锐; 史亮


    @@ INTRODUCTION Ankylosis of temporomandibular joint can cause severe mandibofacialasymmetry, postmandibular stenosis. Ankylosis of temporomandibularjoint(TMJ) in infants can lead to obstruction of upper airway due toinfluencing on development of mandible and obstructive sleep apncasyndrome(OSAS) is caused. Previous surgical treatment of ankylosisof temporomanibular joint needs large scope with big trauma andhigh relapse rate. Distraction osteogenesis technique can simplifysurgical operation, decrease operation risk and relapse rate and theeffect definitive.

  7. "Det är ett vanligt barn, även om det är lite speciellt" : Några förskollärares syn på begreppet barn i behov av särskilt stöd


    Vuento, Noora; Waldenström, Inger


    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur några förskollärare ser på begreppet barn i behov av särskilt stöd och vilka barn som omfattas av begreppet enligt dem. De forskningsfrågor vi ställde var hur förskollärare definierar begreppet barn i behov av särskilt stöd, hur förskollärare gör bedömningen av vilka barn som är i behov av särskilt stöd samt hur förskollärare tolkar förskolans uppdrag när det gäller barn i behov av särskilt stöd. För att undersöka dessa frågor använde vi oss av kv...

  8. Contrast of succinate dehydrogenase vitality and cytochrome C content in rats of different syn-dromes of chronic superficial gastritis%慢性浅表性胃炎不同证型大鼠琥珀酸脱氢酶活性与细胞色素C含量对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 李翌萌


    目的:探讨慢性浅表性胃炎( chronic superficial gastritis, CSG)脾虚与湿热证模型大鼠胃组织琥珀酸脱氢酶( succinate dehydrogenase,SDH)的活性及细胞色素C( cytochrome C,Cyt-C)的含量变化,从能量代谢的角度揭示CSG不同证候的实质。方法用水杨酸钠溶液灌胃法复制大鼠单纯CSG模型,在此基础上,用小承气汤泻下法及饥饱失常法复制脾虚CSG模型;用肥甘辛辣饮食法复制湿热CSG模型,5周后,检测大鼠胃组织琥珀酸脱氢酶活性及细胞色素C含量。结果 SDH的含量为:湿热CSG组最高,而脾虚CSG组最低。脾虚CSG组与湿热CSG组分别与其他组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);胞浆中Cyt-C含量造模组均高于正常组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01),其中脾虚CSG组最高,湿热CSG组次之,两组之间比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论 CSG不同证型大鼠胃组织SDH活性及Cyt-C含量的差异,提示同一疾病不同证型之间能量代谢状态的不同,湿热证相对于脾虚证能量代谢较亢进。%Objective To explore the mechanisms of different syndromes in terms of the energy metabolism by observing the activity changes of succinate dehydrogenase ( SDH) and the content changes of cytochrome C ( Cyt-C) in rats with chronic superficial gastritis ( CSG) of spleen-deficiency syndrome and damp-heat syndrome. Methods CSG rat model was established by the intragastric administration of sodi-um salicylate solution. CSG rat model with spleen-deficiency syndrome was established by Xiaochengqi De-coction-induced purgation and eating disorders. CSG rat model with damp-heat syndrome was established by feeding fat, sweet and spicy diet. Five weeks later, SDH activity and Cyt-C content of gastric tissue were determined. Results The activity of SDH in damp-heat CSG group was the highest of all, but which in spleen-deficiency CSG group was the lowest . The activity of SDH was obviously changed in damp-heat CSG group also in spleen-deficiency CSG group in comparison with the other three groups, respectively. ( P<0. 05 or P<0. 01). The content of Cyt-C in the three model groups was higher than which in normal group (P<0. 05 or P<0. 01). The content of Cyt-C in spleen-deficiency CSG group was the highest of all, with the damp-heat CSG group secondarily. There was a significantly content difference between the two groups (P<0. 01) . Conclusion The difference in the SDH activity and Cyt-C content of CSG rat with different syndromes , revealed the different energy metabolism of different syndromes for the same disease, the ener-gy metabolism of damp-heat symdrome was higher than which of spleen-deficiency syndrome.

  9. 司来吉兰联合补中益气汤对帕金森病模型大鼠结肠TH,α-Syn表达的影响%Influence of Selegiline Combined with Center-Supplementing and Qi-Boosting Decoction on the Expression of TH and α-Syn in Rats Model with Parkinson's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕树立; 高海英


    目的:观察司来吉兰联合补中益气汤对帕金森病模型大鼠结肠中TH及α-5yn表达的影响,探讨司来吉兰联合补中益气汤对帕金森病消化系统功能紊乱的可能机制.方法:72只健康雄性SD大鼠随机分为对照组、模型组以及联合治疗组,每组均设4d及8d2个时间点.采用颈背部皮下注射鱼藤酮制备帕金森病模型大鼠,模型制备成功后,联合治疗组每日灌胃一次司来吉兰0.5 mg·kg-1·d-1及灌胃补中益气汤水煎液12 mL·kg-1 ·d-1,直至试验时间点.对照组及模型组每只每日均连续灌胃等体积生理盐水至试验时间点.应用免疫组化法S-P法以及Western blotting检测TH及α-Syn在对照组、模型组以及联合治疗组大鼠结肠组织中的表达情况.结果:造模成功后,免疫组化及Westernblotting结果均显示,模型组大鼠结肠中的TH表达较对照组明显减低(P<0.05);通过司来吉兰联合补中益气汤治疗后,联合治疗组TH表达显著高于模型组,但仍低于对照组(P<0.05),治疗8d时,TH表达显著高于治疗4d时(P<0.05).α-Syn在模型组中的表达较对照组以及联合治疗组明显增多(P<0.05),且联合治疗组中表达较对照组增多(P<0.05),治疗8d时,α-Syn表达显著低于治疗4d时(P<0.05).结论:司来吉兰联合补中益气汤能缓解PD后TH的降低以及α-Syn的升高,能有效缓解帕金森大鼠的肠道功能紊乱.

  10. The effects of continuous positive airway pressure short-term treatment on 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and tumor necro-sis factor-α levels in the serum of the middle- and advanced-aged patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syn-drome%短期CPAP干预对中老年OSAHS患者血清8-OHdG、TNF-α的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章婷; 汪俊; 杨晶; 罗荧荃


    Objective To investigate whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) could have an impact on levels of 8-OHdG and TNF-α in the serum of middle- and advanced-aged OSAHS patients. Methods Twenty-three patients with moderate to severe OSAHS(AHI≥15 events/h) and twenty-five patients(AHI<15 events/h) who were matched for sex,age,body mass index (BMI),and diseases as the control group were recruited. The OSAHS patients received the 3d CPAP treatment,and 8-OHdG,and TNF-αlevels were measured. After CPAP treatment,serum 8-OHdG and TNF-αlevels were reassessed. Results The Apnea-Hy-popnea Index (AHI),8-OHdG,TNF-αwere significantly higher and the minimum arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and mean SaO2 significantly lower in OSAHS patients than in the control group. After the 3d CPAP treatment,8-OHdG,TNF-α,and AHI signifi-cantly decreased in,while the minimum SaO2 and mean SaO2 significantly increased in the OSAHS patients. There were significant positive correlations between AHI and 8-OHdG,and TNF-αand significant negative correlations between the minimum SaO2 and mean SaO2 and 8-OHdG,and TNF-αin all subjects (P<0.05). There were significant positive correlations between the minimum SaO2 and mean SaO2 and between 8-OHdG and TNF-α. Conclusion There might be oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in middle- and advanced-aged OSAHS patients. CPAP treatment has a positive effect on oxidative stress and inflammatory re-sponses.%目的:观察血清8-OHdG、TNF-α在中老年OSAHS患者中的水平变化,比较短期CPAP干预对上述指标的影响。方法随机选择确诊的23例中、重度OSAHS患者(AHI≥15次/h)作为试验组和25例(AHI<15次/h)对照者。比较两组8-O-HdG、TNF-α水平及其关系,试验组随机给予连续3d CPAP干预,观察8-OHdG、TNF-α的变化。结果试验组AHI、8-O-HdG、TNF-α均高于对照组(P<0.05),夜间最低SaO2、平均SaO2低于对照组(P<0.05)。试验组经呼吸机治疗3d后,AHI、8-OHdG、TNF-α均较治疗前降低(P<0.05),而夜间最低SaO2、平均SaO2则较治疗前升高(P<0.05)。所有研究对象血清中8-O-HdG、TNF-α与AHI呈正相关,与最低SaO2、平均SaO2呈负相关(P<0.05)。8-OHdG与TNF-α呈正相关(r=0.303,P=0.037)。结论中老年OSAHS患者体内可能存在氧化应激及炎症反应,CPAP对其有改善作用。

  11. 采用统一命名的热带多型性地衣生Koordersiella属(异名:Hansfordiellopsis)的分类概要%A synopsis of the tropical pleomorphic lichenicolous genus Koordersiella (syn.Hansfordiellopsis) under a unified nomenclature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David L.Hawksworth


    对同一菌物不同形态型分别命名的做法于2011年结束,这就需要对非地衣化的多型性子囊菌和担子菌采用统一的命名.地衣生的Koordersiella属因此也只需要单一的名称,而后发表的Hansfordiellopsis就是该属的异名.此属共有5个种,包括在此发表的2个新组合:K tenuissima和Kvariegate combs.Nov..本文列举了该属的地衣寄主和已报道的地理分布,同时也提供了已被接受的物种检索表.此外,在Hansfordiellopsis下发表的1个种和在Koordersiella下发表的2个种,因与该属的模式种显然为不同的属而被排除.由于缺乏分子序列数据,Koordersiella属在座囊菌纲(Dothideomycetes)中的系统学地位目前仍然不明确.

  12. 龙泉关韧性剪切带同变形花岗岩的构造特征及其独居石定年%Syn-deformational granites of the Longquanguan ductile shear zone and their monazite electronic microprobe dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兰; 张进江; 刘树文


    龙泉关韧性剪切带强变形部位发育一系列平行剪切带走向展布的花岗岩脉体,构造变形特征表明它们可能是同变形花岗岩,是剪切作用下围岩部分熔融的产物.通过独居石电子探针定年,测得龙泉关韧性剪切带的年龄分别为:主变形幕发生于1877~1846 Ma,第2个变形幕发生于1812~1782 Ma,晚期1725 Ma左右又经历了流体活动.龙泉关韧性剪切带的发生、发展与华北克拉通中部带古元古代晚期的变质事件同期,是东、西陆块碰撞的一个主要剪切带.

  13. Literature Review(2003 - 2013)on Traditional Chinese Medicine in Syn-drome Differentiation and Treatment of Tinnitus%基于2003年-2013年期刊文献中药治疗耳鸣的辨证分型及用药规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱旭东; 马瑞鸿; 丁明辉; 叶晶琳; 赵艳


    目的:分析2003年至2013年中药治疗耳鸣的期刊文献,探讨其辨证分型及用药规律。方法检索中国生物医学文献数据库、中文期刊全文数据库、万方数据库、维普数据库中内服中药复方治疗耳鸣的临床研究文献,将收集到的359篇耳鸣中药治疗文献录入到 Microsoft Access 2010数据库中,运用 Microsoft Excel 2010数据表对其中的辨证分型及用药规律进行统计分析。结果纳入文献共计359篇,其涉及证候类型的文献共计354篇。其中耳鸣最常见的8种证型频次从高到低依为肾精亏虚证,气滞血瘀证,肝火上炎证,肝肾亏虚证,中气不足、清阳不升证,风热上扰证,痰热上扰证,气血不足证。对上述8种证型的常用中药进行分析,结果显示无论何种证型,石菖蒲均为中药治疗耳鸣最常用的药物。结论本研究说明中医对于耳鸣的治疗中有辨病用药的趋势,但关于耳鸣的辨病治疗、耳鸣治疗的专药文献研究仍有待深入的研究探讨。%Objective To explore the differentiation and treatment of traditional Chinese medicine on tinnitus by analyzing the literature published during 2003 - 2013. Methods The author collected 359 clinical research literature of tinnitus treatment in TCM from Chinese biomedical literature database,Chinese journal full text database,Wanfang database,VIP database,recorded in Microsoft Access 2010 database,and studied the regular pattern of TCM syndrome differentiation and drug use using Microsoft Excel 2010 data ta-ble. Results 359 papers were involved in this study where 354 involve the discussion of TCM syndrome type of tinnitus. Among them,the most common 8 kinds of TCM syndromes(frequency from high to low)are re-spectively kidney essence deficiency(86),qi stagnation and blood stasis(64),syndrome of liver fire flaring up(62),liver and kidney deficiency syndrome(56),the gas shortage,Qing Yang does not rise certificate (50),Wind heat syndrome(47),Phlegm heat syndrome(46),deficiency of blood and Qi(42);the commonly used Chinese herbal medicine of the 8 types were analyzed. The results showed that no matter what type of TCM syndrome is,acorus gramineus soland is the most commonly used drug in Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment of tinnitus. Conclusion The present study shows the tendency of differentiation of disease in drug therapy for tinnitus,but the differentiation of disease and special medicine literatures on the treatment for tin-nitus still need further studies and discussions.

  14. 白介素7在原发性干燥综合征患者唇腺组织中的表达及其临床意义%Expression and Clinical Significance of Interleukin - 7 in the Labial Gland Tissue of Patients with Primary Sjögren's Syn-drome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何春华; 张建; 邹霓


    Objective To study the expression of interleukin - 7(IL - 7)in the labial gland of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome(pSS)and its relationship with the infiltration of lymphocytes in the gland,serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR),C - reactive protein(CRP)and immunoglobulin, Methods 30 pSS inpatients and outpatients from the Department of Rheumatism of Binzhou People's Hospital from March 2005 to October 2012 were selected as pSS group,while 5 patients with maxillofacial trauma and labial gland cyst of the same period were selected as control group, Immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of IL - 7 in labial gland,and HE staining was used to detect the lymphocyte infiltration in labial gland, The relationship between IL - 7 and infiltration of lymphocytes in the gland,serum ESR,CRP and immunoglobulin was analyzed, Results IL - 7 was expressed in the acini,ducts and lymphocytes infiltration area in pSS, 29 cases of pSS group had positive expression,and the positive expression rate of IL - 7 was 97% , One case of the control group had positive expression, and the positive expression of IL - 7 between the two groups showed statistically significant difference(P = 0, 013), The positive cells of IL - 7 positively were correlated with the lymphocyte infiltration focus and ESR( r = 0, 807,0, 546,P 0, 05), Conclusion The elevation of IL - 7 expression in labial gland in patients with pSS is related to the infiltration of lymphocytes and ESR,which plays an important role in the process of glandular destruction and in the pathogenesis of pSS.%目的:探讨白介素7(IL -7)在原发性干燥综合征(pSS)患者唇腺组织中的表达及其与唇腺组织中淋巴细胞浸润和红细胞沉降率(ESR)、C 反应蛋白(CRP)、免疫球蛋白的相关性。方法选择2005年3月—2012年10月滨州市人民医院风湿免疫科门诊及住院的 pSS 患者30例为 pSS 组,另选择同时期颌面部创伤和唇腺囊肿患者5例为对照组。采用免疫组织化学法检测唇腺组织中 IL -7的表达情况,采用 HE 染色法检测唇腺组织中淋巴细胞浸润情况。分析 IL -7与唇腺组织中淋巴细胞浸润及 ESR、CRP、免疫球蛋白的相关性。结果 IL -7阳性产物定位于胞质,呈棕黄色,主要表达于导管、腺泡上皮细胞及淋巴细胞浸润灶。pSS 组29例呈阳性表达,阳性表达率为97%,对照组1例呈阳性表达,两组 IL -7阳性表达率比较,差异有统计学意义(P =0,013)。IL -7阳性细胞数与淋巴细胞浸润灶数呈正相关(r =0,807,P 0,05)。结论 IL -7在 pSS 患者唇腺组织中呈高表达,表达情况与淋巴细胞浸润及 ESR 相关,高表达的 IL -7可能在 pSS 唇腺组织的破坏及发病过程中起重要作用。

  15. Evidence of syn tectonic tephrites with nepheline in the Sidi Said Maachou Cambrian basin (coastal Meseta, Morocco); geo dynamic implications; Mise en evidence de tephrites a nepheline syntectoniques dans le bassin cambrien de Sidi Said Maachou (Meseta cotiere, Maroc); signification geodynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remmal, T.; Mohsine, A.; El Hatimi, N.


    Based on a combined structural, petrographic, and geochemical analysis, a new interpretation of the basic magmatism of Sidi Said Maachou (coastal Meseta) in two stages of emplacement is proposed. The first stage is characterized by transitional pyroclastic flows that have accompanied the opening of the West-Mesetian basin, during the Cambrian; the second stage is made of dykes of basalts, dolerites, and tephrites bearing nepheline. The emplacement of this undersaturated alkaline magma is associated to a sinistral sub meridian shear zone which has been activated at the end of the Caledonian orogenesis, by a mantellic advection. (Author) 32 refs.

  16. 辅助生育与自然妊娠孕妇早期唐氏筛查结果的对照研究%Control Study of the Results of First-trimester Screening for Down's Syn-drome Between Naturally Conceived Pregnancy and in Vitro Fertilization Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐一鸣; 王东梅; 曾玉坤; 刘玲


    目的:比较采用辅助生育技术受孕与自然受孕者孕早期唐氏筛查各项指标及筛查假阳性率的差异。方法选取2012年1月-2014年3月在该院进行早期(10~13+6w)唐氏筛查的IVF孕妇1600例,筛选同期孕周、年龄、体重等因素相匹配的自然受孕孕妇16000例为对照组,入选孕妇均为单胎。抽血前B超明确孕周并测量NT,测血清学标志物PAPP-A、fβ-hCG的水平,比较两组各指标中位数的差异及筛查假阳性率。结果各孕周段两组孕妇PAPP-A MoM值均<1.0,IVF组孕妇PAPP-A MoM值低于相应孕周的对照组。两组各孕周段fβ-hCG MoM值均在1.0左右,相应孕周间比较差异无统计学意义。两组孕妇NT水平差异无统计学意义。 IVF组21三体筛查阳性率为13.40%,显著高于对照组10.19%。两组失访率均在8%左右。其中,IVF组206例21三体高风险孕妇中84.5%进行了染色体核型分析,确诊2例;对照组935例中71.5%接受穿刺,确诊15例。两组确诊率相当。IVF组筛查假阳性率为14.69%,明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(χ2=7.50,P=0.006)。结论IVF技术的使用会降低早期唐氏筛查血清标志物PAPP-A的浓度,因此增加胎儿21三体检出的假阳性率,建议引入适当的校准系数进行风险评估。%Objective To compare the indexes of first-trimester screening for Down's syndrome and false positive rate of screening between naturally conceived and in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancies. Methods From January 2012 to March 2014, a total of 1600 pregnant women conceived by IVF who underwent the first trimester (10~13+6w) Down's syndrome screening were enrolled in this study. 16000 pregnant women conceived naturally matching the IVF pregnant women by gestational age, maternal age, weight were selected as the control group. All pregnancies in the study were singleton. The gestational age was detected by B-ultrasound before blood collection, and NT was measured. And maternal serum PAPP-A and fβ-hCG were measured. The median (MoM) lev-els of the indexes, and the false-positive rate of Down's syndrome screening between the 2 groups were compared. Results PAPP-A MoM were under 1.0 in both groups in each gestational week, and lower in IVF group when compared to the control group in each week. However, fβ-hCG MoM seemed more stable with a median value of 1.0 in both groups in each gestational week with no statistical significance between the groups. There was either no obvious difference between the two groups in the fetal NT. The positive rate of trisomy 21 screening of IVF group was 13.40%, obviously higher than 10.19%of the control group. The lost follow-ing-up rate was about 8% in both groups. Among these, 84.5%of the 206 pregnancies with trisomy 21 high risk in the IVF group accepted chromosome karyotype analysis and 2 cases were confirmed. 71.5% of 935 cases in the control group accepted puncture and 15 cases were finally diagnosed. The rate of confirmed diagnosis was similar in both groups. The false-positive rate of IVF group was 14.69%, significant higher than that of the control group with statistical significance (χ2=7.50, P=0.006). Conclusion Down's syndrome screening of IVF pregnancies had a higher false-positive rate of trisomy 21 than the naturally conceived preg-nancies in the first trimester which mainly caused by the decreased PAPP-A. It's necessary for IVF pregnancies to use proper analyte correction factors in the interpretation of first-trimester Down's syndrome screening results.

  17. "Målsättningen är en nöjd värmlänning" : Vårdpersonalens syn på tillgänglighet, bemötande och kvalitet i patientmötet


    Nilsson, Emil; Brodin, Roger; Karlsson, Inge


    We have made a qualitative study where we have chosen to interview a number of respondents consisting of ophthalmologists, eye nurses and patients. The purpose of the study was to examine employees' perceptions of patient-related status and treatment and quality, and meaningful participation in the work. The conducted interviews, we then sat in relation to how patients experienced the visit to the eye clinic and their perception of accessibility and hospitality. The result is then compared ag...

  18. Analysis of the variation and clinical value of serum homocysteine and cystatin C in pregnancy induced hypertension syn-drome%H cy 与 Cy sC 在妊娠高血压综合征患者中的变化及临床价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the changes and clinical value of serum homocysteine(Hcy) and cystatin C(CysC) in pregnancy induced hypertension(PIH) .Methods The clinical data of 118 patients with PIH in our hos‐pital from October 2010 to June 2014 were retrospectively analyzed ,including 32 cases of mild PIH ,49 cases of mod‐erate PIH and 37 cases of severe PIH .In addition ,55 normal pregnant women during the same period were selected as the control group .The enzymatic cycling method and the colloidal gold immune turbidimetry were adopted to detect the serum Hcy and CysC levels and the detecting results were compared between the two groups .Results The sys‐tolic blood pressure in the control group ,mild PIH group ,moderate PIH group and severe PIH group were (122 .38 ± 10 .29) ,(154 .32 ± 12 .11) ,(177 .19 ± 14 .29) ,(188 .37 ± 15 .49)mm Hg respectively ,the differences a‐mong the above groups were statistically significant(P 0 ,P< 0 .05) .Con‐clusion The serum Hcy and CysC levels are positively correlated with the systolic blood pressure ,which has the higher value for the clinical diagnosis of PIH .%目的:探讨血清同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)与胱抑素 C(CysC)在妊娠高血压综合征(PIH)患者中的变化及临床价值。方法选取2010年10月至2014年6月夏津县人民医院收治的 PIH 患者118例,其中轻度32例,中度49例,重度37例。另取同期正常妊娠的孕妇55例作为对照组。分别采用循环酶法与胶体金免疫比浊法对患者组与对照组血清 Hcy 及 CysC 水平进行检测。结果对照组、轻度 PIH 组、中度 PIH 组及重度 PIH 组收缩压分别为(122.38±10.29)、(154.32±12.11)、(177.19±14.29)、(188.37±15.49)mm Hg ,收缩压水平比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);患者组血清 Hcy 与 CysC 水平均明显高于对照组,且重度 PIH 组血清 Hcy 及 CysC 水平也均明显高于轻度与中度 PIH 组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);患者血清 Hcy 及 CysC 与血压呈正相关(r >0,P<0.05)。结论血清 Hcy 与 CysC 水平与患者收缩压呈正相关,对 PIH 的临床诊断具有较高的价值。

  19. Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syn-drome Complicated with Coronary Heart Disease%持续气道正压通气在阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征合并冠心病治疗中的作用观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晶; 周秀梅


    Objective:To explore the application value of continuous positive airway pressure ( CPAP) in the treatment of obstruc-tive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS ) complicated with coronary heart disease (CHD).Methods:Totally 50 patients with OSAHS complicated with CHD from June 2012 to June 2014 in our hospital were randomly divided into the control group and CPAP group with 25 ones in each .The patients in the control group were treated with the conventional drug therapy for coronary heart disease , while those in CPAP group were treated with CPAP additionally .After 6-month treatment, PSG index, clinical symptoms, arrhythmia and ischemia electrocardiogram changes of the patients in the two groups were compared .Results:After the 6-month treatment , AHI and oxygen desaturation index in CPAP group were significantly decreased when compared with those before the treatment , and the min-imum value of SaO2 and the average value of SaO 2 were higher than those before the treatment (P<0.01), and the above indices were better than those in the control group (P<0.01).The incidence rate of chest pain and chest tightness , arrhythmia, times of myocardi-al ischemia in a day and time of myocardial ischemia in a day were decreased after the treatment (P<0.01), and the decrease in CPAP group was more notable than that in the control group (P<0.01).Conclusion: CPAP combined with the conventional drug therapy for coronary heart disease can improve the oxygen concentration and reduce the incidence of arrhythmia and myocardial ischemia in the patients with OSAHS with CHD , which can be widely used in clinics .%目的:研究持续气道正压通气(CPAP)在阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OSAHS)合并冠心病(CHD)治疗中的应用价值。方法:OSAHS合并CHD患者50例随机分为对照组和CPAP组两组,每组25例。对照组患者给予常规药物治疗, CPAP组患者在对照组基础上加以CPAP治疗。6个月后比较两组患者的多导睡眠仪( PSG )指标、临床症状、心律失常、心电图心肌缺血改变。结果:CPAP组患者治疗6个月后AHI、氧减指数较治疗前明显降低,SaO2最低值、SaO2平均值则较前明显升高(P<0.01),且均优于对照组(P<0.01)。两组患者胸痛胸闷、心律失常发生率、1 d内心肌缺血发生次数、1d内心肌缺血时间等均较前下降(P<0.01),且CPAP组明显优于对照组(P<0.01)。结论: CPAP联合CHD常规治疗能提高OSAHS合并CHD患者的血氧浓度,降低心律失常和心肌缺血的发生率,可广泛应用于临床。

  20. Serum hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-a levels and their contributions to metabolic syn- drome in children%儿童代谢综合征患儿血清中炎症因子hs-CRP、IL-6、TNF-α的变化及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋敬荟; 瞿平; 魏小平; 刘永芳; 李廷玉; 刘友学


    目的 了解正常、超重和肥胖儿童中代谢综合征(metabolic syndrome,MS)的流行特征及MS诊断指标异常儿童血清中炎症因子水平的变化及意义.方法 从重庆市区选取6所小学,用完全随机方法 从各年级抽取2个班,对选中班级的所有学生进行体检,共1 941例,依据2004年中国肥胖问题工作组制定的中国学龄儿童青少年超重、肥胖分类标准,筛选出所有肥胖儿童54例,抽取超重儿童77例,正常儿童72例纳入研究对象,再依据修正的Cook儿童MS诊断标准将研究对象分为3组:正常儿童(74例)、异常非MS儿童 (106例)、MS儿童(23例).常规测量其身高、体质量、腰围、血压,取空腹静脉血检测其空腹胰岛素、血糖和血脂,ELISA方法 测定血清中超敏C反应蛋白(hs-CRP)、白介素-6(IL-6)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)水平.结果 肥胖儿童中MS的发生率为27.78%(15/54),超重儿童中MS的发生率为10.39%(8/77),正常儿童中没有出现MS,超重和肥胖儿童中MS发生率差异具有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 随着体质量增加,MS的发生率显著增加,MS诊断阳性指标数量越多血清中的炎症因子hs-CRP、IL-6水平越高,hs-CRP及IL-6是导致MS发生的显著危险因素.%Objective To study the epidemiological characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MS) in normal, overweight and obese school-aged children, and the change and significance of serum inflammatory factor levels in children with MS diagnostic indexes. Methods Six primary schools were randomly selected from the urban districts of Chongqing, China. For grades 2-5, two classes in each grade were randomly selected for this study. A total of 1 941 children were recruited in this study. According to the overweight and obesity criteria recommended by the Group of China Obesity Task Force, all 54 obese children, as well as randomly selected 77 overweight children and 72 normal children, were used as the subjects. We divided these subjects into three groups, i. e. , a normal group (n =74) without any MS diagnostic index, a non-MS group (n = 106) with 1 or 2 MS diagnostic indexes, and an MS group ( n = 23 ) with 3 or more MS diagnostic indexes. The criteria used to diagnose MS were modifications of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) ATP Ⅲ according to Cook's criteria. Anthropometric measurement was conducted by professional persons using routine methods.Serum biochemical markers [ including triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), glucose, and insulin] were determined by a clinical analyzer (Siemens ADVIA 2400) using standard methods. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factors-a ( TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C reaction protein (hs-CRP) were analyzed using commercial ELISA kits.Restults The MS rates were 27.78% (15/54), 10.39% (8/77) and 0% (0/72) in the obese, overweightand normal school-aged children, respectively. The MS rates were statistically different between overweight and obese children (P <0.01). The serum levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 (1.45 ±1.75 mg/ml and 4.84 ±0.60 pg/ml)in the MS group were significantly higher than those (0.71 ± 1.11 mg/ml and 1.71 ± 1.10 pg/ml) in the nonMS group (P < 0. 01 ). The serum levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 in the non-MS group were higher than those (0. 34 ±0.60 mg/ml and 1.35 ±0.70 pg/ml) in the normal group. There was no significant difference in the serum TNF-a levels among the three groups (P > 0. 05 ). Concltsion Our results indicate that overweight and/or obesity increase the MS rate in school-aged children. Low-grade inflammation exists in both overweight and obese children, and may increase the MS risk. Increased MS rate in obese children may be due to increased hs-CRP and IL-6 levels. Both hs-CRP and IL-6 as inflammatory factors have potential use for MS prediction.

  1. Diseases Constitution and Death Cause Syn-position Analysis of Discharged Patients of a Hospital from 2011 to ;2015%2011年-2015年某院出院患者疾病构成及死亡病例死因顺位分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objectives To provide scientific evidence for improving the work quality of medical treatment and decreasing the death rate of hospitalized patients through analyzing on the diseases constitution and death cause constitution of discharged patients. Methods Through the system platform of medical records management of the hospital, making classification according to each section in ICD-10 with taking the first diagnosis as evidence, and conducting data analysis on the inpatients from 2011 to 2015. Results There were 131967 cases of discharged patients in the past five years from 2011 to 2015, and 108011 cases were patients got with the top ten kinds of years, which accounted for 81.85%of all the discharged patients. Gestation, delivery and puerperal state diseases ranked the top place in the top ten kinds of diseases, which accounted for 12.54%, the other diseases included eyes and assistant diseases,genitourinary system diseases,endocrine and nutrition metabolism diseases,tumors,neurosurgery system diseases, circulation system diseases, respiratory system diseases, digestive system diseases. There were 414 cases of death cases during the five years, which accounted for 0.33%, the top ten death causes accounted for 23.43% of all.The top ten death causes included lung malignant tumor,cerebral contusion,atherosclerosis of coronary artery,malignant tumors in cardiac,pulmonary infection,malignant tumors of esophagus,cerebral hemorrhage, aspiration pneumonia and malignant tumors of liver. Conclusions We should adjust the authorized beds, personnel allocation and equipment injection of the hospital according to the diseases composition of discharged patients, do well the diagnosis and treatment of common diseases and chronic diseases, which were especially important for the formulation of scientific of management decision making, the decreasing of mortality of hospitalized patients, as well as the improvement of life quality.%目的:通过对出院患者的疾病构成及死因构成分析,为某院提高医疗工作质量及降低该院住院患者死亡率提供科学依据。方法通过某院病案管理系统平台,以第一诊断为依据,按照ICD-10的各个章节进行分类,对2011年-2015年住院患者进行数据分析。结果2011年-2015年五年期间某院出院患者共131967例,前十位疾病出院患者共108011例,占总出院人数的81.85%,前十位疾病妊娠、分娩和产褥期疾病占首位,占全院出院总人数的12.54%,其次为眼和副器疾病、泌尿生殖系统疾病、内分泌、营养代谢系统疾病、肿瘤、神经系统疾病、循环系统疾病、呼吸系统疾病、消化系统疾病。五年间死亡病例共414例,占总出院人数的0.33%,前十位死因占总死亡病例的23.43%,死亡患者前十位死因分别是肺恶性肿瘤、脑挫伤、冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病、贲门恶性肿瘤、肺部感染、食管恶性肿瘤、脑出血、吸入性肺炎、肝恶性肿瘤。结论根据每年出院患者疾病构成调整医院编制床位、人员配置及设备投入,做好常见病、慢性病的诊治工作,特别是对于科学制定管理决策,降低住院患者的死亡率,提高患者的生命质量尤为重要。

  2. Sex hormone changes and sexual dysfunction in male patients with obstructive sleep apneahypopnea syn-drome%男性阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合症患者血清性激素水平的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    堵钧伟; 陆周宇; 钱颖俊; 陈敏


    Objectives:To explore the sex hormone changes and sexual dysfunction in male patients with obstructive sleep apneahypopnea syndrome so as to provide certain theoretical basis for clinical diagnosis and treat-ment.Methods:94 male patients with obstructive sleep apneahypopnea syndrome treated in our hospital from Feb-ruary 201 2 to February 201 4 were selected as observation group,and at the same time,94 health males were select-ed as the control group.All the objects of study were under dynamic monitoring sleep all night and determination of sex hormone levels.Through Pearson correlation analysis,we studied the correlation between sex hormone levels and obstructive sleep apneahypopnea syndrome.Results:The body mass index (BMI)and abdominal girth in observa-tion group was obviously higher than these of control group,P <0.05.While the AHI and average blood oxygen of the observation group were obviously lower than these in control group,with significant difference,P <0.05.For control group,the lowest blood oxygen and oxygen index were significantly higher than these of observation group, P <0.05.Serum testosterone,prolactin and luteinizing hormone secretion levels of observation group were signifi-cantly lower than these of control group,P <0.05.Testosterone levels had negative correlation with BMI,chest circumference,abdominal girth,and the course,and it had positive correlation with age.Conclusions:Differences in sex hormone levels between male patients with OSAHS and health males is found.The degree of sex hormone lev-els and AHI is not related,but there is significant correlation between sex hormone levels and BMI.%目的:探讨分析男性阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合症患者体内性激素分泌水平及与其疾病的相关性,为临床疾病诊治提供一定理论依据。方法:研究对象为2012年2月到2014年2月我院收治的、经临床检查确诊为男性阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合症患者共94例作为观察组,同时选取同期在我院就诊的健康男性患者94例作为对照组。对所有研究对象进行动态整夜睡眠监测及性激素水平的测定,此外通过 Pearson相关性分析研究其性激素水平与阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合症的相关性。结果:观察组体重指数及腹围明显高于对照组,经统计学分析 P <0.05。观察组 AHI、平均血氧明显低于对照组,差异显著,P <0.05。对照组最低血氧及氧降指数明显高于观察组,经统计学分析,P <0.05。观察组血清中睾酮、催乳素及黄体生成素分泌水平均明显低于对照组,经统计学分析,P <0.05。睾酮水平与 BMI、胸围、腹围及病程成负相关,与年龄成正相关。结论:男性阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合症患者性激素的分泌水平与健康男性之间存在差异,但其分泌与 OSAHS 相关指标无相关性而与 BMI 有显著相关性。

  3. Research on the life-style intervention on weight of patients with sleep apnea syn-drome%生活方式干预对控制睡眠呼吸暂停综合征患者体重的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娘娣; 杨琳; 于兰芳; 郑绮雯


    目的:探讨综合生活方式干预模式对睡眠呼吸暂停综合征( SAS)患者体重和体脂的影响。方法纳入2013年5月至2014年6月北京大学深圳医院干部保健科新确诊的轻度SAS患者为研究对象,分为对照组18例与干预组24例。干预组给予生活干预治疗(营养、运动、心理协同合作),应用Inbody 720观察3个月内研究对象的体重指数、脂肪、肌肉的变化情况。结果经3个月生活方式干预后,干预组BMI下降( P0.05)。结论生活方式干预可有效地减少脂肪、增加肌肉;BMI不能反映减重效果,需要结合体脂测定指标来制定生活方式干预方案。%Objective To explore the effect of life-style intervention on weight and body fat of patients with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) . Methods From May 2013 to June 2014, a total of 42 patients who were newly diag-nosed as SAS in our department were enrolled in the study. All patients were divided into control group ( n=18 ) and in-tervention group (n=24) . The intervention group were given the life-style intervention (nutrition, exercise and psycho-logical coordinated collaboration ) . The variation of weight, fat and muscle were observed with Inbody 720 in 3 months. Results After 3 months′ intervention, the intervention group showed decreased indexes in BMI ( P<0. 05 ) and body fat (P<0. 05), and increased index in muscle (P<0. 05); while compared with that of 3 months ago, the control group revealed no differences in above 3 indexes . Three months later, 79% ( 19/24 ) patients of intervention group had more than 2% BMI decline, which was 39% (7/18) higher than that of the control group (P<0. 05), 50% (14/24) patients of intervention group had more than 50% fat loss, which was 22% higher than that of the con-trol group (4/18) (P<0. 05) . However, the proportion of 50% muscle-increase was 38%. Compared with the pro-portion of the control group 11% (2/18), there was no statistical significance (P<0. 05) . Conclusion Life-style in-tervention could decrease the fat and increase the muscle effectively;BMI can not reflect the criterion of weight loss, the formulation of the life-style intervention plans should combine with the body fat measurement index.

  4. 氨磺必利替换奥氮平治疗对伴有代谢综合征精神分裂症患者的影响%The effects of amisulpride replacing olanzapine therapy in schizophrenia patients with metabolic syn-drome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立恒; 易军


    Objective:To observe the effects of amisulpride replace olanzapine therapy in schizophrenic patients with metabolic syndrome. Method:Ninety-two schizophrenia patients with metabolic syndrome that primarily used olanzapine were randomly divided into amisulpride group(treatment group)and olanzapine group (control group),each group 46 cases. In the treatment group we replaced olanzapine with amisulpride within two weeks;In the control group,the olanzapine treatment unchanged;Observation time 12 weeks. At the time of en-rollment and the 6,12 weekend,blood pressure,waist circumference,body mass index(BMI)and fasting blood sugar(FBS),high density lipoprotein(HDL),triglycerides(TG)levels were measured,respectively. The clinical situation was assessed by positive and negative symptoms rating scale(PANSS)and treatment emergent side-effect scale(TESS). Results:After 12 weeks treatment,waist circumference,systolic blood pressure,BMI, TG,FBS of the treatment group were significantly lower than the control group(P 0. 05),while TESS score of the treatment group was lower than the control group(P 0.05),而 TESS 评分治疗组低于对照组(P <0.05)。结论:氨磺必利替换奥氮平治疗对精神分裂症患者体质量增加及代谢综合征有显著改善作用。

  5. Caractérisation géométrique et texturale de perturbations synsédimentaires attribuées à des séismes, dans une formation quaternaire glaciolacustre des Alpes (≪ les Argiles du Trièves ≫) (United States)

    Lignier, Vincent; Beck, Christian; Chapron, Emmanuel


    Synsedimentary soft deformations have disturbed Quaternary lacustrine layered sediments, the 'Argiles du Trièves' formation. These structures have been investigated in order to characterise their possible seismic origin. Grain size and composition of respectively disturbed and undisturbed layers do not exhibit any major differences, they indicate a relatively quiet depositional environment. Morphological investigations on these disturbed levels reveal shaking processes. These investigations show structures similar to analogical modelling results, consisting of granular and natural material submitted to different vibrations. These disturbances could be considered as seismites, a hypothesis in agreement with the geodynamically active setting of Trièves area,

  6. 妊高症早期肾损伤检测视黄醇结合蛋白浓度水平的意义%Significance of testing the retinol binding protein in the early kidney injury of the pregnancy-induced hypertenision syn-drome diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨妊高症早期肾损伤检测视黄醇结合蛋白浓度水平的意义,为临床诊治提供依据。方法选择2011年2月-2013年10月确诊为妊高症的孕妇100例设为试验组,选择同期健康孕检妊娠者100例设为对照组,分别检测视黄醇结合蛋白和胱抑素 C 的浓度水平,对结果进行分析。结果试验组孕妇的视黄醇结合蛋白和胱抑素 C浓度水平明显高于对照组,差异显著(P <0.05),且随着患者病情的加重呈现递增的趋势;试验各组患者孕妇的视黄醇结合蛋白和胱抑素 C 的阳性检出率分别两两比较均无明显差异(P >0.05),且患者的视黄醇结合蛋白阳性检出率均超过85.0%;临床确诊结果与视黄醇结合蛋白检测结果的 Kappa 一致性分析得出 Kappa 值等于0.86。结论视黄醇结合蛋白是一种同胱抑素 C 一样对妊高症早期肾损伤具有诊断价值的有效指标,具有较高的灵敏度和临床符合性。%Objective To explore the application meaning of the early kidney injury of the Pregnancy-induced hyper-tension syndrome diagnosis by the retinol binding protein testing,and providing the basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.Methods Choosing 100 cases of the Pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome patients for the experimental group and 100 cases healthy check-upes for the control group,testing the retinol binding protein and Cystatin C,analy-zing the results.Results Compared with the control group,there were significantly increased of retinol binding protein and Cystatin Cof the experimental group (P 0.05),and the positive rate of the retinol binding protein of the experimental group was more than 85.00%.The Kappa of the retinol binding protein results and the clinical diagnosis was 0.86.Conclusion There is a good indicators of the retinol binding protein whcih as the Cystatin C for the early kidney injury of the Preg-nancy-induced hypertension syndrome diagnosis,and which has high sensitivity and clinical compliance.

  7. Analysis of the correlation between obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syn-drome and cerebral infarction combined with cerebral hemorrhage%阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征与脑梗死并发脑出血的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OSAHS)与脑梗死并发脑出血的相关性。方法选取本院2012年1月~2014年1月收治的合并OSAHS的脑梗死并发脑出血患者40例为观察组,另选取本院同一时间收治的未合并OSAHS的脑梗死并发脑出血患者40例为对照组,对两组患者发病后的相关临床指标以及昏迷程度和预后等情况进行比较。结果观察组发病后的MAP、SaO2、LDL-C、HCT和Fg指标均差于对照组,昏迷状况严重于对照组,预后情况差于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组患者发病后的MAP、SaO2、LDL-C、HCT和Fg存在明显相关性,且均呈正相关。结论合并OSAHS的脑梗死患者更易并发脑出血,且一旦发生脑出血昏迷状况严重,预后较差。%Objective To explore the correlation between obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and cerebral infarction complicated with cerebral hemorrhage. Methods 40 patients with cerebral infarction conbined with cerebral hemorrhage and OSAHS in our hospital from January 2012 to January 2014 were selected as observation group.Another 40 patients with cerebral infarction combined and cerebral hemorrhage yet without OSAHS in our hospi-tal during the same period of time were selected as control group.Related clinical indices from the onset of the disease, degree of coma and prognosis between the two groups was compared respectively. Results MAP,SaO2,LDL-C,HCT and Fg in the observation group was worse than that in the control group respectively,the degree of coma was more severe than that in the control group,and the prognosis was worse than that in the control group,with statistical difference (P<0.05).Correlation of MAP,SaO2,LDL-C,HCT and Fg in the two groups were significant,and the correlations were positive. Conclusion Patients with cerebral infarction complicated with OSAHS tend to have cerebral hemorrhage easily,once it occurs,may lead to severe coma and poor prognosis.

  8. Clinical effect observation of three periods of traditional Chinese medicine therapy in the treatment of infertility resulted from polycystic ovary syn-drome%中药三期疗法治疗多囊卵巢综合征性不孕症的临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳珠; 王颖; 刘异香


    Objective To explore the clinical effect of three periods of traditional Chinese medicine therapy in the treatment of infertility resulted from polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods 168 outpatient of polycystic ovary syndrome patients from April 2012 to April 2014 in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into the control group and the observation group,84 patients in each group.The control group was given traditional Diana-35 to stimulate ovula-tion,the observation group was given further three periods of traditional Chinese medicine therapy on the basis of the-control group.Clinical therapy effect,ovulation rate and pregnant rate in two groups was compared. Results The total ef-fective rate of the observation group was higher than that of the control group,with significant difference (P<0.05).The improvement of clinical symptoms in the observation group was better than that in the control group,with significant dif-ference (P<0.05).The ovulation rate,pregnancy rate,the rate of menstrual recovery,the regression rate of the crinosity and acne in the observation group was higher than that in the control group,with significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion The effect of three periods of traditional Chinese medicine therapy in the treatment of infertility resulted from polycystic ovary syndrome is significant,it is worthy of popularize and application.%目的:探讨中药三期疗法治疗多囊卵巢综合征性不孕症的临床效果。方法选取2012年4月~2014年4月在本院门诊治疗的168例多囊卵巢综合征患者作为研究对象,随机分为观察组和对照组,各84例。对照组给予传统的达英-35加促排卵治疗,观察组在对照组的基础上给予中药三期疗法,比较两组的临床治疗效果、排卵率及受孕率。结果观察组的总有效率显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组的临床症状改善情况显著优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组的排卵率、受孕率、月经恢复率及多毛和痤疮消退率显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论中药三期疗法治疗多囊卵巢综合征性不孕症效果显著,值得临床推广应用。

  9. Phantom spiders 2: More notes on dubious spider species from Europe

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    Breitling, Rainer


    Full Text Available A surprisingly large number of European spider species have never been reliably rediscovered since their first description many decades ago. Most of these are probably synonymous with other species or unidentifiable, due to insufficient descriptions or missing type material. In this second part of a series on this topic, we discuss about 100 of these cases, focusing mainly on species described in the early 20th century by Pelegrín Franganillo Balboa and Gabor von Kolosváry, as well as a number of jumping spiders and various miscellaneous species. In most cases, the species turned out to be unidentifiable nomina dubia, but for some of them new synonymies could be established as follows: Alopecosa accentuata auct., nec (Latreille, 1817 = Alopecosa farinosa (Herman, 1879 syn. nov., comb. nov.; Alopecosa barbipes oreophila Simon, 1937 = Alopecosa farinosa (Herman, 1879 syn. nov., comb. nov.; Alopecosa mariae orientalis (Kolosváry, 1934 = Alopecosa mariae (Dahl, 1908 syn. nov.; Araneus angulatus afolius (Franganillo, 1909 and Araneus angulatus atricolor Simon, 1929 = Araneus angulatus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus angulatus castaneus (Franganillo, 1909 = Araneus pallidus (Olivier, 1789 syn. nov.; Araneus angulatus levifolius (Franganillo, 1909, Araneus angulatus niger (Franganillo, 1918 and Araneus angulatus nitidifolius (Franganillo, 1909 = Araneus angulatus Clerck 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus angulatus pallidus (Franganillo, 1909, Araneus angulatus crucinceptus (Franganillo, 1909, Araneus angulatus fuscus (Franganillo, 1909 and Araneus angulatus iberoi (Franganillo, 1909 = Araneus pallidus (Olivier, 1789 syn. nov.; Araneus circe strandi (Kolosváry, 1935 = Araneus circe (Audouin, 1826 syn. nov.; Araneus diadematus nemorosus Simon, 1929 and Araneus diadematus soror (Simon, 1874 = Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus pyrenaeus (Simon, 1874 = Araneus pallidus (Olivier, 1789 syn. nov.; Araneus sericinus (Roewer, 1942 = Aculepeira armida

  10. Binding of the radioligand SIL23 to α-synuclein fibrils in Parkinson disease brain tissue establishes feasibility and screening approaches for developing a Parkinson disease imaging agent. (United States)

    Bagchi, Devika P; Yu, Lihai; Perlmutter, Joel S; Xu, Jinbin; Mach, Robert H; Tu, Zhude; Kotzbauer, Paul T


    Accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) fibrils in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites is the pathological hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD). Ligands that bind α-syn fibrils could be utilized as imaging agents to improve the diagnosis of PD and to monitor disease progression. However, ligands for α-syn fibrils in PD brain tissue have not been previously identified and the feasibility of quantifying α-syn fibrils in brain tissue is unknown. We report the identification of the (125)I-labeled α-syn radioligand SIL23. [(125)I]SIL23 binds α-syn fibrils in postmortem brain tissue from PD patients as well as an α-syn transgenic mouse model for PD. The density of SIL23 binding sites correlates with the level of fibrillar α-syn in PD brain tissue, and [(125)I]SIL23 binding site densities in brain tissue are sufficiently high to enable in vivo imaging with high affinity ligands. These results identify a SIL23 binding site on α-syn fibrils that is a feasible target for development of an α-syn imaging agent. The affinity of SIL23 for α-syn and its selectivity for α-syn versus Aβ and tau fibrils is not optimal for imaging fibrillar α-syn in vivo, but we show that SIL23 competitive binding assays can be used to screen additional ligands for suitable affinity and selectivity, which will accelerate the development of an α-syn imaging agent for PD.

  11. Binding of the radioligand SIL23 to α-synuclein fibrils in Parkinson disease brain tissue establishes feasibility and screening approaches for developing a Parkinson disease imaging agent.

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    Devika P Bagchi

    Full Text Available Accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn fibrils in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites is the pathological hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD. Ligands that bind α-syn fibrils could be utilized as imaging agents to improve the diagnosis of PD and to monitor disease progression. However, ligands for α-syn fibrils in PD brain tissue have not been previously identified and the feasibility of quantifying α-syn fibrils in brain tissue is unknown. We report the identification of the (125I-labeled α-syn radioligand SIL23. [(125I]SIL23 binds α-syn fibrils in postmortem brain tissue from PD patients as well as an α-syn transgenic mouse model for PD. The density of SIL23 binding sites correlates with the level of fibrillar α-syn in PD brain tissue, and [(125I]SIL23 binding site densities in brain tissue are sufficiently high to enable in vivo imaging with high affinity ligands. These results identify a SIL23 binding site on α-syn fibrils that is a feasible target for development of an α-syn imaging agent. The affinity of SIL23 for α-syn and its selectivity for α-syn versus Aβ and tau fibrils is not optimal for imaging fibrillar α-syn in vivo, but we show that SIL23 competitive binding assays can be used to screen additional ligands for suitable affinity and selectivity, which will accelerate the development of an α-syn imaging agent for PD.

  12. The chaperone-like activity of α-synuclein attenuates aggregation of its alternatively spliced isoform, 112-synuclein in vitro: plausible cross-talk between isoforms in protein aggregation. (United States)

    Manda, Krishna Madhuri; Yedlapudi, Deepthi; Korukonda, Srikanth; Bojja, Sreedhar; Kalivendi, Shasi V


    Abnormal oligomerization and aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn/WT-syn) has been shown to be a precipitating factor in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Earlier observations on the induced-alternative splicing of α-syn by Parkinsonism mimetics as well as identification of region specific abnormalities in the transcript levels of 112-synuclein (112-syn) in diseased subjects underscores the role of 112-syn in the pathophysiology of PD. In the present study, we sought to identify the aggregation potential of 112-syn in the presence or absence of WT-syn to predict its plausible role in protein aggregation events. Results demonstrate that unlike WT-syn, lack of 28 aa in the C-terminus results in the loss of chaperone-like activity with a concomitant gain in vulnerability to heat-induced aggregation and time-dependent fibrillation. The effects were dose and time-dependent and a significant aggregation of 112-syn was evident at as low as 45 °C following 10 min of incubation. The heat-induced aggregates were found to be ill-defined structures and weakly positive towards Thioflavin-T (ThT) staining as compared to clearly distinguishable ThT positive extended fibrils resulting upon 24 h of incubation at 37 °C. Further, the chaperone-like activity of WT-syn significantly attenuated heat-induced aggregation of 112-syn in a dose and time-dependent manner. On contrary, WT-syn synergistically enhanced fibrillation of 112-syn. Overall, the present findings highlight a plausible cross-talk between isoforms of α-syn and the relative abundance of these isoforms may dictate the nature and fate of protein aggregates.

  13. Syntaxin-3 Binds and Regulates Both R- and L-Type Calcium Channels in Insulin-Secreting INS-1 832/13 Cells.

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    Li Xie

    Full Text Available Syntaxin (Syn-1A mediates exocytosis of predocked insulin-containing secretory granules (SGs during first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS in part via its interaction with plasma membrane (PM-bound L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav. In contrast, Syn-3 mediates exocytosis of newcomer SGs that accounts for second-phase GSIS. We now hypothesize that the newcomer SG Syn-3 preferentially binds and modulates R-type Cav opening, which was postulated to mediate second-phase GSIS. Indeed, glucose-stimulation of pancreatic islet β-cell line INS-1 induced a predominant increase in interaction between Syn-3 and Cavα1 pore-forming subunits of R-type Cav2.3 and to lesser extent L-type Cavs, while confirming the preferential interactions between Syn-1A with L-type (Cav1.2, Cav1.3 Cavs. Consistently, direct binding studies employing heterologous HEK cells confirmed that Syn-3 preferentially binds Cav2.3, whereas Syn-1A prefers L-type Cavs. We then used siRNA knockdown (KD of Syn-3 in INS-1 to study the endogenous modulatory actions of Syn-3 on Cav channels. Syn-3 KD enhanced Ca2+ currents by 46% attributed mostly to R- and L-type Cavs. Interestingly, while the transmembrane domain of Syn-1A is the putative functional domain modulating Cav activity, it is the cytoplasmic domain of Syn-3 that appears to modulate Cav activity. We conclude that Syn-3 may mimic Syn-1A in the ability to bind and modulate Cavs, but preferring Cav2.3 to perhaps participate in triggering fusion of newcomer insulin SGs during second-phase GSIS.

  14. The More the Merrier?. Entropy and Statistics of Asexual Reproduction in Freshwater Planarians (United States)

    Quinodoz, Sofia; Thomas, Michael A.; Dunkel, Jörn; Schötz, Eva-Maria


    The trade-off between traits in life-history strategies has been widely studied for sexual and parthenogenetic organisms, but relatively little is known about the reproduction strategies of asexual animals. Here, we investigate clonal reproduction in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, an important model organism for regeneration and stem cell research. We find that these flatworms adopt a randomized reproduction strategy that comprises both asymmetric binary fission and fragmentation (generation of multiple offspring during a reproduction cycle). Fragmentation in planarians has primarily been regarded as an abnormal behavior in the past; using a large-scale experimental approach, we now show that about one third of the reproduction events in S. mediterranea are fragmentations, implying that fragmentation is part of their normal reproductive behavior. Our analysis further suggests that certain characteristic aspects of the reproduction statistics can be explained in terms of a maximum relative entropy principle.

  15. Large-Scale Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Restoration in Chesapeake Bay: Status Report, 2003-2006 (United States)


    marina), (2) wild celery (V. americana), (3) sago pondweed (S. pectinata), and (4) redhead grass (P. perfoliatus). Molecular and cultivation...depth and density on germination and development of Zostera marina L. seeds. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 7(3):55–58. Granger, S., M. Traber, S. W...sago pondweed (S. pectinata), and redhead grass (P. perfoliatus) collected from different regions of the Chesapeake Bay. Molecular and cultivation

  16. A functional genomics screen identifies an Importin-α homolog as a regulator of stem cell function and tissue patterning during planarian regeneration



    Background Planarians are renowned for their regenerative capacity and are an attractive model for the study of adult stem cells and tissue regeneration. In an effort to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying planarian regeneration, we performed a functional genomics screen aimed at identifying genes involved in this process in Schmidtea mediterranea. Methods We used microarrays to detect changes in gene expression in regenerating and non-regenerating tissues in planarians rege...

  17. Polychaeta (Annelida from Muros de Nalón (Asturias, Cantabrian Sea, with three new records for the coast of Asturias

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    Diego Cepeda, Patricia Lattig


    Full Text Available The benthic Polychaete fauna associated with shallow water macroalgae assemblages from an Asturian littoral beach (northern Spain, central Cantabrian Sea was studied. Twenty-six species are recorded, including the first records for Myrianida brachycephala and Nudisyllis pulligera for the Asturian coasts and Nerilla mediterranea for the Cantabrian Sea. Relevant taxonomic and ecological remarks are also provided for some of the collected species.

  18. Contrasting biological features in morphologically cryptic Mediterranean sponges

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    Leire Garate


    Full Text Available Sponges are key organisms in the marine benthos where they play essential roles in ecological processes such as creating new niches, competition for resources, and organic matter recycling. Despite the increasing number of taxonomical studies, many sponge species remain hidden, whether unnoticed or cryptic. The occurrence of cryptic species may confound ecological studies by underestimating biodiversity. In this study, we monitored photographically growth, fusions, fissions, and survival of two morphologically cryptic species Hemimycale mediterranea Uriz, Garate & Agell, 2017 and H. columella (Bowerbank, 1874. Additionally, we characterized the main environmental factors of the corresponding species habitats, trying to ascertain whether some abiotic factors were correlated with the distribution of these species. Sponge monitoring was performed monthly. Seawater samples were collected the same monitoring days in the vicinity of the target sponges. Results showed contrasting growth and survival patterns for each species: H. mediterranea totally disappeared after larval release while 64% of individuals of H. columella survived the entire two years we monitored. The species also differed in the number of fissions and fusions. These events were evenly distributed throughout the year in the H. mediterranea population but concentrated in cold months in H. columella. No measured environmental factor correlated with H. mediterranea growth rates, while temperature and dissolved organic nitrogen were negatively correlated with H. columella growth rates. The strong differences in depth distribution, survival, growth, fusions, and fissions found between these two cryptic species, highlights the importance of untangling cryptic species before ecological studies are performed in particular when these species share geographical distribution.

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05595-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available binding ... 41 0.053 BC048405_1( BC048405 |pid:none) Mus musculus bruno-like 4, ...-3-like factor 3-B; ... 41 0.069 AF515450_1( AF515450 |pid:none) Mus musculus Schmidtea mediterranea bruno-like ... 40 0.15 BC014533_1( BC014533 |pid:none) Homo sapiens myelin

  20. I Giochi del Mediterraneo. Uno strumento per una possibile integrazione sociale e culturale?

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    Gian Luigi Corinto


    Full Text Available Uno spazio geopolitico importante per le relazioni estere dell'Italia è senza dubbio ilMediterraneo (de Leonardis 2003, anche se la contrapposizione tra vocazioneeuropea e mediterranea, europeismo e mediterraneismo, è una costante della politicaestera italiana (Varsori 2003. Tale situazione duale deriva non soltanto dalla posizionegeografica ma anche dal fatto che l'area mediterranea è stata instabile e carica ditensione fino al secondo dopoguerra e lo è rimasta dalla fine del mondo bipolare(Colombo 2003. Il Sud si è trasformato nel luogo principe di improbabili e imminentisfide alla sicurezza del dopo Guerra fredda, così come di instabilità politica e di conflittilocali causati da movimenti estremisti sorti nei paesi delle sponde orientale emeridionale (Pizzigallo 2010. Il Mediterraneo è anche una sorta di zona franca, un antimondoche gioca ruoli complessi e spesso deregolati nel contesto globale (Farinelli2007.Uno spazio geopolitico importante per le re