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Sample records for biscay bay france, spain

  1. Mercury methylation by a microbial community from sediments of the Adour Estuary (Bay of Biscay, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, R. [Equipe Environnement et Microbiologie, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Materiaux, UMR CNRS 5254, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Avenue de l' Universite, IBEAS BP1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France)], E-mail: robert.duran@univ-pau.fr; Ranchou-Peyruse, M.; Menuet, V. [Equipe Environnement et Microbiologie, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Materiaux, UMR CNRS 5254, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Avenue de l' Universite, IBEAS BP1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France); Monperrus, M.; Bareille, G. [Equipe Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Materiaux, UMR CNRS 5254, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, 64013 Pau Cedex (France); Goni, M.S.; Salvado, J.C. [Equipe Environnement et Microbiologie, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Materiaux, UMR CNRS 5254, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Avenue de l' Universite, IBEAS BP1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France); Amouroux, D. [Equipe Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Materiaux, UMR CNRS 5254, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, 64013 Pau Cedex (France); Guyoneaud, R. [Equipe Environnement et Microbiologie, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Materiaux, UMR CNRS 5254, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Avenue de l' Universite, IBEAS BP1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France); Donard, O.F.X. [Equipe Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Materiaux, UMR CNRS 5254, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, 64013 Pau Cedex (France)] (and others)

    2008-12-15

    In order to study the influence of microorganisms on the mercury biogeochemistry, the metal content and the structure of microbial communities were determined in sediments from stations along the Adour Estuary. The comparison of the bacterial communities and their distribution in function of the environmental parameters by Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) revealed the influence of metals on the bacterial communities structure. Sediments where the bacterial communities are mostly influenced by methylmercury were incubated in slurries with or without mercury, under oxic and anoxic conditions. Methylmercury production was detected in the anoxic biotic slurries with a net methylation yield of 0.3% after 24 h. CCA based on T-RFLP profiles revealed the impact of mercury addition on the bacterial communities structure. In addition, 17 bacterial strains, mainly sulphate-reducing bacteria involved in mercury methylation, were isolated and identified. - Role of oxic/anoxic cycles and microbial activities on the methylmercury formation in Adour (France) estuarine sediments.

  2. Habitat suitability for juvenile common sole ( Solea solea, L.) in the Bay of Biscay (France): A quantitative description using indicators based on epibenthic fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pape, Olivier; Baulier, Loîc; Cloarec, Aurélie; Martin, Jocelyne; Le Loc'h, François; Désaunay, Yves

    2007-02-01

    This study describes the spatial distribution of young-of-the-year common sole based on beam trawl surveys conducted in late summer in the coastal and estuarine parts of the Bay of Biscay (France). Previous studies showed that habitat suitability for juvenile common sole varies according to physical factors and notably bathymetry and sediment structure. Nevertheless, the use of these descriptors alone to model habitat suitability led to considerable unexplained variability in juvenile common sole distribution. Hence, the epibenthic macro- and megafauna collected during beam trawl surveys was taken into account to improve models of habitat suitability for these juvenile flatfish. Ecotrophic guilds based on life traits (behaviour, mobility and feeding) were used to develop generic indicators of trawled benthic fauna. These synthetic descriptors were used in generalized linear models of habitat suitability in order to characterize the distribution of juvenile common sole. This approach significantly improved the description based on physical descriptors and allowed demonstrating that young common sole distribution is related to the density of trawled deposit and suspension feeders and also of carnivorous organisms. These models provide a reliable method to develop indicators of nursery habitat suitability from trawl survey data with the aim of assessing and surveying their quality.

  3. Fate of mercury species in the coastal plume of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay, SW France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, Abubaker; Monperrus, Mathilde; Tessier, Emmanuel; Bouchet, Sylvain; Pinaly, Hervé; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Pablo [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Matériaux, UMR 5254 CNRS, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées, 2 av. P. Angot, 64053 Pau cedex 9 (France); Maron, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Ingénieur Appliquées à la Mécanique et au Génie Electrique, Institut Supérieur Aquitain du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Allée du Parc Montaury, 64600 Anglet (France); Amouroux, David, E-mail: david.amouroux@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Matériaux, UMR 5254 CNRS, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées, 2 av. P. Angot, 64053 Pau cedex 9 (France)

    2014-10-15

    Because mercury (Hg) undergoes significant biogeochemical processes along the estuarine-coastal continuum, the objective of this work was to investigate the distribution and reactivity of methylmercury (MeHg), inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) and gaseous Hg (DGM) in plume waters of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay). Vertical profiles, spatial and tidal variability of Hg species concentrations were evaluated during two campaigns (April 2007 and May 2010) characterized by significant plume extents over the coastal zone. Incubations with isotopically enriched tracers were performed on bulk and filtered waters under sunlight or dark conditions to investigate processes involved in Hg methylation, demethylation and reduction rates. Total Hg(II) concentrations were more dispersed in April 2007 (5.2 ± 4.9 pM) than in May 2010 (2.5 ± 1.1 pM) while total MeHg concentrations were similar for both seasons and averaged 0.13 ± 0.07 and 0.18 ± 0.11 pM, respectively. DGM concentrations were also similar between the two campaigns, averaging 0.26 ± 0.10 and 0.20 ± 0.09 pM, respectively. Methylation yields remained low within the estuarine plume (< 0.01–0.4% day{sup −1}) while MeHg was efficiently demethylated via both biotic and abiotic pathways (2.3–55.3% day{sup −1}), mainly photo-induced. Hg reduction was also effective in these waters (0.3–43.5% day{sup −1}) and was occurring in both light and dark conditions. The results suggest that the plume is overall a sink for MeHg with integrated net demethylation rates, ranging from 2.0–3.7 g (Hg) d{sup −1}, in the same range than the estimated MeHg inputs from the estuary (respectively, 0.9 and 3.5 g (Hg) d{sup −1}). The large evasion of DGM from the plume waters to the atmosphere (8.8–26.9 g (Hg) d{sup −1}) may also limit Hg{sub T} inputs to coastal waters (33–69 g (Hg) d{sup −1}). These processes are thus considered to be most significant in controlling the fate of Hg transferred from the river to the

  4. Phytoplankton and pigment studies in the Bay of Biscay and English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe-Wright, Denise; Daniel, Aaron; Boswell, Stephen; Purcell, Diane; Hartman, Mark; Hartman, Susan; Hydes, David

    2014-08-01

    During the final year (2010) of the MV Pride of Bilbao (PoB) ferry operation between Portsmouth (UK) and Bilbao (Spain) a comprehensive phytoplankton data set was collected based on pigments and taxonomy measurements. The work was in support of the EU project ProTool (http://www.protool-project.eu) that aimed to develop an automated system for measuring primary productivity from ships of opportunity. Not unexpectedly, the biological patterns relate to the hydrographic conditions and in general, pigment distributions are indicative of the taxonomy. A predominately diatom bloom was observed in the Bay of Biscay in April, with a mixed population of diatoms, dinoflagellates and coccolithophores throughout the spring and summer, and a very distinctive bloom, which contained a large proportion of the dinoflagellate Karenia Mikimotoi, to the stratified side of the Ushant Front in mid-July.

  5. Numerical modeling of landslide generated tsunamis in the bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frere, Antoine; Hebert, Helene

    2016-04-01

    Tsunami hazard in metropolitan France is poorly known. The TANDEM (Tsunamis in northern AtlaNtic : Definition of Effects by Modeling) project is a French initiative to draw lessons from the 2011 catastrophic tsunami in Japan on French coastlines, in order to provide guidance for risk assessment on the nuclear facilities in the area. This project is aimed at adapting numerical methods of tsunami hazard assessment against the outstanding observation database of the 2011 tsunami, in order to apply these validated methods to the definition of the tsunami hazard for the French Atlantic and Channel coastlines. Landslide induced tsunami hazard in the Bay of Biscay France (NE Atlantic ocean) is poorly known. Investigation on the continental slope of the Bay show the existence of numerous landslide scars, but no real risk assessment studies were made to determine the potential tsunami hazard from those landslide. This work focuses on tsunami induced by landslides, and aims to assess the threat using numerical simulation. We assumes that the landslide has a fluid-like behaviour and applies shallow water/thin layer approximations to both aspect. The similarity of the resulting equations of momentum and mass conservation enables to use a single Godunov-like numerical scheme for both parts of the model. The model results are then carried into a multigrid dispersive model in order to get better estimation of the water height near the coast. This second model uses the Boussinesq equations for larger scale grids and the Saint-Venant equations near the coast, and is resolved using a Crank-Nicholson scheme. The first study zone is located in the Cap Breton canyon region in the south of the Bay. Investigation is carried out to identify scenarios that could have caused paleo-tsunamis, with a special interest on a large scar off the canyon(~70 km3). 4 scenarios of varying volumes (from 17 to 70 km3) and depth are carried into the model and the result show maximum water heights of up to

  6. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2016-07-08

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  7. Surface circulation patterns at the southeastern Bay of Biscay: new observations from HF radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solabarrieta, L.; Rubio, A.; Medina, R.; Paduan, J. D.; Castanedo, S.; Fontán, A.; Cook, M.; González, M.

    2012-12-01

    A CODAR Seasonde High Frequency (HF) radar network has been operational since the beginning of 2009 for the oceanic region of the Basque Country, Spain (south-eastern Bay of Biscay, Atlantic Ocean). It forms part of the Basque operational data acquisition system, established by the Directorate of Emergency Attention and Meteorology of the Basque Government. It is made up of two antennas, at the capes Higer (43d 23.554' N, 1d 47.745' W) and Matxitxako (43d 7.350' N, 2d 45.163' W), emitting at 4.525 MHz frequency and 30 kHz bandwidth. This system provides hourly surface currents with 5.12 km spatial resolution, covering 10,000 km2. Space- and time-covering measurements have been available in the study area since 2009. The data contribute considerably to the study of surface current patterns and the main physical processes in the area. Additional applications relate to security of navigation, maritime rescue, validation and improvement of numerical models, etc. For comparison with other validation studies and to obtain an estimate of the performance of the Basque system, statistical and spectral analysis of the surface currents obtained through the HF radar and different in-situ platforms have been conducted. The analyses show values of comparison between the different measuring systems consistent with those done by other authors (Paduan and Rosenfeld, 1996; Kaplan et al., 2005). The radar is able to reproduce the time evolution of the currents with a reasonable accuracy; likewise, the main three spectral peaks (inertial, semidiurnal and diurnal) are well resolved. In this context, the aim of this work is to show the HF radar ability to measure accurately the surface currents in the south-eastern Bay of Biscay and to study the ocean circulation in the area (figures 1 and 2). Surface current patterns are analysed and described for the period 2009-2011, for different timescales. A clear seasonality at a large-scale has been observed in accordance with previous work

  8. Response of benthic macrofauna to an oil pollution: Lessons from the “Prestige” oil spill on the rocky shore of Guéthary (south of the Bay of Biscay, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castège, Iker; Milon, Emilie; Pautrizel, Françoise

    2014-08-01

    The benthic community on the rocky foreshore of Guéthary (France) has been monitored since 2002. The standardized and quantitative monitoring method counts 20 geographically referenced quadrats spread on three littoral zones: upper mediolittoral, lower mediolittoral and infralittoral zones. The setting up of this monitoring occurred when the “Prestige” sunk close to the Finistere Cape in Galicia (Spain). The oil slick following the shipwreck impacted the Guéthary foreshore in early 2003. After the “Prestige” oil spill, the taxonomic richness decreased in the studied area with a loss of 16 species - from 57 in 2002 (before the shipwreck) to 41 species in 2004. Two or 3 years later, taxonomic richness increased to a level observed prior to the oil spill. Along the years, temporal variations in community structure of benthic macrofauna are revealed by detailed analysis. Some polluo-sensitive species disappeared after 2002 and have not reappeared yet (e.g.: Hymeniacidon perlevis). Some others reappeared two or three years after the spill or even later (e.g.: Amphipholis squamata, Botryllus schlosseri, Calliostoma zizyphinum, Echinus esculentus, etc.). Noteworthy changes were found in 2004 driven by the sudden increase in abundance of grazers. The following years, these abundances went back to a stable level. The benthic community seemed to recover almost 5 years later, although a new composition of macrofauna populations was observed. In overall aspect, the complexity of the benthic ecosystem response to oil spills confirms the need of regularly updated baselines to assess the impact of pollutions and more generally to maintain marine biodiversity.

  9. Mixed layer depth trends in the Bay of Biscay over the period 1975-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xurxo Costoya

    Full Text Available Wintertime trends in mixed layer depth (MLD were calculated in the Bay of Biscay over the period 1975-2010 using the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA package. The reliability of the SODA database was confirmed correlating its results with those obtained from the experimental Argo database over the period 2003-2010. An iso-thermal layer depth (TLD and an iso-pycnal layer depth (PLD were defined using the threshold difference method with ΔT = 0.5°C and Δσθ = 0.125 kg/m3. Wintertime trends of the MLD were calculated using winter extended (December-March anomalies and annual maxima. Trends calculated for the whole Bay of Biscay using both parameters (TLD and PLD showed to be dependent on the area. Thus, MLD became deeper in the southeastern corner and shallower in the rest of the area. Air temperature was shown to play a key role in regulating the different spatial behavior of the MLD. Negative air temperature trends localized in the southeastern corner coincide with MLD deepening in this area, while, positive air temperature trends are associated to MLD shoaling in the rest of the bay. Additionally, the temperature trend calculated along the first 700 m of the water column is in good agreement with the different spatial behavior revealed for the MLD trend.

  10. Simulating the migration of drifters deployed in the Bay of Biscay, during the Prestige crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, A; Espino, M; Sagarminaga, Y; Ferrer, L; Uriarte, A; González, M

    2008-03-01

    A main conclusion following the oil spill from the Prestige tanker was that improvements in ocean circulation models were necessary; this was in order to predict, more accurately, the trajectories followed by the oil slicks and hence assist in fight against oil pollution operations. In this contribution, the results of the validation of a semi-empirical ocean circulation model, parameterised for the Bay of Biscay and forced with operational oceano-meteorological remote sensing observations, are shown. The model results have been validated with observations from drifting buoys, deployed in the Bay of Biscay during the crisis. The results show that the model explains a relatively large percentage of the current variability. The comparisons between the real and the estimated drifter trajectories indicate that for 3, 5 and 7 day-long trajectories, the drifter position is estimated with errors of approximately 23, 35 and 46km, respectively. The model reproduces relatively well the trajectory followed by the drifter with the shortest period (23 days).

  11. No loss of genetic diversity in the exploited and recently collapsed population of Bay of Biscay anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, L.)

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, Iratxe

    2016-04-11

    The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, in the Bay of Biscay suffered a collapse in census population size (Nc) starting in 2002, from which it did not recover until 2010. The slow recovery raised concern over sustainability, potential reduction in adaptive potential, and vulnerability to local extirpation. Long- and short-term effective population size (Ne), Ne/Nc ratio, and other genetic parameters were estimated to evaluate demographic signals of population decline. A total of 349 neutral single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were screened in 330 anchovy individuals from the Bay of Biscay distributed across a 20-year period. We show that Nc fluctuations have not significantly affected short-term Ne, and therefore, genetic diversity has remained stable throughout the recent collapse. This study illustrates that Ne estimates should be incorporated into management plans. Our results on short-term Ne suggested that the anchovy in the Bay of Biscay has not faced any recent severe threat of losing evolutionary potential due to genetic drift. However, differences between short- and long-term Ne estimates suggested that the Bay of Biscay anchovy population may be currently much smaller than in the historical past. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  12. Mapping hyper-extended rift systems offshore and onshore: insights from the Bay of Biscay- Western Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugend, Julie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Kusznir, Nicolas J.; Masini, Emmanuel; Thinon, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    Research conducted at present-day passive continental margins shows more varied crustal architectures than previously assumed. New seismic data together with drill-holes have revealed the occurrence of extremely thinned continental crust in the distal part of the margin as well as exhumed serpentinised sub-continental mantle oceanwards. In addition the understanding of the formation of hyper-extended rift systems has also greatly benefited from the study of onshore analogs preserved in mountain belts. The Bay of Biscay and Western Pyrenees correspond to a Lower Cretaceous rift system leading to the development of hyper-extended domains and ultimately oceanic crust in the Bay of Biscay. This domain represents one of the best natural laboratories to study the formation processes and evolution of hyper-extended domains. During late Cretaceous compression, these rifted domains were inverted resulting in the present-day Pyrenean mountain belt. In this contribution, we present a new paleogeographic map of the Bay of Biscay-Pyrenean rift system. We integrate results from previous works and new work using different mapping methods to distinguish distinctive crustal domains related to hyper-extended systems both offshore and onshore. We combine seismic interpretations with gravity anomaly inversion and residual depth anomaly analysis to distinguish the different crustal domains across the offshore margin. Onshore, we use an innovative approach based on observations from present-day rifted margin architecture associated with classical field work to map the former hyper-extended domains. Another outcome of this work is the creation of a crustal thickness map using gravity inversion linking offshore and onshore domains from the Bay of Biscay to that of the Western-Pyrenees. This multidisciplinary approach enables us to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of the Bay of Biscay rift system with the aim of better understanding the formation of hyper-extended domains

  13. Transcriptome analysis deciphers evolutionary mechanisms underlying genetic differentiation between coastal and offshore anchovy populations in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, Iratxe

    2016-09-13

    Morphometry and otolith microchemistry point to the existence of two populations of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay: one in open seawaters, and a yet unidentified population in coastal waters. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a large number of samples from the region, including 587 juveniles and spawning adults from offshore and coastal waters, and 264 fish from other locations covering most of the species’ European range. These samples were genotyped for 456 exonic SNPs that provide a robust way to decipher adaptive processes in these populations. Two genetically differentiated populations of anchovy inhabit the Bay of Biscay with different population dynamics: (1) a large offshore population associated with marine waters included in the wide-shelf group, and (2) a coastal metapopulation adapted to estuarine environments in the Bay of Biscay and North Sea included in the narrow-shelf group. Transcriptome analysis identified neutral and adaptive evolutionary processes underlying differentiation between these populations. Reduced gene flow between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay appears to result from divergence between two previously isolated gene pools adapted to contrasting habitats and now in secondary contact. Eleven molecular markers appear to mark divergent selection between the ecotypes, and a majority of these markers are associated with salinity variability. Ecotype differences at two outlier genes, TSSK6 and basigin, may hinder gamete compatibility between the ecotypes and reinforce reproductive isolation. Additionally, possible convergent evolution between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay has been detected for the syntaxin1B-otoferlin gene system, which is involved in the control of larval buoyancy. Further study of exonic markers opens the possibility of understanding the mechanisms of adaptive divergence between European anchovy populations. © 2016, Springer

  14. Comparison between real drifter's trajectories and simulated trajectories using HF radar data, in the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solabarrieta, Lohitzune; Cook, Michael; Paduan, Jeffrey; Sergey, Frolov; Rubio, Anna; Fontán, Almudena; Castanedo, Sonia; Gonzalez, Manuel; Medina, Raúl; Fernández, Vicente; Charria, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    A High Frequency (HF) radar network is operational since the beginning of 2009 for the oceanic region of the Basque Country, Spain (south-eastern part of the Bay of Biscay, Atlantic Ocean). It forms part of the Basque operational data acquisition system, established by the Directorate of Emergency Attention and Meteorology of the Basque Government. It is made up of two antennas emitting at 40 kHz broadband and 4.5 MHz frequency and covering a 150 km range with 5 km radial and 5° angular resolutions. Hourly space- and time-covering measurements are contributing considerably to the study of surface current patterns and the main physical processes in the area. Additional applications relate, for example, to security of navigation, maritime rescue, validation and improvement of numerical models and trajectories prediction. Since 2009, different drifters have been deployed in the study area. Since the radar has been proved to reproduce the time evolution of the currents through comparison with moored buoys with a reasonable accuracy, the aim of this work is to evaluate the capabilities of the system to reproduce the trajectories of a set of drifters available in the study area. To make trajectory simulations, we will use HF radar total velocities, surface velocities obtained from EOF (Empirical Orthogonal Function) analysis of the whole radar data set, forecast velocities for 48 hours and also OMA (Open-Boundary Modal Analysis) derived current velocities.

  15. A 130 year record of pollution in the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay): Implications for environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irabien, M.J. [Departamento de Mineralogia y Petrologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail: mariajesus.irabien@ehu.es; Cearreta, A. [Departamento de Estratigrafia y Paleontologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Leorri, E. [Departamento de Estratigrafia y Paleontologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi, Zorroagagaina kalea 11, 20014 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Gomez, J. [Departamento de Ciencias Medicas y Quirurgicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda Herrera Oria s/n, 39011 Santander (Spain); Viguri, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, ETSIIT, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Geochemical composition (Al, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr and As) and foraminiferal assemblages in surface and core sediments were determined to assess the current situation and the recent environmental transformation of the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay, Spain). Dating of the historical record has been achieved using isotopic analysis ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 137}Cs) and two benchmark events such as the beginning of the mineral exploitation in the Reocin Pb-Zn deposits and the evolution of the chlor-alkali industry (inputs of Hg). Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in both surface and core samples are remarkably higher than background values, reflecting the existence of significant amounts of polluted materials. The dramatic environmental impact of this pollution is clearly recorded by the change of the foraminiferal assemblages that even reach an afaunal stage during recent decades. Application of two different sets of Sediment Quality Guidelines confirm that they exert potential risk to the environment, and therefore if dredged they should need specific management measures. The results provide a reference database to monitor future environmental changes in the Suances estuary, particularly as regards the contaminated sediment storage and the re-colonization by autochtonous meiofauna.

  16. Temperature profile data from BATHYTHERMOGRAPH (XBT) from the CATALUNA and other platforms in BAY OF BISCAY and other areas: 19840914 to 19850923 (NODC Accession 8600110)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from the CATALUNA and ALCALA GALIANO in the Bay of Biscay and other areas. Data were collected from 14...

  17. South-Eastern Bay of Biscay eddy-induced anomalies and their effect on chlorophyll distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Ainhoa; Rubio, Anna; Ruiz, Simón; Le Cann, Bernard; Testor, Pierre; Mader, Julien; Hernández, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The analysis of deep-water glider hydrographic and fluorescence data, together with satellite measurements provides a new insight into eddy-induced anomalies within the South-Eastern Bay of Biscay, during summer. Two cyclonic eddies and a SWODDY have been observed in different glider transects and by means of different sources of satellite data. Vertical profiles reveal complex structures (characteristic of the second baroclinic mode): upward/downward displacement of the seasonal/permanent thermocline in the case of X13 and the opposite thermocline displacements in the case of the cyclones. This is a typical behaviour of mode-water and "cyclonic thinny" eddies. A qualitative analysis of the vertical velocities in the anticyclone indicates that though geostrophy dominates the main water column, depressing the isopycnals, near the sea-surface the eddy-wind interaction affects the vertical currents, favouring Ekman pumping and upwelling. The analysis of the Θ-S properties corroborates that inside cyclones and between the 26 and 27 isopycnals, net downwelling occurs. These two types of intra-thermocline lenses appear to deeply impact the Chl-a fluorescence profiles, since the maximum Chl-a fluorescence is located just below the seasonal thermocline. The mean Chl-a fluorescence was higher in the anticyclone than within the cyclones and the mean for the entire study period; the highest values were observed in the centre of the anticyclone. These results are in agreement with previous findings concerning the SWODDY F90 and surrounding cyclones, located in the South-Western Bay of Biscay. Significant differences in the Θ-S properties of the two cyclonic mesoscale structures have been observed: higher temperatures and lower salinity in the easternmost cyclone. Finally, time variation of the salinity content of the shallowest water masses of the anticyclone (salinity decreasing over time), probably indicates advective mixing processes occurred during the mission.

  18. Prey preferences among the community of deep-diving odontocetes from the Bay of Biscay, Northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Jérôme; Cherel, Yves; Bertin, Stéphane; Kiszka, Jeremy; Dewez, Alexandre; Ridoux, Vincent

    2011-03-01

    Long-finned pilot whales ( Globicephala melas), Risso's dolphins ( Grampus griseus), melon-headed whales ( Peponocephala electra), Cuvier's beaked whales ( Ziphius cavirostris), Sowerby's beaked whales ( Mesoplodon bidens), northern bottlenose whales ( Hyperoodon ampullatus), sperm whales ( Physeter macrocephalus), dwarf sperm whales ( Kogia sima) and pygmy sperm whales ( Kogia breviceps) make up the large community of deep-diving odontocetes occurring off the Bay of Biscay, northeast Atlantic. The ecology of these toothed cetaceans is poorly documented worldwide. The present study described their prey preferences from stomach content analysis and showed resource partitioning within the assemblage. The majority of the species appeared to be mostly teutophageous. Fish was an important food source only for the Sowerby's beaked whale and, to a lesser extent, for the long-finned pilot whale. In terms of foraging habitats inferred from prey composition, either pelagic oceanic or demersal neritic habitats were exploited by toothed whales in the Bay of Biscay, with only the long-finned pilot whale foraging in the two habitats. Finally, with more than 14,000 identified cephalopods from 39 species, the present study highlighted also the poorly known deep-sea cephalopod community off the Bay of Biscay using top predators as biological samplers.

  19. Variation and temporal patterns in the composition of the surface ichthyoplankton in the southern Bay of Biscay (W. Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Elbée, Jean; Castège, Iker; Hémery, Georges; Lalanne, Yann; Mouchès, Claude; Pautrizel, Françoise; D'Amico, Frank

    2009-05-01

    From September 2000 to December 2006, surface plankton samples were collected on a monthly basis, from a station located in the southern Bay of Biscay (43°37N; 1°43W France), near the deep Capbreton canyon. In this paper, the results for the ichthyoplankton assemblage are presented. Among the 62 taxa recorded, only 35 were present in the larval stage whilst only 10 were represented by their eggs. Taxa represented by both stages (eggs+larvae; N=17) had the highest abundance. The presence in the surface plankton assemblage of species, at either or both stage, is interpreted within the context of the bathymetric distribution of species. The maxima in abundance and diversity occurred in February-March, for eggs, and May-June, for larvae. This 3-month time-lag between the stages is proposed to be related to the timing of egg spawning and larval recruitment to the pelagic environment. Mean egg abundances (82.4±29.8 eggs/10 m 2) were 10-fold higher than the larval abundances (7.1±1.8 larvae/10 m 2). Despite pronounced monthly variability, no statistically significant decrease in either egg or larvae abundance was observed during this 6-year study period. Compared with previous published studies, this study shows that the peak in ichthyoplankton diversity occurred two months earlier. In addition, the spawning period occurred over the whole year, even during autumn and winter. Using ordination techniques, the annual sequence appearance of taxa are described at the study site: Gadiforms, Ammodytidae and Pleuronectiforms were present during the winter whilst Sparidae, Blennidae, Labridae and Gobiidae, formed the summer group. Only three species, European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, European pilchard Sardina pilchardus and Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus were recorded throughout the year.

  20. Allometric relations and consequences for feeding in small pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2012-11-21

    The body size of fish is an important factor in determining their biology and ecology, as predators eat prey smaller than themselves. Predator mouth size restricts the availability of possible prey. In this paper we provide the allometric relationships of eight common, small pelagic fish species in the Bay of Biscay. In addition, we describe the predator-prey size ratios for different species, and we determine changes in their ratio-based trophic-niche breadth with increasing body size. Results suggest that gape size does not totally determine the predator-prey size ratio distribution, but predators use the entire available prey size range, including the smallest. As they grow they simply incorporate larger prey as their increased gape size permits. Accordingly, a large degree of overlap was found in the diet composition in terms of size and predator-prey ratios, even between fish of different sizes. Of the species studied, only horse mackerels seem to be clearly specialized in relatively large prey. © 2012 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  1. Trophodynamics and diet overlap of small pelagic fish species in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, E

    2015-08-27

    Small pelagic fish are the link between planktonic production and higher trophic levels. Competition for resources may play a role in the population dynamics of species, some of them probably standing out from the others due to greater feeding success. It is therefore important to understand the trophic niche of species overlapping both spatially and temporally. In this study, we have investigated the diet, prey preference, trophic niche breadth and diet overlap of the 8 major small pelagic species (anchovy, sardine, sprat, Atlantic and Mediterranean horse mackerel, bogue, Atlantic mackerel and Atlantic chub mackerel) inhabiting the Bay of Biscay. Results indicate that all fish feed mainly on calanoid copepods, incorporating larger prey like euphausiids and decapods to complete their diet. Differences in ingested prey diversity seem to be more limited by the available zooplankton at sea than by a specific diet preference by fish species, resulting in an overall high diet overlap, especially within clupeids but also between clupeids and other (larger) predator species. Consumption estimations for different prey groups could therefore determine whether such a large diet overlap between small pelagic fish, together with spatial co-occurrence, results in competition or enhances the effects of intraguild predation, which is important in terms of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management.

  2. Biological characteristics of the hydrological landscapes in the Bay of Biscay in spring 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Lezama-Ochoa, Ainhoa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the biogeography of macrozooplankton and fish biomass in the Bay of Biscay. In this region, we defined six different landscapes based on the hydrogeographical characteristics observed in spring 2009. We then related landscape\\'s characteristics and environmental parameters such as light attenuation depth and chlorophyll-a with macrozooplankton and fish acoustic biomass. Hydrodynamic structures together with coastal influences (river discharges, predation pressure and depth preference) and vertical thermohaline structure/mixing (feeding modes and ability to stay in preferred layers) appeared as the main factors determining the biological distribution. Besides, variance partitioning was used to assess the respective roles played by the hydrological environment, the geographical space and the biological environment alone, and their interactions. Results revealed that: (i) macrozooplankton and fish have a preference for different hydrogeographical landscapes; (ii) the association between hydrological conditions and geographical features, i.e. the spatial structure of the hydrological environment, plays a key role in the distribution of macrozooplankton; and (iii) prey-predator relationships have to be taken into account to provide a comprehensive characterization of habitat suitability.

  3. Size-dependent photoacclimation of the phytoplankton community in temperate shelf waters (southern Bay of Biscay)

    KAUST Repository

    Álvarez, E

    2015-12-09

    © Inter-Research 2016. Shelf waters of the Cantabrian Sea (southern Bay of Biscay) are productive ecosystems with a marked seasonality. We present the results from 1 yr of monthly monitoring of the phytoplankton community together with an intensive sampling carried out in 2 contrasting scenarios during the summer and autumn in a mid-shelf area. Stratification was apparent on the shelf in summer, while the water column was comparatively well mixed in autumn. The size structure of the photoautotrophic community, from pico-to micro-phytoplankton, was tightly coupled with the meteo-climatic and hydrographical conditions. Over the short term, variations in the size structure and chlorophyll content of phytoplankton cells were related to changes in the physico-chemical environment, through changes in the availability of nutrients and light. Uncoupling between the dynamics of carbon biomass and chlorophyll resulted in chlorophyll to carbon ratios dependent on body size. The slope of the size dependence of chlorophyll content increased with increasing irradiance, reflecting different photoacclimation plasticity from pico-to micro-phytoplankton. The results have important implications for the productivity and the fate of biogenic carbon in this region, since the size dependence of photosynthetic rates is directly related to the size scaling of chlorophyll content.

  4. Rare and new cumaceans (Crustacea, Peracarida from the southern margin of the Cap Ferret Canyon (Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Corbera

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A new cumacean genus and species, Ithyleucon sorbei gen. et sp. n., was described from material collected in the southern margin of the Cap Ferret Canyon (Bay of Biscay, NE Atlantic. Although the new genus resembles Pseudoleucon Zimmer, 1903, in terms of the general aspect of the carapace and the pseudo-rostrum position, it shows important differences in the uropod structure and in the size of the antenna 1 accessory flagellum. In addition, some comments regarding the morphology of certain rare species (Mesolamprops denticulatus Ledoyer, 1983, Hemilamprops normani Bonnier, 1896 and Schizocuma spino-culatum (Jones, 1984 are also provided.

  5. An example of defense service using HYCOM output of the bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraldi, Claire; Corréard, Stéphanie; Louazel, Stéphanie; Faillot, Mathilde; Jourdan, Didier

    2013-04-01

    With the continuous improvement of both ocean physics description by numerical models and operational information systems in oceanography to process and analyze coastal observations and forecasts, it becomes now feasible to support defense applications with appropriate production and service at regional scale. On one hand, a real time system based on the HYCOM model has been set up in the bay of Biscay. This system, without assimilation, is run daily. The purpose is to well describe all the processes which occur in this area : the large scale and the mesoscale circulation (eddies, thermal fronts,...), the tidal circulation (the well-known homogeneous one but also the stratified case), the mixing processes... The system provides everyday forecasts of temperature, salinity, currents and sea surface height. Moreover, the system includes a validation component. This validation is automatically performed everyday. In term of temperature and salinity, the model is compared with in-situ profiles, the modeled sea surface height is compared with tide gauge data and the modeled currents are compared with HF radar data in the Iroise sea. On the other hand, SHOM has developped a System for Operational Analysis and Forecast (SOAP) to support French Navy activities. Primarily designed and developed to support anti-submarine warfare at operative level (description of the synoptic scale), the Soap System is dedicated to routinely compute, qualify, prepare and deliver added-value military products. The final version of the Soap System (Soap-3) entered service early 2010 and has become the core component of the oceanographic support for naval operations. It relies on various functionalities ranging from observations and/or model retrieval to the processing and layout of the products. In this talk, we propose to present the real time HYCOM system and we will show how its outputs can be used as inputs of SOAP. Examples of defense products provided in the framework of the the SPONTEX

  6. Environmental setting of deep-water oysters in the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooij, D.; De Mol, L.; Le Guilloux, E.; Wisshak, M.; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Moeremans, R.; Henriet, J.-P.

    2010-12-01

    We report the northernmost and deepest known occurrence of deep-water pycnodontine oysters, based on two surveys along the French Atlantic continental margin to the La Chapelle continental slope (2006) and the Guilvinec Canyon (2008). The combined use of multibeam bathymetry, seismic profiling, CTD casts and a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) made it possible to describe the physical habitat and to assess the oceanographic control for the recently described species Neopycnodonte zibrowii. These oysters have been observed in vivo in depths from 540 to 846 m, colonizing overhanging banks or escarpments protruding from steep canyon flanks. Especially in the Bay of Biscay, such physical habitats may only be observed within canyons, where they are created by both long-term turbiditic and contouritic processes. Frequent observations of sand ripples on the seabed indicate the presence of a steady, but enhanced bottom current of about 40 cm/s. The occurrence of oysters also coincides with the interface between the Eastern North Atlantic Water and the Mediterranean Outflow Water. A combination of this water mass mixing, internal tide generation and a strong primary surface productivity may generate an enhanced nutrient flux, which is funnelled through the canyon. When the ideal environmental conditions are met, up to 100 individuals per m² may be observed. These deep-water oysters require a vertical habitat, which is often incompatible with the requirements of other sessile organisms, and are only sparsely distributed along the continental margins. The discovery of these giant oyster banks illustrates the rich biodiversity of deep-sea canyons and their underestimation as true ecosystem hotspots.

  7. Incised-valley morphologies and sedimentary-fills within the inner shelf of the northern Bay of Biscay

    CERN Document Server

    Chaumillon, Eric; Ménier, David; Weber, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    This study is a first synthesis focused on incised-valleys located within the inner shelf of the Bay of Biscay. It is based on previously published results obtained during recent seismic surveys and coring campaigns. The morphology of the valleys appears to be strongly controlled by tectonics and lithology. The Pleistocene sedimentary cover of the shelf is very thin and discontinuous with a maximum thickness ranging between 30 and 40 m in incised-valley fills. Thus the incised bedrock morphology plays a key-role by controlling hydrodynamics and related sediment transport and deposition that explains some variations of those incised-valley fills with respect to the previously published general models.

  8. Optimizing observational networks combining gliders, moored buoys and FerryBox in the Bay of Biscay and English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charria, Guillaume; Lamouroux, Julien; De Mey, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Designing optimal observation networks in coastal oceans remains one of the major challenges towards the implementation of future efficient Integrated Ocean Observing Systems to monitor the coastal environment. In the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel, the diversity of involved processes (e.g. tidally-driven circulation, plume dynamics) requires to adapt observing systems to the specific targeted environments. Also important is the requirement for those systems to sustain coastal applications. Two observational network design experiments have been implemented for the spring season in two regions: the Loire River plume (northern part of the Bay of Biscay) and the Western English Channel. The method used to perform these experiments is based on the ArM (Array Modes) formalism using an ensemble-based approach without data assimilation. The first experiment in the Loire River plume aims to explore different possible glider endurance lines combined with a fixed mooring to monitor temperature and salinity. Main results show an expected improvement when combining glider and mooring observations. The experiment also highlights that the chosen transect (along-shore and North-South, cross-shore) does not significantly impact the efficiency of the network. Nevertheless, the classification from the method results in slightly better performances for along-shore and North-South sections. In the Western English Channel, a tidally-driven circulation system, added value of using a glider below FerryBox temperature and salinity measurements has been assessed. FerryBox systems are characterised by a high frequency sampling rate crossing the region 2 to 3 times a day. This efficient sampling, as well as the specific vertical hydrological structure (which is homogeneous in many sub-regions of the domain), explains the fact that the added value of an associated glider transect is not significant. These experiments combining existing and future observing systems, as well as numerical

  9. Statistical comparison of trace metal concentrations in wild mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) in selected sites of Galicia and Gulf of Biscay (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Victoria; Andrade, José Manuel; Schultze, Fernando; Fumega, José; Cambeiro, Bruno; González, Juan José

    2008-07-01

    Concentrations of five trace metals (Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn) in wild mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Galician and Gulf of Biscay areas in Spain were monitored from 2000 to 2004. A pool of mussel soft tissue was prepared using 50 or more individuals representing the available size range (35-60 mm) present at the sampling points (A Coruña, Pontevedra and Vigo-Galicia, NW of Spain—and Avilés, Bilbao and Santander-Gulf of Biscay). Metals were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry, AAS, (flame-AAS: Cu and Zn; graphite furnace-AAS: Cd and Pb; flow injection-cold vapour-AAS: total Hg). Quality of the chemical analyses was assessed by participation in periodic QUASIMEME intercalibration exercises carried out from 2000 to 2004, while the present study was developed . Univariate statistical studies, Anova (Analysis of the Variance) and Principal Component Analysis (autoscaled data, Varimax rotation) were carried out. Differences between the two areas as well as certain temporal trends were found and, in general, the Gulf of Biscay samples showed higher metallic contents, mainly close to Avilés, where iron and steel factories thrown residues for years into a nearby coastal area.

  10. Spatial patterns and scale-dependent relationships between macrozooplankton and fish in the Bay of Biscay: an acoustic study

    KAUST Repository

    Lezama-Ochoa, A

    2011-10-20

    Macrozooplankton plays a key role in pelagic ecosystems as a link between lower trophic levels and fish. However, although its ecological role is usually considered in polar ecosystems, it is rarely considered in temperate ones. To obtain comprehensive information on the macrozooplankton distribution in the Bay of Biscay we adapted a bi-frequency acoustic method developed for the Humboldt Current system. This method can be used to extract continuous and simultaneous high-resolution information on the spatiotemporal patterns of biomass distributions of macrozooplankton and pelagic fish throughout the diel cycle. The 2 distributions were mapped using geostatistical techniques. We applied kriging with external drifts, which accounts for both diel and across-shore changes in macrozooplankton biomass. We then used a cross-variogram to determine the scale-dependent relationships between macrozooplankton and fish. The results show how macrozooplankton and fish are distributed according to the different ecological domains (coast, shelf, shelf-break and offshore) along the Spanish and French coasts. Specific macrozooplankton hotspots were observed, but macrozooplankton was generally more abundant offshore than inshore, whereas fish showed the opposite trend. This pattern was confirmed by the aggregation sizes, which increased towards oceanic waters for macrozooplankton and decreased for fish. Finally, the correlation between fish and macrozooplankton was positive on a small scale (<30 nautical miles) and negative on a large scale (>30 nautical miles).

  11. Spatial distribution of the stomach weights of juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2012-11-28

    Previous studies have shown that the survival of larval and juvenile anchovy off the continental shelf in the Bay of Biscay is not significantly different from that observed on the shelf, even though the food concentration is significantly higher on the shelf. In this paper we investigate the causes for the lack of relationship between food and survival for anchovy juvenile through analyses of feeding activity versus zooplankton distribution (in the transition from summer to fall from 2003 to 2010). The spatial distribution of the stomach weights of juvenile anchovy in relation to body size on and off the shelf revealed higher stomach fullness in areas off the shelf, where less zooplankton biomass was available. This result indicates that the food concentration is not always the main factor determining ingestion in fish. A situation of comparatively lesser prey abundance may provide better feeding conditions when combined with lower predation risk and lower light attenuation. In addition, the relatively heavier stomachs found in anchovies caught in years of higher recruitment indices suggest a large stomach content may be a symptom of good biological condition that may favour the winter survival of a larger fraction of the juvenile stock. © 2012 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  12. A real-time PCR assay to estimate invertebrate and fish predation on anchovy eggs in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Albaina, A.

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate the role of predation on eggs and larvae in the recruitment of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and 52 macrozooplankton taxa were assayed for anchovy remains in the gut during the 2010 spawning season using a molecular method. This real-time PCR based assay was capable of detecting 0.005. ng of anchovy DNA (roughly 1/100 of a single egg assay) in a reliable way and allowed detecting predation events up to 6. h after ingestion by small zooplankton taxa. A total of 1069 macrozooplankton individuals, 237 sardines and 213 sprats were tested. Both fish species and 32 macrozooplankton taxa showed remains of anchovy DNA within their stomach contents. The two main findings are (1) that the previously neglected macrozooplankton impact in anchovy eggs/larvae mortality is in the same order of magnitude of that due to planktivorous fishes and that, (2) the predation pressure was notably different in the two main spawning centers of Bay of Biscay anchovy. While relatively low mortality rates were recorded at the shelf-break spawning center, a higher predation pressure from both fish and macrozooplankton was exerted at the shelf one.

  13. Intraguild predation between small pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay: impact on anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) egg mortality

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2015-05-12

    Small pelagic fish can play an important role in various ecosystems linking lower and upper trophic levels. Among the factor behind the observed inter-annual variations in small pelagic fish abundance, intra- and inter-specific trophic interactions could have a strong impact on the recruitment variability (e.g. anchovy). Egg cannibalism observed in anchovies has been postulated to be a mechanism that determines the upper limit of the population density and self-regulates the population abundance of the species. On the other hand, predation by other guild species is commonly considered as a regulation mechanism between competing species. This study provides empirical evidence of anchovy cannibalism and predation of the main small pelagic fish species on anchovy eggs and estimates the effect of intraguild predation on the anchovy egg mortality rate. Results show that, depending on the year (2008–2009), up to 33 % of the total anchovy egg mortality was the result of sardine predation and up to 4 % was the result of egg cannibalism together with predation by Atlantic and Atlantic Chub mackerel and sprat. Results also indicate that in the Bay of Biscay, fluctuations in the survival index of the early life stages of anchovy are likely to be attributable at least in part to egg cannibalism and especially to a high sardine predation on anchovy eggs. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  14. Daily scale wintertime sea surface temperature and IPC-Navidad variability in the southern Bay of Biscay from 1981 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnaola, G.; Sáenz, J.; Zorita, E.; Fontán, A.; Valencia, V.; Lazure, P.

    2013-07-01

    The combination of remotely sensed gappy Sea surface temperature (SST) images with the missing data filling DINEOF (data interpolating empirical orthogonal functions) technique, followed by a principal component analysis of the reconstructed data, has been used to identify the time evolution and the daily scale variability of the wintertime surface signal of the Iberian Poleward Current (IPC), or Navidad, during the 1981-2010 period. An exhaustive comparison with the existing bibliography, and the vertical temperature and salinity profiles related to its extremes over the Bay of Biscay area, show that the obtained time series accurately reflect the IPC-Navidad variability. Once a time series for the evolution of the SST signal of the current over the last decades is well established, this time series is used to propose a physical mechanism in relation to the variability of the IPC-Navidad, involving both atmospheric and oceanic variables. According to the proposed mechanism, an atmospheric circulation anomaly observed in both the 500 hPa and the surface levels generates atmospheric surface level pressure, wind-stress and heat-flux anomalies. In turn, those surface level atmospheric anomalies induce mutually coherent SST and sea level anomalies over the North Atlantic area, and locally, in the Bay of Biscay area. These anomalies, both locally over the Bay of Biscay area and over the North Atlantic, are in agreement with several mechanisms that have separately been related to the variability of the IPC-Navidad, i.e. the south-westerly winds, the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief (JEBAR) effect, the topographic β effect and a weakened North Atlantic gyre.

  15. Daily scale wintertime sea surface temperature and IPC-Navidad variability in the southern Bay of Biscay from 1981 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Esnaola

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The combination of remotely sensed gappy Sea surface temperature (SST images with the missing data filling DINEOF (data interpolating empirical orthogonal functions technique, followed by a principal component analysis of the reconstructed data, has been used to identify the time evolution and the daily scale variability of the wintertime surface signal of the Iberian Poleward Current (IPC, or Navidad, during the 1981–2010 period. An exhaustive comparison with the existing bibliography, and the vertical temperature and salinity profiles related to its extremes over the Bay of Biscay area, show that the obtained time series accurately reflect the IPC-Navidad variability. Once a time series for the evolution of the SST signal of the current over the last decades is well established, this time series is used to propose a physical mechanism in relation to the variability of the IPC-Navidad, involving both atmospheric and oceanic variables. According to the proposed mechanism, an atmospheric circulation anomaly observed in both the 500 hPa and the surface levels generates atmospheric surface level pressure, wind-stress and heat-flux anomalies. In turn, those surface level atmospheric anomalies induce mutually coherent SST and sea level anomalies over the North Atlantic area, and locally, in the Bay of Biscay area. These anomalies, both locally over the Bay of Biscay area and over the North Atlantic, are in agreement with several mechanisms that have separately been related to the variability of the IPC-Navidad, i.e. the south-westerly winds, the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief (JEBAR effect, the topographic β effect and a weakened North Atlantic gyre.

  16. The distribution of inorganic phosphorus in modern sediments of the Bay of Biscay; La distribution du phosphore inorganique dans les sediments modernes du golfe de Gasgogne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anschutz, P.; Hyacinthe, Ch.; Carbonel, P.; Jouanneau, J.M.; Jorissen, F. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France). Dept. de Geologie et d`Oceanographie, UMR CNRS 5805

    1999-06-01

    The phosphorus geochemistry on the bay of Biscay margin shows that modern sediments represent a source of phosphate for overlying seawater. However, particulate phosphorus leached with an ascorbate solution and 1 N HCl remains constant in the sedimentary column which suggests that inorganic particulate phosphorus is trapped in the sediment. This is due to bioturbation, which carries iron oxides with high adsorption capacities for phosphate deep into the sediment, and also, to the precipitation of authigenic phosphate minerals in the anaerobic zone of the sediment. (authors) 17 refs.

  17. Daily scale winter-time sea surface temperature variability and the Iberian Poleward Current in the southern Bay of Biscay from 1981 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Esnaola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of remotely sensed gappy sea surface temperature (SST images with the missing data filling Data Interpolating EOFs (DINEOF technique followed by a Principal Component Analysis of the reconstructed data, has been used to identify the time evolution and the daily scale variability of the winter-time surface signal of the Iberian Poleward Current (IPC during the 1981–2010 period. An exhaustive comparison with the existing bibliography, and the vertical temperature and salinity profiles related to its extremes over the Bay of Biscay area, show that the obtained time series accurately reflect the variability of the IPC. A physical mechanism involving both atmospheric and oceanic variables is proposed in relation to the variability of the IPC. It jointly takes into account several mechanisms that have separately been related to the variability of the IPC, i.e. the south-westerly winds, the Joint Effect of Baroclinicity And Relief (JEBAR effect, the topographic β effect and a weakened North Atlantic Gyre. This mechanism emerges from an atmospheric 500 hPa circulation anomaly that has not a simple relationship with any of the most common North Atlantic teleconnection patterns. It then generates mutually coherent SST and sea level anomaly patterns in the North Atlantic area due to the action of anomalous wind-stress and heat-fluxes, and locally, it also generates the conditions for the mentioned mechanisms in the Bay of Biscay area.

  18. Interannual differences in growth and hatch-date distributions of early juvenile European anchovy in the Bay of Biscay: implications for recruitment

    KAUST Repository

    Aldanondo, Naroa

    2016-01-22

    © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. In order to understand better the recruitment variability in European anchovy in the Bay of Biscay, it is important to investigate the processes that affect survival during the early life stages. Anchovy juvenile growth trajectories and hatch-date distributions were inferred over a 3-year period based on otolith microstructure analysis. Otolith growth trajectories showed a characteristic shape depending on their hatch-date timing. Earlier-born juveniles had notably broader maximum increments than later born conspecifics, resulting in higher growth rates. This observation suggests that early hatching would be beneficial for larval and juvenile growth, and, therefore, survival. The estimated juvenile hatch-date distributions were relatively narrow compared with the extended anchovy spawning season (March-August) in the Bay of Biscay and indicated that only individuals originated mainly from the summer months (June-August) survived until autumn. Hatch-date distributions were markedly different among years and seemed to influence the interannual recruitment strength of anchovy. We conclude that years characterized by juvenile survivors originating from the peak spawning period (May and June) would lead to considerable recruitment success. Downwelling events during the peak spawning period seem to affect larval survival.

  19. 3D architecture of a complex transcurrent rift system: The example of the Bay of Biscay-Western Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammes, Suzon; Tiberi, Christel; Manatschal, Gianreto

    2010-06-01

    The Parentis and Arzacq-Mauléon basins located in front of the V-shaped oceanic propagator in the Bay of Biscay present evidence for extreme crustal thinning. In this paper we investigate the 3D structure of these rift basins, based on field observations and the interpretation of seismic data. We compare these results with those obtained from two different and independent inversion methods: first a 3D gravity inversion and second the standard Euler deconvolution. For the Mauléon Basin our results show that the positive gravimetric anomaly identified above its southern margin is the consequence of two shallower high density bodies that are separated by the Pamplona fault and a deeper high density body. The high density bodies can be explained by the presence of mid-crustal and mantle rocks that were exhumed or uplifted at shallower depth during Early Cretaceous rifting before they were reworked and integrated to the Pyrenean chain during compression phase. Also, during this reactivation phase, some slices of the exhumed mid-crustal and mantle rocks were sheared off and were integrated in the present-day thrust belt in the Mauléon basin. For the Parentis Basin we can demonstrate, based on seismic data and gravimetric inversion methods, a decrease in extension from west to east, which is compatible with the V-shape geometry of the overall basin. Along strike, a change in the fault geometry from downward concave top-basement detachment faults to upward concave high-angle faults can be observed eastwards, i.e. towards the termination of the basin. A key structure, controlling the evolution of the Parentis Basin, is the east-west trending Ibis fault. We interpret this fault to have initially formed as a strike slip fault before it was reactivated during later crustal thinning. At present, it forms the limit between an upper plate sag basin to the north and a lower plate sag basin, floored at least locally by a top-basement detachment faults to the south. The strong

  20. PH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from GARCIA DEL CID in the Bay of Biscay and North Atlantic Ocean from 1984-07-11 to 1984-08-08 (NCEI Accession 0143393)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143393 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from GARCIA DEL CID in the Bay of Biscay and North Atlantic Ocean from 1984-07-11 to...

  1. pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the CORNIDE DE SAAVEDRA in the Bay of Biscay and North Atlantic Ocean from 1977-10-07 to 1977-10-27 (NODC Accession 0113528)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113528 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from CORNIDE DE SAAVEDRA in the Bay of Biscay and North Atlantic Ocean...

  2. PH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from GARCIA DEL CID in the Bay of Biscay and North Atlantic Ocean from 1986-09-04 to 1986-10-03 (NCEI Accession 0143391)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143391 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from GARCIA DEL CID in the Bay of Biscay and North Atlantic Ocean from 1986-09-04 to...

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the PRIDE OF BILBAO in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-09-26 to 2010-09-16 (NODC Accession 0108092)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108092 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from PRIDE OF BILBAO in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel and North...

  4. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the PELAGIA in the Bay of Biscay and North Atlantic Ocean from 1996-06-18 to 1996-06-18 (NODC Accession 0115585)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115585 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from PELAGIA in the Bay of Biscay and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  5. Position, swimming direction and group size of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus in the presence of a fast-ferry in the Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana S. Aniceto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze group size, swimming direction and the orientation of fin whales relative to a fast ferry in the Bay of Biscay. Fin whale groups (≥3 individuals were on average closer to the vessel than single individuals and pairs (F1,114 = 4.94, p = 0.028 and were more often observed within a high-risk angle ahead of the ferry (binomial probability: p = 7.60 × 10−11. Also, small groups tend to swim in the opposite direction (heading of 180° of the ferry at the starboard side (binomial test: p = 6.86 × 10−5 and at the portside (binomial test: p = 0.0156. These findings provide valuable information to improve shipping management procedures in areas at high risk for collisions.

  6. Determining how the pelagic ecosystem over the continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay (NE Atlantic) functions: An approach using mesozooplankton enzyme activities as descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Jean-Pierre; Delmas, Daniel; Koueta, Noussithé

    2009-04-01

    A fisheries research cruise conducted in 2000 offered a first opportunity to take simultaneous measurements of the activities of three enzymes in mesozooplankton samples collected at a regional scale over the continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay in the NE Atlantic, with the aim of characterizing main aspects of the functioning of the biotic environment of small pelagic fish populations. The activity of the digestive endopeptidase trypsin was selected to characterize the assimilation rate of proteins, whereas pyruvate kinase (PK) was chosen as an indicator of carbohydrate assimilation and aspartate transcarbamylase (ATC) provided an overall assessment of mesozooplankton productivity. The Bay of Biscay region is subject to various strong physical driving forces that directly affect the primary structure of the pelagic food web. On our cruise, the phytoplankton biomass distribution reflected these different physical influences: diatoms dominated the nutrient-enriched coastal water; picoplankton dominated the northern-central part where nutrients were depleted; and nanoplankton were abundant at the shelf break where internal waves provided an input of nutrients. These and other results (on bacteria, particulate organic carbon distribution, among others) illustrate the differences that exist in the microbial food webs of different sectors of the bay. The living matter produced was characterized by the quality and quantity of the smallest prey items that were available to higher trophic levels. Variations in mesozooplankton enzyme activities may agree well not only with classically expected results, but also present unexpected special features: high ATC specific activities were measured around the mouth of the Gironde, in the nutrient-rich desalted water of the plume, but surprisingly not in front of the Loire river. PK specific activities reflected preponderantly the balance between phytoplankton cells sizes and the related bacterial abundance resulting from nutrient

  7. Acoustic surveys for juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay: Abundance estimate as an indicator of the next year's recruitment and spatial distribution patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2013-08-16

    A series of acoustic surveys (JUVENA) began in 2003 targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay. A specific methodology was designed for mapping and estimating juvenile abundance annually, four months after the spawning season. After eight years of the survey, a consistent picture of the spatial pattern of the juvenile anchovy has emerged. Juveniles show a vertical and horizontal distribution pattern that depends on size. The younger individuals are found isolated from other species in waters closer to the surface, mainly off the shelf within the mid-southern region of the bay. The largest juveniles are usually found deeper and closer to the shore in the company of adult anchovy and other pelagic species. In these eight years, the survey has covered a wide range of juvenile abundances, and the estimates show a significant positive relationship between the juvenile biomasses and the one-year-old recruits of the following year. This demonstrates that the JUVENA index provides an early indication of the strength of next year\\'s recruitment to the fishery and can therefore be used to improve the management advice for the fishery of this short-lived species. © 2013 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  8. Cell and tissue biomarkers in mussel, and histopathology in hake and anchovy from Bay of Biscay after the Prestige oil spill (Monitoring Campaign 2003)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marigomez, Ionan [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail ionan.marigomez@ehu.es; Soto, Manu [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cancio, Ibon [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Orbea, Amaia [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Garmendia, Larraitz [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, Miren P. [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    In order to assess the biological effects of the Prestige oil spill (POS), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), European hake (Merluccius merluccius) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) were sampled between April and September 2003 in various geographical areas of Bay of Biscay: Galicia, Central Cantabrian and East Cantabrian. In mussels, several cell and tissue biomarkers were measured: peroxisome proliferation as induction of acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity, lysosomal responses as changes in the structure (lysosomal volume density, V{sub V{sub L}}, surface-to-volume ratio, S/V{sub L}, and numerical density, N{sub V{sub L}}) and in membrane stability (labilization period, LP), cell type replacement as relative proportion of basophilic cells (volume density of basophilic cells, V{sub V{sub BAS}}) in digestive gland epithelium, and changes in the morphology of digestive alveoli as mean luminal radius to mean epithelial thickness (MLR/MET). Additionally, flesh condition index (FCI) and gonad index (GI) were measured as supporting parameters. In hake and anchovy, liver histopathology was examined to determine the prevalence of parasites, melanomacrophage centers, non-specific lesions (inflammatory changes, atrophy, necrosis, apoptosis), early non-neoplastic toxicopathic lesions (i.e., hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism), foci of cellular alteration, benign and malignant neoplasms. In mussels, AOX induction was noticeable in April except in Galicia. LP values were low in all the geographical areas studied, indicating disturbed health, especially in Galicia. Alike, lysosomal enlargement was observed in most stations as shown by the extremely low S/V{sub L} values. V{sub V{sub BAS}} and MLR/MET values were markedly high. Overall, employed biomarkers detected exposure to toxic chemicals and disturbed health in mussels from Bay of Biscay, with impact decreasing from April to September. Although hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism and nematode parasitization in

  9. Acoustics reveals the presence of a macrozooplankton biocline in the Bay of Biscay in response to hydrological conditions and predator-prey relationships.

    KAUST Repository

    Lezama-Ochoa, Ainhoa

    2014-02-04

    Bifrequency acoustic data, hydrological measurements and satellite data were used to study the vertical distribution of macrozooplankton in the Bay of Biscay in relation to the hydrological conditions and fish distribution during spring 2009. The most noticeable result was the observation of a \\'biocline\\' during the day i.e., the interface where zooplankton biomass changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below. The biocline separated the surface layer, almost devoid of macrozooplankton, from the macrozooplankton-rich deeper layers. It is a specific vertical feature which ties in with the classic diel vertical migration pattern. Spatiotemporal correlations between macrozooplankton and environmental variables (photic depth, thermohaline vertical structure, stratification index and chlorophyll-a) indicate that no single factor explains the macrozooplankton vertical distribution. Rather a set of factors, the respective influence of which varies from region to region depending on the habitat characteristics and the progress of the spring stratification, jointly influence the distribution. In this context, the macrozooplankton biocline is potentially a biophysical response to the search for a particular depth range where light attenuation, thermohaline vertical structure and stratification conditions together provide a suitable alternative to the need for expending energy in reaching deeper water without the risk of being eaten.

  10. Net sea–air CO2 flux uncertainties in the Bay of Biscay based on the choice of wind speed products and gas transfer parameterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Otero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of sea–air CO2 fluxes is largely dependent on wind speed through the gas transfer velocity parameterization. In this paper, we quantify uncertainties in the estimation of the CO2 uptake in the Bay of Biscay resulting from the use of different sources of wind speed such as three different global reanalysis meteorological models (NCEP/NCAR 1, NCEP/DOE 2 and ERA-Interim, one high-resolution regional forecast model (HIRLAM-AEMet, winds derived under the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP project, and QuikSCAT winds in combination with some of the most widely used gas transfer velocity parameterizations. Results show that net CO2 flux estimations during an entire seasonal cycle (September 2002–September 2003 may vary by a factor of ~ 3 depending on the selected wind speed product and the gas exchange parameterization, with the highest impact due to the last one. The comparison of satellite- and model-derived winds with observations at buoys advises against the systematic overestimation of NCEP-2 and the underestimation of NCEP-1. In the coastal region, the presence of land and the time resolution are the main constraints of QuikSCAT, which turns CCMP and ERA-Interim in the preferred options.

  11. Plaguicidas organoclorados en población general adulta de Bizkaia Organochlorine pesticides in the general adult population of Biscay (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Begoña Zubero

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar y analizar las concentraciones de siete plaguicidas organoclorados; hexaclorobenceno (HCB, beta-hexaclorociclohexano (β-HCH, gamma-hexaclorociclohexano (γ-HCH, heptacloro epóxido, beta-endosulfán, diclorodifenildicloroetileno (p,p´-DDE y diclorodifeniltricloroetano (p,p´-DDT en suero de adultos de cuatro zonas de Bizkaia no expuestos a fuentes conocidas de plaguicidas. Método: Se analizaron 283 muestras individuales de voluntarios captados a partir del censo. Se les entrevistó utilizando un cuestionario con variables sociodemográficas y de consumo. Se analizaron los datos utilizando la ji al cuadrado para variables discretas, y el análisis de varianza y un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple para las variables continuas. Resultados: El p,p´-DDE fue detectado en el 100% de los individuos (media: 191,43ng/g lípido, mientras que el 31% mostró valores detectables de p,p´-DDT (media: 18,9ng/g lípido. Un 96,5% de los individuos presentaban valores detectables de HCB (media: 78,56ng/g lípido; el 90,4% β-HCH (media: 42,78ng/g lípido y un 3,5% γ-HCH. No se detectó heptacloro epóxido ni beta-endosulfán. En el modelo de regresión, el incremento de la edad aumentaba los valores de todos los plaguicidas (pObjective: To identify and analyze levels of seven organochlorine pesticides [hexachlorobenzene (HCB, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, beta-endosulfan, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p´-DDT] in the serum of adults of four areas of Biscay (Spain not exposed to known sources of pesticides. Method: We analyzed 283 individual samples from volunteers recruited from the census. The volunteers were interviewed using a questionnaire with items on demographic variables and consumption. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test for discrete variables and analysis of variance and multiple linear regression

  12. From discard ban to exemption: How can gear technology help reduce catches of undersized Nephrops and hake in the Bay of Biscay trawling fleet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Camille; Kopp, Dorothée; Méhault, Sonia

    2017-01-15

    On January 1st, 2016, the French mixed Nephrops and hake fishery of the Grande Vasière, an area located in the Bay of Biscay, fell under the discard ban implemented as part of the new European Common Fisheries Policy. The fleet records historically high levels of discard despite numerous gear selectivity studies. Together with high discards survival, new technological solutions to minimize catches of undersized individuals could justify local exemptions from the discard ban. Our study focuses on the effects of two selective devices, a square mesh cylinder (SMC) and a grid, on the escapement of undersized individuals and discard reduction. Relative catch probability of the modified gear compared with the traditional gear was modelled using the catch comparison method. Potential losses from the commercial fraction of the catch were taken into account to assess their influence on the economic viability of fishing with the modified gears. The two devices had similar effects on undersized Nephrops escapement and on discard reduction, with median values of 26.5% and 23.6% for the SMC and of 30.4% and 21.4% for the grid, respectively. Only the grid was efficient for undersized hake, recording median values of escapement and discard reduction equal to 25.0% and 20.6%, respectively. Some loss from the commercial fraction of the catch was to be expected with both devices, which could be compensated for in the long term by the contribution of undersized individuals to the stock biomass. Our results support the use of selective gears technology as part of an integrated framework including control and management measures to mitigate the effect of the discard ban both for fishers and for the ecosystem. Further work is needed to quantify the effect of additional escapement from the gear on stock dynamics.

  13. Objective assessment of the contribution of the RECOPESCA network to the monitoring of 3D coastal ocean variables in the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamouroux, Julien; Charria, Guillaume; De Mey, Pierre; Raynaud, Stéphane; Heyraud, Catherine; Craneguy, Philippe; Dumas, Franck; Le Hénaff, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    In the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel, in situ observations represent a key element to monitor and to understand the wide range of processes in the coastal ocean and their direct impacts on human activities. An efficient way to measure the hydrological content of the water column over the main part of the continental shelf is to consider ships of opportunity as the surface to cover is wide and could be far from the coast. In the French observation strategy, the RECOPESCA programme, as a component of the High frequency Observation network for the environment in coastal SEAs (HOSEA), aims to collect environmental observations from sensors attached to fishing nets. In the present study, we assess that network using the Array Modes (ArM) method (a stochastic implementation of Le Hénaff et al. Ocean Dyn 59: 3-20. doi: 10.1007/s10236-008-0144-7, 2009). That model ensemble-based method is used here to compare model and observation errors and to quantitatively evaluate the performance of the observation network at detecting prior (model) uncertainties, based on hypotheses on error sources. A reference network, based on fishing vessel observations in 2008, is assessed using that method. Considering the various seasons, we show the efficiency of the network at detecting the main model uncertainties. Moreover, three scenarios, based on the reference network, a denser network in 2010 and a fictive network aggregated from a pluri-annual collection of profiles, are also analysed. Our sensitivity study shows the importance of the profile positions with respect to the sheer number of profiles for ensuring the ability of the network to describe the main error modes. More generally, we demonstrate the capacity of this method, with a low computational cost, to assess and to design new in situ observation networks.

  14. Data assimilative twin-experiment in a high-resolution Bay of Biscay configuration: 4DEnOI based on stochastic modeling of the wind forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervatis, V.; Testut, C. E.; De Mey, P.; Ayoub, N.; Chanut, J.; Quattrocchi, G.

    2016-04-01

    A twin-experiment is carried out introducing elements of an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), to assess and correct ocean uncertainties in a high-resolution Bay of Biscay configuration. Initially, an ensemble of 102 members is performed by applying stochastic modeling of the wind forcing. The target of this step is to simulate the envelope of possible realizations and to explore the robustness of the method at building ensemble covariances. Our second step includes the integration of the ensemble-based error estimates into a data assimilative system adopting a 4D Ensemble Optimal Interpolation (4DEnOI) approach. In the twin-experiment context, synthetic observations are simulated from a perturbed member not used in the subsequent analyses, satisfying the condition of an unbiased probability distribution function against the ensemble by performing a rank histogram. We evaluate the assimilation performance on short-term predictability focusing on the ensemble size, the observational network, and the enrichment of the ensemble by inexpensive time-lagged techniques. The results show that variations in performance are linked to intrinsic oceanic processes, such as the spring shoaling of the thermocline, in combination with external forcing modulated by river runoffs and time-variable wind patterns, constantly reshaping the error regimes. Ensemble covariances are able to capture high-frequency processes associated with coastal density fronts, slope currents and upwelling events near the Armorican and Galician shelf break. Further improvement is gained when enriching model covariances by including pattern phase errors, with the help of time-neighbor states augmenting the ensemble spread.

  15. Application of a battery of biomarkers in mussel digestive gland to assess long-term effects of the Prestige oil spill in Galicia and the Bay of Biscay: lysosomal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, Larraitz; Izagirre, Urtzi; Cajaraville, Miren P; Marigómez, Ionan

    2011-04-01

    In order to assess the long-term lysosomal responses to the Prestige oil spill (POS), mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, were collected in 22 localities from Galicia and the Bay of Biscay (North Iberian peninsula) in July, and September 2003, April, July, and October 2004-2005 and April 2006. Lysosomal membrane stability (labilisation period, LP) and lysosomal structural changes (lysosomal volume density, Vv(L) and lysosomal surface-to-volume ratio, S/V(L)) were measured as general stress biomarkers. The most remarkable long-term effects after the POS were drastic changes in lysosomal size (lysosomal enlargement) and membrane stability (extremely low LP values) up to April-04. Later on, a recovery trend was envisaged all along the studied area after July-04, albeit membrane stability continued to be below 20 min throughout the studied period up to April-06, which indicates a "distress-to-moderate-stress" condition. Lysosomal Response Index (LRI) revealed that environmental stress was more marked in Galicia than in the Bay of Biscay, mainly in the first sampling year, although a "moderate-to-high-stress" condition persisted until July-05. Overall, although lysosomal size returned to reference values, membrane stability was not fully recovered indicating a stress situation throughout the studied period.

  16. The filling of the Ria de Gernika (Bay of Biscay) since the late Holocene; Le comblement de la ria de Gernika (golfe de Gascogne) a l'Holocene terminal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual, A.; Rodriguez-Lazaro, J. [Universidad del Pais Vasco, San Sebastian (Spain). Dept. de Estratigrafia y Paleontologia; Weber, O.; Jouanneau, J.M.; Pujos, M. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France). Dept. de Geologie et Oceanographie-URA CNRS

    1998-04-01

    A study of the recent sedimentation of the ria de Gernika (Bay of Biscay) is undertaken to characterise different steps of its Holocene filling. Sedimentological and micropalaeontological analysis of six cores sampled in the ria, completed with absolute dating ({sup 14}C, and based upon {sup 210}Pb exc.), allow us to identify three phases in the filling of the ria that are limited by two transgressive shifts (3500 and 2500 yr. B.P.) already described in other areas of the Bay of Biscay. In the first phase, lithologies as well as benthic foraminifera and ostracode assemblages are typical of coastal marine palaeo-environment. During the second phase the euryhaline waters progressively occupy the central area of the estuary. Here the presence of allochthonous micro-fauna, particularly of planktonic foraminifera, indicates an increase of exchanges with marine waters that can reach the inner areas of the estuarine system. The last phase (2500 yr. B.P. to the present), which corresponds to the recent and active sedimentation, is marked by an impoverishment of the micro-faunas, the filling of some channels and the increase of salt marshes. The estimated sedimentation rate for the upper decimeters of the cores (0.73-1.29 cm.yr{sup -1}) shows faster sedimentary filling of the ria with anthropic action evidenced by the presence of metallic contaminants and hypohaline micro-fauna. (authors)

  17. Twenty Years of Co-operation between Spain and France: Friends, Partners or Allies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Mestres i Camps

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The progress made in the relations between France and Spain at the 18th Spanish- French Summit, held in Paris on 10 November 2005, demonstrate that relations between France and Spain are passing through a good moment, and at the same time it allows us to go deeper into the analysis of the co-operation between these two neighbours over the past twenty years. This article aims to examine the evolution of relations between Spain and France, which must administer a dense bilateral agenda as neighbours and anothermultilateral agenda as European partners. In other words, it will analyse the extent to which French-Spanish relations can become a balanced, stable alliance.

  18. Demographic Patterns from the 1960s in France, Italy, Spain and Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Rydell, Ingrid

    2002-01-01

    Demographic behaviour has changed dramatically in the industrialised world after World War II. This literature review describes the demographic development in France, Italy, Spain and Portugal from the 1960s. The general pattern is delayed transition to adulthood and first birth, fertility and marriage-rates have declined, while divorce-rates have increased. But demographic behaviour differs between the countries. In France, cohabitation and births outside marriage are common and the divorce ...

  19. Changing Occupational Profiles in the Hotel Industry: Case Studies in France, Italy and Spain. Synthesis Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Mario; Grazia Mereu, Maria; Tagliaferro, Claudio

    Changing occupational profiles in the hotel industry in France, Italy, and Spain were examined in case studies that included interviews with hotel managers, human resource managers, and individuals employed in hotel occupations identified as new or entailing new skills. The study focused on the following topics: (1) changes in the hotel industry…

  20. Application of a battery of biomarkers in mussel digestive gland to assess long-term effects of the Prestige oil spill in Galicia and Bay of Biscay: tissue-level biomarkers and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, Larraitz; Soto, Manu; Vicario, Unai; Kim, Yungkul; Cajaraville, Miren P; Marigómez, Ionan

    2011-04-01

    In order to assess the biological effects of the Prestige oil spill (POS), mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, were collected in 22 localities along the North coast of the Iberian Peninsula over 3 years (April 2003-April 2006). Different tissue-level biomarkers including cell type composition (volume density of basophilic cells, Vv(BAS)) in digestive gland epithelium, structural changes of digestive alveoli (mean luminal radius to mean epithelial thickness, MLR/MET) and histopathological alterations (prevalence and intensity) of the digestive gland were analysed. Severe alterations in the general condition of the digestive gland tissue were observed all over the study area up to 2004-2005. High Vv(BAS) values were recorded mainly in Galicia but also to a lesser extent in the Bay of Biscay in 2003-2004. Atrophy of the digestive alveoli, measured in terms of MLR/MET, was detected all along the studied area up to 2006. Inflammatory responses cannot be related to pollution due to the POS: (a) prevalence and intensity of focal hemocytic infiltration were higher in the Bay of Biscay than in Galicia but they did not show a clear temporal trend; (b) high intensities of brown cell aggregates were only sporadically recorded; and (c) granulocytomas were more frequently recorded in the Bay of Biscay than in Galicia and especially in localities (i.e. Arrigunaga) subjected to chronic pollution. Likewise, Marteilia, trematodes, intracellular ciliates, unidentified eosinophilic bodies, R/CLO and Mytilicola did not follow any recognisable pattern that could be associated to the POS. In contrast, high Nematopsis intensities recorded in several localities in 2003 might suggest some response of local interest after the POS (i.e., in combination with particular factors/conditions). More data at a regional scale are needed before histopathology may provide a reliable ecosystem health assessment but the present results suggest that the approach is worthwhile. Overall, although Vv

  1. Socio-educational policies in Germany, Spain and France for the integration of immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Llorent Bedmar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the socio-political integration policies being applied in Germany, Spain and France, highlighting their similarities and differences. We then checked whether their integration models were consistent with the common immigration policy of the UE and whether the latter allows them to plan measures for handling immigration to suit their own particular needs. We employed the Comparative Education methodology; the units of comparison were Germany, Spain and France, whose resident foreign populations represent more than 50% of the EU total. We studied the following: history and context; integration at federal and national level; the social-educational requirements for acquiring nationality; and the teaching of the mother tongue of immigrant students in educational institutions. We discovered that, even though the three countries belong to the EU and have common principles and rules about immigration, the design, management and ways of conceiving the integration of immigrant populations vary considerably.

  2. France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Every July, the world's best cyclists race more than 3500 km around France, and sometimes the surrounding countries, in the Tour de France. This image from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the varied terrain which challenges the riders. The race started in western France at Futuroscope, and headed toward Brittany. In these mostly flat 'stages' (as each day's race is called) sprinting specialists usually dash for the finish out of the main pack of riders. The race then moved to the Pyrenees mountains, in southern France along the border with Spain. Climbers and the overall favorites shine in the mountains, often gaining 10 minutes or more on their rivals. Only a few days after the Pyrenees climbs the race was again in the mountains. First Mont Ventoux, an extinct volcano in Provence, and then the massive Alps, with altitudes as high as 2,645 meters, challenged the racers. Finally the race headed toward Paris and a July 23rd finish in Paris. Go Lance! To learn more about MODIS, visit the MODIS web. Image by Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land group, NASA GSFC

  3. Spatial distribution and temporal trends of soft-bottom marine benthic alien species collected during the period 1989-2008 in the Nervión estuary (southeastern Bay of Biscay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorita, Izaskun; Solaun, Oihana; Borja, Angel; Franco, Javier; Muxika, Iñigo; Pascual, Marta

    2013-10-01

    As the introduction of alien species represents one of the most important causes of biodiversity loss, it is crucial to study the distribution of alien species in order to control or eradicate their introduction and spread. Thus, the present study aimed to analyse the spatial distribution and temporal trends of soft-bottom marine benthic alien species collected during 20 years in the Nervión estuary, southeastern Bay of Biscay. Results indicated that, from a total of 6688 species records, 117 corresponded to alien species. Likewise, from a total of 742 different species identified, 23 species were classified as alien species. The two most frequently recorded alien species, Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata and Monocorophium acherusicum, appeared mainly at the intermediate part of the estuary that suffered historically an intense pollution. The presence and abundance of soft-bottom alien species became more evident since the mid-nineties, when the widening of the Bilbao Harbour occurred, together with a water quality improvement and the industry decline. Finally, although the identified alien species are considered as not invasive, the spread of alien species in the estuary might be considered as a threat.

  4. Perfluoroalkyl substances assessment in drinking waters from Brazil, France and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanz, Thiago G; Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) occurs primarily via dietary intake and drinking water. In this study, 16 PFASs have been assessed in 96 drinking waters (38 bottled waters and 58 samples of tap water) from Brazil, France and Spain. The total daily intake and the risk index (RI) of 16 PFASs through drinking water in Brazil, France and Spain have been estimated. This study was carried out using an analytical method based on an online sample enrichment followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The quality parameters of the analytical method were satisfactory for the analysis of the 16 selected compounds in drinking waters. Notably, the method limits of detection (MLOD) and method limits of quantification (MLOQ) were in the range of 0.15 to 8.76ng/l and 0.47 to 26.54ng/l, respectively. The results showed that the highest PFASs concentrations were found in tap water samples and the more frequently found compound was perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), with mean concentrations of 7.73, 15.33 and 15.83ng/l in French, Spanish and Brazilian samples, respectively. In addition, PFOS was detected in all tap water samples from Brazil. The highest level of PFASs contamination in a single sample was 140.48ng/l in a sample of Spanish tap water. In turn, in bottled waters the highest levels were detected in a French sample with 116ng/l as the sum of PFASs. Furthermore, the most frequent compounds and those at higher concentrations were perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) with a mean of frequencies in the three countries of 51.3%, followed by perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) (27.2%) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (23.0%). Considering that bottled water is approximately 38% of the total intake, the total PFASs exposure through drinking water intake for an adult man was estimated to be 54.8, 58.0 and 75.6ng/person per day in Spain, France and Brazil, respectively. However, assuming that the water content in other beverages

  5. [Regulating the internet: a comparative analysis of Brazil, Chile, Spain, the US, and France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segurado, Rosemary; Lima, Carolina Silva Mandú de; Ameni, Cauê S

    2015-12-01

    Global governance is of key concern in the current debate over the workings of the world's computer network, and Brazil has played a notable role in this process, especially after approval of the Marco Civil da Internet (law 12.965, april 23, 2014), which defines Brazil's regulatory framework for the internet. Dubbed the internet bill of rights, this law sets out the principles, guarantees, rights, and duties of internet users and providers in Brazil. Based on the fundamental categories of net neutrality, internet users' right to privacy, and copyright discussions from the perspective of intellectual property, the article offers a comparative analysis of regulations in five countries: Brazil, Chile, Spain, the US, and France.

  6. Discovery of Unusual Minerals in Paleolithic Black Pigments from Lascaux (France) and Ekain (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalmin, E.; /Marne la Vallee U.; Farges, F.; /Marne l Vallee U. /Museum Nat. Hist., Paris /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci.; Vignaud, C.; /Unknown; Susini, J.; /ESRF,; Menu, M.; /unknown; Brown, G.E., Jr.; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-12-13

    Analyses of archaeological materials aim to rediscover the know-how of Prehistoric people by determining the nature of the painting matter, its preparation mode, and the geographic origin of its raw materials. This study deals with identification of manganese oxides in black pigments by micro-XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) based on previous TEM (transmission electron microscopy) studies. Complex mixtures of the manganese oxides studied are present in some of mankind's oldest known paintings, namely those from the caves of Lascaux (Dordogne, France) and Ekain (Basque country, Spain). Scarce manganese oxide minerals, including groutite, hausmannite, and manganite, were found for the first time in Paleolithic art at these archaeological sites. Because there are no known deposits of such minerals in these areas, more distant origins and trade routes are inferred. The closest known Mn-rich geological province for Lascaux is the central Pyrenees, which is {approx} 250 km from the Dordogne area.

  7. Particle fluxes and their drivers in the Avilés submarine canyon and adjacent slope, central Cantabrian margin, Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumín-Caparrós, A.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; González-Pola, C.; Lastras, G.; Calafat, A.; Canals, M.

    2016-05-01

    The Avilés Canyon in the central Cantabrian margin is one of the largest submarine canyons in Europe, extending from the shelf edge at 130 m depth to 4765 m depth in the Biscay abyssal plain. In this paper we present the results of a year-round (March 2012 to April 2013) study of particle fluxes in this canyon and the adjacent continental slope. Three mooring lines equipped with automated sequential sediment traps, high-accuracy conductivity-temperature recorders and current meters allowed measuring total mass fluxes and their major components (lithogenics, calcium carbonate, opal and organic matter) in the settling material jointly with a set of environmental parameters. The integrated analysis of the data obtained from the moorings together with remote sensing images and meteorological and hydrographical data has shed light on the sources of particles and the across- and along margin mechanisms involved in their transfer to the deep. Our results allow interpreting the dynamics of the sedimentary particles in the study area. Two factors play a critical role: (i) direct delivery of river-sourced material to the narrow continental shelf, and (ii) major resuspension events caused by large waves and near bottom currents developing at the occasion of the rather frequent severe storms that are typical of the Cantabrian Sea. Wind direction and subsequent wind-driven currents largely determine the way sedimentary particles reach the canyon. While westerly winds favour the injection of sediments into the Avilés Canyon mainly by building an offshore transport in the bottom Ekman layer, easterly winds ease the offshore advection of particulate matter towards the Avilés Canyon and its adjacent western slope principally through the surface Ekman layer. Furthermore, repeated cycles of semidiurnal tides add an extra amount of energy to the prevailing bottom currents and actively contribute to keep a permanent background of suspended particles in near-bottom waters. High

  8. In situ experimentation at the water/sediment interface in the deep sea: 2. Biotransformation of dissolved organic substrates by microbial communities at 2000m depth in the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahet, Guy; Daumas, Raoul; Sibuet, Myriam

    Few attempts have been made to quantify the utilization of organic matter by the bacteria of the superficial layers of deep sea sediment. During two BIOCYAN cruises (August 1986 and June 1987) we used the submersible Cyana, to incubate sediment samples in situ in a specially designed box core in presence of 14C-glutamic acid and 3H leucine. These experiments were conducted at 2000m depth in the Bay of Biscay. Bacterial activity was stopped by the injection of formaldehyde. Samples were retrieved with the research submersible Cyana and its accompanying free vehicle shuttle. Sediment organic matter was fractioned into four components: 1) 14CO 2; 2) nucleic components and polysacharids; 3) labile proteins; and 4) condensed hydrolysable polymers. To evaluate the barotolerance of deep-sea bacteria, undisturbed superficial layer samples were also incubated with the same labelled substrates at 4°C at the atmospheric pressure. In both cases, and except for glucose, our results show that distributions of radioactivity in the different components of the organic material were almost similar. However, the rate of incorporation was usually higher for in situ experiments than for decompressed samples. Bacterial utilization of both 14C glutamic acid and 14C glucose were higher in June than in August. Such differences may result from changes in the food supply arriving as sinking particles and deriving from the photosynthetically productive surface waters. Food input was probably more important in June than in August leading to corresponding increases in: 1) the abundance of derived bacteria, and 2) deep-sea bacterial activities.

  9. CORPORATE FINANCIAL DISTRESS AND BANKRUPTCY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS IN FRANCE, ITALY AND SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Amendola

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a competing-risks approach for investigating the determinants of corporate financial distress. In particular a comparative analysis of three European markets-France, Italy and Spain–is performed in order to find out the similarities and the differences in the determinants of distress.By using the AMADEUS dataset, two possible causes of exit from the market are considered:bankruptcy and liquidation. For identifying the variables that influence the risk of leaving the market,a competing-risks model for each country is estimated and is compared with a pooled model including all the three countries. In addition, the performance of the competing-risks approach is evaluated versus the single-risk model, in which all states are considered without any distinctions.The reached results show that the competing risks approach leads to a saving in the number of selected variables that becomes more significant when the model is estimated for each country separately. Moreover, the selected variables for each country enable to identify similarities between the different exit routes across the markets. Some of the differences between Spain and the other two countries may be related to the dissimilar definition of the distress states.

  10. Lagrangian transport in a microtidal coastal area: the Bay of Palma, island of Mallorca, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hernández-Carrasco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal transport in the Bay of Palma, a small region in the island of Mallorca, Spain, is characterized in terms of Lagrangian descriptors. The data sets used for this study are the output for two months (one in autumn and one in summer of a high resolution numerical model, ROMS (Regional Ocean Model System, forced atmospherically and with a spatial resolution of 300 m. The two months were selected because of their different wind regime, which is the main driver of the sea dynamics in this area. Finite-size Lyapunov exponents (FSLEs were used to locate semi-persistent Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS and to understand the different flow regimes in the bay. The different wind directions and regularity in the two months have a clear impact on the surface bay dynamics, whereas only topographic features appear clearly in the bottom structures. The fluid interchange between the bay and the open ocean was studied by computing particle trajectories and residence time (RT maps. The escape rate of particles out of the bay is qualitatively different, with a 32% greater escape rate of particles to the ocean in October than in July, owing to the different geometric characteristics of the flow. We show that LCSs separate regions with different transport properties by displaying spatial distributions of residence times on synoptic Lagrangian maps together with the location of the LCSs. Correlations between the time-dependent behavior of FSLE and RT are also investigated, showing a negative dependence when the stirring characterized by FSLE values moves particles in the direction of escape.

  11. Prevalence of asthma control among adults in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Demoly

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this article were to estimate the prevalence of asthma control and describe the characteristics of at least well-controlled (ALWC versus not well-controlled (NWC asthmatics. Data were obtained from the European National Health and Wellness Survey, an internet-based, cross-sectional study of 37,476 adults in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Analysis was limited to 2,337 respondents who self-reported a physician diagnosis. Based on the Asthma Control Test (ACT, respondents were grouped as ALWC (ACT 20 and NWC (ACT 19. The prevalence of diagnosed asthma across five countries was estimated to be 5.8% (14 million extrapolated for the European Union population. Of these, 50.4% (7.1 million were NWC. Compared with ALWC, NWC were older (15.8 versus 15.0%; p<0.001, less likely to be college educated (28.7 versus 36.3%; p<0.001 and more likely to be obese (30.0 versus 22.7%; p<0.001, experience depression (28.0 versus 18.7%; p<0.001 and smoke (34.7 versus 25.0%; p<0.001. The NWC had more occasions of contact with healthcare providers and were more likely to use controller and rescue medications, but with less adherence. A substantial portion of asthmatics are NWC. However, the proportion of NWC asthmatics found in this study was less than in previously reported. Patients and physicians need to be educated on the importance of asthma control and adherence to treatments.

  12. Testing a Microarray to Detect and Monitor Toxic Microalgae in Arcachon Bay in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda K. Medlin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms (HABs occur worldwide, causing health problems and economic damages to fisheries and tourism. Monitoring agencies are therefore essential, yet monitoring is based only on time-consuming light microscopy, a level at which a correct identification can be limited by insufficient morphological characters. The project MIDTAL (Microarray Detection of Toxic Algae—an FP7-funded EU project—used rRNA genes (SSU and LSU as a target on microarrays to identify toxic species. Furthermore, toxins were detected with a newly developed multiplex optical Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensor (Multi SPR and compared with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. In this study, we demonstrate the latest generation of MIDTAL microarrays (version 3 and show the correlation between cell counts, detected toxin and microarray signals from field samples taken in Arcachon Bay in France in 2011. The MIDTAL microarray always detected more potentially toxic species than those detected by microscopic counts. The toxin detection was even more sensitive than both methods. Because of the universal nature of both toxin and species microarrays, they can be used to detect invasive species. Nevertheless, the MIDTAL microarray is not completely universal: first, because not all toxic species are on the chip, and second, because invasive species, such as Ostreopsis, already influence European coasts.

  13. Testing a Microarray to Detect and Monitor Toxic Microalgae in Arcachon Bay in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Jessica U; Del Amo, Yolanda; Costes, Laurence; Medlin, Linda K

    2013-03-05

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) occur worldwide, causing health problems and economic damages to fisheries and tourism. Monitoring agencies are therefore essential, yet monitoring is based only on time-consuming light microscopy, a level at which a correct identification can be limited by insufficient morphological characters. The project MIDTAL (Microarray Detection of Toxic Algae)-an FP7-funded EU project-used rRNA genes (SSU and LSU) as a target on microarrays to identify toxic species. Furthermore, toxins were detected with a newly developed multiplex optical Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensor (Multi SPR) and compared with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In this study, we demonstrate the latest generation of MIDTAL microarrays (version 3) and show the correlation between cell counts, detected toxin and microarray signals from field samples taken in Arcachon Bay in France in 2011. The MIDTAL microarray always detected more potentially toxic species than those detected by microscopic counts. The toxin detection was even more sensitive than both methods. Because of the universal nature of both toxin and species microarrays, they can be used to detect invasive species. Nevertheless, the MIDTAL microarray is not completely universal: first, because not all toxic species are on the chip, and second, because invasive species, such as Ostreopsis, already influence European coasts.

  14. France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-10

    Taxes on cigarettes in France have been increased by 15 per cent, the first of an overall rise of 30 per cent. Part of the revenue raised will help subsidise motor racing which lost its sponsors following a recent national ban on cigarette advertising. The remainder will go to the social security service.

  15. Sedimentology models from activity concentration measurements: application to the "Bay of Cadiz" Natural Park (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligero, R A; Vidal, J; Meléndez, M J; Hamani, M; Casas-Ruiz, M

    2009-03-01

    A previous study on seabed sediments of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain) enabled us to identify several relations between sedimentological variables and activity concentrations of environmental radionuclides such as (137)Cs, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. In this paper the study has been extended to a large neighbouring inter-tidal area in order to establish if the above mentioned models can be generalized. As a result we have determined that the measured activity concentrations are closely to the values predicted by the theoretical models (correlation coefficient range=0.85-0.93). Furthermore, the proposal model for granulometric facies as a function of activity concentrations of the abovementioned radionuclides provides for the sediments distribution a representation which agrees with the values of the tidal energy distribution obtained using numeric models calibrated with experimental data from current meters and water level recorders.

  16. Burden of vasomotor symptoms in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiBonaventura MD

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Marco daCosta DiBonaventura,1 Arthi Chandran,2 Ming-Ann Hsu,3 Andrew Bushmakin41Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA; 2Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, USA; 3Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, USA; 4Global Research and Development, Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, USABackground: Several studies have documented a significant association between vasomotor symptoms (VMS and a decrement in health outcomes among postmenopausal women, but these studies have mostly focused on the US. The aim of the current study was to broaden this investigation by examining the burden of VMS symptoms in the European Union with respect to both humanistic and economic outcomes.Methods: All women aged 40–75 years who completed the 2010 5EU (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK National Health and Wellness Survey were identified as potential respondents and invited to participate in an additional cross-sectional, Internet-based survey. Only postmenopausal women from 5EU were included in the current analyses (n = 3801. VMS was assessed using the Menopausal Rating Scale, and was used in multiple regression models as the primary predictor of health status (EQ-5D-3L, work productivity loss, and the number of physician visits due to menopause.Results: Over half (50.3% of postmenopausal women experienced either mild (24.6%, moderate (17.6%, or severe (8.1% VMS. Controlling for confounding variables, mild (b = −0.03, P < 0.05, moderate (b = −0.07, P < 0.05, and severe VMS (b = −0.17, P < 0.05 were each associated with worse health utilities relative to women without VMS. Similarly, increased resource use (b = 1.04–2.39, all P < 0.05, overall work impairment (b = 8.71–19.69, all P < 0.05, and activity impairment (b = 11.22–24.54, all P < 0.05 were also observed as VMS severity increased (with each b representing the difference between each level of severity and the

  17. Fungal growth and fusarium mycotoxin content in isogenic traditional maize and genetically modified maize grown in France and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, B; Melcion, D; Richard-Molard, D; Cahagnier, B

    2002-02-13

    Fungi of the genus Fusarium are common fungal contaminants of maize and are also known to produce mycotoxins. Maize that has been genetically modified to express a Bt endotoxin has been used to study the effect of insect resistance on fungal infection of maize grains by Fusarium species and their related mycotoxins. Maize grain from Bt hybrids and near-isogenic traditional hybrids was collected in France and Spain from the 1999 crop, which was grown under natural conditions. According to the ergosterol level, the fungal biomass formed on Bt maize grain was 4-18 times lower than that on isogenic maize. Fumonisin B(1) grain concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 0.3 ppm for Bt maize and from 0.4 to 9 ppm for isogenic maize. Moderate to low concentrations of trichothecenes and zearalenone were measured on transgenic as well as on non-transgenic maize. Nevertheless, significant differences were obtained in certain regions. The protection of maize plants against insect damage (European corn borer and pink stem borer) through the use of Bt technology seems to be a way to reduce the contamination of maize by Fusarium species and the resultant fumonisins in maize grain grown in France and Spain.

  18. Influence of environmental gradients on the distribution of benthic resources available for shorebirds on intertidal mudflats of Yves Bay, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Anne S.; Pinaud, David; Cayatte, Marie-Laure; Goulevant, Cyril; Lachaussée, Nicolas; Pineau, Philippe; Karpytchev, Mikhail; Bocher, Pierrick

    2016-06-01

    The case study of Yves Bay (Pertuis Charentais, France) highlighted links between environmental gradients (i.e. sediment characteristics and emersion time) and prey distribution and availability for the two most numerous shorebird species overwintering in Yves Bay: the red knot Calidris canutus and the dunlin Calidris alpina. Two hundred and fifty-two stations were sampled on a predetermined 250 m regular grid covering the intertidal mudflats of this major wintering site in France for east-Atlantic migratory shorebirds. The distribution of principal benthic species abundance and biomass was modelled along two environmental gradients: sediment structure (particularly pronounced north-south sand-mud gradient) and emersion time. The effect of emersion time combined with sedimentary structure strongly explained abundances and biomasses of the main prey for C. canutus and C. alpina in the bay (Cerastoderma edule, Hydrobia ulvae, Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana, and Nephtys hombergii). This study highlighted prey species-specific spatial segregation/overlapping as well as spatial interferences in the trophic niche of the two shorebirds.

  19. Technologically Enhanced Language Learning in Primary Schools in England, France and Spain: Developing Linguistic Competence in a Technologically Enhanced Classroom Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrory, Gee; Chretien, Lucette; Ortega-Martin, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an EU-funded project (Ref: 134244-2007-UK-COMENIUS-CMP) that explored the impact of technology, notably video-conferencing, on primary school children's language learning in England, France and Spain. Data were gathered from the children in the project, their teachers and also from trainee teachers placed in the schools. The…

  20. Between the German Model and Liberal Medicine : The Negotiating Process of the State Health Care System in France and Spain (1919–1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porras-Gallo, María-Isabel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work draws on legal and medical sources, and data from the general and workers’ press to study the negotiating process of the State Health Care System in France and Spain between 1919 and 1944. It shows how, given the internal and external circumstances of both countries, the first phase of this negotiation happened at the end of the First World War; and, how France and Spain’s own systems were initially modelled on the German social insurance, but the final result was different due to the doctors’ opposition. In France, the offensive of medical syndicalism led to the establishment in 1930 of a model of compulsory health insurance, which respected the principles of liberal medicine. Meanwhile in Spain, the doctors’ opposition prevented it from being realised until the new circumstances after the Civil War acted as the driving force for the establishment of a model similar to the German system.

  1. Qualitative comparison of soil erosion, runoff and infiltration coefficients using small portable rainfall simulators in Germany, Spain and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Iserloh, Thomas; Morvan, Xavier; Malam Issa, Oumarou; Naisse, Christophe; Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdà, Artemi; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Arnáez, José; Lasanta, Teodoro; Concepción Ramos, María; José Marqués, María; Ruiz Colmenero, Marta; Bienes, Ramón; Damián Ruiz Sinoga, José; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    Small portable rainfall simulators are considered as a useful tool to analyze soil erosion processes in cultivated lands. European research groups of Spain (Valencia, Málaga, Lleida, Madrid and La Rioja), France (Reims) or Germany (Trier) have used different rainfall simulators (varying in drop size distribution and fall velocities, kinetic energy, plot forms and sizes, and field of application)to study soil loss, surface flow, runoff and infiltration coefficients in different experimental plots (Valencia, Montes de Málaga, Penedès, Campo Real and La Rioja in Spain, Champagne in France and Mosel-Ruwer valley in Germany). The measurements and experiments developed by these research teams give an overview of the variety in the methodologies with rainfall simulations in studying the problem of soil erosion and describing the erosion features in different climatic environments, management practices and soil types. The aim of this study is: i) to investigate where, how and why researchers from different wine-growing regions applied rainfall simulations with successful results as a tool to measure soil erosion processes; ii) to make a qualitative comparison about the general soil erosion processes in European terroirs; iii) to demonstrate the importance of the development a standard method for soil erosion processes in vineyards, using rainfall simulators; iv) and to analyze the key factors that should be taken into account to carry out rainfall simulations. The rainfall simulations in all cases allowed knowing the infiltration capacity and the susceptibility of the soil to be detached and to generate sediment loads to runoff. Despite using small plots, the experiments were useful to analyze the influence of soil cover to reduce soil erosion and to make comparison between different locations or the influence of different soil characteristics.

  2. Towards a detailed knowledge about Mediterranean flash floods and extreme floods in the catchments of Spain, France and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duband, D.

    2009-09-01

    It is important to remember that scientific research programs of the European Commission and contributors had implemented a multidisciplinary (geography, history, meteorology, climatology, hydrology, geomorphology, geology, paleohydrology, sociology, economy......) better knowledge and more understanding of the physical risk assessment of disastrous floods (particularly flash floods) with rising factors of vulnerability and perhaps climate change at the end of the XX1 century, in the triangular geographical area Zaragosa (Spain)-Orléans (France)-Firenze (Italy). With reference to historical floods events observed from last two centuries in Spain (Catalonia), France (Languedoc Roussillon - Provence Alpes Cote d’Azur-Corse-Rhone Alpes -Auvergne- Bourgogne) and in Italy (Ligurie - Piemont - Lombardie) we lay particular stress on a detailed understanding of the spatial and temporal scales of the physical dynamic process being at the origin of locals or extensive flash floods. This study requires to be based on the meteorology (atmospheric circulation patterns ,on west Europe- Atlantic and Mediterranean sea) responsible, with relief and sea surface temperature, of high precipitations (amounts, intensities), air temperature, discharges of high floods, observed in the past ,on large and coastal rivers. We will take example of the Rhone river catchments, in connexion with Po-Ebre-Loire-Seine rivers, based on the studies of thirty high historical floods occurred from 1840 to 2005, and characteristics of Oceanic and Mediterranean weather situations, sometime alternated. Since recent years we have the daily mean sea level pressure dataset (EMSLP) reconstructions for European-North Atlantic Region for the period 1850-2006. So it is now possible to allow us the selection in the complete meteorological dataset during 1950- 2009 period by an analog method (like operational daily applications from 1969, at Electricity of France) to select weather situations similar to

  3. Intertidal finger bars at El Puntal, Bay of Santander, Spain: observation and forcing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellón, E.; Garnier, R.; Medina, R.

    2014-06-01

    A system of 15 small-scale finger bars has been observed, by using video imagery, between 23 June 2008 and 2 June 2010. The bar system is located in the intertidal zone of the swell-protected beaches of El Puntal Spit, in the Bay of Santander (northern coast of Spain). The bars appear on a planar beach (slope = 0.015) with fine, uniform sand (D50 = 0.27 mm) and extend 600 m alongshore. The cross-shore span of the bars is determined by the tidal horizontal excursion (between 70 and 130 m). They have an oblique orientation with respect to the low-tide shoreline; specifically, they are down-current-oriented with respect to the dominant sand transport computed (mean angle of 26° from the shore normal). Their mean wavelength is 26 m and their amplitude varies between 10 and 20 cm. The full system slowly migrates to the east (sand transport direction) with a mean speed of 0.06 m day-1, a maximum speed in winter (up to 0.15 m day-1) and a minimum speed in summer. An episode of merging has been identified as bars with larger wavelength seem to migrate more slowly than shorter bars. The wind blows predominantly from the west, generating waves that transport sediment across the bars during high-tide periods. This is the main candidate to explain the eastward migration of the system. In particular, the wind can generate waves of up to 20 cm (root-mean-squared wave height) over a fetch that can reach 4.5 km at high tide. The astronomical tide seems to be important in the bar dynamics, as the tidal level changes the fetch and also determines the time of exposure of the bars to the surf-zone waves and currents. Furthermore, the river discharge could act as input of suspended sediment in the bar system and play a role in the bar dynamics.

  4. Modelling the spatio-temporal distribution of age-1 bay of biscay anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) at spawning time [Distribución espacio-temporal de la edad 1 de anchoa del golfo de Bizkaia (Engraulis Encrasicolus) en el momento de puesta

    KAUST Repository

    Ibaibarriaga, Leire

    2013-09-13

    To efficiently manage and maintain fish stock abundance and age structure, it is necessary to understand variability in its spatial distribution. The main objective of this study was to describe the demographic structure of the Bay of Biscay anchovy during the main spawning period based on adult samples from 15 daily egg production method surveys. The proportion of age-1 individuals was modelled using generalized additive models with a binomial distribution and a logit link in relation to geographical and environmental covariates. The possibility of obtaining different models depending on the average age-1 proportion (low or high) was also explored. In general, age-1 individuals were found in shallow waters close to the coast, especially associated with the Gironde and Adour river plumes, whereas older individuals were prevalent on the shelf break and in oceanic waters. However, in years with a high age-1 proportion the younger individuals were also dominant in oceanic waters. These results could be used for management purposes, such as defining protected areas for particular age groups.

  5. Determination of food sources for benthic invertebrates in a salt marsh (Aiguillon Bay, France) by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes: importance of locally produced sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riera, P.; Stal, L.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Richard, P.; Blanchard, G.F.; Gentil, F.

    1999-01-01

    delta(13)C and delta(15)N were measured in benthic invertebrates and food sources collected in the salt marsh of the Aiguillon Bay, France. The results showed that, although Spartina anglica was dominant, this marine phanerogame did not contribute significantly to the carbon and nitrogen requirement

  6. Terrorism and anti-terror legislation - the terrorised legislator? A comparison of counter-terrorism legislation and its implications on human rights in the legal systems of the United Kingdom, Spain, Germany, and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oehmichen, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The thesis deals with the history of terrorism and counter-terrorism legislation, focussing on the legislation in the UK, Spain, Germany and France, in the last 30 years, and analysing its compatibility with national and European human rights standards.

  7. The impact of overlapping processes on rockfall hazard analysis - the Bolonia Bay study (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Steeger, T.; Grützner, C.; Reicherter, K.; Braun, A.; Höbig, N.

    2009-04-01

    For rockfall simulations, competitive case studies and data sets are important to develop and evaluate the models or software. Especially for empirical or data driven stochastic modelling the quality of the reference data sets has a major impact on model skills and knowledge discovery. Therefore, rockfalls in the Bolonia Bay close to Tarifa (Spain) were mapped. Here, the siliciclastic Miocene rocks (megaturbidites) are intensively joined and disaggregated by a perpendicular joint system. Although bedding supports stability as the dip is not directed towards the rock face, the deposits indicate a continuous process of material loss from the 80 m high cliff of the San Bartolome mountain front by single large rock falls. For more than 300 blocks data on size, shape, type of rock, and location were collected. The work concentrated on rockfall blocks with a volume of more than 2 m³ and up to 350 m³. Occasionally very long "runout" distances of up to 2 km have been observed. For all major source areas and deposits, runout analysis using empirical models and a numerical trajectorian model has been performed. The most empirical models are principally based on the relation between fall height and travel distance. Beside the "Fahrböschung" from Heim (1932) the "shadow angle" introduced by Evans and Hungr (1993) is most common today. However, studies from different sites show a wide variance of the angle relations (Dorren 2003, Corominas 1996). The reasons for that might be different environments and trigger mechanisms, or varying secondary effects such as post-depositional movement. Today, "semi" numerical approaches based on trajectorian models are quite common to evaluate the rockfall energy and the runout distance for protection measures and risk evaluations. The results of the models highly depend on the quality of the input parameters. One problem here might be that some of the parameters, especially the dynamic ones, are not easy to determine and the quality of the

  8. Klaus, an exceptional winter storm over Northern Iberia and Southern France - a comparison between storm diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, M. L. R.; Pinto, J. G.; Trigo, I. F.; Trigo, R. M.

    2010-05-01

    The synoptic evolution and dynamical characteristics of storm "Klaus" (23 and 24 January 2009) are analysed. "Klaus" was an extratropical cyclone which developed over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean on the 21st January 2009, then moved eastward embedded in the strong westerly flow and experienced a notorious strengthening on the 23rd January. The storm moved into the Bay of Biscay and deepened further before hitting Northern Spain and Southwestern France with gusts of up to 198 km/h. Afterwards, it steered southeastwards across Southern France into Northern Italy and the Adriatic. "Klaus" was the most intense and damaging wind storm in the region in a decade, provoked more than 20 casualties and insured losses of several billion Euros. The evolution of "Klaus" is analysed using two standard cyclone detecting and tracking schemes: a) the vorticity maxima based algorithm originally developed by Murray and Simmonds [1991], adapted for Northern Hemisphere cyclone characteristics [Pinto et al. 2005]; and b) the pressure minima based algorithm first developed for the Mediterranean region [Trigo et al. 1999; 2002] and later extended to a larger Euro-Atlantic region [Trigo 2006]. Additionally, the synoptic and mesoscale features of the storm are analysed. The vorticity based method detects the storm earlier than the pressure minima one. Results show that both tracks exhibited similar features and positions throughout almost all of their lifecycles, with minor discrepancies being probably related to different ways of both methods handling the spatio-temporal evolution of multiple candidates for cyclonic centres. In its strengthening phase, "Klaus" presents deepening rates above 37 hPa/24h, a value that after geostrophically adjusted to the reference latitude of 60°N increases to 44 hPa/24h, implying an exceptional event with bomb characteristics. During maximum intensity change within 24 hours was 1.165hPa/(deglat)2. References: Murray RJ, Simmonds I (1991) Aust

  9. Composition of fish communities in macrotidal salt marshes of the Mont Saint-Michel bay (France)

    OpenAIRE

    Laffaille, Pascal; FEUNTEUN, ERIC; Lefeuvre, Jean-Claude

    2000-01-01

    International audience; At least 100 fish species are known to be present in the intertidal areas (estuaries, mudflats and salt marshes) of Mont Saint-Michel Bay. These and other comparable shallow marine coastal waters, such as estuaries and lagoons, play a nursery role for many fish species. However, in Europe little attention has been paid to the value of tidal salt marshes for fishes. Between March 1996 and April 1999, 120 tides were sampled in a tidal creek. A total of 31 species were ca...

  10. Recording of the Holocene sediment infilling in a confined tide-dominated estuary: the bay of Brest (Britanny, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Gwendoline; Le Roy, Pascal; Ehrhold, Axel; Jouet, Gwenael; Garlan, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Modern estuaries constitute key areas for the preservation of sedimentary deposits related to the Holocene period. Several previous studies using stratigraphic reconstructions in such environments allowed to characterise the major parameters controlling the Holocene transgressive sequence and to decipher their respective role in the sedimentary infill: (1) the evolution of main hydrologic factors (wave or tide-dominated environment), (2) the sea level fluctuation and (3) the morphologies of the bedrock and the coastline. Nevertheless, the timing of the transgressive deposits and the detailed facies need to be precise in regard to the stratigraphic schemes. The Bay of Brest (Western Brittany, France) offers the opportunity to examine these points and to compare with previous studies. It constitutes an original tide-dominated estuary that communicates to the open sea (Iroise Sea) by a narrow strait. Two main rivers (Aulne and Elorn) are connected to a submerged paleovalleys network that was incised in the Paleozoic basement during lowstands and still preserved in the present morphology. It delineates the central basin surrounded by tidal flat located in sheltered area. The analysis of high and very-high resolution seismic lines recorded through the whole bay combined with sediment cores (up to 4.5 m long) and radiocarbon dating allow to precise the architecture and the timing of the thick Holocene coastal wedge. It is preserved from the valley network to the shore and presents a longitudinal variability (downstream-upstream evolution). The infill is divided into two successive stages (corresponding to the transgressive and highstand system tracts) which laterally evolve from the paleo-valley to the coast. Two units constitute the transgressive system tract. The oldest, dated from 8200 to 7000 cal B.P. is composed of fine-grained, organic-rich tidal flat deposits located in the sheltered area and organised in levees on the terrace bordering the paleo-valley. A tidal

  11. NEMO on the shelf: assessment of the Iberia-Biscay-Ireland configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Maraldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iberia-Biscay-Ireland (IBI system serves one of the 7 MyOcean "Monitoring and Forecasting Centres". A high resolution simulation covering the IBI region is set-up over July 2007–February 2009. The NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean model is used with a 1/36° horizontal resolution and 50 z-levels in the vertical. New developments have been incorporated in NEMO to make it suitable to open- as well as coastal-ocean modelling. In this paper, we pursue three main objectives: (1 give an overview of the model configuration used for the simulations; (2 give a broad-brush account of one particular aspect of this work, namely consistency verification; this type of validation is conducted upstream of the implementation of the system before it is used for production and routinely validated; it is meant to guide model development in identifying gross deficiencies in the modelling of several key physical processes; (3 show that such a regional modelling system has potential as a complement to patchy observations (an integrated approach to give information on non-observed physical quantities and to provide links between observations by identifying broader-scale patterns and processes. We concentrate on the year 2008. We first provide domain-wide consistency verification results in terms of barotropic tides, transports, sea surface temperature and stratification. We then focus on two dynamical sub-regions: the Celtic shelves and the Bay of Biscay slope and deep regions. The model-data consistency is checked for variables and processes such as tidal currents, tidal fronts, internal tides, residual elevation. We also examine the representation in the model of a seasonal pattern of the Bay of Biscay circulation: the warm extension of the Iberian Poleward Current along the northern Spanish coast (Navidad event in winter 2007–2008.

  12. Influence of environmental and anthropogenic factors on the composition, concentration and spatial distribution of microplastics: A case study of the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, L; Paul-Pont, I; Rinnert, E; Petton, S; Jaffré, J; Bihannic, I; Soudant, P; Lambert, C; Huvet, A

    2017-03-31

    The concentration and spatial distribution of microplastics in the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France) was investigated in two surveys. Surface water and sediment were sampled at nine locations in areas characterized by contrasting anthropic pressures, riverine influences or water mixing. Microplastics were categorized by their polymer type and size class. Microplastic contamination in surface water and sediment was dominated by polyethylene fragments (PE, 53-67%) followed by polypropylene (PP, 16-30%) and polystyrene (PS, 16-17%) microparticles. The presence of buoyant microplastics (PE, PP and PS) in sediment suggests the existence of physical and/or biological processes leading to vertical transfer of lightweight microplastics in the bay. In sediment (upper 5 cm), the percentage of particles identified by Raman micro-spectroscopy was lower (41%) than in surface water (79%) and may explain the apparent low concentration observed in this matrix (0.97 ± 2.08 MP kg(-1) dry sediment). Mean microplastic concentration was 0.24 ± 0.35 MP m(-3) in surface water. We suggest that the observed spatial MP distribution is related to proximity to urbanized areas and to hydrodynamics in the bay. A particle dispersal model was used to study the influence of hydrodynamics on surface microplastic distribution. The outputs of the model showed the presence of a transitional convergence zone in the centre of the bay during flood tide, where floating debris coming from the northern and southern parts of the bay tends to accumulate before being expelled from the bay. Further modelling work and observations integrating (i) the complex vertical motion of microplastics, and (ii) their point sources is required to better understand the fate of microplastics in such a complex coastal ecosystem.

  13. Assessment of urban and industrial contamination levels in the bay of Cádiz, SW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, M; López-Ramírez, J A; Benavente, J; López-Aguayo, F; Sales, D

    2003-03-01

    Measuring the amount of pollution is of particular importance in assessing the quality and general condition of an ecosystem. In this paper, some of the results obtained as a consequence of the specific agreement between the Environmental Agency (Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía) and the University of Cadiz to assess the environmental condition of the marine bottom and waters are showed. Physical and chemical analyses in water and sediments were undertaken at various sampling sites close to urban and industrial locations. Later on, these results were studied under statistical analysis to reveal any possible relationships between the parameters employed, and to identify any analogous behaviour between the sampling sites. Physical-chemical data revealed that sediments and waters analysed were moderately contaminated and, in addition, no great differences were found between in rising and ebbing tide conditions. Finally, considering only the pollution level, from the cluster analysis of sediments two major groups appear, one of which corresponded to those sites located in the outer bay, and the other to those situated in the inner bay. However, number 6 and 14 sampling sites cannot be associated to those groups due to be related to points with important local discharges.

  14. Situation Report--Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti (French Polynesia), Tonga, Turkey, and United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 21 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti, Tonga, Turkey, and United…

  15. Valorization/Recognition of Environmental Protection Qualifications in the Chemical and Metal Industries. Synthesis of the National Reports: Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom. CEDEFOP Panorama. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Catherine

    Reports on the development and recognition of environmental protection qualifications in the chemical and metal industries in Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom were synthesized. The synthesis focused on companies' and social partners' current and planned strategies and obligations of companies regarding recognizing…

  16. An approximation to short-term evolution and sediment transport pathways along the littoral of Cadiz Bay (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfuso, G.; Benavente, J.; Del Río, L.; Gracia, F. J.

    2008-11-01

    This work presents the results of a beach-monitoring program carried out in the Bay of Cadiz (SW Spain), which consists of urban, natural and nourished beaches. In the present study, 24 topographic profiles have been monthly monitored during the 1996 1998 period, in order to draw the morphodynamic behavior of this coast and the general characterization of short-term coastal trends. This way, total volumetric budgets have been calculated for each beach profile in order to group beaches in different erosive/accreting sectors. Studied beaches recorded both erosion and accretion: the greatest accretionary trends have been observed at Aguadulce, La Costilla and Rota beaches, with values ranging from 30 to 70 m3/m. The largest erosion episodes have been recorded in the southernmost end of Valdelagrana spit, with values over 50 m3/m, and in Rota and Vistahermosa, after nourishment works. Main erosion and accretion pathways have been related to the existence of natural and human structures, which blocked the longshore drift suggesting the existence of littoral cells.

  17. An experimental study on dredge spoil of estuarine sediments in the bay of seine (France): A morphosedimentary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmin, Stella; Lesueur, Patrick; Dauvin, Jean Claude; Samson, Sandrine; Tournier, Patrice; Gallicher Lavanne, Albert; Dubrulle-Brunaud, Carole; Thouroude, Coralie

    2016-03-01

    Studies on the consequences of dredging on estuarine morphology and its sedimentary dynamics are common, but the impacts of dumping dredge spoil in coastal open settings are rarely found in scientific literature. An experimental study was conducted over the period 2012-2013 to monitor the physical impacts of dredged material dumped at two adjacent sites (one million cubic metres at each) on the inner shelf of the Bay of Seine in France (eastern part of the English Channel, La Manche). As recently reinforced in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), knowledge on the location and intensity of human impacts (e.g. on marine ecosystems) is critical for effective marine management and conservation. So, two methods of disposition were tested to evaluate the impacts of dumping on the environment and thus propose recommendations for future dumping. The strategy is based on a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) approach, in which the spatio-temporal variability was studied by analysing the morphological and sedimentological characteristics over a period of 28 months, from November 2011 to April 2014, also including recovery of the seafloor after cessation of the dumping activities. The first experimental dumping operation (MASED) was carried out regularly for 8 months at a single point and generating a conical deposit of 5 m in height, while the second dumping (MABIO) lasted for 12 months involving four steps in the dumping process. In the second case, a wider area was covered, leading to the formation of a smaller deposit of 2 m in height. The dumped deposits consisted of muddy fine sand, whereas the inner shelf seafloor in this area is covered with fine to medium sand. As a result, muddy fine sand accumulated at or near the two dumping sites, with a maximum mud (i.e. particles4 Φ) content of 50% compared toareas. Due to hydrodynamic forcing (wave climate and tidal currents), about 50% (MABIO) and 75% (MASED) of the volume of dredged material remained at the end

  18. Risk assessment of herbicides and booster biocides along estuarine continuums in the Bay of Vilaine area (Brittany, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caquet, Th; Roucaute, M; Mazzella, N; Delmas, F; Madigou, C; Farcy, E; Burgeot, Th; Allenou, J-P; Gabellec, R

    2013-02-01

    A 2-year study was implemented to characterize the contamination of estuarine continuums in the Bay of Vilaine area (NW Atlantic Coast, Southern Brittany, France) by 30 pesticide and biocide active substances and metabolites. Among these, 11 triazines (ametryn, atrazine, desethylatrazine, desethylterbuthylazine, desisopropyl atrazine, Irgarol 1051, prometryn, propazine, simazine, terbuthylazine, and terbutryn), 10 phenylureas (chlortoluron, diuron, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea, fenuron, isoproturon, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-urea, linuron, metoxuron, and monuron), and 4 chloroacetanilides (acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor, and metazachlor) were detected at least once. The objectives were to assess the corresponding risk for aquatic primary producers and to provide exposure information for connected studies on the responses of biological parameters in invertebrate sentinel species. The risk associated with contaminants was assessed using risk quotients based on the comparison of measured concentrations with original species sensitivity distribution-derived hazardous concentration values. For EU Water Framework Directive priority substances, results of monitoring were also compared with regulatory Environmental Quality Standards. The highest residue concentrations and risks for primary producers were recorded for diuron and Irgarol 1051 in Arzal reservoir, close to a marina. Diuron was present during almost the all survey periods, whereas Irgarol 1051 exhibited a clear seasonal pattern, with highest concentrations recorded in June and July. These results suggest that the use of antifouling biocides is responsible for a major part of the contamination of the lower part of the Vilaine River course for Irgarol 1051. For diuron, agricultural sources may also be involved. The presence of isoproturon and chloroacetanilide herbicides on some dates indicated a significant contribution of the use of plant protection products in

  19. Air-water greenhouse gases exchange in two coastal systems in Cadiz Bay (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Macarena; Ortega, Teodora; Forja, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are subject to a great anthropogenic pressure because more than half of the world's population lives in its vicinity, causing organic matter inputs, which intensifies greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Water surface greenhouse gas concentrations (CH4 and N2O) have been estimated in two aquatic systems of Cadiz Bay Natural Park: Rio San Pedro Creek and Sancti Petri Channel Water renewal in Rio San Pedro Creek is tidally controlled. Due to its little freshwater input, the Creek is essentially a marine system. Several fish farms are distributed on its banks discharging effluents without previous treatment. Nine sampling stations are distributed along this system 12 Km length. Sancti Petri Channel is a flow channel-ebb tides extending from the inner Cadiz Bay to the Atlantic Ocean along 17 Km. Organic matter pollution sources in this environment are straggly. There exist anthropogenic inputs such as aquaculture effluents and sewage discharges coming through the Iro River, which flows into the Channel central part. In addition there are natural organic matter inputs from surrounding marshes. It has been established 11 sampling stations crossing this system. Sampling was conducted seasonally during 2013. CH4 and N2O concentrations were obtained though a gas chromatograph connected to an equilibration system. Greenhouse gas values vary between 24 and 295 nM and 16 and 27 nM for CH4 and N2O, respectively. Gas concentrations increase close to the fish farm effluent in Rio San Pedro Creek, and next to Iro River's mouth in Sancti Petri tidal Channel. Both environments act as greenhouse gas sources into the atmosphere, showing seasonal variations. It has been estimated mean fluxes of 75.3 μmol m-2 d-1 of CH4 and 31.9 μmol m-2 d-1 of N2O for both systems.

  20. Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve (Biscay, Spain): Conservation against development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Eguskitza, Nekane; Rescia, Alejandro J; Onaindia, Miren

    2017-03-15

    The protected area approach has extended from conserving biodiversity to improving human well-being. However, the relationship between conservation and socioeconomic and cultural development continues to be controversial. This paper combines land use variables with socioeconomic and cultural variables through multivariate ordination analysis and evaluates their evolution in two areas inside and outside a Biosphere Reserve since the approval of the Governance Plan for Use and Management in the Reserve. The results indicate a similar tendency in the two areas, from the abandonment of traditional rural activities and decline in pine plantations to naturalness, urban sprawl and the growth of the tertiary economic sector, welfare indicators and sustainability index. However, it can be broadly observed that the region included inside the protected area presents better conservation features (native forest) and rural systems (forestry and primary economic sector) than the region outside the protected area while maintaining similar socioeconomic and cultural conditions. We suggest that the designation of the Biosphere Reserve does not influence the local population negatively but does safeguard its conservation, which could have enhanced socioeconomic and cultural development. Thus, even though certain changes must be made to replace the conifer plantations and encourage agricultural activities, the designation of the protected area fulfills its sustainability goal and enhances the local population's quality of life.

  1. Eurosites insights; image, implementation, interpretation and integration of Natura 2000 in European perspective; United Kingdom, Sweden, Spain, France and Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neven, M.G.G.; Kistenkas, F.H.; Apeldoorn, van R.C.

    2005-01-01

    This comparative study analyses Natura 2000 nature conservation (EU Birds- and Habitats Directives) alongside the key issues of image, implementation, interpretation and integration. Having quickscanned the EU25, five member states have been selected for further investigation: UK, Sweden, Spain, Fra

  2. Performance of pervious pavement parking bays storing rainwater in the north of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ullate, E; Bayon, J R; Coupe, S; Castro-Fresno, D

    2010-01-01

    Pervious pavements are drainage techniques that improve urban water management in a sustainable manner. An experimental pervious pavement parking area has been constructed in the north of Spain (Santander), with the aim of harvesting good quality rainwater. Forty-five pervious pavement structures have been designed and constructed to measure stored water quantity and quality simultaneously. Ten of these structures are specifically constructed with different geotextile layers for improving water storage within the pavements. Following the confirmation in previous laboratory experiments that the geotextile influenced on water storage, two different geosynthetics (Inbitex and a One Way evaporation control membrane) and control pervious pavements with no geotextile layers were tested in the field. Weather conditions were monitored in order to find correlations with the water storage within the pervious pavement models tested. During one year of monitoring the three different pervious pavement types tested remained at their maximum storage capacity. The heavy rain events which occurred during the experimental period caused evaporation rates within the pervious pavements to be not significant, but allowed the researchers to observe certain trends in the water storage. Temperature was the most closely correlated weather factor with the level of the water stored within the pervious pavements tested.

  3. Generation of deterministic tsunami hazard maps in the Bay of Cadiz, south-west Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Otero, L.; Olabarrieta, M.; González, M.; Carreño, E.; Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.; Medina, R.; Lima, V.

    2009-04-01

    The bay of Cádiz is a densely populated and industrialized area, and an important centre of tourism which multiplies its population in the summer months. This bay is situated in the Gulf of Cádiz, the south-west Atlantic margin of the Iberian Peninsula. From a tectonic point of view this area can be defined as a diffuse plate boundary, comprising the eastern edge of the Gloria and Tydeman transforms (where the deformation is mainly concentrated in these shear corridors), the Gorringe Bank, the Horseshoe Abyssal plain, the Portimao and Guadalquivir banks, and the western termination of the arcuated Gibraltar Arc. This deformation zone is the eastern edge of the Azores - Gibraltar seismic zone, being the present day boundary between the Eurasian and African plates. The motion between the plates is mainly convergent in the Gulf of Cádiz, but gradually changes to almost pure transcurrent along the Gloria Fault. The relative motion between the two plates is of the order of 4-5 mm/yr. In order to define the different tsunamigenic zones and to characterize its worst tsunamigenic source we have used seismic, structural and geological data. The numerical model used to simulate the wave propagation and coastal inundation is the C3 (Cantabria, COMCOT and Tsunami-Claw) model. C3 is a hybrid finite difference-finite volume method which balances between efficiency and accuracy. For offshore domain in deep waters the model applies an explicit finite difference scheme (FD), which is computationally fast and accurate in large grids. For near coast domains in coastal areas, it applies a finite volume scheme (VOF). It solves correctly the bore formation and the bore propagation. It is very effective solving the run-up and the run down. A set of five worst case tsunamigenic sources has been used with four different sea levels (minimum tide, most probable low tide, most probable high tide and maximum tide), in order to produce the following thematic maps with the C3 model: maximum

  4. Authigenic carbonate mounds from active methane seeps on the southern Aquitaine Shelf (Bay of Biscay, France): Evidence for anaerobic oxidation of biogenic methane and submarine groundwater discharge during formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Catherine; Demange, Jérome; Blanc-Valleron, Marie-Madeleine; Dupré, Stéphanie

    2017-02-01

    The widespread methane emissions that were discovered in 2013 on the Aquitaine Shelf at water depth between 140 and 220 m are associated with authigenic carbonate crusts that cover meter-high subcircular reliefs of 10-100 m in diameter. These authigenic carbonates are primarily aragonite plus calcite and dolomite, which cement the fine- to medium-grained sandy sediment. The carbonate cement is often pierced by numerous circular cavities of 5-10 μm in diameter that are considered to be moulds of gas bubbles. Conversely, micron-sized cavities in the aragonite crystals are attributed to dissolution features, in relation to the production of CO2 during the aerobic oxidation of methane. The oxygen isotopic compositions of bulk carbonate (+1.7 to +3.7‰) and aragonite cements obtained from microsampling (-0.1 to +1.4‰) indicate that these carbonates were precipitated in mixtures of seawater and freshwater, i.e., in the context of submarine groundwater discharge at the seafloor. The carbon isotopic compositions of authigenic carbonates (-51.9 to -38.1‰) and of aragonite cements (-49.9 to -29.3‰) show that the dissolved inorganic carbon of pore fluids was mostly produced by the anaerobic oxidation of biogenic methane and also partly from the groundwater system.

  5. Seasonal variation and structure of a decapod (Crustacea) assemblage living in a Caulerpa prolifera meadow in Cádiz Bay (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López De La Rosa, Inmaculada; Rodríguez, Antonio; García Raso, J. Enrique

    2006-02-01

    The decapod taxocoenosis living in shallow muddy bottoms with the green algae Caulerpa prolifera was studied monthly between February 1994 and January 1996 in the Inner Bay of Cádiz (SW Spain). More than 32,000 specimens belonging to 35 species were collected. Six species were dominant (representing the 85.8% of the total number of specimens), but the structure of the taxocoenosis was regulated by the Hippolyte species, Sicyonia carinata, Palaemon adspersus and Liocarcinus arcuatus. There was no significant qualitative difference between years. There was no clear change in the dominance of groups of species during the year, as happened in the outer Bay. This is probably due to the sheltered character of the area and the more stable and dense vegetal cover, but some seasonal differences were found. The benthic characteristics of the Inner Bay of Cádiz, such as shallow soft bottoms of fine and muddy sediments and the presence of macrophytes (seagrasses and seaweeds) might be key factors influencing the composition and structure of the general and seasonal decapod assemblage. In spite of human impacts on the bay (e.g. aquaculture activities, sewage), the values of the diversity, equitability and richness indexes appeared stable over time (higher than those found in outer adjacent areas) and no significant differences between years were found.

  6. Adaptation to anaerobic metabolism in two mussel species, Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis, from the tidal zone at Arcachon Bay, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vooys, C. G. N.

    Aspects of anaerobic metabolism were investigated in two sympatric mussel species, viz. Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis, living in the tidal zone in Arcachon Bay, France. Specific activities of pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate kinase (PEP-CK) were remarkably similar in the two sympatric species and generally corresponded more closely to those observed in M. galloprovincialis in the Mediterranean than with M. edulis in the Dutch Wadden Sea. However, the values for the radio PK: PEP-CK for the two species in Arcachon Bay agreed with those of intertidal M. edulis from the Dutch Wadden Sea. Succinate accumulation during the first 24 h of anaerobicsis was about the same as in M. galloprovincialis in the Mediterranean, but decreased during the second 24 h, particularly in M. edulis, obviously due to propionate formation. Decrease in ATP concentrations in the tissues during anaerobiosis corresponded to that of intertidal M. edulis from the Dutch Wadden Sea. With the exception of specific activities of PK and PEP-CK, all properties investigated in both species were as expected in intertidal mussels.

  7. Consumers' segmentation based on the acceptability of meat from entire male pigs with different boar taint levels in four European countries: France, Italy, Spain and United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panella-Riera, N; Blanch, M; Kallas, Z; Chevillon, P; Garavaldi, A; Gil, M; Gil, J M; Font-i-Furnols, M; Oliver, M A

    2016-04-01

    Two consumer studies were conducted to know the acceptability of pork with different boar taint levels: test 1 performed in Spain (n=126) and United Kingdom (n=146), and test 2 performed in France (n=139) and Italy (n=140). Each test had 3 types of pork: 'Female meat', 'Low boar tainted meat', and a third type was 'Medium boar tainted meat' or 'High boar tainted meat'. Three main clusters were identified on the basis of 'How delicious do you find this meat?': 1-Pork lovers, 2-Boar meat lovers, 3-Reject boar tainted meat. Additionally, in test 2, a fourth cluster was identified: 'Reject low tainted meat'. A group of 16.2-38.2% of consumers rejected meat from boars, and another group of 12.4-21.7% rated the meat with medium or high levels of boar taint better than the meat from females, identifying a niche for meat from medium and high levels of boar taint, and suggesting the need to select carcasses on the basis of boar taint.

  8. Heritability of the somatotype components in Biscay families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebato, E; Jelenkovic, A; Salces, I

    2007-01-01

    The anthropometric somatotype is a quantitative description of body shape and composition. Familial studies indicate the existence of a familial resemblance for this phenotype and they suggest a substantial action by genetic factors on this aggregation. The aim of this study is to examine the degree of familial resemblance of the somatotype components and of a factor of shape, in a sample of Biscay nuclear families (Basque Country, Spain). One thousand three hundred and thirty nuclear families were analysed. The anthropometric somatotype components [Carter, J.E.L., Heath, B.H., 1990. Somatotyping. Development and applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p. 503] were computed. Each component was fitted for the other two through a stepwise multiple regression, and also fitted through the LMS method [Cole, T., 1988. Fitting smoothed centile curves to reference data. J. Roy. Stat. Soc. 151, 385-418] in order to eliminate the age, sex and generation effects. The three raw components were introduced in a PCA from which a shape factor (PC1) was extracted for each generation. The correlations analysis was performed with the SEGPATH package [Province, M.A., Rao, D.C., 1995. General purpose model and computer programme for combined segregation and path analysis (SEGPATH): automatically creating computer from symbolic language model specifications. Genet. Epidemiol. 12, 203-219]. A general model of transmission and nine reduced models were tested. Maximal heritability was estimated with the formula of [Rice, T., Warwick, D.E., Gagnon, J., Bouchard, C., Leon, A.S., Skinner, J.S., Wilmore, J.H., Rao, D.C., 1997. Familial resemblance for body composition measures: the HERITAGE family study. Obes. Res. 5, 557-562]. The correlations were higher between offspring than in parents and offspring and a significant resemblance between mating partners existed. Maximum heritabilities were 55%, 52% and 46% for endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy, respectively, and 52% for PC1

  9. Exploitation of intertidal feeding resources by the red knot Calidris canutus under megatidal conditions (Bay of Saint-Brieuc, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturbois, Anthony; Ponsero, Alain; Desroy, Nicolas; Le Mao, Patrick; Fournier, Jérôme

    2015-02-01

    The feeding ecology of the red knot has been widely studied across its wintering range. Red knots mainly select bivalves and gastropods, with differences between sites due to variation in prey availability. The shorebird's diet is also influenced or controlled by the tidal regime. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the adaptation of foraging red knots to the megatidal environment. The variation in their diet during tidal cycles was studied in the bay of Saint-Brieuc, a functional unit for this species. The method used combined macrofauna, distribution of foraging birds and diet data. Comparative spatial analyses of macrofauna and distribution of foraging red knots have shown that the bay's four benthic assemblages are exploited by birds. By analysing droppings, we highlighted that bivalve molluscs are the main component of their diet, as shown in most overwintering sites. Fifteen types of prey were identified and Donax vittatus was discovered to be a significant prey item. The relative proportion of each main prey item differs significantly depending on the benthic assemblage used to forage. All available benthic assemblages and all potential feeding resources can be used during a single tidal cycle, reflecting an adaptation to megatidal conditions. This approach develops accurate knowledge about the feeding ecology of birds which managers need in order to identify optimal areas for the conservation of waders based on the areas and resources actually used by the birds.

  10. Estimation of annual effective dose due to natural and man-made radionuclides in the metropolitan area of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Ruiz, M; Ligero, R A; Barbero, L

    2012-06-01

    In order to investigate the radiological hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and man-made (137)Cs radionuclide in the Bay of Cádiz, 149 samples of sediments have been analysed. Activity concentration in all the samples was determined using a HPGe detection system. Activity concentrations values of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in the samples were 12.6±2.6 (2.5-40.6), 18.5±4.0 (2.8-73.4), 451±45 (105-1342) and 3.2±1.3 (0.2-16.0) Bq kg(-1), respectively. Outdoor external dose rate due to natural and man-made radionuclides was calculated to be 35.79±1.69 (4.71-119.16) nGy h(-1) and annual effective dose was estimated to be 43.89±2.27 (5.78-146.14) µSv y(-1). Results showed low levels of radioactivity due to NORM and man-made (137)Cs radionuclide in marine sediments recovered from the Bay of Cádiz (Spain), discarding any significant radiological risks related to human activities of the area. Furthermore, the obtained data set could be used as background levels for future research.

  11. Composition of Fish Communities in a European Macrotidal Salt Marsh (the Mont Saint-Michel Bay, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffaille, P.; Feunteun, E.; Lefeuvre, J.-C.

    2000-10-01

    At least 100 fish species are known to be present in the intertidal areas (estuaries, mudflats and salt marshes) of Mont Saint-Michel Bay. These and other comparable shallow marine coastal waters, such as estuaries and lagoons, play a nursery role for many fish species. However, in Europe little attention has been paid to the value of tidal salt marshes for fishes. Between March 1996 and April 1999, 120 tides were sampled in a tidal creek. A total of 31 species were caught. This community was largely dominated by mullets ( Liza ramada represent 87% of the total biomass) and sand gobies ( Pomatoschistus minutus and P. lozanoi represent 82% of the total numbers). These species and also Gasterosteus aculeatus , Syngnathus rostellatus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Mugil spp., Liza aurata and Sprattus sprattus were the most frequent species (>50% of monthly frequency of occurrence). In Europe, salt marshes and their creeks are flooded only during high spring tides. So, fishes only invade this environment during short immersion periods, and no species can be considered as marsh resident. But, the salt marsh was colonized by fish every time the tide reached the creek, and during the short time of flood, dominant fishes fed actively and exploited the high productivity. Nevertheless, this study shows that there is little interannual variation in the fish community and there are three ' seasons ' in the fish fauna of the marsh. Marine straggler and marine estuarine dependent species colonize marshes between spring (recruitment period in the bay) and autumn before returning into deeper adjacent waters. Estuarine fishes are present all year round with maximum abundances in the end of summer. The presence of fishes confirms that this kind of wetland plays an important trophic and nursery role for these species. Differences in densities and stages distribution of these species into Mont Saint-Michel systems (tidal mudflats, estuaries and tidal salt marshes) can reduce the trophic

  12. Historical records from dated sediment cores reveal the multidecadal dynamic of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum in the Bay of Brest (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klouch, Khadidja Z; Schmidt, Sabine; Andrieux-Loyer, Françoise; Le Gac, Mickaël; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Qui-Minet, Zujaila N; Quéré, Julien; Bigeard, Estelle; Guillou, Laure; Siano, Raffaele

    2016-07-01

    The multiannual dynamic of the cyst-forming and toxic marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum was studied over a time scale of about 150 years by a paleoecological approach based on ancient DNA (aDNA) quantification and cyst revivification data obtained from two dated sediment cores of the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France). The first genetic traces of the species presence in the study area dated back to 1873 ± 6. Specific aDNA could be quantified by a newly developed real-time PCR assay in the upper core layers, in which the germination of the species (in up to 17-19-year-old sediments) was also obtained. In both cores studied, our quantitative paleogenetic data showed a statistically significant increasing trend in the abundance of A. minutum ITS1 rDNA copies over time, corroborating three decades of local plankton data that have documented an increasing trend in the species cell abundance. By comparison, paleogenetic data of the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella donghaienis did not show a coherent trend between the cores studied, supporting the hypothesis of the existence of a species-specific dynamic of A. minutum in the study area. This work contributes to the development of paleoecological research, further showing its potential for biogeographical, ecological and evolutionary studies on marine microbes.

  13. 1997 annual report. Petroleum research and production in France; Rapport annuel 1997. Recherche et production petrolieres en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The efforts expended during the previous years for the renewal of oil and gas exploration in France led to a significant increase in the number of applications for exploration permits: 8 against 2 in 1996. A renewing interest for the French offshore mining acreage is observed in Sea of Iroise, Saint-Pierre and Miquelon and in the Bay of Biscay. The total number of valid production permits has slightly dropped (76 against 77 in 1996) and is divided into 55 concessions and 21 production permits. A 42% decline of exploration investments is observed as compared to the previous year. The geophysical prospecting sector has been particularly affected but the exploration drilling activity has been marked by a new discovery realized with the Tamaris 1D well on the Lege permit held jointly by Esso Rep and Elf Aquitaine. However the level of exploration drilling activity is much lower than in 1996 (3 wells completed against 7 in 1996). A 59% increase in investments production is due to the put on stream of the Courbey discovery (Arcachon basin) and to the arrival of new operators on the French mining acreage. The infill drilling activity has shown a significant increase linked to these events with 8 completed wells. The Paris basin remains the main oil producing area in France (1.026 million tons) but is affected by a 18.2% decline compared with 1996, higher than the Aquitaine basin decline (11.8%). Natural gas production has decreased by 8.4% due to the decline of the Lacq and Meillon main gas fields. (J.S.)

  14. Societal savings in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer receiving bevacizumab-based versus non-bevacizumab-based treatments in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lister J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Johanna Lister,1 Sanja Stanisic,1 Klaus Kaier,2 Christian Hagist,2 Dmitry Gultyaev,1 Stefan Walzer31Analytica LA-SER International Inc, Lörrach, Germany; 2Research Centre for Generational Contracts, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 3F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Pharmaceuticals Division, Basel, SwitzerlandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the savings accrued using bevacizumab-based treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer from the societal perspective, taking only public costs into account, in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.Methods: Societal costs were estimated by collecting and analyzing labor costs, carer costs, sickness benefits, disability benefits, and home care benefits. Cost inputs were derived from publicly available databases or from the published literature. Expert opinion was only used if no other source was available. Efficacy data from two randomized clinical trials were used. The time horizon in the health economic model was lifetime. Efficacy and costs were discounted by 3.5%. All main model parameters were tested in deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.Results: Mean incremental savings to society per patient ranged from €2277 in Italy to €4461 in Germany. The results were most sensitive to the change in proportion of patients working full-time and the proportion of patients who were able to return to work.Conclusion: This analysis shows that bevacizumab-based treatment in non-small-cell lung cancer is associated with more savings to society compared to standard chemotherapy in terms of increased productivity and decreased social benefits paid to patients who are able to work in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer, bevacizumab, chemotherapy, economic model, France, Germany, Italy, Spain

  15. Monitoring of dredged-dumped sediment dispersal off the Bay of the Seine (northern France) using environmental magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizou, Jean; Demory, François; Dubrulle-Brunaud, Carole

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we developed a novel approach for fingerprinting dredged-dumped sediments at sea using magnetic susceptibility. Several magnetic measurements were performed on discrete sedimentary samples from the dredged areas in the Seine River and from the Bay of Seine seafloor before and after dumping. The dredged sediments showed higher susceptibility values than the undisturbed seafloor, which allowed the mapping of the dispersion of dredged-dumped sediments. In the vicinity of the coast and the estuary, high-susceptibility terrestrial input from rivers could also be mapped by this technique, therefore monitoring of the dumping by the susceptibility proxy is limited to the offshore areas. This susceptibility signal is controlled by the ferromagnetic fraction of the sediment. Furthermore, a constant magnetite-dominated magneto-mineralogy is observed in the study area. In addition to the susceptibility, a magnetic grain size parameter of the low-coercive fraction was also found to be sensitive to dumping. Both tracers showed an in progress resilience of the sedimentary environment during a 6-month survey.

  16. Natural Gas Seepage Along the Edge of the Aquitaine Shelf (France): Origin and Flux Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffine, L.; Donval, J. P.; Battani, A.; Bignon, L.; Croguennec, C.; Caprais, J. C.; Birot, D.; Bayon, G.; Lantéri, N.; Levaché, D.; Dupré, S.

    2014-12-01

    A newly discovered and highly active seepage area has been acoustically mapped at the western edge of the Aquitaine Shelf in the Bay of Biscay [Dupré et al., 2014]. Three selected seeping sites have been investigated with a Remotely Operated Vehicle. All sites were characterized by vigorous gas emissions, and the occurrence of massive carbonate crusts and bacterial mats at the seafloor. Nine seeps have been sampled with the PEGAZ sampler. The latter allowed gas-bubble sampling and preservation at in situpressure, together with gas-flux measurement through its graduated transparent cone. The C2+ fraction of the gas samples accounts for less than 0.06 %-mol of the total composition. Both the abundance of methane and dD and d13C isotopic analyses of the hydrocarbons indicate a biogenic source generated by microbial reduction of carbon dioxide [Whiticar et al., 1986]. The analyses of the associated noble gases also provide further support for a shallow-depth generation. While sharing the same origin, the collected samples are different in other respects, such as the measured d13C values for carbon dioxide and the hydrocarbons. This is the case in particular for methane, with displays values in between -66.1 and -72.7 ‰. We hypothesized that such variations are the result of multiple gas-transport processes along with the occurrence of hydrocarbon oxidation at different rates within the sedimentary column. The measured gas fluxes are extremely heterogeneous from one seep to another, ranging from 18 to 193 m3.yr-1. These values will be discussed in detail by comparing them with values obtained from different measurement techniques at other gas-seeping sites. The GAZCOGNE study is co-funded by TOTAL and IFREMER as part of the PAMELA (Passive Margin Exploration Laboratories) scientific project. References:Dupré, S., L. Berger, N. Le Bouffant, C. Scalabrin, and J. F. Bourillet (2014), Fluid emissions at the Aquitaine Shelf (Bay of Biscay, France): a biogenic origin or

  17. Control rod cluster drop time anomaly Guandong nuclear power station (Daya bay) and Electricite de France nuclear power stations (1450 MWe N4 Series); Anomalie de temps de chute des grappes de controle centrale de guang dong (daya bay) et centrales d`electricite de France (Palier N4-1450 MWE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivera, J.J.; Naury, S.; Tricot, N.; Tran Dai, P.; Gama, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    The anomaly of control rod cluster drop time revealed at Guandong Nuclear Power Station in Daya Bay and in the Chooz B1 pilot unit for the N4 series, led to the replacement of the M1 type control rod cluster guide tubes with 1300 MWe PWR type guide tubes, adapted to the geometry of the Guandong reactors and the 1450 MWe reactors of the N4 series. The comparison of the drop times obtained with the 1300 MWe type control rod cluster guide 1300 MWe type control rod cluster guide tubes gave satisfactory results. These met the safety criterion for N4 series control rod cluster drop times (2.15 under hot shutdown conditions). The drop time tests which will be carried out in middle of and at the end of cycle 1 of Chooz B1 should make it possible to finally validate the solution already successfully implemented at Guandong. However, this anomaly has revealed the limits of representativeness of the experimental test loops with regard to the real reactor configuration. In view of this, it has been deemed necessary to ask Electricite de France to pursue its analysis both on the understanding of the phenomena which led to this anomaly and on the limits of the representativeness of the experimental test loops. (authors).

  18. CERN 50th Anniversary Official Celebration : one of the high moments of the day the signing of the golden book by the King of Spain Juan Carlos, the President of the Republic of France, Jacques Chirac and the President of the Swiss Confederation, Joseph Deiss

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loeiz

    2004-01-01

    CERN 50th Anniversary Official Celebration : one of the high moments of the day the signing of the golden book by the King of Spain Juan Carlos, the President of the Republic of France, Jacques Chirac and the President of the Swiss Confederation, Joseph Deiss

  19. CERN 50th Anniversary Official Celebration : one of the high momentsof the day: the signing of the golden book by the King of Spain Juan Carlos, the President of the Republic of France Jacques Chirac and the President of the Swiss Confederation Joseph Deiss

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    CERN 50th Anniversary Official Celebration : one of the high momentsof the day: the signing of the golden book by the King of Spain Juan Carlos, the President of the Republic of France Jacques Chirac and the President of the Swiss Confederation Joseph Deiss

  20. Spain: NATO or Neutrality,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    elements fled the coun- try generally through France, often staying in that country permanently. Indeed, France and Mexico were the largest recipients...discussion of the aspect of Spain’s future which concerns us--its secur- ity options--by a brief look at its past. " Historia no facit saltum", quotes...guerra espanoles (1971-1976). Madrid: Editorial San Martin, 1977. Alonso, Josd Ramon. Historia politica del ejdrcito espainol. Madrid: Editora Nacional

  1. Clinical and laboratory studies on herds affected with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in Denmark, France, Spain, and Sweden: Disease progression and a proposal for herd case definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, L.; Baekbo, P.; Rose, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To propose and evaluate a protocol to establish a diagnosis of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) at herd level. Materials and methods: The data used included both laboratory data from previous epidemiological studies carried out in Italy, Denmark, and Spain and original...

  2. Kidney cancer mortality in Spain: geographic patterns and possible hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Enrique

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the second half of the 1990s, kidney cancer mortality has tended to stabilize and decline in many European countries, due to the decrease in the prevalence of smokers. Nevertheless, incidence of kidney cancer is rising across the sexes in some of these countries, a trend which may possibly reflect the fact that improvements in diagnostic techniques are being outweighed by the increased prevalence of some of this tumor's risk factors. This study sought to: examine the geographic pattern of kidney cancer mortality in Spain; suggest possible hypotheses that would help explain these patterns; and enhance existing knowledge about the large proportion of kidney tumors whose cause remains unknown. Methods Smoothed municipal relative risks (RRs for kidney cancer mortality were calculated in men and women, using the conditional autoregressive model proposed by Besag, York and Molliè. Maps were plotted depicting smoothed relative risk estimates, and the distribution of the posterior probability of RR>1 by sex. Results Municipal maps displayed a marked geographic pattern, with excess mortality in both sexes, mainly in towns along the Bay of Biscay, including areas of Asturias, the Basque Country and, to a lesser extent, Cantabria. Among women, the geographic pattern was strikingly singular, not in evidence for any other tumors, and marked by excess risk in towns situated in the Salamanca area and Extremaduran Autonomous Region. This difference would lead one to postulate the existence of different exposures of environmental origin in the various regions. Conclusion The reasons for this pattern of distribution are not clear, and it would thus be of interest if the effect of industrial emissions on this disease could be studied. The excess mortality observed among women in towns situated in areas with a high degree of natural radiation could reflect the influence of exposures which derive from the geologic composition of the

  3. Differential response of benthic macrofauna to the formation of novel oyster reefs ( Crassostrea gigas, Thunberg) on soft and rocky substrate in the intertidal of the Bay of Brest, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejart, Morgane; Hily, Christian

    2011-01-01

    When the Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas, Thunberg) was introduced into France for aquaculture in the mid-sixties, it was initially confined to the sites where it was farmed. Subsequent global warming most likely facilitated the establishment of wild populations throughout the French coastline. This phenomenon of spread has become so great that oyster reefs have recently appeared in sheltered estuaries, on both soft and hard substrate. The present study examined two such sites in the Bay of Brest, Brittany. It is the first to investigate the impacts of this new substrate on the biocoenosis of uncolonised intertidal habitats in France. Increased species richness and abundance of intertidal macrofauna were observed in the presence of oyster reefs on both, mud (4 and 20 fold respectively) and rock (5 fold for both). The dominance of suspension feeders in mud changed to carnivores in reefs and their underlying sediment. Calculation of biotic coefficients (BC) of the soft-bottom fauna revealed only a slight organic enrichment, and the organic and silt composition in the sediment beneath oyster reefs were not significantly different from that on bare sites. On rock, the dominance of grazers remained unchanged between bare rock and oyster reef, while reef on rock was also characterised by deposit and detritic feeders. C. gigas is suspected to cause a homogenisation of coastal habitats with an impoverishment of overall quality but we detected only 11 common species between reefs on mud (60 species) and those on rock (55 species).

  4. A comparative analysis of Alexandrium catenella/tamarense blooms in Annaba Bay (Algeria) and Thau lagoon (France); phosphorus limitation as a trigger

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjadji, Imene; Frehi, Hocine; Ayada, Lembarek; Abadie, Eric; Collos, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Les conditions du milieu amenant à des efflorescences du dinoflagellé toxique Alexandrium catenella/tamarense ont été suivies sur deux sites méditerranéens (la baie d’Annaba, Algérie et l’étang de Thau, France). Trois années ont été examinées en détail : 1992 (période pre-Alexandrium), 2002 (première efflorescence à Annaba) et 2010 (efflorescence majeure à Annaba). La plupart des conditions étaient comparables, sauf pour l’ammonium, avec des concentrations bien plus fortes à Annaba (jusqu’à 1...

  5. [Nutritional characteristics of school lunch menus in Biscay (Basque Country, Spain) in 2012/2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho Uriarte, Patricia; Cirarda Larrea, Francisco Borja; Valcárcel Alonso, Santiago

    2014-09-28

    Introducción: Uno de los elementos abordados desde la Estrategia para la Nutrición, Actividad física y prevención de la Obesidad y Salud (NAOS) es la alimentación en el medio escolar. Objetivo: Evaluar, tomando como referencia el conjunto mínimo de indicadores y recomendaciones de la Estrategia NAOS, una muestra de menús distribuidos en varios comedores escolares de Bizkaia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal basado en la revisión teórica de los menús basales distribuidos por siete cocinas centrales que abastecen a 324 centros escolares (80.969 alumnos). Se determinó y valoró la frecuencia semanal de varios grupos de alimentos; los documentos de referencia fueron “Evaluación y Seguimiento de la Estrategia NAOS: Conjunto de Indicadores” y las recomendaciones del “Documento de Consenso sobre la alimentación en los centros educativos”. Resultados y discusión: El 100% de los comedores cumple con los mínimos relativos a legumbres, pescados y precocinados y con las recomendaciones relativas a carne y productos cárnicos. Si bien se aproximan bastante, ninguno cumple con los mínimos de fruta, verdura o con la información nutricional complementaria. Se han evidenciado diferencias entre las recomendaciones de La Estrategia NAOS y las condiciones exigidas por el Departamento de Educación, así como dificultades en la cuantificación y clasificación de varios alimentos. Conclusiones: Se recomienda incrementar el contenido en frutas, verduras, huevos y pescado azul de los menús escolares, así como ofrecer a las familias una información de los menús más detallada.

  6. Levels of 137Cs in muddy sediments on the seabed in the Bay of Cadiz (Spain). Part II. Model of vertical migration of (137)Cs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligero, R A; Barrera, M; Casas-Ruiz, M

    2005-01-01

    This second part of the study reports the development of a model to describe the vertical migration of the artificial radioisotope (137)Cs in the sediment column on the seabed of the Bay of Cadiz. The application of the model provides an overall picture of the process of sedimentation in the Inner Bay of Cadiz. The spatial distribution of the rate of sedimentation enables us to study the sources of sediments and the means by which the sediments have been transported. A method has been derived from the rate of sedimentation to perform the dating of the layers of sediment. The model describes the behaviour of (137)Cs in the area under study, taking into account the time of residence in the zones that are the source of accumulation, the origin of the sedimentary material, together with the diffusion of the radionuclide in the sediment of the seabed.

  7. Cetacean diversity and distribution in the coast of Gipuzkoa and adjacent waters, southeastern Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS, E., SALAZAR, J.M., STHEPANIS, R. de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el año 2003, se ha realizado un seguimiento continuo a las poblaciones de cetáceos de la costa guipuzcoana, siguiendo los protocolos de muestreo de cetáceos en mar de la Sociedad Española de Cetáceos. Se ha estudiado la diversidad, la densidad, la distribución espacial y temporal de estas especies. Los resultados indican la presencia de 12 especies de cetáceos en el área, y la importancia de la misma para cinco de ellas, especialmente para el delfín mular (Tursiops truncatus. El delfín común (Delphinus delphis, el calderon de aleta larga (Globicephala melas, el delfín listado (Stenella coeruleoalba y el cifio de cuvier (Ziphius cavirostris son especies altamente representadas en el área. Se han definido las principales áreas de distribución de estas especies con el fin de dar los primeros pasos para la creación de un Área Marina Protegida en el área.

  8. Postglacial fossil Great Auk and associated avian fauna from the Biscay Bay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikelo Elorza

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Varios restos de aves marinas halladas en un nuevo yacimiento del Golfo de Bizkaia, situado en el estadio Atlántico, han proporcionado datos que ponen en evidencia el consumo humano de aves marinas y su influencia en su actual distribución geográfica.

  9. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE1.1 National driving licences from countries belonging to the EEAa) ValidityCurrent national driving licences issued by a country belonging to the European Economic Area (here inafter called EEA) are, in principle, valid in France. N.B. : The countries belonging to the EEA are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.b)\tRegistrationTo ensure that all the conditions of validity in France have been met, holders of driving licences issued by a country belonging to the EEA, who reside in France (i.e. hold a residence permit issued by a Préfecture, or a carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is equivalent to a residence permit), can have their licences registered with the Préfecture of the department where they live (for Ain, call 04 74 32 30 00, for Haute Savoie call 04 50 33 ...

  10. Spain country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Ines [Iberdrola Ingenieria Y Construccion Sau, Avenida Burgos, 8, Edificio Genesis, 28036 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    of an adequate number of capable engineers is the basis for the renaissance of nuclear energy; Spanish Factories and Engineering Companies are making projects for other countries (China, Russia, Ukraine, Brazil, Mexico, Finland, France); Some Spanish Electricity Utilities are interested in constructing and operating nuclear power plants out of Spain. - WIN - Spain Main achievements: Actions: Several conferences in different High Schools (Madrid, Valencia, Oviedo, Tenerife, Canary Island), Participation in courses. New initiatives: Contact with different institutions, Contact with journalists. Best practices: WIN Participation to the Annual Meeting of The Spanish Nuclear Society.

  11. Reactivity, interactions and transport of trace elements, organic carbon and particulate material in a mountain range river system (Adour River, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point, David; Bareille, Gilles; Amouroux, David; Etcheber, Henri; Donard, Olivier F X

    2007-02-01

    The background levels, variability, partitioning and transport of eleven trace elements-Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and U-were investigated in a mountain range river system (Adour River, France). This particular river system displayed a turbulent hydrodynamic regime, characterized by flash-transient discharge conditions leading to fast shifts in suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations as high as two orders of magnitude (12 to 600 mg l(-1)). The distribution of SPM was accurately predicted with a "hysteresis" transport model, indicating that about 75% of the annual solids load was exported within 20 to 40 days. Dissolved and particulate concentrations of most trace elements were low compared to their concentrations in other reference river systems expect for Pb and Cr, associated with historical anthropogenic activities. Although dissolved and particulate metal concentrations were steady for most elements during low and average discharge conditions, significant changes were observed with increasing river discharge. The changes in trace element concentrations in the two compartments was found to induce a partitioning anomaly referred to as the particulate concentration effect. This anomaly was significant for Cr, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu and organic carbon (p < 0.03). The processes driving this anomaly were possibly linked to the modification and/or increase of colloidal organic and inorganic vectors, suggested by the significant increase of DOC (p < 0.001) and dissolved Al concentrations (p < 0.05) during flood conditions. A complementary process linked to the influence of coarse particles of low complexation capacity and transported mainly during high discharge may also effect trace element concentrations. Annual metal fluxes transported by this river system were estimated using the hysteresis SPM model with consideration of these fate processes. Metals in the Adour River system are primarily exported into the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean).

  12. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia, E-mail: iraia.oribe@deusto.es; Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M.; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have modelled household waste generation in Biscay municipalities. • We have identified relevant characteristics regarding household waste generation. • Factor models are used in order to identify the best subset of explicative variables. • Biscay’s municipalities are grouped by means of hierarchical clustering. - Abstract: The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation.

  13. France in Black Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    mediation role between African governments and their private creditors. 123 France in Black Africa To further complicate matters, France herself is...34La coop6ration Franco-Ivoirienne, annde 1986," Mission de Cooperation et d’Action Culturelle , Ambassade de France en C6te D’Ivoire, Abidjan, 1987, p. 8...Ministry in "La France et l’Afrique: Etude des relations Franco-Africaines politiques, finan- cires, economiques, commerciales et culturelles ," Paris, 1984

  14. Modelling green macroalgal blooms on the coasts of Brittany, France to enhance water quality management

    OpenAIRE

    Perrot, Thierry; Rossi, Nadege; Menesguen, Alain; Dumas, Franck

    2014-01-01

    First recorded in the 1970s, massive green macroalgal blooms have since become an annual recurrence in Brittany, France. Eutrophication (in particular to anthropogenic nitrogen input) has been identified as the main factor controlling Ulva ‘green tide’ events. In this study, we modelled Ulva proliferation using a two-dimensional model by coupling hydrodynamic and biological models (coined ‘MARS-Ulves’) for five sites along the Brittany coastline (La Fresnaye Bay, Saint-Brieuc Bay, Lannion Bay...

  15. Macrozooplankton predation impact on anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) eggs mortality at the Bay of Biscay shelf break spawning centre

    KAUST Repository

    Albaina, Aitor

    2014-11-23

    A real-time PCR based method involving a species-specific probe was applied to detect Engraulis encrasicolus eggs predation by the macrozooplankton community during the 2011 spawning season. Three locations along the shelf break presenting contrasting but high prey densities were sampled. A total of 840 individuals from 38 taxa of potential macrozooplankton predators were assayed for E. encrasicolus DNA presence and 27 presented at least one positive signal. Carnivorous copepods were responsible for the most predation events (66%) followed by euphausiids (16%), chaetognaths (5%), and myctophid fish (4%). Macrozooplankton predation on anchovy eggs followed a type-I functional response with daily mortalities <4% of available prey abundance suggesting a negligible impact on the species recruitment at the shelf break spawning centre. © 2014 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. France at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June, for the 8th edition of France at CERN, 31 French companies presented their latest technology to the Laboratory. Demonstrating the latest in French technology during France at CERN. The France at CERN exhibition was inaugurated by Mr. Bernard Frois, Director of the Department Energy, Transport, Environment and Natural Resources at the Technology Directorate of the Ministry of Research. 'France is happy to be a Member of CERN, which is a successful example of the construction of scientific Europe,' he declared during the inauguration, 'this exhibition is an excellent opportunity to put fundamental research and advanced technology in contact.' Mr. Philippe Petit, French Ambassador to Switzerland, and Mr. Alexandre Defay, technical adviser of the Minister of Research, were also present to represent France and its industry. Representing CERN at the 19 June opening of the exhibition was Claude Detraz, who said, 'I hope that this exhibition will make it possible to weave stronger links between ...

  17. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General, visits the exhibition "La France au CERN". The exhibition France at CERN, organized by UBIFRANCE in collaboration with CERN's GS/SEM (Site Engineering and Management) service, took place from Monday 7 to Wednesday 9 June in the Main Building. The 36 French firms taking part came to present their products and technologies related to the Organization's activities. The next exhibition will be "Netherlands at CERN" in November.

  18. Relationships between polychlorinated biphenyls in molluscs, hydrological characteristics and human pressures, within Basque estuaries (northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaun, O; Rodríguez, J G; Borja, A; Larreta, J; Valencia, V

    2015-01-01

    Interannual variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured in the soft tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels and Crassostrea gigas oysters, collected from estuarine waters within the Basque Country (Bay of Biscay), are investigated. Samples were collected in the autumn, between 2002 and 2011. Sites located within the ports of Bilbao and Pasaia showed the highest PCBs concentrations in molluscs; the lowest were observed in the mouth of the Oka estuary, an area of low population and industrial activity. Congener profiles of PCBs in the tissues of molluscs reveal the predominance of hexachlorobiphenyls (CB153 and CB138). In addition, redundancy analysis has shown that residence time, river flow and a 'pressure index' explain 57% of the variability in the PCB congener concentrations (the higher the values of these variables, the higher the concentration). Finally, Σ7PCB median concentrations in molluscs and sediments, collected from nearby sampling sites, were found to be moderately correlated (r(2)=0.513, p<0.01).

  19. Andorra: Actual Nodal Context of Tourism between France and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Cuevas Contreras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of mobility in the context of tourism require an analysis of different offerings found in destinations worldwide. Not only proposals involving the compatibility of transportation, the cities’ environment, but also to respond to the enhancement of the activity. This manuscript proposes a paradigm examination of the relationship between government and private cooperation in transportation as part of the phenomenon of tourism present in border sharing destinations. Currently, one of the major needs a visitor has, once settled in a destination, is how to transport themselves from their place of origin to the chosen destination and within it. Nowadays, there are several means to arrive at the Andorra region, which are in the border region of Cataluña, Midi-Pyrenee and Languedoc-Roussillon, by car, plane, train and bus. Nonetheless, Andorra, in the look of being competitive as a destination, tailored the use of media according to visitor’s economic status, tastes and preferences. In this sense, the relations of cooperation and ties between public and private actors involved in tourism and transportation are being determined.

  20. Galveston Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor,; Thatcher, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    The Galveston Bay estuary is located on the upper Texas Gulf coast (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). It is composed of four major sub-bays—Galveston, Trinity, East, and West Bays. It is Texas’ largest estuary on the Gulf Coast with a total area of 155,399 hectares (384,000 acres) and 1,885 km (1,171 miles) of shoreline (Burgan and Engle, 2006). The volume of the bay has increased over the past 50 years due to subsidence, dredging, and sea level rise. Outside of ship channels, the maximum depth is only 3.7 m (12 ft), with the average depth ranging from 1.2 m (4 ft) to 2.4 m (8 ft)— even shallower in areas with widespread oyster reefs (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). The tidal range is less than 0.9 m (3 ft), but water levels and circulation are highly influenced by wind. The estuary was formed in a drowned river delta, and its bayous were once channels of the Brazos and Trinity Rivers. Today, the watersheds surrounding the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers, along with many other smaller bayous, feed into the bay. The entire Galveston Bay watershed is 85,470 km2 (33,000 miles2 ) large (Figure 1). Galveston Island, a 5,000 year old sand bar that lies at the western edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf of Mexico, impedes the freshwater flow of the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers into the Gulf, the majority of which comes from the Trinity. The Bolivar Peninsula lies at the eastern edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf. Water flows into the Gulf at Bolivar Roads, 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 Galveston Pass, between Galveston Island and Bolivar Peninsula, and at San Luis Pass, between the western side of Galveston Island and Follets Island.

  1. Energy statistics. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the main energy statistics of France for 2002: supplies, uses and sectoral consumption for all energies (coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, renewable energies); domestic production of primary energy (1973-2002); primary energy consumption (1973-2002); end-use energy consumption (1973-2002); general indicators (energy bill, US$ rate, prices, energy independence, GDP - 1973-2002); projections (primary energy consumption, 1973-2002); detailed data for petroleum, natural gas, electric power, and solid mineral fuels (resources, uses, prices, imports, production, domestic consumption, 1973-2002). (J.S.)

  2. VISAS FOR FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    1. Definition of a visa A visa is an administrative document required by the nationals of certain countries to cross a border. The visas referred to in this article ('consular visas') are issued to people who do not live in France (not to be confused with 'exit and/or re-entry visas' issued to people living in France; cf. communiqué of 26 May 1998, ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/8283). 2. Types of visa The numerous types of visa include, in particular: short-stay visas, which allow their holders to enter France for a continuous or non-continuous period not exceeding three months in any six; long-stay visas, which are required by those applying for a residence document (Carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs or Carte de séjour issued by a Préfecture). 3. Visa requirement 3.1 General rule In France, the requirement to obtain a visa varies, in particular, according to nationality and the length of stay. To put it simply, three different situations can...

  3. Urban Sociology in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Michel

    1986-01-01

    Divides the history of urban sociology in France into three periods: (1) functionalism, which lasted from 1910 until the 1960s, (2) neo-Marxist socioeconomics lasting from 1968 until 1979, and (3) anthropological approach which is still dominant. Reviews theoretical perspectives and research characteristic of each period. (JDH)

  4. Estimating International Tourism Demand to Spain Separately by the Major Source Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Alvarez-Díaz; Manuel González-Gómez; Mª Soledad Otero-Giraldez

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate international tourism demand to Spain separately by major source markets (Germany, United Kingdom, France, Italy and The Netherlands) that represent 67% of the international tourism to Spain. In order to investigate how the tourism demand reacts to price and income changes, we apply the bounds testing approach to cointegration and construct confidence intervals using the bootstrap technique. The results show differences in tourism behavior depending ...

  5. Taxation in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Information regarding income tax in France. Request for additional information: social security number and personal details.   Some members of the personnel living in France have received a letter from the French tax authorities accompanied by a form, to be returned by 31 March 2016 at the latest, asking them to indicate their social security number and to confirm their personal details. As employed members of the CERN personnel are members of the Organization’s own health insurance scheme and do not participate in the French social security system, we recommend that you tick the box indicating that you do not have a social security number. We also advise you to specify in writing that, as an employed member of the CERN personnel, you do not participate in the French social security system especially by virtue of the 1970 agreement on social security between France and CERN: “Je ne suis pas soumis(e), en tant que fonctionnaire du CERN, à la sécurit&...

  6. Terrorism in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Pierre; Telion, Caroline; Baker, David

    2003-01-01

    France has experienced two waves of major terrorist bombings since 1980. In the first wave (1985-1986), eight bombings occurred in Paris, killing 13 and injuring 281. In the second wave (1995-1996), six bombings occurred in Paris and Lyon, killing 10 and injuring 262. Based on lessons learned during these events, France has developed and improved a sophisticated national system for prehospital emergency response to conventional terrorist attacks based on its national emergency medical services (EMS) system, Service d'Aide Medicale Urgente (SAMU). According to the national plan for the emergency medical response to mass-casualty events (White Plan), the major phases of EMS response are: (1) alert; (2) search and rescue; (3) triage of victims and provision of critical care to first priority victims; (4) regulated dispatch of victims to hospitals; and (5) psychological assistance. Following the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack, a national plan for the emergency response to chemical and biological events (PIRATOX) was implemented. In 2002, the Ministries of Health and the Interior collaborated to produce a comprehensive national plan (BIOTOX) for the emergency response to chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events. Key aspects of BIOTOX are the prehospital provision of specialized advance life support for toxic injuries and the protection of responders in contaminated environments. BIOTOX was successfully used during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak in France.

  7. Bayes and empirical Bayes: do they merge?

    CERN Document Server

    Petrone, Sonia; Scricciolo, Catia

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian inference is attractive for its coherence and good frequentist properties. However, it is a common experience that eliciting a honest prior may be difficult and, in practice, people often take an {\\em empirical Bayes} approach, plugging empirical estimates of the prior hyperparameters into the posterior distribution. Even if not rigorously justified, the underlying idea is that, when the sample size is large, empirical Bayes leads to "similar" inferential answers. Yet, precise mathematical results seem to be missing. In this work, we give a more rigorous justification in terms of merging of Bayes and empirical Bayes posterior distributions. We consider two notions of merging: Bayesian weak merging and frequentist merging in total variation. Since weak merging is related to consistency, we provide sufficient conditions for consistency of empirical Bayes posteriors. Also, we show that, under regularity conditions, the empirical Bayes procedure asymptotically selects the value of the hyperparameter for ...

  8. The France energy situation; La situation energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  9. Battle of France WWII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhath, Arpitha Rao

    The purpose of this thesis is to build an interactive Geographical Information System (GIS) tool, relating to the series of events that occurred during the Battle of France World War II. The tool gives us an insight about the countries involved in the battle, their allies and their strategies. This tool was created to use it as a one stop source of information regarding all the important battles that took place, which lead to the fall of France. The tool brings together the maps of all the countries involved. Integrated with each map is the data relevant to that map. The data for each country includes the place of attack, the strategies used during the attack, and the kind of warfare. The tool also makes use of HTML files to give all the information, along with the images from the time of the war and a footage which explains everything about the particular battle. The tool was build using JAVA, along with the use of MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) to develop Maps of each of the countries. MOJO is developed by ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) which makes it easier to add data to the maps. It also makes highlighting important information easier making use of pop-up windows, charts and infographics. HTML files were designed making use of the open-source template developed by Bootstrap. The tool is built in such a way that the interface is simple and easy for the user to use and understand.

  10. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 Tuesday 8 June: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 9 June: 9 a.m. – 4 p.m. “FRANCE AT CERN” – INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION Thirty-six French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to the activities of the CERN facility. Presenting their know-how in electric vehicles, PSA - PEUGEOT/CITROEN are sponsoring the event. Seminars will be hold in the Main Building’s conference rooms: R&D innovation strategy in Pôle Nucléaire Bourgogne (08/06/2010 – 13h) MU by Peugeot (08/06/2010 – 14h) Citroën (08/06/2010 – 15h) « Elément 14 » : a unique design engineer community for sharing Electronic Engineering Solutions (09/06/2010 – 11h) Individual B2B meetin...

  11. Plaguicidas organoclorados en población general adulta de Bizkaia Organochlorine pesticides in the general adult population of Biscay (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar y analizar las concentraciones de siete plaguicidas organoclorados; hexaclorobenceno (HCB), beta-hexaclorociclohexano (β-HCH), gamma-hexaclorociclohexano (γ-HCH), heptacloro epóxido, beta-endosulfán, diclorodifenildicloroetileno (p,p´-DDE) y diclorodifeniltricloroetano (p,p´-DDT) en suero de adultos de cuatro zonas de Bizkaia no expuestos a fuentes conocidas de plaguicidas. Método: Se analizaron 283 muestras individuales de voluntarios captados a partir del cen...

  12. [Measles in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antona, Denise; Baudon, Claire; Freymuth, François; Lamy, Mathieu; Maine, Catherine; Parent du Chatelet, Isabelle; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    From January 2008 to May 2012, over 22,000 cases of measles were reported in France. The highest incidence rate was observed in children below one year of age. Over 50% of cases were reported in young adults. Almost 5,000 patients were hospitalised including 1,023 with severe pneumonia, 27 with encephalitis and/or myelitis : 10 died. This situation is linked to insufficient and heterogeneous vaccination coverage with pockets of susceptible people allowing virus circulation. Although the vaccine coverage in children has now improved for both doses, the issue of convincing young susceptible adults to catch up for measles vaccination remains critical, if the elimination target is to be met, and in order to protect the most vulnerable population unable to benefit from this vaccination (children below 1 year, immunodeficient people, pregnant women).

  13. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide 14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique 15 Photonis 3 ATIM 16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS 17 Quantel 5 AXON 18 Ra...

  14. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Qu...

  15. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 22 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. Please find below: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Quantel 5 AXON18 Radiospares 6 Cedrat Technologies19 Rexor 7 CIAT20 SDS Service &...

  16. [AIDS mortality in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, F; Maguin, P; Nicaud, V; Renaud, G

    1986-01-01

    A study about mortality by AIDS had been undertaken since July 1st 1983, in the Service of Information on Medical causes of Death (INSERM SC8), which is in charge of developing mortality statistics in France. From July 1st 1983 to September 30th 1985, 243 deaths due to AIDS were recorded. Only the cases where this diagnosis was clearly mentioned were selected; more than 90% were notified by hospitals and mainly by highly specialized services. The number of deaths, which was low and varied rather irregularly at the beginning, then increased by successive stages. The first year, during which a tenth of deaths was recorded every three months, was followed by a great increase, doubling, then tripling the initial numbers. Lastly, a second and sudden rise occurred during the third trimester of 1985, the trimestrial number of deaths due to AIDS reaching 80.

  17. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty-one companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A...

  18. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C.-L. Jullien-Woringer/SPL-DI

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A. Cedrat Recher...

  19. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTO...

  20. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTOM...

  1. Spain to Join ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Today, during a ceremony in Madrid, an agreement was signed by the Spanish Minister of Education and Science, Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, affirming their commitment to securing Spanish membership of ESO. ESO PR Photo 05a/06 ESO PR Photo 05a/06 Signature Event in Madrid Following approval by the Spanish Council of Ministers and the ratification by the Spanish Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols, Spain intends to become ESO's 12th member state on 1 July 2006. "Since long Spain was aware that entering ESO was a logical decision and it was even necessary for a country like Spain because Spain is ranked 8th in astrophysical research", said Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo. "The large scientific installations are not only necessary for research in different fields but are also partners and customers for hi-tech companies, helping to increase the funding of R&D." "Spanish Astronomy has made tremendous strides forward and we are delighted to welcome Spain as a new member of ESO. We very much look forward to working together with our excellent Spanish colleagues," said Dr. Cesarsky. "For ESO, the Spanish accession means that we can draw on the scientific and technological competences, some of them unique in Europe, that have been developed in Spain and, of course, for Europe the Spanish membership of ESO is an important milestone in the construction of the European Research Area." ESO PR Photo 05b/06 ESO PR Photo 05b/06 Signature Event in Madrid Indeed, Spain is an important member of the European astronomical community and has developed impressively over the last three decades, reaching maturity with major contributions in virtually all subjects of astronomy. In addition, Spain hosts, operates or owns a number of competitive facilities dedicated to foster astronomical research, among which the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at La Palma, certainly the premier optical

  2. Interconnection France-England; Interconnexion France-Angleterre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents defines the interconnection France-England rules for the 2000 MW DC submarine cable directly linking the transmission networks of England and Wales and France. Rights to use Interconnector capacity from 1 April 2001 are to be offered through competitive tenders and auctions, full details of which are set out in the Rules. The contract and a guide to the application form are provided. (A.L.B.)

  3. [Nurse anesthetist in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Ju; Yann, Douchy; De Almeida, Sylvie; Deckert, Christine; Gauss, Tobias; Bonneville, Claire Tae; Merckx, Paul; Mantz, Jean

    2006-12-01

    We present the system of nurse anesthetist (Infirmier Anesthésiste Diplômé d'Etat: IADE) in France to the community of Japanese anesthesiologists. This French system with 70 years' history is older than the Japan Society of Anesthesiologists itself. There are 7000 nurse anesthetists in France now and the number of nurse anesthetists increases by 450-500 each year. Training to become a nurse anesthetist requires at least two years' experience as a general nurse and the general nurse must pass an examination after two years' special training in an anesthetistic nurse school to acquire the national certification. The nurse anesthetist's profession is regulated by French law. They work in a team with certified anesthesiologists. They can perform many kinds of anesthetic tasks including tracheal intubation and insertion of arterial catheter under the responsibility and supervision of certified anesthesiologists. The nurse anesthetists are not allowed to perform spinal, epidural, conduction and local anesthesia, although they can maintain these anesthesia and control these methods, e.g., by injecting local anesthetic agents through epidural catheter, following a specified prescription. The nurse anesthetists are not allowed to insert central venous and pulmonary artery catheters, although they can manage them. They are allowed to administer inhalation anesthetic agents, and inject venous anesthetic agents, muscle relaxants, their antagonists, and opioids by their own initiatives, but the decision for the use of catecholamine and emergency drugs is reserved to certified anesthesiologists. The nurse anesthetists perform other tasks preparing and checking anesthetic agents and equipment such as anesthetic machine, monitor, and defibrillator everyday, and sometimes use autologous blood recovery systems. The relationship between the certified anesthesiologist and the nurse anesthetist is marked by mutual respect, confidence and cooperation at each step of the anesthetic

  4. Maastrichtian-aged lithostratigraphic patterns in the European tethys: Implications for sea level change and end-Cretaceous extinction patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, P.; Macleod, K.G. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen Maastrichtian-aged stratigraphic sections from a variety of sites spanning the ancient Tethys ocean in Western and Eastern Europe and Northern Africa have been measured in this study. The similarity in lithologies between even geographically separated localities allows refined lithostratigraphic correlation; individual members first defined from Bay of Biscay sections can now be recognized through all sections. The sections are found in the Bay of Biscay and Basque region of France and Spain (Sopelana, Zumaya, Hendaye, Bidart, Tercis, Pamplona;) southern Spain (Caravaca, Agost); northern Africa (El Kef); and Eastern Europe (Georgia). All of the sections are dominated by limestones in the Lower Maastrichtian, and marls or limestone-marl rhythmites in the Upper Maastrichtian. A conspicuous, massive limestone, usually 10 to 15 m thick, is found in all sections at the top of the Lower Maastrichtian; it is invariably overlain by a thicker unit composed entirely of marl. The thick limestone contains the last body fossils of the genus Inoceramus, and occurs just beneath the first occurrence of foraminifera diagnostic of the Abathomphalus mayaroensis Zone of Late Maastrichtian age. The dramatic shift in lithology lies at or just beneath the boundary between the Lower and Upper Maastrichtian, and may have been caused by one of the most rapid and profound sea level changes of the Cretaceous Period. The sea-level change may be a causal factor in the mid-Maastrichtian extinction which affected the Inoceramidae and other mollusks, such as the rudistid bivalves and ammonites, and certainly is one of the dominant factors in forming the sequence of lithologies found in the Maastrichtian Stage of Tethys.

  5. Spatial distribution of metal accumulation areas on the continental shelf of the Basque Country (Bay of Biscay): A GIS-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorburu, Irati; Galparsoro, Ibon; Larreta, Joana; Rodríguez, José Germán; Borja, Ángel

    2013-12-01

    Recent environmental legislation, worldwide, aims to restore and protect the quality of the marine environment. Within this context, in order to maintain the good functioning of marine ecosystems, sediment pollution monitoring is becoming increasingly important. Hence, for this contribution, the spatial distribution of Cd, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni and Pb accumulation areas were determined, for the sediments of the Basque continental shelf. Statistically-assisted Geographical Information System (GIS)-mapping techniques were used, in order to infer the processes responsible for such accumulations. Differences in contaminant entrance pathways were observed between sectors. However, hydrodynamic conditions favored the rapid dispersal of contaminants and their stable distribution. The methodology used resulted in a suitable approach for identifying contaminant distribution patterns, which could be used in environmental assessment processes. Nevertheless, an important knowledge gap on the distribution of contaminants in offshore sediments was identified. Extensions of actual monitoring programs are suggested, in order to improve the information available for identifying the behavior and process-drivers for contaminants in offshore systems. This would permit the achievement of a more complete approach, to understand the effects of land-derived contaminants, on offshore systems.

  6. Trophic strategies in carnivorous fishes: their significance in energy transfer in the deep-sea benthic ecosystem (Meriadzek Terrace — Bay of Biscay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaut, Marie-Laure; Geistdoerfer, Patrick; Sibuet, Myriam

    Trophic relationships between fish species have been analyzed as a contribution to the construction of an energy transfer model between various groups in the benthic ecosystem of Meriadzek Terrace, located at 170 miles off the west French coast at a depth of 2100m. Attention was given to the carnivorous megafaunal compartment. The importance of the carnivore megafaunal biomass and its part in energy transfer is still unresolved. On the Meriadzek Terrace, numerous Chondrichthyes (sharks and chimeroids) were frequently observed from the manned submersible Cyana or by baited camera; their biomass appears to be exceptionally large. Results of a photographic survey conducted using the unmanned free vehicle Epaulard have given estimates of 22 per 10 4m 2 of teleost fishes (belonging to 8 different families and one suborder) but included no Chondrichthyes (except one specimen of Rajidae). From baited camera observations, however, we conclude that carcasses falling to the bottom on the Terrace are exploited only by selacians as the bait was never seen to be eaten by macrourids, morids or synaphobranchids although they always attended the baits before the arrival of large scavengers. Trophic specialization strategies occur in this deep-sea ecosystem and our further studies on the energy transfer model for the Meriadzek Terrace will differentiate between strategies exploiting two sources of organic input to the bottom environment: organic particles and large carcasses. In one case, carbon transfer is via the whole benthic food web in which each link is specified by size and trophic behaviour. This pathway ends in the carnivorous megafaunal compartment, which includes benthic fishes, consumers of the local epibenthic and sometimes inbenthic, macro- and megafauna. The second pathway originates with carcass falls, and carbon transfer is direct to the benthopelagic scavengers observed frequently at the Meriadzek Terrace.

  7. Instabilities and deformation in the sedimentary cover on the upper slope of the southern Aquitaine continental margin, north of the Capbreton canyon (Bay of Biscay)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonthier, E; Cirac, P.; Faugeres, J; Gaudin, Mathieu; Cremer, M; Bourillet, Jean-francois

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic and core data have recently been collected on the shelf break and the upper part of the slope of the south Aquitaine continental margin. They reveal the major role played by mass-flow gravity processes in deposit erosion and redistribution, modelling of the sea-bed, and transfer of sediment toward the deep-sea. The study region is bounded in the south by the Capbreton canyon. The northern area, which shows a smooth morphology, is characterised by small-scale deformations due to sedim...

  8. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  9. Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  10. The "Casa" of Sevres, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltuch, Margot

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the author's teaching experiences during the 1930s at "La Maison des Enfants," a Montessori school in Sevres, France. Provides photographs and descriptions of the school day, outdoor activities, gardening, cooking and eating, practical activities, and creative activities. (MDM)

  11. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientific and technological universe...... with scientists for facing the future of Spanish gastronomy. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC....

  12. [Foreign immigration in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Yoldi, I

    1997-01-01

    This article, translated from the original Spanish, analyzes recent trends in immigration to Spain. Information is provided on annual totals of immigrants and emigrants, 1976-1991; resident foreigners by nationality, 1990-1994; resident foreigners by province and continent of origin, 1991; occupations of immigrants, 1990-1991; migrant characteristics; attitudes toward immigration; and assimilation of immigrants.

  13. Supported Employment in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Borja, F.; de Urries, Jordan; Bellver, Fernando; Martinez, Salvador

    1998-01-01

    Supported employment is growing in Spain, assisted by models from other countries and national legislation. The Spanish Association of Supported Employment is providing a framework for program development. The field must deal with the lack of systematic evaluation and with funding problems. (SK)

  14. Test Reviewing in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Jose; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose R.; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Campillo-Alvarez, Angela; Pena-Suarez, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    The proper use of psychological tests requires that the measurement instruments have adequate psychometric properties, such as reliability and validity, and that the professionals who use the instruments have the necessary expertise. In this article, we present the first review of tests published in Spain, carried out with an assessment model…

  15. Career Development in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, Elvira Repetto; Moreno, Luisa Rodriguez; Romeo, Javier; Malik, Beatriz

    In Spain, the term "career development" refers to vocational or career guidance services. The 1983 Law on University Reform conferred on universities the freedom of teaching, endowing them with legal status and administrative powers. Thus, there are no regulations regarding guidance at this educational level. Guidance departments in…

  16. France Welcome Chinese Business Delegation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ According to the Press Communiqu(e) between China and France issued on 1st April,both sides decided to conduct high-level contact and strategic dialogue at a proper time to enhance bilateral cooperation in various fields and promote a harmonious and steady growth in Sino-France relations.Since then,the high officials from both countries experienced a frequent meet period.

  17. Tour of France by foot

    CERN Multimedia

    Papini

    1982-01-01

    Monsieur Papini(nom juste?) et sa femme, tous les deux journalistes, découvrent avec leur 2 enfants, agés de 16 mois et 3 ans, ainsi qu'avec un âne, la vie nomade en parcourant la France pendant un an et demie à pied: comment être un nomade en France? Sa femme a écrit deux ouvrages concernant ce voyage.

  18. FORMATION OF NORMATIVE ELEMENT OF LEGAL SYSTEMS OF GERMANY AND FRANCE AND INFLUENCE OF THIS PROCESS ON OTHER COUNTRIES OF EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasskazov L. P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that in new and the newest time in Germany and France the normative element of legal system has been formed, basic features of which are the same for both countries. At the same time the author indicates to differences in normative element of legal systems of Germany and France. There were considered the specificity of national legal systems of Italy and Spain

  19. Comparison and validation of gridded precipitation datasets for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Turco, Marco; Míguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, two gridded precipitation datasets are compared and validated in Spain: the recently developed SAFRAN dataset and the Spain02 dataset. These are validated using rain gauges and they are also compared to the low resolution ERA-Interim reanalysis. The SAFRAN precipitation dataset has been recently produced, using the SAFRAN meteorological analysis, which is extensively used in France (Durand et al. 1993, 1999; Quintana-Seguí et al. 2008; Vidal et al., 2010) and which has recently been applied to Spain (Quintana-Seguí et al., 2015). SAFRAN uses an optimal interpolation (OI) algorithm and uses all available rain gauges from the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, AEMET). The product has a spatial resolution of 5 km and it spans from September 1979 to August 2014. This dataset has been produced mainly to be used in large scale hydrological applications. Spain02 (Herrera et al. 2012, 2015) is another high quality precipitation dataset for Spain based on a dense network of quality-controlled stations and it has different versions at different resolutions. In this study we used the version with a resolution of 0.11°. The product spans from 1971 to 2010. Spain02 is well tested and widely used, mainly, but not exclusively, for RCM model validation and statistical downscliang. ERA-Interim is a well known global reanalysis with a spatial resolution of ˜79 km. It has been included in the comparison because it is a widely used product for continental and global scale studies and also in smaller scale studies in data poor countries. Thus, its comparison with higher resolution products of a data rich country, such as Spain, allows us to quantify the errors made when using such datasets for national scale studies, in line with some of the objectives of the EU-FP7 eartH2Observe project. The comparison shows that SAFRAN and Spain02 perform similarly, even though their underlying principles are different. Both products are largely

  20. Otorhinolaryngology residency in Spain: training satisfaction, working environment and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oker, N; Alotaibi, N H; Herman, P; Bernal-Sprekelsen, M; Albers, A E

    2016-06-01

    Europe-wide efforts are being initiated to define quality standards and harmonize Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS)-specialty-training by creating an European board examination. However, differences within and between countries remain and are underinvestigated making comparisons and further improvement more difficult. The study aimed at assessing quality of training, satisfaction and quality of life of residents and recent ORL-HNS specialists in Spain and to trace similarities and differences to France and Germany administering anonymous online-questionnaire to ORL-HNS-residents and recent specialists. 146 questionnaires were returned with answers of 75.6 % of residents, a mean age of 30 years and a female to male ratio of 1.46:1. The global satisfaction of training was high as 76 % would choose the same ENT training again, 86 % confirmed that responsibilities which were given to them were adapted to their level of training and 97 % felt well considered in their department. Ninety-two confirmed that helpful seniors contributed to a good work environment (75 %) and to a good organization within the department (69 %). The respondents spent on average 8.8 h per day at the hospital and covered on average 4.8 night duties or week-end shifts per month with mostly no post-day off (86 %). Seventy-four percent participated regularly at complementary training sessions. Research work was supported and guided in 59 %. This study is the first one, to our best of knowledge, to assess the ORL-HNS-training in Spain and to trace parallelisms and differences to other European countries, such as France and Germany. The satisfaction of training and supervision was high in Spain, but there are still efforts to make concerning resident's quality of life. Compared to France and Germany, satisfaction with ORL-HNS-training and the support and guidance provided by seniors was similar. Work conditions were comparable to those in France. Motivation, teaching and

  1. CASCO BAY PLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casco Bay lies at the heart of Maine's most populated area. The health of its waters, wetlands, and wildlife depend in large part on the activities of the quarter-million residents who live in its watershed. Less than 30 years ago, portions of Casco Bay were off-limits to recr...

  2. World Support Base: Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Bonifacio Echevarria) Management Mr. D. Bonifacio Guiasoia Echeverria, President; Mr. Inak1 De Subinas Guisasola, Director General; Mr. Jose Ignacio ...one major production faci I Ity in Marquina (Vizcaya), Spain with a sales office in Panama. EC IA only produces metal parts. All load, assemble...Gabilondo y Cia., S.A.) Management Mr. Jose Ignacio Lecue, Director General and Mr. Carlos Zarceno. Genera I Llama is a privately owned small

  3. France: High and stable fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Rossier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The current total fertility rate in France is around 1.9 children per woman. This is a relatively high level by current European standards and makes France an outlier, despite the fact that its other demographic trends, especially conjugal behaviour, and social and economic trends are not very different from other Western European countries. France can serve as a counterfactual test case for some of the hypotheses advanced to explain the current low level of fertility in most European countries (delay in fertility, decline in marriage, increased birth control, greater economic uncertainty. France's fertility level can be partly explained by its active family policy introduced after the Second World War, and adapted in the 1980s to accommodate women's entry into the labour force. This policy is the result of a battle, fuelled by pro-natalism, between the conservative supporters of family values and the promoters of state-supported individual equality. French family policy thus encompasses a wide range of measures based on varying ideological backgrounds, and it is difficult to classify in comparison to the more precisely focused family policies of other European welfare states. The active family policy seems to have created especially positive attitudes towards two- or three child families in France.

  4. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  5. New Phase Between China and France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ In recent years,the economic cooperation between China and France has developed rapidly.In despite of the bilateral relationship was fluctuating last year,two countries kept on making their efforts to improve the relation.The 15th China-France Economic Seminar was held on April 8 and 9,in Beijing.The theme of this seminar is "Challenges and Opportunities:Beginning New Cooperation between China and France",after a statement concerning "France fully recognizes 'the importance and sensitivity of the Tibet issue' and that France refuses to support any form of Tibet independence"issued by China and France on April 1.

  6. Stepfamilies in Denmark and France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toulemon, Laurent; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2006-01-01

    In both Denmark and France, the past decades have shown profound changes in the patterns of fertility as well as in family formation and family dissolution, with no related decline in overall fertility. Using very large data sets (380,000 respondents in the French survey, 1.3 million women...... in Danish Register data), we built synthetic indexes to show the frequency of stepfamilies in both countries. It is more frequent in Denmark than in France. We then analyse fertility of stepfamilies, compared to couples without any child born before the union, with controlling for age, duration of union...

  7. Interconnection France-Italy; Interconnexion France-Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents presents the rules, defined by RTE, of the attribution of electric power transportation capacity between France and Italy. The contract form and the general principles are given in annexes. A guide to the application form is provided. (A.L.B.)

  8. Climate Variability and Oceanographic Settings Associated with Interannual Variability in the Initiation of Dinophysis acuminata Blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrick Berger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, there were exceptional blooms of D. acuminata in early spring in what appeared to be a mesoscale event affecting Western Iberia and the Bay of Biscay. The objective of this work was to identify common climatic patterns to explain the observed anomalies in two important aquaculture sites, the Galician Rías Baixas (NW Spain and Arcachon Bay (SW France. Here, we examine climate variability through physical-biological couplings, Sea Surface Temperature (SST anomalies and time of initiation of the upwelling season and its intensity over several decades. In 2012, the mesoscale features common to the two sites were positive anomalies in SST and unusual wind patterns. These led to an atypical predominance of upwelling in winter in the Galician Rías, and increased haline stratification associated with a southward advection of the Gironde plume in Arcachon Bay. Both scenarios promoted an early phytoplankton growth season and increased stability that enhanced D. acuminata growth. Therefore, a common climate anomaly caused exceptional blooms of D. acuminata in two distant regions through different triggering mechanisms. These results increase our capability to predict intense diarrhetic shellfish poisoning outbreaks in the early spring from observations in the preceding winter.

  9. Hurricane Frances Poster (September 5, 2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Frances poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows Hurricane Frances over central Florida on September 5, 2004. Poster dimension is approximately...

  10. Modelling green macroalgal blooms on the coasts of Brittany, France to enhance water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Thierry; Rossi, Nadège; Ménesguen, Alain; Dumas, Franck

    2014-04-01

    First recorded in the 1970s, massive green macroalgal blooms have since become an annual recurrence in Brittany, France. Eutrophication (in particular to anthropogenic nitrogen input) has been identified as the main factor controlling Ulva ‘green tide' events. In this study, we modelled Ulva proliferation using a two-dimensional model by coupling hydrodynamic and biological models (coined ‘MARS-Ulves') for five sites along the Brittany coastline (La Fresnaye Bay, Saint-Brieuc Bay, Lannion Bay, Guissény Bay and Douarnenez Bay). Calibration of the biological model was mainly based on the seasonal variation of the maximum nitrogen uptake rate (VmaxN) and the half-saturation constant for nitrogen (KN) to reproduce the internal nutrient quotas measured in situ for each site. In each bay, model predictions were in agreement with observed algal coverage converted into biomass. A numerical tracking method was implemented to identify the contribution of the rivers that empty into the study bays, and scenarios of decreases in nitrate concentration in rivers were simulated. Results from numerical nitrogen tracking highlighted the main nitrogen sources of green tides and also showed that each river contributes locally to green tides. In addition, dynamic modelling showed that the nitrate concentrations in rivers must be limited to between 5 and 15 mg l- 1, depending on the bay, to reduce Ulva biomass by half on the coasts. The three-step methodology developed in this study (analysing total dissolved inorganic nitrogen flux from rivers, tracking nitrogen sources in Ulva and developing scenarios for reducing nitrogen) provides qualitative and quantitative guidelines for stakeholders to define specific nitrogen reduction targets for better environmental management of water quality.

  11. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  12. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to the...

  13. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  14. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  15. [Nurse home visits in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monguillon, Dominique; Gracia, Pierre-Benjamin

    2011-10-01

    Nurse home visits in France. More and more nurses carry out home visits, either as freelance nurses or employees of a nurse home visits service, a home hospital care structure or a nursing care centre. These home visits are both demanded by patients and encouraged by the health authorities. As a consequence, the service is expanding every year.

  16. Education in France: Number 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French Embassy, New York, NY. French Cultural Services.

    The history and modernization of the French nursery and elementary schools are the focal points of this review of educational trends in France. One major section discussed the "Ecole Maternelle", kindergarten, nursery schools, the "Jardin d'Enfants", and new math. Another section treats: (1) "Les Ecoles Primaires",…

  17. Education in France: Number 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French Embassy, New York, NY. French Cultural Services.

    The history and modernization of the French nursery and elementary schools are the focal points of this review of educational trends in France. One major section discussed the "Ecole Maternelle", kindergarten, nursery schools, the "Jardin d'Enfants", and new math. Another section treats: (1) "Les Ecoles Primaires", (2) village schools, (3) the…

  18. [Resident foreigners in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana, A M; Pascual De Sans, A

    1994-01-01

    The authors review trends in the size of the resident foreign population in Spain over time since the 1940s. A continuing growth over time, with temporal fluctuations, is noted, with a rapid rise in immigration in the 1980s, leading to new legislation designed to control immigration in 1985-1986 and 1991. The authors note that Europeans, particularly from countries of the European Union, make up a large percentage of the foreign population, but that the number of immigrants from developing countries has increased significantly in the last 10 years.

  19. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 113Sn to include the 2010 results of the PTB (Germany) and the LNE-LNHB (France), and the 2011 result of the CIEMAT (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Kossert, K.; Nähle, O.; Bobin, C.; Lépy, M.-C.; Moune, M.; Garcia-Toraño, E.; Peyres, V.; Roteta, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1975, seven national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted eleven samples of known activity of 113Sn to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113. The values of the activity submitted were between about 0.7 MBq and 22 MBq. The present primary standardization results for the PTB, Germany and the LNE-LNHB, France, replace their earlier results of 1989 and 1992, respectively. A key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been evaluated for the first time for 113Sn. There are only three results remaining in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113 comparison, all the previously published ones being outdated. The degrees of equivalence between each of these three equivalent activities measured in the SIR and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company......’s purpose: selling millions of goods, some of which are ‘designer’ items and some of which are considered design icons....

  1. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  2. Environmental performance reviews: Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  3. Module bay with directed flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  4. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  5. 2035: a no nuclear France; 2035: une France sans nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, L.; Chandes, C.; James, O.; Moragues, M.

    2011-06-15

    The authors propose a prospective scenario: the newly elected French president decides of a 20-year program to give up nuclear energy production. First, the Fessenheim and Gravelines reactors are closed. The others are to be closed by 2035. Investments are decided for offshore wind energy production, methanation projects, housing thermal insulation. Employees of the nuclear energy sector are taken into account. The authors describe the situation in 2020: energy supply problems, 5 more years of lifetime awarded to some nuclear power stations, decision to build only positive energy buildings, mandatory housing renovation, job creation, decision to develop carbon capture and storage projects. In 2025: the dismantling of nuclear reactors is going on and its cost is assessed, always more electrical vehicles, drastic cost reduction for lithium batteries. In 2035: renewable energies represent the half of the energy mix, the dismantling activity is a success for Areva. In parallel, current figures are given for energy consumption per year and per person in France and Germany, for energy French exports and imports, for electricity cost associated with the different energy sources, for the energy mix in France, for the number of jobs in the nuclear sector. In an interview, a member of the CEA comments the Italian, German and Swiss decisions to give up nuclear energy, the possibilities of its replacement by renewable energies, and the challenges associated with such a decision in France

  6. "Franklin: Science, Politics and France"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, James E., III

    2003-04-01

    This presentation traces Benjamin Franklin's career as a "civic scientist" in Old-Regime France. It outlines the initial - and not always positive - reception of Franklin's work on electricity by the community of French scientists in the 1750s. It sketches Franklin's subsequent elevation into the pantheon of French Enlightenment heros, and it details his work as a "civic scientist" while American envoy to France in the 1770s and 1780s, notably his service on the government-sponsored commissions that repudiated the scientific and medical claims of Franz Anton Mesmer. This presentation concludes by examining a few features of Franklin's career that are not completely congruent with our notion of what a "civic scientist" might be, a contrast that is intended to illuminate both Franklin and the concept of "civic scientist."

  7. [Epidemiology of burns in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François

    2012-01-01

    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  8. THE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM IN FRANCE

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    According to the Constitution promulgated on the 6th of October 1958, with the latest amendments made in 1999, France is a presidential republic. The three authority branches are broadly represented in the French administration: the judicial branch – French courts of law are divided into: judicial courts and administrative courts. Judicial courts are under the supreme authority of the Court of Cassation with jurisdiction to cancel judgments passed courts on inferior hierarchy levels and plays...

  9. Foreign driving licences in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The following information is subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of the Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 4 74 32 30 65 for the Ain and + 33 4 50 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a State belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA and with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it will be recognised for a maximum of one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France ...

  10. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The following information is provided subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 474 32 30 65 for Ain and + 33 450 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PEOPLE RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a state belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it is recognised only up to one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France (date of the first special residence permit issu...

  11. Sierra Nevada (Granada, Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilgado, José D.; Enghoff, Henrik; Tinaut, Alberto;

    2015-01-01

    Millipedes (Diplopoda), with a few notable exceptions, are poor dispersers, showing a very high degree of endemicity, not the least in mountains. The first samplings of the Mesovoid Shallow Substratum (MSS) of the higher altitudes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Baetic System, Southern Spain) have...... of Ceratosphys cryodeserti Gilgado, Mauriès & Enghoff n. sp. are here provided, as well as the first data on the humidity and temperature fluctuations in the MSS of this high mountain. The new species is similar to other Baetico-Riffan species, while the only previously known congener from the region, C...... led to the discovery of a high number of millipedes, each of the species present showing a different degree of establishment in this subterranean environment. An update of the knowledge on the millipedes of this region, the first data of the millipede communities in the MSS and the description...

  12. The Fermi's Bayes Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostini, G

    2005-01-01

    It is curious to learn that Enrico Fermi knew how to base probabilistic inference on Bayes theorem, and that some influential notes on statistics for physicists stem from what the author calls elsewhere, but never in these notes, {\\it the Bayes Theorem of Fermi}. The fact is curious because the large majority of living physicists, educated in the second half of last century -- a kind of middle age in the statistical reasoning -- never heard of Bayes theorem during their studies, though they have been constantly using an intuitive reasoning quite Bayesian in spirit. This paper is based on recollections and notes by Jay Orear and on Gauss' ``Theoria motus corporum coelestium'', being the {\\it Princeps mathematicorum} remembered by Orear as source of Fermi's Bayesian reasoning.

  13. Thelazia callipaeda: infection in dogs: a new parasite for Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villagrasa Manuel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae, eyeworms, are known as the causative agents of thelaziosis, initially described in Asia and, later on, over the last decade, also in some European countries (e.g., Italy, France, Germany and Switzerland. In June 2010, the first case of canine thelaziosis was observed in central western Spain (La Vera region, Cáceres and subsequent epidemiological investigation is reported in the present study. Results This study describes the first autochthonous cases of infection by T. callipaeda in dogs from central western Spain where the first case of eyeworm infection was reported. A total of 456 dogs was examined in this geographical area. Thelazia callipaeda eyeworms were observed in 182 (39.9% animals, of which 28 showed apparent clinical signs (i.e., conjunctivitis, oedema, epiphora and petechiae. A total of 762 adult nematodes (214 males, 548 females; mean infection rate of 4.18; SD 4.74 were collected with cotton swabs or by flushing of the conjunctival sac of infected animals using physiological saline solution. Nematodes were identified as T. callipaeda according to the morphological keys and molecular analysis of sequences of a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1 gene. The sequences were identical to those representing T. callipaeda haplotype 1, previously reported in Europe. Conclusions The high infection rate of canine thelaziosis herein reported suggests that practitioners should include this eye infection amongst differential diagnoses of ocular diseases in dogs from this area of Spain or those moving across this area of Spain. Based on the high infection prevalence recorded, the potential public health risk to humans from this region is also discussed.

  14. Energy statistics France - June 2008; Statistiques energetiques France - juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables and graphics the energy statistics for France for the last decades and up to 2007: resources, uses, prices, net imports and domestic market consumption for petroleum, natural gas, electricity, and solid mineral fuels (coal, lignite, coke). 2007 statistics are presented separately for each energy source (availability, uses). The evolution of the domestic energy production and consumption and the end-use consumption per sector is also summarized for the last decades. Some primary consumption forecasts are given for 2030. (J.S.)

  15. First China-Spain Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The first China-Spain Forum was held in Beijing from December 18 to 19, 2003. President HuJintao expressed his congratulations on the successful convening of the Forum.Opening Session of First China-Spain ForumThe theme of the first Forum was: 30 years of Sino-Spanish diplomatic ties from lack of understanding to cooperation for a common future-

  16. Draft genome sequences of five Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum strains isolated in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunty, Amandine; Cesbron, Sophie; Briand, Martial; Carrère, Sébastien; Poliakoff, Françoise; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Manceau, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum causes necrotic spots on the leaves of Actinidia deliciosa and Actinidia chinensis. P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum has been detected in New Zealand, Australia, France and Spain. Four lineages were previously identified within the P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum species group. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of five strains of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum representative of lineages 1, 2 and 4, isolated in France. The whole genomes of strains isolated in New Zealand, representative of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum lineages 1 and 3, were previously sequenced. The availability of supplementary P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum genome sequences will be useful for developing molecular tools for pathogen detection and for performing comparative genomic analyses to study the relationship between P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum and other kiwifruit pathogens, such as P. syringae pv. actinidiae.

  17. Draft genome sequences of five Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum strains isolated in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Cunty

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum causes necrotic spots on the leaves of Actinidia deliciosa and Actinidia chinensis. P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum has been detected in New Zealand, Australia, France and Spain. Four lineages were previously identified within the P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum species group. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of five strains of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum representative of lineages 1, 2 and 4, isolated in France. The whole genomes of strains isolated in New Zealand, representative of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum lineages 1 and 3, were previously sequenced. The availability of supplementary P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum genome sequences will be useful for developing molecular tools for pathogen detection and for performing comparative genomic analyses to study the relationship between P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum and other kiwifruit pathogens, such as P. syringae pv. actinidiae.

  18. A Study Tour of Old-age Insurance Systems In Switzerland and France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>A Chinese delegation of leaders from provincial and municipal departments of civil affairs and retired cadres and homes for the aged visited Switzerland and France from April 18 to 28,and attended a seminar on the old-age insurance system in Switzerland.The visit,to learn of the successful experience of developed European countries,was made at the invitation of the Swiss-Chinese Association and the China-Spain Association of International Culture and Friendship and organized by the CPAFFC.

  19. Producing citizens, reproducing the "French race": immigration, demography, and pronatalism in early twentieth-century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiscioli, E

    2001-01-01

    This essay examines how, in the context of depopulation and mass immigration, members of the French pronatalist movement advanced a policy favouring immigrants from Italy, Spain, and Poland. Because the 'demographic crisis' created a shortage of citizens as well as workers, pronatalists held that foreign workers must also be assimilable, and able to produce French offspring. While the racial difference of colonial subjects was deemed immutable, pronatalists called for the immigration of white foreigners whose less 'modern' condition promoted fecundity, traditionalism, and gender dimorphism. Evidence is drawn from demographic studies, the press of France's largest pronatalist movement, and a pronatalist advisory committee created by the Ministry of Health in 1920.

  20. Events - France. Stock exchange. International; Actualite - France. Bourse. International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-10-01

    These columns made of short articles report on facts and events in the oil and gas industry in France and worldwide: 1 - France: increase of the production capacity of the ethylene oxide unit of BP's Lavera plant; the 'Plateaux-du-Vexin' gas pipeline crosses the Seine river; completion of the pumping of the front wreckage of the Erika tanker ship; Total inaugurates a vapor recovery unit at the Gonfreville l'Orcher refinery; a national energy saving plan for the abatement of the greenhouse effect; Sercel, a daughter company of Compagnie Generale de Geophysique (CGG), acquires Mark Products division of Shaw industries; the oil prices shoot the international trade; 2 - stock exchange: trend of market values in the context of oil crisis; 3 - international: important oil and gas strike made by TotalFinaElf and OKIOC (Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Company) in Kazakhstan; communication: a new look for BP; status of Lukoil reserves in Russia; next round for the exploration of the Norwegian North Sea; Transocean Sedco Forex absorbs R and B Falcon Corp and becomes the first drilling contractor; ENI (Italy) becomes operator on the development of South Pars gas field (Iran) for the phases 4 and 5; Shell Overseas Investments BV, BP and Exxon Mobil have signed strategic alliance agreements with China Petroleum and Chemical Corp (Sinopec); first exploration permits for the Faeroe islands; different gas pricing rules for the industrialists in the different European countries. (J.S.)

  1. Studying in France,Serving at Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    DEAR EDITOR, I am a 75-year-old retired primary school teacher. I published my new work The Work-Study Movement of Young Chinese in France (1912-1930) three years ago, expressing my fondness of history, especially China’s history. Currently, I pay more attention to the Chinese women who came to France for studies in their early years, Could you publish some precise information on their situations before and after returning to China? GABRIELLE REYGNER FRANCE

  2. The arctic species Heterostigma separ Ärnbäck-Christie-Linde, 1924 (Ascidiacea: Pyuridae) in the strait og Gibraltar (southern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naranjo, S.A.; Garcia-Gomez, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The arctic species Heterostigma separ Arnbäck-Christie-Linde, 1924, a component of the interstitial fauna in coastal soft bottoms from Nova Zembla, was found in gravels of Algeciras Bay (Gibraltar Strait, Southern Spain). This new record constitutes the southernmost limit of the geographical range o

  3. [Health and politics in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuteau, Didier

    2012-06-01

    Health is a dual notion. It is individual, singular and intimate. It is also collective, statistical and political. The modern problematic of health relies upon a balance of complex relations between individual and collective acceptances of the notion. You can try to outline the evolutions and the main concepts through a quadruple approach: health and politics, health and its professionals, health and society and in the end, health and the State. The relationships between health and politics in France are affected by the historical delay of France in public health, namely because of a structural weakness of the administrative organization of public health. Nevertheless France developed a dense and well organized care system and a universal social protection against the disease. The creation of the health professions in France was marked by a historical opposition between the doctors and the state which led to a failure of hygienist medicine and a fundamental misunderstanding on health insurance. Medical domination led to the organization of a system based on professional dichotomy and the delegation of the regulation skills to the health care professionals. The role of health issues in the French society was deeply renewed by the development of the medical and epidemiological knowledge. This resulted in a new political responsibility in the management of health risks but also in the confirmation of the patients' rights and the role of their associations in the health systems operations and the piloting of public policies. In this environment, the state has recently and progressively confirmed its dominating role in the health sector. A public hospital service was created In the 60's and 70's, then in the 80's there were recurrent interventions in order to control health spendings and eventually in the 90's health safety devices were set up. More recently, a process of health policies institutionalization confirmed this evolution. In the future, health issues should

  4. Ancient DNA reveals past existence of Eurasian lynx in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Varela, R.; García, N.; Nores, C.

    2016-01-01

    The known distribution of the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus within the Iberian Peninsula since the Middle Pleistocene and the lack of reliable records of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in this region have led to the assumption that the Iberian lynx was the sole inhabitant of Iberia. In this study, we...... identified ancient mitochondrial DNA (a total of 337 base pairs from the control region and cytochrome b) from eight northern Iberian lynx remains as Eurasian lynx. These results confirm the presence of Eurasian lynx in northern Iberia from the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary until just a few centuries ago....... The paleontological record and our data indicate a population replacement of the Iberian lynx by the Eurasian lynx during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition in the Cantabrian cornice of Spain. Phylogeographic patterns of Late Pleistocene and Holocene Eurasian lynx from Iberia, France, Italy and Denmark show...

  5. Prices, Wages, and Prospects for 'Profit Inflation' in England, Brabant, and Spain, 1501 - 1670: A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    John Munro

    2002-01-01

    This paper re-examines Earl Hamilton's famous 1929 thesis on 'Profit Inflation' and the 'birth of modern industrial capitalism': namely, that the inflationary forces of the Price Revolution era produced a widening gap between prices and wages, thus providing industrial entrepreneurs with windfall profits, which they reinvested in larger-scale, more capital intensive forms of industry. Hamilton's analyses of price and wage data for 16th- and 17th-century Spain, France, and England led him to c...

  6. Baltic Factor in Russia-France Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Leonid A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the role of the Baltic factor in Russia-France relations. Despite the fact that the Baltic Sea region (BSR no longer plays an important role in Russia-France bilateral relations, the authors attach significance to analysing the dynamics and changes of the BSR role in European politics in the post- Napoleonic period. The authors compare the Russian and the July Monarchies (1830—1848 in the context of the current Vienna system of international relations. The article describes the role of the 1830—1831 uprising in Poland, which was an event of particular importance. The monarchies of the two countries had to take into account new social phenomena, which were more pronounced in France. After the suppression of the uprising in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Polish emigrants residing in France became the stumbling block for the development of Russia- France relations. The article explores the role of P. de Barante, Ambassador of France to Russia and describes France and Russia’s trade and economic interests in the Baltic Sea region. The authors conclude that the specificity of Russia-France bilateral relations became more apparent during the First and Second World Wars. However, the Baltic factor has lost its relevance over time.

  7. Arctic interests and policy of France

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri I. Rubinsky

    2016-01-01

    The author considers scientific, economic and political activities of France for the development and exploration of the Arctic, providing security there. Along with some other non-Arctic countries, France is not ready to accept such a situation when eight members of the Arctic Council solve Arctic problems on behalf of all mankind.

  8. Administrative and Judicial Cooperation in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaele, J.A.E.

    2002-01-01

    There is very little knowledge in the Netherlands of how economic private law and public law are enforced in France. In France too, however, scant information can be gleaned. There is little if any contact in the university community between criminal law and administrative law, partly because crimin

  9. Natech disasters risk management in France

    OpenAIRE

    Vallée, Agnès

    2004-01-01

    International audience; France is subjected to several types of natural phenomena (floods, earthquake, landslides, storms, forest fires...) and to attacks potentially generated by human activities (industrial facilities, nuclear power plants, transportation of dangerous goods...). The natural and technological risks are managed in France, as regards prevention, protection, intervention, in order to limit their human and economic consequences. Furthermore, an industrial accident could be trigg...

  10. Whole-system metabolism and CO2 fluxes in a Mediterranean Bay dominated by seagrass beds (Palma Bay, NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gazeau

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Planktonic and benthic incubations (bare and Posidonia oceanica vegetated sediments were performed at monthly intervals from March 2001 to October 2002 in a seagrass vegetated area of the Bay of Palma (Mallorca, Spain. Results showed a contrast between the planktonic compartment, which was on average near metabolic balance (−4.6±5.9 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 and the benthic compartment, which was autotrophic (17.6±8.5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1. During two cruises in March and June 2002, planktonic and benthic incubations were performed at several stations in the bay to estimate the whole-system metabolism and to examine its relationship with partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 and apparent oxygen utilisation (AOU spatial patterns. Moreover, during the second cruise, when the residence time of water was long enough, net ecosystem production (NEP estimates based on incubations were compared, over the Posidonia oceanica meadow, to rates derived from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and oxygen (O2 mass balance budgets. These budgets provided NEP estimates in fair agreement with those derived from direct metabolic estimates based on incubated samples over the Posidonia oceanica meadow. Whereas the seagrass community was autotrophic, the excess organic carbon production therein could only balance the planktonic heterotrophy in shallow waters relative to the maximum depth of the bay (55 m. This generated a horizontal gradient from autotrophic or balanced communities in the shallow seagrass-covered areas, to strongly heterotrophic communities in deeper areas of the bay. It seems therefore that, on an annual scale in the whole bay, the organic matter production by the Posidonia oceanica may not be sufficient to fully compensate the heterotrophy of the planktonic compartment, which may require external organic carbon inputs, most likely from land.

  11. Remarks on kernel Bayes' rule

    OpenAIRE

    Johno, Hisashi; Nakamoto, Kazunori; Saigo, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Kernel Bayes' rule has been proposed as a nonparametric kernel-based method to realize Bayesian inference in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. However, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the prediction result by kernel Bayes' rule is in some cases unnatural. We consider that this phenomenon is in part due to the fact that the assumptions in kernel Bayes' rule do not hold in general.

  12. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  13. Coal facies studies in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [INCAR (CSIC), Ap. Co., 73, 33080, Oviedo (Spain); Jimenez, Amalia [Geology, University of Oviedo, 33005, Oviedo (Spain)

    2004-04-23

    This work is a synthesis of the distribution of the main coal basins and sub-basins in Spain as well as the research carried out on their coal facies. The coal fields are distributed through the Paleozoic (mainly Pennsylvanian), Mesozoic (Cretaceous) and Cenozoic times. Peats also exist in the southeast Spain (Granada area), although these types of deposits are not included in this review. Spanish coal basins are both of a paralic and intramontane type and the coal rank is highly variable, from lignite in the case of the younger coal seams to anthracite for those of Carboniferous age.

  14. THE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM IN FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA POPESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the Constitution promulgated on the 6th of October 1958, with the latest amendments made in 1999, France is a presidential republic. The three authority branches are broadly represented in the French administration: the judicial branch – French courts of law are divided into: judicial courts and administrative courts. Judicial courts are under the supreme authority of the Court of Cassation with jurisdiction to cancel judgments passed courts on inferior hierarchy levels and plays a central role in the appropriate performance of the activity. The legislative body - normally, the legislation is voted by Parliament. French Parliament is comprised of two chambers: the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly is elected for five years by way of direct universal voting. The Senate is elected by way of indirect universal voting by the electoral group. The election system is based on rules contained in the Election Code. The executive authority is divided between the President of the Republic and the Prime Minister. The President of the Republic makes the appointments for civil and military positions located at the highest state level. The Council of Ministers is responsible for appointing the positions of state councillors, prefect and public administration director. The central government is headed by the Prime Minister. Regional authorities – the regions are free territories administered by elected Councils. As far as the metropolitan part of France is concerned, there are 22 such territories, to which are added other four districts / counties which are located out of borders. The region’s Prefect represents the state and is empowered to deploy legal actions in order to protect the state’s best interest. County authorities – there are currently 96 de districts, to which four other territories located out of borders are added, as well as the territorial communities of Mayoutte and St-Pierre et Miquelon. There are

  15. Groundwater crustaceans of Spain, 13 (Copepoda Calanoida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Two calanoid copepods were collected from groundwaters in Spain by the University of Amsterdam Expeditions in 1983—84 and 1985. Copidodiaptomus numidicus was found in southwestern Spain, in provincias Huelva and Sevilla. Mixodiaptomus laciniatus, previously known in Spain only from the Pyrenees, was

  16. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  17. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    the future of intensive care medicine in Spain and in Europe, recommendations are made towards specialization in intensive care medicine incorporating in the training program those competences (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that should be present an intensivist in Europe and that are extensively fulfilled by the current Spanish training program. The trajectory followed by intensive care medicine in Europe and recently in China, shows the increasing need of intensive care and the progressive recognition of the specialty in economically growing countries, and emphasizes the need of homogenization in the training of future specialists in intensive care medicine globally.

  18. The relationship between joint aperture, spacing distribution, vertical dimension and carbonate stratification: An example from the Kimmeridgian limestones of Pointe-du-Chay (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonne, Francis; Lézin, Carine; Massonnat, Gérard; Escadeillas, Gilles

    2007-05-01

    Joint aperture and joint development have been studied in the Kimmeridgian limestones of the Pointe-du-Chay, at the northern boundary of the Jurassic Biscay Basin (France). At Belette outcrop, in some layers the mean joint spacing of the N120° joint set is close to mean layer thickness. There, the classical spacing to thickness relationship appears to be valid in the competent carbonate layers that are included in a more argillaceous matrix. At Pillar outcrop, the N10° joint set is characterised by a high level of joint density and a non-saturated spacing distribution as indicated by the mode/mean ratio values and the Cv values; Cv is the ratio of standard deviation to mean fracture spacing. The classical relationship between layer thickness and fracture spacing has not been observed at the Pillar outcrop. Joint aperture reaches larger values at the Pillar outcrop than at the Belette outcrop where aperture is more homogeneously distributed. Almost all the joints are opened with moderate aperture values at Belette outcrop whereas most joints with large vertical dimension have large apertures at Pillar outcrop, and smaller fractures are closed or poorly opened. From two outcrops that have been subjected to the same geological conditions, apertures of non-stratabound joints appear to be controlled by the vertical dimension of the joints whereas stratabound joints are more regularly spaced and opened.

  19. Whole-system metabolism and CO2 fluxes in a Mediterranean Bay dominated by seagrass beds (Palma Bay, NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Borges

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between whole-system metabolism estimates based on planktonic and benthic incubations (bare sediments and seagrass, Posidonia oceanica meadows, and CO2 fluxes across the air-sea interface were examined in the Bay of Palma (Mallorca, Spain during two cruises in March and June 2002. Moreover, planktonic and benthic incubations were performed at monthly intervals from March 2001 to October 2002 in a seagrass vegetated area of the bay. From the annual study, results showed a contrast between the planktonic compartment, which was heterotrophic during most of the year, except for occasional bloom episodes, and the benthic compartment, which was slightly autotrophic. Whereas the seagrass community was autotrophic, the excess organic carbon production therein could only balance the excess respiration of the planktonic compartment in shallow waters (2 fields and fluxes across the bay observed during the two extensive cruises in 2002. Finally, dissolved inorganic carbon and oxygen budgets provided NEP estimates in fair agreement with those derived from direct metabolic estimates based on incubated samples over the Posidonia oceanica meadow.

  20. Le clergé et la diffusion du franquisme en Biscaye : un nouveau modèle de prêtre pour un nouveau modèle de société

    OpenAIRE

    Severiano Rojo Hernandez

    2001-01-01

    Cet article étudie la répression franquiste en Biscaye à l’encontre du clergé nationaliste basque. Il en souligne l’ampleur et les objectifs : neutraliser des prêtres susceptibles de porter préjudice au modèle de société franquiste et les remplacer par des ecclésiastiques chargés de transmettre la nouvelle idéologie.This article studies the repression carried out by Franco’s forces in Viscaya against the Basque nationalist clergy. It underlines its dimension and objectives: to neutralize prie...

  1. The Bayes Inference Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    The authors are developing a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to provide the means to make inferences about models of physical reality within a Bayesian framework. The construction of complex nonlinear models is achieved by a fully object-oriented design. The models are represented by a data-flow diagram that may be manipulated by the analyst through a graphical programming environment. Maximum a posteriori solutions are achieved using a general, gradient-based optimization algorithm. The application incorporates a new technique of estimating and visualizing the uncertainties in specific aspects of the model.

  2. Colloquium on High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy (16th) Held in Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon, France on 6-10 September 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-28

    is practically formed at ambient temperature with a small fraction (about 2 %) of the molecules in the v=1 state. Various reaction parameters were...Cedex, France; J. C. LOPEZ and S. BLANCO, Departamento de Quimica -Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universitad de Valladolid, 47071 Valladolid, Spain; A...congested region of both the high and ambient temperature spectra. ’D. M. Goodridge, R. T. Carter, J. M. Brown and T. C. Steimle, J. Chem. Phys., 106, 4823

  3. Healthy and unhealthy migrant effect on the mortality of immigrants from wealthy countries residing in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique; Astasio, Paloma; Ortega, Paloma; Martínez, David; Calle, M Elisa; de la Fuente, Luis

    2011-04-01

    This study attempts to identify the possible existence of a healthy migrant effect and an unhealthy migrant effect on the mortality of immigrants from wealthy countries who move to Spain. Immigrants aged 35-64 years from France, Germany, Great Britain and 16 other wealthy OECD countries who resided in Spain were compared with respect to: (1) mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and all other diseases and (2) employment status, duration of residence, and educational level, in two geographic areas: the "preferred destination area"-the Mediterranean coast, Balearic Islands and Canary Islands-and the rest of Spain. In general, cancer mortality was lower and mortality from cardiovascular disease was higher in immigrants who resided in the preferred destination area than in their countries of origin and than in immigrants who resided in the rest of Spain. Immigrants in the preferred destination area had a higher percentage of retired persons, longer time of residence and a lower percentage of persons with university education. The largest differences between the two areas in cardiovascular and all-disease mortality and in the frequency of the aforementioned sociodemographic characteristics were observed in British immigrants and those from the 16 OECD countries. Possible explanations for these findings are suggested which are compatible with the presence of an unhealthy and/or healthy immigrant bias in the two areas.

  4. [Cannabis in France, new insights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costentin, Jean

    2014-03-01

    France holds the record for cannabis use in Europe, especially among adolescents. This drug of abuse is thus mainly used during a very sensitive period of brain development, education, vehicle driving and development of life projects. In addition, synthetic derivatives of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are more noxious than cannabis itself are now appearing on the market. Traficking and cultivation for personnal use have intensified; products proposed for sale are richer in THC; and some methods of consumption (e-cigarettes, vaporizers, water pipes) increase the supply of THC to the lungs and thence to the body and brain. It is in this context that attempts are being made to legalize this drug of abuse. Other attempts are made to disguise it as a medication. Meanwhile, the list of its psychic as well as physical damages grows longer, with some very severe cases of major injuries. This evolution takes place in spite of numerous warnings expressed by the French Academy of Medicine. Subsequently, it is prompted to carefully and vigorously denounce these events. This will be the aim of this thematic session.

  5. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    ReminderAs a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organisation on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern...

  6. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    As a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organization on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host StatesServicehttp://www.cern.ch/relat...

  7. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    Henceforth only the undermentioned persons shall be authorized by the Advisor for Relations with the Member States and the Advisor for Relations with the non-Member States to sign official letters of invitation and other related documents : James V. ALLABY Lyndon EVANS Cecilia JARLSKOG Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Steve MYERS Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI Agnita QUERROU Karl-Heinz SCHINDL. As a precautionary measure, all persons coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed. Any further information required may be obtained from the Swiss and French consulates. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/e/home/e...

  8. [The occupational physician in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-10-01

    The French Labor law defines the role and its allocation criteria of the occupational physician (OP) the same as in Japan. In France, occupational medicine is one of the medical specialties. The OP resident must follow the 4 years clinical training before certification. After having finished their residency, they are entitled to work for the occupational health service office of a company or company association (in the case of small and medium sized companies). The most important characteristics of the French system is that they cover all workers regardless of company size. The main role of the OP is prevention of work related diseases and accidents. They are not allowed to do clinical services except for emergency cases. Their main activities are health examinations, health education, patrol and advice for better working condition. Formerly, it was rather difficult to attract the medical students for OP resident course because of its prevention oriented characteristics. A growing concern about the importance of health management at the work site, however, has changed the situation. Now, the number of candidates for OP resident course is increasing. Their task has expanded to cover mental health and other life style related diseases. The 2011 modification of law redefines the role of the OP as a director of an occupational health service office who has a total responsibility of multidisciplinary services. The French and Japanese occupational health systems have many of similarities. A comparative study by researchers of UOEH is expected to yield useful information.

  9. Cold wake of Hurricane Frances

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Asaro, Eric A.; Sanford, Thomas B.; Niiler, P. Peter; Terrill, Eric J.

    2007-08-01

    An array of instruments air-deployed ahead of Hurricane Frances measured the three-dimensional, time dependent response of the ocean to this strong (60 ms-1) storm. Sea surface temperature cooled by up to 2.2°C with the greatest cooling occurring in a 50-km-wide band centered 60-85 km to the right of the track. The cooling was almost entirely due to vertical mixing, not air-sea heat fluxes. Currents of up to 1.6 ms-1 and thermocline displacements of up to 50 m dispersed as near-inertial internal waves. The heat in excess of 26°C, decreased behind the storm due primarily to horizontal advection of heat away from the storm track, with a small contribution from mixing across the 26°C isotherm. SST cooling under the storm core (0.4°C) produced a 16% decrease in air-sea heat flux implying an approximately 5 ms-1 reduction in peak winds

  10. 75 FR 29891 - Special Local Regulation; Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Swim, Great South Bay, NY, in the Federal Register (74 FR 32428). We did not receive any comments or... published at 74 FR 32428 on July 8, 2009, is adopted as a final rule with the following changes: PART 100... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  11. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: Date of Commission approval. FOR...

  12. Storage of CO2 at low temperature as liquid or solid gas hydrate - Application to the Biscay deep zone in the French EEZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnol, André; Thinon, Isabelle; Audigane, Pascal; Leynet, Aurélien

    2013-04-01

    Amongst the various CO2 geological storage options currently under consideration, the deep saline aquifers (beyond 800-m depth) were considered to present the most interesting storage capacity due to the density of CO2 in its supercritical state. However, at lower temperature, another form of storage is possible, either in the state of CO2 hydrates or liquid CO2 (1, 2). In Alaska, a first demonstrator showed recently the possibility of exchange of CO2 and CH4 in natural gas hydrates. At higher pressures common in deep-sea sediments, liquid CO2 can be denser than the overlying seawater and therefore be trapped in the marine sediments (2). We explored in this work the storage capacity at the Biscay deep zone in the French Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). A local bathymetry of the zone (abyssal plain and continental margin) was used to define a potential interesting zone for the CO2 storage, considering different safety criteria. A sensitivity analysis on the geothermal gradient was carried out using two extreme scenarios (Low and High gradient) based on the available Ocean Drilling Program's data. In both cases, the Negative Buoyancy Zone (NBZ) and the CO2 Hydrate Formation Zone (HFZ) were calculated using the GERG-2008 Equation of State for liquid CO2 and the CSMGem code for CO2 hydrate, respectively. Following this sensitivity analysis, a CO2 injection depth is proposed and the French "deep offshore" storage capacity is quantitatively evaluated and compared to the "onshore" storage capacity in deep saline aquifers. References 1. Le Nindre Y., Allier D., Duchkov A., Altunina L. K., Shvartsev S., Zhelezniak M. and Klerkx J. (2011) Storing CO2 underneath the Siberian Permafrost: A win-win solution for long-term trapping of CO2 and heavy oil upgrading. Energy Procedia4, 5414-5421 2. House K. Z., Schrag D. P., Harvey C. F. and Lackner K. S. (2006) Permanent carbon dioxide storage in deep-sea sediments. PNAS

  13. Considerations on the Financial Reporting of Intangible Capital in Romania, Spain, and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Ionela Fadur

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We have studied a series of criteria of intangible capital, made up of human, relational and structural capital, in order to identify the extent to which the Romanian, French and Spanish accounting environments meet the challenges concerning the acknowledgement of intangible elements.We have analyzed the annual financial statements corresponding to the fiscal year closed on 12.31.2011, drawn according to IAS/IFRS provisions, for 19 companies listed in the Bucharest Stock Exchange, 27 Spanish companies quoted in the Madrid Stock Exchange, components of the IBEX 35 market index and 35 French companies quoted in the Paris Stock Exchange, components of the CAC 40 stock exchange index.

  14. Seasonal immigrant workers and programs in UK, France, Spain and Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Sala, A.; Molinero Gerbeau, Y.; Eremenko, T.; Beauchemin, C.; Samuk, S.; Consterdine, E.

    2016-01-01

    Programmes aimed at channelling seasonal workers to the labour market of European countries have a long tradition. Many of them started in the decades following World War II, but have changed a great deal over time, alt hough the majority are aimed seasonal economic sectors, such as agriculture or t

  15. The geology of the upper Salat and Pallaresa Valleys, Central Pyrenees, France/Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, J.

    1960-01-01

    A sequence of more than 4000 m of marine sediments, mainly unfossiliferous and apparently without any unconformities, range in age from probable Cambrian to pre-Hercynian Carboniferous. The lower formations are of neritic facies and there is no indication of a Pyrenean basin before the Devonian, the

  16. Youngest representative of the extinct genus Microphorites in the Eocene amber of France (Diptera: Dolichopodidae: Microphorinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramuzzo, Simone; Nel, André

    2017-02-13

    Prior to the present study, seven species of the fossil microphorine (Dolichopodidae s. lat.) genus Microphorites Hennig, 1971 have been described: Microphorites extinctus Hennig, 1971 (type species), M. oculeus Grimaldi & Cumming, 1999, and M. similis Grimaldi & Cumming, 1999 (all from the Early Cretaceous Lebanese amber), M. deploegi Nel et al., 2004 (from the Early Cretaceous of France), M. utrillensis Peñalver, 2008 (from the Early Cretaceous amber of Spain), M. magaliae Perrichot & Engel, 2014 (from the Late Cretaceous amber of France), M. moravicus Tkoč et al., 2016 (possibly from the Paleogene amber of Moravia) (Hennig 1971; Grimaldi & Cumming 1999; Nel et al. 2004; Arillo et al. 2008; Perrichot & Engel 2014; Tkoč et al. 2016). Based on the dating of these amber species, Microphorites could be among the rare insect genera recorded from both the Cretaceous and the Paleogene. Here we describe Microphorites erikai sp. nov., first accurate Eocene Microphorites from the Oise amber (France), on the basis of a complete female specimen.

  17. Chinese Peking Opera Troupe Visits France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Municipal Government of Marmande, France and the Festival de Sylvanes, a Chinese Peking Opera troupe, drawn mainly from the National Academy of Chinese Theatre Arts and sent by the CPAFFC,visited France from August 19 to 31 to introduce the quintessence of Chinese culture through their performances.An additional purpose was to promote exchanges between the two countries in theatrical arts and culture,thus enhancing mutual

  18. Bayes Multiple Decision Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Wensong

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach for this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for the use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow in this paper a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through...

  19. Chesapeake Bay: Introduction to an Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the contiguous United States. The Bay and its tidal tributaries make up the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. This document, which focuses of various aspects of this ecosystem, is divided into four major parts. The first part traces the geologic history of the Bay, describes the overall physical structure of…

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clementines from Spain. 319.56-34 Section 319.56-34... Clementines from Spain. Clementines (Citrus reticulata) from Spain may only be imported into the United States... agreement. Clementines from Spain may be imported only if the Government of Spain or its...

  1. Environmental engineering education in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Roda, I; Castells, F; Flotats, X; Lema, J; Tejero, I

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing demand for engineers and technologists who show multidisciplinary expertise to deal with environmental issues. As a result of this demand, most countries are adapting their old university programs on environmental engineering education. In Spain an official environmental engineering degree does not yet exist, but the Council of Universities is working to present a proposal, based on Bologna agreement concepts. The paper summarizes not only the future perspectives of environmental engineering education in Spain, but also the evolution of the approach during the last decades, which includes the role of the private initiative, the environmental sciences degree, and the intensification in different traditional engineering degrees. Finally, the paper briefly details and compares the syllabus developed in the only four Spanish universities where environmental engineering is offered as a non-official post-graduate course lasting two years.

  2. [Epidemiology of nephrolithiasis in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudon, M

    2005-12-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a frequent disease that affects about 10% of people in western countries. The prevalence of calcium oxalate stones has been constantly increasing during the past fifty years in France as well as in other industrialized countries. Stone composition varies depending to gender and age of patients and also underlines the role of other risk factors and associated pathologies such as body mass index and diabetes mellitus. The decrease in struvite frequency in female patients is the result of a significantly improved diagnostic and treatment of urinary tract infections by urea-splitting bacteria. In contrast, the increasing occurrence of weddellite calculi in stone forming women aged more than 50 years could be the consequence of post-menopausal therapy. A high prevalence of uric acid was found in overweight and obese stone formers and in diabetic ones as well. Another important finding was the increased occurrence with time of calcium oxalate stones formed from papillary Randall's plaques, especially in young patients. Nutritional risk factors for stone disease are well known: they include excessive consumption of animal proteins, sodium chloride and rapidly absorbed glucides, and insufficient dietary intake of fruits and potassium-rich vegetables, which provide an alkaline load. As a consequence, an excessive production of hydrogen ions may induce several urinary disorders including low urine pH, high urine calcium and uric acid excretion and low urine citrate excretion. Excess in calorie intake, high chocolate consumption inducing hyperoxaluria and low water intake are other factors, which favour excessive urine concentration of solutes. Restoring the dietary balance is the first advice to prevent stone recurrence. However, the striking increase of some types of calculi, such as calcium oxalate stones developed from Randall's plaque, should alert to peculiar lithogenetic risk factors and suggests that specific advices should be given to prevent stone

  3. Helical industrial chimneys in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    López Patiño, Mª Gracia

    2013-01-01

    The industrial chimney has been the symbol of the Industrial Revolution par excellence. Transcending both regionalism and traditional forms of construction, some specimens found in Spain, dating mainly from the early twentieth century, follow unique schools of construction with regard to the mastery with which the brick is handled. All this was achieved without being endorsed by famous architects; rather they were the product of master masons, skilled in their craft and relishing ...

  4. Bayes multiple decision functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and with the goal being to decide which among of many genes are relevant with respect to some phenotype of interest; in the engineering and reliability sciences; in astronomy; in education; and in business. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach to this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the quality of decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through a class of frailty-induced Archimedean copulas. In particular, non-Gaussian dependent data structure, which is typical with failure-time data, can be entertained. The numerical implementation of the determination of the Bayes optimal action is facilitated through sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The theory developed could also be extended to the problem of multiple hypotheses testing, multiple classification and prediction, and high-dimensional variable selection. The proposed procedure is illustrated for the simple versus simple hypotheses setting and for the composite hypotheses setting

  5. [History of microscopy in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Galiano, D

    1994-12-01

    Nowadays, many Spanish research centers have excellent electronic microscopy services. The current situation, however, should not allow us to forget that the initial steps of microscopy in Spain were very difficult. The construction of excellent optical microscopies in the late XIX century, and their almost immediate introduction in Spain, coincides with a period of thriving scientific activity in our country. Both micrography and histology saw the highlights of their development in Spain, with scientists such as Ramón y Cajal, Río Hortega, Ferrán, Simarro, among others, all of them widely known at present. This article evokes briefly the vicissitudes of Spanish microscopy, from its very beginning in 1843, when the Allgemeine Anatomie by Jacob Henle was translated into Spanish, to present. Scientific historical facts in this article are often accompanied with anecdotes, which show the human aspect of those great scientists. The persevering task carried out by researchers whose names have been recorded in the history of Spanish science and technology, have established the grounds in which our current development is based.

  6. Defensive behaviour of Apis mellifera against Vespa velutina in France: testing whether European honeybees can develop an effective collective defence against a new predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arca, Mariangela; Papachristoforou, Alexandros; Mougel, Florence; Rortais, Agnès; Monceau, Karine; Bonnard, Olivier; Tardy, Pascal; Thiéry, Denis; Silvain, Jean-François; Arnold, Gérard

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the prey-predator interactions between the European honeybee, Apis mellifera, and the invasive yellow-legged hornet, Vespa velutina, which first invaded France in 2004 and thereafter spread to neighbouring European countries (Spain, Portugal and Italy). Our goal was to determine how successfully honeybees are able to defend their colonies against their new predator in Europe. Experiments were conducted in the southwest of France-the point of entry of the hornet in Europe-under natural and semi-controlled field conditions. We investigated a total of eight apiaries and 95 colonies subjected to either low or high levels of predation. We analyzed hornet predatory behaviour and collective response of colonies under attack. The results showed that A. mellifera in France exhibit an inefficient and unorganized defence against V. velutina, unlike in other regions of Europe and other areas around the globe where honeybees have co-evolved with their natural Vespa predators.

  7. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  8. Island Bay Wilderness study area : Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  9. Geology of uranium vein-deposits in France; Geologie des gites uraniferes et filoniens en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarcia, J.A.; Carrat, J.; Poughon, A.; Sanselme, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This paper gives an outline of the characteristics of the main uranium vein deposits in France; it underlines the structural, petrographic and metallogenic similarities of these deposits. (author) [French] La note presente est un expose des caracteres generaux des principaux gites uraniferes filoniens de France; elle insiste sur les similitudes structurales, petrographiques et metallogeniques de ces gisements. (auteur)

  10. SYNSYSTEMATIQUE DES PRAIRIES DE FRANCE (SYNSYSTEMATIC OF THE MEADOWS OF FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. GEHU

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The synsystematic diagram of the meadows of France proposed in this work enumerates the main associations and the prairial superior unities of France giving them their great synecological features. The majority of these communities of meadows are usable in cutting or in pasture. They are grouped in the three following classes: Arrhenatheretea elatioris, Molinio-Juncetea and Agrostietea stoloniferae.

  11. Seismic risk assessment of Navarre (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Rivas-Medina, A.; García Rodríguez, M. J.; Benito, B.; Tsige, M.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Murphy, P.

    2009-04-01

    The RISNA project, financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre (Northern Spain), aims at assessing the seismic risk of the entire region. The final goal of the project is the definition of emergency plans for future earthquakes. With this purpose, four main topics are covered: seismic hazard characterization, geotechnical classification, vulnerability assessment and damage estimation to structures and exposed population. A geographic information system is used to integrate, analyze and represent all information colleted in the different phases of the study. Expected ground motions on rock conditions with a 90% probability of non-exceedance in an exposure time of 50 years are determined following a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology that includes a logic tree with different ground motion and source zoning models. As the region under study is located in the boundary between Spain and France, an effort is required to collect and homogenise seismological data from different national and regional agencies. A new homogenised seismic catalogue, merging data from Spanish, French, Catalonian and international agencies and establishing correlations between different magnitude scales, is developed. In addition, a new seismic zoning model focused on the study area is proposed. Results show that the highest ground motions on rock conditions are expected in the northeastern part of the region, decreasing southwards. Seismic hazard can be expressed as low-to-moderate. A geotechnical classification of the entire region is developed based on surface geology, available borehole data and morphotectonic constraints. Frequency-dependent amplification factors, consistent with code values, are proposed. The northern and southern parts of the region are characterized by stiff and soft soils respectively, being the softest soils located along river valleys. Seismic hazard maps including soil effects are obtained by applying these factors to the seismic hazard maps

  12. Interaction between spawning habitat and coastally steered circulation regulate larval fish retention in a large shallow temperate bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Itziar; Catalán, Ignacio A.; Jordi, Antoni; Alemany, Francisco; Basterretxea, Gotzon

    2015-12-01

    Larval retention plays a fundamental role in the persistence of coastal fish assemblages. Here, we examine larval fish distribution and abundance patterns in Palma Bay, a large (˜20 km) wind-driven microtidal bay in the southern coast of Mallorca (Spain, NW Mediterranean Sea). Larval fish assemblage structure in the bay were analyzed during July 2010 and interpreted in the context of the observed circulation patterns, adult habitat distribution and spawning traits. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) observations showed the presence of retentive flow patterns in the middle of the bay enhancing local larval accumulation and self-recruitment. In consequence, larval abundances were higher in this central part of the bay (˜40 m depth, mean abundance 607.6 ± 383 ind. 10 m-2) than along the coastal fringe (RDA) revealed differences between the larval fish assemblages in areas inside the bay, constituted by small pelagic and benthopelagic taxa (gobids, Chromis chromis and Serranus hepatus) and offshore larvae, mostly from meso and large pelagic fish. These larval fish assemblages were structured according to depth variations and zooplankton abundance, and remained relatively unmixed because of the circulation patterns in the mouth of the bay that uncouple its dynamics from alongshelf circulation. Even larvae of typically pelagic species that spawn close to the coast (Sardinella aurita, Auxis rochei) were associated with the retentive effect of the bay. Our study highlights the important role of coastal bays in the regulation of coastal fish population dynamics and as hotspots for the maintenance of diversity in the Mediterranean Sea.

  13. Lavaca Bay 1985-1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples were collected from October 15, 1985 through June 12, 1987 in emergent marsh and non-vegetated habitats throughout the Lavaca Bay system to characterize...

  14. Back Bay Wilderness area description

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a description of the lands located within the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Within these lands, it designates which area is suitable for...

  15. Annual report, Bristol Bay, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Bristol Bay for 1955, including lists of operators, extensive statistics, descriptions of enforcement activities, and...

  16. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  17. Annual report, Bristol Bay, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Bristol Bay for 1958, including lists of operators, extensive statistics, and descriptions of enforcement activities.

  18. Vapor Intrusion Facilities - South Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — POINT locations for the South Bay Vapor Instrusion Sites were derived from the NPL data for Region 9. One site, Philips Semiconductor, was extracted from the...

  19. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis in France in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, D; Antoine, D

    2011-07-01

    A total of 5,758 tuberculosis cases were notified in France in 2008, giving a rate of nine cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The median age was 45 years and 59% of cases were male patients. Île-de-France (Paris and greater Paris area) and French Guiana had the highest notification rate in 2008 (17.9/10(5) and 22.6/10(5) respectively). The rate of tuberculosis was higher in individuals born abroad (43.2/10(5) vs. 5.0/10(5) for individuals born in France), especially those recently arrived in France. Pulmonary tuberculosis accounted for 72% of notified cases, 76% of which were potentially contagious (positive sputum smear, or culture). Compared to 2007, the number of notified tuberculosis cases increased by 3.3% in 2008. This increase was not accompanied by a rise of severe cases (meningitis and miliary TB); this seemed to be due partly to improvement in identification and notification of cases. However this trend could require specific monitoring in future years. A national tuberculosis control program was launched in France in 2007, aiming at reducing epidemiological disparities. Clinical and public health expertise needs to be maintained on all the territory to ensure that implemented measures can have the expected impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  20. [Pneumococcal vaccination in France among adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Gérard

    2002-01-01

    Pneumococcal vaccination has for long be controversial but has today a proven efficacy and efficiency in preventing pneumococcal pneumonia, especially their most serious expressions leading to hospitalisation or death. France has an exceptional situation, as it is one of the developed country with the lowest rate of vaccination. This is the result of restrictive, maladjusted and discrepant recommendations of different commissions and committees. The gap is even more glaring with the flue vaccination program which has nearly the same medical indications. France was the first country in the world to set up a flue vaccination program for the elderly and some chronic conditions, and this program is an obvious success. For the twentieth anniversary of this program, his author propose to extend it to pneumococcal vaccination for a better prevention of what is the first cause of death from infectious disease in France with 6000 to 13000 deaths per year.

  1. Eudora Welty in France: Questions of Obliqueness

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Pothier

    2010-01-01

    Ten years ago the Summer 1999 issue of the Eudora Welty Newsletter opened on a section on “Welty and France”. The main article, “A Translator’s Perspective” was by Welty’s chief translator in France, Michel Gresset. Gresset lamented that Welty “had not fared as well” in France as other Southern writers like Faulkner or O’Connor, and he wondered if it was because she had not been translated by Maurice Edgar Coindreau. Michel Gresset’s article traced the history of the late and haphazard story ...

  2. Eudora Welty in France: Questions of Obliqueness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Pothier

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten years ago the Summer 1999 issue of the Eudora Welty Newsletter opened on a section on “Welty and France”. The main article, “A Translator’s Perspective” was by Welty’s chief translator in France, Michel Gresset. Gresset lamented that Welty “had not fared as well” in France as other Southern writers like Faulkner or O’Connor, and he wondered if it was because she had not been translated by Maurice Edgar Coindreau. Michel Gresset’s article traced the history of the late and haphazard story ...

  3. Chinese Liyuan Opera Troupe in France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaoZhongwei

    2004-01-01

    The China Fujian Liyuan Opera Troupe visited France from October 16 to 21, 2003 and staged a special performance at the Theatre of the City of Paris(Theatre de la Ville de Paris) on October 20. The performance was one of the major items on the list of opera shows during the “China Culture Year” held in France. The plan to send a Chinese local opera troupe to take part in the “China Culture Year” was worked out jointly by the CPAFFC and Pierre-Jean de San Bartolome, cultural attache of the French Embassy in China.

  4. Gaz de France annual report 2003; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Today, Gaz de France Group ranks as one of the largest gas utilities in Europe. This success is the fruit of a growth strategy that fuses economic, social and environmental imperatives. To respond more efficiently to fluctuations in the natural gas market and continue to expand its range of competitive products and services, Gaz de France has committed to integrated development across the full spectrum of natural gas activities, from exploration and production to the sale of energy and related services. As the leading supplier of natural gas in France, Gaz de France has honed a targeted policy to acquire equity interests and assets, mainly in Europe, assuring the Group of a privileged place at the heart of the European gas grid. As European energy markets continue to open more widely to competition, the Group intends to benefit from its presence in all the sectors of the natural gas industry and in the European market to confirm its position as an integrated energy operator, focused on gas, among Europe's leaders. To achieve this goal, Gaz de France will concentrate in a balanced fashion on activities linked to infrastructures and activities related to energy supply and services. While assuming its public service responsibilities, the Group will expand the range of products and services to customers. This activity report presents: consolidated financial highlights, profile, corporate governance, Gaz de France's ambition, panorama of activities: energy supply and services (exploration - production, purchase and sale of energy, services), infrastructures (transmission and storage - France, distribution - France, transmission and distribution - international), Commitments of Gaz de France (human resources, research and development, sustainable development, map of main subsidiaries and affiliates)

  5. Digital Economy and Management in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Aguila, Ana R.; Padilla, Antonio; Serarols, Christian; Veciana, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the digital economy and its impact on the firm. Highlights include subsectors of the digital economy, including infrastructure; analysis of the digital economy in Spain; analysis of the ICT (information and communication technology) sector in Spain; and electronic commerce through the Internet. (LRW)

  6. Latin radio in Spain. Media for integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Santos Diez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spain has become one of the top destinations for immigration from Latin America. This phenomenon involves the creation of new media to satisfy their needs for information and entertainment. In this paper we analyze creation and the programming grips of the FM radio stations forLatinos arising in Spain.

  7. China-Spain Urban Transport Seminar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The China-Spain Seminar on Urban Transport jointly sponsored by the Chinese Committee of the China-Spain Forum and the Agency of International Cooperation of the Spanish Foreign Ministry was held in Beijing from May 10 to 14, 2004. The Seminar was

  8. Marriage strategies among immigrants in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Domínguez, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Reher, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies patterns of endogamous marriages of immigrants in Spain by using data from the National Immigrant Survey of Spain (2007). First of all, we examine patterns of endogamous marriage and links between migration and marriage. Second, we assess the factors influencing the likelihood of

  9. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  10. Needle exchange programs in prisons in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menoyo, C; Zulaica, D; Parras, F

    2000-01-01

    On 11 July 2000, at the XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban, yet another country--Spain--presented evidence that needle exchange programs in prisons work. We reproduce here the text of the presentation entitled "Needle Exchange Program at the Bilbao Prison, Spain: Two Years of Experience (1997-1999)."

  11. Light pollution in Spain. An european perspective

    CERN Document Server

    de Miguel, Alejandro Sanchez

    2008-01-01

    Spain appears in light pollution maps as a country less polluted than their neighbours in the European Union. This seems to be an illusion due to its low population density. The data indicate that Spain is one of the most contaminated countries. To reach these conclusions we compare the Spanish case to those of other European countries.

  12. Climate index for Spain - Methodology; Indice climatique Espagne methodologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Spain. (J.S.)

  13. Analysis of hail damages and temperature series for peninsular Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saa Requejo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hail is a serious concern for agriculture on the Iberian Peninsula. Hailstorms affect crop yield and/or quality to a degree that depends on the crop species and the phenological time. In Europe, Spain is one of the countries that experience relatively high agricultural losses related to hailstorms. It is of high interest to study models that can support calculations of the probabilities of economic losses due to hail damage and of the tendency over time for such losses.

    Some studies developed in France and the Netherdlands show that the summer mean temperature was highly correlated with a yearly hail severity index developed from hail-related parameters obtained for insurance purposes. Meanwhile, other studies in the USA point out that a highly significant correlation between both is not possible to find due to high climatic variability.

    The aim of this work is to test the correlation between average minimum temperatures and hail damage intensity over the Spanish Iberian Peninsula. With this purpose, correlation analyses on both variables were performed for the 47 Spanish provinces (as individuals and single set and for all crops and four individual crops: grapes, wheat, barley and winter grains. Suitable crop insurance data are available from 1981 until 2007 and based on this period, temperature data were obtained.

    This study does not confirm the results previously obtained for France and the Netherlands that relate observed hail damage to the average minimum temperature. The reason for this difference and the nature of the cases observed are discussed.

  14. Which sustainable energy policy in France?; Quelle politique energetique durable en France?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Concurrently to the National Debate on the energies, a real debate has been proposed by seven associations of the environment protection and improvement. This debate, international, wonders on the energy choices in France. Presentations of the interveners and working documents are provided on the following topics: energy choices for the economic development, renewable energies, the possibilities and the development of the solar energy in France, the economic interest of the cogeneration, quick overview of the wind energy in France, energy production data, the transport and the greenhouse effect, the sustainable development and the energy policy and the local governments. (A.L.B.)

  15. Gaz de France. Operation note; Gaz de France. Note d'operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  16. Confirmation of the identification and establishment of the South American slipper limpet Crepipatella dilatata (Lamark 1822) (Caenogastropoda: Calyptraeidae) in Northern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Calyptraeid gastropods have been introduced frequently in bays and ports around the world, and have become rampantly invasive in several cases. Here we confirm the identification and establishment of a recently-detected population of Crepipatella in northern Spain. Because their shells do not have many diagnostic features, introductions of calyptraeids are often accompanied by confusion about the identity and therefore origin of the species in question. We use DNA sequence data and developmen...

  17. Paleomagnetic, structural, and stratigraphic constraints on transverse fault kinematics during basin inversion: The Pamplona Fault (Pyrenees, north Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LarrasoañA, Juan Cruz; ParéS, Josep MaríA.; MilláN, HéCtor; Del Valle, JoaquíN.; Pueyo, Emilio Luis

    2003-12-01

    The Pamplona Fault in the Pyrenees is a major transverse structure that has been classically interpreted as a strike-slip fault. However, lack of consensus concerning the sense of movement casts doubt on its actual kinematics and, as a consequence, its role in the Cenozoic evolution of the Pyrenees remains controversial. In order to assess its kinematics, we have conducted a paleomagnetic, structural, and stratigraphic study focused on the Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks that outcrop around the southern segment of the fault. Restoration of balanced cross sections allows us to examine the present-day spatial relationship of the sedimentary sequences on both sides of the fault and to reconstruct the geometry of the extensional basins formed during Mesozoic rifting episodes in the Bay of Biscay and Pyrenean domains. Paleomagnetic results indicate that no significant tectonic rotations occurred around the fault during Tertiary inversion of the Pyrenees. The lack of tectonic rotations and revaluation of previous hypotheses argues against a strike-slip movement of the fault. We propose a new model in which the Pamplona Fault is treated as a large-scale "hanging wall drop" fault whose kinematics was determined by variations in the geometry and thickness of Mesozoic sequences on both sides of the fault. These variations influenced the geometry of the thrust sheet developed during Tertiary compression. We are unaware of any other transverse fault that has been interpreted in this fashion; thus the Pamplona Fault serves as a case study for the evolution of transverse faults involved in basin inversion processes.

  18. [Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesmilo, Gemma

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain does not differ from that reported in other published series. Prevalence rate is approximately 60 cases per million, peak incidence occurs in middle age, more women are affected (61%), and there is a substantial delay between occurrence of the first symptoms and diagnosis. Studies REA (Spanish Acromegaly Registry) and OASIS analyzed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of the disease in Spain. Surgery, performed in more than 80% of patients, has been (and continues to be) the main treatment for the past four decades. In the past decade, however, more patients have received somatostatin analogs (SSAs) as first-line treatment. Use of radiation therapy has significantly decreased in recent decades. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are the most commonly used drugs, administered to 85% of patients; however, only 12%-15% continue on drug treatment alone. The surgical remission rate was 38.4% in the last decade, with a significant improvement over decades. Preoperative treatment with SSAs has no influence on surgical cure rates. Second-line therapies used after surgical failure in the past decade included SSAs in 49% of patients, repeat surgery in 27%, radiotherapy in 11%, pegvisomant in 15%, and dopamine agonists in 5%. Mean cost of acromegaly treatment was 9.668€ (data estimated in 2009 and adjusted in 2010), of which 71% was due to the cost of SSAs. Patients treated with pegvisomant have a more aggressive form of the disease and higher comorbidity rates.

  19. Spain. Women in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, E; Serrano, N

    1994-08-01

    Spanish women live almost 2 times longer today than did their great grandmothers (60-65 years vs. 35). Contraception is more accessible, resulting in fewer pregnancies and their complications. The National Health Service of Spain provides women and their families medical care. Yet, women's health risks continue. Class, race, and geography result in women having uneven access to medical care. Primary health care services are not a priority as are high- technology hospitals. Women, who already lead a busy life, still care for older people or people with disabilities. Many households have a very limited or no income and depend on welfare benefits or family. There are more women than men who are poor because women, many of whom are single, are raising large families and many live alone. Women are often the victims of violence and of domestic abuse (1993, 86 violent deaths and 200,000 cases of abuse by a partner). Spain has laws that protect women facing divorce and that allow abortion, but men have created the world order. Women suffer daily in a world which does not recognize rape and sexual harassment as war crimes (e.g., former Yugoslavia). In Seville, the Solidarity Network of Women in Black is a pacifist group working to stop violence. They plan on setting up links to publicly denounce and act against all aggression and to institutionalize women's right to full freedom. War is destroying women's lives.

  20. Caricature freedom of expression in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Vega Cantor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will present a sample of the way in France, the acclaimed birthplace and home of freedom of expression, censored, persecuted, and even imprisons those who dare to criticize the Israel lobby or their positions are not in tune with the thought “warm” right, the academic and cultural world

  1. Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Deist, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

  2. The reception of Cambodian refugees in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, G.D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Cambodian refugees’ arrival in France has helped initiate an atypical political mobilization in the process of their reception. The French political power balance, the sociocultural “mood” (zeitgeist) and the “mediatization” of the Indochinese region have impacted on their resettlement and given the

  3. Is cancer mortality increasing in France?

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, C.; Jan, P; Doyon, F

    2001-01-01

    Long-term trends in cancer mortality are reported by site. Overall, cancer mortality has been decreasing in France since 1987 in the male population and since 1968 in the female population. Improvement in treatments and diagnosis should lead to persistently declining mortality rates, unless the tobacco epidemic reverses the trend in female mortality. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

  4. 75 FR 39277 - Sorbitol From France; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... The Commission instituted this review on July 1, 2009 (74 FR 31762, July 2, 2009) and determined on... publishing the notice in the Federal Register on December 17, 2009 (74 FR 66992). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Sorbitol From France; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  5. A Paradox in Physics Education in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureate 1…

  6. Competitive development of the agricultural enterprises France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yushkevych

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The stages which determine the development of agricultural enterprises in France are investigated in the article. In the course of implementation of Ukrainian-French programs of scientific and educational cooperation on the problems of the management of agricultural enterprises in State Educational Institutions training specialists (cities of Chartres and Vic–en Bigorre, France it was found that the major components of development of agricultural enterprises in France are as follows: agricultural policy, education, motivation, information and management. The problem of the diversified development in the context of transition to green economy and sustainable development is considered. It is determined that an example of competitive development of agricultural enterprises in France is the establishment and operation of professional associations, in particular, cooperatives and clusters. The priority directions of economic and ecological development of agricultural enterprises for Ukraine are offered in order to implement potential opportunities of agricultural enterprises and to relocate the resources into new kinds of agricultural and non-agricultural activities

  7. 77 FR 18739 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Presque Island Bay during the Bay Swim...

  8. 77 FR 35860 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ..., Erie, PA in the Federal Register (77 FR 18739). We received no letters commenting on the proposed rule... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... restrict vessels from a portion of the Presque Island Bay during the Bay Swim V swimming event. The...

  9. 78 FR 34575 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim VI, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule A. Regulatory History... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim VI, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... portion of Presque Isle bay during the Bay Swim VI swimming event. This temporary safety zone is...

  10. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  11. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  12. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  13. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  14. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  15. Historical sketch of the Freinet’ movement in Spain. 1926-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Hernández díaz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The postulates on education from Celestín Freinet, and his determination to provide to the Cooperative of Lay Education (CLE of an international character, came out soon the French borders. Spain was not foreign to such influence and, very soon, the Freinet’s educational offer had a good reception, even though, in the first moment, it had scanty diffusion and minor application. The winds of pedagogic renovation, propitiated by the Spanish Second Republic, gave impulse and encouraged the application of the new educational technologies from France. Thus, the incipient Freinet’s Spanish movement was taking shape and, in a little time, this had a «battalion» of «sniper» teachers, who wanted to apply those ideas, a solid organization and a promising future truncated by the beginning of the civil war. This research is about the Spanish receipt from the Modern School, the advertising and diffusion of those ideas, the itinerary followed by the Spanish’s Freynet move- ment during it expansion and Franco’s government. Likewise, this paper presents a profile of the Freynet’s teachers movement in Spain, and a census of school notebooks realized through the school press, with expression of the locality of edition and of the teachers who stimulated the publication. Key words: Freinet, Spain, Second Republic, Purge, School notebooks, Pedagogic renovation. 

  16. Les instituts universitaires de technologie en France. (The university institutes of technology in France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Gaston

    1971-01-01

    In 1966 France passed legislation naming three types of technical training: two year postbaccalaureate, short-cycle for those without a bachelor's degree, adult education, for those already employed. (MF)

  17. Petroleum in France: the main results in 2005; Petrole en France: les principaux resultats en 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This presentation takes stock on the petroleum market in France in 2005. It provides information on the petroleum consumption, the imports and exports, the prices, the production, the refineries and the stocks. (A.L.B.)

  18. Characterisation of wild rabbit commercial game farms in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro González-Redondo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to characterise the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus commercial game farms in Spain using variables related to structure, management and marketing. To this end, a structured survey was administered in 2009 to 21 privately-owned farms. This subsector was an average age of 13. The average size of the breeding stock of the farms was 431 does and 64 bucks. Eighty-five percent of the farms kept all or part of the breeding stock in cages and 38.1% used artificial insemination. All the farms carried out breeder self-replacement, 4.8% by buying wild rabbits from other farms, whereas 38.1% captured wild rabbits for this purpose. Nineteen percent of the wild rabbit game farms also produced other game species, mainly red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa, pheasant (Phasianus colchicus and quail (Coturnix coturnix. Fourteen percent of the farms supplied wild rabbits to be used as prey to be released in programmes for the conservation of endangered predators, and 38.1% supplied breeding rabbits to be used by other farms to replace culled animals. Eighty-six percent of the farms offered the service of transporting the animals from the farm to the hunting grounds to their clients, and 14.3% advised customers on how to successfully release and restock hunting grounds. Seventy-six percent of the farms marketed their products throughout Spain, and 38.1% exported wild rabbits to neighbouring countries, mainly Portugal and France. Forty-three percent of the farms advertised themselves in hunting magazines, 19.1% promoted themselves by attending livestock and game fairs, and 38.1% had their own websites. In conclusion, this alternative rabbit production system constitutes a well-established subsector in Spain, despite being only 2 decades old. It also seems that it has not yet reached its development maturity. It shows wide diversity in terms of farm size and structure, as well as marketing and promotional activities.

  19. Exposure to Traumatic Events and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in France: Results From the WMH Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husky, Mathilde M; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Gasquet, Isabelle; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence of traumatic events and the conditional probability of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with both specific and broad classes of events in a nationally representative sample from France. The sample (N = 1,436) was a part of the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders Survey (ESEMeD), under the WHO World Mental Health Surveys-2000 initiative. Overall, exposure to any traumatic event was 72.7%, which appeared to be lower than what has been reported in Sweden (80.8%), similar to data from the Netherlands (71.1%), and higher than what has been reported in Spain (54.0%), Italy (56.1%), Northern Ireland (60.6%) or the U.S (55.9%). Lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 3.9%, lower than in the United States (7.8%), Sweden (5.6%), or Northern Ireland (8.8%), but higher than in Spain (2.2%) or Italy (2.4%). Being beaten up by a romantic partner (25.0%), having a child with serious illness (23.5%), and rape (21.5%) were associated with the highest risk of PTSD. The average duration of PTSD was 5.3 years (0.2-28.1). The burden of PTSD in France appeared to come from the consequences of violence and social network events suggesting that prevention efforts might focus on limiting the occurrence of exposure to avoidable events such as violence as well as provide support for persons exposed to social network events.

  20. The Future of the CEMAC CFA Franc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Agbor Agbor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 80 currency boards have come into existence at some point since the mid-19th century, but to date only about 15 of them still exist, among which is the CFA franc monetary zone. The future sustainability of the CFA franc zone, to which the CEMAC CFA franc belongs, is increasingly questioned in the light of increasing asymmetries in exposure to external shocks, differential speeds of adjustment of the real exchange rate following shocks, differential impacts in economic fundamentals, and low levels of intra-regional trade and financial flows between CEMAC and WAEMU. For the CEMAC bloc of countries in particular, the future sustainability of the fixed exchange regime depends crucially on continued oil exports, which currently represent about 90percent of export revenues and 40 percent of GDP. Should oil reserves deplete in the near future or oil prices decline significantly, a substantial source of foreign reserves would be lost, thereby exposing the regime to collapse. Even without resource depletion, continued volatility in global financial markets is increasing the risks of collapse of the fixed exchange regime as oil and commodity price swings ignite currency speculation as well as render reserves much more volatile. Against this backdrop, the present study examines the stakes facing the CEMAC CFA franc, discusses the exit options from the currency board and makes recommendations towards a sustainable monetary policy framework for CEMAC countries going forward. The analysis points to the imperative of pursuing a full monetary union with a single CEMAC franc pegged to the U.S. dollar and further suggest that, like the experience of the eurozone, the CEMAC monetary arrangement can be best implemented only by complying with the principle of political union.

  1. Satellite remote sensing of hailstorms in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcón, Pablo; Merino, Andrés; Sánchez, José Luis; López, Laura; Hermida, Lucía

    2016-12-01

    Hailstorms are meteorological phenomena of great interest to the scientific community, owing to their socioeconomic impact, which is mainly on agricultural production. With its global coverage and high spatial and temporal resolution, satellite remote sensing can contribute to monitoring of such events through the development of appropriate techniques. This paper presents an extensive validation in the south of France of a hail detection tool (HDT) developed for the Middle Ebro Valley (MEV). The HDT is based on consecutive application of two filters, a convection mask (CM) and hail mask (HM), using spectral channels of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. The south of France is an ideal area for studying hailstorms, because there is a robust database of hail falls recorded by an extensive network of hailpads managed by the Association Nationale d'Etude et de Lutte contre les Fleáux Atmosphériques (ANELFA). The results show noticeably poorer performance of the HDT in France relative to that in the MEV, with probability of detection (POD) 60.4% and false alarm rate (FAR) 26.6%. For this reason, a new tool to suit the characteristics of hailstorms in France has been developed. The France Hail Detection Tool (FHDT) was developed using logistic regression from channels of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor of the MSG. The FHDT was validated, resulting in POD 69.3% and FAR 15.4%, thus improving hail detection in the study area as compared with the previous tool. The new tool was tested in a case study with satisfactory results, supporting its future practical application.

  2. Gaz de France. Source document; Gaz de France. Document de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents some informations relative to the stocks admitted to Euronext's Eurolist, some general informations about the company and its capital, some informations about the activities of Gaz de France group, about its financial situation and results, about its management, and about its recent evolution and future perspectives. (J.S.)

  3. Fourth High Level China-France Forum on Local Government Cooperation Held in France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang; Jingyuan

    2015-01-01

    To substantiate the Medium and Long-Term Plan for ChinaFrance Relations and build a strong people-to-people and cultural exchange mechanism,the Fourth High Level China-France Forumon Local Government Cooperation was held in Strasburg from November 6 to 7,2014.The Forum,jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC,the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development,the French National Committee of Local Government Co-

  4. Critical acidity loads in France; Charges critiques d`acidite en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probst, A.; Party, J.P.; Fevrier, C. [Centre de Geochimie de la Surface (UPR 06251 du CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France); Dambrine, E. [Centre de Recherches Forestieres, INRA, 45 - Orleans (France); Thomas, A.L.; King, D. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomique (INRA), 45 - ORDON (France); Stussi, J.M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1997-12-31

    Based on results from several systematic forest and surface water monitoring programs, carried out in various parts of France as well as in Europe, acidity critical loads have been calculated for soils and surface waters; critical loads are presented for water and soils in crystalline mountainous regions such as Ardennes, Vosges and Massif Central; links with geochemistry, ecosystems and types of trees are discussed and perspectives are given for the calculation of acid and nitrogen critical loads on the whole France

  5. 78 FR 75579 - Low Enriched Uranium From France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... COMMISSION Low Enriched Uranium From France Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on low enriched uranium from France would be likely to lead to continuation or...), entitled Low Enriched Uranium from France: Investigation No. 731-TA-909 (Second Review). By order of...

  6. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  7. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  8. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Bay 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile...

  9. Bayes' postulate for trinomial trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, M. A.; Polpo, A.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss Bayes' postulate and its interpretation. We extend the binomial trial method proposed by de Finetti [1] to trinomial trials, for which we argue that the consideration of equiprobability a priori for the possible outcomes of the trinomial trials implies that the parameter vector has Dirichlet(1,1) as prior. Based on this result, we agree with Stigler [2] in that the notion in Bayes' postulate stating "absolutely know nothing" is related to the possible outcomes of an experiment and not to "non-information" about the parameter.

  10. Spain and the Promotion of Governance in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bustos García de Castro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the reasons why Spain which possesses a consolidated democratic regime continues to promote democracy and even good governance in certain countries in such an uncertain, ambiguous manner. Recent events, such as the impact of international terrorism, have meant that there is an even more urgent need for providing democratic assistance to the neighbouring countries of the Maghreb region. In spite of its initial limitations and slants,the very concept of governance would represent a non-intrusive promotion of democracy. Nevertheless, Spain’s actors in the field of foreign policy and cooperation with development (as the case of Algeria illustrates perfectly have been clearly reluctant to commit themselves to this course of action. Spain’s patent energy dependence on Algeria (a fact that is often put forward as the main explanatory reason is called into question, with an argument based not only on the evidence of Spanish action in other countries in regions (such as Tunisia and Latin America, but also in an analysis of the discourses and instruments of Spanish foreign policy. As an alternative explanation, it is suggested that practices that have long been used in Spain’s “Arab” foreign policy, the pending reform of the external service, the Europeisation of external action and the “second-player syndrome” (i.e. second to France, provide a better explanation ofSpain’s ambiguousness and of its slow abandonment of policies that favour the status quo.

  11. Can parasites halt the invader? Mermithid nematodes parasitizing the yellow-legged Asian hornet in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Villemant

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in France 10 years ago, the yellow-legged Asian bee-hawking hornet Vespa velutina has rapidly spread to neighboring countries (Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Italy, and Germany, becoming a new threat to beekeeping activities. While introduced species often leave behind natural enemies from their original home, which benefits them in their new environment, they can also suffer local recruitment of natural enemies. Three mermithid parasitic subadults were obtained from V. velutina adults in 2012, from two French localities. However, these were the only parasitic nematodes reported up to now in Europe, in spite of the huge numbers of nests destroyed each year and the recent examination of 33,000 adult hornets. This suggests that the infection of V. velutina by these nematodes is exceptional. Morphological criteria assigned the specimens to the genus Pheromermis and molecular data (18S sequences to the Mermithidae, due to the lack of Pheromermis spp. sequences in GenBank. The species is probably Pheromermis vesparum, a parasite of social wasps in Europe. This nematode is the second native enemy of Vespa velutina recorded in France, after a conopid fly whose larvae develop as internal parasitoids of adult wasps and bumblebees. In this paper, we provide arguments for the local origin of the nematode parasite and its limited impact on hornet colony survival. We also clarify why these parasites (mermithids and conopids most likely could not hamper the hornet invasion nor be used in biological control programs against this invasive species.

  12. The agro-ecologie of the soils: Concept, wine application, example of France / L'agro-écologie des terroirs : concept, application viticole, exemple de la France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochard Joël

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agro-ecology is a way of practicing agriculture by as well as possible using the operation and the resources of nature while preserving its capacitances of renewal. This approach mainly aims at reconciling agricultural development, environmental protection and biodiversity. In France, following a report coordinated by Mr. Guillou, this approach was encouraged at the end of 2012 by the Ministry for Agriculture, the Agroecology and the Forest with for objective reconciling economic and social environmental performances. For the viticulture, the challenges relate mainly to the reduction of the use of the plant health products. Within this framework, beyond the tweaking of the application of the plant health products, the vineyards must develop agro-ecological structures favorable to the biodiversity and valorization of the landscapes, support of eco-winetourism. They are made up, essentially, of the hedges, thickets, trees isolated and aligned, managed tapes buffers, low walls, benches. This topic was the object of a European program BIODIVINE (www.biodivine.eu associated with operations of demonstration in various vineyards in France, Spain and in Portugal. The communication aims to define the concept of agro-ecology and to formalize to leave the experiment France the application to the vine terroirs.

  13. La production des huiles essentielles en France

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Xavier; Monge, Romain; Chailan, Claude

    2012-01-01

    National audience; The essential oil production in France : species, economy, enhancing.; L'huile essentielle ou essence végétale se définit comme étant un liquide hydrophobe des composés odoriférants volatils secrété par une plante. Ce mélange complexe de diverses molécules (alcools, terpènes, cétones, etc...) est obtenu par distillation à la vapeur d'eau ; en France, ces productions originales sont partie prenante d'une filière dont l'aval est constitué par l'industrie du parfum, de la cosm...

  14. Acerca de Juana Francés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández Orgaz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de la desigual visibilidad de Juana Francés frente al resto de compañeros de su generación, el artículo considera algunos de los factores que provocaron esta injusta situación. Así mismo se aborda un recorrido por la intensa y variada trayectoria creativa de la artista que incluye sus etapas más significativas analizadas.Taking into account the poor visibility of Juana Francés compared to tfie rest of tier generation colleagues, ttie article reflects on some of tfie causes ttiat provoked this unfair situation. In addition to that, tfie article explores the intense and diverse artistic career including her most significant stages.

  15. Diphtheria: a zoonotic disease in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmarin, Isabelle; Guiso, Nicole; Le Flèche-Matéos, Anne; Patey, Olivier; Patrick, A D Grimont; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2009-06-24

    Thanks to vaccination, diphtheria has almost disappeared in France. The case definition, used for mandatory notification, was expanded in 2003 to include toxin-producing strains of Corynebacterium ulcerans. We describe the epidemiology of diphtheria in France from 1990 to 2008. No cases occurred between 1990 and 2001. Since 2002, 19 cases have been reported: 4 cases due to Corynebacterium diphtheriae related to exposure in endemic countries, and 15 cases due to other corynebacteria, including 4 cases of pseudomembranous pharyngitis, mainly related to contact with domestic animals. High vaccination coverage in the population and sensitive surveillance need to be maintained. Moreover, control measures need to be adapted to the non-C. diphtheriae toxigenic species.

  16. Utilizing alternative energy sources in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnien, M.

    1977-01-01

    The relative merits of various alternative-energy sources are discussed with particular reference to their suitability in the French context. The case is presented for decentralized solar power as against centralized solar-power production and some test installations in France are described. The potential for geothermal power is examined, and it is shown that the resource is essentially nonrenewable. A history of wind generation in France is presented, and power extraction from the seas is discussed, with particular reference to the Rance tidal-power scheme. While the public romance with alternative-energy schemes is accepted, it is pointed out that this may only last for as long as their implementation is on a small scale.

  17. Backscatter imagery in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1x1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The backscatter values are in relative 8-bit (0 –...

  18. Description of the Energy System of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldes, N.; Lechon, Y.; Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Rua, C. de la; Saez, R.; Varela, M.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the complete Spain energy system, in order to make possible its modelling with the TIMES model within the NEEDS project (http://www.needs-project.org). (Author) 56 refs.

  19. Pingyao Traditional Cultural Exhibition Mounted in France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni; Yuan

    2014-01-01

    <正>On the initiative of Provins,a commune in the Nord Department of Northern France and a friendship city of Pingyao in Shanxi Province,an exhibition of Pingyao traditional cultural and art works was staged from June 14 to 17.On display in the ancient SaintQuiriace Collegiate Church were 40 artworks characteristic of the traditional folk art of North China including old photos of Pingyao,calligraphic works,paintings,paper-cut,embroidery and shadow puppets.

  20. Minimally Invasive Forefoot Surgery in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusnier, Tristan; Mukish, Prikesht

    2016-06-01

    Study groups have been formed in France to advance the use of minimally invasive surgery. These techniques are becoming more frequently used and the technique nuances are continuing to evolve. The objective of this article was to advance the awareness of the current trends in minimally invasive surgery for common diseases of the forefoot. The percutaneous surgery at the forefoot is less developed at this time, but also will be discussed.

  1. Financial Literacy and Financial Planning in France.

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Arrondel; Majdi Debbich; Frédérique Savignac

    2013-01-01

    How are people financially literate in France? We address this question using the PATER survey and following the Lusardi and Mitchell (2011c) approach. We find that some subpopulations are less financially literate than others: women, young and old people as well as less-educated people are more likely to face difficulties when dealing with fundamental financial concepts such as risk diversification, inflation and interest compounding. We also find some differences in financial knowledge depe...

  2. First case of human gongylonemosis in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesson Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gongylonema spp. are cosmopolitan spirurid nematodes that are common parasites of wild and domesticated mammals and birds. Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857 is most common in ruminants, where it invades mucosa and submucosa of the mouth, tongue, oesophagus and forestomachs. It extremely rarely occurs in man, and fewer than 60 cases have been reported worldwide. We report a case from the Alsace region, which appears to be the first case of human gongylonemosis described in France.

  3. Shielding design for PWR in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champion, G.; Charransol; Le Dieu de Ville, A.; Nimal, J.C.; Vergnaud, T.

    1983-05-01

    Shielding calculation scheme used in France for PWR is presented here for 900 MWe and 1300 MWe plants built by EDF the French utility giving electricity. Neutron dose rate at areas accessible by personnel during the reactor operation is calculated and compared with the measurements which were carried out in 900 MWe units up to now. Measurements on the first French 1300 MWe reactor are foreseen at the end of 1983.

  4. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000-2012) and Tunisia (2011-2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs.

  5. Frances Keesler Graham (1918-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, W Keith

    2014-09-01

    Frances Keesler Graham, noted psychophysiologist and developmental researcher, died on April 16, 2013. Fran was born in Canastota, New York, on August 1, 1918. Fran's high-quality research, her success in obtaining 39 years of uninterrupted funding, and the very high regard in which she was held among her colleagues led to numerous awards and honors. Fran was demanding but equally willing to provide extensive assistance to students willing to work hard.

  6. A paradox in physics education in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureateThe French baccalaureate (baccalauréat) is the examination students must pass to graduate from high school. undergraduate engineering school. The responses to the survey indicate that many students fall into a kind of mathematical ‘formalism’, which prevents them from understanding the actual physics behind the question. This leads us to believe that we must reconsider the way that physics is taught. An analysis of a physics teaching sequence in French and English undergraduate textbooks confirms the weight given to mathematical formalism in France. When approached from a purely mathematical angle, physics becomes a long and slow process of assimilation of the specific scientific culture that underlies the teaching model used in classes préparatoires, classes that are usually presented as a model of academic excellence. However, this model appears to be less suitable when teaching more ‘ordinary students’, who respond better when taken through a ‘detour’ of the ‘important roots’ of physics. This paper shows that in France historically rooted pedagogical traditions persist, ignoring the latest advances in research on science teaching.

  7. Gaz de France 2006 annual report; Gaz de France 2006 rapport d'activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Gaz de France is major European energy utility, which produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. Its strategic focuses are to develop an ambitious marketing strategy, pursue a supply and procurement policy that guarantees the Group's competitiveness, confirm its position as a benchmark infrastructure manager, and speed up its profitable growth in Europe. Gaz de France aligns its strategy with a concrete and ambitious sustainable development policy. Its growth model is based on responsiveness to customers and constructive dialogue with its employees and partners. This document is the activity report of the group for the year 2006. It presents: 1 - the corporate profile of the group; 2 - its strategies (energy, energy supply, infrastructures); 3 - its financial highlights; 4 - its governance, shareholders and human resources; 5 - the activities of the group (exploration and production, energy procurement, energy sales, services, transmission France, storage France, LNG terminals, distribution France, transmission and distribution international, research and development); 6 - its 2006 financial data and financial summary.

  8. The analysis of risks for human health in the paradigm of contaminated soil management: the case of Portman Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Martínez Sánchez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of contaminated soils in Spain is mainly based on the concept of unacceptable risk as a legal obligation to protect human health. The analyses and management of the risks in contaminated soils involves a detailed physico-chemical and mineralogical characterisation of the contaminated materials, both at the surface and at depth, as well as of the processes that take place under current and future weathering conditions.The purposes of this paper is to study the implications of risk assessment for human health in the decision-making for managing the risk of a contaminated soil such that an acceptable/unacceptable risk be decisive in the selection of technologies for remediating said soil for a specic use.An example of remediation being undertaken in Portman Bay, located in the mining district of La Unión (Murcia, Spain, is given. As a result of the mining waste discharged directly into the bay for more than 30 years, Portman Bay became one of the most contaminated spots in the Mediterranean. From the Roberto washery (the biggest sulphate – pyrite, blende, galena – tailing washery in the world, which treated about 1000 tonnes/day, tailings were discharged by pipe directly into the western part of the bay, from where currents washed them towards the shore. During its service life, the Roberto washery discharged 60 million tonnes of tailings, made up of clay, quartz, siderite, magnetite, and the remains of sphalerite, pyrite and galena, together with metals and residues of the chemical reagents used in oatation. As a result of the dumping, the whole bay lled up with waste, which also extended into the Mediterranean Sea. The most a ected receptors in this area are children, and the most important exposure route is the intake of solid particles, followed by dermal exposure and inhalation. The remediation project is based on the production of ad hoc technosols according to the detected risk.

  9. Gaz de France annual report 2001; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One of Europe's leading gas utilities, the Gaz de France Group operates in all sectors of the natural gas industry, from exploration and production to energy distribution and services, to respond to customer demand efficiently and achieve sustained and profitable growth. To this end, the Group is organized in five lines of business: exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution and services. Active in 33 countries, the Gaz de France Group first targets growth in Europe, its natural environment. The opening of energy markets and its position at the center of Europe's gas grids offers the Group many opportunities in trading, transmission for third parties, distribution and services. Since August 10, 2000, Gaz de France has made it possible for other gas operators to access its transmission system. The Group capitalizes on its expertise at the global level as well, in emerging markets like Mexico and in fields in which it has recognized know-how, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG). To ensure this growth and pursue its penetration of European and world markets, the Gaz de France Group implements a policy of cooperation and partnership with other energy sector operators, demonstrates its well-developed ability to innovate and practices a customer-focused organization that offers competitive, tailored services to residential users, companies and local governments. The Group has chosen to pursue this growth through a strategy of sustainable development. By making natural gas more accessible and promoting its uses, Gaz de France integrates demand-side management of energy, fosters human development and ensures environmental protection in France, Europe and the world. This activity report presents: the corporate profile of the group, the international natural gas businesses, the financial highlights, the growth objectives of the group in all its businesses (exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution

  10. [Reform of psychiatry in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa Gil, F; Luderer, H J

    2000-11-01

    Since the 1980's psychiatric care in Spain changed considerably (Reforma psiquiátrica española). In the course of this reform, many positive results were achieved. An extensive community network of mental health centres was build up which resulted in the majority of psychiatric patients being integrated in the Spanish general health care system and making a better organized mental health care structure possible. New legislation also improved the care and civil rights of patients. An analysis of the experiences of the Spanish psychiatric reform shows that the tendency to retain the old mental hospitals, alongside the other institutions still exists. The process of deinstitutionalization and the original aims of the psychiatric reform cannot only be satisfied by the closure of large psychiatric hospitals as during the reform new aspects and problems as well the great complexity of the task have become apparent. This article together with the details of the Spanish sources gives the German public a good overview of the developments in Spanish psychiatry.

  11. Uranium mining operations in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, J.-M.; Arnaiz, J.; Criado, M.; Lopez, A.

    1995-12-31

    The Empresa Nacional del Uranio, SA (ENUSA) was founded in 1972 to undertake and develop the industrial and procurement activities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Spain. Within the organisation of ENUSA, the Uranium Division is directly responsible for the uranium mining and production operations that have been carried out since 1973 in the area of Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca. These activities are based on open pit mining, heap leaching and a hydrometallurgical plant (Elefante) for extracting uranium concentrates from the ore. This plant was shut down in 1993 and a new plant was started up on the same site (Quercus) with a dynamic leaching process. The nominal capacity of the new plant is 950 t U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year. Because of the historically low uranium prices which have recently prevailed, the plant is currently running at a strategic production rate of 300 t U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year. From 1981 to 1990, in the area of La Haba (Badajoz province), ENUSA also operated a uranium production site, based on open pit mining, and an experimental extraction plant (Lobo-G). ENUSA is currently decommissioning these installations. This paper describes innovations and improvements that ENUSA has recently introduced in the field of uranium concentrates production with a view to cutting production costs, and to improving the decommissioning and site restoration processes in those sites where production is being shut down or resources have been worked out. (author).

  12. General presentation of the biomass in France; Presentation generale de la biomasse en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The biomass is the first source of renewable energy in France. It allows the thermal (heat, fuels) and electrical energy recovery.It satisfies many stakes in the energy, the environment and the employment. This document presents the energy stake, the environmental stake and the economic and social stake. It discusses also the wood energy recovery in France, provides statistical data, definitions and methodologies of evaluation. It analyzes the production and consumption of the wood energy for the industrial and domestic sectors. (A.L.B.)

  13. Spain and Cuba: A very Special Relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Roy

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of political changes than include the rise and fall of the Franco regime, the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, and the restoration of democracy in Spain, historical links have had and still have an influence on the continuation of a very specialrelationship between Spain and Cuba since the Spanish Civil War.Spain not only did not brake its diplomatic relation Cuba, but during the harshest periods of international isolation and ideological confrontation Madrid still became the primary economic partner of Havana in the capitalist world. Under the PSOE leadership, Spain's role in the pre-transition in Cuba, via aid and cooperation programs,impressive trade figures, and investment, has produced polemical debates with the opposition including threats of termination of aid in the event of a PP victory in the coming elections of March 1996.Spain's foreign policy toward Latin America has experienced an evolution from a policy of substitution and legitimation, to one of pressure. In the case of Cuba, justification for increased trade, aid, and political agreements seems to based on a more traditionalhistorical obligation, plus the added feature of doing fast business. However, the absence of clear accomplishments in the political arena have created a climate of frustration in Spanish diplomatic circles, which has resulted in leaks to the press and resignations.This added to the frequent verbal confrontations and discussions on the U.S. economic embargo, has converted the Cuban topic from a foreign issue to an "internal matter" of Spain. Finally, in spite of the active pressure that Spanish government has applied in Brussels during the second semester of 1995 as president of the European Union,the project of an agreement with Cuba received a delay when political liberalization did not meet European expectations.Only when the final stage of true political and economic transition takes place in Cuba, will the proper evaluation of Spain's role in

  14. Zooplankton Biomass Data from Prince William Sound, Icy Bay and Yakutat Bay, Alaska 2010-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes zooplankton biomass from Prince William Sound, Icy Bay and Yakutat Bay, Alaska. Zooplankton were sampled with a ring net (0.6 m diameter with...

  15. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  16. Bayes reconstruction of missing teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporring, Jon; Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff

    2008-01-01

     We propose a method for restoring the surface of tooth crowns in a 3D model of a human denture, so that the pose and anatomical features of the tooth will work well for chewing. This is achieved by including information about the position and anatomy of the other teeth in the mouth. Our system...... contains two major parts: A statistical model of a selection of tooth shapes and a reconstruction of missing data. We use a training set consisting of 3D scans of dental cast models obtained with a laser scanner, and we have build a model of the shape variability of the teeth, their neighbors...... regularization of the log-likelihood estimate based on differential geometrical properties of teeth surfaces, and we show general conditions under which this may be considered a Bayes prior.Finally we use Bayes method to propose the reconstruction of missing data, for e.g. finding the most probable shape...

  17. Simulation of Pollutant Transport in Marmaris Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lale BALAS

    2001-01-01

    The circulation pattern and the pollutant transport in the Marmaris Bay are simulated by the developed three-dimensional baroclinic model. The Marmaris Bay is located at the Mediterranean Sea coast of Turkey. Since the sp ring tidal range is typically 20~30 cm, the dominant forcing for the circulation and water exchange is due to the wind action. In the Marmaris Bay, there is sea outfall discharging directly into the bay, and that threats the bay water quality significantly. The current patterns in the vicinity of the outfall have been observed by tracking drogues which are moved by currents at different water depths. In the simulations of pollutant transport, the coliforms-counts is used as the tracer.The model provides realistic predictions for the circulation and pollutant transport in the Marmaris Bay. The transport model component predictions well agree with the results of a laboratory model study.

  18. Probability Theory without Bayes' Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriques, Samuel G.

    2014-01-01

    Within the Kolmogorov theory of probability, Bayes' rule allows one to perform statistical inference by relating conditional probabilities to unconditional probabilities. As we show here, however, there is a continuous set of alternative inference rules that yield the same results, and that may have computational or practical advantages for certain problems. We formulate generalized axioms for probability theory, according to which the reverse conditional probability distribution P(B|A) is no...

  19. Chapter 40: history of neurology in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarac, François; Boller, François

    2010-01-01

    The history of neurology in France is characterized by the very high degree of centralization in that country where "everything seems to happen in Paris," and yet the considerable degree of autonomous diversity in the evolution of some other medical schools such as Montpellier and Strasbourg. It could be argued that France saw the birth of clinical neurology as a separate discipline since Jean Martin Charcot at the Salpêtrière Hospital obtained a chair of diseases of the nervous system in 1892, a first in the history of the academic world. The chapter shows, however, that the work of Charcot was preceded by a long evolution in medical thinking, which culminated with the introduction of experimental medicine developed by Claude Bernard and François Magendie, and by the study of aphasia by Paul Broca and its localization of language in a specific area of the brain. Many of the great neurologists of France like Duchenne de Boulogne, Gilles de la Tourette, Joseph Babinski and Pierre Marie gravitated around Charcot while others like Charles-Edward Brown-Sequard and Jules Dejerine developed their talents independently. The history of Sainte-Anne Hospital further illustrates this independence. It also shows the relation between neurology and psychiatry with Henri Ey, Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker, who collaborated with Henri Laborit in the clinical development of chlorpromazine. Sainte Anne also saw the birth of modern neuropsychology with Henry Hécaen. Jean Talairach and his group developed human stereotaxic neurosurgery and a 3-dimensional brain atlas that is used around the world. The chapter also mentions institutions (the CNRS and INSERM) that have contributed to developments partially independently from medical schools. It concludes with a presentation of schools located outside of Paris that have played a significant role in the development of neurology. Six of the most important ones are described: Montpellier, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Strasbourg, Lyon, and

  20. [Infant botulism in France, 1991-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L-A; Popoff, M-R; Mazuet, C; Espié, E; Vaillant, V; de Valk, H

    2010-09-01

    Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores of Clostridium botulinum and affects newborns and infants under 12 months of age. Ingested spores multiply and produce botulinum toxin in the digestive tract, which then induces clinical symptoms. A single French case was described in the literature prior to 1991. We describe the cases of infant botulism identified in France between 1991 and 2009. All clinical suspicions of botulism must be declared in France. Biological confirmation of the disease is provided by the National reference laboratory for anaerobic bacteria and botulism at the Pasteur Institute. During this period, 7 cases of infant botulism were identified, 1 per year from 2004 to 2008 and 2 in 2009. The median age of affected infants was 119 days and all were female. All infants presented with constipation and oculomotor symptoms. All were hospitalized and required mechanical ventilation. The infants recovered from their botulism. The diagnosis of infant botulism was biologically confirmed for all patients. One 4-month-old infant was treated with a single dose of the human-derived botulism antitoxin specific for infant botulism types A and B (BabyBIG®). The infants all had different feeding habits ranging from exclusive breast feeding to a mix of formula feeding and solid food consumption. The consumption of honey, the only documented risk food for this disease, was reported for 3 of the infants. The honey had been placed on the pacifier of 2 infants and directly in the mouth of the 3rd by the mother. Infant botulism, a form of botulism that was previously rarely recognized in France, has been reported more frequently during the last 6 years. This disease remains rare but nonetheless severe. In light of recent epidemiological data, efforts to raise awareness among parents of infants and health professionals on the danger of infant botulism and particularly, its association with honey consumption seems necessary.

  1. Lithospheric Architecture Beneath Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, R. W.; Miller, M. S.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hudson Bay overlies some of the thickest Precambrian lithosphere on Earth, whose internal structures contain important clues to the earliest workings of plate formation. The terminal collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, brought together the Western Churchill craton to the northwest and the Superior craton to the southeast. These two Archean cratons along with the Paleo-Proterozoic Trans-Hudson internides, form the core of the North American craton. We use S to P converted wave imaging and absolute shear velocity information from a joint inversion of P to S receiver functions, new ambient noise derived phase velocities, and teleseismic phase velocities to investigate this region and determine both the thickness of the lithosphere and the presence of internal discontinuities. The lithosphere under central Hudson Bay approaches 􏰂350 km thick but is thinner (􏰂200-250 km) around the periphery of the Bay. Furthermore, the amplitude of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) conversion from the S receiver functions is unusually large for a craton, suggesting a large thermal contrast across the LAB, which we interpret as direct evidence of the thermal insulation effect of continents on the asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, midlithospheric discontinuities, significantly shallower than the base of the lithosphere, are often imaged, suggesting the mechanisms that form these layers are common. Lacking time-history information, we infer that these discontinuities reflect reactivation of formation structures during deformation of the craton.

  2. The importance of railway noise in France

    CERN Document Server

    Maurin, M

    1979-01-01

    A national survey on environmental nuisances due to all forms of transport was made in France during 1977. From among the data gathered, it is possible to extract results concerning the impact of nuisance due to railways, partly from results of questionnaires and partly from results of acoustical measurements. Interviews and measurements were made in several towns, at randomly selected dwellings. Rail and air transport noise nuisance impacts appeared to be of comparable importance, with that of road transport very much larger than either. (0 refs).

  3. FRANCES FARMER TENDRÁ SU VENGANZA EN SEATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Guiral, Juncal

    2012-01-01

    Frances Farmer fue una actriz valiente y comprometida. Siempre observó su carrera artística desde su propia condición de mujer, atea y comunista. Su rechazo al mundo hollywoodiense de los años treinta y cuarenta, unido a las difíciles relaciones familiares, provocó en ella una reacción que la sociedad de ese momento atajó amparándose en el mundo legal. Acusada de maltrato y de violar la libertad condicional su vida acabó bajo la tutela materna. A partir de ese momento, Farmer se p...

  4. Frances E. Jensen's The Teenage Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictable and sometimes incomprehensible moods and behaviors of a teenager can be a head-scratching mystery-especially to parents. Hormones, boredom, social media, peer pressure, and drugs and alcohol are just a few of the factors to consider. Frances E. Jensen, M.D., professor and chair of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania and the mother of two sons who are now in their twenties (along with Washington Post health and science reporter and Pulitzer Prize winner Amy Ellis Nutt) look at the emerging science of the adolescent brain and provide advice based on Jensen's own research and experience as a single mother.

  5. Not only Chauvet: dating Aurignacian rock art in Altxerri B Cave (northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sainz, C; Ruiz-Redondo, A; Garate-Maidagan, D; Iriarte-Avilés, E

    2013-10-01

    The discovery and first dates of the paintings in Grotte Chauvet provoked a new debate on the origin and characteristics of the first figurative Palaeolithic art. Since then, other art ensembles in France and Italy (Aldène, Fumane, Arcy-sur-Cure and Castanet) have enlarged our knowledge of graphic activity in the early Upper Palaeolithic. This paper presents a chronological assessment of the Palaeolithic parietal ensemble in Altxerri B (northern Spain). When the study began in 2011, one of our main objectives was to determine the age of this pictorial phase in the cave. Archaeological, geological and stylistic evidence, together with radiometric dates, suggest an Aurignacian chronology for this art. The ensemble in Altxerri B can therefore be added to the small but growing number of sites dated in this period, corroborating the hypothesis of more complex and varied figurative art than had been supposed in the early Upper Palaeolithic.

  6. National and Cultural Differences in the C2C Electronic Marketplace: An Investigation into Transactional Behaviors of Chinese, American, and French Consumers on eBay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; LI Yan; Mathieu Leboulanger

    2009-01-01

    With the Internet connecting every part of the wodd, electronic marketplaces provide a world-wide transaction platform for global businesses. However, consumers from different countries demonstrate distinct purchasing behaviors online. This study uses eBay as the consumer-to-consumer electronic marketplace to investigate the eBay mechanisms and purchasing habits of consumers from the United States, France, and China to evaluate the effects of cultural and national differences on purchasing habits. This study uses data on national transactions and reputation profiles of sellers gathered from eBay.com, eBay.fr, and eBay.com.cn, including both cross-sectional data and panel data to provide a comprehensive comparison of cultural be-havior in the trading process as well as the influence of eBay's reputation management system on online pricing in these three countries. Significant differences confirm that purchasing behavior differs in various national consumer-to-consumer electronic marketplaces and the importance of cultural behavioral patterns.

  7. Gaz de France annual report 2000; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    A leader in the natural gas market in Europe, Gaz de France is an integrated group active in all sectors of the natural gas industry. In exploration and production, trading of natural gas, transmission, storage, distribution, energy management, air conditioning and heating, the Group has developed recognized skills and know-how both upstream and down to assure its customers of diversified, efficient and competitive services. A leader in liquefied natural gas, storage and distribution technologies, the Gaz de France Group has strong positions in Europe and operates throughout the world by promoting a strategy of alliances and partnerships at all levels of the gas industry. The goal of the Gaz de France Group is to continue to expand and develop its activities from the wellhead to the burner tip, and to seize, in France and throughout the world, the best opportunities offered to capitalize on its strengths. This activity report presents: the corporate profile, the financial highlights, the principal subsidiaries and affiliates, the major European trunk lines the responsive, customer-focused services (exploration-production, trading, transmission, distribution, services), the actions to ensure performance (productive research, comprehensive quality assurance, mobilized workforce ready for the opening of the markets)

  8. Charbonnages de France. 2003 environment report; Charbonnages de France. Rapport environnement 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This annual report presents the Group ''charbonnages de France'' activities in 2003. It concerns the remediation actions, the environmental indicators, the environmental impacts of the sites activities and remediation, the management of the environmental impacts, the mine safety and the production sites management. (A.L.B.)

  9. Provisional energy balance of France for 2002; Bilan energetique provisoire de la France pour 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    A provisional energy accounting in France for 2002 is presented. Statistical data and diagrams are provided to detail and discuss the economical and energy context, the primary energy consumption, the national production and the energy dependence, the primary energy consumption for each energy source, the sectorial analysis of the energy consumption and the carbon dioxide emissions. (A.L.B.)

  10. The international development of Electricite de France; Le developpement international d'Electricite de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In 2001, Electricite de France (EdF) has pursued and increased its international development with a portfolio of participations in foreign electricity companies (Germany, Italy, UK, Brazil, Argentina etc..) that reached 6 billions of euros. This development has been tainted with poor results in South America and has led to some hostile reactions from the Italian and Spanish governments. (J.S.)

  11. The action of France; L'action de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    After a favorable period for the weapons mastership, the disarmament and the non-proliferation, the conditions of international safety and the strategical context revealed recently worrying developments. The France is decided to continue its action in favor of the disarmament and the non-proliferation in the continuity of its political engagements. (A.L.B.)

  12. La France a ta porte: Negocier les apprentissages (France at Your Doorstep: Negotiating Learning Experiences).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Acosta, Asuncion; Serna, Isabel

    1992-01-01

    A second-language teaching strategy in which students are active in the selection of a unit theme and objective is discussed. In this approach, the teacher assumes the role of monitor in student development of the unit. A sample unit on language for daily living in France illustrates the process. (MSE)

  13. Energy statistical data in France april 2007; Statistiques energetiques France avril 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The monthly situation analysis in France at April 2007 is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  14. 2003 energy situation of France; Bilan energetique de la France en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    This short document summarizes the key data of the 2003 energy status of France: real and climate-corrected total primary energy consumption, end-use energy consumption (demand per energy source and per sector of use), power supply and demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions. (J.S.)

  15. 2004 energy accounting in France; Bilan energetique de la France en 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This economic analysis presents the energy accounting of the France in 2004 which shows a little renewal of the consumption and a better energy efficiency. It provides data on the energy consumption and production for the different energy types and for the different activity sectors, to illustrate the analysis. (A.L.B.)

  16. 2004 energy bill of the France; Facture energetique de la France en 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document analyzes the energy bill in France (28,35 milliards of euros), which increased of 24,1 % in 2004. This increase is due to the net imports and especially the fossil fuels. Statistical data and the presentation of Patrick Devedjian, delegated ministry for the Industry, illustrate this economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  17. Provisional energy accounting of France in 2000; Bilan energetique provisoire de la France en 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This economic analysis presents the economy and energy context of France in year 2000. The year 2000 has been a satisfying year concerning the energy mastership. In the same time of a petroleum consumption decrease, the electrical power production from nuclear source reached an historical record. Many tables and graphs illustrate this analysis. (A.L.B.)

  18. The private vehicles in France: data and references; Les vehicules particuliers en France: donnees et references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catania, S.

    2004-03-01

    Each year the ADEME establishes and actualizes data bases from data provided by the UTAC and the Auxiliary Association of the Automobile. These data concern the emissions and consumptions of private vehicles approved and sold in France. The last part deals with the technological evolutions of vehicles concerning the fuel consumption decrease. (A.L.B.)

  19. Uses of plasma in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algora, M; Barbolla, L

    2007-12-01

    In Spain, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) currently recovered either by whole blood centrifugation or by apheresis is mainly considered as a source of plasma derivates rather than a product to be transfused. Upon this consideration, the amount of plasma transfused in the last two decades has remained stable, while the production of FFP has grown steadily during all these years. Thus, much more plasma has been derived to industry for manufacturing. Although, since 1993 a consensus conference established the clinical situation where plasma has demonstrated its efficacy, the true situation is that many indications seem not to be supported on a scientific evidence basis. Only a few studies have been performed in the last years to assess the appropriateness of these indications. We present the initial result of an ongoing survey addressed by the Madrid Blood Transfusion Centre. Based on the criteria of total amount of RBC transfused per year, large hospitals (more than 10,000 units of RBC) transfused an average of 23.87% of FFP, while medium hospitals (5000-10,000 units of RBC) used 19.5% and small ones (less than 5000) about 12.5%. It is important to point out that inside each group there were some important differences in ratio values for similar hospitals. This could indicate that much more is necessary to cope with indications. Although national figures of uses of FFP, whether in ratio or absolute terms, show a moderate consumption in comparison with published figures of other European countries, there can be no doubt that plasma overuses still seem to be present.

  20. 75 FR 73121 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... of Neskowin, Oregon. Neskowin Marsh incorporates unique freshwater wetland and bog habitats and... Fish and Wildlife Service Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos... prepare a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for the Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz...

  1. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This... with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31, 2013. DATES: This rule is...

  2. 78 FR 39610 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Fourth of July Big Bay Boom Fireworks display on the evening of July 4, 2013. These temporary safety... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA... representative. ] DATES: This rule is effective from 8:45 p.m. to 10 p.m. on July 4, 2013. ADDRESSES:...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1114 - San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1114 San Pedro Bay—Anaheim Bay,...

  4. Chesapeake Bay Program Water Quality Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chesapeake Information Management System (CIMS), designed in 1996, is an integrated, accessible information management system for the Chesapeake Bay Region....

  5. Electricity in France in 2007: a statistical analysis; L'electricite en France en 2007: une analyse statistique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presents the evolution of electricity generation and consumption in France over the last years and up to 2007. The production data are analyzed by source type (nuclear, renewable, fossil fuels). The consumption is analyzed by end-use sector and also by class of voltage. Finally, the status of power trades between France and other European countries, and the energy independence ratio of France are presented. (J.S.)

  6. China-Spain Economic and Trade Forum Held in Madrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On June 29, Chi na-Spain Eco nomic and Trade Forum, sponsored jointly by CCPIT, Federation of Spanish Entrepreneur Orga nizations and Spanish Trade and Investment Agency, was held in Madrid, capital of Spain.

  7. Distribution of beach litter along the coastline of Cádiz, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan Thomas; Randerson, Peter; Di Giacomo, Carlo; Anfuso, Giorgio; Macias, Ana; Perales, José Antonio

    2016-06-15

    A total of 59 categories of litter items were found at 20 beaches (13 mechanically cleaned, 7 non-cleaned) in the Cádiz tourist environment, Spain. Cluster Analysis and Principal Components Analysis were used to highlight similarities and contrasts between sites and/or associations between litter categories. Multivariate analyses separated beaches according to the total numbers of litter items present. Non-cleaned sites showed a variety of litter category abundance with distinct origins and abundant, ubiquitous items (plastic and glass fragments). Of the 7 non-cleaned beaches (49 litter categories) river-mouth sites were distinct due with high numbers of litter items. The sheltered inner part of Cádiz Bay beaches had a wide range of litter type. Many sites were associated with locally deposited recreational litter categories; while industrial/commercial/fishing categories were abundant only at a few sites, indicating items transported onto the shore from the Guadalete river.

  8. University Teacher’s Evaluation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Tejedor Tejedor

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to make a brief overview about the performance evaluation for university teachers in democratic Spain. It contents: a considerations about teaching evaluation, in order to delimit the authors’ position in this matter, due to the fact that this position obviously conditions any revision; b a brief summary of the history of university teachers evaluation in Spain during the last years, since the Spanish Constitution of 1978 approval; c a typology of the evaluation plans, in order to define a map of the planning lines for evaluations applied in Spain; d the technical guidelines for teachers´ evaluation and presentation of the current model, exampled by its application in the university of Salamanca; and e as a conclusion, some considerations about the consequences of evaluation and its entailment with the professionalization of university teachers.

  9. Surrounding the Void: Samuel Beckett and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Francisco Fernández Sánchez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A study of the relationship between Samuel Beckett and Spain poses some striking questions which are relevant in understanding the cultural inclinations of one of the most important dramatists of the 20th century. Beckett consciously abstained from having direct contact with Spanish culture and never visited Spain, despite showing an interest in the politics of the country at different periods of his life. As a result of this state of affairs a no-go area emerges which calls for a reconceptualization of Beckett’s ideas on travel, politics and even his own country. This article tries to approach the matter of Beckett and Spain from different angles, in an attempt to achieve a full panoramic view. The opinions of one of Beckett’s Spanish friends, Manolo Fandos, are recorded here for the first time.

  10. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  11. Acute anaphylactoid reactions during hemodialysis in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forêt, M; Kuentz, F; Meftahi, H; Milongo, R; Hachache, T; Elsener, M; Dechelette, E; Cordonnier, D

    1987-04-01

    A retrospective survey of anaphylactoid reactions during dialysis in France was conducted. In 52 of 112 hemodialysis units surveyed 111 patients who had suffered one or more anaphylactoid reactions during dialysis were identified. According to the Hamilton/Adkinson classification, in 31 patients reactions were minor, in 54 patients moderate, and in 26 patients severe. Four patients died of their reactions. A preponderance of reactions (75 and 11%) occurred with cuprammonium cellulose hollow-fiber and plate dialyzers, respectively. Severe dialyzer reactions were found to occur more frequently after the long (weekend) interdialytic interval. In an in vitro study, six brands of cuprammonium cellulose hollow-fiber dialyzers were rinsed with water and the eluates analyzed by size exclusion chromatography for contaminant particles. Substantial variation in the amount of extractable material was found between dialyzers of different brands, despite the fact that all dialyzers used membranes from the same manufacturer. Previous data by others has suggested that this extractable material is a derivative of cellulose. Results of our epidemiologic survey in France are similar to those previously reported in the United States and suggest an increased incidence of dialyzer reactions with ethylene oxide-sterilized cuprammonium cellulose dialyzers. The presence of cellulose-derived particles in the rinsing fluid of such dialyzers and the possible increased incidence of reactions after the long (weekend) interdialytic interval suggest that allergy to cellulose-derived particles eluted from cellulosic dialyzers may contribute to dialyzer hypersensitivity reactions.

  12. Next step, the Tour de France?

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    The penultimate stage of the 2013 Tour de France, the Annecy-Semnoz time-trial, has already been won – by a CERN staff member!     In keeping with tradition, the organisers of the Tour de France organise another race, the Étape du Tour, which is open to the general public and follows the actual route of an official stage of the Tour proper. This year, the chosen venue was Annecy and its neighbouring mountain, Le Semnoz, which played host to 11,000 cycling enthusiasts from all parts. This penultimate stage of the 2013 Tour will be raced by the professionals on 20 July. The public race was won by Nicolas Roux, an experienced cyclist and member of CERN’s GS-IS Group, who devoured the 128-km course in just 4 hours and 15 minutes, nine seconds ahead of cycling champion Julien Absalon. “I just managed to overhaul Julien Absalon 500 m before the finishing line,” Nicolas recounts. “It was a fantastic race!” Come rain o...

  13. [Maternal mortality in France, 2007-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo, M; Deneux-Tharaux, C; Bouvier-Colle, M-H

    2013-11-01

    To monitor the maternal mortality which is an indicator of the quality of obstetric and intensive care, France has a specific approach since 1996. Recently linkages have been introduced to improve the inclusion of cases. Here are the results for the 2007 to 2009 period. The identification of the pregnancy associated deaths is lying on different data bases that are medical causes of death, birth register and hospital discharges. To document the cases, confidential enquiries are conducted by two assessors on the field; a committee of medical experts analyses the documents, select the underlying cause and assess the quality of health care. Two hundred and fifty-four obstetric deaths were identified from 2007 to 2009 giving the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 10.3 per 100,000 births. The maternal age and nationality, the region of deaths are associated to the MMR. The haemorrhages are the leading cause but their ratio is 1.9 versus 2.5 previously; this decrease results from the postpartum haemorrhage by uterine atony going down. The suboptimal care are still frequent (60%) but slightly less than before. The linkage method should be pursued. Maternal mortality is rather stable in France. We may reach more reduction as deaths due to atony decreased as suboptimal care did.

  14. [Pediatric renal transplantation in France. Introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschênes, Georges; Fila, Marc

    2011-12-01

    Pediatric nephrology is a relatively recent medical speciality. The first French center opened in January 1969 at the Hospital des Enfants-Malades. In 2008, according to the Réseau Épidémiologie et Information en Néphrologie (REIN), the annual incidence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) was of 7,8 children/million children below the age of 20, which equals a prevalence of 49 pediatric ESRD patients/million inhabitants. The frequency of causative factors of ESRD varies according to the geographic and ethnic origin of the patients. Many challenges still lay ahead of ESRD management. The children's physical, psychological and social development has to be well taken care of until adulthood and the transition from pediatric to adult unit has to be handled with special care. The set up of pediatric nephrology departments helped to the access of patients to renal replacement therapy, in particular the pediatric priority for kidney donors below 30 years of age. In the 2000s period, the annual rate of pediatric renal transplantation was 70 to 75 grafts per year in France, half of which performed in the Paris area. This article presents the historical background of pediatric nephrology and pediatric renal transplantation in France.

  15. Commercial applications of food ionization in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Pierre-Louis [Ionisos S.A. (France)

    1994-12-31

    Due to the long history of nuclear energy in France, French public is not frightened by nuclear applications in its everyday life. The first industrial initiative on food ionization dates back to 1956. In 1980, the Joint Expert Committee on Food Ionization concluded that food ionization up to a certain maximum dose presented neither toxicological nor nutritional hazard. This opened the new era for the industrial development. But in 1988, a draft directive to harmonize national legislations was issued by the Commission of European Communities. This stopped many industrial initiatives due to uncertainty. It is estimated that nearly 14,000 tons of various food items have been ionized in France in 1991. About 40% are spices, followed by dry fruit, vegetables, and deboned poultry meat. Most of the present applications are intended to eliminate microorganisms. In 1992, 8 industrial facilities were in operation, mostly using gamma sources. Local research associations were founded to promote food ionization. Food ionization development in the past 30 years has been rapid and important, but the future of this process depends on the European harmonization of legislations. (K.I.).

  16. Burden of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C in France, Italy, and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiBonaventura MD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Marco daCosta DiBonaventura,1 Mercedes Prior,2 Pablo Prieto,2 Josep Fortea21Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA; 2Global Market Access, Marketing and Medical Affairs, Almirall, Barcelona, SpainBackground: Several studies have examined the effect of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS on health outcomes in Western Europe, but less research has focused on the constipation subtype (IBS-C. The current study addresses this gap by comparing patients with IBS-C and matched controls for health status, work productivity, and resource utilization.Methods: Data were obtained from the 2010 5EU National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS, which includes respondents from France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK. Only participants from France (n = 15,051, Italy (n = 7580, and the UK (n = 15,065 were included in the analyses. Respondents who reported a physician diagnosis of IBS and reported only constipation symptoms were compared with respondents who did not report being diagnosed with IBS using a propensity score-matching methodology (matching on sociodemographics, health behaviors, and comorbidities. Differences between patients with IBS-C and matched controls were examined on health status (Short Form Survey Instrument version 2, work productivity (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire, and health care resource use in the past 6 months.Results: A total of 83 (0.55%, 109 (1.44%, and 204 (1.35% respondents reported a diagnosis of IBS with only constipation symptoms in France, Italy, and the UK, respectively. Within each country, patients with IBS-C reported significantly worse health status compared with matched controls (all P < 0.05 and significantly more physician visits (all P < 0.05. More hospitalizations were also observed in the UK (P < 0.05. Among those who were employed, patients with IBS-C in France and the UK also reported significantly more presenteeism than matched controls (all P < 0.05.Conclusion: These

  17. Analyze Culture Difference between China and Spain from Architectural Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单梦宸

    2014-01-01

    With the development of the world, the communication between china and spain become more and more frequently. and the building style between china and spain is very diferent. in this essay, we mainly learn the diferent culture of china and spain from its builing style.

  18. 75 FR 23303 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade... isocyanurates from China and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain would be...

  19. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening... allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary... vegetables regulations to allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the...

  20. 75 FR 51113 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade... chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling... from China and Spain would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within...

  1. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... allow the importation into the United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will... of fresh apricots from continental Spain into the United States subject to a systems approach...

  2. Trauma care systems in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queipo de Llano, E; Mantero Ruiz, A; Sanchez Vicioso, P; Bosca Crespo, A; Carpintero Avellaneda, J L; de la Torre Prado, M V

    2003-09-01

    Trauma care systems in Spain are provided by the Nacional Health Service in a decentralized way by the seventeen autonomous communities whose process of decentralization was completed in January 2002. Its organisation is similar in all of them. Public sector companies of sanitary emergencies look after the health of citizens in relation to medical and trauma emergencies with a wide range of up to date resources both technical and human. In the following piece there is a description of the emergency response teams divided into ground and air that are responsible for the on site care of the patients in coordination with other public services. They also elaborate the prehospital clinical history that is going to be a valuable piece of information for the teams that receive the patient in the Emergency Hospital Unit (EHU). From 1980 to 1996 the mortality rate per 10.000 vehicles and the deaths per 1.000 accidents dropped significantly: in 1980 6.4 and 96.19% and in 1996, 2.8 and 64.06% respectively. In the intrahospital organisation there are two differentiated areas to receive trauma patients the casualty department and the EHU. In the EHU the severe and multiple injured patients are treated by the emergency hospital doctors; first in the triage or resuscitation areas and after when stabilised they are passed too the observation area or to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and from there the EHU or ICU doctors call the appropriate specialists. There is a close collaboration and coordination between the orthopaedic surgeon the EHU doctors and the other specialists surgeons in order to comply with treatment prioritization protocols. Once the patient has been transferred an entire process of assistance continuity is developed based on interdisciplinary teams formed in the hospital from the services areas involved in trauma assistance and usually coordinated by the ICU doctors. There is also mentioned the assistance registry of trauma patients, the ICU professional training

  3. Abstracts of 38th Symposium on Cuniculture, ASESCU. Zamora, Spain, 30th-31st May, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symposium on Cuniculture Zamora (Spain

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The 38th Congress of the Spanish Association of Cuniculture (ASESCU was held in Zamora from 30th to 31st of May 2013. This edition was mainly devoted to analysing the current situation of production costs in rabbit farming, processing of rabbit meat and new aspects in relation to rabbit diseases. The main papers were related to economic weights in rabbit meat production and production costs in terms of productivity, the cost of feed ingredients, new trends in rabbit meat processing, crossbreds in rabbit farming, hygiene on industrial rabbit farms, feed restriction and de-medicalisation and the new rabbit haemorrhagic disease, as well as the state of the knowledge on epizootic rabbit enteropathy. In addition, 2 round tables were held on the future of rabbit meat presentations and the unified market of Spain and Portugal for rabbit meat. Moreover, a total of 24 communications were presented, both in working sessions with oral communications and posters (pathology, technical-economical management, nutrition, meat and carcass quality and reproduction. The meeting was attended by more than 160 participants, including researchers from Spain, Portugal, Italy, France, Ecuador, Egypt, and Tunisia. The abstracts of the contributions presented are reported below.

  4. Unexpected genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae caprine isolates from an endemic geographically restricted area of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Fe Christian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae (MA isolates collected in Spain from goats in an area with contagious agalactia (CA was assessed using a set of validated and new molecular typing methods. Validated methods included pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR typing, and Southern blot hybridization using a set of MA DNA probes, including those for typing the vpma genes repertoire. New approaches were based on PCR and targeted genomic regions that diverged between strains as defined by in silico genomic comparisons of sequenced MA genomes. Results Overall, the data showed that all typing tools yielded consistent results, with the VNTR analyses being the most rapid method to differentiate the MA isolates with a discriminatory ability comparable to that of PFGE and of a set of new PCR assays. All molecular typing approaches indicated that the Spanish isolates from the endemic area in Murcia were very diverse, with different clonal isolates probably restricted to separate, but geographically close, local areas. Conclusions The important genetic diversity of MA observed in infected goats from Spain contrasts with the overall homogeneity of the genomic background encountered in MA from sheep with CA in Southern France or Italy, suggesting that assessment of the disease status in endemic areas may require different approaches in sheep and in goats. A number of congruent sub-typing tools are now available for the differentiation of caprine isolates with comparable discriminatory powers.

  5. GREECE, PORTUGAL AND SPAIN - A TEST CASE FOR EUROPE IN 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA RALUCA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent statistics clearly show that Greece, Portugal, Spain and other euro zone members have massive public deficits and that is why this entire means that euro's future is extremely delicate. Until now, politicians have not come up with a concrete plan to solve the situation. In this matter, politicians in France, Germany and elsewhere have signaled that they'll provide some kind of back-up support, but only when Greece has really taken tough measures – possibly more than they have done already – to get the deficit down. Although that may be unsettling to some investors in the very short term, it's clearly good news for the euro in the longer term. In our paper, the intention is to present the reasons why Greece, Portugal, Spain and other euro zone members have massive public deficits and what should other countries do in order to help them in the nearby future. For us, a great concern is also the reaction of the European Central Bank and what could this institution do in the benefit of European countries in general.

  6. France: The Challenges of Renewal. Headline Series #282.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePorte, A. W.

    France has responded well to the social, economic, and political challenges which began when that nation was defeated by Germany in 1940. Two major challenges have been to limit internal quarrels which reduce the nation's ability to handle current issues and to accept the fact that France is no longer the greatest power in Europe. Chapter 1…

  7. Absence of Pneumocystis dihydropteroate synthase mutants in Brittany, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Solène; Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Perrot, Maëla; Rouillé, Amélie; Virmaux, Michèle; Damiani, Céline; Totet, Anne; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Nevez, Gilles

    2013-05-01

    Archival Pneumocystis jirovecii specimens from 84 patients monitored at Rennes University Hospital (Rennes, France) were assayed at the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) locus. No patient was infected with mutants. The results provide additional data showing that P. jirovecii infections involving DHPS mutants do not represent a public health issue in Brittany, western France.

  8. France: The Move toward Distance Education in the University Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    France is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leading force in Europe. A highly literate and well-educated society, France's education statistics for 2003 show 12.1 million French children in primary and secondary education and 2.2 million students in tertiary education. The concept of education as a market commodity--long since…

  9. The Challenges Facing Catholic Education in France Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, François

    2016-01-01

    The effects of secularisation on society demand a rethinking of the identity and mission of Catholic schools in France. In 2013, the French bishops published a new directory which offers new approaches, described here, based on the three challenges facing Catholic education in France: linking social responsibility and evangelisation, setting up…

  10. Chinese Ancient Coins Academic Exchange Delegation Visits France and Austria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo; Fengqiang

    2014-01-01

    <正>To further strengthen nongovernmental cultural exchanges,a Chinese delegation visited France and Austria from September 23 to 30for academic exchange on ancient coin.They had fruitful exchanges with coin experts of the two countries at the invitation of the France-China Culture and Art Exchange Centre and the Austria-China Friendship Association for Culture and Art Exchange.

  11. Dutch/Flemish in the North of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckeboer, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Dutch in the Northern France, specifically the historical retreat of Dutch from Pas-de-Calais, historical evolution of the language situation in the Department du Nord, reactions to official language policy and language loss, characteristics of Flemish in France, alienation from other Dutch dialects by communicative isolation, linguistic…

  12. Les agences d’urbanisme en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Verdeil

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Si les agences d’urbanisme françaises ont, pour certaines, près de quarante ans d’existence, elles restent pourtant relativement méconnues. Le présent article, qui leur est consacré, vise à livrer en la matière plusieurs pistes de réflexion susceptibles d’être saisies par des chercheurs de différentes disciplines. Revendiquant son caractère exploratoire et programmatique, cet article collectif ne restreint donc pas son propos à une série de problématiques spécifiques (sociologie politique de l’expertise, l’histoire ou l’anthropologie des métiers et professions de l’urbanisme, monographies locales des diverses productions urbaines des agences, etc.. Il plaide plutôt pour une capitalisation des travaux qui prennent ou prendraient les agences d’urbanisme pour objet, tout en avançant à cette occasion quelques résultats de recherches menées récemment. Prolongeant le colloque organisé sur ce thème à Lille en février 2007, il entend ainsi contribuer à interroger de nouveau le statut et la reconnaissance accordés, en France, aux études urbaines.This article, which is devoted to those forty year old but poorly understood organisations, the planning agencies (“agences d’urbanisme” in France, is intended to be programmatic and exploratory in character. Its purpose is, therefore, to present a series of reflections on the subject that might be taken up by researchers in different disciplines. The intention is not to limit its remarks to a narrowly defined series of problems such as the political sociology of expertise, the history or anthropology of the planning profession or even the local histories of urban policy implementation in the particular areas where agencies are located. Like the conference organised in Lille in February 2007, this article, which was one of the products of the conference, takes up the opportunity to investigate again the status and recognition granted to urban studies in France

  13. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section 117.1101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon...

  14. Abstracts of the 41th Symposium on Cuniculture, ASESCU Hondarribia, Spain, 12th-13th May, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abstracts, Conferences, Congresses, Symposiums...

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The 41st Congress of the Spanish Association of Cuniculture (ASESCU was held in Hondarribia (Guipúzcoa province from 12th to 13th May 2016. This edition coincided with the 40th anniversary of ASESCU, which was founded in 1976. The main papers focussed on analysing the changes in rabbit feeding in the last decades and future prospects, on preparing the future reproductive rabbit, on Spanish consumer segmentation and characterization of rabbit meat consumption, and on the role of the Rabbit Meat Marketing Board (INTERCUN in promoting consumption of rabbit meat in Spain. A specific session was devoted to explain the objectives and progress of the research projects supported by the partnership between the Spanish Institute of Agricultural Research (INIA and INTERCUN. In addition, a round table was held on the present and future prospects of the rabbit farming in Spain. Moreover, a total of 24 communications were presented both in working sessions with oral communications and posters (nutrition, carcass and meat quality, pathology, ethology and welfare, and management and genetics. The meeting was attended by more than 185 participants, including researchers from Spain, Portugal, Italy, France, Brazil, Egypt, and Puerto Rico among other countries. Abstracts of the contributions presented are reported below.

  15. Le clergé et la diffusion du franquisme en Biscaye : un nouveau modèle de prêtre pour un nouveau modèle de société

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severiano Rojo Hernandez

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article étudie la répression franquiste en Biscaye à l’encontre du clergé nationaliste basque. Il en souligne l’ampleur et les objectifs : neutraliser des prêtres susceptibles de porter préjudice au modèle de société franquiste et les remplacer par des ecclésiastiques chargés de transmettre la nouvelle idéologie.This article studies the repression carried out by Franco’s forces in Viscaya against the Basque nationalist clergy. It underlines its dimension and objectives: to neutralize priests susceptible of jeopardizing the establishment of a pro-Franco model of society, and replacing them by clerics whose task was to spread the new ideology.Este artículo estudia la represión franquista en Vizcaya contra el clero nacionalista vasco. Subraya su dimensión y sus objetivos : neutralizar a sacerdotes que pueden perjudicar la instauración del modelo de sociedad franquista y sustituirlos por eclesiásticos encargados de transmitir la nueva ideología.

  16. Feasibility of a Vietnamese café in Spain : Case: Café Hanoi, Barcelona, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tra My

    2016-01-01

    This study covers the feasibility of a business idea – a Vietnamese café in the city of Barcelona, Spain. The study is the preliminary of a business plan. Therefore, it aims to discover the environment surrounding the café in Barcelona, Spain. The study employs descriptive approach, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The data collection includes both primary and secondary data. The primary data is collected through focus group, interviews and questionnaire. The secondary dat...

  17. Case management in France: an economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, M

    1996-01-01

    Case management is currently an important issue in France. Because neither service providers nor consumers pay for case management in this country, a cost-benefit analysis is often required by the organizations that do pay. Given the context of French social policy and the current focus on justifying case management through cost-benefit analysis, we have developed a way to evaluate its costs. This article presents the limitations of standard economic choice theory, provides a methodology based on the principles of limited rationality, and gives the results of an evaluation of four case management programs. The article provides a method to measure case management costs and efficiency, as well as the willingness of consumers to pay for services.

  18. Situation in France: a step forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Delaunay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The presentation will look at four key issues: The new tobacco control provisions in French Health Law (January 2016, including plain packaging and health warnings; obligation for the tobacconists to control the age of buyers, to make effective the prohibition to sales to minors; prohibition of smoking in a car with a child under 18 years; increasing the share reimbursed by French Social Security system for nicotine replacement therapies; prohibition of tobacco advertising in tobacconists shops. The weaknesses in the law and the priorities of the French Coalition against tobacco, such as the increase tobacco taxes and prices; class action for the tobacco victims; Tobacco Prevention Fund; Ensure enforcement of the law Tobacco lobbying in France: French tobacconists; Ministry of Economy; the tobacco industry… Tackling tobacco: a pre-requisite to save the sustainability of our health system (health and social costs.

  19. Financial Literacy and Financial Planning in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Arrondel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We study financial literacy in France using the PATER survey and following the Lusardi and Mitchell (2011c approach. We find that some subpopulations are less financially literate than others: women, young and old people as well as less-educated people are more likely to face difficulties when dealing with fundamental financial concepts such as risk diversification and inflation and interest compounding. We also find some differences in financial knowledge depending on the political opinion of the respondents. Finally we show that these differences in financial knowledge are correlated with differences in the propensity to plan: people who score higher on the financial literacy questions are more likely to be engaged in the preparation of a clearly defined financial plan.

  20. Comparing Exceptionalism in France and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Devienne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article challenges the current scholarship on the history of the death penalty and its abolition by adopting a transatlantic framework and debunking the popular contemporary conception of the “Barbaric Americans” against the “civilised” anti-death penalty French. The article focuses on the short period in the 1970s during which American executions were halted by the Supreme Court, while France was still putting prisoners to death in cases that were widely debated in public opinion. By observing the French media’s reactions to the two major decisions taken by the Supreme Court in the 1970s and their direct consequences, this essay analyzes not only the French gaze on American practices but also how these American decisions were manipulated by the journalists to stoke the French debate about abolition.

  1. Food-related life style in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    to an interested-critical shopping behaviour, which is characterized by a strong interest in product information, price, and such major quality aspects as healthiness ecological/naturalness. New products are not interesting in themselves, unless they represent improvements on the above-mentioned characteristics......Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in France, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The French consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central life...... values. We call them the uninvolved, the moderate, the conservative, the rational and the hedonistic food consumers. The segments have only little relation to demographic variables. 3. The uninvolved food consumers stand for 18% of the population. These consumers are uninvolved in practically every...

  2. France at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 – 1st Floor Tuesday 27 March: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 28 March: 9 a.m. – 2 p.m.   About thirty French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to CERN activities. Individual B2B meetings can be organized with the sales and technical representatives of participating firms and will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in conference rooms in the Main Building. Individuals wishing to make contact with one or more companies must use the contact details available from each secretariat of department or by using this link. B2B meetings will be coordinated by UBIFRANCE. You will also find the list of exhibiting and participating companies online here. This event is sponsored by the French subsidiary of RS Components, the most important distri...

  3. Cinéma en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel VIGOUROUX

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Le cinéma est l’objet de bases de données exhaustives sur les équipements et les fréquentations. Les données sur les salles permettent d’identifier le phénomène de concentration de propriété et d’exploitation. La perspective dynamique peut être observée sur 45 ans. À l’échelle régionale, on peut apprécier le dynamisme du cinéma en haute montagne alpine et la différence de réseaux sur le territoire (France de l’Ouest.

  4. FRANCE at CERN - Visit of Firms

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel

    2007-01-01

    From 4 to 5 June 2007 Administration Building Bldg 61 - 1st floor - Room B 09.00 - 17.30 Eighteen companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place in technicians' offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each department secretariat or from the Purchasing web pages at the following URL http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies and civil engineering and buildings. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. The list of exhibitors is given below. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: 40-30 ACC LA JONCHERE ...

  5. FRANCE AT CERN - VISIT OF FIRMS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2007-01-01

    From 4 to 5 June 2007 Administration Building Bldg 61 - 1st floor - Room B 09.00 - 17.30 Seventeen companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place in technicians' offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or from the Purchasing web pages at the following URL http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies and civil engineering and buildings. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. You will find below the list of exhibitors. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: 40-30 ACC LA JONCHE...

  6. Charbonnages de France group. Annual report 99; Groupe Charbonnages de France. Rapport annuel 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This 1999 annual report of the French national collieries 'Charbonnages de France' (CDF) presents the turnover and financial data of the group, the situation of coal mining in France, the management of manpower, the rehabilitation of abandoned mine and plant sites, the impact of power market deregulation on the activities of the coal-fired power plants and cogeneration units of the national society of electric and thermal power (SNET) and of the SIDEC company, and the management of the real estate patrimony of the group in mining regions. Some conference texts written by engineers of the group are added at the end of the document and present the competences of CDF in environmental engineering (valorization of coal fly ash, cleansing of polluted sites, phyto-remediation) and development of biomass energy. (J.S.)

  7. Guide about petroleum strategic stockpiles in France; Repere sur les stocks strategiques petroliers en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    The strategic character of petroleum products has been perceived since the first world war. It has led France to impose the petroleum operators to make stockpiles to provide against the consequences of a serious disruption of supplies. As a difference with some other industrialized countries like the USA or Japan, French stockpiles are made of finite products. A balanced geographical distribution of these stocks over the whole national territory increases their efficiency. Stockpiles of IEA member states must represent 90 days of net imports while those of European Union member states must represent 90 days of average domestic consumption. In France, each chartered operator contributes to the strategic storage and the stored volumes are defined by the law no 92-1443 from December 31, 1992. These stocks are permanently controlled and financial sanctions are applied in case of infraction. Particular dispositions are applied in overseas departments which are summarized in this paper. (J.S.)

  8. Tarasca: ritual monster of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, David D

    2008-09-01

    Let us now revisit our original assumptions. First, we note that for the participants in Hacinas Carnival the Tarasca is a figure of fun and joy, but it also exudes a strain of aggressive misogyny that many female residents, not to mention tourists, find somewhat unsettling. In the spirit of feminist currents in Spain, a group of young women protested in 1992 to town officials and, when rebuffed, sought to build their own female monster, which they intended to use to attack boys and men. While their plan was never carried out, and indeed met with stiff opposition from officialdom and, especially, from older women, some of the younger, more modern girls find the Tarasca appalling, and they told me so without compunction. Accordingly, today the festival tends to polarize the sexes as well as the generations. Also, many children are frightened by the gigantic mock-up with its snapping teeth and foul breath, and many of them burst into tears at the roaring of the demons. But despite these negatives--or perhaps because of them--the Tarasca breaks down boundaries between things normally kept separate in the mind: humor and terror, man and beast, order and disorder, old and young, life and death, and so on. In so collapsing opposites, the Tarasca causes people to pause and to think about and question everyday reality in the non-Carnival universe. All these observations of course support the structural arguments of our four theorists above and in particular seem to corroborate Bloch's concept (1992) of the regenerative power of "rebounding violence." However, there are three specific features here that need psychological amplification beyond simply confirming the work of previous theorists. We must first note that like most grotesque fantasies, the Hacinas monster combines disparate organic "realities" into a bizarre and monstrous image that by its very oddness and the resulting "cognitive mismatch" captures people's attention and sparks the imagination, especially that of

  9. Health, Financial Incentives and Retirement in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Erdogan-Ciftci (Esen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); A. Lopez-Nicolas (Angel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe estimate the impact of health and financial incentives on the retirement transitions of older workers in Spain. Individual measures of pension wealth, peak and accrual values are constructed using labor market histories and health shocks are derived as changes in a composite health st

  10. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  11. Small hydro policy and potential in Spain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Spain has 662 small hydro installations, as registered in the “Speciaf Regimen” of 31 December 1999, with 1,271,573 kW of instaffed power producing the equivalent of the electricity consumed by 1.1 million families, avoiding emissions of 2.6 million tonnes of CO2 per year and substituting 250,000 toe.

  12. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  13. Lightning-caused fires in Central Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Aguado, Inmaculada; García, Mariano;

    2012-01-01

    a high occurrence. The research was conducted between May and September, which happens to be the most lightning-fire prone period in Spain, for a three year interval starting in 2002 up to 2004. A time-invariant model for lightning-caused fire occurrence was developed for each region at a spatial...

  14. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through t

  15. Aversive racism in Spain: testing the theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study applies the aversive racism framework to Spain and tests whether aversive racism depends on intergroup contact. Relying on a 3 (qualifications) by 3 (ethnicity) experiment, this study finds that aversive racism is especially pronounced against the Mexican job applicant, and emerges among

  16. France, Germany and the nuclear challenge; La France, l'Allemagne et l'enjeu nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkish, F

    2004-11-15

    Taking into account the french and german relations concerning the nuclear activities, the nuclear phaseout decided by the german government in 1998 presents inevitable impacts in France. The author discusses the constraints bound to this project (industrial interests, energy dependence...), the short dated phaseout project and the consequences for the relations of the two countries, Germany and France. (A.L.B.)

  17. Climatic trends in hail precipitation in France: spatial, altitudinal, and temporal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Lucía; Sánchez, José Luis; López, Laura; Berthet, Claude; Dessens, Jean; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Merino, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Hail precipitation is characterized by enhanced spatial and temporal variability. Association Nationale d'Etude et de Lutte contre les Fléaux Atmosphériques (ANELFA) installed hailpad networks in the Atlantic and Midi-Pyrénées regions of France. Historical data of hail variables from 1990 to 2010 were used to characterize variability. A total of 443 stations with continuous records were chosen to obtain a first approximation of areas most affected by hail. The Cressman method was selected for this purpose. It was possible to find relationships between spatial distributions of the variables, which are supported by obtained Pearson correlations. Monthly and annual trends were examined using the Mann-Kendall test for each of the total affected hailpads. There were 154 pads with a positive trend; most were located between Tarbes and Saint-Gaudens. We found 177 pads with a negative trend, which were largely south of a pine forest in Landes. The remainder of the study area showed an elevated spatial variability with no pattern, even between relatively close hailpads. A similar pattern was found in Lérida (Spain) and Southeast France. In the entire area, monthly trends were predominantly negative in June, July, and August, whereas May had a positive trend; again, however, there was no spatial pattern. There was a high concentration of hailpads with positive trend near the Pyrenees, probably owing to orographic effects, and if we apply cluster analysis with the Mann-Kendall values, the spatial variability is accentuated for stations at higher altitude.

  18. Hydro energy at Electricite De France; L'energie hydraulique a Electricite De France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    Hopeful the hydroelectric power, the France holds the first place of the renewable energies producers at the European Union. This document presents measures taken by EDF to reach this quality level and conciliate the hydroelectricity production with other uses of water. In this framework, the first part presents the operating advantages and the social impact of the hydroelectricity, the second part deals with the water management and the last part deals with the safety downstream from the dam. (A.L.B.)

  19. The renewable energies in France 1970-2005; Les energies renouvelables en France 1970-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This document provides statistical data on the renewable energies situation in France (metropolitan and overseas department) from 1970 to 2005. It concerns 1- the electric power production from renewable energies as the hydroelectric power, wind power, photovoltaic, geothermal energy and biomass and 2- the thermal power production from renewable energies as the wood energy, domestic wastes, heat pumps, geothermal energy, crops residues, biogas, thermal solar and biofuels. (A.L.B.)

  20. A survey of renewable energies in France; Panorama des energies renouvelables en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, J.L. [Syndicat des energies renouvelables, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    One of the goals set by the Grenelle agreement was to reach a ratio of 23% for the part of renewable energies in the final energies consumed in France by 2020. In 2005 this ratio was 10 per cent. In this article the situation in 2010 for wind energy, solar energy, biomass, wood heating and geothermal energy are reported. It appears that the results are promising but the reduction of fiscal incentives might jeopardize the objective for 2020. (A.C.)

  1. Tables of energy consumptions in France; Tableaux des consommations d`energie en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This work presents in a detailed way important data about the evolution of energy in France during the last twenty years. for the totality of economic sectors, then for each of them ( industry, residential, transports and agriculture sector), this analysis brings to light the part that each form of energy takes to the supply of the French market, the importance of equipment parks and the energy economies that have been realized. (N.C.)

  2. Gaz de France 2006 sustainable development report; Gaz de France 2006 rapport developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A major European energy utility, the Gaz de France Group produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. this report presents the actions implemented by the group to incorporate sustainable development into its strategy. From the point of view of risks and opportunities, the group analyzes what it takes to ensure development that respects people and the environment, and it implements them in all its business lines and management systems. Content: Gaz de France, portrait of a major energy utility, highlights of 2006, challenges and strategy (defining strategy and sustainable development policy, specific risks and opportunities, activities of the Gaz de France group: challenges, impact for stakeholders, transparency and independence in governing), ranking and implementing (defining sustainable development policy: reviewing priorities, meeting all the challenges, publicizing and defending positions, increasing awareness, overseeing and monitoring results), results of the 2004-2006 sustainable development action plan, dialogue and action with stakeholders, performance assessment, performance in response to challenges: energy challenges (guaranteeing regular supplies, controlling atmospheric emissions, promoting energy conservation, developing renewable energy), industrial challenges (ensuring health and safety, limiting the overall environmental impact of group activities), social responsibility challenges (advocating corporate social responsibility, promoting human rights and fighting corruption, encouraging commitment to solidarity, promoting regional development through local initiatives, reconciling acquisitions, procurement and sustainable development, ensuring transparency in natural gas rates, providing shareholders with quality information, promoting diversity, a source of enrichment, making working conditions a performance factor), indicators and

  3. The history of tidal power in France; Histoire de l`energie maremotrice en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banal, M.

    1997-12-31

    The first known use of tidal power in France concerns the tidal mills in general use during the Middle Age along the French coasts. The first research studies of tidal power plants started at the end of the first world war but it is only in 1940 with the stimulus of Robert Gibrat that was created the Research Society for the use of Tides and the Rance plant project. In 1946, Electricite de France (EdF) started again the studies of this company for a greater size project in the Chausey archipelago which was abandoned for the benefit of the Rance project in the 1960`s. The start up of the plant took place in 1967 but the other projects were abandoned during the 1980`s. This short paper recalls the historical aspects of the development of tidal power in France and focusses on the research and development studies and on the economical, political and legal factors that led to retain the Rance project among others proposed. (J.S.).

  4. Return of vitrified wastes from France to Japan; Retour des residus vitrifies de France au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The radioactive wastes resulting from the burnup of nuclear fuels in nuclear reactors represent 3 to 5% of the spent fuel. These wastes cannot be reused nor recycled and thus are vitrified after reprocessing. Japanese power companies have signed contracts with Cogema in France and BNFL in the UK for the reprocessing of their spent fuels. Then, the ultimate reprocessed wastes are sent back to Japan for storage. This information dossier takes stock of different questions relative to the transport of the vitrified wastes from France to Japan: why France sends back containers of vitrified wastes to Japan? What is a vitrified wastes container made of? How containers are transported? What is the regulatory frame applicable to these transports? Which safety measures are taken during transport? Which physical protection is applied? Which temporary storage facilities are used before and after transportation? How is performed the ultimate storage of wastes in Japan? Which quality and safety warranties are taken? Which emergency plans and exercises are provided? What are the applicable civil liability regimes? And what kind of information is given to the public about these transports. Some general information about energy and nuclear power worldwide, energy and environment, radioactivity, BNFL, Cogema and ORC is given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  5. Classification of cultivated mussels from Galicia (Northwest Spain) with European Protected Designation of Origin using trace element fingerprint and chemometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costas-Rodriguez, M.; Lavilla, I. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Vigo, As Lagoas-Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Bendicho, C., E-mail: bendicho@uvigo.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Vigo, As Lagoas-Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2010-04-07

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in combination with different supervised chemometric approaches has been used to classify cultivated mussels in Galicia (Northwest of Spain) under the European Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). 158 mussel samples, collected in the five rias on the basis of the production, along with minor and trace elements, including high field strength elements (HFSEs) and rare earth elements (REEs), were used with this aim. The classification of samples was achieved according to their origin: Galician vs. other regions (from Tarragona, Spain, and Ethang de Thau, France) and between the Galician Rias. The ability of linear discriminant analysis (LDA), soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) to classify the samples was investigated. Correct assignations for Galician and non-Galician samples were obtained when LDA and SIMCA were used. ANNs were more effective when a classification according to the ria of origin was to be applied.

  6. 76 FR 37641 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Half Moon Bay, off of Pillar Point Harbor beach, Half Moon Bay, CA in support of the Independence Day...

  7. 78 FR 62293 - Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Oyster Bay near Oyster Bay, NY for the...

  8. Modeling Rare Species Distribution at the Edge: The Case for the Vulnerable Endemic Pyrenean Desman in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Williams-Tripp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endemic Pyrenean Desman (Galemys pyrenaicus is an elusive, rare, and vulnerable species declining over its entire and narrow range (Spain, Portugal, France, and Andorra. The principal set of conservation measures in France is a 5-years National Action Plan based on 25 conservation actions. Priority is given to update its present distribution and develop tools for predictive distribution models. We aim at building the first species distribution model and map for the northern edge of the range of the Desman and confronting the outputs of the model to target conservation efforts in the context of environmental change. Contrasting to former comparable studies, we derive a simpler model emphasizing the importance of factors linked to precipitation and not to the temperature. If temperature is one of the climate change key factors, depicted shrinkage in Desman distribution could be lower or null at the northern (French edge suggesting thus a major role for this northern population in terms of conservation of the species. Finally, we question the applied issue of temporal and spatial transferability for such environmental favourability models when it is made at the edge of the distribution range.

  9. Should stay the Mali in Zone franc area ?

    OpenAIRE

    Sidibe, Tidiani

    2015-01-01

    The debate on the relevance of monetary cooperation agreements with France was back in the saddle by former Malian Prime Minister Moussa MARA July 23, 2015 during a radio broadcast; and Chadian President Idriss Deby Itno during the 55th anniversary of his country's 2015 Tuesday, August 11 The latter threw a big spanner in the franc zone, arguing that currency allows us to develop. Also, some harsh criticism, consider that the CFA franc, pegged to a strong euro hampers the competitiveness of o...

  10. Determinants of measles seroprevalence among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilis, H; Goffinet, F; Krivine, A; Andrieu, T; Anselem, O; Tsatsaris, V; Rozenberg, F; Launay, O

    2014-08-01

    Non-immune pregnant women are at risk of severe measles. As the measles vaccination is contraindicated during pregnancy, women should be vaccinated before conception or during the postpartum period. Nevertheless, measles serology is not recommended during pregnancy in France, and there are no data available concerning measles susceptibility and its associated risk factors among pregnant women. The socio-demographic determinants of measles seronegativity have been identified in a prospective cohort of 826 pregnant women in Paris, France. Measles seronegativity was 10.41% (95% CI 8.32-12.50). Women from higher socio-economic groups, born in France after 1980, were more frequently seronegative.

  11. Analysis and Applications API eBay

    OpenAIRE

    ŠIK, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis "Analysis and Applications API eBay" is to create application based on the use of Application Programming Interface (API), released by eBay. The theoretical part is focused on explaining the fundamental issue of Internet auctions, e-commmerce, comparsion of auction portals and term "trust" as a key attribute of e-commerce. The practical part is based on analyse of principles and instruments of eBay API and create an application based on this interface. The ...

  12. Periodicities of hail precipitation in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Lucía; Sánchez, José Luis; Berthet, Claude; Dessens, Jean; López, Laura; Hierro, Rodrigo; Wu, Xueke; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    The wavelet analysis is a powerful tool appropriated for studying multiscale and non-stationary processes that occur in finite spatial and temporal domains. Its development began with Morlet and, since then, the wavelet transform (WT) has had better applications in Geophysics. However, the characterization of hail precipitation is not exempt from difficulty, since it deals with phenomenon on a small scale, with elevated spatial and temporal variation. The extreme variability of the frequency and distribution of hail is attributed, among other things, to the same process of its formation. The conditions that influence hail formation span from air masses climatology to lower-scale factors such as orography, wind fields, concentration of ice nuclei or temperature. This last factor is important both from a point of view of convective activity as well as its influence in the height of the freezing point. Thus, it would be possible to do comparative analysis between time series of temperature and diverse hail variables; or, rather, to try to establish a relationship between periodicities found and phenomenon such as ENSO (El Niño, Southern Oscillation) or NAO (North-Atlantic Oscillation). France is one of the European countries that is most affected by hail precipitation. Previous climatic studies have been done with the objective of characterizing the long-term variability of distinct variables of this hydrometeor that is present in the time series. These measurements are obtained using networks of hailpads distributed in French territory and managed by ANELFA. Berthet et al. (2011) observed the annual hail frequency in France, finding successions of three years with high values followed by three years of low values; this being calculated as the number of hailfalls per year divided by the number of hailpad stations that were in use during said year. In the present paper, a wavelet analysis was carried out with the objective of detecting the possible existence of

  13. 78 FR 29289 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Big Bay Boom Fireworks display from 8:45 p.m. to 10 p.m. on July 4, 2013. These proposed safety zones... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA... 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request...

  14. A Doctrine Reader: The Navies of United States, Great Britain France, Italy, and Spain (Newport Paper, Number 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Chaves, Qulltri partitu en cosmografia prlletiell, also known as Espejo de navegantes (Madri: Instituto de Historia y Cultura Navar, 1 983 [original...dated 9 June 1994. 2. Alonso de Chaves, QuAtri partitu en wsmografia practiaJ, also known as Espejo de navegantes (Madrid: Instituto de Historia y...Society], 1 993), pp. 86-7. 9. Padfield, pp. 47-8. 10. Flotas de Nueva Espana (Mexico) and Tierra Firme (Colombia and Venezuela) escorted by the Armada

  15. A comparison of gender diversity in the corporate governance codes of France, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lückerath – Rovers, M.

    2009-01-01

    International differences exist in the legal, cultural, ownership and other aspects of corporate governance. Convergence, however, is achieved in core aspects of corporate governance, such as transparency, disclosure, and the importance of independent, non-executive directors (Mallin, 2007). Further

  16. The reproductive context of cohabitation in comparative perspective : Contraceptive use in the United States, Spain, and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweeney, Megan M.; Castro-Martin, Teresa; Mills, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Discussions of cohabitation's place in family formation regimes frequently emphasize comparisons of reproductive behavior among married versus cohabiting couples. Many argue that the rise in cohabitation may have been fueled by availability of highly effective contraception, but that diff

  17. The distributional effects of carbon and energy taxes: the cases of France, Spain, Italy, Germany and UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symons, E.J. [Keele Univ., Economics Dept., Keele (United Kingdom); Speck, S. [Regional Environmental Centre for Central and Eastern Europe, Budapest (Hungary); Proops, J.L.R. [Keele Univ., School of Politics, International Relations and the Environment, Keele (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    This paper examines the likely immediate impact effect of some pollution taxes on the tax burden of households in a number of European countries. The total effect on households of such taxes is assessed using input-output analysis. Thus both the direct effect of taxes, through increased fuel prices, and the indirect effect, through increased prices of other goods, can be assessed simultaneously. This input-output approach allows the generation of direct plus indirect pollution intensities for all household consumption categories, for, in principle, a number of pollutants (CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulates). These intensities could then be used to assess the impact on households of pollution taxes. This paper concentrates on CO{sub 2} and energy, performing a static analysis of the effect of a tax on the carbon or energy content of goods using the known consumption patterns for the various countries, both in aggregate and for different income groups. This allows a first assessment of the regressive/progressive effects of such taxes and an indication of consumer welfare loss. (Author)

  18. The five wonders of Spain (Catalonia), Italy, France, the UK (Wales), Hungary, Poland and Estonia / Maarika Ruuse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruuse, Maarika

    2014-01-01

    Melliste Algkool-Lasteaia osalemisest rahvusvahelises projektis Friends around Europe (Sõbrad Euroopas), mida rahastab Sihtasutus Archimedes. Erinevate koolide koostöö eesmärkideks on õpilaste teadmiste arendamine kultuuride ja keelte mitmekesisusest, teiste riikide rahvakommete ja traditsioonide õppimine ning oma maa rahvakultuuri jagamine

  19. Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Darren J

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, a Bayes linear methodology for the adjustment of covariance matrices is presented and discussed. A geometric framework for quantifying uncertainties about covariance matrices is set up, and an inner-product for spaces of random matrices is motivated and constructed. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability and related specifications to obtain representations allowing analysis. Adjustment is associated with orthogonal projection, and illustrated with examples of adjustments for some common problems. The problem of adjusting the covariance matrices underlying exchangeable random vectors is tackled and discussed. Learning about the covariance matrices associated with multivariate time series dynamic linear models is shown to be a...

  20. The Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, John; Palmer, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    A pilot Coastal Observatory has been established in Liverpool Bay which integrates (near) real-time measurements with coupled models and whose results are displayed on the web. The aim is to understand the functioning of coastal seas, their response to natural forcing and the consequences of human activity. The eastern Irish Sea is an apt test site, since it encompasses a comprehensive range of processes found in tidally dominated coastal seas, including near-shore physical and biogeochemical processes influenced by estuarine inflows, where both vertical and horizontal gradients are important. Applications include hypernutrification, since the region receives significantly elevated levels of nutrient inputs, shoreline management (coastal flooding and beach erosion/accretion), and understanding present conditions to predict the impact of climate change (for instance if the number and severity of storms, or of high or low river flows, change). The integrated measurement suite which started in August 2002 covers a range of space and time scales. It includes in situ time series, four to six weekly regional water column surveys, an instrumented ferry, a shore-based HF radar system measuring surface currents and waves, coastal tide gauges and visible and infra-red satellite data. The time series enable definition of the seasonal cycle, its inter-annual variability and provide a baseline from which the relative importance of events can be quantified. A suite of nested 3D hydrodynamic, wave and ecosystem models is run daily, focusing on the observatory area by covering the ocean/shelf of northwest Europe (at 12-km resolution) and the Irish Sea (at 1.8 km), and Liverpool Bay at the highest resolution of 200 m. The measurements test the models against events as they happen in a truly 3D context. All measurements and model outputs are displayed freely on the Coastal Observatory website (http://cobs.pol.ac.uk) for an audience of researchers, education, coastal managers and the

  1. Neanderthal teeth from Moula-Guercy, Ardèche, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlusko, Leslea J; Carlson, Joshua P; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Krueger, Kristin L; Mersey, Ben; Ungar, Peter S; Defleur, Alban

    2013-07-01

    Here we describe dental remains from a Neanderthal fossil assemblage from Moula-Guercy, France. Our report demonstrates that the Moula-Guercy hominid remains contribute important morphological, developmental, and behavioral data to understanding Neanderthal evolutionary history. We include gross comparative morphological descriptions and enamel surface microstructure and microwear data. These teeth reveal numerous characteristics that are diagnostic of Neanderthals and provide no evidence for the presence of any other hominid taxa. Enamel growth increment data from the Moula-Guercy specimens yield evidence of a Neanderthal pattern of development, although at the lower end of the range of variation. The presence of a significant number of linear enamel hypoplasias indicates that these individuals were stressed during childhood. Molar microwear data suggest that these Neanderthals did not differ significantly from modern humans in terms of the fracture properties of the food they were consuming. The incisor microwear and macro striations provide evidence that these individuals may have been using their anterior teeth as tools, similar to the practices of several modern human populations such as the Inuit, Ipiutak, and Australian Aboriginals, and reminiscent of evidence from other Neanderthals from Krapina, Croatia, as well as the 600,000 year old hominids from Sima de los Huesos, Spain. Am J Phys Anthropol 151:477-491, 2013.© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Increase of respiratory allergy to the pollens of cypresses in the south of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzani, R; Centanni, G; Brunel, M

    1986-06-01

    A form of pollen allergy, which is uncommon in most parts of the world and in other Mediterranean countries where cypresses are abundant (Italy, Spain, Greece), with the exception of Israel, has become a problem since 1975 in our area. We have found 111 cases since 1975 compared with only a few cases from 1950 to 1975. The period of pollination is between mid-February and the end of March. Diagnosis has been made by skin tests and, in some instances, by RAST with good correlation. In almost all the cases, cross-reactivity has been found between the members of the Cupressaceae family with Cupressus sempervirens, the commonest cypress in the South of France, associated most often with this allergy. Clinically, allergy was of the oculo-nasal type with the association, in a few cases, of asthma or spasmodic cough. The unexpected increase of a particular allergy in a given population of atopic people raises several general problems. In this particular case it seems to us that the larger number of cypresses, which have been recently grown, is not the only explanation of the phenomenon.

  3. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  4. Studies of archaeoastronomy in Spain: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerdeño, Mª Luisa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of Arqueoastronomy have a long tradition in Europe and, to a lesser extent, in Spain. This research is mainly done by astronomers. The recognition of this studies is still lacking in archaeology. This paper reviews current research projects in Spain and the main problems raised by Archaeoastronomy.

    Los estudios de Arqueoastronomía tienen una larga trayectoria en algunos países europeos y, en menor medida, en España. Mayoritariamente se llevan a cabo desde el campo de los astrónomos y todavía no han alcanzado un definitivo reconocimiento en el ámbito arqueológico. En este trabajo se revisan las líneas de trabajo existentes en España, con la inevitable referencia al marco europeo, y se analizan los principales problemas que tiene planteados esta disciplina académica.

  5. [Foreign immigration in Spain (1985-1994)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalvez Perez, V

    1996-01-01

    "During the decade 1985-94, Spain [has had]...some growing and unexpected flows of foreign immigrations. The tradition of emigration of Spanish people, some grave difficulties of [the] employment market in the country, irregular entrance of workers from developing countries, the fear of a very rapid growth of these immigrants, the instability and marginality of their work, and the agreement of Spain in the European Union have led the government to develop an active migratory policy, first against the illegal flows and, more recently, in direction of the integration of immigrants in Spanish society.... The article analyzes main features from some different groups of foreign workers, and in particular Africans: spatial repartition, demographic profile, migratory strategies and trajectories, uneasy insertion in the national employment market, and draws lastly the main features of the Spanish migratory policy." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  6. Training in breast surgery in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguelena, José M; Domínguez Cunchillos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Breast surgery is a key part of training and competency in general surgery in Spain and is a "frontier area" that can be efficiently managed by general surgeons and gynecologists. The main objective of the training process consists of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, including conservative surgery, oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques. This article analyses the current status of breast surgery training in Spain and schematically proposes potential targets of the different training programs, to improve access and training for surgeons and residents in this area, taking into account the RD 639/2014 and European regulation. The priority is to specify the level of training that should be achieved, in relation to the group of professionals involved, considering their area of competency: surgery resident, educational programs, and surgeons with special dedication to this area.

  7. Airborne microorganisms in Lascaux Cave (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M Martin-Sanchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lascaux Cave in France contains valuable Palaeolithic paintings. The importance of the paintings, one of the finest examples of European rock art paintings, was recognized shortly after their discovery in 1940. In the 60’s of the past century the cave received a huge number of visitors and suffered a microbial crisis due to the impact of massive tourism and the previous adaptation works carried out to facilitate visits. In 1963, the cave was closed due to the damage produced by visitors’ breath, lighting and algal growth on the paintings. In 2001, an outbreak of the fungus Fusarium solani covered the walls and sediments. Later, black stains, produced by the growth of the fungus Ochroconis lascauxensis, appeared on the walls. In 2006, the extensive black stains constituted the third major microbial crisis. In an attempt to know the dispersion of microorganisms inside the cave, aerobiological and microclimate studies were carried out in two different seasons, when a climate system for preventing condensation of water vapor on the walls was active (September 2010 or inactive (February 2010. The data showed that in September the convection currents created by the climate system evacuated the airborne microorganisms whereas in February they remained in suspension which explained the high concentrations of bacteria and fungi found in the air. This double aerobiological and microclimate study inLascauxCave can help to understand the dispersion of microorganisms and to adopt measures for a correct cave management.

  8. Sexology as a profession in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giami, Alain; de Colomby, Patrick

    2003-08-01

    A national survey of sexologists was carried out in France in 1998-1999, among the individuals listed in the professional directories and the telephone book as "sexologists." It described the sociodemographic characteristics of sexologists, their initial profession and training in sexology, sex therapy and psychotherapeutic techniques, and how they practice sexology. A total of 959 individuals were identified and surveyed. The response rate was 63%. Two thirds of the sexologists were physicians and 60% were men. French sexologists appeared to be segmented into three subgroups: (1) one-third were general practitioners, trained in sexology and psychotherapeutic approaches, recognized themselves as sexologists, and devoted 40% of their professional activity to sexology. Men were about two thirds of this group; (2) one-third were nonphysicians (including psychologists and other health professionals, such as social workers and nurses), recognized themselves as sex therapists and devoted one third of their time to sexology. Men and women were equally represented in this group; (3) one-third were specialists, with less training in sexology and psychotherapeutic techniques, and did not generally recognize themselves as sexologists. They devoted a lesser part of their time to sexology and had academic and hospital practice. Men comprised more than 75% of this group. This study raised the issue of the diversity of primary professions involved in the field of sexology and showed that sexology is a secondary professional choice for the majority of sexologists.

  9. Gaz de France: first half 2007 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 29 August 2007, Gaz de France Group presents its first half 2007 results (billion euros): Sales revenue 13.78 (-11% with respect to 2006), EBITDA 3.11 (-4.9%), Operating income 2.33 ( -8.7%), Net income Group share 1.51 (-11%), Net income Group share per share 1.53 euro (-11%). The half-year results are attributable primarily to three factors: - A very difficult environment with exceptionally mild climate conditions in the first half, impacting nearly all of the businesses, and unfavourable market conditions, reflected in particular in the low gas prices on the markets; - A tariff context which did not negatively impact the sales margins following a very difficult year 2006; - Good performance in international activities. Despite the environment, the Group is maintaining its financial target for 2007, as announced in March this year: 2007 will be a year of consolidation. EBITDA is expected to be in line with that of 2006. This target assumes average climate conditions during the second half 2007.

  10. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2012-11-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the établissement francais du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding to recipients, blood products, blood supply of the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, the integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So, it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed to be a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks.

  11. Magnitude M w in metropolitan France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, Michel; Denieul, Marylin; Sèbe, Olivier; Delouis, Bertrand; Cansi, Yves; Schlupp, Antoine

    2016-12-01

    The recent seismicity catalogue of metropolitan France Sismicité Instrumentale de l'Hexagone (SI-Hex) covers the period 1962-2009. It is the outcome of a multipartner project conducted between 2010 and 2013. In this catalogue, moment magnitudes (M w) are mainly determined from short-period velocimetric records, the same records as those used by the Laboratoire de Détection Géophysique (LDG) for issuing local magnitudes (M L) since 1962. Two distinct procedures are used, whether M L-LDG is larger or smaller than 4. For M L-LDG >4, M w is computed by fitting the coda-wave amplitude on the raw records. Station corrections and regional properties of coda-wave attenuation are taken into account in the computations. For M L-LDG ≤4, M w is converted from M L-LDG through linear regression rules. In the smallest magnitude range M L-LDG French networks or LDG duration magnitude (M D) are first converted into M L-LDG before applying the conversion rules. This paper shows how the different sources of information and the different magnitude ranges are combined in order to determine an unbiased set of M w for the whole 38,027 events of the catalogue.

  12. Interregional Migration in Spain: A Semiparametric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maza Fernández, Adolfo Jesús; Villaverde Castro, José

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the determinants of internal migration in Spain between 1995 and 2002. After a brief descriptive study, we present an analytical model of internal migration flows. Subsequently, we estimate this model by applying semiparametric techniques. The general conclusion that we come to is that net migration rates are influenced mainly by income and climatic condition differentials between the regions of origin and destination; in addition, unemployment and housin...

  13. Area Handbook Series: Spain: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    the 1985 sale of the auto assembly company, Sociedad Espafiola de Autom6viles de Turismo (SEAT), which had lost 37 billion pesetas that year. The INI...i; SEAT. See Sociedad Espafiola de Auto- constitutional provisions for, - i, m6viles de Turismo (SEAT) 112, 210-12 Securities and Market...vii, 106-10 401 Spain: A Country Study Sociedad, Espaiiola de Autom6viles de Spanish Workers’ Party-Communist Unity Turismo (SEAT), 174, 175, 177

  14. ACHIEVING SUSTAINABILITY IN PROTECTED BUILDINGS IN SPAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The world population growth and the consequent increase in energy demand in recent years are making sustainability to become a key element in order to ensure the future of the society. In Spain, buildings account for 24% of total energy consumption, and within the buildings stock there is a group called "protected buildings" with low efficiency and therefore a large room for improvement, although constrained by different limitations and special requirements due to their condition. Through a s...

  15. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  16. New determinations of geothermal heat flow in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertaux, M.G. (Universite Pierre-et-Marie Curie, Paris); Bienfait, G.; Bottinga, Y.

    1978-03-28

    A brief analysis of geothermal heat flow determinations obtained in France during the past few years is presented. General trends were compared with older measurements and new data published in Europe.

  17. The Solar Orientation of the Gothic Cathedrals of France

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Here the orientation of the Gothic cathedrals in France is discussed and investigated using the satellite maps. Except a few of them, these buildings have the apse facing the rising sun, according to a practice adopted during the middle ages

  18. A short account of forensic dentistry in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaud, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The earliest records and more recent cases where forensic dentistry has been used to identify bodies in France are described. The establishment of the French Society of Forensic Odontology is detailed.

  19. History as Passport: Frances FitzGerald and Her Critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, William

    1981-01-01

    Attempts to get at some of the assumptions and definitions behind "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald and, in addition, to investigate some of the conceptions of history held by critics who reviewed the book. (DB)

  20. Ad Orientem: the Orientation of Gothic Cathedrals of France

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Here the orientation of the Gothic cathedrals in France is discussed and investigated using the satellite maps. Except a few of them, these buildings have the apse facing the rising sun, according to a practice adopted during the middle age.

  1. Gaz de France. 2006 reference document; Gaz de France. Document de reference 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents the relevant informations relative to the annual consolidated financial statements of the group according to IFRS and French standards for the year 2005 (selected financial information, business overview, liquidity and capital resources, profit forecasts or estimates, compensation and benefits, issuer assets etc..). It includes also some complementary information about the activities of the group, its estate property, plants and equipments, its R and D and patenting activities, its management and administration, its 2005 and 2006 contracts etc.. (J.S.)

  2. Status of the methanization sector in France; Etat des lieux de la filiere methanisation en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This report aims at describing the status of methanization installations, either operating or under construction, on the French national territory, all sectors included (industry, agriculture, sewage treatment, municipal wastes). In a first part, the authors propose a definition of methanization, a presentation of the various implementation techniques, a presentation of the different sectors using methanization (industry, agriculture and breeding, sewage treatment plants, household wastes), and a presentation of a survey. Then, they comment and discuss more precisely the different sectors, their history, their geographical distribution in France, their technologies, their effluents, their production, their economic data, their perspectives

  3. 1996 petroleum exploration and production in France; 1996 recherche et production petrolieres en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    A detailed analysis and data compilations on petroleum exploration and production activities in France in 1996, are presented. Acreage evolution is decreasing despite a growth of new exploration licenses; a significant rise in the activity of seismic surveying has occurred, while exploration drilling activity (onshore only), equivalent to the previous year, led to two oil discoveries, and the investments in exploration showed a decrease of 28 percent compared to 1995. Production is declining for oil as well as natural gas (15 and 12 percent decrease resp.), while production investments dropped very sharply showing a reduction of 48 percent

  4. Charbonnages de France. 1998 annual report; Charbonnages de France. Rapport Annuel 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This annual report of the Charbonnages de France (CdF) group presents the financial results of the group for 1998: coal market, CdF's financial results (turnover, exploitation result, financial result, debt); power production (Snet, Cerchar, Surschiste, Sidec, and CdF Ingenierie activities); coal industry activities (coal mines, coke factories, coal products, environment); progressive ceasing of coal extraction (safety, manpower, reduction of working time, training, management of abandoned sites, rehabilitation, cleansing); management of industrialization and patrimony. (J.S.)

  5. The nuclear future in France; Le futur du nucleaire en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2011-12-15

    After having outlined some important facts in the world concerning energy production (phasing out nuclear by many countries, share of nuclear energy, development of wind and solar energy, possibility of meeting electricity demand with 80% of renewable energies) and in France (nuclear plants, debate about nuclear, slow development of renewable energies), the author briefly assesses the cost of two scenarios: a reduction of nuclear energy from 450 to 300 TWh/year by 2025, and a reduction of nuclear energy from 300 to 0 TWh/year between 2025 and 2040

  6. The environment in France. Synthesis edition 2006; L'environnement en France. Synthese edition 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-10-15

    This document takes stock on the environment in France and the evolution from the most recent data and information. It offers analysis on all the domains of the environment. The nature and the territories are examined among the evolutions of our society and impacts of the economical activities and households. The impacts on the biodiversity, the climate and the human being are also presented. Finally it examines the human, enterprises and public actors actions. Published every four years, this document answers the national and international obligations to inform the public in the environment domain. (A.L.B.)

  7. The refining sector in France; Le secteur du raffinage en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-10-01

    Xerfi has published in July 2003 a new study titled 'the petroleum refining (analysis of the market - 2004 estimates - the opposing forces)' carried out by Stephanie Rousseau on the direction of Gaelle Josse, responsible person of the chemistry pole of the Xerfi institute. This study analyzes particularly the future renewal prospects of the petroleum products demand in France from the end of the year 2003 and especially in 2004 as well as the acceleration of the investments at the approach of the date 2005 and the carrying out of the structure reorganizing operations in this sector. (O.M.)

  8. Tendencies concerning the energy for 2030 in France; Scenario energetique tendanciel a 2030 pour la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This scenario is the reference scenario compatible with the ''Business As Usual'' of the IAEA. In this tendencies, the France should not be concerned by a major economic, social and political crisis. The construction of the Europe and the globalization will continue as the technological innovation concerning the energy (The EPR reactor is included in the scenario). The document presents the main hypothesis, the final energy consumption, the energy independence, the production and the consumption of the primary energy, the carbon dioxide emissions and some possible variations of the scenario. (A.L.B.)

  9. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  10. Chesapeake Bay Bald Eagle Nesting Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Chesapeake Bay population of breeding bald eagles increased dramatically in 1981 in not only the number of breeding pairs but in the number of nests hatching...

  11. Corpus ChristiEast Matagorda Bay 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of habitat utilization were compared among transplanted and natural Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Halls Lake area of Chocolate Bay in the Galveston...

  12. Hydrogeomorphic Regions in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Generalized lithology (rock type) and physiography based on geologic formations were used to characterize hydrgeomorphic regions (HGMR) within the Chesapeake Bay...

  13. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  14. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  15. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  16. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  17. Back Bay Wilderness study : Public hearing analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an analysis of the public hearing that took place on May 15th, 1974 which discussed the Back Bay Wilderness. The analysis shows that there is...

  18. Back Bay Stormwater Monitoring Project Final Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this project was to assess the influx of nutrients and solid material into Back Bay and its tributaries during and immediately following such storm...

  19. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a collection of regulations pertaining to the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Most of the regulations concern motor vehicle use on the refuge.

  20. Back Bay Wilderness study : Proposed recommendations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a list of recommendations for the proposed wilderness area on the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. The recommendations come as a result of the...