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Sample records for biscayne bay

  1. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started...

  2. Biscayne Bay Florida Bottlenose Dolphin Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of small vessel based studies of bottlenose dolphins that reside within Biscayne Bay, Florida, adjacent estuaries and...

  3. The American Crocodile in Biscayne Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkiss, Michael S.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Intensive crocodile monitoring programs conducted during the late 1970s and early 1980s in southern Florida resulted in an optimistic outlook for recovery of the protected species population. However, some areas with suitable crocodile habitat were not investigated, such as Biscayne Bay and the mainland shorelines of Barnes and Card Sounds. The objective of our study was to determine status and habitat use of crocodiles in the aforementioned areas. Spotlight and nesting surveys were conducted from September 1996 to December 2005. The results revealed annual increases in the number of crocodiles. Crocodiles preferred protected habitats such as canals and ponds. Fewer crocodiles were observed in higher salinity water. The distribution and abundance of crocodilians in estuaries is directly dependent on timing, amount, and location of freshwater delivery, providing an opportunity to integrate habitat enhancement with ongoing ecosystem restoration and management activities.

  4. Multidisciplinary Investigations of Submarine Flow to Biscayne Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, R. B.; Reich, C. D.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Langevin, C. D.

    2005-05-01

    Biscayne Bay and Biscayne National Park (BNP) are located next to the Miami-Dade urban complex and are adjacent to the Dade County South Dade Landfill Facility and the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer South District Plant. The base of the landfill is lined to separate it from the underlying Miami Limestone, the host rock for the surficial Biscayne Aquifer. The sewage-treatment facility injects treated sewage into the lower Florida Aquifer (750 m) that is overlain by an aquitard termed the Middle Confining Unit (450 m). The Biscayne Aquifer (up to 50 m thick) borders the western margin of BNP, and the Floridan Aquifer underlies the entire park. There is concern about leakage of contaminated aquifer water into BNP and its potential effects on water quality. Groundwater flux to Biscayne Bay is being studied using pressure measurements and geochemical analyses from submarine wells, electromagnetic seepage meters, streaming resistivity profiling, and local and regional model simulations. Both seepage meters and water analyses provide point information that can be placed into the regional context provided by flow models and geochemical and geophysical profiling, which, in turn, constrain the groundwater contribution. Water samples were collected approximately quarterly from August 2002 until March 2004 from submarine wells along a transect through Biscayne Bay and across the reef to the shelf edge. Samples were analyzed for conductivity (salinity), dissolved oxygen, temperature, redox potential, nutrients, metals, strontium isotopes, radon, sulfate, and wastewater compounds. Low-salinity water was identified from nearshore wells and indicates seepage from the Biscayne Aquifer and/or surface-water intrusion into the rocks along western Biscayne Bay. Analyses of water samples (n = 109) collected from wells across the Florida shelf show no consistent evidence of wastewater contaminants occurring in groundwater beneath BNP. No significant leakage from the Floridan Aquifer

  5. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Biscayne Bay, Florida (1995-1996) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The toxicity of sediments in Biscayne Bay and many adjoining tributaries was determined as part of a bioeffects assessments program managed by NOAA's National...

  6. Impact of the commercial fishery on the population of bait shrimp (Penaeus spp.) in Biscayne Bay, 1986

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, W. L.; Berkeley, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Monthly population size of bait shrimp in the Bay was estimated from December 1984 to July 1985. Growth rates for male and female P. duorarum showed that pink shrimp exhibit a mean residence time in the nursery area (Biscayne Bay) of approximately 21 weeks. Monthly mortality rates were determined for each sex of pink shrimp. It was estimated that 23% and 26% of the male and female monthly population size, respectively, was absorbed by both the fishery and ecosystem monthly. Monthly prop...

  7. Biscayne Bay, FL (S200) Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model(30 meter resolution) Derived From Source Hydrographic SurveySoundings Collected by NOAA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry for Biscayne Bay was derived from twelve surveys containing149,227 soundings. The overlap from three older, less accurate surveys wasomitted before...

  8. Climate variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age based on ostracod faunas and shell geochemistry from Biscayne Bay, Florida: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; Wingard, Georgiana L.; Dwyer, Gary S.; Swart, Peter K.; Willard, Debra A.; Albietz, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    An 800-year-long environmental history of Biscayne Bay, Florida, is reconstructed from ostracod faunal and shell geochemical (oxygen, carbon isotopes, Mg/Ca ratios) studies of sediment cores from three mudbanks in the central and southern parts of the bay. Using calibrations derived from analyses of modern Biscayne and Florida Bay ostracods, palaeosalinity oscillations associated with changes in precipitation were identified. These oscillations reflect multidecadal- and centennial-scale climate variability associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation during the late Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). Evidence suggests wetter regional climate during the MCA and drier conditions during the LIA. In addition, twentieth century anthropogenic modifications to Everglades hydrology influenced bay circulation and/or processes controlling carbon isotopic composition.

  9. Impact of Late Holocene climate variability and anthropogenic activities on Biscayne Bay (Florida, U.S.A.): evidence from diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachnicka, Anna; Gaiser, Evelyn; Wingard, Lynn; Briceño, Henry; Harlem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Shallow marine ecosystems are experiencing significant environmental alterations as a result of changing climate and increasing human activities along coasts. Intensive urbanization of the southeast Florida coast and intensification of climate change over the last few centuries changed the character of coastal ecosystems in the semi-enclosed Biscayne Bay, Florida. In order to develop management policies for the Bay, it is vital to obtain reliable scientific evidence of past ecological conditions. The long-term records of subfossil diatoms obtained from No Name Bank and Featherbed Bank in the Central Biscayne Bay, and from the Card Sound Bank in the neighboring Card Sound, were used to study the magnitude of the environmental change caused by climate variability and water management over the last ~ 600 yr. Analyses of these records revealed that the major shifts in the diatom assemblage structures at No Name Bank occurred in 1956, at Featherbed Bank in 1966, and at Card Sound Bank in 1957. Smaller magnitude shifts were also recorded at Featherbed Bank in 1893, 1942, 1974 and 1983. Most of these changes coincided with severe drought periods that developed during the cold phases of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), or when AMO was in warm phase and PDO was in the cold phase. Only the 1983 change coincided with an unusually wet period that developed during the warm phases of ENSO and PDO. Quantitative reconstructions of salinity using the weighted averaging partial least squares (WA-PLS) diatom-based salinity model revealed a gradual increase in salinity at the three coring locations over the last ~ 600 yr, which was primarily caused by continuously rising sea level and in the last several decades also by the reduction of the amount of freshwater inflow from the mainland. Concentration of sediment total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and total organic carbon (TOC) increased in the

  10. Predicting spatial and temporal distribution of Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) in Biscayne Bay through habitat suitability modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Nicholas A.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Sullivan Sealey, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may exhibit higher levels of growth and reproduction when environmental conditions are most suitable, and thus their effects on native fauna may be intensified. Understanding potential impacts of these species, especially in the nascent stages of a biological invasion, requires critical information concerning spatial and temporal distributions of habitat suitability. Using empirically supported environmental variables (e.g., temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, rugosity, and benthic substrate), our models predicted habitat suitability for the invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans) in Biscayne Bay, Florida. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a platform for the modeling process allowed us to quantify correlations between temporal (seasonal) fluctuations in the above variables and the spatial distribution of five discrete habitat quality classes, whose ranges are supported by statistical deviations from the apparent best conditions described in prior studies. Analysis of the resulting models revealed little fluctuation in spatial extent of the five habitat classes on a monthly basis. Class 5, which represented the area with environmental variables closest to the best conditions for lionfish, occupied approximately one-third of Biscayne Bay, with subsequent habitats declining in area. A key finding from this study was that habitat suitability increased eastward from the coastline, where higher quality habitats were adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean and displayed marine levels of ambient water quality. Corroboration of the models with sightings from the USGS-NAS database appeared to support our findings by nesting 79 % of values within habitat class 5; however, field testing (i.e., lionfish surveys) is necessary to confirm the relationship between habitat classes and lionfish distribution.

  11. Evaluation of effects of changes in canal management and precipitation patterns on salinity in Biscayne Bay, Florida, using an integrated surface-water/groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Melinda A.; Swain, Eric D.; Wang, John D.; Dixon, Joann

    2012-01-01

    Biscayne National Park, located in Biscayne Bay in southeast Florida, is one of the largest marine parks in the country and sustains a large natural marine fishery where numerous threatened and endangered species reproduce. In recent years, the bay has experienced hypersaline conditions (salinity greater than 35 practical salinity units) of increasing magnitude and duration. Hypersalinity events were particularly pronounced during April to August 2004 in nearshore areas along the southern and middle parts of the bay. Prolonged hypersaline conditions can cause degradation of water quality and permanent damage to, or loss of, brackish nursery habitats for multiple species of fish and crustaceans as well as damage to certain types of seagrasses that are not tolerant of extreme changes in salinity. To evaluate the factors that contribute to hypersalinity events and to test the effects of possible changes in precipitation patterns and canal flows into Biscayne Bay on salinity in the bay, the U.S. Geological Survey constructed a coupled surface-water/groundwater numerical flow model. The model is designed to account for freshwater flows into Biscayne Bay through the canal system, leakage of salty bay water into the underlying Biscayne aquifer, discharge of fresh and salty groundwater from the Biscayne aquifer into the bay, direct effects of precipitation on bay salinity, indirect effects of precipitation on recharge to the Biscayne aquifer, direct effects of evapotranspiration (ET) on bay salinity, indirect effects of ET on recharge to the Biscayne aquifer, and maintenance of mass balance of both water and solute. The model was constructed using the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density Dependent System (FTLOADDS) simulator, version 3.3, which couples the two-dimensional, surface-water flow and solute-transport simulator SWIFT2D with the density-dependent, groundwater flow an solute-transport simulator SEAWAT. The model was calibrated by a trial

  12. Multiple technologies applied to characterization of the porosity and permeability of the Biscayne aquifer, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, K.J.; Sukop, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Research is needed to determine how seepage-control actions planned by the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) will affect recharge, groundwater flow, and discharge within the dual-porosity karstic Biscayne aquifer where it extends eastward from the Everglades to Biscayne Bay. A key issue is whether the plan can be accomplished without causing urban flooding in adjacent populated areas and diminishing coastal freshwater flow needed in the restoration of the ecologic systems. Predictive simulation of groundwater flow is a prudent approach to understanding hydrologic change and potential ecologic impacts. A fundamental problem to simulation of karst groundwater flow is how best to represent aquifer heterogeneity. Currently, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers and academic partners are applying multiple innovative technologies to characterize the spatial distribution of porosity and permeability within the Biscayne aquifer.

  13. Biscayne Bay Dolphin Photo ID System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — It has been shown through a variety of photo-identification studies that populations of bottlenose dolphin inhabit the various embayments along the coast of...

  14. Leachate migration from a solid waste disposal facility near Biscayne National Park, South Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leachate from the Dade County Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) is migrating to the east (seaward) and to the south from the currently active disposal cell. Water levels and ground-water flow directions are strongly influenced by water-management practices, especially in the Black Creek Canal and structure S-21 to the north of the SWDF. Ground-water flow is initially to the south, from Black Creek Canal, and then to the east through the disposal area. The SWDF is constructed over the salt-intruded part of the highly transmissive Biscayne aquifer and because of this, chloride ion concentrations and specific conductance levels could not be used as indicators of leachate concentrations. Water-quality indicators used to identify leachate migration were primarily ammonium, organic nitrogen, phenols, and chemical oxygen demand with cadmium, chromium, and lead used as auxiliary indicator constituents. Leachate was detected in multi-depth wells located 75 meters to the south and 20 meters to the east of the active cell. Concentrations of water-quality indicators had mean concentrations generally 2 to 10 times higher than baseline conditions. Leachate was not detected in any of the other ground-water, canal water, or Biscayne Bay sampling sites. Primary controls over leachate movement in the SWDF are water-management practices in the Black Creek and Gould Canals, configuration and integrity of the liner beneath the active cell, and low hydraulic gradients in the landfill area

  15. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  16. 76 FR 24050 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... National Park Service Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement... Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Biscayne National... Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan (Plan/FEIS) for Biscayne National Park, Florida....

  17. 75 FR 21650 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... National Park Service Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement... Availability of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan... Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan for Biscayne National Park,...

  18. Biscayne National Park study on reef fish community changes over time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reef fish assemblage structure was assessed in 20062007 (recent period) in Biscayne National Park, Florida, USA , and compared with data collected from 1977 to 1981...

  19. H10493: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Biscayne Bay, Florida, 1993-09-20

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  20. 76 FR 73996 - Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International..., Florida during the Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, a series of sailboat races. The Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta is scheduled to take place from Tuesday, December 27, 2011 through Friday,...

  1. The effect of freshwater canal discharge on the stability of two seagrass benthic communities in Biscayne National Park, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, I. M.

    1982-01-01

    A two-year study in western Biscayne National Park, Florida examined two benthic communities which were affected by pulse discharge of freshwater from drainage canals. One community, in a dense shoal-grass meadow (Halodule wrightii ), still had not returned to its initial structure after eighteen months following the first major freshwater inflow during the study. Invertebrate abundance never recovered its former levels, while dominance shifted from amphipods in the high abundance period to m...

  2. CORAL COMMUNITIES OF BISCAYNE BAY, FLORIDA AND ADJACENT OFFSHORE AREAS: DIVERSITY, ABUNDANCE, DISTRIBUTION, AND ENVIRONMENTAL CORRELATES. (R827453)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Electromagnetic methods for rapidly characterizing porosity distributions in the upper part of the Biscayne aquifer, southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, G. J.; Comas, X.; Cunningham, K. J.

    2010-12-01

    Gregory J. Mount1, Xavier Comas1, and Kevin J. Cunningham2 1Department of Geosciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida 33431 2U.S. Geological Survey, 3110 SW 9th Avenue, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33315 Although conventional hydrological techniques of aquifer characterization, which rely on data obtained from boreholes and wells can provide very valuable direct information about porosity, storativity and transmissivity, they are invasive and can often become time consuming and relatively expensive. Near-surface electromagnetic techniques, such as ground penetrating radar (GPR), provide indirect measurements of aquifer properties that complement traditional point measurements and provide a laterally continuous subsurface image in an efficient and cost effective manner with a minimal impact on the environment. We investigated the carbonate rocks of the uppermost part (3-5 meters) of the Biscayne aquifer in Everglades National Park to better understand the distribution of karst features that can create concentrated flow of groundwater, nutrients, and contaminants. As the Biscayne aquifer is the primary source of drinking water for millions of people in southern Palm Beach, Broward, and Miami-Dade counties, knowledge about these features could create a more complete understanding of a critical natural resource. These macroporous elements contribute to the overall storage, permeability, and transmissivity of the aquifer and for that reason, delineation of their distribution and areal extent should aid in the development of more accurate groundwater flow models. The macroporous elements create numerous hyperbolic diffractions in GPR common offset profiles, and these diffractions are used directly used to estimate two-dimensional (2D) models of electromagnetic (EM) wave velocity in the subsurface. Such models are further contrasted with one-dimensional (1D) velocity models using GPR common mid-point surveys at selected locations. In order to estimate

  4. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Ground Water Flow within Touching-Vug and Matrix Porosity in the Biscayne Aquifer of Southeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. J.; Cunningham, K. J.; Stephen, A.

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we use an innovative, non-invasive technology, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), to visualize the direction and magnitude of ground water flow in field samples of late Pleistocene limestone of the Biscayne aquifer. Specific goals of the first set of NMRI experiments are to map the advective velocity of water flowing at two rates of specific discharge (0.00025 and 0.00013 m/s) through a 10-cm diameter cylindrical, epoxy- resin model. The model interior accurately reproduces a well-connected maze of ichnologically influenced, centimeter-scale, touching-vug macroporosity common within preferred flow zones in parts of the Biscayne aquifer. A second set of NMRI experiments investigates the migration of freshwater into the matrix of permeable (gas minipermeameter mean 10-13.5 m2 on four samples) and porous (mean of 44% on four samples) peloid-oöid grainstone initially saturated with heavy-water (D2O). In the experiments on the physical model, we generate the velocity maps using phase-encoded, stimulated-echo imaging. In the experiments on the rock matrix, we visualize the progressive replacement of D2O in the rock matrix using sequential time-step images of NMRI signal strength. Results for the freshwater-D2O experiments reveal a substantial flux of freshwater into the matrix porosity with a simultaneous loss of D2O. Specifically, we measured rates (upward of 0.001 milliliters per hour per gram of sample (mL/hr-g) in static or non-flowing conditions, and perhaps as great as 0.07 mL/hr-g when freshwater continuously flows past a sample at velocities less than those found within stressed areas of the Biscayne aquifer. These experiments illustrate how freshwater and D2O, with different chemical properties, migrate within one type of matrix porosity found in the Biscayne aquifer. Furthermore, these experiments are a comparative exercise in the replacement of seawater by freshwater in the matrix of a coastal, karst aquifer, since D2O has a greater

  5. San Diego Bay Bibliography

    OpenAIRE

    Brueggeman, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The San Diego Bay Bibliography references the scientific & gray literature on the Bay up through 1994 and it is NOT current. Compiled from numerous resources (including Hubbs-Sea World Research Institute, Regional Water Quality Control Board, & local library catalogs), it is not comprehensive since so the Bay literature is elusive. In addition, there can be duplicate references varying in completeness. The San Diego Bay Bibliography is the outcome of discussion and networking within ...

  6. Multi-scale characterization of dissolution structures and porosity distribution in the upper part of the Biscayne aquifer using ground penetrating radar (GPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Gregory J.

    The karst Biscayne aquifer is characterized by a heterogeneous spatial arrangement of porosity, making hydrogeological characterization difficult. In this dissertation, I investigate the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR), for understanding the spatial distribution of porosity variability in the Miami Limestone presented as a compilation of studies where scale of measurement is progressively increased to account for varying dimensions of dissolution features. In Chapter 2, GPR in zero offset acquisition mode is used to investigate the 2-D distribution of porosity and dielectric permittivity in a block of Miami Limestone at the laboratory scale (improved resolution of porosity estimates can benefit water management efforts and transport modelling and help to better understand small scale relationships between ground water and surface water interactions.

  7. Lattice Boltzmann methods applied to large-scale three-dimensional virtual cores constructed from digital optical borehole images of the karst carbonate Biscayne aquifer in southeastern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukop, Michael C.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2014-11-01

    Digital optical borehole images at approximately 2 mm vertical resolution and borehole caliper data were used to create three-dimensional renderings of the distribution of (1) matrix porosity and (2) vuggy megaporosity for the karst carbonate Biscayne aquifer in southeastern Florida. The renderings based on the borehole data were used as input into Lattice Boltzmann methods to obtain intrinsic permeability estimates for this extremely transmissive aquifer, where traditional aquifer test methods may fail due to very small drawdowns and non-Darcian flow that can reduce apparent hydraulic conductivity. Variogram analysis of the borehole data suggests a nearly isotropic rock structure at lag lengths up to the nominal borehole diameter. A strong correlation between the diameter of the borehole and the presence of vuggy megaporosity in the data set led to a bias in the variogram where the computed horizontal spatial autocorrelation is strong at lag distances greater than the nominal borehole size. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of flow across a 0.4 × 0.4 × 17 m (2.72 m3 volume) parallel-walled column of rendered matrix and vuggy megaporosity indicates a high hydraulic conductivity of 53 m s-1. This value is similar to previous Lattice Boltzmann calculations of hydraulic conductivity in smaller limestone samples of the Biscayne aquifer. The development of simulation methods that reproduce dual-porosity systems with higher resolution and fidelity and that consider flow through horizontally longer renderings could provide improved estimates of the hydraulic conductivity and help to address questions about the importance of scale.

  8. Tampa Bay: Chapter N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Larry; Spear, Kathryn; Cross, Lindsay; Baumstark, René; Moyer, Ryan; Thatcher, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Tampa Bay is Florida’s largest open-water estuary and encompasses an area of approximately 1036 km2 (400 mi2) (Burgan and Engle, 2006; TBNEP, 2006). The Bay’s watershed drains 5,698 km2 (2,200 mi2) of land and includes freshwater from the Hillsborough River to the north east, the Alafia and Little Manatee rivers to the east, and the Manatee River to the south (Figure 1). Freshwater inflow also enters the bay from the Lake Tarpon Canal, from small tidal tributaries, and from watershed runoff. Outflow travels from the upper bay segments (Hillsborough Bay and Old Tampa Bay) into Middle and Lower Tampa Bay. Southwestern portions of the water shed flow through Boca Ciega Bay into the Intracoastal Waterway and through the Southwest Channel and Passage Key Inlet into the Gulf of Mexico. The average depth in most of Tampa Bay is only 3.4 m (11 ft); however, 129 km (80 mi) of shipping channels with a maximum depth of 13.1 m (43 ft) have been dredged over time and are regularly maintained. These channels help to support the three ports within the bay, as well as commercial and recreational boat traffic.

  9. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  10. Quality of ground water in the Biscayne Aquifer in Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties, Florida, 1996-1998, with emphasis on contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradner, Anne; McPherson, Benjamin F.; Miller, Ronald L.; Kish, George; Bernard, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The high permeability of the sand and limestone sediments and shallow water table of the Biscayne aquifer make ground water vulnerable to contamination by human activities. To assess potential contamination in the aquifer, untreated ground water was sampled from 30 public-supply wells (40-165 feet deep) in Broward, Miami-Dade, and Palm Beach Counties, 32 shallow wells (10-50 feet deep) in a recently urbanized (residential and light commercial) part of Broward County, and 3 shallow reference wells in Broward County. Results from sample analyses indicate that major ions, pH, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and trace element concentrations were generally within the range indicative of background concentrations, except for: (1) substantially higher bromide concentrations in water from public-supply wells in southern Miami-Dade County; (2) a few relatively high (greater than 2 milligrams per liter) concentrations of nitrate in water from public-supply wells near agricultural lands in Miami-Dade and southern Broward Counties; and (3) a few relatively high concentrations of arsenic (greater than 10 micrograms per liter) in water from some shallow urban wells near golf courses. Pesticides were detected in every public-supply well, in most of the shallow, urban monitoring wells (78 percent), and in one reference well; however, no pesticide concentration exceeded any drinking-water standard. Fifteen different pesticides or their degradation products were detected. The most frequently detected pesticides were atrazine and tebuthiuron; less frequently detected were the herbicides diuron, fenuron, prometon, metolachlor, simazine, and 2,6-diethylaniline. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in most of the public-supply wells (77 percent) and shallow, urban wells (91 percent) and in two of the three reference wells. Thirty-two different VOCs were detected in ground water in the Biscayne aquifer, with cis-1,2-dichloroethene the most frequently detected VOC in the public

  11. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to...

  12. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  13. Logy Bay Fishing Settlement

    OpenAIRE

    S H Parsons and Sons

    2003-01-01

    202 x 151 mm. Showing the small inlet with moored rowing boats and rough wooden shacks built on the cliffside. Lying about seven miles from St. John's, Logy Bay was used as a summertime fishing station.

  14. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  15. The Fermi's Bayes Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostini, G

    2005-01-01

    It is curious to learn that Enrico Fermi knew how to base probabilistic inference on Bayes theorem, and that some influential notes on statistics for physicists stem from what the author calls elsewhere, but never in these notes, {\\it the Bayes Theorem of Fermi}. The fact is curious because the large majority of living physicists, educated in the second half of last century -- a kind of middle age in the statistical reasoning -- never heard of Bayes theorem during their studies, though they have been constantly using an intuitive reasoning quite Bayesian in spirit. This paper is based on recollections and notes by Jay Orear and on Gauss' ``Theoria motus corporum coelestium'', being the {\\it Princeps mathematicorum} remembered by Orear as source of Fermi's Bayesian reasoning.

  16. Humic Substances from Manila Bay and Bolinao Bay Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Elma Llaguno

    1997-01-01

    The C,H,N composition of sedimentary humic acids (HA) extracted from three sites in Manila Bay and six sites in Bolinao Bay yielded H/C atomic ratios of 1.1-1.4 and N/C atomic ratios of 0.09 - 0.16. The Manila Bay HA's had lower H/C and N/C ratios compared to those from Bolinao Bay. The IR spectra showed prominent aliphatic C-H and amide I and II bands. Manila Bay HA's also had less diverse molecular composition based on the GC-MS analysis of the CuO and alkaline permanganate oxidation produc...

  17. Humic substances from Manila Bay and Bolinao Bay sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C, H, N composition of sedimentary humic acids (HA) extracted from three sites in Manila Bay and six sites in Bolinao Bay yielded H/C atomic ratios of 1.1-1.4 and N/C atomic ratios of 0.09-0.16. The Manila Bay HA's had lower H/C and C/C ratios compared to those from Bolinao Bay. The IR spectra showed prominent aliphatic C-H amide I and II bands. Manila Bay HA's also had less diverse molecular composition based on the GC-MS analysis of the CuO and alkaline permanganate oxidation products of the humic acids. (Author)

  18. Monterey Bay geoid

    OpenAIRE

    Boener, Joseph H.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution local geoid was calculated for the Monterey Bay, CA using local gravimetry data, digital elevation data and The Ohio State University OSU91A global geopotential model. The theoretical accuracy of the calculated local geoid is 3.5 cm or better over 5 km. Local gravity data came from three sources: 1,549 land observations from the Defense Mapping Agency, 179 bottom gravity observations from two Naval Postgraduate School gravity surveys of Monterey Bay and 17,098 National Geode...

  19. Yaquina Bay Topobathy DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S.EPA contracted with the U.S.ACE to obtain intertidal and subtidal bathymetric soundings of Yaquina Bay between Poole Slough and the South Beach Marina in 2002. These data were compiled with U.S.ACE subtidal soundings from 1999, 1998, 2000 and National Ocean Service soundi...

  20. Upper Newport Bay Restoration Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Halsch, Chris; Wessling, Jaenna; Lister, Anne; Beck, Emily; Zembel, Richard; Yurko, Matt; Kimball, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The overall goal of this restoration plan is to assist stakeholders in matching restoration projects with funding opportunities in order to increase the overall health of the Upper Newport Bay. Specifically, this document aims to assess current health and quality of native habitats in and around the bay, and to identify areas needing restoration. We have compiled data on the ecology of the bay, including extent of non-native plant invasion, restoration history and progress, site accessibility...

  1. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and... program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC... Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed in the States of...

  2. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  3. Humic Substances from Manila Bay and Bolinao Bay Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Llaguno

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The C,H,N composition of sedimentary humic acids (HA extracted from three sites in Manila Bay and six sites in Bolinao Bay yielded H/C atomic ratios of 1.1-1.4 and N/C atomic ratios of 0.09 - 0.16. The Manila Bay HA's had lower H/C and N/C ratios compared to those from Bolinao Bay. The IR spectra showed prominent aliphatic C-H and amide I and II bands. Manila Bay HA's also had less diverse molecular composition based on the GC-MS analysis of the CuO and alkaline permanganate oxidation products of the humic acids.

  4. Bayes Multiple Decision Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Wensong

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach for this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for the use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow in this paper a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through...

  5. Effects of two stormwater management methods on the quality of water in the upper Biscayne aquifer at two commercial areas in Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Irwin, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study is part of a continued effort to assess the effects of urban stormwater recharge on the water quality of the Biscayne aquifer in southeast Florida. In this report, the water-quality effects on shallow ground water resulting from stormwater disposal by exfiltration trench and grassy swale were investigated at two small commercial areas in Dade County, Florida. One study area (airport ) was located near the Miami International Airport and had a drainage area of about 10 acres overlying a sandy soil; the other study area ( free zone ) was located at the Miami International Free Trade Zone and had a drainage area of about 20 acres overlying limestone. The monitoring design for each study area consisted of seven sites and included water-quality sampling of the stormwater in the catch basin of the exfiltration trench, ground water from two wells 1 foot from the trench (trench wells), two wells 20 feet from the trench, and ground water from two wells at the swale from April 1985 through May 1986. Eleven water-quality variables (target variables) commonly found in high levels in urban stormwater runoff were used as tracers to estimate possible changes in ground-water quality that may have been caused by stormwater recharge. Comparison of the distribution of target variables indicated that the concentrations tended to be greater in the stormwater in the exfiltration trench than in water from the two wells 1 foot from the trench at both study areas. The concentration difference for several target variables was statistically significant at the 5-percent level. Lead, for example, had median concentrations of 23 and 4 micrograms per liter, respectively, in stormwater and water from the two trench wells at the airport study area, and 38 and 2 micrograms per liter, respectively, in stormwater and groundwater at the free zone. Similar reductions in concentrations between stormwater and water from the two trench wells were indicated for zinc at both study areas and also

  6. Island Bay Wilderness study area : Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  7. Lavaca Bay 1985-1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples were collected from October 15, 1985 through June 12, 1987 in emergent marsh and non-vegetated habitats throughout the Lavaca Bay system to characterize...

  8. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  9. Tsunami Inundation modeling for Tolaga Bay, Tokomaru Bay, Hicks Bay and Te Araroa communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Wang, X.; Power, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    We assess the tsunami hazard to four communities in Raukumara Peninsula (Northeastern region of North Island of New Zealand): Tokomaru Bay, Tolaga Bay, Hicks Bay and Te Araroa. Representative severe but realistic scenarios that could affect the Raukumara peninsula are earthquakes that rupture the interface between the Australian and Pacific plates, earthquakes that rupture faults within the overlying Australian plate or the subducting Pacific plate (location is not always well constrained). Earthquakes that rupture both the plate interface and simultaneously faults within the crust of the Australian plate are also a possibility. Tsunamis may also be caused by submarine landslides that occur near the edge of the continental shelf, but these are not considered here. For this study four scenario events were constructed, including a distant event from South America (offshore Peru), outer rise events and a thrust event in the Hikurangi region off the east coast of New Zealand. The sources are not exhaustive but representative of the types of significant events that could occur in the region and were either improved from earlier sources or derived from recent studies. Available high resolution LiDAR and RTK data were combined with topographic and LINZ data for the development of bathymetric/topographic grids. Our modelling results show that Tolaga Bay appears most vulnerable to tsunami inundation although Hicks Bay and Te Araroa are also significantly inundated in several of the scenarios. Tokomaru Bay is naturally well protected because the rapid change in elevation limits the range of inundation. The worst scenario for Tokomaru Bay was an earthquake in the Hikurangi subduction zone resulting in large flow depths, whereas for Tolaga Bay inundation is severe from most scenarios. Hicks Bay and Te Araroa get the most severe flooding from earthquakes in South America and on the Hikurangi subduction zone. Inundation extent is similar for Tolaga Bay during the Outer Rise and

  10. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  11. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  12. With Prudhoe Bay in decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost every day, it seems, someone is mentioning Prudhoe Bay---its development activities, the direction of its oil production, and more recently its decline rate. Almost as frequently, someone is mentioning the number of companies abandoning exploration in Alaska. The state faces a double-edged dilemma: decline of its most important oil field and a diminished effort to find a replacement for the lost production. ARCO has seen the Prudhoe Bay decline coming for some time and has been planning for it. We have reduced staff, and ARCO and BP Exploration are finding cost-effective ways to work more closely together through such vehicles as shared services. At the same time, ARCO is continuing its high level of Alaskan exploration. This article will assess the future of Prudhoe Bay from a technical perspective, review ARCO's exploration plans for Alaska, and suggest what the state can do to encourage other companies to invest in this crucial producing region and exploratory frontier

  13. Distribution and behavior of major and trace elements in Tokyo Bay, Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay marine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Teruyuki [Musashi Inst. of Technology, Atomic Energy Research Laboratory, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Kimura, Ken-ichiro [Musashi Inst. of Technology, Graduate School, Research Division in Engineering, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2003-06-01

    Fourteen major and trace elements in marine sediment core samples collected from the coasts along eastern Japan, i.e. Tokyo Bay (II) (the recess), Tokyo Bay (IV) (the mouth), Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay and the Northwest Pacific basin as a comparative subject were determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The sedimentation rates and sedimentary ages were calculated for the coastal sediment cores by the {sup 210}Pb method. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: (1) Lanthanoid abundance patterns suggested that the major origin of the sediments was terrigenous material. La*/Lu* and Ce*/La* ratios revealed that the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Mutsu Bay more directly reflected the contribution from river than those of other regions. In addition, the Th/Sc ratio indicated that the coastal sediments mainly originated in the materials from the volcanic island-arcs, Japanese islands, whereas those from the Northwest Pacific mainly from the continent. (2) The correlation between the Ce/U and Th/U ratios with high correlation coefficients of 0.920 to 0.991 indicated that all the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Funka Bay were in reducing conditions while at least the upper sediments from Tokyo Bay (IV) and Mutsu Bay were in oxidizing conditions. (3) It became quite obvious that the sedimentation mechanism and the sedimentation environment at Tokyo Bay (II) was different from those at Tokyo Bay (IV), since the sedimentation rate at Tokyo Bay (II) was approximately twice as large as that at Tokyo Bay (IV). The sedimentary age of the 5th layer (8{approx}10 cm in depth) from Funka Bay was calculated at approximately 1940{approx}50, which agreed with the time, 1943{approx}45 when Showa-shinzan was formed by the eruption of the Usu volcano. (author)

  14. Backscatter imagery in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1x1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The backscatter values are in relative 8-bit (0 –...

  15. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  16. Simulation of Pollutant Transport in Marmaris Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lale BALAS

    2001-01-01

    The circulation pattern and the pollutant transport in the Marmaris Bay are simulated by the developed three-dimensional baroclinic model. The Marmaris Bay is located at the Mediterranean Sea coast of Turkey. Since the sp ring tidal range is typically 20~30 cm, the dominant forcing for the circulation and water exchange is due to the wind action. In the Marmaris Bay, there is sea outfall discharging directly into the bay, and that threats the bay water quality significantly. The current patterns in the vicinity of the outfall have been observed by tracking drogues which are moved by currents at different water depths. In the simulations of pollutant transport, the coliforms-counts is used as the tracer.The model provides realistic predictions for the circulation and pollutant transport in the Marmaris Bay. The transport model component predictions well agree with the results of a laboratory model study.

  17. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen.

  18. Hydrodynamic numerical modelling of Maputo Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Canhanga, S.J.V.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to understand by using a numerical model, the main characteristics of the Maputo Bay hydrodynamics; and furthermore to assess the hydrodynamics implications on the different processes that can occur in the Bay. The study was initiated with a description of the hydrodynamical characteristics of Maputo Bay, through the analysis of vertical profiles of salinity and temperature, time series of the components of tide currents and water elevation. The wind intensity and ...

  19. 77 FR 70891 - Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay..., CA in support of the Bay Bridge Construction Safety Zone from November 1, 2012 through July 31, 2013...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of...

  20. Chesapeake Bay Program Water Quality Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chesapeake Information Management System (CIMS), designed in 1996, is an integrated, accessible information management system for the Chesapeake Bay Region....

  1. Quantum Annealing for Variational Bayes Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Issei; Kurihara, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shu; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents studies on a deterministic annealing algorithm based on quantum annealing for variational Bayes (QAVB) inference, which can be seen as an extension of the simulated annealing for variational Bayes (SAVB) inference. QAVB is as easy as SAVB to implement. Experiments revealed QAVB finds a better local optimum than SAVB in terms of the variational free energy in latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA).

  2. Safety culture development at Daya Bay NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From view on Organization Behavior theory, the concept, development and affecting factors of safety culture are introduced. The focuses are on the establishment, development and management practice for safety culture at Daya Bay NPP. A strong safety culture, also demonstrated, has contributed greatly to improving performance at Daya Bay

  3. Towards a sustainable future in Hudson Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, ca $40-50 billion has been invested in or committed to hydroelectric development on the rivers feeding Hudson Bay. In addition, billions more have been invested in land uses such as forestry and mining within the Hudson Bay drainage basin. However, there has never been a study of the possible impacts on Hudson Bay resulting from this activity. Neither has there been any federal environmental assessment on any of the economic developments that affect Hudson Bay. To fill this gap in knowledge, the Hudson Bay Program was established. The program will not conduct scientific field research but will rather scan the published literature and consult with leading experts in an effort to identify biophysical factors that are likely to be significantly affected by the cumulative influence of hydroelectric and other developments within and outside the region. An annotated bibliography on Hudson Bay has been completed and used to prepare a science overview paper, which will be circulated for comment, revised, and used as the basis for a workshop on cumulative effects in Hudson Bay. Papers will then be commissioned for a second workshop to be held in fall 1993. A unique feature of the program is its integration of traditional ecological knowledge among the Inuit and Cree communities around Hudson Bay with the scientific approach to cumulative impact assessment. One goal of the program is to help these communities bring forward their knowledge in such a way that it can be integrated into the cumulative effects assessment

  4. Guangdong Daya Bay nuclear power station project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station is the largest joint-venture project which is also the largest commercial nuclear power plant currently under construction in China mainland. Organized and executed strictly in accordance with international standards, the Daya Bay project is seen as the first step taken by China in the development programme of large-capacity commercial nuclear power units

  5. Anthropization in Montevideo Bay during the Holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the anthropogenic historic impacts in subtidal environments in Montevideo Bay. The studies carried out in the sediments enable to conclude that the increase of the industrial discharges (nutrients, heavy metals) are the cause of the chemical changes in the sediment of the Montevideo Bay

  6. Bayes Estimation of Queue Length

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnal, Pavel

    Praha : ÚTIA AV ČR, 2006 - ( And rýsek, J.), s. 1-8 [International PhD Workshop on Interplay of Societal and Technical Decision-Making, Young Generation Viewpoint /7./. Hrubá Skála (CZ), 25.09.2006-30.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR 1ET100750401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Bayes estimation * queue length * traffic flow * occupancy * intensity Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  7. Bayes reconstruction of missing teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporring, Jon; Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff

    2008-01-01

     We propose a method for restoring the surface of tooth crowns in a 3D model of a human denture, so that the pose and anatomical features of the tooth will work well for chewing. This is achieved by including information about the position and anatomy of the other teeth in the mouth. Our system...... contains two major parts: A statistical model of a selection of tooth shapes and a reconstruction of missing data. We use a training set consisting of 3D scans of dental cast models obtained with a laser scanner, and we have build a model of the shape variability of the teeth, their neighbors, and their...... regularization of the log-likelihood estimate based on differential geometrical properties of teeth surfaces, and we show general conditions under which this may be considered a Bayes prior.Finally we use Bayes method to propose the reconstruction of missing data, for e.g. finding the most probable shape of a...

  8. Radioactivity Levels in Kola Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment samples were collected in May 1995 from 16 locations in Kola Bay, North-west Russia, during an expedition starting from Murmansk and ending at Kildin Island in the Barents Sea. The purpose was to study the contamination level in an area with several potential sources of civilian and military radioactive pollution. 137Cs concentrations in the sediments, algae and benthic samples were low, but small particles containing 137Cs were separated from the sediment samples. All the sediments between the nuclear icebreaker base Atomflot and the open Barents Sea contained 60Co. Traces of 125Sb, 134Cs, 95Zr, 154Eu and 152Eu were also detected in some of the samples. Plutonium levels were low, but the increased 238Pu/239,240Pu ratio at Atomflot indicated a fresh release from the facility or from the waste storage vessels, Lepse and Imandra, lying in front of it. An increased 238Pu/239,240Pu ratio was also found in sediment collected in the outlet of Kola Bay in the Barents Sea. (author)

  9. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  10. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The... occurring within the active military security zone/s and offering navigational advice to ensure the...

  11. Persistent whole-bay red tide of Noctiluca scintillans in Manila Bay, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Furuya, Ken; Saito, Haruna; Rujinard, Sriwoon; Anil K. Vijayan; Omura, Takuo; Elsa E. Furio; Valeriano M. Borja; Sopana, Boonyapiwat; Thaithaworn, Lirdwitayaprasit

    2006-01-01

    Noctiluca scintillans, which contains a photosynthetic endosymbiont, Pedinomonas noctilucae, formed perennial red tides in Manila Bay, Philippines, occasionally covering almost whole area since 2001. A whole-bay scale red tide of the green Noctiluca in Manila Bay is described as the first step to elucidate the formation mechanism of the large scale blooming of the organism. A field survey was conducted in March 2004, when greenish discoloration due to N. scintillans was observed in the whole ...

  12. Holy grail at Baglan Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Jim

    1999-09-01

    The UK government's consent for the construction of a gas-fired power plant at Baglan Bay in South Wales is reported, and the growing popularity of economic combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plants and the resulting environmental improvements are noted . The combining of gas and steam turbines, design developments, and the UK moratorium on planning consents for gas fired power plants are discussed. General Electric's H System technology which will lower the amount of energy lost in the conversion of natural gas to electricity is described, and details of the ten most problematic CCGTs in the UK are given. The domination of the CCGT global market by four manufacturers, and the pressure on manufacturers to develop their designs are considered. (UK)

  13. Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Darren J

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, a Bayes linear methodology for the adjustment of covariance matrices is presented and discussed. A geometric framework for quantifying uncertainties about covariance matrices is set up, and an inner-product for spaces of random matrices is motivated and constructed. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability and related specifications to obtain representations allowing analysis. Adjustment is associated with orthogonal projection, and illustrated with examples of adjustments for some common problems. The problem of adjusting the covariance matrices underlying exchangeable random vectors is tackled and discussed. Learning about the covariance matrices associated with multivariate time series dynamic linear models is shown to be a...

  14. Holy grail at Baglan Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK government's consent for the construction of a gas-fired power plant at Baglan Bay in South Wales is reported, and the growing popularity of economic combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plants and the resulting environmental improvements are noted . The combining of gas and steam turbines, design developments, and the UK moratorium on planning consents for gas fired power plants are discussed. General Electric's H System technology which will lower the amount of energy lost in the conversion of natural gas to electricity is described, and details of the ten most problematic CCGTs in the UK are given. The domination of the CCGT global market by four manufacturers, and the pressure on manufacturers to develop their designs are considered. (UK)

  15. Pb distribution and translocation in Jiaozhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The trends of distribution, translocation and seasonal change of heavy metal Pb were studied based on the surface and bottom water sampling in Jiaozhou Bay in 1979, and compared with those in 1990's. The results showed that the source of Pb in the bay was from wastewater and sewage in the east of Jiaozhou Bay from ocean vessels. Pb concentration was higher in spring and lower in summer and autumn, and remained stable through sedimentation in the bottom layer. The overall water quality was good in 1970's. Compared with the environmental monitoring data of 1995-1999, Pb pollution had become serious. Therefore, more efforts should be made to protect the bay from Pb pollution.

  16. Corpus ChristiEast Matagorda Bay 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of habitat utilization were compared among transplanted and natural Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Halls Lake area of Chocolate Bay in the Galveston...

  17. Bathymetry--Offshore Half Moon Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore Half Moon Bay, California (raster data file is included in...

  18. Hydrogeomorphic Regions in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Generalized lithology (rock type) and physiography based on geologic formations were used to characterize hydrgeomorphic regions (HGMR) within the Chesapeake Bay...

  19. San Antonio Bay 1986-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effect of salinity on utilization of shallow-water nursery habitats by aquatic fauna was assessed in San Antonio Bay, Texas. Overall, 272 samples were collected...

  20. Mercury distribution in the Jiaozhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Jiaozhou Bay is a semi-enclosed bay, Qingdao, China. More than 10 rivers enter the bay, of which most take wastes from industrial and household discharges. According to historical seasonal investigations in May, August, November 1979, the content,distribution, and development of heavy metal mercury are analyzed as a historical reference. Water samples were taken from the surface and bottom. The results revealed clear seasonal and regional changes in both horizontal and vertical directions, and close relation with major discharging rivers and plankton production. The seawater was polluted more seriously in spring than in any other seasons.However, it was the cleanest in winter during which least waste was input with low plankton production. According to historical data,the state of mercury pollution in seawater was worsening in the period, and has been improving in recent years. Terrestrial contamination was the main reason for mercury pollution in the bay.

  1. Historical methyl mercury in San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — San Francisco Bay, California is considered a mercury-impaired watershed. Elevated concentrations of mercury are found in water and sediment as well as fish and...

  2. FL BAY SPECTROUT-POPULATION STATUS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  3. South Bay Salt Ponds : Initial stewardship plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will operate and maintain the South Bay Salt Ponds under this Initial Stewardship...

  4. Underwater Video Sites in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico were mapped and characterized using visual interpretation...

  5. Underwater Video Transects in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico were mapped and characterized using visual interpretation...

  6. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  7. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  8. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  9. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  10. 2004 Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the collection and processing of Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data over an area along the coast of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron,...

  11. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  12. Bay Scallop Spawning, Survival, Growth Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bay Scallops are selected and cultured according to criteria of growth and survival. Morphological attributes have also been selected to assess heretibility....

  13. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund is a competitive grant program that is helping implement TMDLs to improve water quality, protect wetlands, and...

  14. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  15. Bayes Factors via Savage-Dickey Supermodels

    CERN Document Server

    Mootoovaloo, A; Kunz, M

    2016-01-01

    We outline a new method to compute the Bayes Factor for model selection which bypasses the Bayesian Evidence. Our method combines multiple models into a single, nested, Supermodel using one or more hyperparameters. Since the models are now nested the Bayes Factors between the models can be efficiently computed using the Savage-Dickey Density Ratio (SDDR). In this way model selection becomes a problem of parameter estimation. We consider two ways of constructing the supermodel in detail: one based on combined models, and a second based on combined likelihoods. We report on these two approaches for a Gaussian linear model for which the Bayesian evidence can be calculated analytically and a toy nonlinear problem. Unlike the combined model approach, where a standard Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) struggles, the combined-likelihood approach fares much better in providing a reliable estimate of the log-Bayes Factor. This scheme potentially opens the way to computationally efficient ways to compute Bayes Factors in...

  16. On Bayes' theorem for improper mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    McCullagh, Peter; 10.1214/11-AOS892

    2011-01-01

    Although Bayes's theorem demands a prior that is a probability distribution on the parameter space, the calculus associated with Bayes's theorem sometimes generates sensible procedures from improper priors, Pitman's estimator being a good example. However, improper priors may also lead to Bayes procedures that are paradoxical or otherwise unsatisfactory, prompting some authors to insist that all priors be proper. This paper begins with the observation that an improper measure on Theta satisfying Kingman's countability condition is in fact a probability distribution on the power set. We show how to extend a model in such a way that the extended parameter space is the power set. Under an additional finiteness condition, which is needed for the existence of a sampling region, the conditions for Bayes's theorem are satisfied by the extension. Lack of interference ensures that the posterior distribution in the extended space is compatible with the original parameter space. Provided that the key finiteness conditio...

  17. A Bayes but Not Classically Sufficient Statistic

    OpenAIRE

    Blackwell, D.; Ramamoorthi, R. V.

    1982-01-01

    In a Borel setting, every classically sufficient statistic is Bayes sufficient, but not vice versa. The example is a hypothesis testing problem in which Bayesians, but not classicists, can achieve zero error probabilities.

  18. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Master Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, located in the city of Virginia Beach, Virginia, comprises 4,608 acres of barrier beach, fresh and brackish marsh, small...

  19. Habitat--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  20. A Glance at Bohai Bay Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shoubai

    1995-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil industry keeps on developing in 1994. The oil production of Bohai Bay Oil Province located in East China also keeps on growing. Geologically,the total area of Bohai Bay Basin is about 200 000 km2 and the main structural units are: Liaohe Depression, Huanghua Depression,Jizhong Depression, Linqing Depression, Jiyang Depression, Changwei Depression, Bozhong Depression,Chengning Uplift and Cangjing Uplift (see figure 1). Area of the main structural units is listed in following:

  1. The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Aug.15, 201l, a new large-scale scientific facility in China, Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment, started to operate. It is located in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant in Guangdong Province, around 50kin to both Hong Kong and Shenzhen City. The main scientific goal is to precisely determine the neutrino mixing angle 013 by detecting neutrinos from the reactors at different distances.

  2. Deriving Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining the water quality conditions necessary to protect the aquatic living resources of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries has required a foundation of quantifiable water quality criteria. Quantitative criteria serve as a critical basis for assessing the attainment of designated uses and measuring progress toward meeting water quality goals of the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership. In 1987, the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership committed to defining the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources. Under section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act, States and authorized tribes have the primary responsibility for adopting water quality standards into law or regulation. The Chesapeake Bay Program partnership worked with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop and publish a guidance framework of ambient water quality criteria with designated uses and assessment procedures for dissolved oxygen, water clarity, and chlorophyll a for Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries in 2003. This article reviews the derivation of the water quality criteria, criteria assessment protocols, designated use boundaries, and their refinements published in six addendum documents since 2003 and successfully adopted into each jurisdiction's water quality standards used in developing the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load.

  3. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  4. 77 FR 39420 - Safety Zone; Bay Village Independence Day Fireworks, Lake Erie, Bay Village, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Village Independence Day Fireworks... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during the Bay Village Independence Day...

  5. BOOK REVIEW OF "CHESAPEAKE BAY BLUES: SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND THE STRUGGLE TO SAVE THE BAY"

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a book review of "Chesapeake Bay Blues: Science, Politics, and the Struggle to Save the Bay". This book is very well written and provides an easily understandable description of the political challenges faced by those proposing new or more stringent environmental regulat...

  6. Bayes and empirical Bayes iteration estimators in two seemingly unrelated regression equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Lichun

    2005-01-01

    For a system of two seemingly unrelated regression equations given by {y1=X1β+ε1,y2=X2γ+ε2, (y1 is an m × 1 vector and y2 is an n × 1 vector, m≠ n), employing the covariance adjusted technique, we propose the parametric Bayes and empirical Bayes iteration estimator sequences for regression coefficients. We prove that both the covariance matrices converge monotonically and the Bayes iteration estimator squence is consistent as well. Based on the mean square error (MSE) criterion, we elaborate the superiority of empirical Bayes iteration estimator over the Bayes estimator of single equation when the covariance matrix of errors is unknown. The results obtained in this paper further show the power of the covariance adjusted approach.

  7. Bayes and empirical-Bayes multiplicity adjustment in the variable-selection problem

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, James G; 10.1214/10-AOS792

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the multiplicity-correction effect of standard Bayesian variable-selection priors in linear regression. Our first goal is to clarify when, and how, multiplicity correction happens automatically in Bayesian analysis, and to distinguish this correction from the Bayesian Ockham's-razor effect. Our second goal is to contrast empirical-Bayes and fully Bayesian approaches to variable selection through examples, theoretical results and simulations. Considerable differences between the two approaches are found. In particular, we prove a theorem that characterizes a surprising aymptotic discrepancy between fully Bayes and empirical Bayes. This discrepancy arises from a different source than the failure to account for hyperparameter uncertainty in the empirical-Bayes estimate. Indeed, even at the extreme, when the empirical-Bayes estimate converges asymptotically to the true variable-inclusion probability, the potential for a serious difference remains.

  8. Hierarchical Bayes Ensemble Kalman Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Tsyrulnikov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ensemble Kalman filtering (EnKF), when applied to high-dimensional systems, suffers from an inevitably small affordable ensemble size, which results in poor estimates of the background error covariance matrix ${\\bf B}$. The common remedy is a kind of regularization, usually an ad-hoc spatial covariance localization (tapering) combined with artificial covariance inflation. Instead of using an ad-hoc regularization, we adopt the idea by Myrseth and Omre (2010) and explicitly admit that the ${\\bf B}$ matrix is unknown and random and estimate it along with the state (${\\bf x}$) in an optimal hierarchical Bayes analysis scheme. We separate forecast errors into predictability errors (i.e. forecast errors due to uncertainties in the initial data) and model errors (forecast errors due to imperfections in the forecast model) and include the two respective components ${\\bf P}$ and ${\\bf Q}$ of the ${\\bf B}$ matrix into the extended control vector $({\\bf x},{\\bf P},{\\bf Q})$. Similarly, we break the traditional backgrou...

  9. Physical processes in a coupled bay-estuary coastal system: Whitsand Bay and Plymouth Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncles, R. J.; Stephens, J. A.; Harris, C.

    2015-09-01

    Whitsand Bay and Plymouth Sound are located in the southwest of England. The Bay and Sound are separated by the ∼2-3 km-wide Rame Peninsula and connected by ∼10-20 m-deep English Channel waters. Results are presented from measurements of waves and currents, drogue tracking, surveys of salinity, temperature and turbidity during stratified and unstratified conditions, and bed sediment surveys. 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models are used to explore the generation of tidally- and wind-driven residual currents, flow separation and the formation of the Rame eddy, and the coupling between the Bay and the Sound. Tidal currents flow around the Rame Peninsula from the Sound to the Bay between approximately 3 h before to 2 h after low water and form a transport path between them that conveys lower salinity, higher turbidity waters from the Sound to the Bay. These waters are then transported into the Bay as part of the Bay-mouth limb of the Rame eddy and subsequently conveyed to the near-shore, east-going limb and re-circulated back towards Rame Head. The Simpson-Hunter stratification parameter indicates that much of the Sound and Bay are likely to stratify thermally during summer months. Temperature stratification in both is pronounced during summer and is largely determined by coastal, deeper-water stratification offshore. Small tidal stresses in the Bay are unable to move bed sediment of the observed sizes. However, the Bay and Sound are subjected to large waves that are capable of driving a substantial bed-load sediment transport. Measurements show relatively low levels of turbidity, but these respond rapidly to, and have a strong correlation with, wave height.

  10. Tidal characteristics of Maputo Bay, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canhanga, Sinibaldo; Dias, João Miguel

    2005-12-01

    The tidal characteristics of Maputo Bay (a bay located in South part of Mozambique) were assessed in this work through the implementation of a numerical model (SIMSYS2D) and exploration of its numerical results, and by the analysis of observed time series of free surface elevations in Maputo Harbor. The calibration of the numerical model was carried out based on time series of tidal currents and free surface elevation, which were collected at Maputo Harbor, Baixo Ribeiro and Portuguese Island. By means of the model results, important harmonic constants of the tidal heights and currents, as well as the form factor, were computed. These results have revealed that there is a phase delay and an increase in amplitude of the major constituents as the tide propagates to the inshore zone. Based on these results, the tidal ellipses in whole Maputo Bay were also computed, which showed the pattern of the tidal currents. The hydrodynamics of the Maputo Bay under extreme tidal conditions were also analyzed (during the largest spring tide and smallest neap tide). The phase difference between tidal heights and currents revealed that there are no maximum fluxes of energy in most of Maputo Bay and that the mean tidal current (residual) may be different from zero in this system.

  11. Sediment grab data from October 1999 in Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve and the NOAA Office for Coastal Management worked together to map benthic habitats within Apalachicola Bay,...

  12. Benthic grab data from October 1999 in Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve and the NOAA Office for Coastal Management worked together to map benthic habitats within Apalachicola Bay,...

  13. Back Bay: Report on Salinity and Water Clarity in 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Salinity, turbidity and various other water quality parameters were monitored monthly in 1986 at 24 stations on Back Bay. Results show Back Bay to be brackish (mean...

  14. ISOLATION AND DIVERSITY OF ACTINOMYCETES IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesapeake Bay was investigated as a source of actinomycetes to creen for production of novel bioactive compounds. he presence of relatively large populations of actinoplanetes, chemotype IID actinomycetes in Chesapeake Bay sediment samples indicates that is an eminently suitable...

  15. Heavy mineral placers off Kalbadevi Bay, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    Sedimentological and heavy mineral studies were carried out for two offshore profiles in the Kalbadevi Bay, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra. The surface samples from the Bay were collected during pre- and post- monsoon period (i.e. in May and October...

  16. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  17. REE enrichment in Havana Bay surface sediments using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare earth elements (REE) levels in Havana bay surface sediments are determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. REE contents follow the order: Ce > La > Nd > Sm > Eu, Yb, Tb, Lu. The results shows that REE content in the bay is site depended and suggest that an REE anthropogenic input into the bay occurred. The chondrite and upper continental crust-normalizations confirm the REE enrichment of the bay sediments, respect to the REE content in sediments from the Cuban northwestern coast. (author)

  18. Numerical Simulation of Tidal Current in a Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    -Based on the multilevel model, numerical calculations of tidal current affected by the M2 tide in the Tokyo Bay have been carried out. The results of calculation are compared with the data observed in the Tokyo Bay and the result calculated by an approximate formula as the Tokyo Bay is regarded as a rectangular bay, and good agreement is found. It is proved that the mathematical model and the calculation method are correct and useable

  19. Assessment of contamination in the Shuttle bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, J. A.; Maag, C. R.; Seastrom, J. W.; Weber, M. F.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an analytical study to determine the contamination potential of the Galileo probe instruments while in the STS bay are presented. The study covered conditions wherein the instruments weren't covered, covers were used with vent paths of varying sizes, and if the instruments were sealed and a nitrogen purge was employed. The contamination limits for each of the Galileo instruments are considered. Analytic approximations are devised for the diffusion of particles from surfaces and materials in the Shuttle bay during the ascent phase, using Fick's second law of diffusion. It is recommended that an instrument purge be implemented during the first 15 min of Shuttle flight in order to carry the contaminants from both the bay fixtures and from the instruments into space. Covers are suggested as necessary for the most sensitive instruments.

  20. Meteorological research studies at Jervis Bay, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A climatological study of the winds and temperature from the Jervis Bay region which commenced in October 1970 has shown the presence of a coastal sea breeze and secondary bay breeze circulation system. In an attempt to define the influence of the Murray's Beach site on the local atmospheric dispersion, special smoke plume photography studies were conducted in the lower atmosphere. In June 1972 a meteorological acoustic sounding research programme was initiated at the Jervis Bay settlement. The aims of the research are to calibrate the sounder in terms of surface wind, turbulence and temperature measurements pertinent to a description of the lower atmospheric dispersion potential. Preliminary results on six months' data have shown encouraging correlations between the acoustic sounder patterns and particularly the wind direction turbulence traces. (author)

  1. Endocrine disrupter - estradiol - in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorabawila, Nelum [University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States); Gupta, Gian [University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States)]. E-mail: gcgupta@umes.edu

    2005-04-11

    Exogenous chemicals that interfere with natural hormonal functions are considered endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Estradiol (17{beta}-estradiol or E2) is the most potent of all xenoestrogens. Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) production in male fish occurs at E2 concentrations as low as 1 ng l{sup -1}. E2 reaches aquatic systems mainly through sewage and animal waste disposal. Surface water samples from ponds, rivers (Wicomico, Manokin and Pocomoke), sewage treatment plants (STPs), and coastal bays (Assawoman, Monie, Chincoteague, and Tangier Sound - Chesapeake Bay) on the Eastern Shore of Maryland were analyzed for E2 using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). E2 concentrations in river waters varied between 1.9 and 6.0 ng l{sup -1}. Highest E2 concentrations in river waters were observed immediately downstream of STPs. E2 concentrations in all the coastal bays tested were 2.3-3.2 ng l{sup -1}.

  2. Bayes' theorem: scientific assessment of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lex Rutten

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Homeopathy is based on experience and this is a scientific procedure if we follow Bayes' theorem. Unfortunately this is not the case at the moment. Symptoms are added to our materia medica based on absolute occurrence, while Bayes theorem tells us that this should be based on relative occurrence. Bayes theorem can be applied on prospective research, but also on retrospective research and consensus based on a large number of cases. Confirmation bias is an important source of false data in experience based systems like homeopathy. Homeopathic doctors should become more aware of this and longer follow-up of cases could remedy this. The existing system of adding symptoms to our materia medica is obsolete.

  3. Migratory birds and marine mammals of the Bristol Bay region: Wildlife narratives for the Bristol Bay Cooperative Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a collection of reports on migratory birds and marine mammals of the Bristol Bay region for the purpose of facilitating the planning process in Bristol Bay....

  4. Empirical Bayes analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ickstadt Katja

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important goal of whole-genome studies concerned with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is the identification of SNPs associated with a covariate of interest such as the case-control status or the type of cancer. Since these studies often comprise the genotypes of hundreds of thousands of SNPs, methods are required that can cope with the corresponding multiple testing problem. For the analysis of gene expression data, approaches such as the empirical Bayes analysis of microarrays have been developed particularly for the detection of genes associated with the response. However, the empirical Bayes analysis of microarrays has only been suggested for binary responses when considering expression values, i.e. continuous predictors. Results In this paper, we propose a modification of this empirical Bayes analysis that can be used to analyze high-dimensional categorical SNP data. This approach along with a generalized version of the original empirical Bayes method are available in the R package siggenes version 1.10.0 and later that can be downloaded from http://www.bioconductor.org. Conclusion As applications to two subsets of the HapMap data show, the empirical Bayes analysis of microarrays cannot only be used to analyze continuous gene expression data, but also be applied to categorical SNP data, where the response is not restricted to be binary. In association studies in which typically several ten to a few hundred SNPs are considered, our approach can furthermore be employed to test interactions of SNPs. Moreover, the posterior probabilities resulting from the empirical Bayes analysis of (prespecified interactions/genotypes can also be used to quantify the importance of these interactions.

  5. 46 CFR 151.03-33 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 151.03-33 Section 151.03-33... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-33 Lakes, bays, and sounds. A designation for all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds other than the...

  6. 46 CFR 188.10-39 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 188.10-39 Section 188.10-39... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-39 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds,...

  7. 46 CFR 90.10-19 - Lakes, bays, and sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds. 90.10-19 Section 90.10-19... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-19 Lakes, bays, and sounds. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds...

  8. Mangrove Study Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Southern Biscayne Bay's shoreline fish community been monitored visually twice a year since 1998 to compare fish use of mangrove prop root habitats along the...

  9. IBBEAM- EPIFAUNA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biscayne Bay is near the downstream end of the massive Southern and Central Florida Water Management System, which is being modified by the Comprehensive Everglades...

  10. PHYTOPLANKTON - WET WEIGHT and Other Data from UNKNOWN and Other Platforms From North American Coastline-South from 19860301 to 19870228 (NODC Accession 8700360)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains chlorophyll data from Biscayne Bay, collected by the University of Miami from March 1986 to February 1987 as part of the assessment of...

  11. Utilization of reactor bays of decommissioned submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation concerns regarding dismantling and storage of decommissioned reactors and reactor bays from nuclear submarines are briefly summarized. Calculation results are presented for gamma dose rates, contamination density, and the expected location of maximum exposure dose rate on the submarine hull. However, it is noted that radiation measurements must be obtained for each ship due to differences in operating conditions. Long-term storage options for containerized reactors and reactor bays are very briefly outlined; these include placing them in concrete-lined trenches shielded from the atmosphere or in underground tunnels shielded from water. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Roebuck Bay Invertebrate and bird Mapping 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Piersma, Theunis; Pearson, Grant B.; Hickey, Robert; Dittmann, Sabine; Rogers, Danny I.; Folmer, Eelke; Honkoop, Pieter; Drent, Jan; de Goeij, Petra; Marsh, Loisette

    2006-01-01

    1. This is a report on a survey of the benthic ecology of the intertidal flats along the northern shores of Roebuck Bay in June 2006. In the period 11-20 June we mapped both the invertebrate macrobenthic animals (those retained by a 1 mm sieve) over the whole of the northern intertidal area of Roebuck Bay and the shorebirds that depend on this food resource. The northern mudflats previously had been benthically mapped in 1997, 2000 and 2002. In addition to the mapping efforts, as a reach-out ...

  13. Bayes estimation of the multiple correlation coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, RC

    1989-01-01

    Let R denote the population multiple correlation coefficient of one variable on the other (m-1), in a m-variate normal —2 distribution. Bayes estimator of R, given only the sample 2 multiple correlation coefficient R, is derived with respect to the squared error loss function and a Beta prior distribution.-2 These results are then related to the Bayes estimates of R /(1-_o R), a parameter considered recently by Muirhead (1985). The ideas are illustrated and the effect of various parameters st...

  14. Abnormality of Development in Strongylocentrotus intermedius (A. Agassiz) Larvae from Polluted Habitat in Amursky Bay, Peter the Great Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Naidenko, Tamara

    1997-01-01

    Amursky Bay, Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan is very much prone to anthropogenic pollution by heavy metals, oils, phenols, pesticides, etc. To clarify the effect of pollution, tests of the embryonic and larval development of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius are conducted using material collected from polluted habitats in Amursky Bay. A population from an unpolluted site in Vityaz Bay is used as a control. Various abnormal patterns of development including failure to metamorphose ar...

  15. Biscayne National Park LIDAR GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lidar is a remote sensing technique that uses laser light to detect, range, or identify remote objects based on light reflected by the object or emitted through it...

  16. Contaminants in redhead ducks wintering in Baffin Bay and Redfish Bay, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A sample of 39 redhead ducks was collected from Redfish and Baffin Bays on the Texas Coast during the winter of 1988-1989 to obtain baseline information on...

  17. South Bay Salt Pond initial stewardship plan & related Bay Area restoration projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Initial Stewardship Plan for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project outlines a process to reduce the salinity of the existing salt ponds and to manage the...

  18. Geology and geomorphology--Drakes Bay and Vicinity Bay Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The polygon shapefile is included in...

  19. Red Tides in Nagasaki Bay during Summer Season of 1979

    OpenAIRE

    Dahril, Tengku; Iizuka, Shoji

    1981-01-01

    Almost every year during the summer season, red tides have occurred in Nagasaki Bay. Red tides are caused by various kind of phytoplankton and bay waters discolor like coffee by the exclusive growth of a single organism or mixed growth of two or three organisms. However, very little is known about red tide in this bay. In this paper the authors dealt with red tides in Nagasaki Bay during the summer season of 1979. The innermost part of this bay was divided into 3 areas. Five water sampling st...

  20. The land-sourced pollution in the Jiaozhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhenhui; YANG Dongfang; QIN Jie; XIANG Lihong; ZHANG Ke

    2008-01-01

    In recent years,natural environment of the Jiaozhou Bay has been changed largely by fast developing industry and agriculture of the cities around,from which wastewaters were generated.The size of the bay has been continuously shrunk with reduced river flows,resulting in serious contamination to the marine lives in the bay.After analyzing the basic historical data,the authors put forward a suggestion of how to protect the bay ecology for sustaining the resources in the Jiaozhou Bay.

  1. Diurnal variation of oxygen and carbonate system parameters in Tampa Bay and Florida Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Dufore, C.; Smiley, N.; Jackson, C.; Halley, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen and carbonate system parameters were measured, in situ, over diurnal cycles in Tampa Bay and Florida Bay, Florida. All system parameters showed distinct diurnal trends in Tampa Bay with an average range of diurnal variation of 39.1 μmol kg− 1 for total alkalinity, 165.1 μmol kg− 1 for total CO2, 0.22 for pH, 0.093 mmol L− 1 for dissolved oxygen, and 218.1 μatm for pCO2. Average range of diurnal variation for system parameters in Tampa Bay was 73% to 93% of the seasonal range of variability for dissolved oxygen and pH. All system parameters measured in Florida Bay showed distinct variation over diurnal time-scales. However, clear diurnal trends were less evident. The average range of diurnal variability in Florida Bay was 62.8 μmol kg− 1 for total alkalinity, 130.4 μmol kg− 1 for total CO2, 0.13 for pH, 0.053 mmol L− 1 for dissolved oxygen, and 139.8 μatm for pCO2. The average range of diurnal variation was 14% to 102% of the seasonal ranges for these parameters. Diurnal variability in system parameters was most influenced by primary productivity and respiration of benthic communities in Tampa Bay, and by precipitation and dissolution of calcium carbonate in Florida Bay. Our data indicate that use of seasonal data sets without careful consideration of diurnal variability may impart significant error in calculations of annual carbon and oxygen budgets. These observations reinforce the need for higher temporal resolution measurements of oxygen and carbon system parameters in coastal ecosystems.

  2. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalles, J.F. (Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (USA)); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Bathymetry (2011) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution depth surface for Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). The...

  4. Bathymetry (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution depth surface for Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). The...

  5. Empirical Bayes Estimation in Regression Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-chun Wang

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the empirical Bayes (EB) estimation problem for the parameterβ of the linear regression model y = Xβ + ε with ε~ N(0, σ2I) givenβ. Based on Pitman closeness (PC) criterion and mean square error matrix (MSEM) criterion, we prove the superiority of the EB estimator over the ordinary least square estimator (OLSE).

  6. ULF fluctuations at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meloni

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available ULF geomagnetic field measurements in Antarctica are a very important tool for better understanding the dynamics of the Earth’s magnetosphere and its response to the variable solar wind conditions. We review the results obtained in the last few years at the Italian observatory at Terra Nova Bay

  7. Summary report on Bristol Bay murre mortality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — At least 86,000 common murres died in Bristol Bay, Alaska during a brief period in late April of this year. Evidence suggests that it was a catastrophic event of...

  8. Chesapeake Bay Watershed - Protecting the Chesapeake Bay and its rivers through science, restoration, and partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2012-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay, the Nation's largest estuary, has been degraded due to the impact of human-population increase, which has doubled since 1950, resulting in degraded water quality, loss of habitat, and declines in populations of biological communities. Since the mid-1980s, the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP), a multi-agency partnership which includes the Department of Interior (DOI), has worked to restore the Bay ecosystem. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has the critical role of providing unbiased scientific information that is utilized to document and understand ecosystem change to help assess the effectiveness of restoration strategies in the Bay and its watershed. The USGS revised its Chesapeake Bay science plan for 2006-2011 to address the collective needs of the CBP, DOI, and USGS with a mission to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Bay ecosystem. The USGS science themes for this mission are: Causes and consequences of land-use change; Impact of climate change and associated hazards; Factors affecting water quality and quantity; Ability of habitat to support fish and bird populations; and Synthesis and forecasting to improve ecosystem assessment, conservation, and restoration.

  9. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  10. Microbial biogeography of San Francisco Bay sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. A.; Francis, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The largest estuary on the west coast of North America, San Francisco Bay is an ecosystem of enormous biodiversity, and also enormous human impact. The benthos has experienced dredging, occupation by invasive species, and over a century of sediment input as a result of hydraulic mining. Although the Bay's great cultural and ecological importance has inspired numerous surveys of the benthic macrofauna, to date there has been almost no investigation of the microbial communities on the Bay floor. An understanding of those microbial communities would contribute significantly to our understanding of both the biogeochemical processes (which are driven by the microbiota) and the physical processes (which contribute to microbial distributions) in the Bay. Here, we present the first broad survey of bacterial and archaeal taxa in the sediments of the San Francisco Bay. We conducted 16S rRNA community sequencing of bacteria and archaea in sediment samples taken bimonthly for one year, from five sites spanning the salinity gradient between Suisun and Central Bay, in order to capture the effect of both spatial and temporal environmental variation on microbial diversity. From the same samples we also conducted deep sequencing of a nitrogen-cycling functional gene, nirS, allowing an assessment of evolutionary diversity at a much finer taxonomic scale within an important and widespread functional group of bacteria. We paired these sequencing projects with extensive geochemical metadata as well as information about macrofaunal distribution. Our data reveal a diversity of distinct biogeographical patterns among different taxa: clades ubiquitous across sites; clades that respond to measurable environmental drivers; and clades that show geographical site-specificity. These community datasets allow us to test the hypothesis that salinity is a major driver of both overall microbial community structure and community structure of the denitrifying bacteria specifically; and to assess

  11. Biological baseline data Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Higley, D.L.; Holton, R.L.

    1975-04-01

    This report presents biological baseline information gathered during the research project, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies on Youngs Bay.'' Youngs Bay is a shallow embayment located on the south shore of the Columbia River, near Astoria, Oregon. Research on Youngs Bay was motivated by the proposed construction by Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation of an aluminum reduction plant at Warrenton, Oregon. The research was designed to provide biological baseline information on Youngs Bay in anticipation of potential harmful effects from plant effluents. The information collected concerns the kinds of animals found in the Youngs Bay area, and their distribution and seasonal patterns of abundance. In addition, information was collected on the feeding habits of selected fish species, and on the life history and behavioral characteristics of the most abundant benthic amphipod, Corophium salmonis. Sampling was conducted at approximately three-week intervals, using commonly accepted methods of animal collection. Relatively few stations were sampled for fish, because of the need to standardize conditions of capture. Data on fish capture are reported in terms of catch-per-unit effort by a particular sampling gear at a specific station. Methods used in sampling invertebrates were generally more quantitative, and allowed sampling at a greater variety of places, as well as a valid basis for the computation of densities. Checklists of invertebrate species and fish species were developed from these samples, and are referred to throughout the report. The invertebrate checklist is more specific taxonomically than are tables reporting invertebrate densities. This is because the methods employed in identification were more precise than those used in counts. 9 refs., 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  12. Bucking the pack ice to Prudhoe Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizzia, T.

    1976-05-01

    Forty-seven giant barges with a billion dollars worth of freight for the Alaska pipeline had been waiting since July 4, 1975 to proceed on through the ice to make the 300-mile run to Prudhoe Bay. Normally, easterly summer winds blow the pack ice into the Chukchi Sea where wave action breaks it up, leaving a broad highway of open water along Alaska's north coast, but the winds in 1975 failed to materialize. Ten of the barges had gone through during August and then a violent westerly storm swept in. When the storm was over, 22 barge skippers returned to Seward, and in mid-September 15 mammouth barges were ice bound. The Coast Guard was called out and with success the icebreakers and tugs began arriving with the cargo in Prudhoe Bay on September 30. The unloading of the cargo also brought difficulties, but before the cargo became frozen in, much of it was unloaded. (MCW)

  13. Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector Gas System

    CERN Document Server

    Band, H R; Chu, M-C; Heeger, K M; Kwok, M W; Shih, K; Wise, T; Xiao, Q

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experiment. This constant flush also prevents the infiltration of radon or other contaminants into these detecting liquids keeping the internal backgrounds low. Since the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors are immersed in the large water pools of the muon veto system, other gas volumes are needed to protect vital detector cables or gas lines. These volumes are also purged with dry gas. Return gas is monitored for oxygen content and humidity to provide early warning of potentially damaging leaks. The design and performance of the Daya...

  14. Bayes linear variance adjustment for time series

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Darren J

    2008-01-01

    This paper exhibits quadratic products of linear combinations of observables which identify the covariance structure underlying the univariate locally linear time series dynamic linear model. The first- and second-order moments for the joint distribution over these observables are given, allowing Bayes linear learning for the underlying covariance structure for the time series model. An example is given which illustrates the methodology and highlights the practical implications of the theory.

  15. Bayes analysis of time series with covariates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volf, Petr

    Hradec Králové : Gaudeamus, 2005 - (Skalská, H.), s. 421-426 ISBN 978-80-7041-535-1. [Mathematical Methods in Economics 2005 /23./. Hradec Králové (CZ), 14.09.2005-16.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/04/1294 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Bayes analysis * time series * unemployment data Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  16. The expected demise of the Bayes factor

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Christian P.

    2015-01-01

    This note is a discussion commenting on the paper by Ly et al. on "Harold Jeffreys's Default Bayes Factor Hypothesis Tests: Explanation, Extension, and Application in Psychology" and on the perceived shortcomings of the classical Bayesian approach to testing, while reporting on an alternative approach advanced by Kamary, Mengersen, Robert and Rousseau (2014. arxiv:1412.2044) as a solution to this quintessential inference problem.

  17. Operation of the Bayes Inference Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1998-07-27

    The authors have developed a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to enable one to make inferences about models of a physical object from radiographs taken of it. In the BIE calculational models are represented by a data-flow diagram that can be manipulated by the analyst in a graphical-programming environment. The authors demonstrate the operation of the BIE in terms of examples of two-dimensional tomographic reconstruction including uncertainty estimation.

  18. The variational Bayes approximation in Bayesian filtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídl, Václav; Quinn, A.

    Bryan : IEEE, 2006, s. 1-4. ISBN 1-4244-0469-X. [IEEE International Conference on Acoustics , Speech and Signal Processing. Toulouse (FR), 14.05.2006-19.05.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100750401; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : variational Bayes * Bayesian filtering Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  19. Whose Bay Street? Competing Narratives of Nassau's City Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nona Patara Martin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Bay Street has always been at the centre of commercial, cultural and political life in the Bahama Islands. It also acts as a gateway for millions of tourists who come to Nassau, the Bahamian capital, via cruise ships every year. Not surprisingly, Bahamians and non-Bahamians have widely divergent impressions of Bay Street. The need to accommodate the tourists who are critical to the Bahamian economy has meant that Bay Street, despite its deep social significance for Bahamians, has increasingly become a tourist space. With reference to the ‘sense of place’ and place attachment literature, this paper traces the transformation of Bay Street and attempts to tease out the most obvious tensions between the Bay Street that Bahamians experience and Bay Street as a port of call.

  20. James Bay Mercury Committee report of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The James Bay Mercury Committee has the mandate to oversee the implementation of the research, monitoring, and remediation programs related to the mercury pollution problem associated with hydroelectric developments in the James Bay region of Quebec. A summary of activities for 1990-91 is presented. Monitoring programs conducted during the year included studies of fish in the western part of the LaGrande complex, in which a decrease in Hg levels first noted in 1990 persisted; and a hair sampling and analysis program conducted on high-risk groups in the James Bay Cree population, which noted a continuing downward trend in Hg levels although this trend was not statistically significant. Research programs included a study of the influence of environmental factors on the release of Hg from vegetation and soil flooded by hydroelectric reservoirs. Mercury research in 1990 allowed confirmation of the fact that a higher Hg uptake in certain fish downstream from the LaGrande 2 station was related to a change in their feeding habits. Other studies were conducted on the effects of methylmercury exposure on health, sociocultural and economic aspects, and mitigative measures. Total expenditures for the year were just over $2 million. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  1. The Social Media Strategy for Bay Area Green Tours

    OpenAIRE

    Silander, Jenna

    2013-01-01

    This thesis features a non-profit organization called Bay Area Green Tours (BAGT). They offer private educational tours all over the Bay Area in California. The tours showcase projects and entities that are creating a greener environment and sustainable future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate to Bay Area Green Tours the benefits of developing an efficient social media strategy as part of their online marketing. BAGT has an active online presence including social media, but t...

  2. Concentration and bioavailability of metals in San Diego Bay, California

    OpenAIRE

    Deheyn, Dimitri D.; Latz, Michael I

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe the variation of metal concentrations in the environment of San Diego Bay, California, and assess the biological availability of metals throughout the Bay considering the local environmental characteristics. The concentrations of 15 metals were measured from sediment (top layer) and seawater particulates collected during an 8 week period from June 14 to August 9, 2001 at four sites in San Diego Bay, located near navigation buoys R8 (site A), R16A (site B)...

  3. Isolation and Diversity of Actinomycetes in the Chesapeake Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Takizawa, Masayuki; Colwell, Rita R.; Hill, Russell T.

    1993-01-01

    Chesapeake Bay was investigated as a source of actinomycetes to screen for production of novel bioactive compounds. The presence of relatively large populations of actinoplanetes (chemotype II/D actinomycetes) in Chesapeake Bay sediment samples indicates that it is an eminently suitable ecosystem from which to isolate actinomycetes for screening programs. Actinomycetes were isolated from sediment samples collected in Chesapeake Bay with an isolation medium containing nalidixic acid, which pro...

  4. Intertidal sediments and benthic animals of Roebuck Bay, Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Pepping, M.; Piersma, T.; Pearson, G.; Lavaleye, M.

    1999-01-01

    Roebuck Bay near Broome (NW Australia) is with itsextensive tidal flats one of the foremost internationallyimportant sites for shorebirds in the Asia-Pacificflyway system. It is home to 150,000 shorebirds (or‘waders’) in the nonbreeding season, which suggeststhat the intertidal flats of the bay have abundantinvertebrate food to offer. To answer the question whyand how so many birds are able to make a living in themud of Roebuck Bay, about a quarter of the intertidalarea was quantitatively sam...

  5. Vascular Plants Collected at Tornaya Bay, Iturup Island in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Hideki; FUKUDA, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    A list of 109 species in 40 families of vascular plants around Tornaya Bay, Iturup Islands was prepared based on a field survey in 2012. The biased composition of the ten dominant families at Tornaya Bay may be influenced by the local coastal meadow vegetation of the region. Forest vegetation is poor around Tornaya Bay. Among the noteworthy discoveries was Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. var. succapitata Naruhashi.

  6. Organic Matter Remineralization Predominates Phosphorus Cycling in the Mid-Bay Sediments in the Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunendra, Joshi R.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Burdige, David J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Sparks, Donald L.; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2015-05-19

    The Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the US, suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and non–point source nutrient sources. Restoration of the bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs and hydrological conditions, and complex interacting factors including climate forcing. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics enables one to identify the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment- water interface and aid to better constrain mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between the sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ18Op) in concert with sediment chemistry, XRD, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on the sediment retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the meso-haline portion of the mid-bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedback effect on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Isotope data indicate that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-bay sediments. We interpret that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any bottom-water and/or pore-water P derived from other sources or biogeochemical processes and exceeded saturation with respect to authigenic P precipitation. It is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway against remobilization (coupled Fe-P cycling) pathway in the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results are expected to have significant implications for the current understanding of P cycling and benthic-pelagic coupling in the bay, particularly on the

  7. Organic matter remineralization predominates phosphorus cycling in the mid-Bay sediments in the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sunendra R; Kukkadapu, Ravi K; Burdige, David J; Bowden, Mark E; Sparks, Donald L; Jaisi, Deb P

    2015-05-19

    Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the U.S., suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and nonpoint nutrient sources. Restoration of the Bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs, and complex interaction between imported and regenerated nutrients. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics provides information useful in identifying the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment-water interface as well as helps to better constrain the mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)O(P)) in concert with sediment chemistry, X-ray diffraction, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on sediments retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the mesohaline portion of the mid-Bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedbacks on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Authigenic phosphate isotope data suggest that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-Bay sediments. This indicates that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any pore water and/or bottom water because only a fraction of this precipitates as authigenic P. This is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway and recycling of P within the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results have significant implications on the current understanding of sediment P cycling and P exchange across the sediment-water interface in the Bay, particularly in terms of the sources and pathways of P that sustain hypoxia

  8. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  9. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  10. BACTERIOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN NORTHERN SAN FRANCISCO BAY: ROLE OF PARTICLE ASSOCIATION AND SEASONAL FRESHWATER FLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterioplankton abundance and metabolic characteristics were observed in northern San Francisco Bay, California, during spring and summer 1996 at three sites: Central Bay, Suisun Bay, and the Sacramento River. These sites spanned a salinity gradient from marine to freshwater, an...

  11. A summer monsoon pump to keep the Bay of Bengal salty

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shankar, D.; Vernekar, S.; Sandeep, K.K.; Amol, P.; Neema, C.P.; Chatterjee, A.

    The Bay of Bengal receives a large influx of freshwater from precipitation and river discharge. Outflow of excess freshwater and inflow of saltier water is required to prevent the bay from freshening. Relatively fresh water flows out of the bay...

  12. On Bayes linear unbiased estimation of estimable functions for the singular linear model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weiping; WEI Laisheng

    2005-01-01

    The unique Bayes linear unbiased estimator (Bayes LUE) of estimable functions is derived for the singular linear model. The superiority of Bayes LUE over ordinary best linear unbiased estimator is investigated under mean square error matrix (MSEM)criterion.

  13. On watermass mixing ratios and regenerated silicon in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Sarma, V.V.; Rao, V.S.; Sudhakar, U.; Gupta, G.V.M.

    Regeneration of silicon on mixing in the Bay of Bengal have been computed from six water masses [Bay of Bengal low saline water (BBLS), Bay of Bengal subsurface water (BBSS), northern southeast high salinity water (NSEHS), north Indian intermediate...

  14. Upgrade of Daya Bay full scope simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daya Bay full scope simulator was manufactured by French THOMSON Company in earlier 1990s. It was put into operation in August 1992, one year before the plant's unit-1 was commissioned. During nearly 10 years, the Daya Bay simulator was used to train the control room operators. As many as 220 operators obtained their operator licenses or senior operators licenses. The Daya Bay simulator made a great contribution to the plant's operation. 2) Owing to the limitation of simulation technology and computer capacity in that age, Daya Bay simulator had its deficiencies from the beginning, making maintenance difficult, gradually bringing more and more impact on operator training. - Bad performance: The main computer was the Gould CONCEPT 32/67. Its calculation speed is quite low and memory very limited. Even in the normal operation mode, the average CPU load was up to 80%. The simulation fidelity and scope were not sufficient, which could not meet the deep level of training demand. Many special plant scenarios were not simulated; therefore it was not possible to undertake the verification exercises for the corresponding plant operations. - Poor maintainability: - In hardware aspect, due to that Gould CONCEPT 32/67 is with multi-board architecture. Thousands of tiny connection pins between boards and chasses was the weak link, after many times board plug in-out repair the connection became worse and worse. In addition, the spare parts are difficult to order. Computer crashes happened very often. Each time, the failures each took a few hours, even a few days to fix. - In software aspect, simulation modules suspension, OUT OF TIME error and software breakdown were often occurring. To restart the system took over half an hour each time, which seriously interrupted normal training. - In software maintenance aspect, most modules are manually coded and the development tools are difficult to use. Less than 10% of modifications related to the plant upgrade could be implemented on

  15. Oceanographic regime shift during 1997 in Disko Bay, Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marc Overgaard; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Stedmon, Colin A.;

    2012-01-01

    Data from a long time series of temperature, salinity, and nutrient measurements in Disko Bay (West Greenland) reveal a marked change in the water characteristics during recent years. Seasonal dynamics in the upper 150 m of the water column were highly affected by the seasonality in meteorologica...... bay, using inorganic nutrients. These changes in the oceanography of the bay will not only lead to further glacial retreat but will also affect the local marine ecosystem by changing the relative dominance of major copepod species that overwinter in bottom waters of the bay...

  16. Florida Bay: A history of recent ecological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourqurean, J.W.; Robblee, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Florida Bay is a unique subtropical estuary at the southern tip of the Florida peninsula. Recent ecological changes (seagrass die-off, algal blooms, increased turbidity) to the Florida Bay ecosystem have focused the attention of the public, commercial interests, scientists, and resource managers on the factors influencing the structure and function of Florida Bay. Restoring Florida Bay to some historic condition is the goal of resource managers, but what is not clear is what an anthropogenically-unaltered Florida Bay would look like. While there is general consensus that human activities have contributed to the changes occurring in the Florida Bay ecosystem, a high degree of natural system variability has made elucidation of the links between human activity and Florida Bay dynamics difficult. Paleoecological analyses, examination of long-term datasets, and directed measurements of aspects of the ecology of Florida Bay all contribute to our understanding of the behavior of the bay, and allow quantification of the magnitude of the recent ecological changes with respect to historical variability of the system.

  17. Coastal Habitat Restoration and Hydrodynamics in Panguil Bay, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxas, P. G.; Gorospe, J. G.

    2007-03-01

    Hydrobiological studies indicate the deterioration of the coastal ecosystems in Panguil Bay, Philippines despite interventions that started more than a decade ago. Mangrove ecosystems that filter land run offs and act as pollutant sinks are converted to fishponds that discharge toxic materials into the bay. Monsoon winds continue to erode mangrove-dominated coastlines. Water movements, nutrient transport and influx of freshwater from rivers and saline waters from the sea are altered by proliferating fishing structures and boats that use sea lanes for navigation. The reduction of current velocities increased siltation rates that caused shallowing of the bay. Failure in interventions to restore ecosystems is partly attributed to use of methods that failed to consider the bay's hydrodynamics. But sustaining the bay is a must because it is a major source of fishery resources hence strategies to arrest its further deterioration and to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystems based on the bay's hydrodynamics are explored. Timing, selection of appropriate species, and use of encasements are considered relative to the water dynamics of the bay. Zoning and regulation of barrier structures are implemented in some parts of the bay. Bioremediating agricultural run offs and discharges from fishponds, boats, and factories that accumulate in the inner part of the bay remains a challenge.

  18. Index for Assessing Water Trophic Status in Semi-Enclosed Cuban Bays. Case Study: Cienfuegos Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Seisdedo, Mabel; Arencibia, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the coastal environmental management by developing a new trophic status index of the water (TSIW). The index is tailored to semi-enclosed bays with estuarine characteristic like the Cienfuegos bay in Cuba. We also propose pressure indicators related to exporting and assimilation capacities as a tool to assess the vulnerability of the system to eutrophication. The TSIW is based on response indicators to eutrophication processes showing correspondence with the predefined pressure indicators and previous reports on water quality. Thus, the proposed trophic status index is a reliable scientific tool to measure the current stage of the water quality and to establish a baseline for further studies.

  19. 77 FR 14276 - Regulated Navigation Area; Little Bay Bridge Construction, Little Bay, Portsmouth, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... Little Bay Bridge involves large machinery and construction vessel operations on and over the navigable... by the project managers. The Captain of the Port (COTP) Sector Northern New England will cause...

  20. Radar image San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California and its surroundings are shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On this image, smooth areas, such as the bay, lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark, while areas with buildings and trees appear bright. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market district in San Francisco, appear bright due to the alignment of streets and buildings with respect to the incoming radar beam. Three of the bridges spanning the Bay are seen in this image. The Bay Bridge is in the center and extends from the city of San Francisco to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, and from there to Oakland. The Golden Gate Bridge is to the left and extends from San Francisco to Sausalito. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the upper right and extends from San Rafael to Richmond. Angel Island is the large island east of the Golden Gate Bridge, and lies north of the much smaller Alcatraz Island. The Alameda Naval Air Station is seen just below the Bay Bridge at the center of the image. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen on the left side of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs, which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east.This radar image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas and, consequently, does not show topographic data, but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover and urbanization. The overall faint striping pattern in the images is a data processing artifact due to the

  1. Characteristic mixing triangles in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Temperature-salinity structures in the inner part of Bay of Bengal showed complete mixing processes in the upper bay, less than about 600 m can be characterisEd. by a mixing triangle constitutEd. by three characteristic water properties. In outer...

  2. 33 CFR 117.779 - Eastchester Bay (Arm of).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eastchester Bay (Arm of). 117.779 Section 117.779 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.779 Eastchester Bay (Arm of). The...

  3. Flood Risk Mitigation for the Jamaica Bay Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, J.L.; De Boer, R.; Evers, G.A.; Kruis, M.C.; Van der Valk, K.

    2014-01-01

    Project Jamaica Bay is a response to superstorm Sandy, occurring in October, 2012. The storm was a disaster for New York City, causing around 50 billion US dollars of damage. Research shows that 75% of the expected annual dam-age in New York occurs around the Jamaica Bay area. Another problem that h

  4. An overview of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment discovered an unexpectedly large neutrino oscillation related to the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ in 2012. This finding paved the way to the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments. In this article, we review the history, featured design, and scientific results of Daya Bay. Prospects of the experiment are also described.

  5. 33 CFR 110.45 - Onset Bay, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Onset Bay, Mass. 110.45 Section 110.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.45 Onset Bay, Mass. Northerly of a line extending...

  6. Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services Demonstration Pilot Phase 2 web site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The value of nature's benefits is difficult to consider in environmental decision-making since ecosystem goods and services are usually not well measured or quantified in economic terms. The Tampa Bay Estuary Program, Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council, the U.S. Environmental Pr...

  7. Interannual variability and interdecadal trends in Hudson Bay streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déry, Stephen J.; Mlynowski, Theodore J.; Hernández-Henríquez, Marco A.; Straneo, Fiammetta

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates the interannual variability and interdecadal trends in streamflow input to Hudson Bay (including James Bay) over 1964-2008. The 23 rivers chosen for this study span a maximum gauged area of 2.54 × 10 6 km 2 and collectively transport 522 km 3 of freshwater to Hudson Bay each year. Adjusting this value for the missing contributing area yields a total annual freshwater flux of 760 km 3 into Hudson Bay. The standard deviation and coefficient of variation in annual streamflow to Hudson Bay reach 48.5 km 3 and 0.09, respectively. The monotonic trend assessed with a Kendall-Theil Robust Line shows no detectable (|signal-to-noise ratio| hydroelectricity in fall and winter. The naturally-flowing rivers show a marked decline in the variability of daily streamflow input to Hudson Bay in recent years while the opposite trend is found in the regulated systems. The fall 2009 diversion of 14.5 km 3 yr - 1 or 48% of the total annual streamflow from the Rupert River northward into La Grande Rivière for enhanced power production further exacerbates the streamflow timing shifts observed in Hudson Bay. The potential impacts of flow regulation on the Hudson Bay marine environment are then discussed.

  8. Variability and trends in streamflow input to Hudson Bay, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dery, Stephen; Mlynowski, Theodore; Hernandez-Henriquez, Marco; Straneo, Fiammetta

    2010-05-01

    This presentation will explore the variability and trend in streamflow input to Hudson Bay (including James Bay), Canada, over 1964-2008. Twenty-three rivers, spanning a maximum gauged area of 2.53 × 106 km2, are chosen for this study. These rivers collectively transport 521 km3 of freshwater to Hudson Bay each year. Adjusting this value for the missing contributing area yields a total annual freshwater flux of 762 km3 into Hudson Bay. The standard deviation and coefficient of variation in annual streamflow input to Hudson Bay reach 48.9 km3 and 0.09, respectively. The monotonic trend assessed with a Kendall-Theil Robust Line shows no detectable (|signal-to-noise ratio| hydroelectricity in fall and winter. The naturally-flowing rivers show a marked decline in the variability of daily streamflow input to Hudson Bay in recent years while the opposite trend is found in the regulated systems. The recent diversion of 19 km3 yr-1 or 71% of the annual streamflow from the Rupert River northward into La Grande Rivière for enhanced power production will further exacerbate the streamflow timing shifts observed in Hudson Bay. The talk will end with a brief discussion of the potential impacts of flow regulation on the Hudson Bay marine environment.

  9. The Daya Bay nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Daya Bay plant is nearing completion for the Guangdong Nuclear Power Joint Venture Company (GNPJVC), formed by the Chinese Government (75%) in conjunction with China Light Power, the Hong Kong utility (25%). 70% of generated power from two French-design 900 MWe class PWRs will be supplied to Hong Kong (the reference units: France's Gravelines-5 and -6). The Advanced Fuel Assembly designed by Framatome is used. The turbines are British-built (GEC) and designed differently from those installed in French units. 1 fig

  10. From Bayes to PDEs in image warping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Markussen, Bo

    2006-01-01

    In many disciplines of computer vision, such as stereo vision, flow computation, medical image registration, the essential computational problem is the geometrical alignment of images. In this chapter we describe how such an alignment may be obtained as statistical optimal through solving a partial...... differential equation (PDE) in the matching function. We treat different choices of matching criteria such as minimal square difference, maximal correlation, maximal mutual information, and several smoothness criteria. All are treated from a Bayes point of view leading to a functional minimization problem...

  11. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O; Coutinho, Felipe H; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E M; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A B; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Amado Filho, Gilberto M; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Cristiane C; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km(2). In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay's degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay's water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  12. 76 FR 37641 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for..., off of Pillar Point Harbor beach, Half Moon Bay, CA in support of the Independence Day Fireworks... Post 474 will sponsor the Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Half Moon Bay on...

  13. 78 FR 14185 - Safety Zone; MODU KULLUK; Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, AK to Captains Bay, Unalaska Island, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ] Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; MODU KULLUK; Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, AK to Captains Bay, Unalaska Island, AK AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule....

  14. Turbulent dissipation and mixing in Prydz Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qingxuan; TIAN Jiwei; ZHAO Wei; XIE Lingling

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we present measurements of velocity,temperature,salinity,and turbulence collected in Prydz Bay,Antarctica,during February,2005.The dissipation rates of turbulent kinetic energy (e) and diapycnal diffusivities (Kz) were estimated along a section in fiont of the Amery Ice Shelf.The dissipation rates and diapycnal diffusivities were spatially non-uniform,with higher values found in the western half of the section where e reached 10-7 W/kg and Kz reached 10-2 m2/s,about two and three orders of magnitude higher than those in the open ocean,respectively.In the western half of the section both the dissipation rates and diffusivities showed a high-low-high vertical structure.This vertical structure may have been determined by internal waves in the upper layer,where the ice shelf draft acts as a possible energy source,and by bottom-generated internal waves in the lower layer,where both tides and geostrophic currentsare possible energy sources.The intense diapycnal mixing revealed in our observations could contribute to the production of Antarctic Bottom Water in Prydz Bay.

  15. [Macrobenthic faunal diversity in Xiangshan Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiao-Ying; Tao, Lei; Shi, Hui-Xiong; Lou, Dan; Jiao, Hai-Feng; You, Zhong-Jie

    2010-06-01

    In order to understand the community pattern and biodiversity of macrobenthic fauna in Xiangshan Bay, an eight cruises survey was made at thirteen stations of the Bay from July 2006 to August 2007, with the dominant species composition, richness, biomass, secondary productivity, and P/B value of macrobenthic fauna investigated, and the species diversity of the macrobenthic fauna analyzed. A total of 123 macrobenthos species were recorded, including 48 species Mollusc, 33 species Crustacea, 12 species fish, 12 species annelid polychaete, 8 species echinoderms, and some coelenterates and nematodes. The dominant species were more concentrated, and the dominance index was higher. The average secondary productivity of the macrobenthic fauna was 16.70 g x m(-2) x a(-1), and the average P/B value was 0.60. There existed distinct variations (P diversity index (D), and Shannon diversity index (H) among different survey stations, and distinct variations (P < 0.01) in the indices except evenness index (J) between years. PMID:20873634

  16. Mangrove root communities in Jobos Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the presence and absence of species, at least two major types of mangrove root communities exist in Jobos Bay. One community, occurring mainly along the Aguirre Ship Channel, is composed of species characteristic of coastal waters. Another occurring in Jobos Bay and in mangrove channels in the vinicity of Mar Negro Lagoon is characterized by embayment species. Water mass is the best single parameter which correlates with the different communities. In general, subtidal species are more susceptible to elevated temperatures than intertidal species and consequently will be the first affected. Because most of the predators and competitors are subtidal, the predation and competition which limit populations may be cut back. The effect will first be seen in increased populations of barnacles, because they are severely limited by predation and competition but are physiologically quite tolerant. The intertidal species should flourish (on a relative basis) and their vertical distributions should be extended downward. These effects are only primary. Many species which would do best in thermally altered situations are colonizing or fugitive species. It is unknown whether such an assemblage could persist with continued recruitment and growth of new individuals. The dominance of these colonizing or fugitive species may be only temporary, however, because blue-green algae are tolerant of elevated temperatures and have a negative effect on barnacle recruitment and growth. Consequently, blue-green algae may eventually dominate thermally affected mangrove roots

  17. 36 CFR 13.1132 - What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? 13.1132 Section 13.1132 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1132 What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? Three types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay...

  18. Distribution, source identification, and historical trends of organic micropollutants in coastal sediment in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinawati; Koike, Tatsuya; Koike, Hiroaki; Kurumisawa, Rina; Ito, Maki; Sakurai, Shigeaki; Togo, Ayako; Saha, Mahua; Arifin, Zainal; Takada, Hideshige

    2012-05-30

    We determined concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), and hopanes in coastal sediments collected from Jakarta Bay and Tokyo Bay. PAH concentrations in sediments from Jakarta Bay (257-1511 ng/g-dry) were lower than or comparable to those from Tokyo Bay (1372-1615 ng/g-dry). Ratios of alkyl-PAHs to parent PAHs showed a greater contribution of petrogenic inputs in Jakarta Bay than in Tokyo Bay. This difference is consistent with the higher ratio of hopanes to PAHs in Jakarta Bay. LAB concentrations in Jakarta Bay (geometric mean, 1400 ng/g-dry) were higher than those in Tokyo Bay (661 ng/g-dry). The internal to external (I/E) ratios of LABs in Jakarta Bay (0.92-2.88) were lower than those in Tokyo Bay (2.8-4.8), indicating that Jakarta Bay receives untreated or poorly treated sewage. Significant amounts of tetrapropylene-based alkylbenzenes were detected in several locations in Jakarta Bay, suggesting current usage of the non-degradable surfactants alkylbenzene sulfonates that are banned in many countries. The PCB concentration in Jakarta Bay was 1 order of magnitude lower than in Tokyo Bay, suggesting minimal usage of PCBs in industrial or commercial products in Jakarta. Analyses of a sediment core indicate increasing inputs of PAHs, hopanes, and LABs into Jakarta Bay during recent decades. PMID:22480710

  19. Plankton studies in San Francisco Bay; II, Phytoplankton abundance and species composition, July 1977-December 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Raymond L. J.; Cloern, James E.

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented on the phytoplankton species composition and abundance in San Francisco Bay from July 1977 through December 1979. Phytoplankton identification and enumerations were made at selected stations. Sample collections were made at selected stations in the main channel of the Bay from Rio Vista on the Sacramento River to Calaveras Point in South San Francisco Bay, and at shoal stations in the central portion of South San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and Suisun Bay. Also reported, from October 1978 through December 1979, are the calculated phytoplankton carbon and percent nondiatom carbon, and the species list. This study is one component of an ongoing interdisciplinary study of San Francisco Bay. (USGS)

  20. Social and environmental impacts of the James Bay hydroelectric project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book, which is an analysis and not an advocacy, examines the anatomy of the controversy that has swirled around the James Bay project - the La Grande and Great Whale projects combined - from the 1970s to the 1990s, and seeks, in the process, to determine whether there are lessons that can be learned from such an analysis that are applicable to other cases as well as to James Bay itself. The contributors are interested, at one and the same time, in finding ways to integrate the knowledge of natural scientists and social scientists to deepen the understanding of human/environment relations and to link science and policy to encourage a productive dialogue between practitioners and scholars in this increasingly important area of inquiry. The contributor's papers include the following: introduction to the issues; hydroelectric power development at James Bay: establishing a frame of reference; James Bay: environmental considerations for building large hydroelectric dams and reservoirs in Quebec; elevated mercury in fish as a result of the James Bay hydroelectric power development: perception and reality; the Cree people of James Bay: assessing the social impacts of hydroelectric dams and reservoirs; culture, social change, and Cree opposition to the James Bay hydroelectric development; and the impact of James Bay hydroelectric development on the art and craft of the James Bay Cree. The authors of the volume have attempted to stand back and examine just a few of these issues from the perspective of a variety of disciplines, and their purpose is to inform and stimulate thoughtful consideration by providing an overall perspective that might might serve to broaden the context in which specific issues can be debated. refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  1. Bayes and empirical Bayes estimators of abundance and density from spatial capture-recapture data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorazio, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    In capture-recapture and mark-resight surveys, movements of individuals both within and between sampling periods can alter the susceptibility of individuals to detection over the region of sampling. In these circumstances spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) models, which incorporate the observed locations of individuals, allow population density and abundance to be estimated while accounting for differences in detectability of individuals. In this paper I propose two Bayesian SECR models, one for the analysis of recaptures observed in trapping arrays and another for the analysis of recaptures observed in area searches. In formulating these models I used distinct submodels to specify the distribution of individual home-range centers and the observable recaptures associated with these individuals. This separation of ecological and observational processes allowed me to derive a formal connection between Bayes and empirical Bayes estimators of population abundance that has not been established previously. I showed that this connection applies to every Poisson point-process model of SECR data and provides theoretical support for a previously proposed estimator of abundance based on recaptures in trapping arrays. To illustrate results of both classical and Bayesian methods of analysis, I compared Bayes and empirical Bayes esimates of abundance and density using recaptures from simulated and real populations of animals. Real populations included two iconic datasets: recaptures of tigers detected in camera-trap surveys and recaptures of lizards detected in area-search surveys. In the datasets I analyzed, classical and Bayesian methods provided similar – and often identical – inferences, which is not surprising given the sample sizes and the noninformative priors used in the analyses.

  2. Islands at bay: Rising seas, eroding islands, and waterbird habitat loss in Chesapeake Bay (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Brinker, D.F.; Watts, B.D.; Costanzo, G.R.; Morton, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    Like many resources in the Chesapeake Bay region of the U. S., many waterbird nesting populations have suffered over the past three to four decades. In this study, historic information for the entire Bay and recent results from the Tangier Sound region were evaluated to illustrate patterns of island erosion and habitat loss for 19 breeding species of waterbirds. Aerial imagery and field data collected in the nesting season were the primary sources of data. From 1993/1994 to 2007/2008, a group of 15 islands in Tangier Sound, Virginia were reduced by 21% in area, as most of their small dunes and associated vegetation and forest cover were lost to increased washovers. Concurrently, nesting American black ducks (Anas rubripes) declined by 66%, wading birds (herons-egrets) by 51%, gulls by 72%, common terns (Sterna hirundo) by 96% and black skimmers (Rynchops niger) by about 70% in this complex. The declines noted at the larger Bay-wide scale suggest that this study area maybe symptomatic of a systemic limitation of nesting habitat for these species. The island losses noted in the Chesapeake have also been noted in other Atlantic U. S. coastal states. Stabilization and/or restoration of at least some of the rapidly eroding islands at key coastal areas are critical to help sustain waterbird communities. ?? 2010 US Government.

  3. Water resources planning for rivers draining into Mobile Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, G. C.

    1976-01-01

    The application of remote sensing, automatic data processing, modeling and other aerospace related technologies to hydrological engineering and water resource management are discussed for the entire river drainage system which feeds the Mobile Bay estuary. The adaptation and implementation of existing mathematical modeling methods are investigated for the purpose of describing the behavior of Mobile Bay. Of particular importance are the interactions that system variables such as river flow rate, wind direction and speed, and tidal state have on the water movement and quality within the bay system.

  4. Origins of Phosphorus and Nitrogen in Ariake Bay, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagi, Tetsuo; Kato, Akifumi

    2012-01-01

    Origins of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were investigated in Ariake Bay, Japan, using the unit response function method. About 50 % of TP and 67 % of TN in Ariake Bay were found to have originated from the open ocean, 14 % of TP and 33 % of TN originate from rivers, 36 % of TP originated from sea sediments and 3.3 % of TN was emitted to the air via de-nitrification. The limiting nutrient for primary production in the head of Ariake Bay, that is the main occurrence area of red...

  5. Mesozooplankton community in the Bay of Bengal (India): Spatial variability during the summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, V.; Ramaiah, N.

    species observed, 132 were calanoids, 17 poecilostomatoids, 6 cyclopoids, 6 harpacticoids, and 2 were mormonilloids. Remarkably, of 163 copepods species, 153 species were present in the Central Bay but only 57 were found in the Western Bay. In general... species richness in the tropics is strongly coupled to temperature (Rutherford et al. 1999). From the total of 163 copepod species that we recorded in the Bay of Bengal, 153 are from the Central Bay, and only 57 from the Western Bay. This clearly...

  6. Plankton studies in San Francisco Bay; IV, Phytoplankton abundance and species composition, January 1980 - February 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, R.L.; Cloern, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented on the phytoplankton species composition and abundance in San Francisco Bay from January 1980 through February 1981. Phytoplankton were identified and enumerated in surface samples collected approximately every two weeks at selected stations in the main channel of the Bay, and at shoal stations in the central portion of South San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and Suisun Bay. Also reported are separate species lists for microphytoplankton ( 60 micrometers). (Author 's abstract)

  7. Characterization of Dredged Sediments from Santander Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is the physico- chemical characterisation of Santander Bay (North Spain) inter-tidal sediments, with the determination of levels of selected organic compounds pollution. A sampling strategy has been developed based on characteristic parameters of the study. The physico-chemical seasonal characterisation of sediments has been performed by determination of waster content, Ph, density, humidity, lost on ignition (LOI), particle size distribution, and chemical analysis of three categories of organic compounds (VOCs,EOX and PAHs) selected for its ubiquity, persistence and high potential of environmental hazard. The EOX analysis give a picture of the total load of organo halogen compounds in the estuarine area and the VOC and ph values obtained, allow the characterization of sediments in two areas in function of the closeness to the urban and industrial activities

  8. Bayes method for low rank tensor estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Taiji; Kanagawa, Heishiro

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the statistical convergence rate of a Bayesian low-rank tensor estimator, and construct a Bayesian nonlinear tensor estimator. The problem setting is the regression problem where the regression coefficient forms a tensor structure. This problem setting occurs in many practical applications, such as collaborative filtering, multi-task learning, and spatio-temporal data analysis. The convergence rate of the Bayes tensor estimator is analyzed in terms of both in-sample and out-of-sample predictive accuracies. It is shown that a fast learning rate is achieved without any strong convexity of the observation. Moreover, we extend the tensor estimator to a nonlinear function estimator so that we estimate a function that is a tensor product of several functions.

  9. Local Component Analysis for Nonparametric Bayes Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Khademi, Mahmoud; safayani, Meharn

    2010-01-01

    The decision boundaries of Bayes classifier are optimal because they lead to maximum probability of correct decision. It means if we knew the prior probabilities and the class-conditional densities, we could design a classifier which gives the lowest probability of error. However, in classification based on nonparametric density estimation methods such as Parzen windows, the decision regions depend on the choice of parameters such as window width. Moreover, these methods suffer from curse of dimensionality of the feature space and small sample size problem which severely restricts their practical applications. In this paper, we address these problems by introducing a novel dimension reduction and classification method based on local component analysis. In this method, by adopting an iterative cross-validation algorithm, we simultaneously estimate the optimal transformation matrices (for dimension reduction) and classifier parameters based on local information. The proposed method can classify the data with co...

  10. Sediments detection at the Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of sedimentation rates and age of marine sediments has been performed through many years using natural and artificial radioactive isotopes. The previously topics have been studied in polluted sediments at the Havana Bay collected in three sampling points. Spectrometric measurements have been carried for determining concentration of the isotope radioactive gamma emitters, 210 Pb and 226 Ra to mainly utilized the Constant Initial Concentration Method and the Constant Rate of Supply Method Dating Models based upon the unsupported 210 Pb. The obtained results show values for sedimentation rate ranging from 0.2 up to 1.3 cm.y-1 increasing with time which manifest the importance of the achievement of a project of dredging. (author)

  11. Classification using Hierarchical Naive Bayes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Dyhre Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Classification problems have a long history in the machine learning literature. One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing set of classifiers is the Naïve Bayes models. However, an inherent problem with these classifiers is the assumption that all attributes used to describe an...... instance are conditionally independent given the class of that instance. When this assumption is violated (which is often the case in practice) it can reduce classification accuracy due to “information double-counting” and interaction omission. In this paper we focus on a relatively new set of models...... context of classification. Experimental results show that the learned models can significantly improve classification accuracy as compared to other frameworks....

  12. Bayes Classification for the Fingerprint Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelambika.K.V

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Fingerprint is the most commonly used biometric property in security, commerce, industrial, civilian and forensic applications. The goal is to raise the recognition rate in the fingerprint retrieval system. In this work, the Bayes classifier is adopted assuming Gaussian statistics. The set of training samples are expanded by spatial modeling technique and implement a variant of the Fisher’s Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA for dimension reduction and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA for lowering estimation errors. Finally calculating the probabilistic features for Gabor and Minutiae which helps to reduce the error rate about 75% which outperforms the K-NN classifier where the error rate was about 30-60%. The accuracy and Speed are evaluated using FVC2004 database and satisfactory retrieval performance is achieved. Thus the objective of the Fingerprint Retrieval system that is efficient and accurate is build.

  13. Lightning phenomenology in the Tampa Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, D. W.; Uman, M. A.; Wilcox, C. E., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A commercial lightning-locating system (LLS) was employed in the study of lightning phenomenology in the Tampa Bay area of Florida. The LLS output included the time, location, number of strokes per flash, and initial peak magnetic field value of first strokes for lightning ground flashes lowering negative charge. Attention is given to the design and the operation of the LLS, and the experimental results. Measured properties of each of 111 storms are given in a number of tables. It was observed that the apparent motion associated with the lightning activity in storm systems was not due to the motion of the individual single-peak and multiple-peak storms but rather to the successive growth of new storms near previously active storms.

  14. San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Sweetwater Marsh and South San Diego Bay Units: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact Statement: Volume I

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on San Diego Bay NWR (Sweetwater Marsh and South San Diego Bay Units) for the next 15...

  15. Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Grand Bay NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  16. Shallow-water Benthic Habitats in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico were mapped and characterized using visual interpretation...

  17. Chocolate Bay/Halls Lake 1987-1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During May 1987, and May-June and September 1988, a total of 80 inner and outer marsh samples were collected in the Alligator Point salt marsh of Chocolate Bay...

  18. Backscatter B [7125]--Offshore Half Moon Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as two...

  19. Folds--Offshore of Half Moon Bay Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, California. The vector data file is...

  20. Faults--Offshore of Half Moon Bay Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, California. The vector data file is...

  1. Evaluation of Contaminant Residues in Delaware Bay Bald Eagle Nestlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagle (Naliacetus leucocephalus) nesting attempts have steadily increased over the past decade in the Delaware Bay and River drainage basin; however, nesting...

  2. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Fire Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan considers fire on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge as a tool for management and as a potential problem to be dealt with. This document discusses...

  3. Sediments of Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts (HOUGH42 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cape Cod Bay, lying on the Massachusetts coast partly enclosed by Cape Cod, is in a glaciated region of low relief. Coarse sediments generally occur in areas...

  4. Arctic cisco stomach content data, Prudhoe Bay, August 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set documents the stomach contents of age-0 Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) captured in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in August 2009. The analysis of this data...

  5. Island Bay Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back-end data file for the Island Bay Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use.The Wilderness Act of...

  6. Monosaccharide composition of suspended particles from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Sankaran, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    Neutral carbohydrates were determined as alditol acetates by capillary gas chromatography in the hydrolysates of suspended particulate samples (40) collected from 8 depths (approx 1 to 1,000 m) at 5 stations of the Bay of Bengal. Eight individual...

  7. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and coastal areas of...

  8. Relative efficiency of gill netting methods in Bristol Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study are to evaluate the relative efficiency of different types of fishing gear in Bristol Bay during 1956 and to determine whether those...

  9. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  10. View of CCTV camera mounted on aft payload bay bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    View of the closed circuit television (CCTV) camera mounted on aft payload bay bulkhead on the starboard side of the space shuttle near the orbital maneuvering systems (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods.

  11. Transgressive Contours--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the transgressive contours for the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The vector file is included in...

  12. Transgressive Contours--Salt Point to Drakes Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the transgressive contours for the Salt Point to Drakes Bay, California, region. The vector file is included in...

  13. Sediment Thickness--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the sediment-thickness map of the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  14. Isopachs--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the isopachs for the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The vector data file is included in...

  15. Depth to Transition--Salt Point to Drakes Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the depth-to-transition map of the Salt Point to Drakes Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  16. South Bay Salt Ponds Restoration Project : Final Data Acquisition Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides the Data Acquisition Plan for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project. The purpose of the Data Acquisition Plan is to guide the...

  17. San Francisco Bay, California as seen from STS-59

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    San Francisco Bay as seen from STS-59. View is oriented with the sea up. The delta of the combined Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers occupies the foreground with San Francisco Bay in the middle distance, then the Pacific Ocean. Variations in water color caused both by sediment load and by wind streaking strike the eye. Man-made features dominate this scene. The Lafayette/Concord complex is left of the bay head, Vallejo is to the right, the Berkeley/Oakland complex rims the shoreline of the main bay, and San Francisco fills the peninsula beyond. Salt-evaporation ponds contain differently-colored algae depending on salinity. The low altitude (less than 120 nautical miles) and unusually-clear air combine to provide unusually-strong green colors in this Spring scene.

  18. Habitat--Offshore of Half Moon Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, California. The polygon shapefile is included in...

  19. Tampa Bay Topographic/Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In this joint demonstration project for the Tampa Bay region, NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have merged NOAA bathymetric...

  20. Environmental Contaminants Evaluation of St. Andrew Bay, Florida: Volume 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between 1985 and 1997, a general survey of St. Andrew Bay, Florida, was conducted to measure chemical contaminant concentrations in the sediments and selected...

  1. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Annual Narrative 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1980. The report begins with a general...

  2. Circulation and geostrophic transport in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Murty, V.S.N.

    Utilising the hydrographic data collected during the early northeast monsoon of 1983 and southwest monsoon of 1984, the circulation of waters of the Bay of Bengal and the associated volume transport have been studied in the upper 1000 m...

  3. Review of Neutrino Mixing and Results from Daya Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental observations have established that neutrinos undergo flavor oscillations as they propagate due to quantum mechanical mixing between the mass states and flavor states. The Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment has observed the disappearance of electron-type antineutrinos from nuclear reactor cores at the Daya Bay nuclear power complex located in China. This observation allowed Daya Bay to make a measurement of the last neutrino mixing angle, which was previously only known to be small in comparison to the other neutrino mixing angles. An overview of the current status of neutrino oscillation measurements will be presented, followed by the most recent results from Daya Bay and prospects for JUNO, a future neutrino experiment in China

  4. California Least Tern breeding survey south San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents the field work conducted by members -of the South Bay Institute for Avian Studies during 1981. The primary purpose of this study was to survey...

  5. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Back Bay NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  6. Macrofouling community structure in Kanayama Bay, Kii Peninsula (Japan)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Harada, E.

    of fouling organisms were monitored at monthly intervals. Fortnightly variations in hydrographic parameters were also noted simultaneously. The fouling community at this bay was a complex assemblage of bryozoans, ascidians, polychaetes and barnacles...

  7. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Anuran Data Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Species richness, average call index, and total number of calls recorded for each anuran species detected at Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge from 20002004.

  8. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — One of the most important functions of the southern Monterey Bay coastal system is its role as a habitat for a unique flora and fauna. The beaches are habitat for...

  9. Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan CCP was written to guide management on Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge...

  10. San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission : Annual Report 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Congress passed, and the President signed into law, legislation establishing the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. When the purchase of property for...

  11. Letter to President [Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Assistant Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Back Bay Wilderness area. The letter...

  12. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Croplands Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Cropland Management Plan focuses on the production of supplemental grain and browse foods to maintain wildlife populations at...

  13. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and...

  14. San Francisco Bay, California 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second San Francisco Bay, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This...

  15. Faults--Drakes Bay and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data of faults for the geologic and geomorphologic map of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is...

  16. Folds--Drakes Bay and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data of folds for the geologic and geomorphologic map of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is...

  17. Physical oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Murty, V.S.N.; Suryanarayana, A.

    Physical oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea is reviewed for the first time. All available information for over 50 years is consolidated in this review. To begin with, information on peripheral or related aspects of climate...

  18. Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1938 to provide habitat and protection for migratory birds. Management objectives have since been expanded to...

  19. Species List for Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a species list of fish, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles that are either common to the Back Bay area or have ranges that extend into this region. This list...

  20. Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles Data of San Francisco Bay Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Dataset consists of two-dimensional marine seismic reflection profile data from the San Francisco Bay area. These data were acquired in 1995, with the vessel Robert...

  1. Backscatter B [Swath]--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Drakes bay and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  2. Environmental Assessment: Impoundment Rehabilitation on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to rehabilitate the wetland impoundments of Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. The environmental assessment describes...

  3. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, and seabirds in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  4. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting seabirds (alcids, pelagic birds), gulls, terns, diving birds, and raptors in the Bristol Bay...

  5. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Critical Habitats, Wildlife Refuges, National Park lands, and other management areas in the Bristol Bay Subarea....

  6. Occoquan Bay National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Occoquan Bay National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of...

  7. San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on San Pablo Bay NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  8. Hunting plan for San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This migratory waterfowl hunting plan for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge allows waterfowl hunting on certain areas of the Refuge. Aerial...

  9. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore Half Moon Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as two...

  10. Erection of the Apollo Service Module in High Bay #3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Erection of the Apollo Service module in High Bay #3 of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This view is of the aft bulkhead showing the high-gain antenna and engine bell.

  11. Isopachs--Salt Point to Drakes Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the sediment-thickness map of the Salt Point to Drakes Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  12. Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles Data of San Francisco Bay Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Dataset consists of two-dimensional marine seismic reflection profile data from the San Francisco Bay area. These data were acquired in 1997, with the vessel Davidt...

  13. Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles Data of San Francisco Bay Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Dataset consists of two-dimensional marine seismic reflection profile data from the San Francisco Bay area. These data were acquired in 1993, with the vessel David...

  14. Searching for θ13 at Daya Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giedt, Joel [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Napolitano, James [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    An experiment has been carried out by the Daya Bay Collaboration to measure the neutrino mixing angle θ13. In addition, the grant has supported research into lattice field theory beyond the standard model.

  15. Neah Bay, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Neah Bay, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  16. Possible effects of Bay fill on air quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Baylands Subcommittee is seeking background information on the effects and ramifications of developing those parts of San Francisco Bay that lie in Santa Clara...

  17. BENTHIC MACROFAUNA-HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS IN WILLAPA BAY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuary-wide benthic macrofauna-habitat associations in Willapa Bay, Washington, United States, were determined for 4 habitats (eelgrass [Zostera marina], Atlantic cordgrass [Spartina alterniflora], mud shrimp [Upogebia pugettensis], ghost shrimp [Neotrypaea californiensis]) in 1...

  18. BENTHIC MACROFAUNA-HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS IN WILLAPA BAY, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrofauna-habitat relationships were determined estuary-wide in Willapa Bay, WA for four intertidal habitats ((1) eelgrass, Zostera marina, (2) Atlantic cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, (3) ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, (4) mud shrimp, Upogebia pugettensis) i...

  19. Arctic cisco stable isotope data, Prudhoe Bay, August 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set documents the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of age-0 Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) captured in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in August 2009....

  20. Grand Bay National Wildlilfe Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  1. Delaware Bay, Delaware Sediment Distribution 2003 to 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 38 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2003 to 2004 along the middle to lower Delaware Bay Coast. The bottom sediment map...

  2. Calculation of Environmental Capacity of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Jiaozhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克强; 王修林; 邓宁宁; 石晓勇; 祝陈坚; 韩秀荣; 胡海燕

    2004-01-01

    The method has been established to calculate the environmental capacity (ECo),surplus environment capacity (SECo) of water with respect to marine petroleum hydrocarbons associated with oil (PHAOs) and the self-purification capacity (SPCo) of main self-purification process to PHAOs in the Jiaozhou Bay, China, according to the dynamic model for distribution of marine PHAOs among multiphase environments. The variation of concentration of PHAOs in the Jiaozhou Bay is well simulated by the dynamic model. Based on the model,the EC., SEC. of water with respect to PHAOs in the Jiaozhou Bay were calculated during the last 10 years under the first-class and second-class quality standard requirement, according to SPCoof main self-purification process to PHAOs. The results show that about 200 tons of PHAOs could be discharged into the Jiaozhou Bay for maintaining the first class seawater quality standard, and about 600 tons of PHAOs for the second class seawater quality standard later.

  3. Narrative Report : San Francisco Bay NWR Complex : Fiscal Year 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1974. The report begins with a general...

  4. Trapping Management Plan: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge trapping plan outlines trapping areas, species, regulations, equipment, and seasons. This plan will allow harvest of a...

  5. Eureka Littoral Cell CRSMP Humboldt Bay Shoreline Types 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In 2011 Aldaron Laird walked and kayaked the entire shoreline of Humboldt Bay mapping the shoreline conditions onto 11x17 laminated fieldmaps at a scale of 1' =...

  6. Results of Back Bay Nutrient Sampling, April 1986 - March 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To determine nutrient levels in Back Bay, water samples were collected monthly from April, 1986 through March, 1987. Surface water samples were collected at six...

  7. Microplastic contamination in the San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Mason, Sherri A; Stanek, Shavonne K; Willis-Norton, Ellen; Wren, Ian F; Box, Carolynn

    2016-08-15

    Despite widespread detection of microplastic pollution in marine environments, data describing microplastic abundance in urban estuaries and microplastic discharge via treated municipal wastewater are limited. This study presents information on abundance, distribution, and composition of microplastic at nine sites in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Also presented are characterizations of microplastic in final effluent from eight wastewater treatment plants, employing varying treatment technologies, that discharge to the Bay. With an average microplastic abundance of 700,000particles/km(2), Bay surface water appears to have higher microplastic levels than other urban waterbodies sampled in North America. Moreover, treated wastewater from facilities that discharge into the Bay contains considerable microplastic contamination. Facilities employing tertiary filtration did not show lower levels of contamination than those using secondary treatment. As textile-derived fibers were more abundant in wastewater, higher levels of fragments in surface water suggest additional pathways of microplastic pollution, such as stormwater runoff. PMID:27289280

  8. Seafloor character--Offshore of Half Moon Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map of the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, California. The raster data file is included in...

  9. Field guide to fishes of the chesapeake bay

    CERN Document Server

    Murdy, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    The only comprehensive field guide to the Chesapeake’s fishes, this book is an indispensable resource for both anglers and students of the Bay. Vivid illustrations by Val Kells complement the expertise of researchers Edward O. Murdy and John A. Musick. They describe fishes that inhabit waters ranging from low-salinity estuaries to the point where the Bay meets the Atlantic Ocean. Key features of this field guide include• full-color illustrations of more than 200 species• text that is presented adjacent to illustrations for easy reference• detailed descriptions of physical characteristics, range, occurrence in the Bay, reproduction, diet, and statistics from fisheries research• spot illustrations that highlight critical features of certain fish• illustrations of juveniles when they look different from adults• appendices that include identification keys Formatted as a compact field guide for students, scientists, researchers, and fishermen, Field Guide to Fishes of the Chesapeake Bay should be a ...

  10. Massachusetts Bay - Internal wave packets digitized from SAR imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains internal wave packets digitized from SAR imagery at 1:350,000 scale in Massachusetts Bay. Internal waves are nonsinusoidal waves that...

  11. History of the Bristol Bay investigation, 1938-1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This manuscript is an unedited narrative account of the authors personal recollections of the history of the investigations of the biology of salmon in Bristol Bay...

  12. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Kachemak Bay Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Kachemak Bay system...

  13. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - San Francisco Bay Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the San Francisco Bay...

  14. Healthy Diet, Exercise May Help Keep Alzheimer's At Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160477.html Healthy Diet, Exercise May Help Keep Alzheimer's at Bay Study finds people who are active ... your brain free of changes that lead to Alzheimer's disease, a small study suggests. Researchers studied 44 ...

  15. Bayes Linear Sufficiency in Non-exchangeable Multivariate Multiple Regressions

    OpenAIRE

    Wooff, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider sufficiency for Bayes linear revision for multivariate multiple regression problems, and in particular where we have a sequence of multivariate observations at different matrix design points, but with common parameter vector. Such sequences are not usually exchangeable. However, we show that there is a sequence of transformed observations which is exchangeable and we demonstrate that their mean is sufficient both for Bayes linear revision of the parameter vector and for prediction...

  16. Andreeva Bay Programme: Contributions of the European Commission

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves, Joao; Andersen, Martin; GRIGORIEV Anatoly; Pimenov, Alexander; PLYSHEVSKAYA Daria

    2013-01-01

    Large quantities of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste coming from the nuclear submarines and other nuclear powered ships have been accumulated in the former naval base at Andreeva Bay (Kola Peninsula, Murmansk Region). The Andreeva Bay site accumulating approximately 22,000 spent nuclear fuel assemblies is currently considered the largest storage facility in North-West of Russia. Nowadays storage conditions do not meet safety requirements and prospectively pose serious environmen...

  17. No supertankers for the new port at Botany Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niland, J.

    1978-02-17

    The Botany Bay Community Advisory Committee voted 10-3 against supertankers or VLCC's of 200,000 dwt and over for the port. The committee chaired by J. Niland (Univ. N.S.W.) and established by the New South Wales State Government in 1977, comprises representatives of local environmental groups, councils, citizen bodies, and unions. The unions and the New South Wales Maritime Services Board favor allowing the supertankers in the bay.

  18. A multidimensional unfolding method based on Bayes' theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayes' Theorem offers a natural way to unfold experimental distributions in order to get the best estimates of the true ones. The weak point of the Bayes approach, namely the need of the knowledge of the initial distribution, can be overcome by an iterative procedure. Since the method proposed here does not make use of continuous variables, but simply of cells in the spaces of the true and of the measured quantities, it can be applied in multidimensional problems. (orig.)

  19. Ranking Drugs in Spontaneous Reporting System by Naive Bayes

    OpenAIRE

    P. Thirumalaikolundu Subramanian; S. Appavu Alias Balamurugan; A. Bazila Banu

    2013-01-01

    In this study detection of association between drugs and Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs), is carried out by using Naive Bayes method. Adverse event reports submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were reviewed to find top 10 drugs causing frequent ADRs for a particular period. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate drugs associated with list of outcomes provided by FDA. For a particular category of disease, drugs creating outcomes are ranked using Naive Bayes ...

  20. Chemical spill characteristics in the San Diego Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriakidis, Kleanthis; Peter C. Chu

    2011-01-01

    Marine Technology Society Journal, 45 (2), 52-58 Dispersion of ocean pollutants in estuarine environments and bays (such as San 46 Diego Bay) depends on the location of the source of the pollutants relative to the 47 mouth and the tidal excursion, which is the net horizontal distance over which a 48 pollutant particle moves during one tidal cycle offlood and ebb. Pollutant dispersion 49 was investigated using a coupled hydrodynamic and chemical discharge model in 50 this stud...

  1. Wetland Tracker Data Collection Central Coast (Morro Bay Region)

    OpenAIRE

    Michie, Matthew; Watson, Fred; Casagrande, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this project was to gather information on wetland restoration projects in the Moro Bay, California, region. Data provided to the San Francisco Estuary Institute (SFEI) will be used to enhance a web-based, public access database, the Bay Area Wetland Project Tracker. Wetland Tracker provides information on the location, size, sponsors, habitats, contact persons, and status of included projects. Its website provides an interactive map of planned and completed wetland projects (ht...

  2. Environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana De Oliveira Fistarol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g. virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms, or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g. vibrios. Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift towards flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  3. Nitrogen and phosphorus intake by phytoplankton in the Xiamen Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林彩; 林辉; 贺青; 许焜灿; 吴省三; 张元标; 陈金民; 陈宝红; 林力斌; 卢美鸾; 陈维芬; 汤荣坤; 暨卫东

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a time series experiment examining the nitrogen and phosphorus intake of natural phytoplankton communities by a microcosms approach.Seawater samples containing natural phytoplankton communities were collected from waters around Baozhu Islet in inner Xiamen Bay and around Qingyu Islet in the outer bay.The goal was to elucidate the relationship between phytoplankton population enhancement,the biological removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the seawater,and the phytoplankton nitrogen an...

  4. Diversity of Denitrifying Bacteria in the San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atluri, A.; Lee, J.; Francis, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    We compared the diversity of communities of denitrifying bacteria from the San Francisco Bay to investigate whether environmental factors affect diversity. To do this, we studied the sequence diversity of the marker gene nirK. nirK codes for the enzyme nitrite reductase which helps reduce nitrite to nitric oxide, an important step in denitrification. Sediment samples were collected spatially from five different locations and temporally during the four different seasons along a salinity gradient in the bay. After collecting samples and extracting DNA from them, we used PCR to amplify our gene of interest, created clone libraries for sequencing, and compared phylogenetic trees from the different communities. Based on several phylogenetic analyses on our tree and environments, we saw that denitrifying bacteria from the North and Central Bay form distinct spatial clusters; Central Bay communities are very similar to each other, while communities from the North Bay are more distinct from each other and from communities in the Central Bay. Bacteria from site 8.1M (Carquinez Strait) showed the most cm-scale spatial diversity, and there was the most species richness during the winter. All this suggests that diversity of communities of denitrifying bacteria may be affected by spatial and temporal environmental factors.

  5. Salinity pathways between Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kailasam, Muni

    2016-07-01

    Surface as well as subsurface salinity are highly heterogeneous in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Due to the strong seasonal reversal of currents in the two seas tremendous salt exchange occurred. The present study focuses on the exchange of salt between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal by using remote sensing observations like SMOS and Aquarius. Inflow of high salinity water from the central Arabians Sea into the south Bay of Bengal is significant and occurs during August-September. Freshwater transport out of the Bay of Bengal is southward throughout the year along the along the east coast of the Indian sub-continent. Only a small fraction of low salinity water is advected into the eastern Arabian Sea from the Bay of Bengal. The pathways of salinity between the two seas are also examined using SODA data. It shows that relatively low salinity Bay of Bengal water is transported southward across the equator throughout the year. A considerable southward cross-equatorial exchange of Arabian Sea water occurs during the southwest monsoon season.

  6. Southern San Francisco Bay Colonial Nesting Bird Census 1995-1996: Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the 1995-1996 field season of the San Francisco Bay Bird Observatory (SFBBO) Colonial Waterbird Monitoring Study on the Don Edwards San...

  7. Soundscape Ecology of Hawaiian Spinner Dolphin Resting Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenehan, Heather Leigh

    Sound is a key sensory modality for Hawaiian spinner dolphins. Like many other marine animals, these dolphins rely on sound and their acoustic environment for many aspects of their daily lives, making it is essential to understand soundscape in areas that are critical to their survival. Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest during the day in shallow coastal areas and forage offshore at night. In my dissertation I focus on the soundscape of the bays where Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest taking a soundscape ecology approach. I primarily relied on passive acoustic monitoring using four DSG-Ocean acoustic loggers in four Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting bays on the Kona Coast of Hawai'i Island. 30-second recordings were made every four minutes in each of the bays for 20 to 27 months between January 8, 2011 and March 30, 2013. I also utilized concomitant vessel-based visual surveys in the four bays to provide context for these recordings. In my first chapter I used the contributions of the dolphins to the soundscape to monitor presence in the bays and found the degree of presence varied greatly from less than 40% to nearly 90% of days monitored with dolphins present. Having established these bays as important to the animals, in my second chapter I explored the many components of their resting bay soundscape and evaluated the influence of natural and human events on the soundscape. I characterized the overall soundscape in each of the four bays, used the tsunami event of March 2011 to approximate a natural soundscape and identified all loud daytime outliers. Overall, sound levels were consistently louder at night and quieter during the daytime due to the sounds from snapping shrimp. In fact, peak Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting time co-occurs with the quietest part of the day. However, I also found that humans drastically alter this daytime soundscape with sound from offshore aquaculture, vessel sound and military mid-frequency active sonar. During one recorded mid

  8. Recipient Capacity of Tvaeren, a Baltic Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research station at Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast and includes several reactors and laboratories, a waste disposal plant serving both the station and waste producers outside Studsvik. A storage plant for irradiated fuel from power reactors has also been built. A total of 850 people are employed. The waste disposal plant was designed for a personnel of 900 using foreign information to correlate waste amounts to personnel. After a delay production has increased at a rate very close to the one expected. The composition of the waste is varied and difficult to predict. Minor amounts of fission products, active corrosion products, and fissile materials have been detected. Most of the waste activity is released to a strait leading into the Bay. Large volumes of water with very low specific activity are released immediately off the coast. Hydrological and dispersion data for the bay are quoted from a paper presented at the symposium mentioned below. The Baltic has brackish water. Both the chemistry and the biology are quite different from those of marine or fresh water recipients. A short description is given of the fauna and flora and important food webs are discussed. The different ways in which man is exposed to radioactivity in waste releases are dependent upon biological accumulation in living organisms and adsorption to dead materials. Fish consumption is the type of exposure which is likely to be the most critical, though it is possible that the exposure from sunbathing and fishing-gear handling could reach similar significance if conservative calculations are used. Accumulation factors from water to fish are given for iron, cobalt,and zinc . Permissible releases have been calculated using relevant accumulation factors. Fission products and corrosion products seem to be of similar significance with regard to possible human exposure. Permission to release liquid waste is granted by water courts in Sweden and operations inspected by special authorities

  9. Environmental geology of Harrison Bay, northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.D.; Thrasher, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The surficial and shallow subsurface geology of Harrison Bay on the Beaufort Sea coast was mapped as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's prelease evaluation for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 71. During the 1980 summer season, approximately 1600 km of multisensored, high-resolution geophysical profile data were collected along a rectangular grid with 4.8 km line spacing. Interpretation of these data is presented on five maps showing bathymetry, sea-floor microrelief, ice-gouge characteristics, Holocene sediment thickness, and geologic structure to depths of approximately 1000 m. On a broad scale, the seafloor is shallow and almost flat, although microrelief features produced by sediment transport and ice-gouge processes typically vary up to several meters in amplitude. Microrelief bedforms related to hydraulic processes are predominant in water depths less than 12 m. Microrelief caused by ice gouging generally increases with water depth, reaching a maximum of 2 m or more in water depths beyond the 20 m isobath. This intensely gouged area lies beneath the shear zone between the seasonal landfast ice and the mobile polar ice pack. The thickness of recent (Holocene) sediment increases offshore, from 2 m near the Colville River delta to 30 m or more on the outer shelf. The thin Holocene layer is underlain by a complex horizon interpreted to be the upper surface of a Pleistocene deposit similar in composition to the present Arctic Coastal Plain. The base of the inferred Pleistocene section is interpreted to be a low-angle unconformity 100 m below sea level. Beneath this Tertiary-Quaternary unconformity, strata are interpreted to be alluvial fan-delta plain deposits corresponding to the Colville Group and younger formations of Late Cretaceous to Tertiary age. Numerous high-angle faults downthrown to the north trend across the survey area. With few exceptions, these faults terminate at or below the 100 m unconformity, suggesting that most tectonism

  10. Study on origin and sedimentary environment of marine sediments from Kii Channel, Hiroshima Bay and Tosa Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trace amounts of elements in the sediments of sea bottom in Kii Channel, Hiroshima Bay and Tosa Bay were determined quantitatively by the neutron activation analysis. The following facts were illustrated particularly from the quantitative analysis of scandium, rare earths, thorium and uranium: 1) It was known from Ce/La ratio that the geological feature in the west part of Japan is reflected in Kii Channel, Hiroshima Bay and Tosa Bay; 2) The rare-earth element pattern and La/Lu ratio suggest the fact that Kii Channel, Hiroshima Bay and Tosa Bay are essentially composed of the materials of which origin is land; 3) From the fact that Ce/La ratio in these sites are slightly under 1.0, these sites are considered to be affected mainly by the materials of which origin is land; 4) The sedimentary environment in the marine bottom of the Japanese coasts has been found to be mostly under a reductive state. (M.H.)

  11. Demographic responses of amphibians to wetland restoration in Carolina bays on the Savannah River Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinkead, Karen E.

    2004-09-30

    This project studied the effects of wetland restoration on amphibian populations. These wetlands were Carolina bays located on the Savannah River Site, located near Aiken, S.C. The Savannah River Site is a National Environmental Research Park owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy. The study sites included three reference bays (functionally intact), three control bays (with active drainage ditches), six treatment bays (restored during 2001), and four bays near two of the treatment bays (in effect creating two metapopulations).

  12. Abundance patterns of macrofauna and infauna in nursery habitats of Christmas Bay, Texas: July 1984 through June 1985.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between July 1984 and June 1985, monthly samples were collected from marsh, seagrass, and nonvegetated habitats in Christmas Bay and West Bay in the Galveston Bay...

  13. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Highlights from the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With an understanding of the energy response of the anti-neutrino detectors, the Daya Bay collaboration presents new results using gadolinium-neutron capture: sin2 2θ13 = 0.108 ± 0.028 and |Δmee2| = 2.55−0.18+0.21 × 10−3 eV2 with only the distortion information of the neutrino energy spectrum shape, and sin2 2θ13 = 0.090−0.009+0.008 and |Δmee2| = 2.59−0.20+0.19 10−3 eV2 with both the shape and event rate information. It is also demonstrated that a clean inverse beta decay sample can be extracted using hydrogen-neutron capture, which is now being used for neutrino oscillation measurement. The supernova online trigger is designed and implemented, which can provide about 100% efficiency for all SN1987A-scale supernova bursts within the Milky Way.

  15. Atmospheric deposition fluxes to Monetary Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, E.; Paytan, A.; Ryan, J.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition has been widely recognized as a source of pollutants and nutrients to coastal ecosystems. Specifically, deposition includes nitrogen compounds, sulfur compounds, mercury, pesticides, phosphate, trace metals and other toxic compounds that can travel great distances. Sources of these components include both natural (volcanoes, mineral dust, forest fires) and anthropogenic (fossil fuels, chemical byproducts, incineration of waste) sources, which may contribute to harmful health and environmental impacts such as eutrophication, contaminated fish and harmful algal blooms. This study looks at the flux of aerosol deposition (TSP - total suspended particle load) to Monterey Bay, California. Samples are collected on a cascade impactor aerosol sampler (size fractions PM 2.5 and PM 10) every 48 hours continuously. Preliminary results indicate that the TSP for PM 10 ranged from 0.026 to 0.104 mg m-3 of air and for PM 2.5 from 0.014 to 0.046 mg m-3 of air. Using a deposition velocity of 2 cm s-1 for the large fraction (PM10 - PM 2.5) and a deposition velocity of 0.7 cm s-1 for the fine fraction (PM 2.5) deposition rates are 13 and 86 mg m-2 d-1 respectively.

  16. Cathodic Protection of the Yaquina Bay Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Laylor, H.M.; Cryer, C.B.

    2001-02-01

    The Yaquina Bay Bridge in Newport, Oregon, was designed by Conde B. McCullough and built in 1936. The 3,223-foot (982 m) structure is a combination of concrete arch approach spans and a steel through arch over the shipping channel. Cathodic protection is used to prevent corrosion damage to the concrete arches. The Oregon Department of Transportation (Oregon DOT) installed a carbon anode coating (DAC-85) on two of the north approach spans in 1985. This anode was operated at a current density of 6.6 mA/m2(0.6 mA/ft2). No failure of the conductive anode was observed in 1990, five years after application, or in 2000, 15 years after application. Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes 20 mils (0.5 mm) thick were applied to half the south approach spans beginning in 1990. Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes 15 mils (0.4 mm) thick were applied to the remaining spans in 1996. These anodes were operated at a current density of 2.2 mA/m2(0.2 mA/ft2). In 1999, four zones on the approach spans were included in a two-year field trial of humectants to improve zinc anode performance. The humectants LiNO3 and LiBr were applied to two zones; the two adjacent zones were left untreated as controls. The humectants substantially reduced circuit resistance compared to the controls.

  17. Ranking Popular Items By Naive Bayes Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiramshetty Gouthami

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of ranking popular items is getting increasing interest from a number of research areas. Several algorithms have been proposed for this task. The described problem of ranking and suggesting items arises in diverse applications include interactive computational system for helping people to leverage social information; in technical these systems are called social navigation systems. These social navigation systems help each individual in their performance and decision making over selecting the items. Based on the each individual response the ranking and suggesting of popular items were done. The individual feedback might be obtained by displaying a set of suggested items, where the selection of items is based on the preference of the individual. The aim is to suggest popular items by rapidly studying the true popularity ranking of items. The difficulty in suggesting the true popular items to the users can give emphasis to reputation for some items but may mutilate the resulting item ranking for other items. So the problem of ranking and suggesting items affected many applications including suggestions and search query suggestions for social tagging systems. In this paper we propose Naïve Bayes algorithm for ranking and suggesting popular items.

  18. What is Still Bay? Human biogeography and bifacial point variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Will; Pop, Cornel M; Gunz, Philipp; McPherron, Shannon P

    2016-08-01

    'Still Bay' is the name given to a cultural phase within the southern African Middle Stone Age, which remains critical to our understanding of modern human behavioural evolution. Although represented in only a handful of sites, the Still Bay is widespread geographically and, at certain localities, persisted over a substantial period of time. Many studies have focused on tracing the temporal range and geographic reach of the Still Bay, as well as inferring degrees of early modern human demographic connectedness from these parameters. Variation within the Still Bay, relative to the accuracy with which it can be identified, has received considerably less attention. However, demographic models based on the spread of the Still Bay in space and time hinge on the reliability with which it can be recognized in the archaeological record. Here we document patterns of bifacial point shape and size variation in some key Still Bay assemblages, and analyse these patterns using the statistical shape analysis tools of geometric morphometrics. Morphological variation appears to be geographically structured and is driven by the spatial separation between north-eastern and south-western clusters of sites. We argue that allometric variation is labile and reflects environmentally driven differences in point reduction, whereas shape differences unrelated to size more closely reflect technological and cultural fragmentation. Our results suggest that the biogeographic structure of Middle Stone Age populations was complex during the period associated with the Still Bay, and provide little support for heightened levels of cultural interconnectedness between distantly separated groups at this time. We briefly discuss the implications of our findings for tracing classic techno-traditions in the Middle Stone Age record of southern Africa, and for inferring underpinning population dynamics from these patterns. PMID:27457545

  19. 137Cs and 210Pb distribution in Manila Bay sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two radionuclides were measured in surface sediment samples taken from geographically distributed sections of Manila Bay, namely cesium-137 (137Cs) and lead-210 (210Pb). Results indicated a noticeable change in the radioactivity concentration levels in sediments collected in 2005 and 2010, with a median concentration of 1.0 and 2.64 Bq kg-1, respectively. Higher levels of 137Cs radioactivity were measured in the northern and inner portion of the bay adjacent to major river systems, agricultural and highly industrialized urban areas. 137Cs isotope increased in activity in most of the samples especially in the northwestern areas of Bataan and Pampanga with five times more than the activity from the first sampling measurements. Nevertheless, radioactivity concentrations observed in surface sediments along the bay are within the range of radioactivity in several areas monitored in the Northern Hemisphere. The country has been frequented by tropical cyclones and storms that have caused erosion, which may have introduced elevated material input in the bay. In addition, wind-driven circulation especially in the shallower areas of the bay is a possibility for the substantial sediment movement and accumulation along this coast. Conversely, areas with higher 137Cs have lower values of 210Pb. In an undisturbed environment, 210Pb deposition values are assumed nearly constant. Hence, changes in the radioactivity concentration levels of these radionuclides can be an indicator of pollution input from land-based sources, sediment movement and reworking in the coastal areas. At present, there is very limited information on the radioactivity level of various radioisotopes in Manila Bay.The data obtained are benchmark values against which changes that will be occurring in the bay can be assessed. (author)

  20. Plant diversity and biomass of Marudu bay mangroves in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mangroves of Marudu Bay in the state of Sabah is situated at the tip of Borneo Island, and at the southern limit of the Coral Triangle whose waters hold the highest diversity of corals, fish, molluscks, crustaceans and marine plant species in the world. The ecosystem shows a deterioration due to unsustainable fishing, pollution and encroachment, and these are impacting the Marudu Bay coastal communities economically. Fishing is the major economic activity here. Realising the importance of conserving the mangroves to uplift the socio-economic livelihood of the coastal community, a resource inventory of the mangroves and its productivity study were carried out. A total of 16 plant species in 12 genera and 9 families were identified. It was also found that 0.7 ha is capable of capturing all the species in the mangrove forest. The mangrove forests of Marudu Bay are dominated by Rhizopora apiculata and R. mucronata. The highest Importance Value index (IVI) was given by Rhizophora mucronata. Total Above Ground Biomass (TAGB) for 1-ha of mangrove forest in Marudu Bay was estimated to be 98.4 t/ha. It was found in other parallel studies that the mangroves of Marudu Bay are productive ecosystems that provide valuable habitats, nurseries and spawning grounds for various commercially important species of fish and invertebrates such as shrimp besides many species of wildlife. The mangroves at Marudu Bay are not only aesthetically attractive but provide opportunities for ecotourism activities that can be undertaken by the local community inhabiting the area to uplift their meagre income, These activities include mangrove cruising, recreational fishing, educational tourism and mangrove honey production, amongst others. This way, the degradation of the mangrove in Marudu Bay can be halted and reversed. (author)

  1. Derivation of Delaware Bay tidal parameters from space shuttle photography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Quanan; Yan, Xiaohai; Klemas, V. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States))

    1993-06-01

    The tide-related parameters of the Delaware Bay are derived from space shuttle time-series photographs. The water areas in the bay are measured from interpretation maps of the photographs with a CALCOMP 9100 digitizer and ERDAS Image Processing System. The corresponding tidal levels are calculated using the exposure time annotated on the photographs. From these data, an approximate function relating the water area to the tidal level at a reference point is determined. Based on the function, the water areas of the Delaware Bay at mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW), below 0 m, and for the tidal zone are inferred. With MHW and MLW areas and the mean tidal range, the authors calculate the tidal influx of the Delaware Bay, which is 2.76 x 1O[sup 9] m[sup 3]. Furthermore, the velocity of flood tide at the bay mouth is determined using the tidal flux and an integral of the velocity distribution function at the cross section between Cape Henlopen and Cape May. The result is 132 cm/s, which compares well with the data on tidal current charts.

  2. Replacement of tritiated water from irradiated fuel storage bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, I.; Boniface, H.; Suppiah, S.; Kennedy, B.; Minichilli, A.; Mitchell, T. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited - AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Recently, AECL developed a novel method to reduce tritium emissions (to groundwater) and personnel doses at the NRU (National Research Universal) reactor irradiated fuel storage bay (also known as rod or spent fuel bay) through a water swap process. The light water in the fuel bay had built up tritium that had been transferred from the heavy water moderator through normal fuel transfers. The major advantage of the thermal stratification method was that a very effective tritium reduction could be achieved by swapping a minimal volume of bay water and warm tritiated water would be skimmed off the bay surface. A demonstration of the method was done that involved Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of the swap process and a test program that showed excellent agreement with model prediction for the effective removal of almost all the tritium with a minimal water volume. Building on the successful demonstration, AECL fabricated, installed, commissioned and operated a full-scale system to perform a water swap. This full-scale water swap operation achieved a tritium removal efficiency of about 96%.

  3. Thermal Analysis of CANDU Spent Fuel Bay Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent fuel bay cooling and purification system for Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Units 2, 3 and 4 was designed to remove heat from the spent fuel bay generated by 10 years accumulation of spent fuel at an 80% capacity factor refueling rate plus an emergency discharge of one-half the core fuel inventory over a 20-day period for 25.5 .deg. C of the cooling sea water temperature. The heat load in the spent fuel bay depends on the capacity factor refueling rate and the amount of spent fuel accumulated at the spent fuel bay. An 80% capacity factor refueling rate was considered as a design condition, but the highest capacity factor refueling rate of 93.75% for Wolsong NPPs was calculated based on nine (9) years of operating experience from 2000 to 2008. For the abnormal operating condition, the operating temperature of spent fuel bay does not meet with the acceptance criterion of 49 .deg. C for the conditions of the capacity factor refueling rate of 93.75%. These operating modes are not recommended for the abnormal operating condition

  4. Conowingo Reservoir Sedimentation and Chesapeake Bay: State of the Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerco, Carl F

    2016-05-01

    The Conowingo Reservoir is situated on the Susquehanna River, immediately upstream of Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States. Sedimentation in the reservoir provides an unintended benefit to the bay by preventing sediments, organic matter, and nutrients from entering the bay. The sediment storage capacity of the reservoir is nearly exhausted, however, and the resulting increase in loading of sediments and associated materials is a potential threat to Chesapeake Bay water quality. In response to this threat, the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed Assessment was conducted. The assessment indicates the reservoir is in a state of "dynamic equilibrium" in which sediment loads from the upstream watershed to the reservoir are balanced by sediments leaving the reservoir. Increased sediment loads are not a threat to bay water quality. Increased loads of associated organic matter and nutrients are, however, detrimental. Bottom-water dissolved oxygen declines of 0.1 to 0.2 g m are projected as a result of organic matter oxidation and enhanced eutrophication. The decline is small relative to normal variations but results in violations of standards enforced in a recently enacted total maximum daily load. Enhanced reductions in nutrient loads from the watershed are recommended to offset the decline in water quality caused by diminished retention in the reservoir. The assessment exposed several knowledge gaps that require additional investigation, including the potential for increased loading at flows below the threshold for reservoir scour and the nature and reactivity of organic matter and nutrients scoured from the reservoir bottom. PMID:27136154

  5. Thermal Analysis of CANDU Spent Fuel Bay Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Mann; Jang, Ho Cheol; Jang, Jin A.; Kim, Eun Kee [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, WanGyu [KHNP, Uljingun (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The spent fuel bay cooling and purification system for Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Units 2, 3 and 4 was designed to remove heat from the spent fuel bay generated by 10 years accumulation of spent fuel at an 80% capacity factor refueling rate plus an emergency discharge of one-half the core fuel inventory over a 20-day period for 25.5 .deg. C of the cooling sea water temperature. The heat load in the spent fuel bay depends on the capacity factor refueling rate and the amount of spent fuel accumulated at the spent fuel bay. An 80% capacity factor refueling rate was considered as a design condition, but the highest capacity factor refueling rate of 93.75% for Wolsong NPPs was calculated based on nine (9) years of operating experience from 2000 to 2008. For the abnormal operating condition, the operating temperature of spent fuel bay does not meet with the acceptance criterion of 49 .deg. C for the conditions of the capacity factor refueling rate of 93.75%. These operating modes are not recommended for the abnormal operating condition.

  6. Dynamic modeling of Tampa Bay urban development using parallel computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, G.; Crane, M.; Steinwand, D.

    2005-01-01

    Urban land use and land cover has changed significantly in the environs of Tampa Bay, Florida, over the past 50 years. Extensive urbanization has created substantial change to the region's landscape and ecosystems. This paper uses a dynamic urban-growth model, SLEUTH, which applies six geospatial data themes (slope, land use, exclusion, urban extent, transportation, hillside), to study the process of urbanization and associated land use and land cover change in the Tampa Bay area. To reduce processing time and complete the modeling process within an acceptable period, the model is recoded and ported to a Beowulf cluster. The parallel-processing computer system accomplishes the massive amount of computation the modeling simulation requires. SLEUTH calibration process for the Tampa Bay urban growth simulation spends only 10 h CPU time. The model predicts future land use/cover change trends for Tampa Bay from 1992 to 2025. Urban extent is predicted to double in the Tampa Bay watershed between 1992 and 2025. Results show an upward trend of urbanization at the expense of a decline of 58% and 80% in agriculture and forested lands, respectively. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heavy Metal Pollution Evolution in Sediments from Urdaibai Bay (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full Text: The Urdaibai bay is a biosphere reservoir located in the north of Spain. The mayor components of bay sediments come from marls and clays eroded which are deposited together with metallic pollutants present in water, air and rain. For this reason it is possible to study the temporal evolution of the bay pollution by measuring the heavy metal concentrations in the sediments and considering the correspondence with its age. To this aim, sediments cores were taken in two different points of the Urdaibai bay. The cores were cut into 1 cm thick horizontal sections. Sediment dating was performed using a low background gamma spectrometry with GeHP to determine Cs-137, Ra-226 and Pb-210 activities and applying the CIC and CRS models. The heavy metal concentrations in sediments were determined by ICP-MS. The obtained results in one of the studied positions show an increment of the Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr concentrations in the first 10 cm of the sediment core. This fact can be related to an increase of the bay pollution in the last 100 years. In the second studied core the heavy metal concentrations are constant in depth or lower in the superficial layers. This could be due to an increment the deposition rate of eroded material

  8. Chemical Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter in Hiroshima Bay, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, T.; Ishibashi, T.; Imai, A.

    2001-07-01

    The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and hydrophilic DOC (Hil-DOC) in Hiroshima Bay showed clear seasonal changes (high in summer and low in winter), suggesting the autochthonous production of Hil-DOC. The percentages of hydrophobic DOC (Hob-DOC) fractionated by XAD-8 resin were 33% for the bay waters and 41% for the river waters, whereas those of labile DOC (which decomposed during an incubation period of 100 days) were 20% and 24%, respectively. The increment of DOC to Chlorophyll a was calculated to be (0·014 mgl -1)/(μgl -1). The mixing experiments suggested a negligible deposition of DOC at the estuaries of inflowing rivers. The Hob-DOC went through the bay with negligible changes in concentration in both summer and winter, but its chemical characteristics, e.g. spectrophotometric properties and mean molecular weight, differed from those of riverine origin. In contrast, both labile and refractory components of Hil-DOC were produced mainly in the inner part of the bay during summer, and although a significant percentage of the labile component was subjected to biodegradation during transport to the outer part of the bay, its chemical characteristics did not change dramatically.

  9. Dioxin toxin equivalents, PCBs, and PBDEs in eggs of avian wildlife of San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — San Francisco Bay (Bay) is considered an impaired waterbody under section 303 (d) of the Clean Water Act due to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and 2, 3, 7,...

  10. Sediment profile image data from October 1999 in Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve and the NOAA Office for Coastal Management worked together to map benthic habitats within Apalachicola Bay,...

  11. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and coastal areas of Bristol Bay...

  12. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Ellicot Slough NWR, Salinas River NWR, and...

  13. EnviroAtlas -- Green Bay, Wisconsin -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Green Bay, WI one meter-scale urban land cover (LC) dataset comprises 936 km2 around the city of Green Bay, surrounding towns, tribal lands and rural areas in...

  14. Detection of dechallenge in spontaneous reporting systems: A comparison of Bayes methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bazila Banu

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Detecting dechallenge for unknown samples are essential for proper prescription. To overcome the issues exposed by Naive Bayes algorithm, Improved Naive Bayes algorithm can be used to detect dechallenge in terms of higher accuracy and minimal error.

  15. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for San Francisco Bay NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, Ellicott Slough NWR, and Salinas River NWR outlines...

  16. Prospect of Oil/Gas Exploration in Beach Area of Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gansheng; Dou Lirong; Yuan Lingling; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Introduction Located in beach zone along Bohai Bay, the beach area of Bohai Bay basin is restricted between coastline and water depth of 5 m, stretching from Bayuquan to Huludao, Liaoning Province and Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province to Weihekou, Shandong Province.

  17. Back Bay, Virginia: A literature review and synthesis of natural resource status and trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several trends have been observed over time in Back Bay. The salinity of Back Bay has fluctuated up and down between saline, slightly brackish, and a nearly...

  18. Water characteristics, mixing and circulation in the Bay of Bengal during southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Rao, D.P.; Murty, C.S.

    Influence of the freshwater influx, the wind forcing and the Indian Ocean monsoon drift current on the property distributions and the circulation in the Bay of Bengal during southwest monsoon has been quantified. At the head of the Bay, waters...

  19. Presettlement Vegetation and Natural Fire Regimes of the Grand Bay/Banks Lake Natural Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this project was to develop maps of the original vegetation and original fireregimes of the Grand Bay-Old Field Bay-Banks Lake wetland complex to...

  20. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for San Francisco Bay NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, and Ellicott Slough NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  1. Seasonality of Chesapeake Bay bacterioplankton species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberg, J F; Heidelberg, K B; Colwell, R R

    2002-11-01

    Bacteria, gamma-subclass of Proteobacteria, Vibrio-Photobacterium, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio cholerae-Vibrio mimicus, and Vibrio cincinnatiensis in water samples collected from the Choptank River in Chesapeake Bay from 15 April to 16 December 1996 were enumerated using a fluorescent oligonucleotide direct-counting (FODC) procedure. FODC results obtained using a Bacteria taxon-specific probe ranged from one-third the number of to the same number as that obtained by the acridine orange direct count (AODC) procedure. The abundance of individual taxa (per liter) ranged from 0.25 x 10(10) to 2.6 x 10(10) Bacteria, 0.32 x 10(8) to 3.1 x 10(8) gamma-Proteobacteria, 0.2 x 10(8) to 2.1 x 10(8) Vibrio-Photobacterium, 0.5 x 10(7) to 10 x 10(7) V. vulnificus, 0.2 x 10(6) to 6 x 10(6) V. cholerae-V. mimicus, and 0.5 x 10(5) to 8 x 10(5) V. cincinnatiensis. The occurrence of all taxa monitored in this study was higher in summer; however, these taxa made up a larger proportion of the Bacteria when the water temperature was low. Large fluctuations in species abundance as well as in percent composition of Vibrio-Photobacterium occurred from week to week, indicating that localized blooms of these taxa occur. The cross-Choptank River transect sample profile of V. vulnificus and V. cholerae-V. mimicus varied significantly in abundance, and trans-Choptank River transect samples revealed a patchy distribution. PMID:12406742

  2. Performance indicators at Daya Bay NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever since the commercial operation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS), dynamic objective management concept that features modern enterprises has been adopted by the station to manage all operational activities with the guidance of business plan. And some quantitative indicators have been employed in order to measure effectively the progress of these operational activities. After several years of evolvement, a hierarchical and standard performance indicators system has been developed and is playing an active role in the plant's efforts towards top quartile of the world nuclear power industry. Structured hierarchically with higher levels resolving into lower levels and lower levels committing to higher levels, the indicator system not only reflects performance-based management concept, but also shows the process-oriented control concept. Indicators of a certain level serve as both early warnings to superior indicators (lagging indicators in this case) and effects to inferior indicators (leading indicators in this case). The dynamic status of these indicators, numbered more than 230, will eventually be fed back to the business plan and realized through daily work of every branch, and even every member of the workforce. With the indicator system as a quantitative management tool and an effective tracking system, GNPS has achieved good results in self-assessment, objective definition, improvement follow up, resource allocation, and management-staff communication. Periodic plant performance assessment is performed through spider chart and other patterns of graphics. Indicators are displayed at the plant entrance, offices, Main Control Room and CIS (Corporate Information System) network, where every worker gets access to and care for the performance of the plant. Root cause analysis is carried out and improvement measures are made when certain indicator is at unfavorable trend. The indicator system, together with its tracking system, has been applied all over the

  3. Characteristics of Escherichia coli grown in bay water as compared with rich medium.

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, T J

    1983-01-01

    Membrane-filtered bay water can support a certain degree of growth of Escherichia coli organisms isolated from the bay water or from sewage. The effect of the growth medium (bay water versus rich medium) on sensitivities to antimicrobial agents and cell envelope proteins was studied in many of these strains. Bay water-grown cells were less sensitive to bacteriophages and colicins, but were more sensitive to heavy metals and detergents as compared with rich-medium-grown cells. These results in...

  4. Literature Review of Unconsolidated Sediment in San Francisco Bay and Nearby Pacific Ocean Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Barry R.

    2009-01-01

    A review of the geologic literature regarding sedimentation in the San Francisco Bay estuarine system shows that the main part of the bay occupies a structural tectonic depression that developed in Pleistocene time. Eastern parts, including San Pablo Bay and Suisun Bay, have had sedimentation throughout late Mesozoic and Tertiary. Carquinez Strait and the Golden Gate may represent antecedent stream erosion. Sedimentation has included estuarine, alluvial, and eolian deposition. The ages of est...

  5. Micro and mesozooplankton composition during winter in Ushuaia and Golondrina Bays (Beagle Channel, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Florencia Biancalana; María Sonia Barría de Cao; Mónica Susana Hoffmeyer

    2007-01-01

    The current paper analyses the micro and mesozooplankton in Ushuaia and Golondrina Bays, the first research on these plankton fractions of these areas in wintertime (August 2004). The number of microzooplankton and mesozooplankton taxa was higher in Ushuaia Bay than in Golondrina Bay. Aloricate ciliates predominated over tintinnids in microzooplankton and holoplankton over meroplankton in mesozooplankton in both bays. Ctenocalanus citer, Drepanopus forcipatus and Clausocalanus brevipes presen...

  6. eBay viib Kadaka teelt Ameerikasse lille- ja merepilte / Andres Kärssin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärssin, Andres, 1971-

    2005-01-01

    Ärimees Nikolai Zenevich kaupleb eBay-s maalidega. Vt. samas: Turg Eesti kollektsionääridele ja turustuskanal ettevõtetele; Raivo Sormunen. eBay on üks väheseid börsimullist pääsejaid; Kertu Ruus. eBay kasvab konkurente üles ostes; eBay juhtiv maksmissüsteem Eestit ei tunnista; Maksuamet: piisava aja- ning inimressursi korral on kontroll võimalik

  7. Seasonal variation of zooplankton abundance, composition and biomass in the Chabahar Bay, Oman Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Neda Fazeli; Ahmad Savari; Seyed Mohamad Bagher Nabavi; Rasool Zare

    2014-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variation of zooplankton abundance, composition and biomass were examined on the Chabahar Bay, Oman Sea. The Chabahar Bay, a subtropical and semi-enclosed bay, provides an ideal breeding ground for many fish and shellfish. Five stations were investigated along the Bay. This area is under the influence of the Indian Ocean seasonal monsoons. Zooplankton was collected with vertical plankton tows using 100 µm mesh nets. Copepods dominated the zooplankton community followed by...

  8. Use of Geographic Information Systems to examine cumulative impacts of development on Mobile Bay, AL and Galveston Bay, TX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Databases from Mobile Bay, Alabama and Galveston Bay, Texas were compiled using ARC/INFO Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to examine the cumulative impacts from urbanization and industrialization on these two Gulf of Mexico estuaries. The databases included information on wetland habitats, pollution sources, metal contamination, bird-nesting sites, and oyster reefs, among others. A series of maps were used to represent the impacts within and between each ecosystem. These two estuaries share many similarities in the types of developmental pressures that each experience. However, difference in the magnitude of industrial activity, pollution loading, and urban growth coupled with distinct hydrodynamic and geochemical differences in sediment mineralogy, freshwater inflows and salinity regimens results in differing responses. With growing human population and extensive oil and gas development, the demands on Galveston Bay are quite different than those placed on Mobile Bay which has lower growth and less extensive oil and gas infrastructure. Mobile Bay tends to retain whatever contamination enters into the system because of the high levels of clay and organic carbon found in its sediment. Some of these chemicals bioaccumulate, posing an extra risk to natural resources. Geographic Information Systems provide natural resource managers with the technology to manage complex databases. The analytical and mapping capabilities of GIS can be used to consider cumulative effects in a regional context and to develop plans to protect ecologically sensitive areas

  9. Bay State announces growth strategies to cope with changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A top executive for New England's biggest independent gas distributor says deregulation of the utility industry offers unprecedented opportunities for growth, but getting there will radically change the way it does business. To achieve dramatic growth, Bay State Gas Co. needs to base their strategies on anticipating the changes in the industry and aggressively positioning themselves to capture the new opportunities that the new business environment is creating. This includes: accelerating the unbundling of transportation service all the way to the residential customer level; forging strategic relationships with retail energy product and service companies as a means of increasing throughput on Bay State's system; implementing performance-based rates that provide financial incentives for lowering costs and improving customer service; accelerating the implementation of sophisticated information systems to streamline key business processes; and aggressively expanding Bay State's nonregulated Energy Products and Services business. These steps are discussed

  10. The Bias in Bayes and How to Measure it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. S. Fraser

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A Bayes prior with a likelihood can give approximate confidence and provide a remarkably flexible approach to statistical inference; but is also known to provide inaccurate perhaps incorrect results. We develop a measure of Bayes bias, first examining a simple Normal model and then progressing to quite general models with scalar and vector parameters. The Bias measure can be interpreted as the lateral displacement of the location standardized likelihood function and thus provides ready access to the effect of a prior on p-values, confidence bounds, and Bayes posterior bounds. The needed computation is comparable to that for the likelihood function and thus provides an initial option for checking merits of Bayesian computation for high dimensions.

  11. Adaptive Nonparametric Empirical Bayes Estimation Via Wavelet Series

    CERN Document Server

    Benhaddou, Rida

    2012-01-01

    The present paper proposes generalization of the linear empirical Bayes estimation method which takes advantage of the flexibility of the wavelet techniques. We present an empirical Bayes estimator as a wavelet series expansion and estimate coefficients by minimizing the prior risk of the estimator. As a result, estimation of wavelet coefficients requires solution of a well-posed low-dimensional sparse system of linear equations. The dimension of the system depends on the size of wavelet support and smoothness of the Bayes estimator. An adaptive choice of the resolution level is carried out using Lepskii (1997) method. The method is computationally efficient and provides asymptotically optimal EB estimators posterior risks of which tend to zero at an optimal rate. The theory is supplemented by numerous examples.

  12. Sedimentation rates in Manila Bay from 210Pb profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manila Bay is one of the water systems affected by red tide occurrences. In an effort to provide an age control to the cyst produced by the red tide causative organism, Pyrodinium bahamense var compressum, several cores were collected from the bay and analyzed for lead-210 (210Pb) by alpha spectrometry. The surface activity ranges from 1.31 dpm/g to 4.56 dpm/g with an average at 3.32 dpm/g. The derived 210Pb vertical profiles indicate a marked increase of 5x to 10x in sedimentation rate in the last ten years in the deeper portions of the bay. This is probably due to the elevated sediment yield of rivers after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 as can be seen in the profiles of the three cores. (Author)

  13. Cyclone formation and development in the Antarctic Prydz Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解思梅; 梅山; 刘克威; 魏立新

    2002-01-01

    Using meteorological data of field observation in 1990~ 2000 , especially polar orbit highresolution NOAA satellite cloud maps received from the Antarctic expedition vessel since 1997, the formation and development of the Prydz Bay cyclone are studied in this paper. Some new viewpoints are suggested such as: when surround-polar cyclone enters the Prydz Bay, it can also intensify and develop in summer; cyclone can also develop in the easterlies in this bay. These view points revise old uncomplete view point that the Prydz Bay is a burial ground of cyclone, and also further consummate formation-development theory of surround-cyclone in the Antarctic westerlies and cyclone in the Antarctic easterlies. In this paper, the mechanism of ice-air-sea interaction in the Prydz Bay is studied, and the physical process of cyclone formation-development is explained. By use of wholly dynamic transportation method, an energy exchange case of a cyclone, which explosively developed after entering the Prydz Bay, is calculated. In the open water area, momentum flux is - 2.205 N/m2, sensible heat flux is 486.69 W/m2, and latent heat flux is 261.84 W/m2. It is larger than values of westerlies burst over the Pacific. The heat transferred from ocean to atmosphere in form of sensible and latent heat promotes cyclone development rapidly. In this case wind force was as strong as 12 grade, with 10 minutes average wind speed of 38 m/s, and instantaneous wind speed of 100 m/s which broke the wind speed record of 96 m/s in the Antarctic (Wendler and Kodama).

  14. A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that

  15. 78 FR 16500 - Rolling Bay, LLC and Indus; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... AGENCY Rolling Bay, LLC and Indus; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... subcontractor, Indus, in accordance with the CBI regulations. Rolling Bay, LLC and its subcontractor, Indus... Rolling Bay, LLC and its subcontractor, Indus, to fulfill the obligations of the contract. DATES:...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1150 - Is a permit required for a vessel in Glacier Bay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vessel in Glacier Bay? 13.1150 Section 13.1150 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Vessel Permits § 13.1150 Is a permit required for a vessel in Glacier Bay? A permit...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1116 - Do I need a camping permit in Glacier Bay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Glacier Bay? 13.1116 Section 13.1116 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.1116 Do I need a camping permit in Glacier Bay? From May...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Glacier Bay National Preserve. 13.1109 Section 13.1109 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Administrative Provisions § 13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay...

  19. 76 FR 8651 - Special Local Regulation; Mavericks Surf Competition, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ..., Half Moon Bay, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary special local regulation on certain navigable waters of Half Moon Bay in support of... Half Moon Bay. The Mavericks Surf Competition will occur in the vicinity of Pillar Point in...

  20. 77 FR 9850 - Safety Zone; 2012 Mavericks Invitational, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Safety Zone; 2012 Mavericks Invitational, Half Moon Bay... establish a temporary safety zone in vicinity of Pillar Point in the navigable waters of Half Moon Bay... Invitational will occur on the navigable waters of Half Moon Bay in vicinity of Pillar Point. The Coast...

  1. 75 FR 66013 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Horseshoe Bay, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Bay Resort non-directional beacon (NDB) at Horseshoe Bay Resort Airport, Horseshoe Bay, TX, has...

  2. 46 CFR 30.10-41 - Lakes, bays, and sounds-TB/B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds-TB/B. 30.10-41 Section 30.10-41...-41 Lakes, bays, and sounds—TB/B. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels navigating the waters of any of the lakes, bays, or sounds other than the waters of the Great Lakes....

  3. 46 CFR 195.07-10 - Lakes, bays, and sounds, or river service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds, or river service. 195.07-10 Section 195.07-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Lakes, bays, and sounds, or river service. (a) Vessels in lakes, bays, and sounds, or river...

  4. 46 CFR 77.07-10 - Lakes, bays, and sounds, or river service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds, or river service. 77.07-10... VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-10 Lakes, bays, and sounds, or river service. (a) Vessels in lakes, bays, and sounds, or river service shall...

  5. 46 CFR 96.07-10 - Lakes, bays, and sounds, or river service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lakes, bays, and sounds, or river service. 96.07-10 Section 96.07-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Lakes, bays, and sounds, or river service. (a) Vessels in lakes, bays, and sounds, or river...

  6. The monterey bay broadband ocean bottom seismic observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Romanowicz, B.; Seismological Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley; Stakes, D.; Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute; Dolenc, D.; Seismological Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley; Neuhauser, D.; Seismological Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley; McGill, P.; Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute; Uhrhammer, R.; Seismological Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley; Ramirez, T.; Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute

    2006-01-01

    We report on the installation of a long-term buried ocean-floor broadband seismic station (MOBB) in Monterey Bay, California (USA), 40km off-shore, at a water depth of 1000 m. The station was installed in April 2002 using a ship and ROV, in a collaborative effort between the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) and the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL). The station is located on the western side of the San Gregorio Fault, a major fault in the San Andreas plate...

  7. The monterey bay broadband ocean bottom seismic observatory

    OpenAIRE

    R. Uhrhammer; McGill, P; Neuhauser, D; D. Dolenc; D. Stakes; B. Romanowicz; Ramirez, T.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the installation of a long-term buried ocean-floor broadband seismic station (MOBB) in Monterey Bay, California (USA), 40km off-shore, at a water depth of 1000 m. The station was installed in April 2002 using a ship and ROV, in a collaborative effort between the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) and the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL). The station is located on the western side of the San Gregorio Fault, a major fault in the San Andreas plate boundary fault...

  8. Hydrography of Onslow Bay, North Carolina: September 1975 (OBIS II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, L.P.; Singer, J.J.; Dunstan, W.M.; Pietrafesa, L.J.

    1975-09-01

    Data collected during studies of Onslow Bay, off the North Carolina coast during cruises during September, 1975, are reported. Current meters and thermography were placed at depths of 10 and 22 m along the 28 m isobath in the northeastern and southwestern sectors of the Bay. Data are included on wind turbulence and velocity; seawater salinity and temperature at various depths; the content of nitrates, phosphates, silicate, oxygen, chlorophyll, and phytoplankton biomass at various depths. Hydrographic and meteorologic conditions during the cruises are included. (CH)

  9. Distribution and concentration of suspended matter in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Philpot, W.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The problem of remote sensing of suspended matter in water was analyzed in terms of the single-scattering albedo, and a semiempirical relationship between satellite radiance measurements and the concentration of suspended matter in the water was developed. The relationship was tested using data from the 7 July 1973 LANDSAT overpass of Delaware Bay with good results. Suspended sediment concentration maps for the entire Delaware Bay were prepared using radiance values extracted from LANDSAT MSS imagery and correlating them with ground truth samples collected from boats and helicopter.

  10. The detector system of the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment

    OpenAIRE

    An, F. P.; Carr, R; McKeown, R.D.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Wu, F. F.

    2016-01-01

    The Daya Bay experiment was the first to report simultaneous measurements of reactor antineutrinos at multiple baselines leading to the discovery of ν¯e oscillations over km-baselines. Subsequent data has provided the world׳s most precise measurement of sin^2 2θ_(13) and the effective mass splitting Δm^2_(ee). The experiment is located in Daya Bay, China where the cluster of six nuclear reactors is among the world׳s most prolific sources of electron antineutrinos. Multiple antineutrino detect...

  11. Salinity and temperature measurements in San Francisco Bay waters, 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedini, L.A.; Schemel, L.E.; Tembreull, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of salinity and temperature in waters of the San Francisco Bay estuarine system are presented. Sampling was conducted at selected locations (stations) and depths over the period between January-December 1980 at approximately two week intervals. Stations were located in deep channels and adjacent shallow water areas from Calaveras Point in South San Francisco Bay to the town of Rio Vista on the Sacramento River and to the Three-Mile Slough on the San Joaquin River. Numerical values of salinity, temperature, and station locations are tabulated. Contour maps of deep-channel salinity and temperature are presented and the analytical methods are briefly described.

  12. Decentralization of Fully Probabilistic Control Design using Variational Bayes Approximation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, Ondřej; Šmídl, Václav

    Praha : ÚTIA AVČR, v.v.i, 2011 - (Janžura, M.; Ivánek, J.). s. 37-37 [7th International Workshop on Data – Algorithms – Decision Making. 27.11.2011-29.11.2011, Mariánská] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01030603 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : fully probabilistic control design * variational bayes approximation * distributed control design Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/tichy-decentralization of fully probabilistic control design using variational bayes approximation.pdf

  13. Salmon movements in Galway Bay in 1978 and 1979

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, D. T.

    1980-01-01

    In 1978 tagging investigations commenced into the origin of salmon caught in drift nets in Galway Bay. This fishery began in 1969 with a catch of 355 fish and, by 1975 had increased dramatically to 33,607. However the catch declined to less than half the maximum and in 1979 was down to 15,171. There are 76 drift net licences in the Bay which incorporates two fishery districts, Galway and Connemara. The vessels used vary from 5 metre currachs to 20 metre trawlers. The majority of the boats ...

  14. Biodiversity of Echinoderms at Kuta Bay, West Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Yusron

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Observation on echinoderms diversity was carriedout at coastal waters of Kuta bay in the Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nopember 2005. A total of 21 species of echinoderms,consist of 4 species Holothuroidea, 7 species Echinoidea, 5 species Asteroidea and 5 species Ophiuroidea have beenfound in the Kuta of Nusa Tenggara Barat. The Echinoidea were relatively common in the sea gras zone. On the basisof population density, Echinoidea was the dominant group and relatively highest in the individual density. In generalthe number of species of echinoderm fauna is smaller than in the Sekotong Lombok Barat Bay.

  15. Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment: Goal, Progress and Schedule

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment is dedicated to measuring the last unobserved neutrino mixing angle theta_13. The predicted precision on sin^2(2theta_13) is 0.01 at 90% confidence level. This document briefly reviews the measurement method and detector construction status. The first two anti-neutrino detectors' dry run result is also discussed. The Daya Bay near hall data taking is expected to commence in the summer of 2011 and the data taking of all of the three halls in the summer of 2012.

  16. Unheard voices: James Bay II and the women of Kuujjuarapik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attitudes held by the aboriginal peoples of the James Bay region toward the James Bay II hydroelectric power development are described. These attitudes are communicated primarily through the comments of Innu women. Major concerns with the Great Whale project relate to its impact on country food, mercury contamination, and camps. The entire community of Kuujjuarapik was totally opposed to the Great Whale project. While direct impacts such as mercury contamination or reduced wildlife harvest are the most obvious impacts, indirect impacts relating to cultural damage, increased abuse and alcoholism, and influx of non-native construction workers will also have significant effects, and warrant further study

  17. Results and Prospects from the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Higuera, A

    2016-01-01

    The Daya Bay reactor experiment has reported the most precise measurement of sin$^{2}2\\theta_{13}$ and $\\Delta m^{2}_{ee}$ by using a data set with the fully constructed design of 8 antineutrino detectors (ADs). We also report on a new independent measurement of sin$^{2}2\\theta_{13}$ from neutron capture on hydrogen, which confirms the results using gadolinium caputres. Several other analyses are also performed, including a measurements on the absolute reactor antineutrino flux and a search for light sterile neutrinos. Prospects for new analyses such as searching for CPT/LI violation at Daya Bay are ongoing.

  18. Gamma activation analysis of marine sediments at Havana Bay, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty six elements was studied preliminary in the superficial sediments of Havana Bay using gamma activation analysis by the electron accelerator microtron MT-25 at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR. Samples from five zones of Havana Bay including the three coves were analyzed. The obtained results show a close relation between the concentration levels of the studied elements and the pollution sources. Some elements (As, Ba, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Mn) have high concentration levels compared to the values for other environmental marine sediments reported in the literature. (author)

  19. Ecological risk evaluation of sediment metals in a tropical Euthrophic Bay, Guanabara Bay, Southeast Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Ilene Matanó; Cordeiro, Renato Campello; Soares-Gomes, Abílio; Abessa, Denis Moledo S; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2016-08-15

    Surface sediments were collected from Guanabara Bay, at 14 stations distributed in five sectors, over three sampling campaigns. Analyses of metals, grain size fractions and total organic carbon analyses were performed. The geo-accumulation index and the enrichment factor were estimated to assess contamination status based on background values. Additionally, the sediment quality guidelines were applied to evaluate the adverse biological effects. Results show that there was no seasonal variation in sediment quality based on any methodology, and all methods utilized showed that NW sector and HRJ sector were the worst affected and that the NE sector had the best conditions. The sediments of GB are polluted mainly by Cr, Pb and Zn. According to ΣSEM/AVS, these metals are not available to the biota, although toxicity tests dispute this. Among the various methods employed, those using background values for the area seem to best reflect the local historical contamination. PMID:27210562

  20. Possible origin of the high incidence of Clostridium botulinum type E in an inland bay (Green Bay of Lake Michigan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, T L; Johnson, J; Foster, E M; Sugiyama, H

    1968-05-01

    Bottom and shoreline sediments of Green Bay, northern Lake Michigan, and rivers of the Green Bay drainage basin, as well as soils of the surrounding land mass, were examined for Clostridium botulinum type E. Detection was based on identification of type E toxin in enrichment cultures and was influenced by many factors. Testing smaller amounts of sample in multiple cultures was more productive than examining large inocula in fewer cultures. Incubation at 30 C was unsatisfactory, but 14 days at 20 C or 7 days at 25 C gave good results. Mild heating (60 C for 30 min) of specimens reduced the incidence of positive findings. Freezing enrichment cultures prior to testing for toxicity eliminated many nonbotulinal toxic substances that killed mice. A control culture inoculated with type E spores was employed to show whether a specimen contained factors which could mask the presence of type E. Samples from 708 stations were tested in 2,446 cultures. Type E was found in nearly all underwater specimens of Green Bay and northern Lake Michigan but was present less frequently in samples taken along their shores. The incidence was still lower in the rivers emptying into Green Bay with the organism being rare on the shores of these rivers and in the soils of the land mass proper. Samples from the upper reaches of the rivers practically never contained type E. Runoff could deposit type E spores in Green Bay, but this is not considered to be the major factor in the high incidence of the organism. Multiplication in the bay itself is indicated. PMID:4870273

  1. Seasonal Variations of Demersal Fish Composition in Gülbahçe Bay (İzmir Bay)

    OpenAIRE

    METİN, Cengiz; Tosunoğlu, Zafer; Tokaç, Adnan; Lök, Altan; AYDIN, Celalettin; Kaykaç, Hakan

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, the seasonal variations in demersal catch composition in Gülbahçe Bay were investigated by trawl sampling. Species identification of the samples was carried out at class, family and species levels. The results of this study were compared to those of previous studies carried out in the same area and it was concluded that red mullet, which is the dominant species of Gülbahçe Bay, has lost this characteristic because of overfishing and marine pollution. For this reason, fis...

  2. Yard Bay Allocation Method for Twin 40ft Container Terminal-Oriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daofang Chang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of container handling has got greatimprovement with the usage of the 40ft quay crane and the twin 40ft yardcrane.Reasonable bay planning strategies is necessary to reach the high handing efficiency by the twin 40ft yard crane. This paper studies both bay planning and row planning for yard bay allocation. The models of bay planning and row planning are created, and the discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to obtain the optimum solution of the models. Finally, the numerical experiments show that the proposed approach can solve the yard bay allocation effectively.    

  3. Wind-induced natural ventilation of re-entrant bays in a high-rise building

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, CKC; Lam, KM; Leung, YTA; Yang, K.; Li Danny, HW; Cheung Sherman, CP

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a systematic computational study of wind-induced natural ventilation and pollutant transport of re-entrant bays on a total of 30 generic building models of different building heights and with bays of different dimensions. Mean wind flow around each building model and wind-induced flow inside re-entrant bays are computed. To determine the ventilation efficiency of the bay, the computed flow field is used to disperse a scalar pollutant initially occupying the entire bay at a ...

  4. Sedimentation rates in Kagoshima Bay, Southwestern Japan, using the 210Pb method

    OpenAIRE

    Yokota K; Inoue M.; Kofuji H.; Maeda H.

    2012-01-01

    To understand the pattern of sedimentation rates as fundamental physical parameter of coastal environment, the 210Pb dating method was applied to core samples collected from Kagoshima Bay, Southwestern Japan. The sedimentation rate varied at each location within the bay (0.08–0.30 g·cm−2·y−1), and the rate at the bay-head area was less than that at the centre of the bay. The inventory of ex210Pb has a lower value in the bay-head area. The low ex210Pb inventory at Stn.5' is considered to be du...

  5. Radioecological status of terrestrial and aquatic systems in Andreev Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper describes radioecological situation at the naval shore unit located at the Andreev Bay. One discusses the results of analysis of both the potential and the real danger sources and the measures to prevent adverse impact on the environment and on the personnel in the course of remediation efforts

  6. The biology of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gauns, M.

    This article focusses on the variability in physics and chemistry of the region and investigate its influence on the biology. This article is largely based on the recent observations made during the India JGOFS and BOBPS (Bay of Bengal Process Study...

  7. Environmental Contaminants Evaluation of St. Joseph Bay, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) conducted field work in St. Joseph Bay, Florida, for 2-week periods during each of the summers of 1991, 1992, and 1993....

  8. Modeling Fecal Indicator Bacteria Like Salt in Newport Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciglar, A. M.; Rippy, M.; Grant, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Newport Bay is a harbor and estuary located in Orange County, CA that provides many water sports and recreational activities for millions of southern California residents and tourists. The aim of this study is to quickly assess exceedances of FIB in the Newport Bay which pose a health risk to recreational users. The ability to quickly assess water quality is made possible with an advection-diffusion mass transport model that uses easily measurable parameters such as volumetric flow rate from tributaries. Current FIB assessment methods for Newport Bay take a minimum of 24 hours to evaluate health risk by either culturing for FIB or running a more complex fluid dynamics model. By this time the FIB may have already reached the ocean outlet thus no longer posing a risk in the bay or recreationists may have already come in close contact with contaminated waters. The advection-diffusion model can process and disseminate health risk information within a few hours of flow rate measurements, minimizing time between an FIB exceedance and public awareness about the event. Data used to calibrate and validate the model was collected from January 2006 through February 2007. Salinity data was used for calibration and FIB data was used for validation. Both steady-state and transient conditions were assessed to determine if dry weather patterns can be simplified to the steady-state condition.

  9. Forcing mechanisms of the Bay of Bengal circulation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S.R.; Sengupta, D.; Gadgil, S.

    A state-of-the-art ocean general circulation model, set up for the North Indian Ocean and driven by climatological wind stress simulates most of the observed features of the near-surface circulation of the Bay of Bengal. The prominent features...

  10. Upwelling features near Sri Lanka in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShreeRam, P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    , the southwest monsoon in summer and the northeast monsoon in winter. The wind stress associated with these winds cause mass drift of oceanic waters leading to upwelling and downwelling. The upwelling features in the Bay of Bengal with a special mention about...

  11. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments of Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to examine the potential for contamination of recent sediments with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons due to tanker and refinery activity in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, an area without large local anthropogenic sources of aromatics. Sediment samples were taken from the vicinity of the Come By Chance refinery, Woody Island, Wild Cove, and Port Royal Arm, all in the north end of the bay. The samples were extracted by two methods, dichloromethane extraction of dried sediment for determination of total aromatic hydrocarbon content and hexane extraction of wet sediment for estimation of the bioavailability of hydrocarbons and determination of more volatile compounds. Class analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons was conducted on a NH2 column with detection at 255 nm. Total concentrations of di-tricyclic aromatics were highest at the Woody Island site (0.6 μg/g). The sediments from the Come By Chance site, Wild Cove, and Port Royal Arm sediments contained 0.3, 0.1, and 0.2 μg/g respectively. The hexane extracts from Come By Chance were lowest in di-tricyclic aromatics (0.007 μg/g), with the other sites being equal in concentration (0.01 μg/g). It is evident from the study that aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in Placentia Bay are elevated in some parts of the bay in the absence of local combustion sources, and that the most likely source is petroleum. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Reddy, G.V.; Araligidad, N.

    shows heat gain in this region, the organised inversions in this region appears to be generated by the cold fresher water advection (from the head of the bay and Irrawadi basin) over the remnant of the warm saline water in this region advected...

  13. Principal Component Surface (2011) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas inside Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). It was...

  14. Principal Component Surface (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas inside Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). It was...

  15. Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana Open Bays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1995-06-23

    Data were collected prior to termination of discharge at three sites (including two open bay sites at Delacroix Island and Bay De Chene) for the risk assessments. The Delacroix Island Oil and Gas Field has been in production since the first well drilling in 1940; the Bay De Chene Field, since 1942. Concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Po, and 228Th were measured in discharges. Radium conc. were measured in fish and shellfish tissues. Sediment PAH and metal conc. were also available. Benthos sampling was conducted. A survey of fishermen was conducted. The tiered risk assessment showed that human health risks from radium in produced water appear to be small; ecological risk from radium and other radionuclides in produced water also appear small. Many of the chemical contaminants discharged to open Louisiana bays appear to present little human health or ecological risk. A conservative screening analysis suggested potential risks to human health from Hg and Pb and a potential risk to ecological receptors from total effluent, Sb, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Ag, Zn, and phenol in the water column and PAHs in sediment; quantitiative risk assessments are being done for these contaminants.

  16. Modeling Water and Sediment Quality in Two California Bays

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzenbach, Keith; McWilliams, James

    2002-01-01

    While polluted coastal bays have often been studied observationally, less effort has focused on developing computer models that simulate the processes that disperse, depositand resuspend pollution and contaminants on the seabed. Such models would not only help interpret observational data but would also benefit resource managers charged with upholding state and federal clean water laws.

  17. Vibracore locations collected in 2014 from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In response to the 2010 Governor’s Action Plan to clean up the Barnegat Bay–Little Egg Harbor (BBLEH) estuary in New Jersey, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)...

  18. Cetacean strandings along the coast of Izmir Bay, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guclusoy, H.; Veryeri, N.; Cirik, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper provides information on the stranding of cetaceans in Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea, between 1992 and 2004. The data were collected opportunistically during sightings and stranding data collection for Monk Seals. A total of 12 cetaceans, namely Bottle-nosed Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus (n=6

  19. Using MCMC chain outputs to efficiently estimate Bayes factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Richard D.; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Pratte, Michael S.; Speckman, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important methodological problems in psychological research is assessing the reasonableness of null models, which typically constrain a parameter to a specific value such as zero. Bayes factor has been recently advocated in the statistical and psychological literature as a principled

  20. BENTHIC MACROFAUNA AND HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS IN TILLAMOOK BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillamook Bay is subject to natural and man-made stressors, such as increased nutrients and sediments, which can alter its habitats and, thereby, impact its productivity and ecological resources. The benthic macrofauna are small, sediment-dwelling invertebrates which have strong...

  1. Construction for neutrino experiment starts at Daya Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The ground-breaking ceremony for the Daya Reactor Neutrino Experiment, China's largest single project of international collaboration in basic science as well as the biggest one between US and China, was held at Daya Bay Nuclear Power Base in Shenzhen on 13 October, 2007.

  2. Characteristics of Tides in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sindhu, B.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    and the amplitudes of semi-diurnal tides are doubled in these regions while the diurnal tides amplify only marginally, which is consistent with Clarke and Battisti theory. In the north eastern end of the head bay and the Gulf of Martaban, the geometrical...

  3. Empirical Bayes Model Comparisons for Differential Methylation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxiang Teng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of empirical Bayes models (each with different statistical distribution assumptions have now been developed to analyze differential DNA methylation using high-density oligonucleotide tiling arrays. However, it remains unclear which model performs best. For example, for analysis of differentially methylated regions for conservative and functional sequence characteristics (e.g., enrichment of transcription factor-binding sites (TFBSs, the sensitivity of such analyses, using various empirical Bayes models, remains unclear. In this paper, five empirical Bayes models were constructed, based on either a gamma distribution or a log-normal distribution, for the identification of differential methylated loci and their cell division—(1, 3, and 5 and drug-treatment-(cisplatin dependent methylation patterns. While differential methylation patterns generated by log-normal models were enriched with numerous TFBSs, we observed almost no TFBS-enriched sequences using gamma assumption models. Statistical and biological results suggest log-normal, rather than gamma, empirical Bayes model distribution to be a highly accurate and precise method for differential methylation microarray analysis. In addition, we presented one of the log-normal models for differential methylation analysis and tested its reproducibility by simulation study. We believe this research to be the first extensive comparison of statistical modeling for the analysis of differential DNA methylation, an important biological phenomenon that precisely regulates gene transcription.

  4. Heavy metal pollution in Tianjin Bohai Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Wei; QIN Yanwen; ZHENG Binghui; ZHANG Lei

    2008-01-01

    The contamination levels and distribution characters of heavy metals in coastal waters and sediments from Tianjin Bohai Bay, China were examined, and it was found that the main heavy metal pollutants in the coastal waters of the bay were Pb and Zn. High levels of Pb and Zn appeared especially near the estuary, indicating that river discharge was the main pollution source. Moreover, atmospheric deposition resulted in Pb contamination in the middle of the embayment. Analysis of data for the period 1987-2004 indicated that Pb pollution in coastal waters of Bohai Bay originated primarily from river discharge before 2001. Pb levels did not decrease after 2001 when annual runoff levels declined; indicating that Pb pollution by atmospheric deposition had increased due to the use of leaded petrol in motorcars. Pb, Zn and Cd were the dominant polluting elements in surficial sediments from Tianjin Bohai Bay, with levels in excess of the corresponding upper limits of environmental background values. Higher concentrations of polluting elements were found in tidal sediments near water bodies such as Qikou and Dagu estuaries.

  5. Orthophoto Mosaic (2012) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 0.3x0.3 meter imagery mosaic of Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands was created by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) using a...

  6. Orthophoto Mosaic (2012) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 0.3x0.3 meter imagery mosaic of Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands was created by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) using...

  7. Calibration algorithms of RPC detectors at Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the commissioning of RPC detector systems at the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment, calibration algorithms were developed and tuned, in order to evaluate and optimize the performance of the RPC detectors. Based on a description of the hardware structure of the RPC detector systems, this paper introduces the algorithms used for detector calibration, including trigger rate, efficiency, noise rate, purity and muon flux.

  8. Bayes Methods for a Symmetric Unimodal Density and its Mode

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Lawrence J.; Lo, Albert Y.

    1989-01-01

    Bayes solutions for i.i.d. sampling from a decreasing density on the half line and for i.i.d. sampling from a symmetric unimodal density with an unknown mode are given. Posterior quantities are obtained as finite sums; Monte Carlo methods based on sampling finite Markov chains are developed for their evaluation.

  9. A reevaluation of the late quaternary sedimentation in todos os Santos Bay (BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILHERME C. LESSA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Todos os Santos Bay is a large ( 1000 km², structurally controlled tidal bay in northeast Brazil. Three main drainage basins debouch into the bay, providing a mean freshwater discharge of 200 m³/s (prior to 1985, or less than 1% of the spring tidal discharge through the bay mouth. Based on the result of several sedimentological studies performed in the 1970's, five surface sedimentary facies were identified inside the bay, namely i transgressive siliciclastic marine sand facies; ii transgressive bay sand-mud facies; iii a transgressive carbonate marine sand facies; iv regressive bay-mud facies, and v regressive fluvial sand facies. The spatial distribution of these facies would follow, somewhat closely, the hydrodynamic-energy distribution inside the bay. Seismic profiles along the bay bottom indicate the existence of several paleochannels, 5-10 m deep, blanketed at least by three different sedimentary units. The topmost sedimentary unit, 5-20 m thick, appears to be associated with the regressive bay-mud facies, and assuming that it was laid down within the last 5000 years, sedimentation rates for the central and northeastern part of the bay would average at 2,4 mm/y.

  10. Some challenges of an 'upside down' nitrogen budget - Science and management in Greenwich Bay, RI (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Nutrient budget found most nitrogen to Greenwich Bay, RI is from adjacent estuary. → Water, plants, and animals in Greenwich Bay all have similar high stable isotope values. → Flux weighted isotope budgets find 50-80% of nitrogen in clams from adjacent bay. - Abstract: When nutrients impact estuarine water quality, scientists and managers instinctively focus on quantifying and controlling land-based sources. However, in Greenwich Bay, RI, the estuary opens onto a larger and more intensively fertilized coastal water body (Narragansett Bay). Previous inventories of nitrogen (N) inputs to Greenwich Bay found that N inputs from Narragansett Bay exceeded those from the local watershed, suggesting that recent efforts to reduce local watershed N loads may have little effect on estuarine water quality. We used stable isotopes of N to characterize watershed and Narragansett Bay N sources as well as the composition of primary producers and consumers throughout Greenwich Bay. Results were consistent with previous assessments of the importance of N inputs to Greenwich Bay from Narragansett Bay. As multiple N sources contribute to estuarine water quality, effective management requires attention to individual sources commensurate with overall magnitude, regardless of the political complications that may entail.

  11. The effect of wind on long-term summer water temperature trends in Tokyo Bay, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li-Feng; Onishi, Ryo; Takahashi, Keiko

    2015-06-01

    The effect of wind on summer water temperature trends in a semi-closed bay (Tokyo Bay, Japan) is examined through several numerical experiments using a high-resolution three-dimensional ocean model. The model is executed under no-wind and uniform southerly/northerly wind conditions, and monthly mean currents and temperature distributions and heat transport in Tokyo Bay for July are calculated. The model results show that wind has a significant effect on heat transport and temperature distribution in the bay. (1) When a southerly wind prevails northward cool water transport intensifies while southward warm water transport declines, thus decreasing the water temperature in the central bay area while increasing temperature at the bay head. (2) A northerly wind has an opposing effect and decreases the water temperature in coastal bay head area while increase the temperature along the southwest coast. The results also suggest that the trend of increasing southerly wind amplitude may have affected water temperature trends in Tokyo Bay from 1979 to 1997. The model results demonstrated that the an intensified southerly wind lowers water temperatures in most areas of the bay by enhancing upwelling and open ocean-water intrusion near the bay mouth while increases temperatures in the bottom layer of the bay head by suppressing southward warm water transport.

  12. Predominant Nearshore Sediment Dispersal Patterns in Manila Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Siringan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Net nearshore sediment drift patterns in Manila Bay were determined by combining the coastal geomorphology depicted in 1 : 50,000scale topographic maps and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images, with changes in shoreline position and predominant longshore current directions derived from the interaction of locally generated waves and bay morphology.Manila Bay is fringed by a variety of coastal subenvironments that reflect changing balances of fluvial, wave, and tidal processes. Along the northern coast, a broad tidal-river delta plain stretching from Bataan to Bulacan indicates the importance of tides, where the lateral extent of tidal influences is amplified by the very gentle coastal gradients. In contrast, along the Cavite coast sandy strandplains, spits, and wave-dominated deltas attest to the geomorphic importance of waves that enter the bay from the South China Sea.The estimates of net sediment drift derived from geomorphological, shoreline-change, and meteorological information are generally in good agreement. Sediment drift directions are predominantly to the northeast along Cavite, to the northwest along Manila and Bulacan, and to the north along Bataan. Wave refraction and eddy formation at the tip of the Cavite Spit cause southwestward sediment drift along the coast from Zapote to Kawit. Geomorphology indicates that onshore-offshore sediment transport is probably more important than alongshore transport along the coast fronting the tidal delta plain of northern Manila Bay. Disagreements between the geomorphic-derived and predicted net sediment drift directions may be due to interactions of wave-generated longshore currents with wind- and tide-generated currents.

  13. Tidal power dams in the Bay of Fundy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenges of harnessing tidal power and the construction of dams and tidal power plants in a tidal-ocean environment such as the Bay of Fundy in New Brunswick are discussed. In the 1966-1988 series of studies, three sites were chosen at the Bay of Fundy as being the most promising, namely (1) site B9 in Minas Basin at the entrance to Cobequid Bay, (2) site A8 at the narrow neck beyond the entrance to Cumberland Basin, and (3) site A6 at the entrance to Shepody Bay. All the sites are located at the head of the Bay of Fundy because that is where the maximum tidal ranges are found and a basin's tidal energy potential is proportional to the square of its tidal range. Site B9 was determined to have the greatest tidal power potential but no plant has ever been built because reports have stated that a solid conventional tidal power barrage at site B9 would increase the tidal range at Boston by as much as 30 cm. Rather than abandoning the site for this reason, an installation consisting of a series of piers from shore to shore with hydraulic turbines mounted in the spaces between piers, was suggested. A simple mathematical model has been developed for determining the operation of this tidal fence. The cost of energy, generated by the tidal fence at site B9 was also calculated. Further studies are suggested to determine the exact environmental effect of the tidal fence on the tidal regime. If environmental problems persist, machines with larger discharge capabilities could be considered to reduce the interference of the fence with natural tidal movements. 9 refs., 6 figs

  14. San Francisco Bay Sand Mining Resource Evaluation and Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenical, S.; Tirindelli, M.; Sicular, D.; Gragg, J.; Huitt, C.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents results of the evaluation of potential future sand resources within certain Central San Francisco Bay (Central Bay) sand mining lease areas, as well as the potential impacts of further mining these areas for a ten-year period. The study consisted of morphological analysis using field measurements and hydrodynamic modeling, and covered a wide spectrum of physical processes including tidal and river circulation, salinity, sediment transport, and morphology. The study was conducted within the framework of an Environmental Impact Report (EIR) prepared by the California State Lands Commission (CSLC) as part of the discretionary approval process for issuing new mining leases. The results of the morphological analysis indicate a measurable depletion of sand resources in the Central Bay lease areas during the period 1997-2008, and that for the purposes of the proposed ten-year mining lease renewal, sand mining resources in Central Bay are largely limited to material already in place. The morphological analysis results also indicate that the proposed additional ten years of sand mining in the Central Bay lease areas are not likely to cause a significant impact on sediment transport and budgets in areas outside the vicinity of the lease areas, such as the San Francisco Bar, Ocean Beach, etc. Numerical modeling results, including particle tracking exercises, do indicate a net seaward transport of sand, and that a linkage exists between the mining areas and offshore areas (San Francisco Bar, Ocean Beach, etc). However, the modeling results demonstrate that the linkage is weak, and that any measurable changes in hydrodynamics, salinity and sediment transport/morphology caused by the mining activities are likely to be confined to the vicinity of the mining areas.

  15. The North Bay hydro substation: decontamination and restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North Bay, Ontario's obsolete substation on Cassells Street was successfully shutdown by the Green-Port Environmental Managers (GPE) Ltd., and the project was completed on schedule and within budget. All materials were packaged, transported and disposed of without incident at approved Canadian destruction and recycling facilities. North Bay Hydro erected the substation in 1951 containing four large non-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) transformers and a long underground vault that fed the underground cables to the aboveground switch gear and overhead steel latticework. GPE, in September 1998, was contracted to decontaminate the substation, convert it into a parking lot and return the property back to the owner that North Bay Hydro had leased the property from. GPE retained Greenspoon Bros. Ltd. to supervise the demolition of aboveground and underground structures, duct banks, switch gear, cables and concrete foundations. Predemolition surveys showed that the underground lead cable, sections of the concrete floor of the underground vault, and potheads were contaminated with PCBs. With winter approaching a poly-sheet material was placed over the voids created by the removal of the deep transformer and underground vault foundations. The poly-sheet served as a barrier between clean backfill and the contaminated soil. In December GPE retained Egmond Associates to carry out the Phase 1 environmental site assessment to determine the depth of contamination of PCBs, PAHs, TPHs, asbestos and heavy metals, in accordance with CSA Z768-94 guidelines. The survey showed that there was contamination across the site. Measures taken included reuse of non-contaminated fill previously placed, and all contaminated material was transferred and disposed of offsite. Various costs were reduced because of these measures, and as well all copper, aluminum, steel, brass and other materials were weighted and credited to North Bay. On June 30, GPE issued a Certificate of Substantial Performance

  16. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Final Report 2000-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Christopher

    2007-12-15

    A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report.

  17. Dust settles at Dalrymple Bay Terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With an annual loading capacity approaching 60Mt, Queensland's Dalrymple Bay Coal Terminal is one of the largest and most efficient coal export facilities in Australia. Each day, DBCT handles thousands of tonnes of coal transported directly from the Bowen Basin via an electrified railway and bound, ultimately, for out-loading onto bulk carrier ships. It is little wonder then that dust control and an accurate knowledge of coal moisture content are key priorities for DBCT. In early 2004, these priorities, together with an undertaking to the Co-ordinator General to reduce dust emissions, saw DBCT investigate the CSIRO-developed Low Frequency Microwave (LFM) Moisture Analyser. The LFM Analyser is specifically designed to deliver accurate, online measurements of moisture in continuous on-conveyor applications. At this stage, it was already enjoying significant success in the iron ore market with BHP Billiton Iron Ore investing in multiple units as part of its moisture control strategy for the Marra Mamba ore-types. The LFM Analysers, now being commercialised by spin-out company Intalysis, were commissioned in July 2004. Babcock and Brown Infrastructure (BBI), the company that holds the long-term leasehold of DBCT, was heavily involved in the analyser's commissioning. BBI's electrical supervisor Doug Mitchell says the analyser offers the means for DBCT to meet the environmental conditions of the terminal license while at the same time enabling it to meet its individual contract obligations with the terminal customers. 'This basically involves ensuring the moisture content for each coal type does not exceed that which has been agreed upon with terminal customer,' Mitchell says. DBCT has installed two analysers on the in loading conveyors, each about 100m from the coal discharge hoppers. They are fitted to steel cord belts at a nominal speed of around 6m/sec that carry the coal to either 4250tph or 5500tph yard stacking machines, depending on the string selected for

  18. Geophysical surveys around the Izmir Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykut, Tunçel; Tolga, Gönenç; Mustafa, Akgün; Oya, Pamukcu; Özkan, Özdağ; Mehmet, Çetiner

    2015-04-01

    Izmir is the 3rd largest city of Turkey following Istanbul and Ankara in terms of population, industrial density and contribution to the national economy. Izmir city is located very close to the active faults, has very high seismic risk and develops rapidly on thick and Quaternary-Neogene aged young sediments. Three different tectonic belts take place in Izmir precincts. One of these belts which shapes the Menderes massif at east consists of very thick mica schist unit at basement and a marble stack which formed by the metamorphism of the platform type carbonates. Another tectonic belt named "Izmir-Ankara zone" take place at western part of massif and around Izmir city there is another tectonic belt which is generally flysch characterized. "Karaburun Belt" is at west of "Izmir-Ankara zone" comprised by a thick Mesozoic carbonate stack which precipitated at platform conditions. Izmir and its surroundings, has been the scene of intense earthquake activity since the historical period. The most of earthquake epicenters are at Aegean Sea and take place between Karaburun-Chios Island, Izmir Bay-Lesbos Island and Doğanbey Cape-Samos Island. A number of earthquakes occurs on the remaining land mass between the Aegean Sea and the western part of the Gediz graben. Izmir city to be the center of the 50-60 km radius, there are active faults that may pose a risk by generating potential earthquakes for Izmir metropolitan area and its surroundings. Propagation of earthquake waves towards to surface can be affected considerably by unconsolidated soil structures of Izmir. While occurrence of shallow and large scaled earthquakes, mechanism of soil amplification, liquefaction in sandy soils and losses of bearing capacity in clayey soil can be expected that they are particularly effective on earthquake performance of both buildings and industrial areas. Also some conditions such as; physical parameters of alluvial soil, high groundwater level and basin geometry, which cause soil

  19. Plankton studies in San Francisco Bay; IX, Chlorophyll distributions and hydrographic properties of South San Francisco Bay, 1984-86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpine, Andrea A.; Wienke, Sally M.; Cloern, James E.; Cole, Brian E.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the distribution of phytoplankton biomass and selected hydrographic properties in South San Francisco Bay during 1984- 1986. There were a total of 67 cruises during the three-year period with the most frequent sampling occurring during the spring. Parameters measured were chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, in-vivo fluorescence, turbidity, salinity, and temperature.

  20. Plankton studies in San Francisco Bay, VIII, Chlorophyll distributions and hydrographic properties of South San Francisco Bay, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpine, Andrea E.; Wienke, Sally M.; Cloern, James E.; Cole, Brian E.; Wong, Raymond L. J.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the distribution of phytoplankton Momass and selected hydrographic properties measured in South San Francisco Bay during 1983- There were a total of 45 cruises over the year with the most frequent sampling occurring during the spring. Parameters measured were: chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, in-vivo fluorescence, turbidity, salinity, and temperature.

  1. 78 FR 27126 - East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force... at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted Areas AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD... establishing six new restricted areas along the Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) facility shoreline. Tyndall AFB...

  2. Whole-system metabolism and CO2 fluxes in a Mediterranean Bay dominated by seagrass beds (Palma Bay, NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gazeau

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Planktonic and benthic incubations (bare and Posidonia oceanica vegetated sediments were performed at monthly intervals from March 2001 to October 2002 in a seagrass vegetated area of the Bay of Palma (Mallorca, Spain. Results showed a contrast between the planktonic compartment, which was on average near metabolic balance (−4.6±5.9 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 and the benthic compartment, which was autotrophic (17.6±8.5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1. During two cruises in March and June 2002, planktonic and benthic incubations were performed at several stations in the bay to estimate the whole-system metabolism and to examine its relationship with partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 and apparent oxygen utilisation (AOU spatial patterns. Moreover, during the second cruise, when the residence time of water was long enough, net ecosystem production (NEP estimates based on incubations were compared, over the Posidonia oceanica meadow, to rates derived from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and oxygen (O2 mass balance budgets. These budgets provided NEP estimates in fair agreement with those derived from direct metabolic estimates based on incubated samples over the Posidonia oceanica meadow. Whereas the seagrass community was autotrophic, the excess organic carbon production therein could only balance the planktonic heterotrophy in shallow waters relative to the maximum depth of the bay (55 m. This generated a horizontal gradient from autotrophic or balanced communities in the shallow seagrass-covered areas, to strongly heterotrophic communities in deeper areas of the bay. It seems therefore that, on an annual scale in the whole bay, the organic matter production by the Posidonia oceanica may not be sufficient to fully compensate the heterotrophy of the planktonic compartment, which may require external organic carbon inputs, most likely from land.

  3. Assessment for water quality by artificial neural network in Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, artificial neural network such as a self-organizing map (SOM) was used to assess for the effects caused by climate change and human activities on the water quality in Daya Bay, South China Sea. SOM has identified the anthropogenic effects and seasonal characters of water quality. SOM grouped the four seasons as four groups (winter, spring, summer and autumn). The Southeast Asian monsoons, northeasterly from October to the next April and southwesterly from May to September have also an important influence on the water quality in Daya Bay. Spatial pattern is mainly related to anthropogenic activities and hydrodynamics conditions. In spatial characteristics, the water quality in Daya Bay was divided into two groups by chemometrics. The monitoring stations (S3, S8, S10 and S11) were in these area (Dapeng Ao, Aotou Harbor) and northeast parts of Daya Bay, which are areas of human activity. The thermal pollution has been observed near water body in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (S5). The rest of the monitoring sites were in the south, central and eastern parts of Daya Bay, which are areas that experience water exchanges from South China Sea. The results of this study may provide information on the spatial and temporal patterns in Daya Bay. Further research will be carry out more research concerning functional changes in the bay ecology with respect to changes in climatic factor, human activities and bay morphology in Daya Bay. PMID:25847104

  4. Sediment environmental capacity of 137Cs in Daya Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junli; CHEN Jiajun; XU Jialin; LI Yuanxin; HUANG Naiming

    2007-01-01

    Sediment environmental capacity of pollutants is very important for marine environmental management.Based on the methodology of a study on water,soil environmental capacity,and mass conservation theory in a system,the concept and model on sediment environmental capacity for 137Cs in Daya Bay were developed.The static capacity for 137Cs in the upper sediment near the shore at a shallow area was calculated,and the annual dynamic capacity and total dynamic capacity were also calculated through determination of the typical biomass in the sediment.The results showed that the estimated environmental capacity for 137Cs in sediments was approximately equal to the current input of 137Cs into the sediments.Controlling the input of 137Cs in the sediments within the environmental capacity guarantees the sustainability of the current situation of the Daya Bay ecosystem and avoidance of a significant degradation of the system.

  5. A coastal acoustic tomography experiment in the Tokyo Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANEKO Arata; HACHIYA Hiroyuki; HASHIMOTO Noriaki; YAMAGUCHI Keisuke; YAMAMOTO Tokuo; GOHDA Noriaki; ZHENG Hong; SYAMSUDIN Fadli; LIN Ju; NGUYEN Hong-Quang; MATSUYAMA Masaji

    2005-01-01

    Eight sets of coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) systems were deployed during November 29 to December 10, 2002 at the coasts on both sides of Tokyo Bay to measure tidal current structures at 15-min interval. Sound transmission across the Tokyo Bay (between Yokohama and Chiba)was successfully traced,even under severe interference from ship generated wakes and bubbles. Tidal current fields changing from northward to southward flow are well reconstructed by the inverse analysis of travel-time difference data for a period with the best sound transmission condition. It is suggested that the CAT is the most powerful tool to continuously map tidal current fields in the coastal seas with heavy shipping traffic and fisheries activity.

  6. The radon monitoring system in Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, M. C.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Leung, J. K. C.; Leung, K. Y.; Lin, Y. C.; Luk, K. B.; Pun, C. S. J.

    2016-02-01

    We developed a highly sensitive, reliable and portable automatic system (H3) to monitor the radon concentration of the underground experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. H3 is able to measure radon concentration with a statistical error less than 10% in a 1-h measurement of dehumidified air (R.H. 5% at 25 °C) with radon concentration as low as 50 Bq/m3. This is achieved by using a large radon progeny collection chamber, semiconductor α-particle detector with high energy resolution, improved electronics and software. The integrated radon monitoring system is highly customizable to operate in different run modes at scheduled times and can be controlled remotely to sample radon in ambient air or in water from the water pools where the antineutrino detectors are being housed. The radon monitoring system has been running in the three experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment since November 2013.

  7. An Improved Measurement of Electron Antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, David M

    2012-01-01

    The theory of neutrino oscillations explains changes in neutrino flavor, count rates, and spectra from solar, atmospheric, accelerator, and reactor neutrinos. These oscillations are characterized by three mixing angles and two mass-squared differences. The solar mixing angle, {\\theta}_12, and the atmospheric mixing angle, {\\theta}_23, have been well measured, but until recently the neutrino mixing angle {\\theta}_13 was not well known. The Daya Bay experiment, located northeast of Hong Kong at the Guangdong Nuclear Power Complex in China, has made a precise measurement of electron antineutrino disappearance using six functionally-identical gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator-based detectors at three sites with distances between 364 and 1900 meters from six reactor cores. This proceeding describes the Daya Bay updated result, using 127 days of good run time collected between December 24, 2011 and May 11, 2012. For the far site, the ratio of the observed number of events to the expected number of events assumin...

  8. The Radon Monitoring System in Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, M C; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Leung, J K C; Leung, K Y; Lin, Y C; Luk, K B; Pun, C S J

    2016-01-01

    We developed a highly sensitive, reliable and portable automatic system (H$^{3}$) to monitor the radon concentration of the underground experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. H$^{3}$ is able to measure radon concentration with a statistical error less than 10\\% in a 1-hour measurement of dehumidified air (R.H. 5\\% at 25$^{\\circ}$C) with radon concentration as low as 50 Bq/m$^{3}$. This is achieved by using a large radon progeny collection chamber, semiconductor $\\alpha$-particle detector with high energy resolution, improved electronics and software. The integrated radon monitoring system is highly customizable to operate in different run modes at scheduled times and can be controlled remotely to sample radon in ambient air or in water from the water pools where the antineutrino detectors are being housed. The radon monitoring system has been running in the three experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment since November 2013.

  9. Food habits of mute swans in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Osenton, P.C.; Lohnes, E.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Unlike the tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) that migrate to the Bay for the winter, the mute swan (Cygnus olor) is a year long resident and therefore has raised concerns among research managers over reports of conflicts with nesting native water birds and the consumption of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Although data on the reduction of SAV by nesting mute swans and their offspring during the spring and summer are limited, food-habits data show that mute swans rely heavily on SAV during these months. Analyses of the gullet and gizzard of mute swans indicate that widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) and eelgrass (Zostera marina) were the most important food items to mute swans during the winter and spring. Other organisms were eaten by mute swans, but represent small percentages of food. Corn (Zea mays) fed to the swans by Bay residents in late winter probably supplements their limited vegetative food resources at that time of year.

  10. A general Bayes weibull inference model for accelerated life testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the development of a general Bayes inference model for accelerated life testing. The failure times at a constant stress level are assumed to belong to a Weibull distribution, but the specification of strict adherence to a parametric time-transformation function is not required. Rather, prior information is used to indirectly define a multivariate prior distribution for the scale parameters at the various stress levels and the common shape parameter. Using the approach, Bayes point estimates as well as probability statements for use-stress (and accelerated) life parameters may be inferred from a host of testing scenarios. The inference procedure accommodates both the interval data sampling strategy and type I censored sampling strategy for the collection of ALT test data. The inference procedure uses the well-known MCMC (Markov Chain Monte Carlo) methods to derive posterior approximations. The approach is illustrated with an example

  11. Biogenic silica in surficial sediments of Prydz Bay, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chuanyu; Xue Bin; Yu Peisong; Pan Jianming

    2008-01-01

    The content and distribution of biogenic silica were investigated in sediment cores from Prydz Bay,Antarctica,during the CHINARE 18/21 cruise.The results show that the content of biogenic silica(BSiO 2 )is ranged from 4.89% to 85.41%,and the average content of biogenic silica is 30.90%,the highest valueoccurred at the IV 10 station.The profile of BSiO 2 in sediment is contrast to that of silicate in the interstitial water.The content of biogenic silica and organic carbon in the surface sediments in the central area of Prydz Bay gyre were much higher than those in other area,and closely related to the Chla content and primary productivity of phytoplankton in the surface water column.

  12. Variational Bayes in Distributed Fully Probabilistic Decision Making

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídl, Václav; Tichý, Ondřej

    Prague: Institute of Information Theory and Automation, 2011, s. 73-80. ISBN 978-80-903834-6-3. [The 2nd International Workshop od Decision Making with Multiple Imperfect Decision Makers. Held in Conjunction with the 25th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS 2011). Sierra Nevada (ES), 16.12.2011-16.12.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA TA ČR TA01030603 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Fully Probabilistic Design * Variational Bayes method * distributed control Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/smidl-variational bayes in distributed fully probabilistic decision making.pdf

  13. Subsurface ammonium maxima in northern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Satyanarayana, D.; Sahu, S.D.; Panigrahy, P.K.; Sarma, V.V.; Suguna, C.

    Environmental Research 31 (1991) 123-136 Subsurface Ammonium Maxima in Northern Bay of Bengal D. Satyanarayana, S. D. Sahu, P. K. Panigrahy School of Chemistry, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003, India V. V. Sarma & C. Suguna National Institute.... Inorganic phosphate was determined by the method of Murphy & Riley (1962), nitrite by the method of Bendschneider & Robinson (1952) and nitrate by the method of Morris & Riley (1963) as modified by Grasshoff (1964). Ammonium was determined by indophenol...

  14. PMT waveform modeling at the Daya Bay experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sören, Jetter; Dan, Dwyer; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Liu, Da-Wei; Wang, Yi-Fang; Wang, Zhi-Min; Wen, Liang-Jian

    2012-08-01

    Detailed measurements of Hamamatsu R5912 photomultiplier signals are presented, including the single photoelectron charge response, waveform shape, nonlinearity, saturation, overshoot, oscillation, prepulsing, and afterpulsing. The results were used to build a detailed model of the PMT signal characteristics over a wide range of light intensities. Including the PMT model in simulated Daya Bay particle interactions shows no significant systematic effects that are detrimental to the experimental sensitivity.

  15. PMT waveform modeling at the Daya Bay experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed measurements of Hamamatsu R5912 photomultiplier signals are presented, including the single photoelectron charge response, waveform shape, nonlinearity, saturation, overshoot, oscillation, prepulsing, and afterpulsing. The results were used to build a detailed model of the PMT signal characteristics over a wide range of light intensities. Including the PMT model in simulated Daya Bay particle interactions shows no significant systematic effects that are detrimental to the experimental sensitivity. (authors)

  16. Spacelab-1 module in orbiter Columbia's payload bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A Space Shuttle mission STS-9 onboard view show's Spacelab-1 (SL-1) module in orbiter Columbia's payload bay. Spacelab-1 was a cooperative venture of NASA and the European Space Agency. Scientists from eleven European nations plus Canada, Japan and the U.S. provided instruments and experimental procedures for over 70 different investigations in five research areas of disciplines: astronomy and solar physics, space plasma physics, atmospheric physics and Earth observations, life sciences and materials science.

  17. The muon system of the Daya Bay Reactor antineutrino experiment

    OpenAIRE

    An, F. P.; Carr, R; McKeown, R.D.; Qian, X.; Tsang, R. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Daya Bay experiment consists of functionally identical antineutrino detectors immersed in pools of ultrapure water in three well-separated underground experimental halls near two nuclear reactor complexes. These pools serve both as shields against natural, low-energy radiation, and as water Cherenkov detectors that efficiently detect cosmic muons using arrays of photomultiplier tubes. Each pool is covered by a plane of resistive plate chambers as an additional means of detecting muons. De...

  18. Catherine Barr: Manager, Monterey Bay Certified Farmers' Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Catherine Barr manages the Monterey Bay Certified Farmers’ Markets (MBCFM), a consortium that includes the oldest and largest farmers’ markets on California’s Central Coast. Founded in 1976, MBCFM now boasts a total of more than eighty vendors at four locations, including Aptos, Monterey, Del Monte (also in Monterey), and Carmel. (At the time when this oral history was recorded, MBCFM had a now-discontinued market in Salinas, while the Del Monte location had not yet been established.) Certifi...

  19. Supernova Early Warning in Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Hanyu Wei for the Daya Bay collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Providing an early warning of a galactic supernova using neutrino signals is of importance in studying both supernova dynamics and neutrino physics. The Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment, with a unique feature of multiple liquid scintillator detectors separated in space, is sensitive to the full energy spectrum of supernova burst electron-antineutrinos. By deploying 8 Antineutrino Detectors (ADs) in three different experimental halls, we obtain a more powerful and prompt rejection of muon ...

  20. Expectation-maximization for Bayes-adaptive POMDPs

    OpenAIRE

    Erik P. Vargo; Randy Cogill

    2015-01-01

    Bayes-adaptive POMDPs (BAPOMDPs) are partially observable Markov decision problems in which uncertainty in the state-transition and observation-emission probabilities can be captured by a prior distribution over the model parameters. Existing approaches to solving BAPOMDPs rely on model and trajectory sampling to guide exploration and, because of the curse of dimensionality, do not scale well when the degree of model uncertainty is large. In this paper, we begin by presenting two expectation-...

  1. Analysis of acoustic ambient noise in Monterey Bay, California.

    OpenAIRE

    Elles, Christopher Jacob.

    1982-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Magnetic tape recordings, made in 1980 and 1981 by previous investigators using sonobuoys, of acoustic ambient noise in the south-eastern parts of Monterey Bay for various stations under various surf conditions, were analyzed. A computer program was developed and used with sonobuoy calibration data to correct :raw-data" to absolute sound pressure levels. The variation of omnidirectional levels with range from the beach as a function ...

  2. Atmospheric deposition of organochlorine contaminants to Galveston Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Soo; Wade, Terry L.; Sweet, Stephen

    Atmospheric monitoring of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides (e.g., HCHs, chlordanes, and DDTs) in Galveston Bay was conducted at Seabrook, Texas. Air and wet deposition samples were collected from 2 February 1995 and continued through 6 August 1996. Vapor total PCB ( tPCB) concentrations in air ranged from 0.21 to 4.78 ng m -3 with a dominance of tri-chlorinated PCBs. Dissolved tPCBs in rain ranged from 0.08 to 3.34 ng l -1, with tetra-chlorinated PCBs predominating. The predominant isomers found in air and rain were α- and γ-HCH, α- and γ-chlordanes, 4,4'-DDT, and dieldrin. The concentrations of PCBs and pesticides in the air and rain revealed no clear seasonal trend. Elevated levels of PCBs in the air occurred when temperatures were high and wind came from urban and industrialized areas (S, SW, NW, and W of the site). Concentrations of HCHs were elevated in April, May, and October, perhaps due to local and/or regional applications of γ-HCH (lindane). Other pesticides showed no notable temporal variation. When winds originated from the Gulf of Mexico (southeasterly), lower concentrations of organochlorines were detected in the air. The direct deposition rate (wet+dry) of PCBs to Galveston Bay (6.40 μg m -2 yr -1) was significantly higher than that of pesticides by a factor of 5-10. The net flux from gas exchange estimated for PCBs was from Galveston Bay water to the atmosphere (78 μg m -2 yr -1). Gas exchange of PCBs from bay water to the atmosphere was the dominant flux.

  3. Biomass and Carbon Stocks of Sofala Bay Mangrove Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida A. Sitoe; Luís Júnior Comissário Mandlate; Benard S. Guedes

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves could be key ecosystems in strategies addressing the mitigation of climate changes through carbon storage. However, little is known regarding the carbon stocks of these ecosystems, particularly below-ground. This study was carried out in the mangrove forests of Sofala Bay, Central Mozambique, with the aim of quantifying carbon stocks of live and dead plant and soil components. The methods followed the procedures developed by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) for...

  4. Sustainable Forest Management in Jozani Chwaka Bay National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Lozev, Rosen

    2013-01-01

    Jozani Chwaka Bay National Park is located in the south-east region of Zanzibar and attracts millions of tourist each year. This tourist flow is mainly due to the fact that Jozani had been declared a biodiversity hot spot with endangered species and variety of mixed forestry vegetation. At first glance, Jozani enjoys rather stable status which is mainly due to the collective efforts of various forest related actors. In fact, the Park had become widely associated with community based forest ma...

  5. Acoustic modeling of the Monterey Bay tomography experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. In December 1988, a tomographic signal transmission test was conducted in order to test the feasibility of tomographic analysis in a region of complex bathymetry. The transmission test was conducted in the Monterey Bay where the signals propagated from deep water to shallow, continental shelf water. In order to use the inverse techniques to infer the ocean processes affecting the acoustic propagation, the propagation paths of the tomo...

  6. Conceptual Tools for Managing Two Monterey Bay Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Ish, Teresa Lin

    2003-01-01

    I developed two conceptual models addressing fishery questions in the Monterey Bay motivated by 1) the California Market Squid (Loligo opalescens) and 2) marine reserves as a recovery and management tool. The model for California Market Squid incorporates the close ties between environmental variability and squid life history. Inclusion of environmental factors in the model provides a biological mechanism contributing to the large fluctuations that occur in the fishery. Furthermore, I predict...

  7. Accelerated particle filtering using the Variational Bayes approximation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídl, Václav; Quinn, A.

    Honolulu : IEEE, 2007, s. 1173-1176. ISSN 1520-6149. [IEEE International Conference on Acoustics , Speech, and Signal Processing. Honolulu (US), 15.04.2007-20.04.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR 1ET100750401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Bayesian filtering * Variational Bayes * particle filtering * non-linear filtering * Rao-Blackwellization Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  8. GUANABARA BAY: ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION THROUGH AN INTERDISCIPLINARY THEMATIC

    OpenAIRE

    DE SOUZA, Paulo Sérgio Alves; RUA, Emílio Reguera

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows an interdisciplinary project that involved two scholar subjects: Chemistry and Regional Studies (subject of business administration course of Fundação Osório). The Guanabara Bay was the scene for observations and discussions about the origins, causes and possible solutions in terms of time scale for the environmental question. This approach allowed, beyond the dialog between Chemistry and Regional Studies, the diffusion of environmental education and developed the social and ...

  9. Nontidal sea level changes in Hiroshima Bay, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chuanzheng; KANEKO Arata; ZHU Xiaohua; LIN Ju

    2014-01-01

    Nontidal sea level changes generated in Hiroshima Bay of the Seto-Inland Sea in Japan are studied over vari-ous time scales, from the sub-tidal (2 d to 1 month) to inter-annual scales (>2 years). The total sea level varia-tion produces a standard deviation (STD) of 12.5 cm. The inter-annual component of the sea level variation in Hiroshima Bay oscillates with a STD of 3.4 cm, forming a long-term trend of 4.9 mm/a. The STD of the sea level variation is 9.8 cm for the seasonal component (8 months to 2 years) and 4.7 cm for the intra-seasonal one (1 month to 8 months). Significant sea level variations with a STD of 4.2 cm also occur in the sub-tidal range. Special attention is paid to the sub-tidal sea level changes. It is found that the upwelling and asso-ciated transient sea level changes generated along the north coast of Hiroshima Bay (opened southward) by the strong northerly wind, play a significant role in sub-tidal sea level changes. The transient sea level changes are over 10 cm in most cases when caused by typhoons that pass through the Pacific Ocean off the Kii Peninsula, located at about 400 km east of Hiroshima Bay. Reasonable sea level changes are evaluated by the balance of pressure forces at the onshore and offshore boundary of the study domain.

  10. Mining housekeeping genes with a Naive Bayes classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Aitken Stuart; De Ferrari Luna

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Traditionally, housekeeping and tissue specific genes have been classified using direct assay of mRNA presence across different tissues, but these experiments are costly and the results not easy to compare and reproduce. Results In this work, a Naive Bayes classifier based only on physical and functional characteristics of genes already available in databases, like exon length and measures of chromatin compactness, has achieved a 97% success rate in classification of human...

  11. Mining housekeeping genes with a Naive Bayes classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Luna De; Aitken, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditionally, housekeeping and tissue specific genes have been classified using direct assay of mRNA presence across different tissues, but these experiments are costly and the results not easy to compare and reproduce.RESULTS: In this work, a Naive Bayes classifier based only on physical and functional characteristics of genes already available in databases, like exon length and measures of chromatin compactness, has achieved a 97% success rate in classification of human houseke...

  12. The future of horticultural research in the Bay of Plenty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research into kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) breeding and rootstock evaluation at Te Puke in the Bay of Plenty region of New Zealand is outlined. Cultivar improvement has involved the identification of useful sports or γ-irradiated mutations, and hybridization to improve earliness and produce hermaphrodite plants and novel fruit types. Rootstock improvement has entailed selecting potentially useful forms from seedlings, from fruit breeding programmes and from compatible Actinidia species

  13. Nutrient load estimates for Manila Bay, Philippines using population data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotto, Lara Patricia A.; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Villanoy, Cesar L.; Bouwman, Lex F.; Jacinto, Gil S.

    2015-06-01

    A major source of nutrient load to periodically hypoxic Manila Bay is the urban nutrient waste water flow from humans and industries to surface water. In Manila alone, the population density is as high as 19,137 people/km2. A model based on a global point source model by Morée et al. (2013) was used to estimate the contribution of the population to nitrogen and phosphorus emissions which was then used in a water transport model to estimate the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads to Manila Bay. Seven scenarios for 2050 were tested, with varying degrees and amounts for extent of sewage treatment, and population growth rates were also included. In scenario 1, the sewage connection and treatment remains the same as 2010; in scenario 2, sewage connection is improved but the treatment is the same; in scenario 3, the sewage connection as well as treatment is improved (70% tertiary); and in scenario 4, a more realistic situation of 70% primary treatment achieved with 100% connection to pipes is tested. Scenarios 5, 6, and 7 have the same parameters as 1, 2, and 3 respectively, but with the population growth rate per province reduced to half of what was used in 1, 2, and 3. In all scenarios, a significant increase in N and P loads was observed (varying from 27% to 469% relative to 2010 values). This was found even in scenario 3 where 70% of the waste water undergoes tertiary treatment which removes 80% N and 90% P. However, the lowest increase in N and P load into the bay was achieved in scenarios 5 to 7 where population growth rate is reduced to half of 2010 values. The results suggest that aside from improving sewage treatment, the continued increase of the human population in Manila at current growth rates will be an important determinant of N and P load into Manila Bay.

  14. Atmospheric transport of endosulfan to Everglades and Biscayne National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban encroachment and agricultural activities have been implicated in contributing to the environmental health decline and loss of organism diversity of South Florida ecosystems. Intensive agricultural pesticide use on vegetable and horticultural crops in the region may have a negative effect on s...

  15. Food habits and distribution of wintering canvasbacks, Aythya valisineria, on Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Uhler, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    Baltic clams (Macoma balthica) were the predominant food items of 323 canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) collected throughout Chesapeake Bay during 1970-1979. Natural vegetation constituted 4% of the food volume. Widgeongrass (Ruppia maritima) and redhead grass (Potamogeton perfoliatus) constituted the greatest percent volume and frequency of occurrence among the plant species, whereas wild celery (Vallisneria americana) constituted only a trace of the food volume. These results contrast with historical records of food habits of canvasbacks in Chesapeake Bay. Canvasback population estimates during the 1970?s were examined to detect annual and seasonal changes in distribution. Linear regression analyses of winter canvasback populations in the bay showed a significant decline in the upper-bay and middle-bay populations, but no significant changes in the lower-bay and Potomac River populations. The changes in winter distribution and abundance of the canvasback appear related to changes in natural food availability, which is the result of altered environmental conditions.

  16. Diachronic Change within the Still Bay at Blombos Cave, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Archer

    Full Text Available Characteristically shaped bifacial points are stone artefacts with which the Middle Stone Age Still Bay techno-complex in Southern Africa is identified. Traditional approaches such as chaîne opératoire and two-dimensional metrics in combination with attribute analyses have been used to analyse variability within Still Bay point assemblages. Here we develop a protocol to extract and analyse high resolution 3-dimensional geometric morphometric information about Still Bay point morphology. We also investigate ways in which the independent variables of time, raw-material and tool size may be driving patterns of shape variation in the Blombos Cave point assemblage. We demonstrate that at a single, stratified Still Bay site points undergo significant modal changes in tool morphology and standardization. Our results caution against (1 treatment of the Still Bay as a static technological entity and (2 drawing demographic inferences stemming from grouping Still Bay point collections within the same cultural label.

  17. Bayes factors and the geometry of discrete hierarchical loglinear models

    CERN Document Server

    Letac, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    A standard tool for model selection in a Bayesian framework is the Bayes factor which compares the marginal likelihood of the data under two given different models. In this paper, we consider the class of hierarchical loglinear models for discrete data given under the form of a contingency table with multinomial sampling. We assume that the Diaconis-Ylvisaker conjugate prior is the prior distribution on the loglinear parameters and the uniform is the prior distribution on the space of models. Under these conditions, the Bayes factor between two models is a function of their prior and posterior normalizing constants. These constants are functions of the hyperparameters $(m,\\alpha)$ which can be interpreted respectively as marginal counts and the total count of a fictive contingency table. We study the behaviour of the Bayes factor when $\\alpha$ tends to zero. In this study two mathematical objects play a most important role. They are, first, the interior $C$ of the convex hull $\\bar{C}$ of the support of the m...

  18. Structuring of bacterioplankton diversity in a large tropical bay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo B Gregoracci

    Full Text Available Structuring of bacterioplanktonic populations and factors that determine the structuring of specific niche partitions have been demonstrated only for a limited number of colder water environments. In order to better understand the physical chemical and biological parameters that may influence bacterioplankton diversity and abundance, we examined their productivity, abundance and diversity in the second largest Brazilian tropical bay (Guanabara Bay, GB, as well as seawater physical chemical and biological parameters of GB. The inner bay location with higher nutrient input favored higher microbial (including vibrio growth. Metagenomic analysis revealed a predominance of Gammaproteobacteria in this location, while GB locations with lower nutrient concentration favored Alphaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. According to the subsystems (SEED functional analysis, GB has a distinctive metabolic signature, comprising a higher number of sequences in the metabolism of phosphorus and aromatic compounds and a lower number of sequences in the photosynthesis subsystem. The apparent phosphorus limitation appears to influence the GB metagenomic signature of the three locations. Phosphorus is also one of the main factors determining changes in the abundance of planktonic vibrios, suggesting that nutrient limitation can be observed at community (metagenomic and population levels (total prokaryote and vibrio counts.

  19. The detector system of the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, F. P.; Bai, J. Z.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Beavis, D.; Beriguete, W.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Brown, R. L.; Butorov, I.; Cao, D.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Carr, R.; Cen, W. R.; Chan, W. T.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, L. C.; Chang, Y.; Chasman, C.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M. J.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, X. C.; Chen, X. H.; Chen, X. S.; Chen, Y. X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cheng, Y. P.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chidzik, S.; Chow, K.; Chu, M. C.; Cummings, J. P.; de Arcos, J.; Deng, Z. Y.; Ding, X. F.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Dong, L.; Dove, J.; Draeger, E.; Du, X. F.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Ely, S. R.; Fang, S. D.; Fu, J. Y.; Fu, Z. W.; Ge, L. Q.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Gill, R.; Goett, J.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Gornushkin, Y. A.; Grassi, M.; Greenler, L. S.; Gu, W. Q.; Guan, M. Y.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, X. H.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Hahn, R. L.; Han, R.; Hans, S.; He, M.; He, Q.; He, W. S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Higuera, A.; Hinrichs, P.; Ho, T. H.; Hoff, M.; Hor, Y. K.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, L. M.; Hu, L. J.; Hu, T.; Hu, W.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, P. W.; Huang, X.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Hussain, G.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jaffke, P.; Jen, K. L.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. P.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, H. J.; Jiang, W. Q.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Joseph, J.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Kohn, S.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Lai, C. Y.; Lai, W. C.; Lai, W. H.; Langford, T. J.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lee, M. K. P.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Leung, J. K. C.; Lewis, C. A.; Li, B.; Li, C.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, J.; Li, N. Y.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. F.; Li, S. C.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. B.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y.; Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, J.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, P. Y.; Lin, S. X.; Lin, S. K.; Lin, Y. C.; Ling, J. J.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, D. W.; Liu, H.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. C.; Liu, S.; Liu, S. S.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Lu, J. S.; Luk, A.; Luk, K. B.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Ma, L. H.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, Y. Q.; Mayes, B.; McDonald, K. T.; McFarlane, M. C.; McKeown, R. D.; Meng, Y.; Mitchell, I.; Mohapatra, D.; Monari Kebwaro, J.; Morgan, J. E.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Newsom, C.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ngai, W. K.; Nie, Y. B.; Ning, Z.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevskiy, A.; Pagac, A.; Pan, H.-R.; Patton, S.; Pearson, C.; Pec, V.; Peng, J. C.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Raper, N.; Ren, B.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Sands, W. R.; Seilhan, B.; Shao, B. B.; Shih, K.; Song, W. Y.; Steiner, H.; Stoler, P.; Stuart, M.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. L.; Tagg, N.; Tam, Y. H.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tang, W.; Tang, X.; Taychenachev, D.; Themann, H.; Torun, Y.; Trentalange, S.; Tsai, O.; Tsang, K. V.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Tull, C. E.; Tung, Y. C.; Viaux, N.; Viren, B.; Virostek, S.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, L. Y.; Wang, L. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. W.; Wang, X. T.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Webber, D. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wei, Y. D.; Wen, L. J.; Wenman, D. L.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Whitten, C. A.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. C.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, J.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, F. F.; Wu, Q.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xiang, S. T.; Xiao, Q.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, G.; Xu, J. Y.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, J.; Xu, W.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yan, J.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Ye, M.; Yeh, M.; Yeh, Y. S.; Yip, K.; Young, B. L.; Yu, G. Y.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zeng, S.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, Q. X.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. T.; Zhang, Y. C.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, Y. F.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zheng, L.; Zhong, W. L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zimmerman, S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    The Daya Bay experiment was the first to report simultaneous measurements of reactor antineutrinos at multiple baselines leading to the discovery of νbare oscillations over km-baselines. Subsequent data has provided the world's most precise measurement of sin2 2θ13 and the effective mass splitting Δ mee2. The experiment is located in Daya Bay, China where the cluster of six nuclear reactors is among the world's most prolific sources of electron antineutrinos. Multiple antineutrino detectors are deployed in three underground water pools at different distances from the reactor cores to search for deviations in the antineutrino rate and energy spectrum due to neutrino mixing. Instrumented with photomultiplier tubes, the water pools serve as shielding against natural radioactivity from the surrounding rock and provide efficient muon tagging. Arrays of resistive plate chambers over the top of each pool provide additional muon detection. The antineutrino detectors were specifically designed for measurements of the antineutrino flux with minimal systematic uncertainty. Relative detector efficiencies between the near and far detectors are known to better than 0.2%. With the unblinding of the final two detectors' baselines and target masses, a complete description and comparison of the eight antineutrino detectors can now be presented. This paper describes the Daya Bay detector systems, consisting of eight antineutrino detectors in three instrumented water pools in three underground halls, and their operation through the first year of eight detector data-taking.

  20. Abundance of walruses in Eastern Baffin Bay and Davis Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Walruses (Odobenus rosmarus are exploited for subsistence purposes in West Greenland. However, current information about the abundance of walruses subject to harvest in eastern Baffin Bay subject to harvest has been unavailable despite being critical for maintaining sustainable catch levels. Three visual aerial surveys were conducted in 2006 (21 March to 19 April 2006, 2008 (3 to 12 April and 2012 (24 March to 14 April to estimate the number of walruses on the wintering grounds in eastern Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. Data on the fraction of walruses that were submerged below a 2m detection threshold during the surveys were obtained from 24 walruses instrumented with satellite-linked-time-depth-recorders in northern Baffin Bay in May-June 2010-2012. An availability correction factor was estimated at 36.5% (cv=0.08 after filtering of data for an observed drift of the pressure transducer of more than 2.5 m. The surveys resulted in walrus abundance estimates that were corrected for walruses submerged below a detection threshold and for walruses that were missed by the observers. The estimates of abundance were 1,105 (cv=0.31, 95% CI 610-2,002 in 2006, 1,137 (0.48, 468-2,758 in 2008 and 1,408 (0.22, 922-2,150 in 2012. 

  1. Weighting and Bayes Nets for Rollup of Surveillance Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, Kriste [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sentz, Kari [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamada, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-30

    The LANL IKE team proposes that the surveillance metrics for several data stream that are used to detect the same failure mode be weighted. Similarly, the failure mode metrics are weighted to obtain a subsystem metric. E.g., if there n data streams (nodes 1-n), the failure mode (node 0) metric is obtained as M{sub 0} = w{sub 1}M{sub 1} + {hor_ellipsis} + w{sub n}M{sub n}, where {Sigma}{sub i=1}{sup n} w{sub i} = 1. This proposal has been implemented with Bayes Nets using the Netica/IKE software by specifying an appropriate conditional probability table (CPT). This CPT is calculated using the same form as (1), where the data stream metrics for the true (T) and false (F) states are replaced by 1 and 0, respectively. Then using this CPT, the failure mode metric calculated by Netica/IKE equals (1). This result has two nice features. First, the rollup Bayes nets is doing can be easily explained. Second, because Bayes Nets can implement this rollup using Netica/IKE, then data marshalling (allocating next year's budget) can be studied. A proof that the claim 'failure mode metric calculated by Netica/IKE equals (1)' for n = 2 and n = 3 follows as well as the sketch of a proof by induction for general n.

  2. AutoBayes Program Synthesis System System Internals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann Martin

    2011-01-01

    This lecture combines the theoretical background of schema based program synthesis with the hands-on study of a powerful, open-source program synthesis system (Auto-Bayes). Schema-based program synthesis is a popular approach toward program synthesis. The lecture will provide an introduction into this topic and discuss how this technology can be used to generate customized algorithms. The synthesis of advanced numerical algorithms requires the availability of a powerful symbolic (algebra) system. Its task is to symbolically solve equations, simplify expressions, or to symbolically calculate derivatives (among others) such that the synthesized algorithms become as efficient as possible. We will discuss the use and importance of the symbolic system for synthesis. Any synthesis system is a large and complex piece of code. In this lecture, we will study Autobayes in detail. AutoBayes has been developed at NASA Ames and has been made open source. It takes a compact statistical specification and generates a customized data analysis algorithm (in C/C++) from it. AutoBayes is written in SWI Prolog and many concepts from rewriting, logic, functional, and symbolic programming. We will discuss the system architecture, the schema libary and the extensive support infra-structure. Practical hands-on experiments and exercises will enable the student to get insight into a realistic program synthesis system and provides knowledge to use, modify, and extend Autobayes.

  3. Narwhals document continued warming of southern Baffin Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidre, K. L.; Heide-JøRgensen, M. P.; Ermold, W.; Steele, M.

    2010-10-01

    We report on wintertime data collected from Baffin Bay and northern Davis Strait, a major gateway linking the Arctic with the subpolar North Atlantic, using narwhals (Monodon monoceros) as an oceanographic sampling platform. Fourteen narwhals were instrumented with satellite-linked time-depth-temperature recorders between 2005 and 2007. Transmitters collected and transmitted water column temperature profiles from each dive between December and April, where >90% of maximum daily dive depths reached the bottom. Temperature measurements were combined with 15 helicopter-based conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) casts taken in April 2007 across central Baffin Bay and compared with hydrographic climatology values used for the region in Arctic climate models. Winter temperature maxima for whale and CTD data were in good agreement, ranging between 4.0°C and 4.6°C in inshore and offshore Baffin Bay and in Davis Strait. The warm Irminger Water was identified between 57°W and 59°W (at 68°N) between 200 and 400 m depths. Whale data correlated well with climatological temperature maxima; however, they were on average 0.9°C warmer ±0.6°C (P 1700 m offer a useful opportunity to sample the area.

  4. Assessment of sediment contamination in Casco Bay, Maine, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of contaminant concentrations in Casco Bay, decadal trends of these contaminants and changes in their geographical distribution are assessed using sediment samples collected approximately 10 years apart. In general, regulated contaminants appeared to be decreasing in concentration. Total PAH and dioxins/furans concentrations did not significantly change over this period. Total organochlorine pesticides, 4,4-DDE, 4,4-DDD, total DDT, PCB, tributyltin and total butyltin decreased in concentration. Trace element concentrations in sediments decreased at the majority of the sampling sites for chromium, nickel, and selenium while arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc remained relatively constant. None of the contaminants measured has increased by more than a factor of 2. Selected sites located in the Inner Bay, where concentrations are higher and new inputs were more likely, showed increased concentrations of contaminants. Most contaminants were not found at concentrations expected to adversely affect sediment biota based on ERL/ERM guidelines. - Sediment studies indicate decadal decreases for many chemical contaminants in Casco Bay

  5. Radioactive and stable trace metals in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments designed to determine the removal rates and mechanisms of various radioactive trace metals from the water of Narragansett Bay were performed in the spring and early summer in 150-liter microcosms simulating the bay. Overall removal rates were first order for all elements studied in the spring (54Mn, 58Co, 59Fe, 65Zn, /sup 115m/Cd) and most elements studied in the summer (58Co, 65Zn, 59Fe, 134Cs, 210Po, 228Th). For those elements studied in both seasons, removal was slower in the summer than in the spring. During the summer experiment 54Mn, 51Cr, and 75Se showed rapid first order removal in the initial 1 to 2 weeks followed by much slower removal. The seasonal differences appear to be the result of the association of the metals with low molecular weight organic compounds present only during the summer. Mass balance shows that the major removal reservoirs during the spring were the tank walls, suspended sediment, and the upper layers of the sediment. The seasonal behavior of the metals in the tanks was qualitatively similar to that of some radionuclides and stable metals studied in the bay

  6. Biomass and Carbon Stocks of Sofala Bay Mangrove Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida A. Sitoe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves could be key ecosystems in strategies addressing the mitigation of climate changes through carbon storage. However, little is known regarding the carbon stocks of these ecosystems, particularly below-ground. This study was carried out in the mangrove forests of Sofala Bay, Central Mozambique, with the aim of quantifying carbon stocks of live and dead plant and soil components. The methods followed the procedures developed by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR for mangrove forests. In this study, we developed a general allometric equation to estimate individual tree biomass and soil carbon content (up to 100 cm depth. We estimated the carbon in the whole mangrove ecosystem of Sofala Bay, including dead trees, wood debris, herbaceous, pneumatophores, litter and soil. The general allometric equation for live trees derived was [Above-ground tree dry weight (kg = 3.254 × exp(0.065 × DBH], root mean square error (RMSE = 4.244, and coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.89. The average total carbon storage of Sofala Bay mangrove was 218.5 Mg·ha−1, of which around 73% are stored in the soil. Mangrove conservation has the potential for REDD+ programs, especially in regions like Mozambique, which contains extensive mangrove areas with high deforestation and degradation rates.

  7. A Coupled Wave-Current-Sediment model for Skagit Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, G. W.; Holmes, E. M.; Ralston, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Along with tidal currents, waves provide a dominant forcing mechanism for sediment transport on many tidal flats. In semi-enclosed regions such as Skagit Bay, Washington, the wave action is due mainly to local wind forcing that occurs over seasonal and event scales. Due to the limited fetch, variations in along-flat wave characteristics can drive gradients in the wave-induced bottom stress and resulting sediment transport. In this work, we use an unstructured grid, coupled wave-current-sediment model to study the influence of wave-induced near bottom stresses in the presence of tidal currents on the sediment transport within the Skagit River delta and Skagit Bay. The coupled model consists of three primary components: the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) for hydrodynamics, the unstructured grid model SWAN to compute the phase-averaged wave field, and the Community Sediment Transport Modeling System. Model sensitivities to the choice of coupling and bottom boundary layer formulations are examined. Results from process oriented simulations will be presented. The process studies use a realistic domain with controlled forcing conditions to quantify the influence of wave-induced bed stresses on the sediment dynamics in Skagit Bay.

  8. Total arsenic in marine organisms from Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Levels of total arsenic were determined in muscle tissues of species of finnish, crustaceans and molluscs from Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba. The arsenic contents in the samples were determined using an Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) method. The highest values of Total arsenic were found in crustaceans. Averages found for fish, crustaceans and molluscs were 10.2, 26.5 and 22 μg g-1 dry wt, respectively. These results are considered to be characteristic for normal or naturally altered areas. Cienfuegos Bay, situated in the Southern part of Cuba, is a semi-enclosed bay with a surface area of 90 km2 and an average depth of 14 m. It is connected to the Caribbean Sea by a narrow channel 3 km long. The bay is divided in two well defined hydrographic basins, due to the presence of a submerged ridge 1m below the surface. The Northern basin receives most of the anthropic impact from the outfall of Cienfuegos city (150,000 inhabitants), industrial pole in the country, and the freshwater input of Damuji and Salado rivers. The Southern basin is subjected to a smaller degree of anthropic pollution originating from the Caonao and Arimao rivers. Part of the Southern basin is a natural park, which represents a niche for protected migratory birds and marine species. The bay represents the most important natural resource in the province, due to fishing activities, maritime transport, tourism industry and natural parks. During the last decade it has acquired an important economic and social development, resulting in an increase of industrial and domestic wastes which are discharged into the bay. Direct input of Arsenic to Cienfuegos bay occurs through the Nitrogen Fertilizer Factory, which was authorized to release Arsenic residuals up to 1981 and where two accidental As spills took place in 1979 and 2001. Marine organisms represent an important component of the diet of the population of Cienfuegos. In particular, people from the coastal areas of Castillo de Jagua

  9. Total arsenic in marine organisms from Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Levels of total arsenic were determined in muscle tissues of species of finnish, crustaceans and molluscs from Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba. The arsenic contents in the samples were determined using an Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) method. The highest values of Total arsenic were found in crustaceans. Averages found for fish, crustaceans and molluscs were 10.2, 26.5 and 22 μg g-1 dry wt, respectively. These results are considered to be characteristic for normal or naturally altered areas. Cienfuegos Bay, situated in the Southern part of Cuba, is a semi-enclosed bay with a surface area of 90 km2 and an average depth of 14 m. It is connected to the Caribbean Sea by a narrow channel 3 km long. The bay is divided in two well defined hydrographic basins, due to the presence of a submerged ridge 1m below the surface. The Northern basin receives most of the anthropic impact from the outfall of Cienfuegos city (150,000 inhabitants), industrial pole in the country, and the freshwater input of Damuji and Salado rivers. The Southern basin is subjected to a smaller degree of anthropic pollution originating from the Caonao and Arimao rivers. Part of the Southern basin is a natural park, which represents a niche for protected migratory birds and marine species. The bay represents the most important natural resource in the province, due to fishing activities, maritime transport, tourism industry and natural parks. During the last decade it has acquired an important economic and social development, resulting in an increase of industrial and domestic wastes which are discharged into the bay. Direct input of Arsenic to Cienfuegos bay occurs through the Nitrogen Fertilizer Factory, which was authorized to release Arsenic residuals up to 1981 and where two accidental As spills took place in 1979 and 2001. Marine organisms represent an important component of the diet of the population of Cienfuegos. In particular, people from the coastal areas of Castillo de Jagua

  10. Heavy metals partitioning in the sediments of Izmir Inner Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUVEN Duyusen E; AKINCI Gorkem

    2008-01-01

    Izmir Bay is known to be polluted by high concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants.Sediment samples taken from 7 different stations in Izmir Inner Bay were analyzed for their total organic matter content and,Cu,Cr Pb and Zn.In addition,the chemical distribution of the metals were determined by means of the BCR(Community Bureau of Reference)Extraction Procedure (developed by European Commission for Standards,Measurement and Testing) which allows the determination of metals bound as four fractions;exchangeable and acid soluble,reducible(bound to iron-manganese oxides),oxidizable(bound to organics)and residual.The results show that Izmir Inner Bay contains sediments with high metal concentrations.According to the chemical distribution of metals,Cr and Cu tend to accumulate mostly on the organic fraction of the sediment.Pb is mostly found in the reducible fraction where Zn is mobile in the sediment,and it is distributed evenly on each fraction.

  11. Catastrophic anoxia in the chesapeake bay in 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliger, H H; Boggs, J A; Biggley, W H

    1985-04-01

    In 1984, four climatic sequences combined to produce what may be a major anoxic catastrophe in the northern Chesapeake Bay, sufficient to severely threaten the major benthic species. These sequences are (i) the highest late-winter streamflow on record from the Susquehanna River watershed; (ii) streamflows from the Susquehanna River for the consecutive months of June, July, and August that are higher by 2 standard deviations than the respective monthly mean values measured over the last 34 years; (iii) a stationary high in August off the Atlantic Coast; and (iv) an absence of strong storm events in summer. An empirical equation is proposed for the prediction of the monthly trend of dissolved oxygen decrease in terms of a temperature-dependent subpycnoclinal respiration and a modified estuarine Richardson number. As of 23 August 1984, the summer pycnocline of the northern bay had eroded upward from its historically recorded depth below 10 meters to an abnormally shallow 5 meters, with higher stratification than in earlier years. Dissolved oxygen concentrations directly below the pycnocline decreased to zero during June, 2 months earlier than for previous wet years. At present, oxygen-deficient waters containing significant concentrations of hydrogen sulfide have penetrated into Eastern Bay and the Choptank and Potomac rivers. Because most remaining shellfish-spawning and seed-bed areas in these tributaries are located at depths between 4 and 8 meters, the continued absence of major destratifying events will prolong the present anoxic trend and may result in high benthic mortalities. PMID:17811570

  12. [Values of marine ecosystem services in Sanggou Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-hui; Lü, Ji-bin; Ye, Shu-feng; Zhu, Ming-yuan

    2007-11-01

    A valuation study was conducted in Sanggou Bay, a typical and intensive coastal aquaculture area in China Yellow Sea. The results showed that the total value of ecosystem services (VES) in Sanggou Bay was 6.07 x 10(8) Yen in 2003, with an average unit VES being 4.24 x 10(6) Yen x km(-2). Within the total VES, the provision services, regulation services, and culture services accounted for 51.29%, 17.34%, and 31.37%, respectively. Among the eight primary and secondary services valuated in Sanggou Bay, food provision services held the highest value (50.45%), followed by tourism and entertainment services (29.89%) and climate regulation services (9.18%). Harmful organism and disease control services have the lowest value (0.0017%). The aquaculture activities had greater contributions to the local social economy, environmental regulation, and social culture. Aquaculture activities, especially macro-algae farming, are of significance in maintaining and enhancing the ecosystem services. PMID:18260461

  13. Prasinoxanthin-constaining Prasinophyceae Discovered in Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Gang Yu; Chun-Mei Deng; Peng Yao; Yu Zhen; Shu-Ben Qian

    2007-01-01

    The class Prasinophyceae (Chlorophyta) contains some photosynthetic eukaryotlc ultraplankton species characterized by containing prasinoxanthin. The existence and abundance of these organisms can be estimated by the diagnostic pigment. We detected the unique pigments of prasinoxanthin-contalning Prasinophyceae in Jlaozhou Bay, China using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This was the first finding of this kind in Chinese seas. Using the ratio of prasinoxanthin to chlorophyll a, the abundance of prasinoxanthin-containing Prasinophyceae has been calculated. The average contribution of prasinoxanthin-contalning Prasinophyceae to the chlorophyll a pool was 8.5% and 17.0% in May and August 2004 in Jiaozhou Bay, and the maximums were 25.9% and 36.3%. Size fractionated pigment analysis suggested that more than 80% of prasinoxanthin were in the fraction of 2-20 μm.According to the results of pigment and morphological analysis, the possible genera of prasinoxanthin-containing Prasinophyceae and the reasons for causing this high abundant phytoplankton in Jiaozhou Bay were discussed.This kind of phytoplankton can not be discovered in traditional biological investigation, but its contribution to the coastal ecosystem is significant enough to be studied further.

  14. River Flow Control on the Phytoplankton Dynamics of Chesapeake Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Qingyun; WANG You; TANG Xuexi; LI Ming

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations support an emerging paradigm that climate variability dominates nutrient enrichment in costal ecosystems,which can explain seasonal and inter-annual variability of phytoplankton community composition,biomass (Chl-a),and primary production (PP).In this paper,we combined observation and modeling to investigate the regulation of phytoplankton dynamics in Chesapeake Bay.The year we chose is 1996 that has high river runoff and is usually called a ‘wet year’.A 3-D physical-biogeochemical model based on ROMS was developed to simulate the seasonal cycle and the regional distributions of phytoplankton biomass and primary production in Chesapeake Bay.Based on the model results,NO3 presents a strong contrast to the river nitrate load during spring and the highest concentration in the bay reaches around 80mmol N m3.Compared with the normal year,phytoplankton bloom in spring of 1996 appears in lower latitudes with a higher concentration.Quantitative comparison between the modeled and observed seasonal averaged dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations shows that the model produces reliable results.The correlation coefficient r2 for all quantities exceeds 0.95,and the skill parameter for the four seasons is all above 0.95.

  15. Microbial diversity in restored wetlands of San Francisco Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2013-12-09

    Wetland ecosystems may serve as either a source or a sink for atmospheric carbon and greenhouse gases. This delicate carbon balance is influenced by the activity of belowground microbial communities that return carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. Wetland restoration efforts in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region may help to reverse land subsidence and possibly increase carbon storage in soils. However, the effects of wetland restoration on microbial communities, which mediate soil metabolic activity and carbon cycling, are poorly studied. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors which shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities in a suite of restored and historic wetlands in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with greenhouse gas monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of the wetland soil microbial communities along biogeochemical and wetland age gradients. Our results show relationships among geochemical gradients, availability of electron acceptors, and microbial community composition. Our study provides the first genomic glimpse into microbial populations in natural and restored wetlands of the San Francisco Bay-Delta region and provides a valuable benchmark for future studies.

  16. Assessment of the Petrochemical Industry Pollution on the Skikda Bay, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Houria Chettibi; Noureddine Bouzerna; Boutefnouchet Nafissa

    2005-01-01

    The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effects of these pollutants and waste disposal on the vicinity of the bay, several samples were taken at different distances along the bay and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Subsequently, s...

  17. MACROINVERTEBRATES ASSOCIATED WITH SEAGRASS AT AWERANGE AND LABUANGE BAYS SOUTH SULAWESI

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Litaay

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of macroinvertebrates associated with seagrass at seagrass beds of Awerange dan Labuange Bays South Sulawesi between two seasons had been compared. The results indicate that seagrass bed in Awerange and Labuange bays is mainly composed by Cymodocea rotundata and C. serrulata during dry season. While, Halodule uninervis and Thalassia hemprichii are two dominant seagrasses at both sites during wet season. The number of macroinvertebrates species in Awerange bay is higher compar...

  18. Observation on Mercury Concentration in Kao Bay (Halmahera) and Anggai Waters (Obi Island), North of Maluku

    OpenAIRE

    Edward .

    2008-01-01

    Observation on Mercury Concentration in Kao Bay (Halmahera) and Anggai Waters (Obi Island), North of Maluku. Observation on merkuri concentration in territorial waters of Kao Bay and Anggai have been done in January 2005. The result showed that mercury concentration in seawater and sediment in territorial waters of Kao Bay and Anggai waters still lower and still in line with peaceful threshold value for waters biota life. This data indicate that waste of mercury coming from activity of gold m...

  19. Distribution of oyster Ostrea edulis, mussel Mytilus edulis and Anomiid larvae in Bertraghboy Bay, Co. Galway

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J H

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations and shell lengths of Mytilus edulis, Ostrea edulis and Anomiid larvae were recorded from April to October 1985 in Bertaghboy Bay, Co. Galway. The gamete volume fraction off eggs in female mussels was recorded in an introduced cultivated population of mussels in the inner bay during 1985. Oyster larvae were commonest in July and September, but were concentrated in the upper bay. Mussel and Anomiid distributions were more variable. While the commercial stocks of mussels in the ba...

  20. An Economic Evaluation of the Nutrient Assimilation Potential for Commercial Oyster Aquaculture in the Chesapeake Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Alexander Louis

    2009-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay states continue to struggle to achieve the water quality goals set out in the Chesapeake Bay Agreement. While policy efforts to combat eutrophication tend to focus on reducing nutrient loads at point and nonpoint sources, waters of the Bay can be improved through an increase in the assimilative capacity of the ecosystem, which would remove nutrients (called nutrient assimilation services) from ambient waters. The filtering capacity of the native oyster, C.virginica, is a wi...

  1. Baseline assessment of Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico in support of watershed restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Whitall, David; Bauer, Laurie J.; Sherman, Clark; Edwards, Kimberly; Mason, Andrew; Pait, Tony; Caldow, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Guánica Bay is a major estuary on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. Significant coral reef ecosystems are present outside the bay. These valuable habitats may be impacted by transport of sediments, nutrients and contaminants from the watershed, through the bay and into the offshore waters. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), in consultation with local and regional experts, conducted an interdisciplinary assessment ...

  2. The population dynamics of mitten crab larvae in the San Francisco Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Vanessa Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, has a history of invasions in numerous countries. In 1992, the Chinese mitten crab was introduced to the San Francisco Bay/Delta system. Since its invasion in the San Francisco Bay, it has become an aquatic nuisance species. Little is known about the population dynamics of the megalopa stage of the Chinese mitten crab in the San Francisco Bay estuary, particularly the megalopa stage. Light traps are often used to sample marine larvae and can provid...

  3. Improving spam filtering by combining Naive Bayes with simple k-nearest neighbor searches

    OpenAIRE

    Etzold, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Using naive Bayes for email classification has become very popular within the last few months. They are quite easy to implement and very efficient. In this paper we want to present empirical results of email classification using a combination of naive Bayes and k-nearest neighbor searches. Using this technique we show that the accuracy of a Bayes filter can be improved slightly for a high number of features and significantly for a small number of features.

  4. Community Structure of Seagrass in Awerange and Labuange Bays Barru Regency South Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Sarinita, Sayuri; Priosambodo, Dody

    2006-01-01

    Awerange and Labuange Bays in Barru Regency, South Sulawesi consist of various types of habitats. Mangroves, coral reef and seagrass beds can be found in these bays forming unique ecosystems. However, information about the ecosystems particularly related to seagrass community are poorly known. The aim of this research was to investigate the composition of seagrass species both in Awerange and Labuange Bays. Line transect method combined with plot were used to collect data of seagrass commu...

  5. An Economic Valuation of Coastal Ecosystems in Phang Nga Bay, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Udomsak Seenprachawong

    2003-01-01

    Thailand's Phang Nga Bay is under threat from unregulated tourism and the proposed Southern Seaboard Development Project. The project would involve construction of many infrastructure and industrial projects very close to important and sensitive tourist sites in the Bay. This study assessed the value placed on changes to the Bay's ecosystems by Thais so that these values can be taken into consideration when decisions are made on the expansion of environmentally damaging commercial activities....

  6. Continuing Studies of Water Quality in Farmington Bay and the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Marcarelli, Amy; Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.

    2003-01-01

    For the past three years, an Aquatic Ecology Practicum class at Utah State University has conducted research examining the limnology of Farmington Bay. In 2000, our class discovered that Farmington Bay could be classified as hypereutrophic, and had significantly higher levels of chlorophyll and phytoplankton than the Great Salt Lake proper (Marcarelli et al. 2001). In 2001, individual student projects identified high phosphorus loading into Farmington Bay from surrounding sewage treatment pla...

  7. Studies on distribution, diversity and production of macrobenthic fauna in the Chahbahar Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Nikouyan, Alireza

    1998-01-01

    The population density, distribution, diversity and secondry production of macrobenthic fauna of the inner Chahbahar Bay were studied through bi-monthly sampling from April 1995 to March 1996. Samples were collected from water near the bottom and sediment at 14 stations inside the Bay and one reference station located outside at the entrance to the Bay. The environmental parameters Such as temperature, water depth, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen as well as percentage silt-clay and total or...

  8. Expansion of the macroalga Caulerpa racemosa and changes in softbottom macrofaunal assemblages in Moni Bay, Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Argyrou, M.; Demetropoulos, A.; Hadjichristophorou, M

    1999-01-01

    The recent expansion of the Red Sea macroalga Caulerpa racemosa and its impact on the diversity and abundance of macrobenthos were examined and compared in the summers of 1992 and 1997, in Moni Bay, Cyprus. The phytobenthic community of the bay in 1992 was dominated by the seagrass Posidonia oceanica while, in 1997, the Lessepsian migrant C. racemosa became the most dominant, forming extensive mars. Changes in the vegetation system in Moni Bay have caused significant compositional changes in ...

  9. Developing a spatially-explicit climate adaptation framework for estuarine ecosystems of the San Francisco Bay: climate adaptation for decision support

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides recommended resource allocations for conserving four subregions of SanFrancisco (SF) Bay, including North Bay, Suisun, Central Bay and South...

  10. Hurricane Ike Deposits on the Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Eppler, Dean

    2011-01-01

    In September 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Bay, close to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The storm flooded much of the area with a storm surge ranging from 11 -20 feet. The Bolivar peninsula, the southeastern coast of Galveston Bay, experienced the brunt of the surge. Several agencies collected excellent imagery baselines before the storm and complementary data a few days afterward that helped define the impacts of the storm. In April of 2011, a team of scientists and astronauts from JSC conducted field mapping exercises along the Bolivar Peninsula, the section of the Galveston Bay coast most impacted by the storm. Astronauts routinely observe and document coastal changes from orbit aboard the International Space Station. As part of their basic Earth Science training, scientists at the Johnson Space Center take astronauts out for field mapping exercises so that they can better recognize and understand features and processes that they will later observe from the International Space Station. Using pre -storm baseline images of the Bolivar Peninsula near Rollover Pass and Gilchrist (NOAA/Google Earth Imagery and USGS aerial imagery and lidar data), the astronauts mapped current coastline positions at defined locations, and related their findings to specific coastal characteristics, including channel, jetties, and other developments. In addition to mapping, we dug trenches along both the Gulf of Mexico coast as well as the Galveston Bay coast of the Bolivar peninsula to determine the depth of the scouring from the storm on the Gulf side, and the amount of deposition of the storm surge deposits on the Bay side of the peninsula. The storm signature was easy to identify by sharp sediment transitions and, in the case of storm deposits, a layer of storm debris (roof shingles, PVC pipes, etc) and black, organic rich layers containing buried sea grasses in areas that were marshes before the storm. The amount of deposition was generally about 20 -25 cm

  11. Hurricane Ike Deposits on the Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. A.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Eppler, D.

    2011-12-01

    In September 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Bay, close to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The storm flooded much of the area with a storm surge ranging from 11-20 feet. The Bolivar peninsula, the southeastern coast of Galveston Bay, experienced the brunt of the surge. Several agencies collected excellent imagery baselines before the storm and complementary data a few days afterward that helped define the impacts of the storm. In April of 2011, a team of scientists and astronauts from JSC conducted field mapping exercises along the Bolivar Peninsula, the section of the Galveston Bay coast most impacted by the storm. Astronauts routinely observe and document coastal changes from orbit aboard the International Space Station. As part of their basic Earth Science training, scientists at the Johnson Space Center take astronauts out for field mapping exercises so that they can better recognize and understand features and processes that they will later observe from the International Space Station. Using pre-storm baseline images of the Bolivar Peninsula near Rollover Pass and Gilchrist (NOAA/Google Earth Imagery and USGS aerial imagery and lidar data), the astronauts mapped current coastline positions at defined locations, and related their findings to specific coastal characteristics, including channel, jetties, and other developments. In addition to mapping, we dug trenches along both the Gulf of Mexico coast as well as the Galveston Bay coast of the Bolivar peninsula to determine the depth of the scouring from the storm on the Gulf side, and the amount of deposition of the storm surge deposits on the Bay side of the peninsula. The storm signature was easy to identify by sharp sediment transitions and, in the case of storm deposits, a layer of storm debris (roof shingles, PVC pipes, etc) and black, organic rich layers containing buried sea grasses in areas that were marshes before the storm. The amount of deposition was generally about 20-25 cm; the

  12. 76 FR 41763 - Availability of Seats for the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Business/Industry and Community-at-Large: Tutuila... the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy...

  13. Comparative Analysis of Pollution in Farmington Bay and the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Marcarelli, Amy; Christison, Cameron; Moore, Joel; Gross, Donovan; Bates, Sophia; Kircher, Sara

    2002-01-01

    Farmington Bay covers 94 mi2 (260 km2) in the SW comer of the Great Salt Lake, and is essentially a separate lake because it is enclosed by Antelope Island and a causeway leading to the island from the mainland. The bay has received wastes from the adjoining Salt Lake City metropolitan area for decades. Because of water quality concerns for Farmington 8ay, the Aquatic Ecology Laboratory class at Utah State University studied the bay and a nearby control site (Bridger Bay) in the Great Salt La...

  14. Bay-scale population structure in coastal Atlantic cod in Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Wroblewski, J.S.; Taggart, C.T.; Smedbol, R.K.; Cook, D.; Goddard, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphisms at five microsatellite DNA loci provide evidence that Atlantic cod Gadus morhua inhabiting Gilbert Bay, Labrador are genetically distinguishable from offshore cod on the north- east Newfoundland shelf and from inshore cod in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. Antifreeze activity in the blood...... population structure suggest that important barriers to gene flow exist among five components that include two inshore (Gilbert and Trinity Bay) and three offshore cod aggregations on the north-east Newfoundland Shelf and the Grand Bank. D-A and D-SW estimates of genetic distance that involve Gilbert Bay cod...

  15. Whole-system metabolism and CO2 fluxes in a Mediterranean Bay dominated by seagrass beds (Palma Bay, NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Borges

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between whole-system metabolism estimates based on planktonic and benthic incubations (bare sediments and seagrass, Posidonia oceanica meadows, and CO2 fluxes across the air-sea interface were examined in the Bay of Palma (Mallorca, Spain during two cruises in March and June 2002. Moreover, planktonic and benthic incubations were performed at monthly intervals from March 2001 to October 2002 in a seagrass vegetated area of the bay. From the annual study, results showed a contrast between the planktonic compartment, which was heterotrophic during most of the year, except for occasional bloom episodes, and the benthic compartment, which was slightly autotrophic. Whereas the seagrass community was autotrophic, the excess organic carbon production therein could only balance the excess respiration of the planktonic compartment in shallow waters (2 fields and fluxes across the bay observed during the two extensive cruises in 2002. Finally, dissolved inorganic carbon and oxygen budgets provided NEP estimates in fair agreement with those derived from direct metabolic estimates based on incubated samples over the Posidonia oceanica meadow.

  16. Is the Bay Area Preparing Latino High School Graduates for College? A Statistical Portrait of College Preparation in the San Francisco Bay Area

    OpenAIRE

    Chavez, Lisa; Medina, Oscar; Arredondo, Gabino

    2007-01-01

    Latinos are the fastest growing racial ethnic group in the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area and now constitute 21 percent of the total population. Their representation among K-12 public school enrollment is even higher at 30 percent. Despite this, few studies have examined how well the Bay Area is preparing this group of students for entry into the state’s public four year colleges. This research brief explores college preparation in each of the nine counties that consist of the Bay Area...

  17. BUS BAY PERFORMANCE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE CAPACITY OF ROAD NETWORK IN DAR ES SALAAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin K. Mushule

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of major problems facing motorists in Dar es Salaam city today is congestion. Bus bays have a significant influence on the capacity of a roadway because they interfere with passing vehicles primarily when buses maneuver to pull into and out of bus bays. Bus bay stops will also interfere with vehicles movement if bus demand exceeds the bus bay capacity resulting in some buses waiting in the travel lane until the buses occupying the bay exit the bay. This paper presents the results of a study which was carried out to evaluate the bus bay performance and its influence on the capacity of the roadway network in the city of Dar es Salaam. The case study area covered 11 bus stops along Morogoro road from Ubungo to Magomeni Mapipa. Capacity of bus bays was studied using procedure outlined in the Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual of 2003. This enabled the researcher to determine parameters such as dwell times and clearance times which are major determinants of bus stop capacity. The results indicate that only 18% of the bus bay stops studied did not have adequate capacity to cater for the available demand. 9% did not have adequate capacity during peak hours but the capacity was adequate during off-peak hours. The remaining 73% of bus bay stops possess adequate capacity all the time. Although most bus bay stops studied possess adequate capacity, severe congestion was observed at these locations. This is due to erratic behavior of bus drivers who do not utilize the provided space for them to drop off and pick up passengers. Clearly, this is an area that requires more strict enforcement in order to ease the congestion problem in the city by operating the existing capacity more efficiently."

  18. Relationships between precipitation and surface water chemistry in three Carolina bays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carolina Bays are shallow freshwater wetlands, the only naturally occurring lentic systems on the southeastern coastal plain. Bays are breeding sites for many amphibian species, but data on precipitation/surface water relationships and long-term chemical trends are lacking. Such data are essential to interpret major fluctuations in amphibian populations. Surface water and bulk precipitation were sampled bi-weekly for over two years at three bays along a 25 km transect on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Precipitation chemistry was similar at all sites; average pH was 4.56, and the major ions were H+ (30.8 % of total), and SO4 (50.3% of total). H+ was positively correlated with SO4, suggesting the importance of anthropogenic acids to precipitation chemistry. All three bays, Rainbow Bay (RB), Thunder Bay (TB), and Ellenton Bay (EB), contained soft (specific conductivity 5--90 microS/cm), acidic water (pH 4.0--5.9) with DOM from 4--40 mg/L. The major cation for RB, TB, and EB, respectively, was: Mg (30.8 % of total); Na (27% of total); and Ca (34.2% of total). DOM was the major anion for all bays, and SO4 represented 13 to 28 % of total anions. H+ was not correlated to DOM or SO, in RB; H+ was positively correlated to DOM and SO4 in TB, and negatively correlated to DOM and SO4 in EB. Different biogeochemical processes probably control pH and other chemical variables in each bay. While surface water H+ was not directly correlated with precipitation H+, NO3, or SO4, precipitation and shallow groundwater are dominant water sources for these bays. Atmospheric inputs of anthropogenic acids and other chemicals are important factors influencing bay chemistry

  19. Some challenges of an "upside down" nitrogen budget--science and management in Greenwich Bay, RI (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMilla, Peter A; Nixon, Scott W; Oczkowski, Autumn J; Altabet, Mark A; McKinney, Richard A

    2011-04-01

    When nutrients impact estuarine water quality, scientists and managers instinctively focus on quantifying and controlling land-based sources. However, in Greenwich Bay, RI, the estuary opens onto a larger and more intensively fertilized coastal water body (Narragansett Bay). Previous inventories of nitrogen (N) inputs to Greenwich Bay found that N inputs from Narragansett Bay exceeded those from the local watershed, suggesting that recent efforts to reduce local watershed N loads may have little effect on estuarine water quality. We used stable isotopes of N to characterize watershed and Narragansett Bay N sources as well as the composition of primary producers and consumers throughout Greenwich Bay. Results were consistent with previous assessments of the importance of N inputs to Greenwich Bay from Narragansett Bay. As multiple N sources contribute to estuarine water quality, effective management requires attention to individual sources commensurate with overall magnitude, regardless of the political complications that may entail. PMID:21353254

  20. Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in San Francisco and Monterey Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, D. P.

    2002-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient utilized by all living organisms, and has been recognized as a limiting nutrient in some oceanic systems (Cotner et al., 1997; Karl et al., 1995; Michaels et al., 1996; Wu et al., 2000). However, relatively little is known about the extent of P limitation in natural environments, how P limitation varies spatially and temporally, and what determines how and when P becomes limiting (Benitez-Nelson, 2000). A more direct estimate of the degree of P limitation in a variety of oceanic systems is needed to better understand P cycling and dynamics within the ocean and how these have and will change in response to global climate and environmental perturbation. Accordingly, the objective this study is to assess the P-status of marine planktonic communities in Monterey and San Francisco Bays using the activity of alkaline phosphatase in the water column. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is the most widely used enzyme that marine organisms use to hydrolize organic P compounds to biologically available orthophosphate. Accordingly it is expected that in areas where P is a limiting nutrient organisms will produce and release more AP to seawater so they can utilize the dissolved and particulate organic P compounds. Indeed it has been suggested that the AP activity is a reliable indicator of P-availability to planktonic communities (Ammerman and Azam, 1985; Cotner and Wetzel, 1991; Hong et al., 1998). High enzyme activities indicate low dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) availability while low levels suggest that DIP supply satisfies the community P-demand. This study examines AP activity in San Francisco and Monterey Bays over a 12 month period, from November, 2001 through November, 2002 using two enzyme assays. The study encompasses data from a three-station transect in Monterey Bay, at depths ranging from 0-60 meters. The stations range from coastal waters to open ocean depths of several thousand meters. In San Francisco Bay, surface water from